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Sample records for intracerebroventricular injection attenuates

  1. Intracerebroventricular metformin attenuates salt-induced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Petersen, J S; Andersen, D; Muntzel, M S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of metformin on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To accelerate the development of hypertension, SHR were fed a 8% NaCl diet during the 3-week study period...... to hexamethonium was attenuated by all doses of metformin suggesting that chronic icv metformin decreased central sympathetic outflow. The highest doses of metformin (100 and 200 microg/day) also prevented development of hypertension, but these doses were highly neurotoxic as demonstrated by histologic evaluation...... doses of metformin attenuates hypertension and decreases the hypotensive responses to ganglionic blockade in SHR, suggesting a centrally elicited sympathoinhibitory action....

  2. Intracerebroventricular metformin attenuates salt-induced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Andersen, D; Muntzel, M S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of metformin on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To accelerate the development of hypertension, SHR were fed a 8% NaCl diet during the 3-week study period....... Metformin was given in the following doses: 0 (isotonic saline; n = 7), 25 (n = 8), 50 (n = 6), 100 (n = 6), and 200 microg/day icv (n = 5). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by radiotelemetry, and as a measure of the contribution of sympathetic nerve activity to BP...... to hexamethonium was attenuated by all doses of metformin suggesting that chronic icv metformin decreased central sympathetic outflow. The highest doses of metformin (100 and 200 microg/day) also prevented development of hypertension, but these doses were highly neurotoxic as demonstrated by histologic evaluation...

  3. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of rosiglitazone on appetite-associated parameters in chicks.

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    Matias, Justin A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Denbow, D Michael; Cline, Mark A

    2017-05-15

    Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist that increases insulin sensitivity. A documented side effect of this diabetes drug is increased appetite, although the mechanism mediating this response is unknown. To better understand effects on food intake regulation, we evaluated the appetite-associated effects of rosiglitazone in an alternative vertebrate and agriculturally-relevant model, the domesticated chick. Four day-old chicks received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of 0, 5, 10 or 20nmol rosiglitazone and food and water intake were measured. Chicks that received 5 and 10nmol rosiglitazone increased food intake during the 2h observation period, with no effect on water intake. In the next experiment, chicks were ICV-injected with 10nmol rosiglitazone and hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection for total RNA isolation. Real-time PCR was performed to measure mRNA abundance of appetite- and glucose regulation-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA decreased while NPY receptor 1 (NPYr1) mRNA increased in rosiglitazone-injected chicks compared to the controls. Results show that central effects of rosiglitazone on appetite are conserved between birds and mammals, and that increases in food intake might be mediated through NPY and POMC neurons in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intracerebroventricular administration of adiponectin attenuates streptozotocin-induced memory impairment in rats.

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    Mazrooie, R; Rohampour, K; Zamani, M; Hosseinmardi, N; Zeraati, M

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported to be linked with diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance. Adiponectin (ADN), an adipocytokine secreted from adipose tissue, is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, energy homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of ADN on passive avoidance memory in animal model of sporadic AD (sAD). On days 1 and 3 after cannulation, rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg). Thirty minutes before the learning process, animals received saline or ADN in different doses (6, 60, and 600 µg). The step-through latency (STL) and total time spent in the dark compartment (TDC) were recorded and analyzed. In STZ-treated rats, STL was significantly decreased, whereas TDC showed a dramatic increase. In ADN-treated rats, STL was significantly increased (P ADN (P ADN is useful to improve the STZ-induced memory impairment. This study showed, for the first time, that icv administration of ADN could improve the memory acquisition in animal model of sAD.

  5. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

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    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt–Induced Hypertension

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    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J.; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C.; Feng, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor–dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  7. Xanthoceraside Ameliorates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributing to the Improvement of Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice with Intracerebroventricular Injection of Aβ1-42

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    Xue-Fei Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of xanthoceraside on learning and memory impairment were investigated and the possible mechanism associated with the protection of mitochondria was also preliminarily explored in Alzheimer’s disease (AD mice model induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of Aβ1-42. The results indicated that xanthoceraside (0.08–0.32 mg/kg significantly improved learning and memory impairment in Morris water maze test and Y-maze test. Xanthoceraside significantly reversed the aberrant decrease of ATP levels and attenuated the abnormal increase of ROS levels both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice injected with Aβ1-42. Moreover, xanthoceraside dose dependently reversed the decrease of COX, PDHC, and KGDHC activity in isolated cerebral cortex mitochondria of the mice compared with Aβ1-42 injected model mice. In conclusion, xanthoceraside could improve learning and memory impairment, promote the function of mitochondria, decrease the production of ROS, and inhibit oxidative stress. The improvement effects on mitochondria may be through withstanding the damage of Aβ to mitochondrial respiratory chain and the key enzymes in Kreb’s cycle. Therefore, the results from present study and previous study indicate that xanthoceraside could be a competitive candidate for the treatment of AD.

  8. Central injection of captopril inhibits the blood pressure response to intracerebroventricular choline

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    N. Isbil-Buyukcoskun

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the brain renin-angiotensin system in the effects of central cholinergic stimulation on blood pressure in conscious, freely moving normotensive rats. In the first step, we determined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv choline (50, 100 and 150 µg on blood pressure. Choline increased blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate the effects of brain renin-angiotensin system blockade on blood pressure increase induced by choline (150 µg, icv, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, captopril (25 and 50 µg, icv, was administered 3 min before choline. Twenty-five µg captopril did not block the pressor effect of choline, while 50 µg captopril blocked it significantly. Our results suggest that the central renin-angiotensin system may participate in the increase in blood pressure induced by icv choline in normotensive rats.

  9. A comparison of neurodegeneration linked with neuroinflammation in different brain areas of rats after intracerebroventricular colchicine injection.

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    Sil, Susmita; Ghosh, Rupsa; Sanyal, Moumita; Guha, Debjani; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2016-01-01

    Colchicine induces neurodegeneration, but the extent of neurodegeneration in different areas of the brain in relation to neuroinflammation remains unclear. Such information may be useful to allow for the development of a model to compare colchicine-induced neurodegeneration with other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The present study was designed to investigate the extent of neurodegeneration along with neuroinflammation in different areas of the brain, e.g. frontal cortex, parietal cortex, occipital cortex, corpus striatum, amygdala and hippocampus, in rats along with memory impairment 21 days after a single intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of colchicine. Memory parameters were measured before and after icv colchicine injection in all test groups of rats (control, sham-operated, colchicine-injected [ICIR] rats). On Day 21 post-injection, rats from all groups were anesthesized and tissues from the various brain areas were collected for assessment of biomarkers of neuroinflammation (i.e. levels of ROS, nitrite and proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β) and neurodegeneration (assessed histologically). The single injection of colchicine resulted in impaired memory and neurodegeneration (significant presence of plaques, Nissl granule chromatolysis) in various brain areas (frontal cortex, amygdala, parietal cortex, corpus striatum), with maximum severity in the hippocampus. While IL-1β, TNFα, ROS and nitrite levels were altered in different brain areas in the ICIR rats, these parameters had their greatest change in the hippocampus. This study showed that icv injection of colchicine caused strong neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of rats and the increases in neurodegeneration were corroborated with those of neuroinflammation at the site. The present study also showed that the extent of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in different brain areas of the colchicine-injected rats were AD-like and

  10. Effects of Intracerebroventricularly (ICV) Injected Ghrelin on Cardiac Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity/Expression in Obese Rats.

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    Sudar Milovanovic, E; Jovanovic, A; Misirkic-Marjanovic, M; Vucicevic, Lj; Janjetovic, K; Isenovic, E R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin on regulation of cardiac inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity/expression in high fat (HF), obese rats.For this study, male Wistar rats fed with HF diet (30% fat) for 4 weeks were injected every 24 h for 5 days intracerebroventricularly (ICV) with ghrelin (0.3 nmol/5 µl) or with an equal volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Control rats were ICV injected with an equal volume of PBS. Glucose, insulin and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were measured in serum, while arginase activity and citrulline concentrations were measured in heart lysate. Protein iNOS and regulatory subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB-p65), phosphorylation of enzymes protein kinase B (Akt) at Ser(473), and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) at Tyr(202)/Tyr(204) were determined in heart lysate by Western blot. For gene expression of iNOS qRT-PCR was used.Results show significantly (parginase activity (pactivity of cardiac iNOS via Akt phosphorylation followed by NFκB activation in HF rats. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Lateral intracerebroventricular injection of Apelin-13 inhibits apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

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    Xiao-ge Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apelin-13 inhibits neuronal apoptosis caused by hydrogen peroxide, yet apoptosis following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has rarely been studied. In this study, Apelin-13 (0.1 µg/g was injected into the lateral ventricle of middle cerebral artery occlusion model rats. TTC, TUNEL, and immunohistochemical staining showed that compared with the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion group, infarct volume and apoptotic cell number at the ischemic penumbra region were decreased in the Apelin-13 treatment group. Additionally, Apelin-13 treatment increased Bcl-2 immunoreactivity and decreased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Our findings suggest that Apelin-13 is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  12. Enhancement of β-amyloid oligomer accumulation after intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin, which involves central insulin signaling in a transgenic mouse model.

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    Lin, Fangju; Jia, Jianping; Qin, Wei

    2014-11-12

    The β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomer rather than fibrillar Aβ has become the important focus of recent studies on the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin signaling plays important roles in cognitive disease, such as AD. However, in-vivo evidence for the link between central insulin signaling and the Aβ oligomer are lacking, and the mechanisms underlying the effect of central insulin signaling on AD are still elusive. Our team has established the Presenilin-1 Val97Leu mutant transgenic (PS1V97L) AD mouse model with the intraneuronal Aβ oligomer as the potential initiator for other pathologies, but without extracellular amyloid plaque formation. Using this model, we investigated the roles of disturbed central insulin signaling induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in the progression of AD. We observed that PS1V97L mice after intracerebroventricular injection of STZ showed increased Aβ oligomer accumulation and aggravated spatial learning and memory deficit in the absence of diabetes symptoms. Furthermore, STZ administration inhibited the activation of the insulin receptor and enhanced the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, which was accompanied by increased production of carboxy-terminal fragments from the amyloid precursor protein, in the brain of PS1V97L mice. Overall, our study provided in-vivo evidence for a role of central insulin signaling in AD progression.

  13. Caffeic acid attenuates oxidative stress, learning and memory deficit in intra-cerebroventricular streptozotocin induced experimental dementia in rats.

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    Deshmukh, Rahul; Kaundal, Madhu; Bansal, Vikas; Samardeep

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cognitive decline as seen during normal aging and in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeic acid, a polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The role of caffeic acid in experimental dementia is not fully understood. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered intracerebroventrically (ICV) on day 1 and 3 (3mg/kg, ICV bilaterally) in Wistar rats. Caffeic acid was administered (10, 20 and 40mg/kg/day p.o.) 1h following STZ infusion upto 21st day. Morris water maze and object recognition task were used to assess learning and memory in rats. Terminally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the levels of oxido-nitrosative stress markers were determined in cortical and hippocampal brain regions of rats. STZ produced significant (plearning and memory impairment, oxido-nitrosative stress and cholinergic deficit in rats. Whereas, caffeic acid treatment significantly (p<0.001) and dose dependently attenuated STZ induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. The observed cognitive improvement following caffeic acid in STZ treated rats may be due to its antioxidant activity and restoration of cholinergic functions. Our results suggest the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in cognitive disorders such as AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Insulin/IGF signaling-related gene expression in the brain of a sporadic Alzheimer's disease monkey model induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin.

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    Lee, Youngjeon; Kim, Young-Hyun; Park, Sang-Je; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Lee, Kyoung-Min; Hong, Yonggeun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2014-01-01

    We reported previously that the intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ)-treated cynomolgus monkey showed regionally specific glucose hypometabolism in FDG-PET imaging, similar to that observed in the early stages of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD). However, further pathological analyses of this model at the molecular level are needed to validate it as a feasible model for sAD. Two cynomolgus monkeys were injected with 2 mg/kg STZ into the cerebellomedullary cistern at day 1, 7 and 14. Two control monkeys were given normal saline. At 5 months after injection, the expression levels of genes encoding 9 upstream molecules in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling and markers for 4 cell-type populations in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, posterior cingulate, precuneus, and occipital cortex of control and icv-STZ treated cynomolgus monkeys were examined. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses demonstrated that the overall mRNA expression of insulin/IGF signaling-related genes was mainly impaired in the anterior part of the cerebrum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, similar to the early stage of sAD. The changes were accompanied by the loss of oligodendrocytes and neurons. The posterior part of the cerebrum did not show degenerative alterations. The present study provides important fundamental information on the icv-STZ monkey model for sAD. These results may help guide future studies using this model for the investigation of pathological mechanisms and the development of drugs for sAD.

  15. Multiple intracerebroventricular injections of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells delay motor neurons loss but not disease progression of SOD1G93A mice.

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    Sironi, Francesca; Vallarola, Antonio; Violatto, Martina Bruna; Talamini, Laura; Freschi, Mattia; De Gioia, Roberta; Capelli, Chiara; Agostini, Azzurra; Moscatelli, Davide; Tortarolo, Massimo; Bigini, Paolo; Introna, Martino; Bendotti, Caterina

    2017-12-01

    Stem cell therapy is considered a promising approach in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seem to be the most effective in ALS animal models. The umbilical cord (UC) is a source of highly proliferating fetal MSCs, more easily collectable than other MSCs. Recently we demonstrated that human (h) UC-MSCs, double labeled with fluorescent nanoparticles and Hoechst-33258 and transplanted intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into SOD1G93A transgenic mice, partially migrated into the spinal cord after a single injection. This prompted us to assess the effect of repeated ICV injections of hUC-MSCs on disease progression in SOD1G93A mice. Although no transplanted cells migrated to the spinal cord, a partial but significant protection of motor neurons (MNs) was found in the lumbar spinal cord of hUC-MSCs-treated SOD1G93A mice, accompanied by a shift from a pro-inflammatory (IL-6, IL-1β) to anti-inflammatory (IL-4, IL-10) and neuroprotective (IGF-1) environment in the lumbar spinal cord, probably linked to the activation of p-Akt survival pathway in both motor neurons and reactive astrocytes. However, this treatment neither prevented the muscle denervation nor delayed the disease progression of mice, emphasizing the growing evidence that protecting the motor neuron perikarya is not sufficient to delay the ALS progression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Chronic treatment with taurine after intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection improves cognitive dysfunction in rats by modulating oxidative stress, cholinergic functions and neuroinflammation.

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    Reeta, K H; Singh, Devendra; Gupta, Y K

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, an essential amino acid for growth and development of central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) model of cognitive impairment was used in male Wistar rats (270 ± 20 g). Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were used to assess cognitive performance. Taurine (40, 60 and 120 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days following STZ administration on day 1. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase) and cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) activity were measured at end of the study in the cortex and hippocampus. Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, expression of rho kinase-II (ROCK-II), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were studied in cortex and hippocampus. STZ caused significant cognitive impairment as compared to normal control. Chronic administration of taurine attenuated STZ-induced cognitive impairment. Increased oxidative stress and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β induced by STZ were also significantly attenuated by taurine. Taurine significantly (p taurine. STZ decreased the expression of ChAT in hippocampus which was significantly (p taurine. However, GSK-3β expression was not altered by either STZ or taurine. The present study indicates that taurine exerts a neuroprotective role against STZ-induced cognitive impairment in rats. This effect is probably mediated by modulating oxidative stress, cholinesterases, inflammatory cytokines and expression of ROCK-II. Thus, this study suggests a potential of chronic taurine administration in cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intracerebroventricular injection of beta-amyloid in mice is associated with long-term cognitive impairment in the modified hole-board test.

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    Schmid, Sebastian; Jungwirth, Bettina; Gehlert, Verena; Blobner, Manfred; Schneider, Gerhard; Kratzer, Stephan; Kellermann, Kristine; Rammes, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    The intracerebroventricular injection of beta-amyloid (Aβ) in mice allows the investigation of acute effects on cognitive function and cellular pathology. The aim of this investigation was to further characterize the time course of Aβ-induced cognitive and behavioural changes and to detect potential molecular mechanisms. Cannulas were implanted in the lateral cerebral ventricle. 14days after surgery the mice were injected with Aβ1-42 or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Starting 2, 4 or 8 (PBS only 4) days after injection we evaluated cognitive and behavioural performance using the modified hole board test (mHBT). We determined tumour-necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and caspase 3 by western blotting, on days 10, 12 and 16. Data were analysed using general linear modelling, Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U test. Aβ induced a decline in cognitive performance represented as an increased total number of wrong choices during the testing period from day 2-15 (p<0.05). Behavioural parameters were comparable between mice treated with Aβ and PBS. There was no difference regarding TNF alpha levels between the groups. Compared to day 16 Caspase 3 levels were increased on day 10 (p=0.004). Application of Aβ in the lateral ventricle of mice is associated with cognitive impairment of declarative memory in the mHBT. There is no interference caused by altered behaviour. Therefore, it represents a valid model for acute Aβ-mediated neurotoxic effects. Although the exact mechanisms remain unclear, changes in levels of Caspase 3 suggest apoptosis as an important factor for the development of cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of food intake and Fos expression in serotonergic neurons of raphe nuclei after intracerebroventricular injection of adrenaline in free-feeding rats.

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    Flores, Rafael Appel; da Silva, Eduardo Simão; Ribas, Anderson Savaris; Taschetto, Ana Paula Dambros; Zampieri, Thais Tessari; Donato, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the modification of adrenergic neurotransmission in median raphe nucleus (MRN) enhances or removes an inhibitory influence on food intake, possibly serotonergic, due to a presence of serotonin-producing neurons in that nucleus. Therefore, the aim of this study is evaluated whether the activity of neurons in the MRN and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are affected by intracerebroventricular injection of adrenaline (AD) in free-feeding rats. Male Wistar rats with guide cannulae chronically implanted in the lateral ventricle were injected with AD followed by evaluation of ingestive behavioral parameters. Behavior was monitored and the amount of food ingested was assessed. The highest dose (20 nmol) of AD was the most effective dose in increasing food intake. Subsequently, AD 20 nmol was injected to study neuronal activity indicated by the presence of Fos protein and its co-localization with serotonergic neurons in the MRN and DRN of naive rats with or without access to food during the recording of behavior. The administration of AD 20 nmol increased Fos expression and double labeling with serotonergic neurons in the DRN in rats with access to food, but not in animals without access. No statistically significant changes in Fos expression were observed in the MRN in any of the experimental conditions tested. These results suggest that DRN serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons are activated by post-prandial signals. In contrast, the absence of Fos expression in the MRN suggests that this nucleus does not participate in the circuit involved in the control of post-prandial satiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of an intracerebroventricular injection of metformin or AICAR on the plasma concentrations of melatonin in the ewe: potential involvement of AMPK?

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    Collet Armelle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now widely accepted that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a critical regulator of energy homeostasis. Recently, it has been shown to regulate circadian clocks. In seasonal breeding species such as sheep, the circadian clock controls the secretion of an endogenous rhythm of melatonin and, as a consequence, is probably involved in the generation of seasonal rhythms of reproduction. Considering this, we identified the presence of the subunits of AMPK in different hypothalamic nuclei involved in the pre- and post-pineal pathways that control seasonality of reproduction in the ewe and we investigated if the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. injection of two activators of AMPK, metformin and AICAR, affected the circadian rhythm of melatonin in ewes that were housed in constant darkness. In parallel the secretion of insulin was monitored as a peripheral metabolic marker. We also investigated the effects of i.c.v. AICAR on the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, a downstream target of AMPK, in brain structures along the photoneuroendocrine pathway to the pineal gland. Results All the subunits of AMPK that we studied were identified in all brain areas that were dissected but with some differences in their level of expression among structures. Metformin and AICAR both reduced (p Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest a potential role for AMPK on the secretion of melatonin probably acting trough the paraventricular nucleus and/or directly in the pineal gland. We conclude that AMPK may act as a metabolic cue to modulate the rhythm of melatonin secretion.

  20. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

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    Jornada, Luciano K.; Valvassori, Samira S.; Resende, Wilson R.; Moretti, Morgana; Ferreira, Camila L.; Fries, Gabriel R.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Quevedo, João

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group). RESULTS: When evaluated immedi...

  1. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

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    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.

  2. The effect of genistein on intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive deficits in male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Balouchnejadmojarad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract  Introduction: Intracerebroventricular (ICV injection of streptozotocin (STZ causes cognitive impairment in rats. The beneficial effect of genistein (GEN was investigated on ICV STZ-induced learning, memory, and cognitive impairment in male rats. Methods: For this purpose, rats were injected with ICV STZ bilaterally, on days 1 and 3 (3 mg/kg. The STZ-injected rats received GEN (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. starting one day pre-surgery for two weeks. The learning and memory performance was assessed using passive avoidance paradigm, and for spatial cognition evaluation, radial eight-arm maze (RAM task was used.  Results: It was found out that GEN-treated STZ-injected rats show higher correct choices and lower errors in RAM than vehicle-treated STZ-injected rats. In addition, GEN administration significantly attenuated learning and memory impairment in treated STZ-injected group in passive avoidance test.Discussion: These results demonstrate the effectiveness of GEN in preventing the cognitive deficits caused by ICV STZ in rats and its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD.  

  3. Spatiotemporal changes of seismic attenuation caused by injected CO2 at the Frio-II pilot site, Dayton, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tieyuan; Ajo-Franklin, Jonathan B.; Daley, Thomas M.

    2017-09-01

    A continuous active source seismic monitoring data set was collected with crosswell geometry during CO2 injection at the Frio-II brine pilot, near Liberty, TX. Previous studies have shown that spatiotemporal changes in the P wave first arrival time reveal the movement of the injected CO2 plume in the storage zone. To further constrain the CO2 saturation, particularly at higher saturation levels, we investigate spatial-temporal changes in the seismic attenuation of the first arrivals. The attenuation changes over the injection period are estimated by the amount of the centroid frequency shift computed by local time-frequency analysis. We observe that (1) at receivers above the injection zone seismic attenuation does not change in a physical trend; (2) at receivers in the injection zone attenuation sharply increases following injection and peaks at specific points varying with distributed receivers, which is consistent with observations from time delays of first arrivals; then, (3) attenuation decreases over the injection time. The attenuation change exhibits a bell-shaped pattern during CO2 injection. Under Frio-II field reservoir conditions, White's patchy saturation model can quantitatively explain both the P wave velocity and attenuation response observed. We have combined the velocity and attenuation change data in a crossplot format that is useful for model-data comparison and determining patch size. Our analysis suggests that spatial-temporal attenuation change is not only an indicator of the movement and saturation of CO2 plumes, even at large saturations, but also can quantitatively constrain CO2 plume saturation when used jointly with seismic velocity.

  4. Intracerebroventricular Delivery in Mice for Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizzardo, M; Rizzuti, M

    2017-01-01

    The use of antisense oligonucleotides to target specific mRNA sequences represents a promising therapeutic strategy for neurological disorders. Recent advances in antisense technology enclose the development of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (MO), which is one of the best candidates for molecular therapies due to MO's excellent pharmacological profile.Nevertheless, the route of administration of antisense compounds represents a critical issue in the neurological field. Particularly, as regards motor neuron diseases, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection is undoubtedly the most efficient procedure to directly deliver therapeutic molecules in the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, we recently demonstrated the outstanding efficacy of the MO antisense approach by its direct administration to CNS of the transgenic mouse models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).Here, we describe methods to perform the ICV delivery of MO in neonatal SMA mice and in adult ALS mice.

  5. Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.R.; Beker, M.G.; Bertolini, A.; Brand, J.F.J. van den; Bulten, H.J.; Hennes, E.; Mul, F.A.; Rabeling, D.S.; Schimmel, A.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 10 3 compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom

  6. An experimental study on intracerebroventricular transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxin; Song, Lu; Wu, Na; Liu, Zhenguo; Xue, Shouru; Hui, Guozhen

    2010-12-01

    Human amniotic epithelial (HAE) cells are formed from amnioblasts, separated from the epiblast at about the eighth day after fertilization. In the present study, we attempt to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular transplantation of HAE cells on Parkinson's disease (PD) rats. A PD rat model was induced by 6-OHDA injections. Then the rats were transplanted intracerebroventricularly with HAE cells. Apomorphin-induced turns were used to assess the neurobehavioral deficit in rats. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry was used to track the survival of HAE cells. Tyrosinehydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry was used to determine the density of TH-positive cells in rat substantia nigra and the differentiation of HAE cells. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in rat striatum. HVA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats were also determined by HPLC. The results showed that transplanted HAE cells can survive for at least 10 weeks and differentiate into TH-positive cells in PD rats. The grafts significantly ameliorated apomorphine-induced turns in PD rats. TH immunohistochemistry showed that HAE cells attenuated the loss of TH-positive cells in rat substantia nigra. In addition, HAE cells prevented the fall of DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in PD rats. Increased HVA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of PD rats were also observed. These results demonstrate that HAE cells have beneficial effect on 6-OHDA-induced PD rats, which may be due to the neurotrophic factors secrete by HAE cells.

  7. Single well field injection test of humate to enhance attenuation of uranium and other radionuclides in an acidic plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This report documents the impact of the injected humate on targeted contaminants over a period of 4 months and suggests it is a viable attenuation-based remedy for uranium, potentially for I-129, but not for Sr-90. Future activities will focus on issues pertinent to scaling the technology to full deployment.

  8. Decreased BDNF levels in amygdala and hippocampus after intracerebroventricular administration of ouabain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano K. Jornada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to investigate the effects of ouabain intracerebroventricular injection on BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals received a single intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain (10-3 and 10-2 M or artificial cerebrospinal fluid and immediately, 1h, 24h, or seven days after injection, BDNF levels were measured in the rat's amygdala and hippocampus by sandwich-ELISA (n = 8 animals per group. RESULTS: When evaluated immediately, 3h, or 24h after injection, ouabain in doses of 10-2 and 10-3 M does not alter BDNF levels in the amygdala and hippocampus. However, when evaluated seven days after injection, ouabain in 10-2 and 10-3 M, showed a significant reduction in BDNF levels in both brain regions evaluated. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, we propose that the ouabain decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and amygdala when assessed seven days after administration, supporting the Na/K ATPase hypothesis for bipolar illness.

  9. Hongjingtian Injection Attenuates Myocardial Oxidative Damage via Promoting Autophagy and Inhibiting Apoptosis

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    Shujing Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural products with antioxidative activities are widely applied to prevent and treat various oxidative stress related diseases, including ischemic heart disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of those therapies are still needed to be illustrated. In this study, we characterized the cardioprotective effects of Hongjingtian Injection (HJT, an extensively used botanical drug for treating coronary heart disease. The H/R-induced profound elevation of oxidative stress was suppressed by HJT. HJT also attenuates oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, intracellular ATP contents, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. Validation experiments indicated that HJT inhibited H/R-induced apoptosis and regulated the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase3. Interestingly, HJT significantly regulated the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3, Beclin, and mTOR as well as ERK and AKT. We provide evidence that the mechanism involves activation of AKT/Beclin-1, AKT, and ERK/mTOR pathway in cardiomyocyte autophagy. Histological and physiological evaluation revealed that HJT significantly decreased the infarct area of the heart, improved cardiac function, and increased the expression of LC3B in a rat model of coronary occlusion. From the obtained data, we proposed that HJT diminished myocardial oxidative damage through regulating the balance of autophagy and apoptosis and reducing oxidative stress.

  10. Role of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in the acute hypertensive response to intracerebroventricular cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, Maria Piera; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Volpe, Anna Rita; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    1998-01-01

    In the rat, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of cadmium, a pollutant with long biological half-life, causes a sustained increase in blood pressure at doses that are ineffective by peripheral route. Since cadmium inhibits calcium-calmodulin constitutive nitric oxide (NO) synthase in cytosolic preparations of rat brain, this mechanism may be responsible for the acute pressor action of this heavy metal.To test this possibility, we evaluated the effect of i.c.v. injection of 88 nmol cadmium in normotensive unanaesthetized Wistar rats, which were i.c.v. pre-treated with: (1) saline (control), (2) L-arginine (L-Arg), to increase the availability of substrate for NO biosynthesis, (3) D-arginine (D-Arg), (4) 3-[4-morpholinyl]-sydnonimine-hydrochloride (SIN-1), an NO donor, or (5) CaCl2, a cofactor of brain calcium-calmodulin-dependent cNOSI. In additional experiments, the levels of L-citrulline (the stable equimolar product derived from enzymatic cleavage of L-Arg by NO synthase) were determined in the brain of vehicle- or cadmium-treated rats.The pressor response to cadmium reached its nadir at 5 min (43±4 mmHg) and lasted over 20 min in controls. L-Citrulline/protein content was reduced from 35 up to 50% in the cerebral cortex, pons, hippocampus, striatus, hypothalamus (P<0.01) of cadmium-treated rats compared with controls. Central injection of NG nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME) also reduced the levels of L-citrulline in the brain.Both the magnitude and duration of the response were attenuated by 1.21 and 2.42 μmol SIN-1 (32±3 and 15±4 mmHg, P<0.05), or 1 μmol CaCl2 (6±4 mmHg, P<0.05). Selectivity of action exerted by SIN-1 was confirmed by the use of another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP). Both L-Arg and D-Arg caused a mild but significant attenuation in the main phase of the pressor response evoked by cadmium. However, only L-Arg reduced the magnitude of the delayed, pressor response. Despite their similarity in

  11. Astragalus injection attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via down-regulating Jagged1/Notch1 in lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Liao, Shiping; Zhang, Zhongwei; Wang, Bo; Wan, Lihong

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of Notch signalling is a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. This study was designed to investigate the antifibrosis effects and possible mechanism of astragalus injection (AI) on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in male SD rats. All rats received daily intraperitoneally administration of dexamethasone (DEX, 3 mg/kg), astragalus injection (AI, 8 g/kg) or saline 1 day after bleomycin instillation daily for 28 days. Histological changes in the lung were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle protein (α-SMA) was assayed by immunohistochemical (IHC). The mRNA and protein level of Jagged1, Notch1 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was analysed by qPCR and Western blot. BLM-induced severe alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis; together with significant elevation of α-SMA, TGF-β1, Jagged1 and Notch1. Astragalus injection (AI, 8 g/kg) administration notably attenuated the degree of alveolitis and lung fibrosis, and markedly reduced the elevated levels of α-SMA, TGF-β1, Jagged1 and Notch1 in lungs. Astragalus injection (AI, 8 g/kg) may exert protective effects on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via downregulating Jagged1/Notch1 in lung. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  12. Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahata, Hikari; Komatsu, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Soh; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Takahama, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is one of the most common essential oil containing linalool and linalyl acetate as major volatile components. This study investigated the effect of intraplantar (i.pl.) bergamot essential oil (BEO) or linalool on neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in mice. The i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool into the ipsilateral hindpaw to PSNL reduced PSNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Peripheral (i.pl.) injection of BEO or linalool into the contralateral hindpaw did not yield anti-allodynic effects, suggesting a local anti-mechanical allodynic effect of BEO or linalool in PSNL mice. Anti-mechanical hypersensitivity of morphine was enhanced by the combined injection of BEO or linalool at an ineffective dose when injected alone. We also examined the possible involvement of spinal extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in BEO or linalool-induced anti-mechanical allodynia. In western blotting analysis, i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool resulted in a significant blockade of spinal ERK activation induced by PSNL. These results suggest that i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool may reduce PSNL-induced mechanical allodynia followed by decreasing spinal ERK activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Local Injections of Superoxide Dismutase Attenuate the Exercise Pressor Reflex in Rats with Femoral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The exercise pressor reflex is amplified in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD and in an experimental PAD model of rats induced by femoral artery occlusion. Heightened blood pressure worsens the restricted blood flow directed to the limbs in this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the role played by muscle oxidative stress in regulating the augmented pressor response to static exercise in PAD. We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex. Our data show that femoral occlusion decreased the protein levels of SOD in ischemic muscle as compared with control muscle. Downregulation of SOD appeared to a greater degree in the oxidative (red muscle than in the glycolytic (white muscle under the condition of muscle ischemia. In addition, the exercise pressor response was assessed during electrically induced static contraction. The data demonstrates that the enhancement of the exercise pressor reflex was significantly attenuated after tempol (a mimetic of SOD, 30 mg over a period of 72 h was administered into the occluded hindlimb. In the occluded rats, mean arterial pressure (MAP response was 26 ± 3 mmHg with no tempol and 12 ± 2 mmHg with tempol application (P < 0.05 vs. group with no tempol; n = 6 in each group. There were no differences in muscle tension development (time-tension index: 12.1 ± 1.2 kgs with no tempol and 13.5 ± 1.1 kgs with tempol; P > 0.05 between groups. In conclusion, SOD is lessened in the ischemic muscles and supplement of SOD improves the amplified exercise pressor reflex, which is likely beneficial to the restricted blood flow to the limbs in PAD.

  14. Antioxidative and Neuroprotective Effects of Curcumin in an Alzheimer's Disease Rat Model Co-Treated with Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin and Subcutaneous D-Galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Han-Chang; Zheng, Bo-Wen; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Jiang-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2016-04-05

    Epidemiological data imply links between the increasing incidences of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, an AD rat model was established by combining treatments with intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (icv-STZ) and subcutaneous D-galactose, and the effects of curcumin on depressing AD-like symptoms were investigated. In the AD model group, rats were treated with icv-STZ in each hippocampus with 3.0 mg/kg of bodyweight once and then were subcutaneously injected with D-galactose daily (125 mg/kg of bodyweight) for 7 weeks. In the curcumin-protective group, after icv-STZ treatment, rats were treated with D-galactose (the same as in the AD model group) and intraperitoneally injected with curcumin daily (10 mg/kg of bodyweight) for 7 weeks. Vehicle-treated rats were treated as control. Compared with the vehicle control, the amount of protein carbonylation and glutathione in liver, as well as malondialdehyde in serum, were upregulated but glutathione peroxidase activity in blood was downregulated in the AD model group. The shuttle index and locomotor activity of rats in the AD model group were decreased compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, AD model rats showed neuronal damage and neuron loss with formation of amyloid-like substances and neurofibrillary tangles, and the levels of both β-cleavage of AβPP and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) were significantly increased compared with the vehicle control group. Notably, compared with the AD model group, oxidative stress was decreased and the abilities of active avoidance and locomotor activity were improved, as well as attenuated neurodegeneration, in the curcumin-protective group. These results imply the applications of this animal model for AD research and of curcumin in the treatment of AD.

  15. Differential effects of whole-body {gamma}-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-05-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a {mu}-opioid receptor agonist) and {beta}-endorphin (an {epsilon}-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, {gamma}-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a {delta}-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and {beta}-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a {sup 60}Co {gamma}-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or {beta}-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by {beta}-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of {mu}- and {epsilon}-opioid receptors to {gamma}-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and {beta}-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  16. Differential effects of whole-body γ-irradiation on antinociception induced by morphine and β-endorphin administered intracerebroventricularly in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.M.; Park, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Two separate lines of evidence suggested the present study. First, intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered morphine (a μ-opioid receptor agonist) and β-endorphin (an ε-opioid receptor agonist) produce antinociception by activating different descending pain inhibitory systems. Second, γ-irradiation attenuates the acute antinociceptive action of i.c.v. injected morphine, but not DPLPE (a δ-opioid receptor agonist), in mice. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation on the antinociception produced by i.c.v. injected morphine and β-endorphin in male ICR mice. In one group, mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy from a 60 Co γ-source and the antinociceptive effects were tested 5, 30, 60,90 and 180 min after irradiation using the 1% acetic acid-induced writhing test (10 ml/kg). The antinociceptive effect was produced time-dependently and reached its maximum at 90 min after irradiation. Thus, time was fixed in the following studies. In another group, mice were irradiated with 5 Gy and tested 90 minutes later for antinociception produced by i.c.v. administration of morphine (50 and 100 ng/mouse) or β-endorphin (31 ng/mouse). Irradiation significantly potentiated the antinociception produced by β-endorphin. However, the antinociception produced by morphine was not affected by irradiation. These results demonstrate a differential sensitivity of μ- and ε-opioid receptors to γ-irradiation, in addition, support the hypothesis that morphine and β-endorphin administered supraspinally produce antinociception by different neuronal mechanisms. (author)

  17. PRELIMINARY DATA REPORT: HUMATE INJECTION AS AN ENHANCED ATTENUATION METHOD AT THE F-AREA SEEPAGE BASINS, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millings, M.

    2013-09-16

    A field test of a humate technology for uranium and I-129 remediation was conducted at the F-Area Field Research Site as part of the Attenuation-Based Remedies for the Subsurface Applied Field Research Initiative (ABRS AFRI) funded by the DOE Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation. Previous studies have shown that humic acid sorbed to sediments strongly binds uranium at mildly acidic pH and potentially binds iodine-129 (I-129). Use of humate could be applicable for contaminant stabilization at a wide variety of DOE sites however pilot field-scale tests and optimization of this technology are required to move this technical approach from basic science to actual field deployment and regulatory acceptance. The groundwater plume at the F-Area Field Research Site contains a large number of contaminants, the most important from a risk perspective being strontium-90 (Sr-90), uranium isotopes, I-129, tritium, and nitrate. Groundwater remains acidic, with pH as low as 3.2 near the basins and increasing to the background pH of approximately 5at the plume fringes. The field test was conducted in monitoring well FOB 16D, which historically has shown low pH and elevated concentrations of Sr-90, uranium, I-129 and tritium. The field test included three months of baseline monitoring followed by injection of a potassium humate solution and approximately four and half months of post monitoring. Samples were collected and analyzed for numerous constituents but the focus was on attenuation of uranium, Sr-90, and I-129. This report provides background information, methodology, and preliminary field results for a humate field test. Results from the field monitoring show that most of the excess humate (i.e., humate that did not sorb to the sediments) has flushed through the surrounding formation. Furthermore, the data indicate that the test was successful in loading a band of sediment surrounding the injection point to a point where pH could return to near normal during the study

  18. Continuing treatment with Salvia miltiorrhiza injection attenuates myocardial fibrosis in chronic iron-overloaded mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Iron overload cardiomyopathy results from iron accumulation in the myocardium that is closely linked to iron-mediated myocardial fibrosis. Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM, also known as Danshen, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been widely used for hundreds of years to treat cardiovascular diseases. Here, we investigated the effect and potential mechanism of SM on myocardial fibrosis induced by chronic iron overload (CIO in mice. Kunming male mice (8 weeks old were randomized to six groups of 10 animals each: control (CONT, CIO, low-dose SM (L-SM, high-dose SM (H-SM, verapamil (VRP and deferoxamine (DFO groups. Normal saline was injected in the CONT group. Mice in the other five groups were treated with iron dextran at 50 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally for 7 weeks, and those in the latter four groups also received corresponding daily treatments, including 3 g/kg or 6 g/kg of SM, 100 mg/kg of VRP, or 100 mg/kg of DFO. The iron deposition was estimated histologically using Prussian blue staining. Myocardial fibrosis was determined by Masson's trichrome staining and hydroxyproline (Hyp quantitative assay. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA content and protein expression levels of type I collagen (COL I, type I collagen (COL III, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 were analyzed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SM against iron-overloaded fibrosis. Treatment of chronic iron-overloaded mice with SM dose-dependently reduced iron deposition levels, fibrotic area percentage, Hyp content, expression levels of COL I and COL III, as well as upregulated the expression of TGF- β1 and MMP-9 proteins in the heart. Moreover, SM treatment decreased MDA content and increased SOD activity. In conclusion, SM exerted activities against cardiac fibrosis induced by CIO, which may be attributed to its inhibition of iron deposition, as well as collagen metabolism and oxidative

  19. Allogeneic cardiospheres delivered via percutaneous transendocardial injection increase viable myocardium, decrease scar size, and attenuate cardiac dilatation in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Yee

    Full Text Available Epicardial injection of heart-derived cell products is safe and effective post-myocardial infarction (MI, but clinically-translatable transendocardial injection has never been evaluated. We sought to assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous transendocardial injection of heart-derived cells in porcine chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy.We studied a total of 89 minipigs; 63 completed the specified protocols. After NOGA-guided transendocardial injection, we quantified engraftment of escalating doses of allogeneic cardiospheres or cardiosphere-derived cells in minipigs (n = 22 post-MI. Next, a dose-ranging, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled ("dose optimization" study of transendocardial injection of the better-engrafting product was performed in infarcted minipigs (n = 16. Finally, the superior product and dose (150 million cardiospheres were tested in a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled ("pivotal" study (n = 22. Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRI revealed that all cardiosphere doses preserved systolic function and attenuated remodeling. The maximum feasible dose (150 million cells was most effective in reducing scar size, increasing viable myocardium and improving ejection fraction. In the pivotal study, eight weeks post-injection, histopathology demonstrated no excess inflammation, and no myocyte hypertrophy, in treated minipigs versus controls. No alloreactive donor-specific antibodies developed over time. MRI showed reduced scar size, increased viable mass, and attenuation of cardiac dilatation with no effect on ejection fraction in the treated group compared to placebo.Dose-optimized injection of allogeneic cardiospheres is safe, decreases scar size, increases viable myocardium, and attenuates cardiac dilatation in porcine chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. The decreases in scar size, mirrored by increases in viable myocardium, are consistent with therapeutic regeneration.

  20. The depressor response to intracerebroventricular hypotonic saline is sensitive to TRPV4 antagonist RN1734

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire H Feetham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Several reports have shown that the periventricular region of the brain, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN, is critical to sensing and responding to changes in plasma osmolality. Further studies also implicate the transient receptor potential ion channel, type V4 (TRPV4 channel in this homeostatic behaviour. In previous work we have shown that TRPV4 ion channels couple to calcium-activated potassium channels in the PVN to decrease action potential firing frequency in response to hypotonicity. In the present study we investigated whether, similarly, intracerebroventricular (ICV application of hypotonic solutions modulated cardiovascular parameters, and if so whether this was sensitive to a TRPV4 channel inhibitor. We found that ICV injection of 270mOsmol artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF decreased mean blood pressure, but not heart rate, compared to naïve mice or mice injected with 300mOsmol ACSF. This effect was abolished by treatment with the TRPV4 inhibitor RN1734. These data suggest that periventricular targets within the brain are capable of generating depressor action in response to TRPV4 ion channel activation. Potentially, in the future, the TRPV4 channel, or the TRPV4–KCa coupling mechanism, may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress

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    Anil Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress appears to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15 μg/5 μL was administered intracerebroventricularly in the lateral ventricle of male wistar rats. Morris water maze and plus-maze performance tests were used to assess memory performance tasks. Various biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, nitrite, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, acetylcholinesterase were also assessed. ICV colchicine resulted marked memory impairment and oxidative damage. Chronic treatment with Centella asiatica extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o. for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration, significantly attenuated colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage. Besides, Centella asiatica significantly reversed colchicines administered increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, present study indicates protective effect of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage.

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Centella asiatica against Intracerebroventricular Colchicine-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Dogra, Samrita; Prakash, Atish

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress appears to be an early event involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage in rats. Colchicine (15 μg/5 μL) was administered intracerebroventricularly in the lateral ventricle of male wistar rats. Morris water maze and plus-maze performance tests were used to assess memory performance tasks. Various biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, nitrite, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, acetylcholinesterase were also assessed. ICV colchicine resulted marked memory impairment and oxidative damage. Chronic treatment with Centella asiatica extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) for a period of 25 days, beginning 4 days prior to colchicine administration, significantly attenuated colchicine-induced memory impairment and oxidative damage. Besides, Centella asiatica significantly reversed colchicines administered increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Thus, present study indicates protective effect of Centella asiatica against colchicine-induced cognitive impairment and associated oxidative damage. PMID:20798885

  3. In vivo cross-sectional characterization of cerebral alterations induced by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Kraska

    Full Text Available Cerebral aging is often associated with the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases leading to dementia. Animal models are critical to elucidate mechanisms associated to dementia and to evaluate neuroprotective drugs. Rats that received intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ have been reported as a model of dementia. In these animals, this drug induces oxidative stress and brain glucose metabolism impairments associated to insulin signal transduction failure. These mechanisms are reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and other dementia. Icv-STZ rats also display memory impairments. However, little is known about the precise location of the lesions induced by STZ administration. In this context, the present study characterized the cerebral lesions induced by two-doses of icv-STZ by using high-field magnetic resonance imaging to easily and longitudinally detect cerebral abnormalities and by using immunohistochemistry to evaluate neuronal loss and neuroinflammation (astrocytosis and microgliosis. We showed that, at high doses, icv-STZ induces severe and acute neurodegenerative lesions in the septum and corpus callosum. The lesions are associated with an inflammation process. They are less severe and more progressive at low doses. The relevance of high and low doses of icv-STZ to mimic dementia and evaluate new drugs is discussed in the final part of this article.

  4. Intracerebroventricular ghrelin treatment affects lipid metabolism in liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to elucidate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of central ghrelin (GHRL) treatment on the regulation of liver lipid metabolism, and the possible modulatory effect of central GHRL treatment on the simultaneous effects of raised levels of oleate. Thus, we injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) rainbow trout GHRL in the presence or absence of oleate and evaluated in liver variables related to lipid metabolism. Oleate treatment elicited in liver of rainbow trout decreased lipogenesis and increased oxidative capacity in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, as demonstrated for the first time in fish in the present study, GHRL also acts centrally modulating lipid metabolism in liver, resulting in increased potential for lipogenesis and decreased potential for fatty acid oxidation, i.e. the converse effects to those elicited by central oleate treatment. The simultaneous treatment of GHRL and oleate confirmed these counteractive effects. Thus, the nutrient sensing mechanisms present in hypothalamus, particularly those involved in sensing of fatty acid, are involved in the control of liver energy metabolism in fish, and this control is modulated by the central action of GHRL. These results give support to the notion of hypothalamus as an integrative place for the regulation of peripheral energy metabolism in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intracerebroventricular C75 decreases meal frequency and reduces AgRP gene expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Susan; Bi, Sheng; Knipp, Susan B; McFadden, Jill M; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P; Moran, Timothy H

    2006-07-01

    3-Carboxy-4-alkyl-2-methylenebutyrolactone (C75), an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase and stimulator of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1, reduces food intake and body weight in rodents when given systemically or centrally. Intracellular molecular mechanisms involving changes in cellular energy status are proposed to initiate the feeding and body weight reductions. However, effectors that lie downstream of these initial steps are not yet fully identified. Present experiments characterize the time courses of hypophagia and weight loss after single injections of C75 into the lateral cerebroventicle in rats and go on to identify specific meal pattern changes and coinciding alterations in gene expression for feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides. C75 reduced chow intake and body weight dose dependently. Although the principal effects occurred on the first day, weight losses relative to vehicle control were maintained over multiple days. C75 did not affect generalized locomotor activity. C75 began to reduce feeding after a 6-h delay. The hypophagia was due primarily to decreased meal number during 6-12 h without a significant effect on meal size, suggesting that central C75 reduced the drive to initiate meals. C75 prevented the anticipated hypophagia-induced increases in mRNA for AgRP in the arcuate nucleus at 22 h and at 6 h when C75 begins to suppress feeding. Overall, the data suggest that gene expression changes leading to altered melanocortin signaling are important for the hypophagic response to intracerebroventricular C75.

  6. Intravenously injected human multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring cells selectively engraft into mouse aortic aneurysms and attenuate dilatation by differentiating into multiple cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyama, Katsuhiro; Wakao, Shohei; Kushida, Yoshihiro; Ogura, Fumitaka; Maeda, Kay; Adachi, Osamu; Kawamoto, Shunsuke; Dezawa, Mari; Saiki, Yoshikatsu

    2018-02-21

    Aortic aneurysms result from the degradation of multiple components represented by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and elastic fibers. Cells that can replenish these components are desirable for cell-based therapy. Intravenously injected multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, endogenous nontumorigenic pluripotent-like stem cells, reportedly integrate into the damaged site and repair the tissue through spontaneous differentiation into tissue-compatible cells. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Muse cells in a murine aortic aneurysm model. Human bone marrow Muse cells, isolated as stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 + from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or non-Muse cells (stage-specific embryonic antigen-3 - cells in mesenchymal stem cells), bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, or vehicle was intravenously injected at day 0, day 7, and 2 weeks (20,000 cells/injection) after inducing aortic aneurysms by periaortic incubation of CaCl 2 and elastase in severe combined immunodeficient mice. At 8 weeks, infusion of human Muse cells attenuated aneurysm dilation, and the aneurysmal size in the Muse group corresponded to approximately 62.5%, 55.6%, and 45.6% in the non-Muse, mesenchymal stem cell, and vehicle groups, respectively. Multiphoton laser confocal microscopy revealed that infused Muse cells migrated into aneurysmal tissue from the adventitial side and penetrated toward the luminal side. Histologic analysis demonstrated robust preservation of elastic fibers and spontaneous differentiation into endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. After intravenous injection, Muse cells homed and expanded to the aneurysm from the adventitial side. Subsequently, Muse cells differentiated spontaneously into vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, and elastic fibers were preserved. These Muse cell features together led to substantial attenuation of aneurysmal dilation. Copyright © 2018 The American Association

  7. Attenuation values of the intracranial arterial and venous vessels by bolus injection of various contrast agents. A study with a single-detector helical CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahata, Morio; Abe, Yoshinao; Ono, Shuichi; Yamaguchi, Hikaru; Miura, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Takashi; Tsushima, Fumiyasu; Morimoto, Kohei; Seino, Hiroko

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the arteriovenous contrast on the source images of intracranial three-dimensional computed tomography (CT) angiography (3D-CTA) using a high-concentration (370 mgI/ml) contrast agent in comparison with intermediate-concentration (300 mgI/ml) contrast. With a fixed intravenous injection rate and scanning delay, 3D-CTA was performed using a single-detector helical CT scanner in 30 consecutive patients. We used 100 ml of iohexol 300 for 10 patients, 100 ml of iopamidol 300 for 10 patients, and 80 ml of iopamidol 370 for 10 patients. Attenuation values of the bilateral internal carotid arteries, bilateral middle cerebral arteries, basilar artery trunk, bilateral cavernous sinuses, bilateral basal veins, and Galenic vein were measured quantitatively on the axial CT angiographic source images. High-concentration contrast significantly increased the attenuation values of the intracranial arterial system without increasing the attenuation of the venous system. High-concentration contrast is helpful for obtaining valuable arteriovenous contrast on source images with intracranial 3D-CTA. (author)

  8. Intracerebroventricular D-galactose administration impairs memory and alters activity and expression of acetylcholinesterase in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André Felipe; Biasibetti, Helena; Zanotto, Bruna Stela; Sanches, Eduardo Farias; Pierozan, Paula; Schmitz, Felipe; Parisi, Mariana Migliorini; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia; Netto, Carlos Alexandre; Wyse, Angela T S

    2016-05-01

    Tissue accumulation of galactose is a hallmark in classical galactosemia. Cognitive deficit is a symptom of this disease which is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of galactose on memory (inhibitory avoidance and novel object recognition tasks) of adult rats. We also investigated the effects of galactose on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, immunocontent and gene expression in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Wistar rats received a single injection of galactose (4mM) or saline (control). For behavioral parameters, galactose was injected 1h or 24h previously to the testing. For biochemical assessment, animals were decapitated 1h, 3h or 24h after galactose or saline injection; hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected. Results showed that galactose impairs the memory formation process in aversive memory (inhibitory avoidance task) and recognition memory (novel object recognition task) in rats. The activity of AChE was increased, whereas the gene expression of this enzyme was decreased in hippocampus, but not in cerebral cortex. These findings suggest that these changes in AChE may, at least in part, to lead to memory impairment caused by galactose. Taken together, our results can help understand the etiopathology of classical galactosemia. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracerebroventricular urocortin 3 counteracts central acyl ghrelin-induced hyperphagic and gastroprokinetic effects via CRF receptor 2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun; Ting, Ching-Heng; Doong, Ming-Luen; Chi, Chin-Wen; Lee, Shou-Dong; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Urocortin 3 is a key neuromodulator in the regulation of stress, anxiety, food intake, gut motility, and energy homeostasis, while ghrelin elicits feeding behavior and enhances gastric emptying, adiposity, and positive energy balance. However, the interplays between urocortin 3 and ghrelin on food intake and gastric emptying remain uninvestigated. We examined the differential effects of central O - n -octanoylated ghrelin, des-Gln 14 -ghrelin, and urocortin 3 on food intake, as well as on charcoal nonnutrient semiliquid gastric emptying in conscious rats that were chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) catheters. The functional importance of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor 2 in urocortin 3-induced responses was examined by ICV injection of the selective CRF receptor 2 antagonist, astressin 2 -B. ICV infusion of urocortin 3 opposed central acyl ghrelin-elicited hyperphagia via CRF receptor 2 in satiated rats. ICV injection of O - n -octanoylated ghrelin and des-Gln 14 -ghrelin were equally potent in accelerating gastric emptying in fasted rats, whereas ICV administration of urocortin 3 delayed gastric emptying. In addition, ICV infusion of urocortin 3 counteracted central acyl ghrelin-induced gastroprokinetic effects via CRF receptor 2 pathway. ICV-infused urocortin 3 counteracts central acyl ghrelin-induced hyperphagic and gastroprokinetic effects via CRF receptor 2 in rats. Our results clearly showed that enhancing ghrelin and blocking CRF receptor 2 signaling in the brain accelerated gastric emptying, which provided important clues for a new therapeutic avenue in ameliorating anorexia and gastric ileus found in various chronic wasting disorders.

  10. L-β,β-Dimethylcysteine attenuates the haemodynamic responses elicited by systemic injections of peroxynitrite in anaesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Jonathan E; Kooy, Neil W; Lewis, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    There is direct chemical evidence that L-β,β-dimethylcysteine (L-penicillamine (L-PEN)) is a scavenger of peroxynitrite. The aim of this study was to determine whether L-PEN attenuates the haemodynamic responses elicited by peroxynitrite in pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats. Peroxynitrite (1–20 μmol kg−1, i.v.) elicited dose-dependent reductions in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances. L-PEN (2 mmol kg−1, i.v.) elicited relatively minor but significant increases in MAP and vascular resistances. The initial reductions in MAP and vascular resistances elicited by peroxynitrite were not diminished after administration of L-PEN whereas they were much shorter in duration. As such, the total reductions in MAP and vascular resistances were markedly reduced by L-PEN. The finding that L-PEN (2 mmol kg−1, i.v.) did not affect the hypotensive or vasodilator responses elicited of the ATP-dependent potassium-channel agonist, cromakalim (3–18 μg kg−1, i.v.), suggests that this dose of L-PEN is not a nonselective inhibitor of vasodilation. These findings suggest that L-PEN may effectively scavenge peroxynitrite in vivo and/or interfere with the mechanisms by which peroxynitrite elicits its vasodilator responses. PMID:16491097

  11. Puerarin attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan-shan; Yang, Wei-na; Jin, Hui; Ma, Kai-ge; Feng, Gai-feng

    2015-12-01

    Puerarin (PUE), an isoflavone purified from the root of Pueraria lobata (Chinese herb), has been reported to attenuate learning and memory impairments in the transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we tested PUE in a sporadic AD (SAD) mouse model which was induced by the intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The mice were administrated PUE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg/d) for 28 days. Learning and memory abilities were assessed by the Morris water maze test. After behavioral test, the biochemical parameters of oxidative stress (glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutases (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were measured in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The SAD mice exhibited significantly decreased learning and memory ability, while PUE attenuated these impairments. The activities of GSH-Px and SOD were decreased while MDA was increased in the SAD animals. After PUE treatment, the activities of GSH-Px and SOD were elevated, and the level of MDA was decreased. The middle dose PUE was more effective than others. These results indicate that PUE attenuates learning and memory impairments and inhibits oxidative stress in STZ-induced SAD mice. PUE may be a promising therapeutic agent for SAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. All that glitters is not gold: Increased Signal in the Subarachnoid Space on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Imaging after gadolinium injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Avila Duarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department of the Hospital Nossa Senhora das Graças, Canoas, southern Brazil, with suspected ischemic stroke. After clinical and laboratory examination, the clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made, without fulfilling criteria for thrombolysis. The patient had no history of renal failure. Three days later, she performed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination that confirmed the suspected diagnosis. This examination was performed without sedation or supplemental oxygen. Brain MRI was performed after gadolinium injection, using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR imaging, T1-weighted image, diffusion-weighted imaging, and T2-weighted image sequences that revealed signs of subacute watershed stroke in the left cerebral hemisphere (Figures 1, 2 and 3. There was a hyperintense cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the subarachnoid space (SAS on FLAIR imaging, a finding that has been reported in many  pathologic conditions1 such as superior sagittal thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage², meningitis,  meningeal carcinomatosis,  next to tumors, status epilepticus and stroke.3-7 It has also been reported in otherwise healthy patients undergoing anesthesia with supplemental oxygen.8 The exact mechanism by which CSF diffuses into the SAS in patients with or without renal insufficiency is not completely explained. Some authores have suggested that in patients with renal failure, the gadolinium may shift across an osmotic gradient at the circumventricular organs in the setting of proctracted elevation of plasma concentrations.9 We believe that the cause of this imaging phenomenon of hyperintense signal of the CSF in the SAS which has already been noted in patients with compromised cerebral perfusion, including cases of acute ischemic stroke, was due to the recent stroke.10-11 Keywords: Flair hyperintensity, MRI, stroke, Gadolinium

  13. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  14. Memantine Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology and Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochuan Wang

    Full Text Available Deficiency of protein phosphatase-2A is a key event in Alzheimer's disease. An endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase-2A, inhibitor-1, I1PP2A, which inhibits the phosphatase activity by interacting with its catalytic subunit protein phosphatase-2Ac, is known to be upregulated in Alzheimer's disease brain. In the present study, we overexpressed I1PP2A by intracerebroventricular injection with adeno-associated virus vector-1-I1PP2A in Wistar rats. The I1PP2A rats showed a decrease in brain protein phosphatase-2A activity, abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, neurodegeneration, an increase in the level of activated glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, enhanced expression of intraneuronal amyloid-beta and spatial reference memory deficit; littermates treated identically but with vector only, i.e., adeno-associated virus vector-1-enhanced GFP, served as a control. Treatment with memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist which is an approved drug for treatment of Alzheimer's disease, rescued protein phosphatase-2A activity by decreasing its demethylation at Leu309 selectively and attenuated Alzheimer's disease-like pathology and cognitive impairment in adeno-associated virus vector-1-I1PP2A rats. These findings provide new clues into the possible mechanism of the beneficial therapeutic effect of memantine in Alzheimer's disease patients.

  15. Histological changes in the rat brain and spinal cord following prolonged intracerebroventricular infusion of cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients are similar to those caused by the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pinedo, U; Galán, L; Yañez, M; Matias-Guiu, J; Valencia, C; Guerrero-Sola, A; Lopez-Sosa, F; Brin, J R; Benito-Martin, M S; Leon-Espinosa, G; Vela-Souto, A; Lendinez, C; Guillamon-Vivancos, T; Matias-Guiu, J A; Arranz-Tagarro, J A; Barcia, J A; Garcia, A G

    2018-05-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients induces cytotoxic effects in in vitro cultured motor neurons. We selected CSF with previously reported cytotoxic effects from 32 ALS patients. Twenty-eight adult male rats were intracerebroventricularly implanted with osmotic mini-pumps and divided into 3 groups: 9 rats injected with CSF from non-ALS patients, 15 rats injected with cytotoxic ALS-CSF, and 4 rats injected with a physiological saline solution. CSF was intracerebroventricularly and continuously infused for periods of 20 or 43days after implantation. We conducted clinical assessments and electromyographic examinations, and histological analyses were conducted in rats euthanised 20, 45, and 82days after surgery. Immunohistochemical studies revealed tissue damage with similar characteristics to those found in the sporadic forms of ALS, such as overexpression of cystatinC, transferrin, and TDP-43 protein in the cytoplasm. The earliest changes observed seemed to play a protective role due to the overexpression of peripherin, AKTpan, AKTphospho, and metallothioneins; this expression had diminished by the time we analysed rats euthanised on day 82, when an increase in apoptosis was observed. The first cellular changes identified were activated microglia followed by astrogliosis and overexpression of GFAP and S100B proteins. Our data suggest that ALS could spread through CSF and that intracerebroventricular administration of cytotoxic ALS-CSF provokes changes similar to those found in sporadic forms of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid encoding glucagon-like ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    involved in obesity and the stress response (Bojanowska. 2005). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of GLP-. 1 stimulates corticosterone secretion by activation of ..... Krishnan K R 2003 Comorbidity and depression treatment; Biol. Psychiatry 53 701–706. Larsen P J, Tang-Christensen M and Jessop D S 1997 Central.

  17. Intracerebroventricular Administration of Amyloid β-protein Oligomers Selectively Increases Dorsal Hippocampal Dialysate Glutamate Levels in the Awake Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D. O’Shea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Extensive evidence supports an important role for soluble oligomers of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ in Alzheimer’s Disease pathogenesis. In the present study we combined intracerebroventricular (icv injections with brain microdialysis technology in the fully conscious rat to assess the effects of icv administered SDS-stable low-n Aβ oligomers (principally dimers and trimers on excitatory and inhibitory amino acid transmission in the ipsilateral dorsal hippocampus. Microdialysis was employed to assess the effect of icv administration of Aβ monomers and Aβ oligomers on dialysate glutamate, aspartate and GABA levels in the dorsal hippocampus. Administration of Aβ oligomers was associated with a +183% increase (p<0.0001 vs. Aβ monomer-injected control in dorsal hippocampal glutamate levels which was still increasing at the end of the experiment (260 min, whereas aspartate and GABA levels were unaffected throughout. These findings demonstrate that icv administration and microdialysis technology can be successfully combined in the awake rat and suggests that altered dorsal hippocampal glutamate transmission may be a useful target for pharmacological intervention in Alzheimer’s Disease.

  18. Arctigenin Attenuates Learning and Memory Deficits through PI3k/Akt/GSK-3β Pathway Reducing Tau Hyperphosphorylation in Aβ-Induced AD Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yue; Dou, De-Qiang; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Bing-Bing; Qin, Wen-Yan; Kang, Kai; Zhang, Na; Jia, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Arctigenin is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan compound possessing antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza, antioxidant, antibacterial, and hypoglycaemic activities. Our previous study demonstrated that arctigenin exerts neuroprotective effects both in vitro and in vivo in a Parkinson's disease model. However, the exact mechanism through which arctigenin improves amyloid beta-induced memory impairment by inhibiting the production of the hyperphosphorylated tau protein is unknown. Amyloid β 1-42 was slowly administered via the intracerebroventricular route in a volume of 3 µL (≈ 410 pmmol/mouse) to mice. The mice were administered arctigenin (10, 40, or 150 mg/kg) or vehicle starting from the second day after amyloid β 1-42 injection to the end of the experiment. Behavioural tests were performed from days 9 to 15. On day 16 after the intracerebroventricular administration of amyloid β 1-42 , the mice were sacrificed for biochemical analysis. Arctigenin (10-150 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the impairment of spontaneous alternation behaviours in the Y-maze task, decreased the escape latency in the Morris water maze test, and increased the swimming times and swimming distances to the platform located in the probe test. Arctigenin attenuated the level of phosphorylated tau at the Thr-181, Thr-231, and Ser-404 sites in the hippocampus, and increased the phosphorylation levels of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, threonine/serine protein kinase B, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 β . Arctigenin effectively provides protection against learning and memory deficits and in inhibits hyperphosphorylated tau protein expression in the hippocampus. The possible mechanism may occur via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3 β signalling pathway. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Multiscale Characterization and Quantification of Arsenic Mobilization and Attenuation During Injection of Treated Coal Seam Gas Coproduced Water into Deep Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Bhasker; Siade, Adam J.; Donn, Michael J.; Helm, Lauren; Morris, Ryan; Davis, James A.; Berg, Michael; Prommer, Henning

    2017-12-01

    Coal seam gas production involves generation and management of large amounts of co-produced water. One of the most suitable methods of management is injection into deep aquifers. Field injection trials may be used to support the predictions of anticipated hydrological and geochemical impacts of injection. The present work employs reactive transport modeling (RTM) for a comprehensive analysis of data collected from a trial where arsenic mobilization was observed. Arsenic sorption behavior was studied through laboratory experiments, accompanied by the development of a surface complexation model (SCM). A field-scale RTM that incorporated the laboratory-derived SCM was used to simulate the data collected during the field injection trial and then to predict the long-term fate of arsenic. We propose a new practical procedure which integrates laboratory and field-scale models using a Monte Carlo type uncertainty analysis and alleviates a significant proportion of the computational effort required for predictive uncertainty quantification. The results illustrate that both arsenic desorption under alkaline conditions and pyrite oxidation have likely contributed to the arsenic mobilization that was observed during the field trial. The predictive simulations show that arsenic concentrations would likely remain very low if the potential for pyrite oxidation is minimized through complete deoxygenation of the injectant. The proposed modeling and predictive uncertainty quantification method can be implemented for a wide range of groundwater studies that investigate the risks of metal(loid) or radionuclide contamination.

  20. Site-specific attenuation of food intake but not the latency to eat after hypothalamic injections of neuropeptide Y in dehydrated-anorexic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter-Venzon, Dawna; Watts, Alan G

    2009-12-01

    Anorexia that accompanies cellular dehydration in rats (DE-anorexia) offers a relatively simple model for investigating the functional organization of neural mechanisms that can suppress feeding during dehydration. Previous studies strongly suggest that the inputs that drive ingestive behavior control neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) remain active during DE-anorexia. Here we examine whether these two regions retain their sensitivity to neuropeptide Y (NPY). NPY is an important component in two major feeding-related inputs from the arcuate nucleus and the hindbrain. We found that intake responses to NPY injections in the LHA and PVH were suppressed in DE-anorexia, but the PVH remained less sensitive to the effects of NPY than the LHA in DE-anorexic animals. Indeed the higher dose of NPY (238 pmol) completely overcame shorter periods of DE-anorexia when injected into the LHA but not the PVH. However, the latency to eat after NPY injections remained unchanged from control animals, regardless of NPY dose, injection location, or intensity of anorexia. Furthermore, the onset and size of the strong and rapidly induced compensatory feeding that follows the return of water to DE-anorexic animals was also unaffected by any NPY injections. These data support the hypothesis that DE-anorexia develops as a consequence of the premature termination of regularly initiated meals, which perhaps involves processes that alter the sensitivity of satiety mechanisms downstream to the PVH and LHA.

  1. Comparative analysis of acid sphingomyelinase distribution in the CNS of rats and mice following intracerebroventricular delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Treleaven

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick A (NPA disease is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD caused by a deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM activity. Previously, we reported that biochemical and functional abnormalities observed in ASM knockout (ASMKO mice could be partially alleviated by intracerebroventricular (ICV infusion of hASM. We now show that this route of delivery also results in widespread enzyme distribution throughout the rat brain and spinal cord. However, enzyme diffusion into CNS parenchyma did not occur in a linear dose-dependent fashion. Moreover, although the levels of hASM detected in the rat CNS were determined to be within the range shown to be therapeutic in ASMKO mice, the absolute amounts represented less than 1% of the total dose administered. Finally, our results also showed that similar levels of enzyme distribution are achieved across rodent species when the dose is normalized to CNS weight as opposed to whole body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy observed following ICV delivery of hASM in ASMKO mice could be scaled to CNS of the rat.

  2. Spinal injection of docosahexaenoic acid attenuates carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain through inhibition of microglia-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Zhao, L-X; Cao, D-L; Gao, Y-J

    2013-06-25

    Neuroinflammation in the spinal cord plays a critical role in the processing of inflammatory pain. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a predominant omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in the central nervous system, is known to modulate inflammatory responses in various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated whether DHA could reduce inflammatory pain and inhibit neuroinflammation in the spinal cord following carrageenan injection in mice. Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of DHA at 15min before carrageenan injection blocked carrageenan-induced pain hypersensitivity for more than 6h. In addition, i.t. injection of DHA at 3h after carrageenan transiently reversed carrageenan-induced heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, DHA treatment reduced carrageenan-induced activation of microglia, phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosisfactor-α - TNF-α and interleukin-1β - IL-1β) in the L4-5 spinal cord. In cultured microglial cells, DHA dose-dependently reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of p38, production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL10). p38 inhibitor SB203580 inhibited LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results provide evidence that DHA has antinociceptive effect in inflammatory pain, which may be attributed to, at least partially, suppressing a microglia-mediated inflammatory response through inhibition of p38 MAPK activation. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. TIMP-1 attenuates blood–brain barrier permeability in mice with acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Radisky, Evette S; Das, Pritam; Batra, Jyotica; Hata, Toshiyuki; Hori, Tomohide; Baine, Ann-Marie T; Gardner, Lindsay; Yue, Mei Y; Bu, Guojun; del Zoppo, Gregory; Patel, Tushar C; Nguyen, Justin H

    2013-01-01

    Blood–brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in acute liver failure (ALF) results in increased BBB permeability that often precludes the patients from obtaining a life-saving liver transplantation. It remains controversial whether matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from the injured liver contributes to the deregulation of BBB function in ALF. We selectively upregulated a physiologic inhibitor of MMP-9 (TIMP-1) with a single intracerebroventricular injection of TIMP-1 cDNA plasmids at 48 and 72 hours, or with pegylated-TIMP-1 protein. Acute liver failure was induced with tumor necrosis factor-α and 𝒟-(+)-galactosamine in mice. Permeability of BBB was assessed with sodium fluorescein (NaF) extravasation. We found a significant increase in TIMP-1 within the central nervous system (CNS) after the administration of TIMP-1 cDNA plasmids and that increased TIMP-1 within the CNS resulted in an attenuation of BBB permeability, a reduction in activation of epidermal growth factor receptor and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signals, and a restoration of the tight junction protein occludin in mice with experimental ALF. Pegylated TIMP-1 provided similar protection against BBB permeability in mice with ALF. Our results provided a proof of principle that MMP-9 contributes to the BBB dysfunction in ALF and suggests a potential therapeutic role of TIMP-1 in ALF. PMID:23532086

  4. Safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular PDGF-BB in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gesine; Zachrisson, Olof; Varrone, Andrea; Almqvist, Per; Jerling, Markus; Lind, Göran; Rehncrona, Stig; Linderoth, Bengt; Bjartmarz, Hjalmar; Shafer, Lisa L; Coffey, Robert; Svensson, Mikael; Mercer, Katarina Jansson; Forsberg, Anton; Halldin, Christer; Svenningsson, Per; Widner, Håkan; Frisén, Jonas; Pålhagen, Sven; Haegerstrand, Anders

    2015-03-02

    BACKGROUND. Recombinant human PDGF-BB (rhPDGF-BB) reduces Parkinsonian symptoms and increases dopamine transporter (DAT) binding in several animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Effects of rhPDGF-BB are the result of proliferation of ventricular wall progenitor cells and reversed by blocking mitosis. Based on these restorative effects, we assessed the safety and tolerability of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) rhPDGF-BB administration in individuals with PD. METHODS. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/IIa study at two clinical centers in Sweden. Twelve patients with moderate PD received rhPDGF-BB via an implanted drug infusion pump and an investigational i.c.v. catheter. Patients were assigned to a dose cohort (0.2, 1.5, or 5 μg rhPDGF-BB per day) and then randomized to active treatment or placebo (3:1) for a 12-day treatment period. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability of i.c.v.-delivered rhPDGF-BB. Secondary outcome assessments included several clinical rating scales and changes in DAT binding. The follow-up period was 85 days. RESULTS. All patients completed the study. There were no unresolved adverse events. Serious adverse events occurred in three patients; however, these were unrelated to rhPDGF-BB administration. Secondary outcome parameters did not show dose-dependent changes in clinical rating scales, but there was a positive effect on DAT binding in the right putamen. CONCLUSION. At all doses tested, i.c.v. administration of rhPDGF-BB was well tolerated. Results support further clinical development of rhPDGF-BB for patients with PD. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00866502. FUNDING. Newron Sweden AB (former NeuroNova AB) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA).

  5. A single intraperitoneal injection of bovine fetuin-A attenuates bone resorption in a murine calvarial model of particle-induced osteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Heidrun; Polan, Christina; Wedemeyer, Christian; Hilken, Gero; Schlepper, Rüdiger; Bachmann, Hagen Sjard; Grabellus, Florian; Dudda, Marcel; Jäger, Marcus; Kauther, Max Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Particle-induced osteolysis, which by definition is an aseptic inflammatory reaction to implant-derived wear debris eventually leading to local bone destruction, remains the major reason for long-term failure of orthopedic endoprostheses. Fetuin-A, a 66kDa glycoprotein with diverse functions, is found to be enriched in bone. Besides being an important inhibitor of ectopic calcification, it has been described to influence the production of mediators of inflammation. Furthermore, a regulatory role in bone metabolism has been assigned. In the present study, the influence of a single dose of bovine fetuin-A, intraperitoneally injected in mice subjected to particle-induced osteolysis of the calvaria, was analyzed. Twenty-eight male C57BL/6 mice, twelve weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups. Groups 2 and 4 were subjected to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles placed on their calvariae while groups 1 and 3 were sham-operated. Furthermore, groups 3 and 4 received a single intraperitoneal injection of 20mg bovine fetuin-A while groups 1 and 2 were treated with physiologic saline. After 14days calvarial bone was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed using microcomputed tomography (μCT) and histomorphometrical approaches. Application of fetuin-A led to a reduction of particle-induced osteolysis in terms of visible osteolytic lesions and eroded bone surface. The reduction of bone thickness and bone volume, as elicited by UHMWPE, was alleviated by fetuin-A. In conclusion, fetuin-A was found to exert an anti-resorptive effect on particle-induced osteolysis in-vivo. Thus, fetuin-A could play a potentially osteoprotective role in the treatment of bone metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypothalamic CRF and Norepinephrine Mediate Sympathetic and Cardiovascular Responses to Acute Intracarotid Injection of TNF-α in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Felder, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Systemic administration of tumour necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-α) induces the release of norepinephrine (NE) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus and an increase in expression of corticotrophin-releasing-factor (CRF) and CRF type 1 receptors. We explored the hypothesis that CRF and NE in PVN mediate the cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to acute systemic administration of TNF-α. In anaesthetised rats, the increases in arterial pressure and heart rate induced by intracarotid artery injection of TNF-α were attenuated by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of either the α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin or the CRF antagonist α-helical CRF. Prazosin blocked the TNF-α-induced increase in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), while α-helical CRF substantially reduced the RSNA response. Conversely, CRF and the α1-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (PE), administered ICV, both elicited increases in PVN neuronal activity, RSNA, arterial pressure and heart rate. Microinjection of CRF and PE directly into PVN evoked smaller responses. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that NE and CRF in the PVN mediate the cardiovascular and sympathetic responses to acute systemic administration of TNF-α. PMID:18777604

  7. Intra-Articular Injection of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid-Dexamethasone Hydrogel Attenuates Osteoarthritis: An Experimental Study in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Wei, Xiaochun; Gao, Jizong; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Yamin; Guo, Li; Chen, Chongwei; Duan, Zhiqing; Li, Pengcui; Wei, Lei

    2016-04-15

    Cross-linked hyaluronic acid hydrogel (cHA gel) and dexamethasone (Dex) have been used to treat knee osteoarthritis (OA) in clinical practice owing to their chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment effects of the cHA gel pre-mixed with/without Dex in a surgery-induced osteoarthritis model in rats. Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) surgery was performed on the right knee of rats to induce OA. Male 2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/per group): (1) ACLT + saline; (2) ACLT + cHA gel; (3) ACLT + cHA-Dex (0.2 mg/mL) gel; (4) ACLT + cHA-Dex (0.5 mg/mL) gel; (5) Sham + saline. Intra-joint injections were performed four weeks after ACLT in the right knee. All animals were euthanized at 12 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage damage and changes in the synovial membrane were assessed by micro X-ray, Indian ink articular surface staining, Safranin-O/Fast Green staining, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin staining of the synovial membrane, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for changes in gene expression. Micro X-ray revealed that the knee joint treated with the cHA-Dex gel was wider than those treated with cHA gel alone or saline. The cHA-Dex gel group had less Indian ink staining (indicator of cartilage fibrillation) than the cHA gel or saline injection groups. Safranin-O/Fast Green staining indicated that increased proteoglycan staining and less cartilage damage were found in the cHA-Dex gel group compared with the cHA gel or saline injection groups. Quantification of histology findings from saline, cHA gel, cHA-Dex (0.2 mg/mL) gel, cHA-Dex (0.5 mg/mL) gel, and sham groups were 5.84 ± 0.29, 4.50 ± 0.87, 3.00 ± 1.00, 2.00 ± 0.48, and 0.30 ± 0.58 (p < 0.05), respectively. A strong staining of type II collagen was found in both the cHA-Dex gel groups compared with saline group or cHA alone group. Similar

  8. Intra-Articular Injection of Cross-Linked Hyaluronic Acid-Dexamethasone Hydrogel Attenuates Osteoarthritis: An Experimental Study in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked hyaluronic acid hydrogel (cHA gel and dexamethasone (Dex have been used to treat knee osteoarthritis (OA in clinical practice owing to their chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, respectively. The aim of the present study was to compare the treatment effects of the cHA gel pre-mixed with/without Dex in a surgery-induced osteoarthritis model in rats. Anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT surgery was performed on the right knee of rats to induce OA. Male 2-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/per group: (1 ACLT + saline; (2 ACLT + cHA gel; (3 ACLT + cHA-Dex (0.2 mg/mL gel; (4 ACLT + cHA-Dex (0.5 mg/mL gel; (5 Sham + saline. Intra-joint injections were performed four weeks after ACLT in the right knee. All animals were euthanized at 12 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage damage and changes in the synovial membrane were assessed by micro X-ray, Indian ink articular surface staining, Safranin-O/Fast Green staining, immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin and eosin staining of the synovial membrane, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for changes in gene expression. Micro X-ray revealed that the knee joint treated with the cHA-Dex gel was wider than those treated with cHA gel alone or saline. The cHA-Dex gel group had less Indian ink staining (indicator of cartilage fibrillation than the cHA gel or saline injection groups. Safranin-O/Fast Green staining indicated that increased proteoglycan staining and less cartilage damage were found in the cHA-Dex gel group compared with the cHA gel or saline injection groups. Quantification of histology findings from saline, cHA gel, cHA-Dex (0.2 mg/mL gel, cHA-Dex (0.5 mg/mL gel, and sham groups were 5.84 ± 0.29, 4.50 ± 0.87, 3.00 ± 1.00, 2.00 ± 0.48, and 0.30 ± 0.58 (p < 0.05, respectively. A strong staining of type II collagen was found in both the cHA-Dex gel groups compared with saline group or cHA alone group

  9. Chronic intracerebroventricular morphine and lactation in rats: dependence and tolerance in relation to oxytocin neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V C; Robinson, I C; Russell, J A

    1988-01-01

    1. Acutely, opioids inhibit oxytocin secretion. To study the responses of oxytocin neurones during chronic opioid exposure, forty-five lactating rats were infused continuously from a subcutaneous osmotically driven mini-pump via a lateral cerebral ventricle with morphine sulphate solution from day 2 post-partum for 5-7 days; the infusion rate was increased 2- or 2.5-fold each 40 h from 10 micrograms/h initially up to 50 micrograms/h; controls were infused with vehicle (1 microliter/h, twenty-eight rats) or were untreated (eight rats). 2. Maternal behaviour was disrupted in 27% of the morphine-treated rats; in rats that remained maternal morphine did not affect body weight or water intake but increased rectal temperature by 0.82 +/- 0.14 degrees C (mean +/- S.E.M.) across the first 4 days. 3. Weight gain of the litters of maternal morphine-treated rats was reduced by 32% during 7 days, predominantly in the first day of treatment when milk transfer was also reduced. Observation of pup behaviour during suckling showed decreased frequency of milk ejections on only the second day of morphine treatment. Plasma concentration of prolactin after 6 days was similar in maternal morphine-treated and control rats, but reduced by 90% in non-maternal morphine-treated rats, indicating normal control of prolactin secretion by suckling in morphine-treated rats. 4. Oxytocin and vasopressin contents, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and in the neurohypophysis were similar between fourteen maternal morphine-treated, twelve vehicle-treated and eight untreated lactating rats; thus exposure to morphine did not involve increased production and storage of oxytocin. 5. Distribution of [3H]morphine infused intracerebroventricularly into six virgin female rats for 6 days was measured by scintillation counting of tissue extracts. Morphine concentration in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis was 2.7 and 12.8 micrograms/g, respectively, and in blood

  10. Chronic intracerebroventricular morphine and lactation in rats: dependence and tolerance in relation to oxytocin neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, V C; Robinson, I C; Russell, J A

    1988-02-01

    1. Acutely, opioids inhibit oxytocin secretion. To study the responses of oxytocin neurones during chronic opioid exposure, forty-five lactating rats were infused continuously from a subcutaneous osmotically driven mini-pump via a lateral cerebral ventricle with morphine sulphate solution from day 2 post-partum for 5-7 days; the infusion rate was increased 2- or 2.5-fold each 40 h from 10 micrograms/h initially up to 50 micrograms/h; controls were infused with vehicle (1 microliter/h, twenty-eight rats) or were untreated (eight rats). 2. Maternal behaviour was disrupted in 27% of the morphine-treated rats; in rats that remained maternal morphine did not affect body weight or water intake but increased rectal temperature by 0.82 +/- 0.14 degrees C (mean +/- S.E.M.) across the first 4 days. 3. Weight gain of the litters of maternal morphine-treated rats was reduced by 32% during 7 days, predominantly in the first day of treatment when milk transfer was also reduced. Observation of pup behaviour during suckling showed decreased frequency of milk ejections on only the second day of morphine treatment. Plasma concentration of prolactin after 6 days was similar in maternal morphine-treated and control rats, but reduced by 90% in non-maternal morphine-treated rats, indicating normal control of prolactin secretion by suckling in morphine-treated rats. 4. Oxytocin and vasopressin contents, measured by radioimmunoassay, in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei and in the neurohypophysis were similar between fourteen maternal morphine-treated, twelve vehicle-treated and eight untreated lactating rats; thus exposure to morphine did not involve increased production and storage of oxytocin. 5. Distribution of [3H]morphine infused intracerebroventricularly into six virgin female rats for 6 days was measured by scintillation counting of tissue extracts. Morphine concentration in the hypothalamus and neurohypophysis was 2.7 and 12.8 micrograms/g, respectively, and in blood

  11. Intra-myocardial injection of both growth factors and heart derived Sca-1+/CD31- cells attenuates post-MI LV remodeling more than does cell transplantation alone: neither intervention enhances functionally significant cardiomyocyte regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI. We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31- cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31- cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31- cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF (Control, 54.5+/-2.4; MI, 17.6+/-3.1; Cell, 28.2+/-4.2, n = 9, P<0.01. IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/-2.2; n = 9, P<0.01 and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31- cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31- cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31- cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis.

  12. Repeated forced swim stress prior to complete Freund's adjuvant injection enhances mechanical hyperalgesia and attenuates the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the insular cortex of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, H; Kimura, A

    2015-08-20

    Exposure to stressors causes substantial effects on the perception and response to pain. In several animal models, chronic stress produces hyperalgesia. The insular (IC) and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC) are the regions exhibiting most reliable pain-related activity. And the IC and ACC play an important role in pain modulation via descending pain modulatory system. In the present study we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC and ACC after forced swim stress (FS) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection to clarify changes in the cerebral cortices that affect the activity of the descending pain modulatory system in rats with stress-induced hyperalgesia. CFA injection into the hindpaw or FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) induced a significant increase in the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC. Quantitative image analysis showed that the numbers of ΔFosB-immunoreactivity (IR) cells in the bilateral anterior and posterior IC (AIC and PIC) were significantly higher in the CFA group (AIC R, 548.0±98.6; AIC L, 433.5±89.4; PIC R, 546.1±72.8; PIC L, 415.5±53.5) than those in the naive group (AIC R, 86.6±14.8; AIC L, 85.5±24.7; PIC R, 124.5±29.9; PIC L, 107.0±19.8, p<0.01). However the FS prior to the CFA injection enhanced the mechanical hyperalgesia and attenuated the expression of pCREB and ΔFosB and the acetylation of histone H3 in the IC. There was no significant difference in the numbers of ΔFosB-IR cells in the bilateral PIC between the FS+CFA and naive groups. These findings suggest neuroplasticity in the IC after the FS, which may be involved in the enhancement of CFA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia through dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polygalasaponin XXXII, a triterpenoid saponin from Polygalae Radix, attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heng; Xue, Wei; Chu, Shi-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Zhen; Li, Chuang-Jun; Jiang, Yi-Na; Luo, Lin-Ming; Luo, Piao; Li, Gang; Zhang, Dong-Ming; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies show that the extract of a Chinese herb Polygalae Radix exerts cognition-enhancing actions in rats and humans. The aim of this study was to characterize the pharmacological profiles of active compounds extracted from Polygalae Radix. Two fractions P3 and P6 and two compounds PTM-15 and polygalasaponin XXXII (PGS32) were prepared. Neuroprotective effects were evaluated in primary cortical neurons exposed to high concentration glutamate, serum deficiency or H2O2. Anti-dementia actions were assessed in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice using step-through avoidance tests and channel water maze tests. After conducting the channel water maze tests, TrkB phosphorylation in mouse hippocampus was detected using Western blotting. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced in the dentate gyrus in adult rats; PGS32 (5 μL 400 μmol/L) was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle 20 min after high frequency stimulation (HFS). Compared to the fraction P6, the fraction P3 showed more prominent neuroprotective effects in vitro and cognition-enhancing effects in scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. One active compound PGS32 in the fraction P3 exerted potent cognition-enhancing action: oral administration of PGS32 (0.125 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 19 days abolished scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Furthermore, PGS32 (0.5 and 2 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) significantly stimulated the phosphorylation of TrkB in the hippocampus. Intracerebroventricular injection of PGS32 significantly enhanced HFS-induced LTP in the dentate gyrus of rats. PGS32 attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice, suggesting that it has a potential for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and dementia.

  14. Ciliary neurotrophic factor infused intracerebroventricularly shows reduced catabolic effects when linked to the TAT protein transduction domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, André S; Rezende, Alexandre C S; Grigoletto, Jessica; Rogério, Fabio; Velloso, Lício A; Skaper, Stephen D; Negro, Alessandro; Langone, Francesco

    2009-09-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) regulates the differentiation and survival of a wide spectrum of developing and adult neurons, including motor neuron loss after injury. We recently described a cell-penetrant recombinant human CNTF (rhCNTF) molecule, formed by fusion with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein transduction domain (TAT-CNTF) that, upon subcutaneous administration, retains full neurotrophic activity without cytokine-like side-effects. Although the CNTF receptor is present in hypothalamic nuclei, which are involved in the control of energy, rhCNTF but not TAT-CNTF stimulates signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the rat hypothalamus after subcutaneous administration. This could be due limited TAT-CNTF distribution in the hypothalamus and/or altered intracellular signaling by the fusion protein. To explore these possibilities, we examined the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of TAT-CNTF in male adult rats. TAT-CNTF-induced weight loss, although the effect was smaller than that seen with either rhCNTF or leptin (which exerts CNTF-like effects via its receptor). In contrast to rhCNTF and leptin, TAT-CNTF neither induced morphological changes in adipose tissues nor increased uncoupling protein 1 expression in brown adipose tissue, a characteristic feature of rhCNTF and leptin. Acute intracerebroventricular administration of TAT-CNTF induced a less robust phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 in the hypothalamus, compared with rhCNTF. The data show that fusion of a protein transduction domain may change rhCNTF CNS distribution, while further strengthening the utility of cell-penetrating peptide technology to neurotrophic factor biology beyond the neuroscience field.

  15. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  16. H₂S attenuates cognitive deficits through Akt1/JNK3 signaling pathway in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiangru; Qi, Dashi; Sun, Ying; Huang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Fang; Wu, Jian; Fu, Yanyan; Ma, Kai; Du, Yang; Dong, Hongyan; Liu, YongHai; Liu, Hongzhi; Song, Yuanjian

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal damage in the hippocampal formation which is more sensitive to ischemic stimulation and easily injured will cause severe learning and memory impairment. Therefore, inhibiting hippocampal neuron injuries is the main contributor for learning and memory impairment during cerebral ischemia. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a new type of neurotransmitter that regulates the nervous, circulatory and immune systems as well as various adverse factors that can reduce cerebral vascular or brain parenchyma injury. During an ischemic stroke, H2S inhibits hippocampal neuronal damage, reducing learning and memory impairment. However, this molecular mechanism has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we established four-vessel occlusion model in rats with cerebral ischemia. We found that NaHS (28 mmol/kg, intraperitoneally, for 7 days before ischemia), donor of H2S, significantly shortened the distance and time of loading onto the hidden platform in the positioning navigation process, decreased the latency in the space exploration process when cognitive testing with Morris water maze was performed during ischemic stroke in rats. NaHS also significantly shortened latency and reduced the number of errors in the platform diving experiment. The survival rate of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and the phosphorylation of Akt in the neurons were increased, the phosphorylation ASK1 and JNK3 were inhibited by NaHS. After an intracerebroventricular injection of LY294002 (inhibitor of PI3K/Akt, 10 μL, 100 nmol in 25% DMSO in PBS), the above effects of NaHS were attenuated. These findings suggest that H2S may improve the survival rate of hippocampal neurons and reduce the impairment of learning and memory by increasing the phosphorylation of Akt, inhibiting the phosphorylation of ASK1 and JNK3 in rats with induced ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuropeptide Y attenuates anxiety- and depression-like effects of cholecystokinin-4 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, S J; Borkar, C D; Nakhate, K T; Subhedar, N K; Kokare, D M

    2014-09-26

    We investigated the involvement of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the modulation of cholecystokinin-4 (CCK-4)-evoked anxiety and depression. Adult male mice were injected with vehicle, CCK-4, NPY, NPY Y1 receptor agonist [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY or antagonist BIBP3226, via intracerebroventricular route, and subjected to social interaction or forced swim test (FST) for the evaluation of anxiety- and depression-like phenotypes, respectively. To assess the interactions between the two systems, if any, NPYergic agents were administered prior to CCK-4 and the animals were subjected to these behavioral tests. Treatment with CCK-4 or BIBP3226 dose-dependently reduced social interaction time, while NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY produced opposite effect. CCK-4 treatment increased immobility time in FST. This effect was reversed by NPY and [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY, although BIBP3226 per se did not alter the immobility time. In a combination study, the anxiogenic or depressive effects of CCK-4 were attenuated by NPY or [Leu(31), Pro(34)]-NPY and potentiated by BIBP3226. The brains of CCK-4 treated rats were processed for NPY immunohistochemistry. Following CCK-4 treatment, the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), ventral part of lateral division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTLV), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and locus coeruleus showed a reduction in NPY-immunoreactive fibers. Population of NPY-immunopositive cells was also decreased in the AcbSh, BSTLV, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC). However, NPY-immunoreaction in the fibers of the ARC and cells of the central nucleus of amygdala was unchanged. We conclude that, inhibition of NPY signaling in the brain by CCK-4 might be causal to anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; and urinary tract, abdominal (stomach area), female reproductive organs, blood, ... by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  19. Golimumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damaged, and do not use an auto-injection device if the security seal is broken. Look through the viewing window on the prefilled syringe or auto-injection device. The liquid inside should be clear and colorless ...

  20. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have been exposed to anthrax in the air. Doxycycline injection is in a class of medications ... decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, or injections). Talk to your doctor ...

  1. Abaloparatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection may cause osteosarcoma (bone cancer) in laboratory rats. It is not known whether abaloparatide injection increases ... too have too much calcium in the blood, hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much ...

  2. Paliperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliperidone extended-release injections (Invega Sustenna, Invega Trinza) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that ... interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Paliperidone extended-release injection (Invega Sustenna) is also used ...

  3. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such ... if you are allergic to doripenem injection; other carbapenem antibiotics such as imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin) or meropenem ( ...

  4. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceftriaxone injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted ... skin, urinary tract, blood, bones, joints, and abdomen. Ceftriaxone injection is also sometimes given before certain types ...

  5. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  6. Naltrexone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Drugs, Herbs and Supplements → Naltrexone Injection URL of this page: ... become depressed and sometimes try to harm or kill themselves. Receiving naltrexone injection does not decrease the ...

  7. Natural Attenuation of Hydrocarbon and Trichloroethylene Vapors in the Subsurface Environment at Plattsburgh Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostendorf, David

    1997-01-01

    .... UMASS tested the hypothesis that natural attenuation processes, stimulated by injected air, reduce emissions of hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene vapors to acceptable air quality standards at the site. Drs...

  8. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, respiratory tract (including pneumonia), biliary tract, and urinary tract infections. Cefazolin injection ...

  9. Atezolizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the action of a ... infection breath that smells fruity slowed, fast or irregular heartbeat Atezolizumab injection may cause other side effects. ...

  10. Cidofovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidofovir injection is used along with another medication (probenecid) to treat cytomegaloviral retinitis (CMV retinitis) in people ... body's response to the medication.You must take probenecid tablets by mouth with each dose of cidofovir. ...

  11. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  12. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  13. Pegloticase Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  14. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Risperidone extended-release injection is used alone or ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  15. Olanzapine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Olanzapine injection is used to treat episodes of ... during your treatment: extreme thirst, frequent urination, extreme hunger, blurred vision, or weakness. It is very important ...

  16. Tacrolimus Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in people who have received kidney, liver, or heart transplants. Tacrolimus injection should only be used by people ... or nurse will watch you closely during the first 30 minutes of your treatment and then will ...

  17. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  18. Daclizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck, armpits, or groin; diarrhea; bloody stools; stomach pain; or any new, unexplained symptom affecting any part of your body.Because of the risks with this medication, daclizumab injection is available only through a special ...

  19. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  20. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  3. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  4. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  5. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of interest in life, and strong or inappropriate emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor ... and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response to haloperidol ...

  6. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of ketorolac by intravenous (into a vein) or intramuscular (into a muscle) injection in a hospital or ... You can also visit the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website (http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ ...

  7. Intranasal administration of vitamin D attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption through endogenous upregulation of osteopontin and activation of CD44/P-gp glycosylation signaling after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhjargal, Budbazar; McBride, Devin W; Manaenko, Anatol; Reis, Cesar; Sakai, Yasushi; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of vitamin D3 (VitD3) on endogenous osteopontin (OPN), a neuroprotective glycoprotein, after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The endovascular perforation SAH model in Sprague-Dawley rats was used to study the effect of intranasal VitD3 (30 ng/kg) before (Pre-SAH + VitD3) and after (Post-SAH + VitD3) subarachnoid hemorrhage. Vitamin D3 (30, 60, 120 ng/kg/day) increased more than one fold endogenous OPN expression in astrocytes and endothelial cells of rat brain. Vitamin D3 significantly decreased brain edema and Evans blue extravasation. In addition, neurobehavioral scores were significantly higher in Pre-SAH + VitD3, but partly higher in Post-SAH + VitD3, group compared with SAH group. These protective effects of vitamin D3 were completely attenuated by intracerebroventricular injection of transcription inhibitor Actinomycin D and significantly inhibited by small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for vitamin D receptor and OPN in Pre-SAH + VitD3 rats. OPN expression was significantly higher in Pre-SAH + VitD3 rats, specifically A and C, but not B, isomers were upregulated in the astrocytes, leading to CD44 splicing, and P-gp glycosylation in brain endothelial cells. The results show that intranasal vitamin D3 attenuates blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption through endogenous upregulation of OPN and subsequent CD44 and P-gp glycosylation signals in brain endothelial cells. Furthermore, this study identifies a novel strategy for the cost-effective management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  8. Intra-myocardial injection of both growth factors and heart derived Sca-1+/CD31- cells attenuates post-MI LV remodeling more than does cell transplantation alone: neither intervention enhances functionally significant cardiomyocyte regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Hu, Qingsong; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; From, Arthur H L; Zhang, Jianyi

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI). We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31- cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31- cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31- cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF) (Control, 54.5+/-2.4; MI, 17.6+/-3.1; Cell, 28.2+/-4.2, n = 9, Pcell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/-2.2; n = 9, Pcell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31- cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31- cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31- cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis.

  9. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  10. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord) and ... killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  11. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  12. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  13. Dulaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given dulaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use dulaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  14. Albiglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given medications similar to albiglutide developed ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use albiglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  15. Semaglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given semaglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use semaglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  16. Liraglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given liraglutide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use liraglutide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  17. Exenatide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroid carcinoma (MTC; a type of thyroid cancer). Laboratory animals who were given exenatide developed tumors, but it ... your doctor will probably tell you not to use exenatide injection. If you ... doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain tests to check ...

  18. Etoposide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used in combination with other medications to treat cancer of the testicles that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications or radiation therapy. Etoposide injection ... type of lung cancer (small cell lung cancer; SCLC). Etoposide is in ...

  19. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection because they have a low number of white blood cells. Cefepime injection is in a class ... In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. If the victim has ...

  20. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  1. Effects of intracerebroventricular administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in a patient with Niemann–Pick Type C disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneaki Matsuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick Type C disease (NPC is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurological deterioration. Previously, we reported that intravenous administration of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPB-CD in two patients with NPC had only partial and transient beneficial effects on neurological function. The most likely reason for HPB-CD not significantly improving the neurological deficits of NPC is its inability to cross the blood–brain barrier. Herein, we describe the effects of intrathecal HPB-CD in an eight-year-old patient with a perinatal onset of NPC, administered initially at a dose of 10 mg/kg every other week and increased up to 10 mg/kg twice a week. Clinically, the patient maintained residual neurological functions for two years, at which time nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a decreased choline to creatine ratio and increased N-acetylaspartate to creatine ratio, and positron emission tomography revealed increased standardized uptake values. Total-tau in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF was also decreased after two years. No adverse effects were observed over the course of treatment. The CSF concentrations of HPB-CD during the distribution phase after the injections were comparable with those at which HPB-CD could normalize cellular cholesterol abnormality in vitro. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms of action of HPB-CD in NPC, and to determine the optimal dose and intervals of HPB-CD injection.

  2. Intracerebroventricular transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells ameliorates spatial memory deficit in the doubly transgenic mice coexpressing APPswe and PS1ΔE9-deleted genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shou-ru; Chen, Chong-fang; Dong, Wan-li; Hui, Guo-zhen; Liu, Tian-jun; Guo, Li-he

    2011-09-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs), which have characteristics of both embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, are therefore a candidate in cell therapy without creating legal or ethical problems. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of intracerebroventricular transplantation of HAECs on doubly transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease (AD) coexpressing presenilin-1 (PS1) and mutant Sweden amyloid precursor protein (APPswe) genes. The offspring mice genotypes were detected using PCR identification of APPswe and PS1 gene. The doubly transgenic (TG) mice (n = 20) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 20) were randomly divided into two groups respectively: the transplantation group treated with HAECs and the control group with phosphate buffered saline. Six radial arm water maze test was used to assess the spatial memory in the TG and WT mice. Amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles were analyzed using congo red and acid-silver methenamine staining respectively. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry was used to track the survival of HAECs. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the expression of octamer-binding protein 4 (Oct-4) and Nanog in the HAECs. High performance liquid chromatography was used to measure acetylcholine in hippocampus. The density of cholinergic neurons in basal forebrain and nerve fibers in hippocampus was measured using acetylcholinesterase staining. Amyloid deposition occurred in hippocampus and frontal cortex in the double TG mice aged 8 months, but not in WT mice. The results also showed that transplanted HAECs can survive for at least 8 weeks and migrate to the third ventricle without immune rejection. The graft HAECs can also express the specific marker Oct-4 and Nanog of stem cell. Compared with the control group, transplantation of HAECs can not only significantly improve the spatial memory of the TG mice, but also increase acetylcholine concentration and the number of hippocampal cholinergic neurites. These results

  3. Intracerebroventricular administration of leptin increases anxiety-like behavior in female rats after semi-starvation--implications for anxiety in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Tsuneo; Inoue, Koki; Iwasaki, Shinichi; Muramatsu, Tomohiro; Hayashi, Teruaki; Kiriike, Nosuo

    2009-06-01

    Patients with eating disorders often exhibit abnormal eating conditions like food restriction, adipocyte and body weight reduction, and pathologic anxiety-like behavior. The role of leptin, which is recognized as an adipocyte-derived hormone, on anxiety-like behavior in eating disorders is still unclear. We investigated the role of leptin on anxiety-like behavior with or without semi-starvation using the elevated plus-maze test in adolescent female rats. In our first experiment, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated with the elevated plus-maze test 30 min after intracerebroventricular administration of 3 microg of leptin or vehicle. In our second experiment, the rats were allowed access to food for only 2 hr each day for 7 days. Then, leptin or vehicle was administered to the rats after the last 2 hr feeding period, and anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated in the same way as in the first experiment. In the first experiment, there was no difference between the anxiety-like behaviors observed after leptin administration and those seen after vehicle administration. Under the conditions of semi-starvation, however, the percentage of time spent in the open arms in the rats given leptin was lower than that in rats given vehicle. These results suggest that leptin administration causes anxiety-like behavior only after semistarvation. Leptin might play an important role in pathologic anxiety-like behavior in eating disorders.

  4. Dietary fish oil, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, increases astrocyte activation in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-07

    Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.

  5. Intracerebroventricular tempol administration in older rats reduces oxidative stress in the hypothalamus but does not change STAT3 signalling or SIRT1/AMPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toklu, Hale Z; Scarpace, Philip J; Sakarya, Yasemin; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Matheny, Michael; Bruce, Erin B; Carter, Christy S; Morgan, Drake; Tümer, Nihal

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation and increased oxidative stress are believed to be mechanisms that contribute to obesity. 4-Hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (tempol), a free radical scavenger, has been shown to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that brain infusion of tempol would reduce oxidative stress, and thus would reduce food intake and body weight and improve body composition in rats with age-related obesity and known elevated oxidative stress. Furthermore, we predicted an associated increase in markers of leptin signalling, including the silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1)/5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. For this purpose, osmotic minipumps were placed in the intracerebroventricular region of young (3 months) and aged (23 months) male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats for the continuous infusion of tempol or vehicle for 2 weeks. Tempol significantly decreased (p tempol. Basal phosphorylation of STAT3 was unchanged with age or tempol. These results indicate that tempol decreases oxidative stress but fails to alter feeding behaviour, body weight, or body composition. Moreover, tempol does not modulate the SIRT1/AMPK/p53 pathway and does not change leptin signalling. Thus, a reduction in hypothalamic oxidative stress is not sufficient to reverse age-related obesity.

  6. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  7. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick injuries among health care workers in operating rooms. Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda, Noha Selim Mohamed Elshaer, Yasmine Hussein Mohamed Sultan ...

  8. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... tionnaire was administered to HCWs (n = 318) at the Alexandria Main University Hospital. Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while mea- sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices ...

  9. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to treat ... in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover...

  11. Wave attenuation model for dephasing and measurement of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further the wave attenuation model is applied to a fundamental problem in quantum mechanics, that of the ... The process of dephasing or decoherence leads to the diminishing of quantum effects or loss of quantum ... injected back with an uncorrelated phase leading to irreversible loss of phase memory. This model has ...

  12. Electroacupuncturing At Zusanli Point (St36) Attenuates Pro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: EA at Zusanli points obviously lowered the elevated levels of plasma TNF-α, and attenuated changes in parameters relevant to various organ functions at 2 h after LPS challenge. ɑ-BGT injection or bilateral cervical vagotomy could weaken or eliminate the effects of EA, and further aggravated the elevated levels of ...

  13. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  14. Intracerebroventricular Administration of 192IgG-Saporin Alters Expression of Microglia-Associated Genes in the Dorsal But Not Ventral Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Dobryakova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of important aspects of development of Alzheimer’s disease is degeneration of septal cholinergic neurons that innervate the hippocampus. We took advantage of widely used model of cholinergic deficit in the hippocampus, intracerebroventricular administration of 192IgG-saporin (Ig-saporin, to analyze the postponed consequences of cholinergic deficit in different parts of the hippocampus. We studied effects of the immunotoxin on the behavior of rats and gene expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus using RNA-seq approach. We found that under normal conditions dorsal and ventral parts of the hippocampus differ in the expression of 1129 protein-coding genes and 49 non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs and do not differ in the expression of 10 microRNAs, which were detected in both parts of the hippocampus. Ig-saporin-induced degeneration of cholinergic septal neurons did not affect rat behavior in open field, T-maze, and passive avoidance task but impaired memory retention in Morris water maze. To analyze 192Ig-saporin-induced changes in the gene expression, we formed the following groups of genes: genes expressed exclusively in certain cell types (neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and vascular cells and, among universally expressed genes, a group of genes that encode ribosome-forming proteins. For all groups of genes, the alterations in the gene expression produced by the immunotoxin were stronger in the dorsal as compared to the ventral hippocampus. We found that, among groups of universally expressed genes, Ig-saporin increased the expression of ribosome-forming proteins in both dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Ig-saporin also strongly upregulated expression of microglia-specific genes only in the dorsal hippocampus. A subset of affected microglial genes comprised genes associated with inflammation, however, did not include genes related to acute inflammation such as interleukins-1b, -6, -15, and -18 as well as TNF. The expression

  15. Brain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate microglia cell number and morphology in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Giuliano, Vanessa; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-29

    Neuroinflammation is a proposed mechanism by which Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology potentiates neuronal death and cognitive decline. Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of AD in human observational studies and exerts protective effects on cognition and pathology in animal models. These fatty acids and molecules derived from them are known to have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, presenting a potential mechanism for these protective effects. Here, we explore this mechanism using fat-1 transgenic mice and their wild type littermates weaned onto either a fish oil diet (high in n-3 PUFA) or a safflower oil diet (negligible n-3 PUFA). The fat-1 mouse carries a transgene that enables it to convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks of age, mice underwent intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Brains were collected between 1 and 28 days post-icv, and hippocampal microglia, astrocytes, and degenerating neurons were quantified by immunohistochemistry with epifluorescence microscopy, while microglia morphology was assessed with confocal microscopy and skeleton analysis. Fat-1 mice fed with the safflower oil diet and wild type mice fed with the fish oil diet had higher brain DHA in comparison with the wild type mice fed with the safflower oil diet. Relative to the wild type mice fed with the safflower oil diet, fat-1 mice exhibited a lower peak in the number of labelled microglia, wild type mice fed with fish oil had fewer degenerating neurons, and both exhibited alterations in microglia morphology at 10 days post-surgery. There were no differences in astrocyte number at any time point and no differences in the time course of microglia or astrocyte activation following infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Increasing brain DHA, through either dietary or transgenic means, decreases some elements of the inflammatory response to amyloid-β in a mouse model of AD. This supports the

  16. Dietary eicosapentaenoic acid normalizes hippocampal omega-3 and 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid profile, attenuates glial activation and regulates BDNF function in a rodent model of neuroinflammation induced by central interleukin-1β administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yilong; Xu, Min; Kalueff, Allan V; Song, Cai

    2017-05-18

    Interleukin (IL)-1β can activate glial cells to trigger neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Lower omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and lower n-3/n-6 PUFA ratios occur in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have previously reported that an n-3 PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can improve memory and attenuate neurodegeneration-like changes in animal models of AD. However, whether and how EPA modulates glial cell activity and functions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that EPA may attenuate neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglial activation and microglia-produced proinflammatory cytokines, and by enhancing the expression of astrocytes-produced neurotrophins and their receptors. Male Long-Evans rats were fed either palm oil supplemented diet or EPA supplemented diet for 42 days. On day 36 of diet feeding, rats received an intracerebroventricular injection of IL-1β or saline for 7 days. The glial activation, the expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), calcium-dependent phospholipase (cPL) A2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, and PUFA profile in the hippocampus were analyzed. IL-1β elevated biomarkers of microglial CD11b and astrocyte GFAP expression, increased the expression of APP, tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but reduced BDNF and its receptor (TrKB). IL-1β also lowered n-3 EPA and docosapentaenoic acid concentrations but increased n-6 PUFAs and cPLA2 activity in the hippocampus. EPA supplement normalized the n-3 and n-6 PUFA profiles and cPLA2 levels, inhibited glial activation, reduced APP and TNF-α expression, as well as up-regulated BDNF and TrKB. Supplementation with EPA appear to have potential effects on improving glial over-activation, n3/n6 imbalance and BDNF down-regulation, which contribute to anti-inflammatory and may provide beneficial effects on inflammation-associated disease such as AD.

  17. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generator. Sound attenuation due to bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Sakuma, Toshio

    1995-01-01

    In the steam generators (SG) of LMFBR, it is necessary to detect the leakage of water from tubes of heat exchangers as soon as it occurs. The active acoustic detection method has drawn general interest owing to its short response time and reduction of the influence of background noise. In this paper, the application of the active acoustic detection method for SG is proposed, and sound attenuation by bubbles is investigated experimentally. Furthermore, using the SG sector model, sound field characteristics and sound attenuation characteristics due to injection of bubbles are studied. It is clarified that the sound attenuation depends upon bubble size as well as void fraction, that the distance attenuation of sound in the SG model containing heat transfer tubes is 6dB for each two-fold increase of distance, and that emitted sound attenuates immediately upon injection of bubbles. (author)

  18. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1977-11-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  19. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  20. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  1. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to treat the following conditions:infantile spasms (seizures that usually begin during the first year ... tell how corticotropin repository injection works to treat infantile spasms.

  4. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  5. Geothermal injection monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, L.

    1981-04-01

    Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

  6. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  7. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  8. Effects of lidocaine injections into the lateral parabrachial nucleus on dipsogenic and pressor response to central angiotensin 2 in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menani, Jose Vanderlei; Beltz, Terry G.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bilateral injections of the local anesthetic, lidocaine, into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) on the dipsogenic and pressor responses induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of angiotensin 2 (ANG 2). Centrally injected ANG 2 (50 ng/1 microliter) induced water intake ( IO.2 +/- 0.8 ml/h) and pressor responses (22 +/- 1 mmHg). Prior bilateral injection of 10% lidocaine (200 nl) into the LPBN increased the water intake (14.2 +/- 1.4 ml/h), but did not change the pressor response (17 +/- 1 mmHg) to i.c.v. ANG 2. Lidocaine alone injected into the LPBN also induced a pressor response (23 +/- 3 mmHg). These results showing that bilateral LPBN injection of lidocaine increase water intake induced bv i.c.v. ANG 2 are consistent with electrolytic and neurotoxic lesion studies and suggest that the LPBN is associated with inhibitory mechanisms controlling water intake induced by ANG 2. These results also provide evidence that it is feasible to reversibly anesthetize this brain area to facilitate fluid-related ingestive behavior.

  9. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  10. Central injection of a synthetic chicken partial leptin peptide does not affect food intake in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Wil; Yi, Jiaqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-08-24

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone in mammals that plays an important role in whole body energy balance via its inhibitory effects on food intake mediated through the hypothalamus. Chicken leptin has a low sequence homology to mammalian leptin and its role in appetite regulation is not reported; hence the objective of this study was to determine effects of central injection of chicken leptin on food and water intake and associated behaviors in chicks. Chicks were intracerebroventricularly injected with 0 (vehicle), 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 nmol of a synthetic chicken leptin partial peptide and food and water intake were monitored. There were no effects observed and a second experiment was conducted to evaluate food and water intake at higher doses; after injection of 0, 2.5, 5.0, or 10.0 nmol leptin. Again, there were no effects on food or water intake. In the third experiment, behaviors were analyzed during the first 30 min post-injection of vehicle or 10 nmol leptin. At 5 min post-injection, vehicle-injected chicks spent more time sitting than leptin-injected chicks. A wide dose range was evaluated however, the absence of an effect on food intake or behavior suggests that the chicken leptin peptide that was tested does not mediate effects on appetite in the brain and that chicken leptin likely has a different physiological role in birds than in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...... in an injection moulding process, to fabricate the antireflective surfaces. The cycle-time was 35 s. The injection moulded structures had a height of 125 nm, and the visible spectrum reflectance of injection moulded black polypropylene surfaces was reduced from 4.5±0.5% to 2.5±0.5%. The gradient of the refractive...

  12. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  13. Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injections Joint and Soft Tissue Injections Share Print What is a joint and soft tissue injection? Joint and soft tissue injections are shots ... many injections do I need and how often? What restrictions do I have after an ... tissue injection, treatment April 1, 2004 Copyright © American Academy ...

  14. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  15. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  16. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  17. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Humanin on Spatial Memory Disorder Induced by Intraventricular Injection of Streptozotocin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds & aim: Sporadic Alzheimer's is known as a new type of devastating disease that the impairment of the insulin signaling pathway may be one of factors causing it. The aim of study was to determine the impact of humanin on spatial memory impairment induced by intraventricular injection of streptozotocin in rats. Methods: In this experimental study 42 male rats weighing 250 to 300 g were selected and then cannule implanted bilaterally into their lateral ventricles. STZ or saline was injected in lateral ventricle every other day for the first and the third days. Humanin drug was injected at doses (0.01, 0.05, 0.1and 1 n/mol from days four until fourteenth. From day 14th to 17th the animal spatial memory was studied using water maze method. Data were analyzed by repeated measure and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Results: Groups treated with humanin at doses 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 1 n/mol could not significant improved spatial memory deficits induced by STZ. Conclusion: Humanin with its known neuroprotective effects could not improve spatial memory deficits induced by intra-cerebroventricular STZ.

  19. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  20. Parathyroid Hormone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the blood in people with certain types of hypoparathyroidism (condition in which the body does not produce ... are taking this medication.Parathyroid hormone injection controls hypoparathyroidism but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  1. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  2. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  3. Endoscopic injection therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, endoscopic injection therapy using Deflux has become a popular alternative to open surgery and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Endoscopic correction with Deflux is minimally invasive, well tolerated, and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery (i.e., approximately 80% in several studies. However, in recent years a less stringent approach to evaluating urinary tract infections (UTIs and concerns about long-term efficacy and complications associated with endoscopic injection have limited the use of this therapy. In addition, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing UTIs and vesicoureteral reflux-related renal scarring. In this report, we reviewed the current literature regarding endoscopic injection therapy and provided an updated overview of this topic.

  4. Endoscopic injection therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Woon; Lee, Yong Seung

    2017-01-01

    Since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux) for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux, endoscopic injection therapy using Deflux has become a popular alternative to open surgery and continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Endoscopic correction with Deflux is minimally invasive, well tolerated, and provides cure rates approaching those of open surgery (i.e., approximately 80% in several studies). However, in recent years a less stringent approach to evaluating urinary tract infections (UTIs) and concerns about long-term efficacy and complications associated with endoscopic injection have limited the use of this therapy. In addition, there is little evidence supporting the efficacy of endoscopic injection therapy in preventing UTIs and vesicoureteral reflux-related renal scarring. In this report, we reviewed the current literature regarding endoscopic injection therapy and provided an updated overview of this topic. PMID:28612059

  5. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause infection. Tazobactam is in a class called beta-lactamase inhibitor. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics such as piperacillin and tazobactam injection will ... your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

  6. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  7. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...... well with the experimentally observed combustion rates during the mixing controlled portions of the combustion in a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine.......A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump...... injection equipment. It was shown that the penetration of the DME spray can be predicted with the methods developed for diesel fuel by Hiroyasu and co-workers. Some anomalies in spray shape, such as rapid lateral spreading at the base of the spray and spray bifurcation have been observed.The compressibility...

  8. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  9. Nicotine Administration Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Novel Object Recognition Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; McFadden, Lisa M; Nielsen, Shannon M; Smith, Misty D; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2015-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine abuse leads to memory deficits and these are associated with relapse. Furthermore, extensive evidence indicates that nicotine prevents and/or improves memory deficits in different models of cognitive dysfunction and these nicotinic effects might be mediated by hippocampal or cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The present study investigated whether nicotine attenuates methamphetamine-induced novel object recognition deficits in rats and explored potential underlying mechanisms. Adolescent or adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received either nicotine water (10-75 μg/mL) or tap water for several weeks. Methamphetamine (4 × 7.5mg/kg/injection) or saline was administered either before or after chronic nicotine exposure. Novel object recognition was evaluated 6 days after methamphetamine or saline. Serotonin transporter function and density and α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density were assessed on the following day. Chronic nicotine intake via drinking water beginning during either adolescence or adulthood attenuated the novel object recognition deficits caused by a high-dose methamphetamine administration. Similarly, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in novel object recognition when administered after methamphetamine treatment. However, nicotine did not attenuate the serotonergic deficits caused by methamphetamine in adults. Conversely, nicotine attenuated methamphetamine-induced deficits in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, nicotine increased α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor density in the hippocampal CA3, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex in both saline- and methamphetamine-treated rats. Overall, these findings suggest that nicotine-induced increases in α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex might be one mechanism by which novel object recognition deficits are

  10. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  11. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  12. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  13. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  14. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  15. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...... integrated submillimeter receiver circuit which comprises a flux-flow oscillator (FFO) as local oscillator, a superconducting variable attenuator, and a microwave SIS detector with tuned-out capacitance is also reported....

  16. The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D

    2005-01-01

    In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10 4 ; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r 0 = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are

  17. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  18. Arsenic Trioxide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic trioxide comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in a medical office or clinic. Arsenic trioxide is ... high blood sugar): extreme thirst frequent urination extreme hunger weakness blurred vision If high blood sugar is ...

  19. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaborbactam is in a class of medications called beta-lactamase inhibitors. It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not ... your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

  20. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  1. Iron Sucrose Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe or do not go away: constipation arm, leg, or back pain muscle cramps loss of energy changes in taste ear pain fever pain, redness, or swelling in the joints, especially the big toe soreness, redness, or burning at the injection ...

  2. More than just someone to inject drugs with: Injecting within primary injection partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Bates, Anna; Andrew, Erin; Hahn, Judith; Page, Kimberly; Maher, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown intimate injection partners engage in higher rates of syringe and injecting equipment sharing. We examined the drug use context and development of injection drug use behaviors within intimate injection partnerships. In-depth interviews (n=18) were conducted with both members of nine injecting partnerships in Sydney, Australia. Content analysis identified key domains related to the reasons for injecting with a primary injection partner and development of drug injection patterns. Most partnerships (n=5) were also sexual; three were blood-relatives and one a friend dyad. The main drug injected was heroin (66%) with high rates of recent sharing behaviors (88%) reported within dyads. Injecting within a primary injection partnership provided perceived protection against overdose events, helped reduce stress, increased control over when, where, and how drugs were used, and promoted the development of an injecting pattern where responsibilities could be shared. Unique to injecting within primary injection partnerships was the social connection and companionship resulted in a feeling of fulfillment while also blinding one from recognizing risky behavior. Findings illuminated the tension between protection and risks within primary injection partnerships. Primary injection partnerships provide a potential platform to expand risk reduction strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  4. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  5. Attenuation of dermal toxicity of doxorubicin by liposome encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssen, E A; Tökes, Z A

    1983-05-01

    The severe tissue damage which occurs when doxorubicin (Dxn) is extravasated during infusion has been attenuated by encapsulating the drug in anionic liposomes. Mice were injected intradermally with either 0.05 or 0.10 mg of Dxn in the free or liposome-entrapped form. At both dose levels, the animals receiving free drug developed dermal lesions at a higher frequency and of a greater severity than did those animals receiving Dxn-liposomes. Determination of tissue-associated fluorescence indicated that free Dxn was removed from the area of the dermal injection more rapidly than was the liposome-entrapped drug. The data suggest that the dermal toxicity of Dxn may be determined more by its mode of disposition than by the absolute amount of drug in tissue. Similar observation was made earlier for the Dxn-induced chronic cardiotoxicity.

  6. Attenuation of Morphine Physical Dependence and Blood Levels of Cortisol by Central and Systemic Administration of Ramelteon in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Motaghinejad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic administration of morphine cause physical dependence but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. The aim of this study is the assessment of systemic and intracerebroventricular (icv administration of ramelteon (a melatonin receptor agonist on morphine physical dependence. Methods: 88 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups, namely “systematic” and “central” administration of ramelteon. In the first category, systemic administration of ramelteon at various dosages (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with positive (received morphine and saline as systemic administration, negative control (saline and group under treatment by ramelteon (40 mg/kg groups. In the second category, central administration of ramelteon at various dosages (25, 50, or 100 μg, was assessed on dependent animals and withdrawal signs were compared with the positive control (received morphine and saline as icv and negative control (saline groups, and the group under treatment by ramelteon (50 μg/5 μl/rat. On the test day, all animals received naloxone (3 mg/kg and were observed for withdrawal signs. Total withdrawal score (TWS was also determined. Finally, to evaluate the stress level of dependent rats, blood cortisols were measured. Results: Central administration of ramelteon in all doses and systemic administration in high doses attenuate withdrawal syndrome in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Both central and systemic administrations of ramelteon can attenuate the blood cortisol level in comparison with the dependent positive control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that central administration of ramelteon attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms and cortisol level as a stress marker.

  7. Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors. T GUPTA1,∗ and D M GAITONDE1,2. 1Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad 211 019, India. 2High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. ∗. Email: gupta@mri.ernet.in. Abstract. We calculate the longitudinal ...

  8. A Generalized Correction for Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne C.; Bock, R. Darrell

    Use of the usual bivariate correction for attenuation with more than two variables presents two statistical problems. This pairwise method may produce a covariance matrix which is not at least positive semi-definite, and the bivariate procedure does not consider the possible influences of correlated errors among the variables. The method described…

  9. Attenuation of Vrancea events revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Grecu, B.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-11-01

    New aspects of the frequency-dependent attenuation of the seismic waves traveling from Vrancea subcrustal sources toward NW (Transylvanian Basin) and SE (Romanian Plain) are evidenced by the recent experimental data made available by the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment. The observations validate the previous theoretical computations performed for the assessment, by means of a deterministic approach, of the seismic hazard in Romania. They reveal an essential aspect of the seismic ground motion attenuation, that has important implications on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes. The attenuation toward NW is shown to be a much stronger frequency-dependent effect than the attenuation toward SE and the seismic hazard computed by the deterministic approach fits satisfactorily well the observed ground motion distribution in the low-frequency band (< 1 Hz). The apparent contradiction with the historically-based intensity maps arises mainly from a systematic difference in the vulnerability (buildings eigenperiod) of the buildings in the intra- and extra-Carpathians regions. (author)

  10. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  11. Repeated agouti related peptide (83-132) injections inhibit cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation, but not via the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alserda, Edwin; Adan, Roger A H; Ramakers, Geert M J

    2013-11-05

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease for which many of the underlying neuronal mechanisms are yet to be unravelled. There seems to be an interaction between the melanocortin system and drugs of abuse. For instance, infusion of the melanocortin MC4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-cyclo(-Asp-His-D-2-Nal-Arg-Trp-Lys)-NH2) into the nucleus accumbens results in conditioned place avoidance, reduces the amount of lever presses for cocaine and blocks development of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. The aim of this study is to determine whether the induction of locomotor sensitisation to repeated cocaine is inhibited by the melanocortin MC4 receptor inverse agonist Agouti Related Peptide (AgRP83-132). Rats were sensitised to daily cocaine injections for 5 consecutive days and 30 min prior to every daily cocaine injection, rats received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intra nucleus accumbens injection with AgRP(83-132) or saline, to determine whether we could inhibit cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. We show that i.c.v. injections of AgRP(83-132) inhibit cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. This effect is not regulated via the nucleus accumbens, since injecting the melanocortin receptor inverse agonist AgRP(83-132) directly into the nucleus accumbens was unable to inhibit the cocaine-induced locomotor sensitisation. This implicates that the nucleus accumbens is an unlikely site to inhibit the induction of locomotor sensitisation via the melanocortin MC4 receptor. This is in contrast to other studies that show an effect of the melanocortin MC4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 on locomotor sensitisation when injected into the nucleus accumbens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...... to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet...

  13. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  14. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard.

  15. Injection treatments for patellar tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Zwerver, Johannes; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Objective Injection treatments are increasingly used as treatment for patellar tendinopathy. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the different injection treatments, their rationales and the effectiveness of treating patellar tendinopathy. Methods A computerised search of the Medline,

  16. Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007678.htm Steroid injections - tendon, bursa, joint To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A steroid injection is a shot of medicine used to ...

  17. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peginterferon beta-1a injection is used to treat people who have relapsing-remitting forms (course of disease where symptoms ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Peginterferon beta-1a injection is in a class of medications ...

  18. Injection locking of excimer lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.; Slatkine, M.

    1981-01-01

    Reliable injection locking of high-power unstable resonator excimer lasers can be achieved with extremely low reference oscillator power. The criteria for injection locking are discussed and experimental results are given

  19. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  20. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  1. Characterization of Injection Molded Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ling; Søgaard, Emil; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard

    and limitations. Therefore, it would be difficult to characterize complex, especially hierarchical structures by using only one method. Here we present a combined optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and scanning probe microscopy study on injection molded structures. These structures are used......-properties relationship of the injection molded polymer samples. These results are very important in optimizing injection molding parameters....

  2. Yiguanjian cataplasm attenuates opioid dependence in a mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuai; Gao, Hong; Fan, Yuchen; Zhang, Guanghua; Sun, Fengkai; Zhao, Jing; Li, Feng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Kai

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of Yiguanjian (YGJ) cataplasm on the development of opioid dependence in a mouse model of naloxone-induced opioid withdrawal syndrome. One hundred Swiss albino mice, of equal male to female ratio, were randomly and equally divided into 10 groups. A portion (3 cm2) of the backside hair of the mice was removed 1 day prior to the experiment. Morphine (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered twice daily for 5 days. YGJ cataplasm was prepared and pasted on the bare region of the mice immediately before morphine administration on day 3 and subsequently removed at the end day 5. On day 6, naloxone (8 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to precipitate opioid withdrawal syndrome. Behavioral observation was performed in two 30-min phases immediately after naloxone injection. The YGJ cataplasm significantly and dose-dependently attenuated morphine-naloxone- induced experimental opioid withdrawal, in terms of withdrawal severity score and the frequencies of jumping, rearing, forepaw licking, and circling behaviors. However, YGJ cataplasm treatment did not alter the acute analgesic effect of morphine. YGJ cataplasm could attenuate opioid dependence and its associated withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, YGJ cataplasm could serve as a potential therapy for opioid addiction in the future.

  3. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  4. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  5. Effect of central and peripheral injection of prostaglandin E2 and F2α on feeding and the crop-emptying rate in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Nakai, Yasua; Makino, Ryosuke; Khan, Md Sakirul Islam; Cline, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to cause several physiological changes in mammals including anorexia, awakening and sleeping, change in digestive function, and activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis. However, there is a paucity of information about the effect of PGs on physiological parameters in birds. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) injections of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) affect feeding, voluntary movement, crop-emptying rate, and corticosterone release in chicks (Gallus gallus). ICV injection of either PGE2 or PGF2α (2 and 4μg) significantly decreased food intake in chicks. The anorexigenic effect was also observed after IP injection of the PGs. Voluntary movement was significantly suppressed by ICV injection of PGE2 or PGF2α, although the time-course change was different between the two. In contrast, IP injection of the PGs had no or less effect on voluntary movement. Both ICV and IP injection of PGE2 significantly retarded the crop-emptying rate, whereas PGF2α significantly lowered the crop-emptying rate only after IP injection. The plasma corticosterone concentration significantly increased after ICV and IP injection of PGE2, whereas PGF2α had no effect. These results suggest that central and peripheral PGs are involved in the regulation of appetite, voluntary movement, food passage in the digestive tract, and activation of the HPA axis in chicks, although the effects depend on the site of action and type of PGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berteau C

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cecile Berteau,1 Orchidée Filipe-Santos,1 Tao Wang,2 Humberto E Rojas,2 Corinne Granger,1 Florence Schwarzenbach1 1Becton-Dickinson Medical Pharmaceutical Systems, Le Pont de Claix, France; 2Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Aim: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC injection pain tolerance. Methods: The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s. All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain. The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results: Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003. Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm than medium (VAS =16.6 mm or low (VAS =22.1 mm viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002. Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89. Slow (0.02 mL/s or fast (0.30 mL/s injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79. In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High

  7. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  8. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  9. Supercritical fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  10. Central administration of the anorexigenic peptide neuromedin U decreases alcohol intake and attenuates alcohol-induced reward in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallöf, Daniel; Ulenius, Lisa; Egecioglu, Emil; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2017-05-01

    By investigating the neurochemical mechanisms through which alcohol activates the brain reward systems, novel treatment strategies for alcohol use disorder (AUD), a chronic relapsing disease, can be developed. In contrast to the common view of the function of gut-brain peptides, such as neuromedin U (NMU), to regulate food intake and appetite, a novel role in reinforcement mediation has been implied. The anorexigenic effects of NMU are mediated via NMU2 receptors, preferably in the arcuate nucleus and paraventricular nucleus. The expression of NMU2 receptors is also expressed in several reward-related areas in the brain, suggesting a role in reward regulation. The present experiments were therefore set up to investigate the effect of intracerebroventricular administration of NMU on alcohol-mediated behaviors in rodents. We found that central administration of NMU attenuated alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and the expression of conditioned place preference in mice. In addition, NMU dose dependently decreased alcohol intake in high, but not in low, alcohol-consuming rats. Central NMU administration did not alter the blood alcohol concentrations nor change the corticosterone levels in rodents. Given that AUD is a major health-care challenge causing an enormous cost to society and novel treatment strategies are warranted, our data suggest that NMU analogues deserve to be evaluated as novel treatment of AUD in humans. © 2016 The Authors Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Matricaria chamomilla attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ragaa H M

    2012-07-01

    Matricaria chamomilla is extensively consumed as a tea or tonic. Despite its widespread use as a home remedy, relatively few trials evaluated its benefits in nephro protection. Hence, this study evaluates the protective role of M. chamomilla in cisplatin nephrotoxicity rat model. The study was conducted on 32 rats divided into four groups. The first group (G1) was injected with saline intra-peritoneally (IP); G2 was injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin on day 0 of the experiment and repeated four times, with five days free interval. G3 and G4 were injected daily with M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg) IP, starting five days before the experiment (-5 day); in addition, G4 was injected with cisplatin. On day 16, animals were scarified and serum and/or kidney tissue was used to determine: (a) kidney function tests (serum urea, creatinine, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), NAG, β-gal), (b) oxidative stress indices (NO, LPO), (c) antioxidant activities (SOD, GSH, total thiols), (d) apoptotic indices (Cathepsin D, DNA fragmentation) and (e) mineral (calcium). M. chamomilla significantly increased the body weight, normalized the kidney functions, improved the apoptotic markers, reduced the oxidative stress markers and corrected the hypo-calcemia that resulted from cisplatin nephrotoxicity. M. chamomilla is a promising nephro-protective compound reducing cisplatin nephrotoxicity most probably by its antioxidant activities and inhibition of gamma glutamyl transferase activity.

  13. Matricaria chamomilla attenuates cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa H.M. Salama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matricaria chamomilla is extensively consumed as a tea or tonic. Despite its widespread use as a home remedy, relatively few trials evaluated its benefits in nephro protection. Hence, this study evaluates the protective role of M. chamomilla in cisplatin nephrotoxicity rat model. The study was conducted on 32 rats divided into four groups. The first group (G1 was injected with saline intra-peritoneally (IP; G2 was injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin on day 0 of the experiment and repeated four times, with five days free interval. G3 and G4 were injected daily with M. chamomilla (50 mg/kg IP, starting five days before the experiment (-5 day; in addition, G4 was injected with cisplatin. On day 16, animals were scarified and serum and/or kidney tissue was used to determine: (a kidney function tests (serum urea, creatinine, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT, NAG, β-gal, (b oxidative stress indices (NO, LPO, (c antioxidant activities (SOD, GSH, total thiols, (d apoptotic indices (Cathepsin D, DNA fragmentation and (e mineral (calcium. M. chamomilla significantly increased the body weight, normalized the kidney functions, improved the apoptotic markers, reduced the oxidative stress markers and corrected the hypo-calcemia that resulted from cisplatin nephrotoxicity. M. chamomilla is a promising nephro-protective compound reducing cisplatin nephrotoxicity most probably by its antioxidant activities and inhibition of gamma glutamyl transferase activity.

  14. Flow Injection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to automated chemical analysis, which essentially can be divided into two groups: batch assays, where the solution is stationary while the container is moved through a number of stations where various unit operations performed; and continuous-flow procedures,......, but it permits thr execution of novel and unique analytical procedures which are difficult or even impossible by conventional means. The performance and applicability of FIA, SI and LOV are illustrated by a series of practical examples....... FIA is based on the creation of a concentration gradient of the injected sample solution and on reproducible and precise timing of all events, it allows exploitation of a transient read-out. This in turn implies that not only does FIA allow the augmentation of existing analytical techniques...

  15. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  16. Frequency Dependent Attenuation in Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-20

    WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO NO NO ACCESSION NO 62714E 7A10 DA DA 1𔃻 T. ,E (Incude Security Clasification ) Frequency Dependent Attenuation in Rocks Ŗ 0E;SO’.A_...P., and L. Peselnick, Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel , plexiglass, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10- to 10...P., and L. Peselnick, Investigation of internal friction in fused quartz, steel , plexiglas, and Westerly granite from 0.01 to 1.00 Hertz at 10-8 to 10

  17. Neurotensin Agonist Attenuates Nicotine Potentiation to Cocaine Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fredrickson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a “gateway drug”. Neurotensin (NT is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13 analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  18. Diesel fuel injection system simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kiijärvi, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    The injection process of a medium-speed diesel engine was studied in detail, using a computer program developed for this purpose. In the program, the injection pump was replaced with the measured pressure at the junction between the pump and high-pressure pipe. The results were calculated with a full and approximately a half load. The calculated and measured results corresponded moderately well with each other. In the calculation, special interest was paid to the flow of the injection valve h...

  19. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  20. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  2. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.

  3. Attenuation correction in SPECT images using attenuation map estimation with its emission data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Meysam; Naji, Maryam; Abdollahi, Ali; Kalantari, Faraz

    2017-03-01

    Photon attenuation during SPECT imaging significantly degrades the diagnostic outcome and the quantitative accuracy of final reconstructed images. It is well known that attenuation correction can be done by using iterative reconstruction methods if we access to attenuation map. Two methods have been used to calculate the attenuation map: transmission-based and transmissionless techniques. In this phantom study, we evaluated the importance of attenuation correction by quantitative evaluation of errors associated with each method. For transmissionless approach, the attenuation map was estimated from the emission data only. An EM algorithm with attenuation model was developed and used for attenuation correction during image reconstruction. Finally, a comparison was done between reconstructed images using our OSEM code and analytical FBP method before and after attenuation correction. The results of measurements showed that: our programs are capable to reconstruct SPECT images and correct the attenuation effects. Moreover, to evaluate reconstructed image quality before and after attenuation correction we applied a novel approach using Image Quality Index. Attenuation correction increases the quality and quantitative accuracy in both methods. This increase is independent of activity in quantity factor and decreases with activity in quality factor. In EM algorithm, it is necessary to use regularization to obtain true distribution of attenuation coefficients.

  4. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  5. Noiseless attenuation using an optical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, R. A.; Nodurft, I. C.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    The process of heralded noiseless amplification, and the inverse process of heralded noiseless attenuation, have potential applications in the context of quantum communications. Although several different physical implementations of heralded noiseless amplifiers have now been demonstrated, the research on heralded noiseless attenuators has been largely confined to a beam-splitter based approach. Here we show that an optical parametric amplifier (OPA), combined with appropriate heralding, can also serve as a heralded noiseless attenuator. The counterintuitive use of an optical amplifier as an attenuator is only possible due to the probabilistic nature of the device.

  6. Attenuation corrected SPECT using transmission measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, S.I.; Ficaro, E.P.; Boening, G.; Schwaiger, M.

    1996-01-01

    Modern SPECT instrumentation allows attenuation correction in cardiac scans by using transmission measurements. Simultaneous transmission and emission measurements are feasible with different geometries in multihead SPECT systems and are already commercially available. The selection of the transmission nuclide affects the quality of data, depending on the emission nuclide used. Iterative reconstruction methods have to be implemented to get accurate results in the case of heterogeneous attenuation distributions. Methodological aspects concerning simultaneous scatter and attenuation correction have to be studied in future. The clinical significance of routine attenuation correction measurements for myocardial perfusion has to be shown in a large patient population. (orig.) [de

  7. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  8. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  9. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  10. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  11. Injectable foams for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Edna M; Page, Jonathan M; Harmata, Andrew J; Guelcher, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable CPCs, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and noncytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CXCL14 deficiency in mice attenuates obesity and inhibits feeding behavior in a novel environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Tanegashima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CXCL14 is a chemoattractant for macrophages and immature dendritic cells. We recently reported that CXCL14-deficient (CXCL14(-/- female mice in the mixed background are protected from obesity-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The decreased macrophage infiltration into visceral adipose tissues and the increased insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle contributed to these phenotypes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we performed a comprehensive study for the body weight control of CXCL14(-/- mice in the C57BL/6 background. We show that both male and female CXCL14(-/- mice have a 7-11% lower body weight compared to CXCL14(+/- and CXCL14(+/+ mice in adulthood. This is mainly caused by decreased food intake, and not by increased energy expenditure or locomotor activity. Reduced body weight resulting from the CXCL14 deficiency was more pronounced in double mutant CXCL14(-/-ob/ob and CXCL14(-/-A(y mice. In the case of CXCL14(-/-A(y mice, oxygen consumption was increased compared to CXCL14(+/-A(y mice, in addition to the reduced food intake. In CXCL14(-/- mice, fasting-induced up-regulation of Npy and Agrp mRNAs in the hypothalamus was blunted. As intracerebroventricular injection of recombinant CXCL14 did not change the food intake of CXCL14(-/- mice, CXCL14 could indirectly regulate appetite. Intriguingly, the food intake of CXCL14(-/- mice was significantly repressed when mice were transferred to a novel environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated that CXCL14 is involved in the body weight control leading to the fully obese phenotype in leptin-deficient or A(y mutant mice. In addition, we obtained evidence indicating that CXCL14 may play an important role in central nervous system regulation of feeding behavior.

  13. Repeated injections of orexin-A developed behavioral tolerance to its analgesic effects in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ghasemi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Reduction of pharmacological effectiveness or tolerance appears following repeated administration of many analgesic drugs. We investigated tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, an endogenous potent analgesic peptide using the hot-plate test.Materials and Methods:Orexin-A was microinjected ICV (intracerebroventricular with an interval of 12 hr for 7 continuous days and its anti-nociceptive responses were measured on days 1, 4 and 7 using the hot-plate test following the first day of administration. Orexin-A was used at a dose of 100 pmol to induce analgesic effects. Results:ICV administration of orexin-A produced an effective anti-nociception on the first day of experiment as measured by hot-plate 5, 15, and 30 min after the injection, in comparison with both baselines (hot-plate test one day before the beginning of orexin-A administration and control, saline-administrated group. However, repeated administration of orexin-A on the following days revealed a significant reduction in this analgesic effect during day 4 to day 7. However, to rule out any associative tolerance resulting from learning related to experimental procedures and/or environmental cues, a single injection of orexin-A was administrated to animals of control group (which were receiving saline during 7 days of experiments and the analgesic effect was observed. Conclusion:These results, for the first time, indicated the appearance of tolerance to anti-nociceptive effects of orexin-A, following repeated administrations of this agent.

  14. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  15. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  16. Injections of Galanin-Like Peptide directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) reduces food intake and body weight but increases metabolic rate and plasma leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Lindy; Rodriguez-Dimitrescu, Carla; Barney, Christopher C; Fraley, Gregory S

    2017-04-01

    Galanin-Like Peptide (GALP) is a hypothalamic neuromediator of metabolism and reproduction. GALP is known to stimulate reproduction and alter food intake and body weight in multiple species. The regulation of body weight involves control of both energy intake and energy expenditure. Since GALP is known to alter food intake - possibly via the autonomic nervous system - we first hypothesized that GALP would increase metabolic rate. First, male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannulae and abdominal radiotelemetry temperature transmitters. Following ICV injection with either 5nmol GALP or vehicle, the oxygen consumption of each rat was monitored for 8h. Food intake, core temperature, and general motor activity were monitored for 24h. GALP significantly increased oxygen consumption, an indirect estimator of metabolic rate, without having any significant effect on motor activity. Compared to controls, GALP increased core body temperature during the photophase and reduced food intake over the 24h period following injection. ICV GALP also increased plasma levels of luteinizing hormone (LH). A second group of male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with abdominal transmitters and given injections of GALP directly into the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS). These injections resulted in a significant reduction in food intake, and a significant increase in both oxygen consumption and core body temperature compared to vehicle injections. Direct injections of GALP into the NTS compared to vehicle also resulted in a significant increase in plasma leptin levels, but not LH levels. GALP appears to increase energy expenditure in addition to decreasing energy input by actions within the NTS and thus may play an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of body weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Joint Lavage and Steroid Injection in Patients with Primary Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Seid Bonakdar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most common forms of articular disease and one of the major causes of pain and disability especially among the elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of lavage and interaarticular (IA injection of corticosteroid in the knee joint for the treatment of OA compared to interaarticular injection of corticosteroid alone. Methods: This prospective clinical trial was done on 39 patients. In the first group (lavage plus interaarticular injection, 19 patients were enrolled and in the second group (interaarticular injection alone, 20 patients included. Initially the patients were classified with respect to their intensity of joint pain using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS, their global status (0-100 and Lequesne’s functional Index (0-25. These data were obtained at baseline, 4th week, 8th week and 12th week. Results: In the first group, the intensity of pain in 4th, 8th and 12th weeks became significantly attenuated in comparison with baseline value (P<0.001. Although in the second group its intensity in 4th week became attenuated compared to baseline value (P<0.001, its intensity did not decrease in 8th and 12th week significantly. There were significant changes regarding global status and Lequesne’s functional index till 12th week and in the second group till 4th week (P<0.001. Maximum amount of pain attenuation and improvement in global status and Lequesne’s functional index in the first group was observed in 12th week but responsiveness in the second group decreased significantly after 4th week. Conclusion: Joint lavage with or without steroid injection relieves pain and improves function, yet joint lavage and IA injection put a longer effect. Keywords: Knee Osteoarthritis, Joint Lavage, Intraarticular Corticosteroid Injection

  19. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from ...

  20. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    mary production and diffuse attenuation coeffi- cient (Austin 1981; Sathyendranath et al 2000). The Indian IRS-P3 ... oceanic and coastal production of phytoplank- ton (Tyler 1975; Pennock and Sharp 1986). As a result basic ... cient to the plant pigment content. The term dif- fuse attenuation coefficient, most commonly used.

  1. Live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines developed in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Two live, attenuated hepatitis A vaccines, H 2 and LA-1 virus strains, were developed through serial passages of the viruses in cell cultures at 32 °C and 35 °C respectively. Both vaccines were safe and immunogenic, providing protection against clinical hepatitis A in 95% of the vaccinees, with a single dose by subcutaneous injection. The vaccine recipients were not protected from asymptomatic, subclinical hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, which induced a similar antibody response as for unvaccinated subjects. A second dose caused anamnestic response and can be used for boosting. Oral immunization of human with H 2 vaccine or of marmoset with LA-1 vaccine failed, and no evidence was found for person-to-person transmission of the H 2 strain or for marmoset-to-marmoset transmission of LA-1 strain, by close contact. H 2 strain was genetically stable when passaged in marmosets, humans or cell cultures at 37 °C; 3 consecutive passages of the virus in marmosets did not cause virulence mutation. The live vaccines offer the benefits of low cost, single dose injection, long- term protection, and increased duration of immunity through subclinical infection. Improved sanitation and administration of 150 million doses of the live vaccines to children had led to a 90% reduction in the annual national incidence rate of hepatitis A in China during the 16-year period, from 1991 to 2006. Hepatitis A immunization with both live and inactivated HA vaccines was implemented in the national routine childhood immunization program in 2008 and around 92% of the 16 million annual births received the affordable live, attenuated vaccines at 18 months of age. Near elimination of the disease was achieved in China for 14 years following introduction of the H 2 live vaccine into the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) in 1992.

  2. Live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines developed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Yi; Wang, Xuan-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Two live, attenuated hepatitis A vaccines, H2 and LA-1 virus strains, were developed through serial passages of the viruses in cell cultures at 32 °C and 35 °C respectively. Both vaccines were safe and immunogenic, providing protection against clinical hepatitis A in 95% of the vaccinees, with a single dose by subcutaneous injection. The vaccine recipients were not protected from asymptomatic, subclinical hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, which induced a similar antibody response as for unvaccinated subjects. A second dose caused anamnestic response and can be used for boosting. Oral immunization of human with H2 vaccine or of marmoset with LA-1 vaccine failed, and no evidence was found for person-to-person transmission of H2 strain or for marmoset-to-marmoset transmission of LA-1 strain by close contact. H2 strain was genetically stable when passaged in marmosets, humans or cell cultures at 37 °C; 3 consecutive passages of the virus in marmosets did not cause virulence mutation. The live vaccines offer the benefits of low cost, single dose injection, long- term protection, and increased duration of immunity through subclinical infection. Improved sanitation and administration of 150 million doses of the live vaccines to children had led to a 90% reduction in the annual national incidence rate of hepatitis A in China during the 16-year period, from 1991 to 2006. Hepatitis A (HA) immunization with both live and inactivated HA vaccines was implemented in the national routine childhood immunization program in 2008 and around 92% of the 16 million annual births received the affordable live, attenuated vaccines at 18 months of age. Near elimination of the disease was achieved in a county of China for 14 years following introduction of the H2 live vaccine into the Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) in 1992. PMID:24280971

  3. Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia attenuates hypoxia-induced depressor response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Cui

    Full Text Available Hypobaric intermittent hypoxia (HIH produces many favorable effects in the cardiovascular system such as anti-hypertensive effect. In this study, we showed that HIH significantly attenuated a depressor response induced by acute hypoxia.Sprague-Dawley rats received HIH in a hypobaric chamber simulating an altitude of 5000 m. The artery blood pressure (ABP, heart rate (HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA were recorded in anesthetized control rats and rats received HIH. The baseline ABP, HR and RSNA were not different between HIH and control rats. Acute hypoxia-induced decrease in ABP was significantly attenuated in HIH rat compared with control rats. However, acute hypoxia-induced increases in HR and RSNA were greater in HIH rat than in control rats. After removal of bilateral ascending depressor nerves, acute hypoxia-induced depressor and sympathoexcitatory responses were comparable in control and HIH rats. Furthermore, acute hypoxia-induced depressor and sympathoexcitatory responses did not differ between control and HIH groups after blocking ATP-dependent K(+ channels by glibenclamide. The baroreflex function evaluated by intravenous injection of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside was markedly augmented in HIH rats compared with control rats. The pressor and sympathoexcitatory responses evoked by intravenous injection of cyanide potassium were also significantly greater in HIH rats than in control rats.Our findings suggest that HIH suppresses acute hypoxia-induced depressor response through enhancement of baroreflex and chemoreflex function, which involves activation of ATP-dependent K(+ channels. This study provides new information and underlying mechanism on the beneficiary effect of HIH on maintaining cardiovascular homeostasis.

  4. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...

  5. Soliton Attenuation and Emergent Hydrodynamics in Fragile Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Upadhyaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Disordered packings of soft grains are fragile mechanical systems that lose rigidity upon lowering the external pressure toward zero. At zero pressure, we find that any infinitesimal strain impulse propagates initially as a nonlinear solitary wave progressively attenuated by disorder. We demonstrate that the particle fluctuations generated by the solitary-wave decay can be viewed as a granular analogue of temperature. Their presence is manifested by two emergent macroscopic properties absent in the unperturbed granular packing: a finite pressure that scales with the injected energy (akin to a granular temperature and an anomalous viscosity that arises even when the microscopic mechanisms of energy dissipation are negligible. Consistent with the interpretation of this state as a fluidlike thermalized state, the shear modulus remains zero. Further, we follow in detail the attenuation of the initial solitary wave, identifying two distinct regimes—an initial exponential decay, followed by a longer power-law decay—and suggest simple models to explain these two regimes.

  6. Contrast enhanced CT during PET-CT? Nuclear physician argument for doing it; Injection de produit de contraste? Arguments d un medecin nucleaire en faveur des injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houzard, C.; Franson, T.; Giammarile, F

    2009-05-15

    The physical association of CT scan and PET scan allows integrating morphological and functional information on a single exam. It could be interesting to fully exploit the technical characteristics of CT scan, namely the possibility to inject intravenously iodinated contrast media in order to enhance image contrast. We present our experience in this domain by tackling technical problems, particularly that of the attenuation correction, displaying benefits brought by this practice both on clinical and radioprotection points of view. (authors)

  7. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  8. Diagnostic Injections About the Shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Edward; Bernard, Johnathan; Dein, Eric; Johnson, Alex

    2017-12-01

    Injections about the shoulder serve diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. Diagnosis of shoulder conditions, such as rotator cuff tears, acromioclavicular joint pathology, subacromial impingement or anterolateral pain syndrome, glenohumeral joint pathology, suprascapular nerve entrapment, and biceps tendon pathologies, is often complicated by concomitant conditions with overlapping symptoms and by inconclusive physical examination and imaging results. Injections of anesthetic agents can often help clinicians locate the source of pain. However, technique and accuracy of needle placement can vary by route. Accuracy is often improved with the use of ultrasonography guidance, although studies differ on the benefits of guided versus unguided injection.

  9. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  10. Alveolar architecture of clear cell renal carcinomas (≤5.0 cm) show high attenuation on dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Tobisu, Kenichi; Kakizoe, Tadao; Sakamoto, Michiie

    1999-01-01

    To establish the correlation between tumor appearance on CT and tumor histology in renal cell carcinomas. The density and attenuation patterns of 96 renal cell carcinomas, each ≤5 cm in greatest diameter, were studied by non-enhanced CT and early and late after bolus injection of contrast medium using dynamic CT. The density and attenuation patterns and pathological maps of each tumor were individually correlated. High attenuated areas were present in 72 of the 96 tumors on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. All 72 high attenuated areas were of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and had alveolar architecture. The remaining 24 tumors that did not demonstrate high attenuated foci on early enhanced scanning included three clear cell, nine granular cell, six papillary, five chromophobe and one collecting duct type. With respect to tumor architecture, all clear cell tumors of alveolar architecture demonstrated high attenuation on early enhanced scanning. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas of alveolar architecture show high attenuation on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. A larger number of patients are indispensable to obtaining clear results. However, these findings seem to be an important clue to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas as having an alveolar structure. (author)

  11. Use of time attenuation curves to determine steady-state characteristics before C-arm CT measurement of cerebral blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Jildaz; Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Ruijters, Daniel; Benachour, Nidhal; Mihalea, Cristian; Rouchaud, Aymeric; Neki, Hiroaki; Ikka, Léon; Moret, Jacques; Spelle, Laurent

    2014-03-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) measurement by flat panel detector CT (FPCT) in the angiography suite seems to be a promising tool for patient management during endovascular therapies. A steady state of contrast agent distribution is mandatory during acquisition for accurate FPCT CBV assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that steady-state parameters were studied in clinical practice. Before the CBV study, test injections were performed and analyzed to determine a customized acquisition delay from injection for each patient. Injection protocol consisted in the administration of 72 mL of contrast agent material at the injection rate of 4.0 mL/s followed by a saline flush bolus at the same injection rate. Peripheral or central venous accesses were used depending on their availability. Twenty-four patients were treated for different types of neurovascular diseases. Maximal attenuation, steady-state length, and steady-state delay from injection were derived from the test injections' time attenuation curves. With a 15 % threshold from maximum attenuation values, average steady-state duration was less than 10 s. Maximum average steady-state duration with minimal delay variation was obtained with central injection protocols. With clinically acceptable contrast agent volumes, steady state is a brief condition; thus, fast rotation speed acquisitions are needed. The use of central injections decreases the variability of steady-state's delay from injection. Further studies are needed to optimize and standardize injection protocols to allow a larger diffusion of the FPCT CBV measurement during endovascular treatments.

  12. Transport and attenuation of radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Nimal, J C

    2003-01-01

    This article treats of the calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the protections against radiations. The method consists in determining for a given point the flux of particles coming from a source at a given time. A strong attenuation (of about some few mu Sv.h sup - sup 1) is in general expected between the source and the areas accessible to the personnel or the public. The calculation has to take into account a huge number of radiation-matter interactions and to solve the integral-differential transport equation which links the particles flux to the source. Several methods exist from the simplified physical model with numerical developments to the more or less precise resolution of the transport equation. These methods allows also the calculation of the uncertainties of equivalent dose rates, heat sources, structure damages using the data covariances (efficient cross-sections, modeling, etc..): 1 - transport equation; 2 - Monte-Carlo method; 3 - semi-numerical methods S sub N; 4 - methods based o...

  13. Beta attenuation transmission system (BATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagan, R.C.; Fullbright, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The beta attenuation transmission system (BATS) is an automated radiation gauge designed for quantitative measurement of component thickness in explosive detonators. The BATS was designed and built by Group M-1, the Nondestructive Testing Group, of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to measure the areal thickness, in mg/cm 2 , of a cylinder of high explosive (HE) enclosed within a plastic holder. The problem is to determine the density of the HE. A 90 Sr source is collimated by a 0.25 x 1.59-mm slit, and the transmitted beta-particle flux is detected by a plastic scintillator, coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The detonator is transported through the radiation beam by a leadscrew, ballnut, stepping-motor combination. Continuous analog position data are available, derived from the output from a linear-actuated potentiometer attached to the scanner. A linear electrometer amplifies the detected signal, which is then integrated for a preselected time, to obtain the desired statistical accuracy. A microprocessor (μP) is used to control the scanner position and to make the data readings at the assigned positions. The data are stored, and, at the completion of the scan, are processed into the desired format. The final answer is displayed to the operator or output to a peripheral device for permanent record. The characteristics of the radiation source, the collimator, the signal detection and conditioning, and the final results are described in detail. The scanner and the microprocessor control system are briefly outlined

  14. Microcellular Injection Molding Using Helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Byung Joo; Kim, Hak Bin; Cha, Sung Woon

    2007-01-01

    In comparison with conventional foaming process microcellular injection molding process has advantages such as small bubble size, the removal of sink mark, scale reliability, and weight lightening. So microcellular injection molded parts are applied to electrical product and automobile part. Conventional microcellular foaming process used carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a foaming agent. And it has been never researched and applied about microcellular injection molding process using helium. In this paper, we did a microcellular injection molding process using helium based on previous research result and made samples. From this we can certificate the possibility of microcellular continuous process using helium. Helium is lighter and faster in diffusion than carbon dioxide or nitrogen so through this technique, it can be solved the problem such as spray or labeling

  15. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon beta-1b injection is used to reduce episodes of symptoms in patients with relapsing-remitting (course of disease ... problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Interferon beta-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  16. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  17. Injectable gels for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowska, A; Jeong, B; Jasionowski, M

    2001-08-01

    Recently, tissue engineering approaches using injectable, in situ gel forming systems have been reported. In this review, the gelation processes and several injectable systems that exhibit in situ gel formation at physiological conditions are discussed. Applications of selected injectable systems (alginate, chitosan, hyaluronan, polyethylene oxide/polypropylene oxide) in tissue engineering are also described. Injectable polymer formulation can gel in vivo in response to temperature change (thermal gelation), pH change, ionic cross-linking, or solvent exchange. Kinetics of gelation is directly affected by its mechanism. Injectable formulations offer specific advantages over preformed scaffolds such as: possibility of a minimally invasive implantation, an ability to fill a desired shape, and easy incorporation of various therapeutic agents. Several factors need to be considered before an injectable gel can be selected as a candidate for tissue engineering applications. Apart from tissue-specific cell-matrix interactions, the following gel properties need to be considered: gelation kinetics, matrix resorption rate, possible toxicity of degradation products and their elimination routes, and finally possible interference of the gel matrix with histogenesis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  19. Improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-emission computed tomography by incorporating an attenuation correction: application to HIF1 imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Bowsher, J.; Thomas, A. S.; Sakhalkar, H.; Dewhirst, M.; Oldham, M.

    2008-10-01

    Optical computed tomography (optical-CT) and optical-emission computed tomography (optical-ECT) are new techniques for imaging the 3D structure and function (including gene expression) of whole unsectioned tissue samples. This work presents a method of improving the quantitative accuracy of optical-ECT by correcting for the 'self'-attenuation of photons emitted within the sample. The correction is analogous to a method commonly applied in single-photon-emission computed tomography reconstruction. The performance of the correction method was investigated by application to a transparent cylindrical gelatin phantom, containing a known distribution of attenuation (a central ink-doped gelatine core) and a known distribution of fluorescing fibres. Attenuation corrected and uncorrected optical-ECT images were reconstructed on the phantom to enable an evaluation of the effectiveness of the correction. Significant attenuation artefacts were observed in the uncorrected images where the central fibre appeared ~24% less intense due to greater attenuation from the surrounding ink-doped gelatin. This artefact was almost completely removed in the attenuation-corrected image, where the central fibre was within ~4% of the others. The successful phantom test enabled application of attenuation correction to optical-ECT images of an unsectioned human breast xenograft tumour grown subcutaneously on the hind leg of a nude mouse. This tumour cell line had been genetically labelled (pre-implantation) with fluorescent reporter genes such that all viable tumour cells expressed constitutive red fluorescent protein and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 transcription-produced green fluorescent protein. In addition to the fluorescent reporter labelling of gene expression, the tumour microvasculature was labelled by a light-absorbing vasculature contrast agent delivered in vivo by tail-vein injection. Optical-CT transmission images yielded high-resolution 3D images of the absorbing contrast agent, and

  20. Escin attenuates acute lung injury induced by endotoxin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wenyu; Zhang, Leiming; Fan, Huaying; Jiang, Na; Wang, Tian; Fu, Fenghua

    2011-01-18

    Endotoxin causes multiple organ dysfunctions, including acute lung injury (ALI). The current therapeutic strategies for endotoxemia are designed to neutralize one or more of the inflammatory mediators. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that escin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of escin on ALI induced by endotoxin in mice. ALI was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenously. The mice were given dexamethasone or escin before injection of LPS. The mortality rate was recorded. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Pulmonary superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were also determined. The expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) level was detected by Western blotting. Pretreatment with escin could decrease the mortality rate, attenuate lung injury resulted from LPS, down-regulate the level of the inflammation mediators, including NO, TNF-α, and IL-1β, enhance the endogenous antioxidant capacity, and up-regulating the GR expression in lung. The results suggest that escin may have potent protective effect on the LPS-induced ALI by inhibiting of the inflammatory response, and its mechanism involves in up-regulating the GR and enhancing the endogenous antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Attenuation caused by infrequently updated covariates in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Liestøl, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates......Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates...

  2. Attenuation of morphine tolerance and dependence by thymoquinone in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dependence and tolerance are major restricting factors in the clinical use of opioid analgesics. In the present study, the effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on morphine dependence and tolerance were investigated in mice. Materials and Methods: Male adult NMRI mice were made tolerant and dependent by repeated injections of morphine (50, 50, and 75 mg/kg, i.p. on 9 a.m., 1 p.m., and 5 p.m., respectively during a 3-day administration schedule. The hot-plate test was used to assess tolerance to the analgesic effects of morphine. Naloxone (2 mg/kg, i.p. was injected to precipitate withdrawal syndrome in order to assess the morphine dependence. To evaluate the effects of thymoquinone on tolerance and dependence to morphine, different single or repeated doses of thymoquinone were administered in mice. Rotarod was used to assess the motor coordination. Results: Administration of single or repeated doses of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. significantly decreased the number of jumps in morphine dependent animals. Repeated administration of thymoquinone (20 and 40 mg/kg, for 3 days and also single injection of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg, on the fourth day attenuated tolerance to the analgesic effect of morphine. None of the thymoquinone doses (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg produced any antinociceptive effects on their own. Motor coordination of animals was impaired by the high dose of thymoquinone (40 mg/kg. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that thymoquinone prevents the development of tolerance and dependence to morphine.

  3. Prevention of Axonal Degeneration by Perineurium Injection of Mitochondria in a Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Chung; Su, Hong-Lin; Chang, Tzu-Lin; Chiang, Chien-Yi; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Sheehan, Jason; Pan, Hung-Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Axon degeneration leads to cytoskeletal disassembly, metabolism imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration or nerve injury. In this study, we assess the possibility of mitigating axon degeneration by local injection of mitochondria in a crushed sciatic nerve. Sciatic nerve explants cocultured with mitochondria were assessed for the optimal dosage in local injection and nerve regeneration potential. The left sciatic nerve was crushed in Sprague-Dawley rats and then local injection of mitochondria into the distal end of the injured nerve was conducted for further assessment. Mitochondrial coculture attenuated cytoskeletal loss and oxidative stress in isolated nerve explants. In Vivo analyses also showed that mitochondrial transplantation improved animal neurobehaviors, electrophysiology of nerve conduction, and muscle activities. Mitochondria injection significantly attenuated the oxidative stress and increased the expression of neurotrophic factors both in injured nerves and denervated muscles, as well as restored muscular integrity, and increased the pool of muscular progenitor cells and total muscle weight. Mitochondria injection can protect injured nerves from axonal degeneration both in Vitro and in Vivo. This improvement was accompanied with the expression of neurotrophic factors as well as the reduction of oxidative stress, which may account for the functional recovery of both injured nerves and denervated muscles.

  4. Seismic attenuation system for a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liszkai, Tamas; Cadell, Seth

    2018-01-30

    A system for attenuating seismic forces includes a reactor pressure vessel containing nuclear fuel and a containment vessel that houses the reactor pressure vessel. Both the reactor pressure vessel and the containment vessel include a bottom head. Additionally, the system includes a base support to contact a support surface on which the containment vessel is positioned in a substantially vertical orientation. An attenuation device is located between the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel and the bottom head of the containment vessel. Seismic forces that travel from the base support to the reactor pressure vessel via the containment vessel are attenuated by the attenuation device in a direction that is substantially lateral to the vertical orientation of the containment vessel.

  5. Ultrasonic attenuation in glassy crystalline cyclohexanol

    OpenAIRE

    Saint Paul , M.; Nava , R.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements at 100 MHz on the orientationally disordered crystalline phase of cyclohexanol are reported. The results provide additional evidence that the freezing process of the orientational disorder of the molecules in the crystal lattice is a relaxational phenomenon.

  6. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  7. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  8. Radiation-attenuated vaccine for lungworm disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    The work done at the Indian Veternary Research Institute, Izatnagar, on the development of a vaccine for lungworm diseases is reported. Research work done includes: (1) studies on the epidemiology and the incidence of the lungworm infections, (ii) studies on the radiation-attenuated lungworm Dictyocaulus filaria vaccine, (iii) studies on other parasites using ionizing radiation, (iv) incidence of lungworm infection in sheep in Jammu and Kashmir State, (v) suitable dose of gamma radiation for attenuation, (vi) laboratory studies with radiation-attenuated D. filaria vaccine, (vii) serology of D. filaria infection, (viii) field trials with the radiation-attenuated vaccine, (ix) immune response of previously exposed lambs to vaccination, (x) comparative susceptibility of sheep and goats to infection with D. filaria, (xi) quantitative studies of D. filaria in lambs and (xii) production and supply of lungworm vaccine. (A.K.)

  9. Post-Retrieval Extinction Attenuates Cocaine Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Sartor, Gregory C; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that post-retrieval extinction training attenuates fear and reward-related memories in both humans and rodents. This noninvasive, behavioral approach has the potential to be used in clinical settings to treat maladaptive memories that underlie several psychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. However, few studies to date have used a post-retrieval extinction approach to attenuate addiction-related memories. In the current study, we attempted to disrupt cocaine...

  10. Attenuation of Shock Waves using Perforated Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, CH V. L. C. S.; Hitesh Reddy, C.; Rahul Sai, L.; Dharani Kumar, K. S. S.; Nagaraja, S. R.

    2017-08-01

    The shock/blast waves generated due to explosions cause wide spread damage to the objects in its path. Different techniques have been used to attenuate shock wave over pressure, to reduce the catastrophic effects. Perforated plates can be used effectively to attenuate the shock wave pressure. In this paper shock wave interaction with perforated plates is simulated using COMSOL multiphysics software. The pressure drop varied from 43.75% to 26% for porosity varying from 10% to 40.

  11. The effect of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system; involvement of phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Bora B; Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Saha, Sikha; Batten, Trevor F; Savci, Vahide; Yalcin, Murat

    2014-05-01

    CDP-choline is an endogenous metabolite in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Exogenous administration of CDP-choline has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular, neuroendocrine neuroprotective actions. On the other hand, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effect. Therefore the current study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected CDP-choline on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cholinergic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway on CDP-choline-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administration of CDP-choline induced dose- and time-dependent increased respiratory rates, tidal volume and minute ventilation of male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. İ.c.v. pretreatment with atropine failed to alter the hyperventilation responses to CDP-choline whereas mecamylamine, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist, mepacrine, phospholipase A2 inhibitor, and neomycin phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked completely the hyperventilation induced by CDP-choline. In addition, central pretreatment with furegrelate, thromboxane A2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially blocked CDP-choline-evoked hyperventilation effects. These data show that centrally administered CDP-choline induces hyperventilation which is mediated by activation of central nicotinic receptors and phospholipase to thromboxane signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of centrally injected arachidonic acid on respiratory system: Involvement of cyclooxygenase to thromboxane signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Leman Gizem; Guvenc, Gokcen; Altinbas, Burcin; Niaz, Nasir; Yalcin, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that is present in the phospholipids of the cell membranes of the body and is abundant in the brain. Exogenously administered AA has been shown to affect brain metabolism and to exhibit cardiovascular and neuroendocrine actions. However, little is known regarding its respiratory actions and/or central mechanism of its respiratory effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the possible effects of centrally injected AA on respiratory system and the mediation of the central cyclooxygenase (COX) to thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway on AA-induced respiratory effects in anaesthetized rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of AA induced dose- and time-dependent increase in tidal volume, respiratory rates and respiratory minute ventilation and also caused an increase in partial oxygen pressure (pO2) and decrease in partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2) in male anaesthetized Spraque Dawley rats. I.c.v. pretreatment with ibuprofen, a non-selective COX inhibitor, completely blocked the hyperventilation and blood gases changes induced by AA. In addition, central pretreatment with different doses of furegrelate, a TXA2 synthesis inhibitor, also partially prevented AA-evoked hyperventilation and blood gases effects. These data explicitly show that centrally administered AA induces hyperventilation with increasing pO2 and decreasing pCO2 levels which are mediated by the activation of central COX to TXA2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanisms of geometrical seismic attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor B. Morozov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In several recent reports, we have explained the frequency dependence of the apparent seismic quality-factor (Q observed in many studies according to the effects of geometrical attenuation, which was defined as the zero-frequency limit of the temporal attenuation coefficient. In particular, geometrical attenuation was found to be positive for most waves traveling within the lithosphere. Here, we present three theoretical models that illustrate the origin of this geometrical attenuation, and we investigate the causes of its preferential positive values. In addition, we discuss the physical basis and limitations of both the conventional and new attenuation models. For waves in media with slowly varying properties, geometrical attenuation is caused by variations in the wavefront curvature, which can be both positive (for defocusing and negative (for focusing. In media with velocity/density contrasts, incoherent reflectivity leads to geometrical-attenuation coefficients which are proportional to the mean squared reflectivity and are always positive. For «coherent» reflectivity, the geometrical attenuation is approximately zero, and the attenuation process can be described according to the concept of «scattering Q». However, the true meaning of this parameter is in describing the mean reflectivity within the medium, and not that of the traditional resonator quality factor known in mechanics. The general conclusion from these models is that non-zero and often positive levels of geometrical attenuation are common in realistic, heterogeneous media, both observationally and theoretically. When transformed into the conventional Q-factor form, this positive geometrical attenuation leads to Q values that quickly increase with frequency. These predictions show that the positive frequency-dependent Q observed in many datasets might represent artifacts of the transformations of the attenuation coefficients into Q.

  1. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  2. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection. (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  3. Chronic injection of pansomatostatin agonist ODT8-SST differentially modulates food intake and decreases body weight gain in lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Coskun, Tamer; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Craft, Libbey S; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the central actions of the stable pansomatostatin peptide agonist, ODT8-SST on body weight. ODT8-SST or vehicle was acutely (1μg/rat) injected or chronically infused (5μg/rat/d, 14d) intracerebroventricularly and daily food intake, body weight and composition were monitored. In lean rats, neither acute nor chronic ODT8-SST influenced daily food intake while body weight was reduced by 2.2% after acute injection and there was a 14g reduction of body weight gain after 14d compared to vehicle (pfood intake compared to vehicle (+14%, pweight change (-11g, p0.05) compared to vehicle. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduced ambulatory (-27%/24h, pweight gain and lean mass independently of food intake which is likely related to growth hormone inhibition. In DIO rats, ODT8-SST reduces lean mass but promotes food intake and fat mass, indicating differential responsiveness to somatostatin under obese conditions. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  5. Self-injection is a success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonna Gintberg; Høi, Henriette Brahe

    (transport, fatigue) Freedom to plan Feel confident in yourself to take injections Experiences after repeatedly self-injection: Evening injection - you will sleep from nausea When I inject, it makes less evil, I know when spotted coming and it does not bleed. Opinion: "I can only recommend others to learn...

  6. Maximum likelihood estimation of the attenuated ultrasound pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus Bolding

    1994-01-01

    The attenuated ultrasound pulse is divided into two parts: a stationary basic pulse and a nonstationary attenuation pulse. A standard ARMA model is used for the basic pulse, and a nonstandard ARMA model is derived for the attenuation pulse. The maximum likelihood estimator of the attenuated...

  7. Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E. M.; Walter, W. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. The study region spans from Turkey through the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwest India. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. We will discuss the updated method and implications of this parameterization. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5 -- 10 Hz. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f). This research was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC52-07NA27344. This is LLNL contribution LLNL-ABS-406761.

  8. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  9. The heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, attenuates thioacetamide induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Elsaad, Nashwa M; Serrya, Marwa S; El-Karef, Amr M; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2016-04-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is proposed to be involved in liver disorders. This study was conducted to test effect of 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of Hsp90, on attenuating thioacetamide induced liver fibrosis in vivo. Four groups of Swiss albino male mice (CD-1 strain) were used as follows: control group; thioacetamide group (received 100mg/kg thioacetamide, ip injection, 3 times/week for 8 weeks); thioacetamide plus 17-AAG groups (received 100mg/kg thioacetamide, ip injection, 3 times/week for 8 weeks plus 25 or 50mg/kg 17-AAG, ip injection, 5 days/week along the last 4 weeks). Fibrosis was quantified by measuring hydroxyproline level and by morphometry and oxidative stress biomarkers were assigned. Relative hepatic mRNA expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen-1-alpha-1 (Col1A1) and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) mRNAs were measured by RT-PCR. Levels of the apoptotic markers caspase-3, factor related apoptosis (Fas) and Hsp-90 were assigned in tissue homogenate. 17-AAG (50mg/kg) significantly decreased fibrosis percentage significantly (pAAG (50mg/kg) compared to other groups. The Hsp90 inhibitor, 17-AAG, can attenuate thioacetamide hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress counterbalance, reducing stellate cells activity and inducing apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive immunization against nicotine attenuates nicotine discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Alvarado, Candice L; Woodhouse, Katherine S; Karp, Hilary; Urdiales, Evelyn; Lay, Diana; Appleby, Phillip; Moon, William D; Ennifar, Sofiane; Basham, Lisa; Fattom, Ali

    2002-04-26

    Ten rats were trained in a two lever operant chamber to press different levers after a nicotine injection (0.14 mg/kg s.c.) or a saline injection on an FR10 schedule. The rats were then injected i.p. with either 150 mg nicotine-specific IgG or the same amount of control IgG from non-immunized rabbits. On successive days, they were retested with both levers active after a saline injection, a full training dose of nicotine and a half dose of nicotine (0.07 mg/kg s.c.). After saline injection, both groups pressed the saline lever almost exclusively. After each of the nicotine doses, the immunized rats performed a significantly lower percentage of their lever presses on the nicotine lever than did non-immunized rats. The results suggest that passive immunization can interfere with the stimulus properties of nicotine.

  11. Peritoneal fluid causing inferior attenuation on SPECT thallium-201 myocardial imaging in women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rab, S.T.; Alazraki, N.P.; Guertler-Krawczynska, E.

    1988-11-01

    On SPECT thallium images, myocardial left ventricular (LV) anterior wall attenuation due to breast tissue is common in women. In contrast, in men, inferior wall counts are normally decreased compared to anterior counts. The purpose of this report is to describe cases of inferior wall attenuation of counts in women caused by peritoneal fluid, not myocardial disease. Twelve consecutive SPECT thallium myocardial studies performed in women on peritoneal dialysis, being evaluated for kidney transplant, were included in this study. For all studies, 3.5 mCi 201Tl were injected intravenously. Thirty-two images were acquired over 180 degrees (45 degrees RAO progressing to 45 degrees LPO) at 40 sec per stop. SPECT images were reviewed in short axis, horizontal long and vertical long axes. Data were also displayed in bullseye format with quantitative comparison to gender-matched normal files. Ten of 12 female patients studied had inferior wall defects on images, confirmed by bullseye display. All patients had approximately 2 liters of peritoneal fluid. Review of planar rotational views showed diaphragm elevation and fluid margin attenuations affecting left ventricular inferior wall. Thus, peritoneal fluid is a cause of inferior attenuation on 201Tl cardiac imaging.

  12. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  13. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  14. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  15. Microcellular nanocomposite injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingjun Yuan; Lih-Sheng Turng; Rick Spindler; Daniel Caulfield; Chris Hunt

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to explore the processing benefits and property improvements of combining nanocomposites with microcellular injection molding. The molded parts produced based on the Design of Experiments (DOE) matrices were subjected to tensile testing, impact testing, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Dynamic Mechanical...

  16. Comparison of non-attenuation corrected and attenuation corrected myocardial perfusion SPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Raza

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CT based attenuation corrected Tc-99mm sestamibi SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging significantly improved the specificity of the RCA territory compared with non-attenuation corrected Tc-99mm sestamibi SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in both genders irrespective of BMI.

  17. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (−100.1 to −46.7 HU vs −117.6 to −61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0–62.8 cm2 vs 5.5–185.9 cm2, P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = −0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = −0.34 to −0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42–0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = −0.44 to −0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat

  18. Elastic wave attenuation in rocks containing fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The low-frequency limit of Biot's theory of fluid-saturated porous media predicts that the coefficients for viscous attenuation of shear waves and of the fast compressional wave are proportional to the fluid permeability. Although the observed attenuation is generally in qualitative agreement with the theory, the magnitude of the observed attenuation coefficient in rocks is often more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. This apparent dilemma can be resolved without invoking other attenuation mechanisms if the intrinsic permeability of the rock is inhomogeneous and varies widely in magnitude. A simple calculation of the overall behavior of a layered porous material using local-flow Biot theory shows that the effective permeability for attenuation is the mean of the constituent permeabilities while the effective permeability for fluid flow is the harmonic mean. When the range of variation in the local permeability is one or more orders of magnitude, this difference in averaging method can easily explain some of the observed discrepancies

  19. Sound attenuation of tanker’s headphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Młyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Crew of military vehicles, which is exposed to the noise associated with the engine running, as well as to shots from firearms, is equipped with headphones. The article presents the results of noise reduction by HC-98 headphone for steady state and impulsive noise. Two methods of research were used: sound attenuation measurements with participation of subjects and transmission loss measurements with the use of acoustic test fixture — device reflecting the properties of the head. Data for headphone were compared with noise reduction of two different, commonly used earmuffs (one light, the other strong limiting noise. The results indicated that measured headphone meets the requirements that allow for treating it as hearing protection, however, this headphone does not provide hearing protection such as earmuffs. Relatively low values of attenuation of acoustic impulses through the headphone versus the results for earmuffs were observed. Furthermore, in the case of headphone, in the frequency range 63-2000 Hz, the lower values of steady state noise sound attenuation, from about 2 up to even a 19 dB with respect to the attenuation of ear muffs were measured.[b]Keywords[/b]: acoustics, noise control, noise, sound attenuation

  20. Cyclofem shoots into injectable market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Cyclofem is a combination of progestin and estrogen, which when injected monthly into reproductive-aged women, confers contraceptive protection. The product was originally developed by the Upjohn Company in the 1970s as a version of the injectable Depo-Provera with estrogen added to regulate bleeding. Upjohn, however, discontinued research upon new contraceptives in 1985, and Cyclofem fell into the hands of the World Health Organization (WHO). Unable to find another pharmaceutical company to help market and distribute the product, WHO enlisted the assistance of the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH), a Seattle-based nonprofit group which develops and introduces health products in the developing world. PATH established the Concept Foundation, a private nonprofit organization headquartered in Thailand, to identify and license developing country pharmaceutical manufacturers to produce Cyclofem. Manufacturers plan Cyclofem to be available in Mexico from July 1992. Following its introduction in Mexico, Cyclofem should arrive in Indonesia and Thailand by 1993 with plans to expand to Chile, Jamaica, and Tunisia soon after. Cyclofem reduces menstrual bleeding among users, women who discontinue use of Cyclofem return to previous fertility levels faster than users of other injectables, Cyclofem contains half the progestin dose of Depo-Provera, manufacturers claim a 0% failure rate among test subjects compared to a 0.1% first-year failure rate for Depo-Provera, and Cyclofem costs less per injection than Depo-Provera. Depo-Provera users will, however, pay less for their contraception since they require only four shots per year. Use of Cyclofem may also prove inconvenient for women in developing countries who have to travel long distances for health services. Manufacturers nonetheless hope that Cyclofem's seven-day window will allow users to adjust to clinic schedules. Cyclofem should find its biggest market in the developing world, but is not likely to

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate kidney inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirin, Alfonso; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Puranik, Amrutesh S; Tang, Hui; McGurren, Kelly A; van Wijnen, Andre J; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have distinct capability for renal repair, but may have safety concerns. MSC-derived extracellular vesicles emerged as a novel noncellular alternative. Using a porcine model of metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis we tested whether extracellular vesicles attenuate renal inflammation, and if this capacity is mediated by their cargo of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10. Pigs with metabolic syndrome were studied after 16 weeks of renal artery stenosis untreated or treated four weeks earlier with a single intrarenal delivery of extracellular vesicles harvested from adipose tissue-derived autologous MSCs. Lean and sham metabolic syndrome animals served as controls (seven each). Five additional pigs with metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis received extracellular vesicles with pre-silenced IL10 (IL10 knock-down). Single-kidney renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and oxygenation were studied in vivo and renal injury pathways ex vivo. Retention of extracellular vesicles in the stenotic kidney peaked two days after delivery and decreased thereafter. Four weeks after injection, extracellular vesicle fragments colocalized with stenotic-kidney tubular cells and macrophages, indicating internalization or fusion. Extracellular vesicle delivery attenuated renal inflammation, and improved medullary oxygenation and fibrosis. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate fell in metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis compared to metabolic syndrome, but was restored in pigs treated with extracellular vesicles. These renoprotective effects were blunted in pigs treated with IL10-depleted extracellular vesicles. Thus, extracellular vesicle-based regenerative strategies might be useful for patients with metabolic syndrome and renal artery stenosis. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic Phase Velocity and Attenuation in Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, Oe.; Froeysa, K.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents measurements of ultrasonic phase velocity and attenuation in emulsions in the frequency range 250 kHz to 14 MHz for volume fractions of dispersed phase varying from 2% to 80%. The experimental data are compared to theoretical predictions based on multiple scattering models. Good agreement is found between experimental data and theory for an oil-in-water emulsion at volume fractions up to 50%. For volume fractions of the dispersed phase above 50%, important discrepancies are found between the multiple scattering theories and the experiments for oil-in-water emulsions and for water-in-oil emulsions. However, measurements on water-in-oil emulsions and attenuation in emulsions of aliphatic oils in water deviate considerably from the theories. Measurements of phase velocity and attenuation in emulsions may provide information about droplet size, volume fraction of the dispersed phase and determine whether the emulsion is oil or water continuous. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Honeycomb Impact Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung-Yong; Choi, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Nohyu

    To participate in Student Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) competitions, it is necessary to build an impact attenuator that would give an average deceleration not to exceed 20g when it runs into a rigid wall. Students can use numerical simulations or experimental test data to show that their car satisfies this safety requirement. A student group to study formula cars at the Korea University of Technology and Education has designed a vehicle to take part in a SAE competition, and a honeycomb structure was adopted as the impact attenuator. In this paper, finite element calculations were carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of the honeycomb attenuator. Deceleration and deformation behaviors were studied. Effect of the yield strength was checked by comparing the numerical results. ABAQUS/Explicit finite element code was used.

  4. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  5. Bisphenol A attenuates phenylbiguanide-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-11-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a toxic chemical released from plastics, produces respiratory arrest and hypotension after a latency. The latency was similar to the reflex apnoea induced by the vagal C fibre stimulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic and acute exposure to BPA on cardio-respiratory reflexes elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Acute and chronic experiments were performed on adult female rats. In chronic experiments, the animals were ingested with pellets containing BPA (2 μg/kg body weight) or without BPA (time-matched control) for 30 days. Subsequently, the animals were anaesthetized and prepared for recording blood pressure, ECG and respiratory excursions. PBG was injected through jugular vein to evoke reflexes in these animals. In acute experiments, the PBG reflexes were obtained before and after injecting BPA/ethanol. Also vagal afferent activity was recorded in some rats. In time-matched control rats, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea over a period of time. The maximal changes were around 50-65%. In BPA treated group, the PBG-induced heart rate and respiratory frequency changes were attenuated significantly. Acute exposure of animals to BPA (35 mg/kg body weight) for 30 min also attenuated the PBG-induced responses significantly. The attenuation of the PBG reflex responses by BPA in acute experiments was associated with decreased vagal afferent activity. The present results indicate that BPA attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes due to decreased vagal afferent activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The pro-resolving lipid mediator Maresin 1 protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating the pro-inflammatory response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xian, Wenjing [Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Wu, Yan [Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Xiong, Wei [Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Longyan [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Li, Tong [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Pan, Shangwen [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Song, Limin [Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Hu, Lisha [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Pei, Lei [Department of Neurobiology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yao, Shanglong, E-mail: ysltian@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); and others

    2016-03-25

    Inflammation plays a crucial role in acute ischemic stroke pathogenesis. Macrophage-derived Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a newly uncovered mediator with potent anti-inflammatory abilities. Here, we investigated the effect of MaR1 on acute inflammation and neuroprotection in a mouse brain ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model. Male C57 mice were subjected to 1-h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. By the methods of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride, haematoxylin and eosin or Fluoro-Jade B staining, neurological deficits scoring, ELISA detection, immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of MaR1 significantly reduced the infarct volume and neurological defects, essentially protected the brain tissue and neurons from injury, alleviated pro-inflammatory reactions and NF-κB p65 activation and nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results suggest that MaR1 significantly protects against I/R injury probably by inhibiting pro-inflammatory reactions. - Highlights: • MaR1 significantly protects against ischemia reperfusion injury. • MaR1 inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and reducing glial activation and neutrophil infiltration. • These effects at least partially occurred via suppression of the NF-κB p65 signalling pathway.

  7. A novel inhibitor of active protein kinase G attenuates chronic inflammatory and osteoarthritic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ying-Ju; Sofoluke, Nelson; Nkamany, Mary; Deng, Shixian; Xie, Yuli; Greenwood, Jeremy; Farid, Ramy; Landry, Donald W; Ambron, Richard T

    2017-05-01

    Activating PKG-1α induces a long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in nociceptive neurons. Since the LTH correlates directly with chronic pain in many animal models, we tested the hypothesis that inhibiting PKG-1α would attenuate LTH-mediated pain. We first synthesized and characterized compound N46 (N-((3R,4R)-4-(4-(2-fluoro-3-methoxy-6-propoxybenzoyl)benzamido)pyrrolidin-3-yl)-1H-indazole-5-carboxamide). N46 inhibits PKG-1α with an IC50 of 7.5 nmol, was highly selective when tested against a panel of 274 kinases, and tissue distribution studies indicate that it does not enter the CNS. To evaluate its antinociceptive potential, we used 2 animal models in which the pain involves both activated PKG-1α and LTH. Injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) into the rat hind paw causes a thermal hyperalgesia that was significantly attenuated 24 hours after a single intravenous injection of N46. Next, we used a rat model of osteoarthritic knee joint pain and found that a single intra-articular injection of N46 alleviated the pain 14 days after the pain was established and the relief lasted for 7 days. Thermal hyperalgesia and osteoarthritic pain are also associated with the activation of the capsaicin-activated transient receptor protein vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel. We show that capsaicin activates PKG-1α in nerves and that a subcutaneous delivery of N46 attenuated the mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity elicited by exposure to capsaicin. Thus, PKG-1α appears to be downstream of the transient receptor protein vanilloid-1. Our studies provide proof of concept in animal models that a PKG-1α antagonist has a powerful antinociceptive effect on persistent, already existing inflammatory pain. They further suggest that N46 is a valid chemotype for the further development of such antagonists.

  8. Systemic Injection of Low-Dose Lipopolysaccharide Fails to Break down the Blood–Brain Barrier or Activate the TLR4-MyD88 Pathway in Neonatal Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate whether peripheral low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the breakdown of the blood–brain barrier (BBB and/or the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in the neonatal rat brain. Neonatal rats received intraperitoneal injections of low-dose LPS (0.3 mg/kg∙bw, and the BBB compromise was detected by Evans Blue extravasation and electron microscopy. Meanwhile, TLR4, adaptin myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB p50 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα in the neonatal rat brain were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western Blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution and activation of microglia in the brain after LPS administration. It was demonstrated that Evans Blue extravasation was not observed in the brain parenchyma, and that tight junctions of cerebral endothelial cells remained intact after systemic injections of LPS in neonatal rats. Although intracerebroventricular injections of LPS activated microglia and up-regulated the expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB p50 and TNFα in the neonatal rat brain, systemic LPS did not induce these responses. These findings indicate that while the neonatal rat brain responds to the direct intra-cerebral administration of LPS through robust TLR4 activation, systemic low-dose LPS does not induce the innate immune reaction or compromise the BBB in neonatal rats.

  9. Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of insulin in children. Are we injecting where we think we are?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, M; Beregszaszi, M; Belarbi, N; Benali, K; Hassan, M; Czernichow, P; Tubiana-Rufi, N

    1996-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the insulin injection location in a group of children who had their injection according to their daily practice, thought to lead to subcutaneous injections. The location of the insulin deposit at the injection site was visualized using an ultrasound device. The exact insulin injection location could be localized, and 18 of 59 injections (30.5%) (one injection for each child) were in the intramuscular tissue. Of the children who had intramuscular injection, 15 of 18 were boys. The children who had an intramuscular injection had a significantly lower percentile of BMI (mean +/- SE: 47 +/- 8 vs. 72 +/- 4, P = 0.004), lower distance from skin surface to muscle fascia without a skinfold (5.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 11 +/- 0.7 mm, P insulin injection. We identified a group of children at risk for intramuscular insulin injections and that may deserve specific injection technique and advice.

  10. Enhanced replication of attenuated HSV-1 in irradiated human glioma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advani, Sunil J.; Kataoka, Yasushi; Sibley, Greg S.; Song, Paul Y.; Hallahan, Dennis E.; Roizman, Bernard; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Previously we had shown that combining ionizing radiation (IR) with attenuated replication competent HSV-1 (R3616) significantly increased glioma xenograft eradication compared to IR or virus alone. One hypothesis is that IR induces cell factors that contribute to augment viral replication thereby increasing the efficacy of attenuated HSV-1. The purpose of this study was to examine if IR altered viral replication of attenuated HSV-1 in glioma xenografts Material and Methods: Human U-87MG glioma cells were grown in the hindlimb of athymic mice and grown to >200 mm 3 . Tumors were infected with 2x10 7 plaque forming units (pfu) of R3616 ( γ1 34.5 - ) or R7020 (multimutated, γ1 34.5 + ) on day 0 and irradiated with 20 Gy on day 1 and 25 Gy on day 2. Tumors were harvested 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after viral injection. Tumors were homogenized and sonnicated. Serial dilutions of tumor extract were overlaid on Vero cells to determine the number of pfu. In addition, in-situ hybridization to HSV-1 DNA was performed on tumors harvested at day 7. Results: In-situ hybridization revealed larger numbers of glial cells infected with HSV along with a greater distribution in the irradiated tumors compared to non-irradiated tumors. We next quantified viral particles in infected tumors +/- IR: Conclusion: Herein we demonstrate radiation enhanced viral replication as one of the interactive effects of combining IR and attenuated HSV in treating glioma xenografts and a potential therapeutic motif in the treatment of gliomas. To reduce normal tissue toxicity of HSV in glioma therapy, viruses must be attenuated. However, attenuating the virus compromises its replication and thus its potential efficacy. Our results indicate that IR augments the amount of virus recovered from human glioma xenografts for up to 3 days post IR. The results do not appear to be related to a specific mutation in the herpes genome but rather to herpes viruses in general. Yields of R7020 were greater than R

  11. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  12. Dependence of modal attenuation coefficient frequency variation on upper sediment attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintval, Wendy; Siegmann, William L.; Carey, William M.; Pierce, Allan D.; Lynch, James F.

    2005-04-01

    The range-averaged transmission loss increase in shallow water propagation depends critically on the intrinsic attenuation of the upper sediment. The attenuation coefficients of low-frequency (sandy-silty sediments are compared to numerical calculations, it is found that a nonlinear-frequency dependent attenuation is required with an exponent between 1.5 and 2. The question considered here is how the intrinsic upper-sediment attenuation produces such behavior. A recent simplification of the Biot model [A. D. Pierce et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2345 (2003)] has a power-law exponent of two. With this frequency-dependent bottom attenuation, a two-layer Pekeris waveguide yields modal attenuation coefficients that decrease with frequency as observed by Ingenito. However, a depth-dependent attenuation profile or a third near-surface layer with requisite properties can reverse this behavior. This suggests why higher-frequency numerical computations may require nonlinear frequency-dependent sediment profiles to calculate sound transmission accurately. [Work partially supported by ONR.

  13. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  14. TORE SUPRA neutral injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayetti, P.; Becherer, R.; Bottiglioni, F.; Jacquot, C.; Jequier, F.; Fumelli, M.; Lotte, P.; Pamela, J.; Sledziewski, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Neutral Beam Injection on TS consists of three boxes, each housing two injectors. Each of them is designed to accelerate 40 A at 100 kV in D 2 ar 40A at 80 kV in H 2 , in shots of 30 s. The power on the plasma is expected to be 7.5 MW (full energy) and 9 MW (total) for the D-beams; 2.5 MW and 3.8 MW for H-beams. This for a species mix of 0.85 19 m -2 and a transmission efficiency of 0.7. Four injectors are in co and two through another one, and they are tilted of 20 deg from the radial direction. Injectors are designed for the energy recovery of the full energy ions. A prototype line, operated in 1987-88, has given the imput for the demensioning of the present system.First injectors are expected to be operational by the end of 1988. The present contribution describes the injection boxes, injection line, magnetic shielding, electrical circuity and power supplies, control and data acquisition systems, and the Fast Interlock Safety System (FISS). 7 refs.; 6 figs

  15. Radial lean direct injection burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  16. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS-. P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and an optical ...

  17. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet. ... Summary: Several epidemiological evidences indicate that consumption of coffee is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) however; there is dearth of experimental data to support these ...

  18. Mycoplasma gallisepticum: Control by live attenuated vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available attenuated strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) are commonly used within the layer industry to control MG-induced mycoplasmosis. Among these are two live MG vaccines derived from the moderately pathogenic MG “chick F” strain. In the present study, the commercially availa...

  19. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  1. Vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) based optical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The optical classification of the different water types provides vital input for studies related to primary productivity, water clarity and determination of euphotic depth. Image data of the IRS- P3 MOS-B, for Path 90 of 27th February, 1998 was used for deriving vertical diffuse attenuation Coeffcient () and an optical ...

  2. Infrared Attenuation Of Thallium Bromoiodide Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John; Magilavy, Beryl

    1988-01-01

    Report presents measurements of attenuation of infrared signals in unclad 381-micrometer-diameter optical fibers of thallium bromoiodide. Measurements of attentuation in TI(Br,I) fibers in wavelength ranges of 1.2 to 3.4 micrometer and 3 to 11 micrometer compare with those of two other groups of researchers.

  3. Attenuation correction for small animal PET tomographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Patrick L [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rannou, Fernando R [Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3659, Santiago (Chile); Chatziioannou, Arion F [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of California, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2005-04-21

    Attenuation correction is one of the important corrections required for quantitative positron emission tomography (PET). This work will compare the quantitative accuracy of attenuation correction using a simple global scale factor with traditional transmission-based methods acquired either with a small animal PET or a small animal x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. Two phantoms (one mouse-sized and one rat-sized) and two animal subjects (one mouse and one rat) were scanned in CTI Concorde Microsystem's microPET (registered) Focus{sup TM} for emission and transmission data and in ImTek's MicroCAT{sup TM} II for transmission data. PET emission image values were calibrated against a scintillation well counter. Results indicate that the scale factor method of attenuation correction places the average measured activity concentration about the expected value, without correcting for the cupping artefact from attenuation. Noise analysis in the phantom studies with the PET-based method shows that noise in the transmission data increases the noise in the corrected emission data. The CT-based method was accurate and delivered low-noise images suitable for both PET data correction and PET tracer localization.

  4. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, David, E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu; Margetan, Frank J., E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu; Pavel, Brittney, E-mail: djeisen@cnde.iastate.edu [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, 1915 Scholl Road, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups.

  5. GPR measurements of attenuation in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, David; Margetan, Frank J.; Pavel, Brittney

    2015-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals from concrete structures are affected by several phenomenon, including: (1) transmission and reflection coefficients at interfaces; (2) the radiation patterns of the antenna(s) being used; and (3) the material properties of concrete and any embedded objects. In this paper we investigate different schemes for determining the electromagnetic (EM) attenuation of concrete from measured signals obtained using commercially-available GPR equipment. We adapt procedures commonly used in ultrasonic inspections where one compares the relative strengths of two or more signals having different travel paths through the material of interest. After correcting for beam spread (i.e., diffraction), interface phenomena, and equipment amplification settings, any remaining signal differences are assumed to be due to attenuation thus allowing the attenuation coefficient (say, in dB of loss per inch of travel) to be estimated. We begin with a brief overview of our approach, and then discuss how diffraction corrections were determined for our two 1.6 GHz GPR antennas. We then present results of attenuation measurements for two types of concrete using both pulse/echo and pitch/catch measurement setups

  6. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P.; Cortina, D.; Hernando, A.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  7. Microwave attenuation with composite of copper microwires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorriti, A.G.; Marin, P. [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Cortina, D. [Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Hernando, A., E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.e [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, (UCM-ADIF-CSIC) and Departamento de Fisica de Materiales (UCM). P.O. Box 155, Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain); Micromag S.L., Las Rozas, Madrid 28230 (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    It is shown that copper microwires composite media attenuates microwave reflection of metallic surfaces. We show how the distance to the metallic surface, as well as the length and volume fraction of microwires, determine the frequency of maximum absorption and the return loss level. Furthermore, we were able to fit the experimental results with a theoretical model based on Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula.

  8. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    J. Physiol. Sci. 28(December 2013) 179–185 www.njps.com.ng. Coffee Consumption Attenuates Insulin Resistance and Glucose. Intolerance in Rats fed on High-Sucrose Diet. Morakinyo AO*, Adekunbi DA, Dada KA and Adegoke OA. Department of Physiology, College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Lagos. Nigeria.

  9. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  10. Insulin Glulisine (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the syringe and inject the solution immediately after mixing.You can inject your insulin glulisine in your ... you have high blood sugar, the pump alarm sounds, or the insulin flow is blocked. If the ...

  11. Teriparatide (rDNA origin) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teriparatide injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... medication that may cause osteoporosis in some patients). Teriparatide injection contains a synthetic form of natural human ...

  12. Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Control: How to Use Your DiaphragmIntrauterine Device (IUD)Emergency Contraception Home Prevention and Wellness Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive Depo-Provera: An Injectable Contraceptive Share Print Depo- ...

  13. A new look at trigger point injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Clara S M; Wong, Steven H S

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection.

  14. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  15. Injectivity errors in simulation of foam EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeftink, T.N.; Latooij, C.A.; Rossen, W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Injectivity is a key factor in the economics of foam enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes. Poor injectivity of low-mobility foam slows the production of oil and allows more time for gravity segregation of injected gas. The conventional Peaceman equation (1978), when applied in a large grid block,

  16. The Heavy Ion Injection Scheme for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoades-Brown, M. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1989-03-20

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven has a multi-component injection system. In order to achieve the injection requirements for RHIC, the partially stripped ions are accelerated in the Booster and pass through a stripping foil on their way to the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), where they are further accelerated before injection into RHIC.

  17. 21 CFR 522.1182 - Iron injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... follows: (i) For prevention of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by intramuscular injection at 2 to 4 days of age. (ii) For treatment of iron deficiency anemia, inject 100 mg (1 mL) by... repeated in 14 to 21 days. (ii) For the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency, administer an...

  18. ultrasound-guided shoulder arthrogram injection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-15

    Oct 15, 2008 ... Anterior approach ultrasound-guided arthrogram injections are a quick and reliable way of injecting contrast medium prior to a shoulder. MRI scan. A retrospective study on patients who we had previously injected and scanned at our clinic was undertaken, to compare the more documented posterior ...

  19. Effects of CT-based attenuation correction of rat microSPECT images on relative myocardial perfusion and quantitative tracer uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strydhorst, Jared H., E-mail: jared.strydhorst@gmail.com; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn [Cardiac Imaging, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Our goal in this work was to investigate the impact of CT-based attenuation correction on measurements of rat myocardial perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 201}Tl single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Methods: Eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and scanned in a small animal pinhole SPECT/CT scanner. Scans were repeated weekly over a period of 5 weeks. Eight additional rats were injected with {sup 201}Tl and also scanned following a similar protocol. The images were reconstructed with and without attenuation correction, and the relative perfusion was analyzed with the commercial cardiac analysis software. The absolute uptake of {sup 99m}Tc in the heart was also quantified with and without attenuation correction. Results: For {sup 99m}Tc imaging, relative segmental perfusion changed by up to +2.1%/−1.8% as a result of attenuation correction. Relative changes of +3.6%/−1.0% were observed for the {sup 201}Tl images. Interscan and inter-rat reproducibilities of relative segmental perfusion were 2.7% and 3.9%, respectively, for the uncorrected {sup 99m}Tc scans, and 3.6% and 4.3%, respectively, for the {sup 201}Tl scans, and were not significantly affected by attenuation correction for either tracer. Attenuation correction also significantly increased the measured absolute uptake of tetrofosmin and significantly altered the relationship between the rat weight and tracer uptake. Conclusions: Our results show that attenuation correction has a small but statistically significant impact on the relative perfusion measurements in some segments of the heart and does not adversely affect reproducibility. Attenuation correction had a small but statistically significant impact on measured absolute tracer uptake.

  20. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  1. Intramyocardial Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Seeded Hydrogel Preserves Cardiac Function and Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Eva; Lamirault, Guillaume; Toquet, Claire; Lhommet, Pierre; Rederstorff, Emilie; Sourice, Sophie; Biteau, Kevin; Hulin, Philippe; Forest, Virginie; Weiss, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background To improve the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy targeted to infarcted myocardium, we investigated whether a self-setting silanized hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) hydrogel seeded with MSC (MSC+hydrogel) could preserve cardiac function and attenuate left ventricular (LV) remodeling during an 8-week follow-up study in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Methodology/Principal Finding Si-HPMC hydrogel alone, MSC alone or MSC+hydrogel were injected into the myocardium immediately after coronary artery ligation in female Lewis rats. Animals in the MSC+hydrogel group showed an increase in cardiac function up to 28 days after MI and a mid-term prevention of cardiac function alteration at day 56. Histological analyses indicated that the injection of MSC+hydrogel induced a decrease in MI size and an increase in scar thickness and ultimately limited the transmural extent of MI. These findings show that intramyocardial injection of MSC+hydrogel induced short-term recovery of ventricular function and mid-term attenuation of remodeling after MI. Conclusion/Significance These beneficial effects may be related to the specific scaffolding properties of the Si-HPMC hydrogel that may provide the ability to support MSC injection and engraftment within myocardium. PMID:23284842

  2. Influence of intracoronary attenuation on coronary plaque measurements using multislice computed tomography: observations in an ex vivo model of coronary computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cademartiri, Filippo; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Mollet, Nico R.; Feyter, Pim J. de; Runza, Giuseppe; Midiri, Massimo; Bruining, Nico; Hamers, Ronald; Somers, Pamela; Knaapen, Michiel; Verheye, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of attenuation (measured in Hounsfield units, HU) of human coronary plaques was performed using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in an ex vivo model. In three ex vivo specimens of left coronary arteries in oil, MSCT was performed after intracoronary injection of four solutions of contrast material (400 mgI/ml iomeprol). The four solutions were diluted as follows: 1/∞, 1/200, 1/80, and 1/20. All scans were performed with the following parameters: slices/collimation 16/0.75 mm, rotation time 375 ms. Each specimen was scored for the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. In each plaque the attenuation was measured in four regions of interest for lumen, plaque (non-calcified thickening of the vessel wall), calcium, and surrounding (oil surrounding the vessel). The results were compared with a one-way analysis of variance test and were correlated with Pearson's test. There were no significant differences in the attenuation of calcium and oil in the four solutions. The mean attenuation in the four solutions for lumen (35±10, 91±7, 246±18, 511±89 HU) and plaque (22±22, 50±26, 107±36, 152±67 HU) was significantly different between each decreasing dilution (p<0.001). The mean attenuation of lumen and plaque of coronary plaques showed high correlation, while the values were significantly different (r=0.73; p<0.001). Intracoronary attenuation modifies significantly the attenuation of plaques assessed with MSCT. (orig.)

  3. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction....... For this analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  4. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment of... against unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium nitrite labeled for the treatment of cyanide poisoning and unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium thiosulfate labeled for the treatment of...

  5. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  6. Shoulder pain: the role of diagnostic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H M; O'Connor, F G; Nirschl, R P

    1996-04-01

    Many different shoulder disorders cause similar symptoms and pain patterns. An accurate diagnosis can generally be made by obtaining a detailed history, performing a comprehensive, directed physical examination and obtaining selected radiographs. Occasionally, shoulder injections can be of great assistance in establishing a clear diagnosis and providing relief of symptoms. Subacromial space injection, acromioclavicular joint injection, intra-articular injection and injection of the biceps tendon are helpful in identifying such disorders as subacromial bursitis, acromioclavicular arthritis, injury to the glenohumeral joint and bicipital tendinitis.

  7. Attenuation of seismic waves in Central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh Abbas Morsy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation of seismic waves in central Egypt had never been studied before. The results of the research on the seismic attenuation are based upon the information collected by the seismological network from 1998 to 2011. 855 earthquakes were selected from the Egyptian seismological catalog, with their epicenter distances between 15 and 150 km, their magnitudes ranging from 2 and 4.1 and focal depths reaching up to 30 km. The first systematic study of attenuation derived from the P-, S- and coda wave in the frequency range 1–24 Hz is presented. In the interpretation of the results both single and multiple scattering in a half space are considered. The single scattering model proposed by Sato (1977 was used. Two methods, the coda (Qc and the Multiple Lapse Time Window (MLTW method are used. The aim of this study is to validate these interpretations in the region and to try to identify the effects of attenuation due to intrinsic (Qi and scattering attenuation (Qsc. The mean Qc value calculated was Qc = (39 ± 1f1.0±0.009. The average Qc at 1.5 Hz is (53 ± 6 and Qc = (900 ± 195 at 24 Hz with Qo ranging between 23 and 107, where η ranging between 0.9 and 1.3. The quality factor (Q was estimated from spectra of P- and S-waves by applying a spectral ratio technique. The results show variations in Qp and QS as a function of frequency, according to the power law Q = 56η1.1. The seismic albedo is 0.7 at all stations and it mean that the earthquake activity is due to tectonic origin. The attenuation and frequency dependency for different paths and the correlation of the results with the geotectonic of the region are presented. The Qc values were calculated and correlated with the geology and tectonics of the area. The relatively low Qo and the high frequency dependency agree with the values of a region characterized by a low tectonic activity and vise versa.

  8. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  9. The LHC injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, Laurent; Barnes, M J; Wait, G D

    2003-01-01

    Proton beams will be injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 900 ns rise time and up to 7.86 s flat top duration. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a flat top ripple of less than ± 0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.7 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's). To achieve the required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, a low characteristic impedance has been chosen and ceramic plate capacitors are used to obtain 5 Omega. Conductive stripes in the aperture of the magnets limit the beam impedance and screen the ferrite. The electrical circuit has been designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. A full size magnet prototype has been built and tested up to 60 kV with the magnet under ultra high vacuum (UHV). The pulse shape has been precision measured at a voltage of 15 kV. After reviewing the performance requirements the paper presents the magnet...

  10. Injection into electron plasma traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgadze, Vladimir; Pasquini, Thomas A.; Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan S.

    2003-01-01

    Computational studies and experimental measurements of plasma injection into a Malmberg-Penning trap reveal that the number of trapped particles can be an order of magnitude higher than predicted by a simple estimates based on a ballistic trapping model. Enhanced trapping is associated with a rich nonlinear dynamics generated by the space-charge forces of the evolving trapped electron density. A particle-in-cell simulation is used to identify the physical mechanisms that lead to the increase in trapped electrons. The simulations initially show strong two-stream interactions between the electrons emitted from the cathode and those reflected off the end plug of the trap. This is followed by virtual cathode oscillations near the injection region. As electrons are trapped, the initially hollow longitudinal phase-space is filled, and the transverse radial density profile evolves so that the plasma potential matches that of the cathode. Simple theoretical arguments are given that describe the different dynamical regimes. Good agreement is found between simulation and theory

  11. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteins 9 attenuated Candida albicans induced inflammation in mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C; Yang, M G

    2016-10-31

    Since the severe corneal ulceration of mouse cornea is known to occur with inflammation. As one of imperative matrix metalloproteinase, the potential roles of matrix metalloproteins 9 (MMP9) in corneal ulceration and keratitis are still unveiled caused by fungal invasion. In this study, Candida albicans (CA) inoculated wild-type KM mice cornea was used as a model pathogen in corneal inflammation.  CA invasion significantly stimulated the expression of collagen IV and MMP9 detected by RT-PCR, Real-time PCR and Immunofluorescent staining in mouse cornea as soon as 6 hours post infection, and relatively decreased at 1 day post infection. For examining the role of MMP9 in fungal keratitis, the mice corneas were subconjunctivally injected MMP9 antibody or recombinant MMP9 protein 6 hours prior to CA inoculation, using rabbit IgG as control. Subconjunctival injection of recombinant MMP9 protein prior to CA inoculation enhanced, whereas MMP9 antibody attenuated corneal ulceration and inflammation, examining basement membrane, fungal load, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines including Macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP2), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Inhibition of MMP9 could potentially attenuate Candida albicans induced inflammation in mouse cornea.

  12. Pioglitazone attenuates the opioid withdrawal and vulnerability to relapse to heroin seeking in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Kallupi, Marsida; Scuppa, Giulia; Demopulos, Gregory; Gaitanaris, George; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Relapse to opioids is often driven by the avoidance of the aversive states of opioid withdrawal. We recently demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. However, the role of PPARγ in withdrawal and other forms of relapse to heroin is unknown. To further address this issue, we investigated the role of PPARγ on the development and expression of morphine withdrawal in mice and the effect of pioglitazone on several forms of heroin relapse in rats. We induced physical dependence to morphine in mice by injecting morphine twice daily for 6 days. Withdrawal syndrome was precipitated on day 6 with an injection of naloxone. In addition, different groups of rats were trained to self-administer heroin and, after the extinction, the relapse was elicited by cues, priming, or stress. The effect of different doses of pioglitazone was tested on these different paradigms. Data show that chronic and acute administration of pioglitazone attenuates morphine withdrawal symptoms, and these effects are mediated by activation of PPARγ receptors. Activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone also abolishes yohimbine-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking and reduces heroin-induced reinstatement, while it does not affect cue-induced relapse. These findings provide new insights on the role of PPARγ on opioid dependence and suggest that pioglitazone may be useful for the treatment of opioid withdrawal in opioid-addicted individuals.

  13. Groin injecting among a community-recruited sample of people who inject drugs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Lianping; Hayashi, Kanna; Kaplan, Karyn; Suwannawong, Paisan; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-16

    Use of the femoral vein for the injection of illicit drugs (i.e. groin injecting) has been linked to various health-related harms, including deep vein thrombosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of groin injecting and factors that predict this practice among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. We sought to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with groin injecting in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok between July and October 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with groin injecting in the last six months. Among 437 participants, 34.3% reported groin injecting in the last six months. In multivariate analyses, factors positively associated with groin injecting included: having higher than secondary education (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00 - 2.56), weekly midazolam injection (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI: 5.04 - 14.06), and reports of having had drugs planted on oneself by police (AOR = 2.14; 95% CI: 1.37 - 3.36). Over one-third of our sample of Thai PWID reported recent groin injecting. Frequent midazolam injection and higher education were found to be associated with groin injecting. That high intensity PWID were more likely to inject in the groin is concerning given the known negative consequences associated with the groin as a site of injection. Additionally, PWID who reported drug planting by police were more likely to inject in the groin, suggesting that reliance on law enforcement approaches may undermine safe injection practices in this setting. These findings highlight the need for evidence-based interventions to address the harms associated with groin injecting, including efforts to alert PWID to risks of groin injecting, the distribution of appropriate injecting equipment, and efforts to encourage use of other injecting sites.

  14. Fuel Injection Pressure Effect on Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Based on Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli A. Bakar; Semin; Abdul R.  Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Fuel injection pressures in diesel engine plays an important role for engine performance obtaining treatment of combustion. The present diesel engines such as fuel direct injection, the pressures can be increased about 100 200 Mpa bar in fuel pump injection system. The experimental investigated effects of fuel injection pressure on engine performance. Experiments have been performed on a diesel engine with four-cylinder, two-stroke, direct injection. Engine performance values such as indicat...

  15. Live-Attenuated Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Ursula J.; Collins, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines offer several advantages for immunization of infants and young children: (1) they do not cause vaccine-associated enhanced RSV disease; (2) they broadly stimulate innate, humoral, and cellular immunity, both systemically and locally in the respiratory tract; (3) they are delivered intranasally; and (4) they replicate in the upper respiratory tract of young infants despite the presence of passively acquired maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibody. This chapter describes early efforts to develop vaccines through the classic methods of serial cold-passage and chemical mutagenesis, and recent efforts using reverse genetics to derive attenuated derivatives of wild-type (WT) RSV and to develop parainfluenza vaccine vectors that express RSV surface glycoproteins. PMID:24362694

  16. Backus and Wyllie Averages for Seismic Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadrouh, Ayman N.; Carcione, José M.; Ba, Jing; Gei, Davide; Salim, Ahmed M.

    2018-01-01

    Backus and Wyllie equations are used to obtain average seismic velocities at zero and infinite frequencies, respectively. Here, these equations are generalized to obtain averages of the seismic quality factor (inversely proportional to attenuation). The results indicate that the Wyllie velocity is higher than the corresponding Backus quantity, as expected, since the ray velocity is a high-frequency limit. On the other hand, the Wyllie quality factor is higher than the Backus one, following the velocity trend, i.e., the higher the velocity (the stiffer the medium), the higher the attenuation. Since the quality factor can be related to properties such as porosity, permeability, and fluid viscosity, these averages can be useful for evaluating reservoir properties.

  17. Electron attenuation lengths in fullerene and fullerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongnian; Wang Xiaoxiong; Ding Wangfeng

    2006-01-01

    Using X-ray photoemission measurements, we have determined the attenuation length of C 1s photoelectrons in C 60 film to be 21.5 A with the incident photon energy of Mg Kα radiation. The inelastic mean free path calculated with the TPP-2M algorithm coincides fairly well with the experimentally determined attenuation length, indicating the validity of the algorithm to fullerene and fullerides. The inelastic mean free paths for some fullerides, i.e. K 3 C 60 , K 6 C 60 , Ba 4 C 60 , Sm 2.75 C 60 and Sm 6 C 60 are calculated to help the quantitative analyses of the photoemission spectra for these compounds

  18. Attenuation of gamma radiation in concrete shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo e Souza, A.C. de.

    1978-12-01

    The attenuation characteristics of γ radiation in concrete layers considering their mechanical resistence and densities were determined. A 137 Cs source was used in a 'good geometry' arrangement to eliminate the effects of the buildup factor. The ordinary and the heavy concrete were irradiated and for the latter it was used as additives iron ore and Fe 2 O 3 pellets in various grain sizes. The detection system consisted of a 2' x 2' NaI (Tl) crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube and the associated electronic equipment. FORTRAN programs were used for determining the absorption coefficients and the attenuation factors. These programs calculate photopeak areas eliminating all contributions due to Compton effect and background. (Author) [pt

  19. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Sahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An antianginal K(ATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT-induced PAH in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg(-1·day(-1 alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K(ATP channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0±4.7 mm Hg, whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2±3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01. Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK

  20. Mid-European seismic attenuation anomaly

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.; Vackář, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 712, AUG 21 (2017), s. 557-577 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/4 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : seismic wave attenuation * peak ground motion * H/V ratio Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  1. Natural attenuation of biogas in landfill covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossu, R.; Privato, A.; Raga, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the risk evaluation of uncontrolled biogas emissions from landfills, the process of natural attenuation in landfill covers assumes a very important role. The capacity of biogas oxidation in the cover soils seems to be the most important control to mitigate the biogas emission during the aftercare period when the biogas collection system might fail. In the present paper laboratory experiences on lab columns to study the biogas oxidation are discussed [it

  2. Examples of law of seismic wave attenuation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Pandula, B.; Stolárik, Martin; Kondela, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2013), s. 387-390 ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/09/1415 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : blasting operation * vibration velocity * seismic wave attenuation Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013 http://public.carnet.hr/metalurg/Metalurgija/2013_vol_52/No_3/MET_52_3_387-390_Kalab.pdf

  3. Bubbles attenuate elastic waves at seismic frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisato, Nicola; Quintal, Beatriz; Chapman, Samuel; Podladchikov, Yury; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The vertical migration of multiphase fluids in the crust can cause hazardous events such as eruptions, explosions, pollution and earthquakes. Although seismic tomography could potentially provide a detailed image of such fluid-saturated regions, the interpretation of the tomographic signals is often controversial and fails in providing a conclusive map of the subsurface saturation. Seismic tomography should be improved considering seismic wave attenuation (1/Q) and the dispersive elastic moduli which allow accounting for the energy lost by the propagating elastic wave. In particular, in saturated media a significant portion of the energy carried by the propagating wave is dissipated by the wave-induced-fluid-flow and the wave-induced-gas-exsolution-dissolution (WIGED) mechanisms. The WIGED mechanism describes how a propagating wave modifies the thermodynamic equillibrium between different fluid phases causing the exsolution and the dissolution of the gas in the liquid, which in turn causes a significant frequency dependent 1/Q and moduli dispersion. The WIGED theory was initially postulated for bubbly magmas but only recently was extended to bubbly water and experimentally demonstrated. Here we report these theory and laboratory experiments. Specifically, we present i) attenuation measurements performed by means of the Broad Band Attenuation Vessel on porous media saturated with water and different gases, and ii) numerical experiments validating the laboratory observations. Finally, we will extend the theory to fluids and to pressure-temperature conditions which are typical of phreatomagmatic and hydrocarbon domains and we will compare the propagation of seismic waves in bubble-free and bubble-bearing subsurface domains. With the present contribution we extend the knowledge about attenuation in rocks which are saturated with multiphase fluid demonstrating that the WIGED mechanism could be extremely important to image subsurface gas plumes.

  4. The attenuation of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.D.

    1990-01-01

    Unique among models of nuclear structure, the face-centered-cubic (FCC) lattice model predicts the attenuation of the periodic table at Z < 110 and the impossibility of superheavy nuclei. The total binding energies of superheavy nuclei in the FCC model (109 < Z < 127) were calculated on the basis of parameters obtained from a least-squares best-fit for 914 nuclei (Z < 99). No indication of increased stability is found for any of the transuranic elements

  5. Molecular Characterization of Attenuated Junin Virus Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-14

    AD-A260 128 AD____ MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ATTENUATED JUNIN VIRUS VARIANTS FINAL REPORT VICTOR ROMANOWSKI PABLO D. GHIRINGHELLI CESAR G...Virus Variants 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Victor Romanowski , Pablo D. Ghiringhelli, Cesar G. Albarino, & Mariel Piboul 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME... Romanowski and Bishop, 1985; Clegg and Oram, 1985; Franze-Fern ndez et al., 1987). The GPC protein (ca. 57 kDa in the unglycosylated form) is translated from a

  6. Wave attenuation charcteristics of tethered float system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.

    that the system performs well when it is just submerged. As float velocity decreases with increase in float size, transmission coefficient increases with increase in float size. The influence of wave period on wave attenuation is remarkable compared to other... characteristics of floating breakwaters. Seymour and Isaacs (1974), Agerton et al. (1976) and Seymour and Hanes (1979) studied the performance of a tethered float breakwater (tethered float system), assuming that drag is the major contributor-factor for wave...

  7. Attenuation and scatter correction in SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, G.S.; Pandey, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    While passing through matter, photons undergo various types of interactions. In the process, some photons are completely absorbed, some are scattered in different directions with or without any change in their energy and some pass through unattenuated. These unattenuated photons carry the information with them. However, the image data gets corrupted with attenuation and scatter processes. This paper deals with the effect of these two processes in nuclear medicine images and suggests the methods to overcome them

  8. Bolus injection of contrast agents with various iodine concentrations and delivery rates for intracranial three-dimensional CT angiography. Evaluation of intracranial arteriovenous contrast using a multidetector-row CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahata, Morio; Abe, Yoshinao; Ono, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the difference in computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of the intracranial arterial and venous systems among the various contrast injection protocols (higher iodine delivery rate or higher concentration of the agent) on the source images of intracranial three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) using a multidetector-row CT (MDCT) scanner. We used 100 ml of iopamidol 300 at an injection rate of 3.0 ml/s, 100 ml of iopamidol 300 at an injection rate of 3.7 ml/s, and 80 ml of iopamidol 370 at an injection rate of 3.0 ml/s. There were 10 patients in each group. Attenuation values of the bilateral internal carotid arteries (ICAs), basilar artery trunk, bilateral cavernous sinuses (CSs), and Galenic vein were measured quantitatively on the axial CT angiographic source images obtained by four-channel MDCT. Injection of the high-concentration contrast with a higher iodine-delivery rate achieved good arteriovenous contrast at the cavernous portion. With the same rate of iodine delivery, injection of the intermediate concentrate agent increased the CT value of not only the ICAs but also the CSs. High-concentration contrast could increase ICA attenuation without intracavernous attenuation gain during the ''first-pass'' phase. (author)

  9. Laser diagnostic analysis of NO formation in a DI Diesel engine with PLN and CR injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildenbrand, F.; Schulz, C.; Wolfrum, J. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisch-Chemisches Inst.; Keller, F.; Wagner, E. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging was applied to investigate NO formation in a directly-injected Diesel engine with realistic combustion chamber geometry. The technique, which uses KrF excimer laser excitation, was previously successfully applied in gasoline engines. Influences of interfering species depending on the spectral range used for LIF detection was investigated by spectrally resolved LIF detection. Laser and signal attenuation were assessed in separate experiments using spectrally resolved O{sub 2}-LIF detection with the same optical path as in the imaging measurements. The in-cylinder NO concentration was compared for different injection systems and operating conditions. (orig.)

  10. Toxic Chemical from Plastics Attenuates Phenylbiguanide-induced Cardio-respiratory Reflexes in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya P; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) attenuated phenylbiguanide (PBG)-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes involving decreased vagal afferent activity. BPA leaches out from plastics thus it is expected that chronic exposure to plastic boiled (PBW) water will also produce similar changes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic ingestion of PBW on PBG evoked reflexes and were compared with BPA. Adult female rats were ingested BPA containing pellets (2 µg/kg body weight)/PBW/tap water (ad libitum) for 30 days. On day 30, the animals were anaesthetized and BP, ECG and respiratory excursions were recorded. Further, PBG was injected intravenously to evoke cardio-respiratory reflexes and at the end lungs were excised for histopathological examination. BPA concentration in PBW was 6.6 µg/ml estimated by HPLC. In rats receiving tap water, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea. In PBW/BPA treated groups, PBG-induced reflexes were attenuated significantly along with emphysematous and consolidative changes in lungs. The present results indicate that PBW attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes and also produces histopathological changes in lungs.

  11. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  12. Curcumin Attenuates Gentamicin-Induced Kidney Mitochondrial Alterations: Possible Role of a Mitochondrial Biogenesis Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Negrette-Guzmán

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that curcumin (CUR, a polyphenol derived from Curcuma longa, exerts a protective effect against gentamicin- (GM- induced nephrotoxicity in rats, associated with a preservation of the antioxidant status. Although mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark in the GM-induced renal injury, the role of CUR in mitochondrial protection has not been studied. In this work, LLC-PK1 cells were preincubated 24 h with CUR and then coincubated 48 h with CUR and 8 mM GM. Treatment with CUR attenuated GM-induced drop in cell viability and led to an increase in nuclear factor (erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α cell expression attenuating GM-induced losses in these proteins. In vivo, Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with GM (75 mg/Kg/12 h during 7 days to develop kidney mitochondrial alterations. CUR (400 mg/Kg/day was administered orally 5 days before and during the GM exposure. The GM-induced mitochondrial alterations in ultrastructure and bioenergetics as well as decrease in activities of respiratory complexes I and IV and induction of calcium-dependent permeability transition were mostly attenuated by CUR. Protection of CUR against GM-induced nephrotoxicity could be in part mediated by maintenance of mitochondrial functions and biogenesis with some participation of the nuclear factor Nrf2.

  13. Conserved protective mechanisms in radiation and genetically attenuated uis3(-) and uis4(-) Plasmodium sporozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kota Arun; Baxter, Peter; Tarun, Alice S; Kappe, Stefan H I; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Immunization with radiation attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites (RAS) elicits sterile protective immunity against sporozoite challenge in murine models and in humans. Similarly to RAS, the genetically attenuated sporozoites (GAPs) named uis3(-), uis4(-) and P36p(-) have arrested growth during the liver stage development, and generate a powerful protective immune response in mice. We compared the protective mechanisms in P. yoelii RAS, uis3(-) and uis4(-) in BALB/c mice. In RAS and GAPs, sterile immunity is only achieved after one or more booster injections. There were no differences in the immune responses to the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) generated by RAS and GAPs. To evaluate the role of non-CSP T-cell antigens we immunized antibody deficient, CSP-transgenic BALB/c mice, that are T cell tolerant to CSP, with P. yoelii RAS or with uis3(-) or uis4(-) GAPs, and challenged them with wild type sporozoites. In every instance the parasite liver stage burden was approximately 3 logs higher in antibody deficient CSP transgenic mice as compared to antibody deficient mice alone. We conclude that CSP is a powerful protective antigen in both RAS and GAPs viz., uis3(-) and uis4(-) and that the protective mechanisms are similar independently of the method of sporozoite attenuation.

  14. Live attenuated vaccines for invasive Salmonella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Sharon M; Levine, Myron M

    2015-06-19

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi produces significant morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the fact that there are licensed Salmonella Typhi vaccines available. This is primarily due to the fact that these vaccines are not used in the countries that most need them. There is growing recognition that an effective invasive Salmonella vaccine formulation must also prevent infection due to other Salmonella serovars. We anticipate that a multivalent vaccine that targets the following serovars will be needed to control invasive Salmonella infections worldwide: Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Salmonella Paratyphi B (currently uncommon but may become dominant again), Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Choleraesuis (as well as other Group C Salmonella). Live attenuated vaccines are an attractive vaccine formulation for use in developing as well as developed countries. Here, we describe the methods of attenuation that have been used to date to create live attenuated Salmonella vaccines and provide an update on the progress that has been made on these vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Scattering attenuation microscopy of oral epithelial dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Pete H.; Adegun, Oluyori; Hagi-Pavli, Eleni; Piper, Kim; Bader, Dan; Fortune, Farida

    2010-11-01

    We present a new method for quantitative visualization of premalignant oral epithelium called scattering attenuation microscopy (SAM). Using low-coherence interferometry, SAM projects measurements of epithelial optical attenuation onto an image of the tissue surface as a color map. The measured attenuation is dominated by optical scattering that provides a metric of the severity of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Scattering is sensitive to the changes in size and distribution of nuclear material that are characteristic of OED, a condition recognized by the occurrence of basal-cell-like features throughout the epithelial depth. SAM measures the axial intensity change of light backscattered from epithelial tissue. Scattering measurements are obtained from sequential axial scans of a 3-D tissue volume and displayed as a 2-D SAM image. A novel segmentation method is used to confine scattering measurement to epithelial tissue. This is applied to oral biopsy samples obtained from 19 patients. Our results show that imaging of tissue scattering can be used to discriminate between different dysplastic severities and furthermore presents a powerful tool for identifying the most representative tissue site for biopsy.

  16. Broadband Vibration Attenuation Using Hybrid Periodic Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asiri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents both theoretically and experimentally a new kind of a broadband vibration isolator. It is a table-like system formed by four parallel hybrid periodic rods connected between two plates. The rods consist of an assembly of periodic cells, each cell being composed of a short rod and piezoelectric inserts. By actively controlling the piezoelectric elements, it is shown that the periodic rods can efficiently attenuate the propagation of vibration from the upper plate to the lower one within critical frequency bands and consequently minimize the effects of transmission of undesirable vibration and sound radiation. In such a system, longitudinal waves can propagate from the vibration source in the upper plate to the lower one along the rods only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is efficiently attenuated within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The spectral width of these bands can be tuned according to the nature of the external excitation. The theory governing the operation of this class of vibration isolator is presented and their tunable filtering characteristics are demonstrated experimentally as functions of their design parameters. This concept can be employed in many applications to control the wave propagation and the force transmission of longitudinal vibrations both in the spectral and spatial domains in an attempt to stop/attenuate the propagation of undesirable disturbances.

  17. Prevention of intravenous bacterial injection from health care provider hands: the importance of catheter design and handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Randy W; Patel, Hetal M; Huysman, Bridget C; Kispert, David P; Koff, Matthew D; Gallagher, John D; Jensen, Jens T; Rowlands, John; Reddy, Sundara; Dodds, Thomas M; Yeager, Mark P; Ruoff, Kathryn L; Surgenor, Stephen D; Brown, Jeremiah R

    2012-11-01

    Device-related bloodstream infections are associated with a significant increase in patient morbidity and mortality in multiple health care settings. Recently, intraoperative bacterial contamination of conventional open-lumen 3-way stopcock sets has been shown to be associated with increased patient mortality. Intraoperative use of disinfectable, needleless closed catheter devices (DNCCs) may reduce the risk of bacterial injection as compared to conventional open-lumen devices due to an intrinsic barrier to bacterial entry associated with valve design and/or the capacity for surface disinfection. However, the relative benefit of DNCC valve design (intrinsic barrier capacity) as compared to surface disinfection in attenuation of bacterial injection in the clinical environment is untested and entirely unknown. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate the relative efficacy of a novel disinfectable stopcock, the Ultraport zero, with and without disinfection in attenuating intraoperative injection of potential bacterial pathogens as compared to a conventional open-lumen stopcock intravascular device. The secondary aims were to identify risk factors for bacterial injection and to estimate the quantity of bacterial organisms injected during catheter handling. Four hundred sixty-eight operating room environments were randomized by a computer generated list to 1 of 3 device-injection schemes: (1) injection of the Ultraport zero stopcock with hub disinfection before injection, (2) injection of the Ultraport zero stopcock without prior hub disinfection, and (3) injection of the conventional open-lumen stopcock closed with sterile caps according to usual practice. After induction of general anesthesia, the primary anesthesia provider caring for patients in each operating room environment was asked to perform a series of 5 injections of sterile saline through the assigned device into an ex vivo catheter system. The primary outcome was the incidence of bacterial

  18. Recovery of injected freshwater from a brackish aquifer with a multiwell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Dillon, Peter J; Pavelic, Paul; Barry, Karen; Kremer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Herein we propose a multiple injection and recovery well system strategically operated for freshwater storage in a brackish aquifer. With the system we call aquifer storage transfer and recovery (ASTR) by using four injection and two production wells, we are capable of achieving both high recovery efficiency of injected freshwater and attenuation of contaminants through adequately long residence times and travel distances within the aquifer. The usual aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) scheme, in which a single well is used for injection and recovery, does not warrant consistent treatment of injected water due to the shorter minimum residence times and travel distances. We tested the design and operation of the system over 3 years in a layered heterogeneous limestone aquifer in Salisbury, South Australia. We demonstrate how a combination of detailed aquifer characterization and solute transport modeling can be used to maintain acceptable salinity of recovered water for its intended use along with natural treatment of recharge water. ASTR can be used to reduce treatment costs and take advantage of aquifers with impaired water quality that might locally not be otherwise beneficially used. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Chloroquine attenuates paraquat-induced lung injury in mice by altering inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Wu, Na; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Tiegang; Zhao, Min

    2017-05-01

    Paraquat is one of the most extensively used herbicides and has high toxicity for humans and animals. However, there is no effective treatment for paraquat poisoning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chloroquine on paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of paraquat and a daily intraperitoneal injection of the indicated dosages of chloroquine or dexamethasone. The histological changes, inflammation and oxidative stress in the lungs were examined at day 3, and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis was examined at day 28. H&E staining showed that chloroquine markedly attenuated lung injury induced by paraquat. In addition, the inflammatory responses induced by paraquat were inhibited after treatment with chloroquine, as indicated by the decreased number of leukocytes, the reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the reduced NO content, and downregulation of iNOS expression in lung tissues. No different effect was found between high-dose chloroquine and dexamethasone. Additionally, the treatment with chloroquine increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA in the lung tissues. The expressions of the anti-oxidative proteins, Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1, were also upregulated by chloroquine treatment. The high-dose chloroquine was more effective than dexamethasone in its anti-oxidation ability. Finally, the results of Masson's staining illustrated that chloroquine markedly attenuated fibrosis in the paraquat-exposed lungs. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the expressions of the pro-fibrotic proteins TGF-β and α-SMA were downregulated after treatment with chloroquine. In conclusion, chloroquine effectively attenuated paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ONO1714, a new inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, attenuates sepsis-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K; Mikawa, K; Kodama , S; Obara, H

    2001-04-01

    Sepsis causes impairment of diaphragmatic contractility and endurance capacity. Nitric oxide (NO) produced via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis. Peroxynitrite, a NO-derived powerful oxidant, may be responsible for infection-induced diaphragmatic muscle failure. Therefore, we examined whether ONO1714, a new selective iNOS inhibitor, prevents sepsis-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Fifty male Golden-Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into five groups: hamsters that underwent sham laparotomy alone and received saline injection (Group Sham), those that underwent cecal ligation with puncture (CLP) and received saline injection (Group Sepsis), those that underwent sham laparotomy and received injection of ONO1714 0.3 mg/kg (Group Sham-ONO1714high), those that underwent CLP and received ONO1714 0.1 mg/kg (Group Sepsis-ONO1714low), and those that underwent CLP and received ONO1714 0.3 mg/kg (Group Sepsis-ONO1714high). ONO1714 or saline was intraperitoneally injected 10 min before surgery. Diaphragmatic contractility was assessed in vitro using diaphragm muscle strips excised 24 h after operation. Diaphragm fatigability was assessed by time until tension decreased to 50% of the initial value (T50%) during fatigue trials. Twitch, tetanic tensions, and T50% during fatigue trials were reduced in Group Sepsis. Pretreatment with ONO1714 dose-dependently attenuated sepsis-induced diaphragmatic contractile profiles and endurance capacity. CLP increased plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx; stable NO metabolites), and diaphragm malondialdehyde (MDA; a product of lipid peroxidation), positive immunostaining for nitrotyrosine (peroxynitrite footprint), and iNOS activity. ONO1714 attenuated the increase. This beneficial effect of ONO1714 may be attributable, in part, to inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm. Sepsis impairs diaphragmatic contractility and endurance capacity, which may be involved in acute respiratory

  1. Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph

    2014-09-01

    Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.

  2. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  3. Intensity attenuation in the Pannonian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Győri, Erzsébet; Gráczer, Zoltán; Szanyi, Gyöngyvér

    2015-04-01

    Ground motion prediction equations play a key role in seismic hazard assessment. Earthquake hazard has to be expressed in macroseismic intensities in case of seismic risk estimations where a direct relation to the damage associated with ground shaking is needed. It can be also necessary for shake map generation where the map is used for prompt notification to the public, disaster management officers and insurance companies. Although only few instrumental strong motion data are recorded in the Pannonian Basin, there are numerous historical reports of past earthquakes since the 1763 Komárom earthquake. Knowing the intensity attenuation and comparing them with relations of other areas - where instrumental strong motion data also exist - can help us to choose from the existing instrumental ground motion prediction equations. The aim of this work is to determine an intensity attenuation formula for the inner part of the Pannonian Basin, which can be further used to find an adaptable ground motion prediction equation for the area. The crust below the Pannonian Basin is thin and warm and it is overlain by thick sediments. Thus the attenuation of seismic waves here is different from the attenuation in the Alp-Carpathian mountain belt. Therefore we have collected intensity data only from the inner part of the Pannonian Basin and defined the boundaries of the studied area by the crust thickness of 30 km (Windhoffer et al., 2005). 90 earthquakes from 1763 until 2014 have sufficient number of macroseismic data. Magnitude of the events varies from 3.0 to 6.6. We have used individual intensity points to eliminate the subjectivity of drawing isoseismals, the number of available intensity data is more than 3000. Careful quality control has been made on the dataset. The different types of magnitudes of the used earthquake catalogue have been converted to local and momentum magnitudes using relations determined for the Pannonian Basin. We applied the attenuation formula by Sorensen

  4. Injection molding and debinding of micro gears fabricated by micro powder injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xin-lei; Yin, Hai-qing; Liu, Lin; Yi, Shan-jie; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2013-01-01

    Micro powder injection molding (μPIM) was investigated for possible mass production of micro-components at relatively low cost. However, scaling down to such a level produces challenges in injection molding and debinding. Micro gears were fabricated by μPIM from in-house feedstock. The effect of injection speed and injection pressure on the replication of the micro gear cavity was investigated. Solvent debinding and thermal debinding processes were discussed. The results show that micro gears can be successfully fabricated under the injection pressure of 70 MPa and the 60% injection speed. Either too low or too high injection speed can cause incomplete filling of micro gears. The same is the case with too low injection pressure. Too high injection pressure can bring cracks. Solvent debinding of micro gears was performed in a mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol. Subsequently, micro gears were successfully debound by a multistep heating schedule.

  5. Forum for injection techniques, India: The first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  6. Forum for injection techniques, India: the first Indian recommendations for best practice in insulin injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K M Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Wangnoo, Subhash K

    2012-11-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients' and health-care providers' perspective, it is essential to have guidelines to understand injections and injection techniques. The abridged version of the First Indian Insulin Injection technique guidelines developed by the Forum for Injection Technique (FIT) India presented here acknowledge good insulin injection techniques and provide evidence-based recommendations to assist diabetes care providers in improving their clinical practice.

  7. Phenolic antioxidants attenuate hippocampal neuronal cell damage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of the hippocampus region of brain after KA injection. The lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were significantly (P < 0⋅05) increased in comparison to controls. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (EC. 1⋅11⋅1⋅9) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content declined after appearance of excitotoxic lesions. As GPx ...

  8. Determination of the attenuation map in emission tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    2002-01-01

    Reliable attenuation correction methods for quantitative emission computed tomography (ECT) require accurate delineation of the body contour and often necessitate knowledge of internal anatomical structure. Two broad classes of methods have been used to calculate the attenuation map referred to as "transmissionless" and transmission-based attenuation correction techniques. While calculated attenuation correction belonging to the first class of methods is appropriate for brain studies, more adequate methods must be performed in clinical applications where the attenuation coefficient distribution is not known a priori, and for areas of inhomogeneous attenuation such as the chest. Measured attenuation correction overcomes this problem and utilizes different approaches to determine this map including transmission scanning, segmented magnetic resonance images or appropriately scaled X-ray CT scans acquired either independently on separate or simultaneously on multimodality imaging systems. Combination of data acqu...

  9. Deltoid injections of risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.

  10. Resin injection in clays with high plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowamooz, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    Regarding the injection process of polyurethane resins in clays with high plasticity, this paper presents the experimental results of the pressuremeter and cone penetration tests before and after injection. A very important increase in pressure limit or in soil resistance can be observed for all the studied depths close to the injection points. An analytical analysis for cylindrical pore cavity expansion in cohesive frictional soils obeying the Mohr-Coulomb criterion was then used to reproduce the pressuremeter tests before and after injection. The model parameters were calibrated by maintaining constant the elasticity parameters as well as the friction angel before and after injection. A significant increase in cohesion was observed because of soil densification after resin expansion. The estimated undrained cohesions, derived from the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb criterion, were also compared with the cone penetration tests. Globally, the model predictions show the efficiency of resin injection in clay soils with high plasticity.

  11. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  12. [Penehyclidine hydrochloride attenuates LPS-induced acute lung injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Wei, Min; Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Guoxia

    2017-11-01

    Objective To study the protective effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHCD) against acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. Methods 36 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group, LPS-induced shock group (LPS group), and PHCD treated group (PHCD group). Rat shock model was prepared by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). The rats of PHCD group were treated with PHCD (1.0 mg/kg) by caudal vein injection. Rat blood gas analysis was performed 6 hours after the injection. Lung wet/dry mass ratio (W/D) was detected after the rats were sacrificed. The levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were tested by ELISA. The lung tissue inflammation was observed by HE staining. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis. Results Compared with the control group, lung W/D and blood lactate acid (LAC) increased significantly in the LPS group, while the blood pH and the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ) decreased markedly. The levels of TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-6 significantly increased in lung BALF of the LPS-induced rats, and the expression of iNOS increased significantly. HE staining showed that LPS treatment caused pulmonary edema, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration. After PHCD treatment, lung W/D and LAC were reduced; the pH and PaO 2 were elevated compared with LPS-induced rats; the levels of TNF-α, IL-8 and IL-6 in BALF were evidently down-regulated; the expression of iNOS decreased obviously. HE staining showed that the lung inflammation was attenuated by PHCD treatment. Conclusion PHCD attenuates lung injury by inhibiting LPS-induced lung inflammation.

  13. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    OpenAIRE

    German, Randall M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and im...

  14. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and ...

  15. Cellulitis Developing After Intramuscular Metamizole Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Ozturk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If the suitable technique is not used in intramuscular injection applications and the injection area is not detected correctly, complications may be observed. Our patient was given intramuscular Metamizole in his house and then he had cellulitis with necrosis area. Following an antibiotic treatment, tissue defect was primarily covered with gluteal muscle skin flap. Cellulitis development after metamizole injection is not common still potential side effects should be considered before prescription.

  16. Paediatric Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Beena Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury phobia is a major health issue throughout the life span. It usually starts in early childhood. Avoidance of health care is seen in such individuals. Children with blood injection injury phobia have uncontrollable fear of blood, injury, injections and needles. Because of the intense fear, these children will do everything possible to avoid it. Various physical symptoms including increased heart rate, chest discomfort, trembling movements, feeling of choking and syncope...

  17. Autologous Fat Injection for Augmented Mammoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eul Sik; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Yi, Ann; Cho, Kyu Ran [Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Autologous fat injection is one of the methods utilized for augmented mammoplasty methods. In this surgical procedure, the fat for transfer is obtained from the donor site of the patient's own body by liposuction and the fat is then injected into the breast. We report here cases of three patients who underwent autologous fat injection. Two of the patients had palpable masses that were present after surgery. The serial imaging findings and surgical method of autologous fat transfer are demonstrated

  18. Characteristic of Extracellular Zn2+ Influx in the Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus and Its Involvement in Attenuation of LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Koike, Yuta; Osaw, Misa; Tamano, Haruna

    2018-03-01

    An increased influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into neurons is a cause of cognitive decline. The influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells was compared between young and middle-aged rats because of vulnerability of the dentate gyrus to aging. The influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells was increased in middle-aged rats after injection of AMPA and high K + into the dentate gyrus, but not in young rats. Simultaneously, high K + -induced attenuation of LTP was observed in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats. The attenuation was rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator. Intracellular Zn 2+ in dentate granule cells was also increased in middle-aged slices with high K + , in which the increase in extracellular Zn 2+ was the same as young slices with high K + , suggesting that ability of extracellular Zn 2+ influx into dentate granule cells is greater in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, extracellular zinc concentration in the hippocampus was increased age-dependently. The present study suggests that the influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells is more readily increased in middle-aged rats and that its increase is a cause of age-related attenuation of LTP in the dentate gyrus.

  19. Ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates chronic morphine-induced gliosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Brian

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of analgesic tolerance following chronic morphine administration can be a significant clinical problem. Preclinical studies demonstrate that chronic morphine administration induces spinal gliosis and that inhibition of gliosis prevents the development of analgesic tolerance to opioids. Many studies have also demonstrated that ultra-low doses of naltrexone inhibit the development of spinal morphine antinociceptive tolerance and clinical studies demonstrate that it has opioid sparing effects. In this study we demonstrate that ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates glial activation, which may contribute to its effects on attenuating tolerance. Results Spinal cord sections from rats administered chronic morphine showed significantly increased immuno-labelling of astrocytes and microglia compared to saline controls, consistent with activation. 3-D images of astrocytes from animals administered chronic morphine had significantly larger volumes compared to saline controls. Co-injection of ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuated this increase in volume, but the mean volume differed from saline-treated and naltrexone-treated controls. Astrocyte and microglial immuno-labelling was attenuated in rats co-administered ultra-low dose naltrexone compared to morphine-treated rats and did not differ from controls. Glial activation, as characterized by immunohistochemical labelling and cell size, was positively correlated with the extent of tolerance developed. Morphine-induced glial activation was not due to cell proliferation as there was no difference observed in the total number of glial cells following chronic morphine treatment compared to controls. Furthermore, using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, no increase in spinal cord cell proliferation was observed following chronic morphine administration. Conclusion Taken together, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the prevention of analgesic tolerance and the inhibition of

  20. Ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates chronic morphine-induced gliosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Theresa-Alexandra M; Milne, Brian; Cahill, Catherine M

    2010-04-16

    The development of analgesic tolerance following chronic morphine administration can be a significant clinical problem. Preclinical studies demonstrate that chronic morphine administration induces spinal gliosis and that inhibition of gliosis prevents the development of analgesic tolerance to opioids. Many studies have also demonstrated that ultra-low doses of naltrexone inhibit the development of spinal morphine antinociceptive tolerance and clinical studies demonstrate that it has opioid sparing effects. In this study we demonstrate that ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuates glial activation, which may contribute to its effects on attenuating tolerance. Spinal cord sections from rats administered chronic morphine showed significantly increased immuno-labelling of astrocytes and microglia compared to saline controls, consistent with activation. 3-D images of astrocytes from animals administered chronic morphine had significantly larger volumes compared to saline controls. Co-injection of ultra-low dose naltrexone attenuated this increase in volume, but the mean volume differed from saline-treated and naltrexone-treated controls. Astrocyte and microglial immuno-labelling was attenuated in rats co-administered ultra-low dose naltrexone compared to morphine-treated rats and did not differ from controls. Glial activation, as characterized by immunohistochemical labelling and cell size, was positively correlated with the extent of tolerance developed. Morphine-induced glial activation was not due to cell proliferation as there was no difference observed in the total number of glial cells following chronic morphine treatment compared to controls. Furthermore, using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine, no increase in spinal cord cell proliferation was observed following chronic morphine administration. Taken together, we demonstrate a positive correlation between the prevention of analgesic tolerance and the inhibition of spinal gliosis by treatment with ultra-low dose naltrexone

  1. The use of intraosseous needles for injection of contrast media for computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Michael; Talley, Cynthia; Woodward, Connor; Kingsbury, Alexander; Appiah, Frank; Elbelasi, Hossam; Landwher, Kevin; Li, Xingzhe; Fleischmann, Dominik

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and quality of computed tomographic angiography of the thoracic aorta (CTA-TA) exams performed using intraosseous needle intravenous access (ION-IVA) for contrast media injection (CMI). All CTA-TA exams at the study institution performed between 1/1/2013 and 8/14/2015 were reviewed retrospectively to identify those exams which had been performed using ION-IVA (ION-exams). ION-exams were then analyzed to determine aortic attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Linear regression was used to determine how injection rate and other variables affected image quality for ION-exams. Patient electronic medical records were reviewed to identify any adverse events related to CTA-TA or ION-IVA. 17 (∼0.2%) of 7401 exams were ION-exams. ION-exam CMI rates varied between 2.5 and 4 ml/s. Mean attenuation was 312 HU (SD 88 HU) and mean CNR was 25 (SD 9.9). A strong positive linear association between attenuation and injection rate was found. No immediate or delayed complications related to the ION-exams, or intraosseous needle use in general, occurred. For CTA-TA, ION-IVA appears to be a safe and effective route for CMI at rates up to 4 ml/s. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicines, injections, and supplements for arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthritis - medications; Arthritis - steroid injections; Arthritis - supplements; Arthritis - hyaluronic acid ... in your joints. These two substances come in supplement form and can be bought over-the-counter. ...

  3. Corticosteroid Injections for Adhesive Capsulitis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ryan C; Walley, Kempland C; DeAngelis, Joseph P; Ramappa, Arun J

    2017-05-01

    Adhesive capsulitis is a self-limiting condition in a majority of patients and is often treated nonoperatively. However, symptoms may take 2 to 3 years to resolve fully. A small, but significant, portion of patients require surgical intervention. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid injections for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis (AC). A review of articles indexed by the United States National Library of Medicine was conducted by querying the PubMed database for studies involving participants with AC, frozen shoulder, stiff shoulder, or painful shoulder. Articles that included corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, steroids, and injections were included. Corticosteroid injections provide significant symptom relief for 2 to 24 weeks. Injections can be performed intra-articularly or into the subacromial space. Evidence suggests that a 20 mg dose of triamcinolone may be as effective as a 40 mg injection. It remains unclear whether image-guided injections produce a clinically significant difference in outcomes when compared with landmark-guided (blind) injections. Corticosteroids may be less beneficial for diabetic patients. Patients using protease inhibitors (antiretroviral therapy) should not receive triamcinolone because the drug-drug interaction may result in iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. Corticosteroid injections for AC demonstrate short-term efficacy, but may not provide a long-term benefit. More high quality, prospective studies are needed to determine whether corticosteroid injections using ultrasound guidance significantly improve outcomes.

  4. Subdural injection: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadavid-Puentes, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two cases are reported of accidental subdural injection during epidural procedures for pain control. The first one was a man with chronic lumbar pain who suffered such complication during an epidural injection of steroids using the interlaminar approach. The second one was a woman with intracranial hypotension syndrome who required the application of an epidural blood patch in order to control multiple CSF fistulae. The procedure had to be aborted twice due to the subdural pattern observed after injection of the contrast medium. Accidental subdural block is a rare complication of epidural injection for analgesic or anesthetic procedures.

  5. Administration of Injectable Vitamin K Orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasjeva, Janna

    2017-10-01

    Background: Vitamin K, or phytonadione, is available in both injectable and oral formulations. Oral vitamin K is available as 5-mg tablets, but the key drawbacks for using vitamin K tablets consist of availability of only 1 dose strength and recent tripling of the product's cost over a 2-year period. An interest exists for utilization of injectable vitamin K via oral route. Method: A literature search was performed on April 26, 2017, to identify any studies describing the use of injectable vitamin K for oral administration. The search involved PubMed and Embase and utilized various combinations of keywords vitamin K , phytonadione , IV , intravenous , injectable , and oral . The results were limited to studies that discussed oral administration of injectable vitamin K. The efficacy of the injectable preparation of vitamin K administered orally was explored in 6 studies and one cost-savings project. Results: Based on the available literature, the administration of injectable vitamin K via oral route is effective and safe. Injectable vitamin K for oral administration can be prepared as an undiluted solution or as a compounded solution. These 2 formulations have different beyond-use dates depending on ingredients used. Conclusion: Information on efficacy and stability of injectable vitamin K formulations prepared for oral administration provides an additional option for health care systems when vitamin K tablets are unavailable or cost-prohibitive to use.

  6. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  7. 21 CFR 522.2220 - Sulfadimethoxine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disease caused by Streptococcus equi (strangles). (b) It is administered by intravenous injection at an... when caused by Streptococci, Staphylococci, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Proteus, or Shigella...

  8. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  9. Nicolau Syndrome after Intramuscular Injection: 3 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection consisting of ischemic necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and muscular tissue that arises locoregionally. The characteristic pattern is pain around the injection site, developing into erythema, a livedoid dermatitis patch, and necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat, and muscle tissue. Three patients were injected with drugs (diclofenac sodium, ketoprofen, meperidine for pain relief. Three patients complained of pain, and a skin lesion was observed, after which necrosis developed on their buttocks. Each patient underwent debridement and coverage. The wound healed uneventfully. We report three cases of Nicolau syndrome in the buttocks following diclofenac intramuscular injection.

  10. Injection of Fluids into Supercritical Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oschwald, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes and compares the results of systematic research programs at two independent laboratories regarding the injection of cryogenic liquids at subcritical and supercritical pressures...

  11. Hydrogen injection device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the increasing ratio of main steam system dose rate due to N-16 activity due to excess hydrogen injection in the hydrogen injection operation of BWR type reactors. Constitution: There are provided a hydrogen injection mechanism for injecting hydrogen into primary coolants of a BWR type reactor, and a chemical injection device for injecting chemicals such as methanol, which makes nitrogen radioisotopes resulted in the reactor water upon hydrogen injection non-volatile, into the pressure vessel separately from hydrogen. Injected hydrogen and the chemicals are not reacted in the feedwater system, but the reaction proceeds due to the presence of radioactive rays after the injection into the pressure vessel. Then, hydrogen causes re-combination in the downcomer portion to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, about 70 % of the chemicals is supplied by means of a jet pump directly to the reactor core, thereby converting the chemical form of N-16 in the reactor core more oxidative (non-volatile). (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. An Innovative Needle-free Injection System: Comparison to 1 ml Standard Subcutaneous Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Nikola; Goyal, Pragun; Lou, Cheryl Hamer; Corwin, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    A needle-free delivery system may lead to improved satisfaction and compliance, as well as reduced anxiety among patients requiring frequent or ongoing injections. This report describes a first-in-man assessment comparing Portal Instruments' innovative needle-free injection system with subcutaneous injections using a 27G needle. Forty healthy volunteer participants each received a total of four injections of 1.0 mL sterile saline solution, two with a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle, and two using the Portal injection system. Perception of pain was measured using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Injection site reactions were assessed at 2 min and at 20-30 min after each injection. Follow-up contact was made 24-48 h after the injections. Subject preference regarding injection type was also assessed. VAS pain scores at Portal injection sites met the criteria to be considered non-inferior to the pain reported at 27G needle injection sites (i.e., upper 95% confidence bound less than +5 mm). Based on a mixed effects model, at time 0, accounting for potential confounding variables, the adjusted difference in VAS scores indicated that Portal injections were 6.5 mm lower than the 27G needle injections (95% CI -10.5, -2.5). No clinically important adverse events were noted. Portal injections were preferred by 24 (60%) of the subjects (P = 0.0015). As an early step in the development of this new needle-free delivery system, the current study has shown that a 1.0-mL saline injection can be given with less pain reported than a standard subcutaneous injection using a 27G needle.

  13. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    . The residual blowing agent remaining after the six-week period may be very slowly released if the integrity of the foam particles with respect to diffusional properties is kept after disposal of the foam waste in landfills. Laboratory experiments simulating attenuation processes in the landfilled waste...... and the landfill soil cover showed a substantial degradation of CFC-11 and to a lesser extent of HCFC- 141b which may lead to significant emission reduction of the blowing agents. HFC-134a and HFC-245fa were not degraded in the landfilled waste or the cover soil within the time frame of the experiments (210 days)....

  14. High power radio frequency attenuation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Quentin A.; Miller, Harold W.

    1984-01-01

    A resistor device for attenuating radio frequency power includes a radio frequency conductor connected to a series of fins formed of high relative magnetic permeability material. The fins are dimensional to accommodate the skin depth of the current conduction therethrough, as well as an inner heat conducting portion where current does not travel. Thermal connections for air or water cooling are provided for the inner heat conducting portions of each fin. Also disclosed is a resistor device to selectively alternate unwanted radio frequency energy in a resonant cavity.

  15. Antiflammin-1 attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wan, Jing; Han, Jian-Zhong; Li, Chen; Feng, Dan-Dan; Yue, Shao-Jie; Huang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Yi; Cheng, Qing-Mei; Li, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang

    2013-10-08

    Antiflammin-1 (AF-1), a derivative of uteroglobin (UG), is a synthetic nonapeptide with diverse biological functions. In the present study, we investigated whether AF-1 has a protective effect against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were injected with bleomycin intratracheally to create an animal model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. On Day 7 and Day 28, we examined the anti-inflammatory effect and antifibrotic effect, respectively, of AF-1 on the bleomycin-treated mice. The effects of AF-1 on the transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced proliferation of murine lung fibroblasts (NIH3T3) were examined by a bromodeoxycytidine (BrdU) incorporation assay and cell cycle analysis. Severe lung inflammation and fibrosis were observed in the bleomycin-treated mice on Day 7 and Day 28, respectively. Administration of AF-1 significantly reduced the number of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in the lung homogenates on Day 7. Histological examination revealed that AF-1 markedly reduced the number of infiltrating cells on Day 7 and attenuated the collagen deposition and destruction of lung architecture on Day 28. The hydroxyproline (HYP) content was significantly decreased in the AF-1-treated mice. In vitro, AF-1 inhibited the TGF-β1-induced proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, which was mediated by the UG receptor. AF-1 has anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions in bleomycin-induced lung injury. We propose that the antifibrotic effect of AF-1 might be related to its suppression of fibroblast growth in bleomycin-treated lungs and that AF-1 has potential as a new therapeutic tool for pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Evaluation of individually body weight adapted contrast media injection in coronary CT-angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihl, Casper; Kok, Madeleine; Altintas, Sibel; Kietselaer, Bas L J H; Turek, Jakub; Wildberger, Joachim E; Das, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Contrast media (CM) injection protocols should be customized to the individual patient. Aim of this study was to determine if software tailored CM injections result in diagnostic enhancement of the coronary arteries in computed tomography angiography (CTA) and if attenuation values were comparable between different weight categories. 265 consecutive patients referred for routine coronary CTA were scanned on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group 1 (n=141) received an individual CM bolus based on weight categories (39-59 kg; 60-74 kg; 75-94 kg; 95-109 kg) and scan duration ('high-pitch: 1s; "dual-step prospective triggering": 7s), as determined by contrast injection software (Certegra™ P3T, Bayer, Berlin, Germany). Group 2 (n=124) received a standard fixed CM bolus; Iopromide 300 mgI/ml; volume: 75 ml; flow rate: 7.2 ml/s. Contrast enhancement was measured in all proximal and distal coronary segments. Subjective and objective image quality was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM, version 20.0). For group 1, mean attenuation values of all segments were diagnostic (>325 HU) without statistical significant differences between different weight categories (p>0.17), proximal vs. distal: 449 ± 65-373 ± 58 HU (39-59 kg); 443 ± 69-367 ± 81 HU (60-74 kg); 427 ± 59-370 ± 61 HU (75-94 kg); 427 ± 73-347 ± 61 HU (95-109 kg). Mean CM volumes were: 55 ± 6 ml (39-59 kg); 61 ± 7 ml (60-74 kg); 71 ± 8 ml (75-94 kg); 84 ± 9 ml (95-109 kg). For group 2, mean attenuation values were not all diagnostic with differences between weight categories (p<0.01), proximal vs. distal: 611 ± 142-408 ± 69 HU (39-59 kg); 562 ± 135-389 ± 98 HU (60-74 kg); 481 ± 83-329 ± 81 HU (75-94 kg); 420 ± 73-305 ± 35 HU (95-109 kg). Comparable image noise and image quality were found between groups (p ≥ 0.330). Individually tailored CM injection protocols yield diagnostic attenuation and a more homogeneous enhancement pattern between different weight groups. CM

  17. Netrin-1 rescues neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in ipsilateral thalamic nucleus following focal cerebral infarction in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S-J; Gong, Q; Chen, X-R; Ye, L-X; Ding, Q; Zeng, J-S; Yu, J

    2013-02-12

    Neurological deficit following cerebral infarction correlates with not only primary injury, but also secondary neuronal apoptosis in remote loci connected to the infarction. Netrin-1 is crucial for axonal guidance by interacting with its receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) and uncoordinated gene 5H (UNC5H). DCC and UNC5H are also dependence receptors inducing cell apoptosis when unbound by netrin-1. The present study is to investigate the role of netrin-1 and its receptors in ipsilateral ventroposterior thalamic nucleus (VPN) injury secondary to stroke in hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Continuous intracerebroventricular infusion of netrin-1 (600 ng/d for 7 days) or vehicle (IgG/Fc) was given 24h after MCAO. Neurological function was evaluated by postural reflex 8 and 14 days after MCAO. Then, immunoreactivity was determined in the ipsilateral VPN for NeuN, glial fibrillary acidic protein, netrin-1 and its receptors (DCC and UNC5H2), apoptosis was detected with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the expressions of caspase-3, netrin-1, DCC, and UNC5H2 were quantified by western blot analysis. MCAO resulted in the impaired postural reflex after 8 and 14 days, with decreased NeuN marked neurons and increased TUNEL-positive cells, as well as an up-regulation in the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and UNC5H2 protein in the ipsilateral VPN, without significant change in DCC or netrin-1 expression. By exogenous netrin-1 infusion, the number of neurons was increased in the ipsilateral VPN, and both TUNEL-positive cell number and caspase-3 protein level were reduced, while UNC5H2 expression remained unaffected, simultaneously, the impairment of postural reflex was improved. Taken together, the present study indicates that exogenous netrin-1 could rescue neuron loss by attenuating secondary apoptosis in the

  18. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... from the injection zone for as long as the waste remains hazardous. This final decision allows the... Class I hazardous waste injection wells WDW-51 and WDW- 99 and WDW-408 until December 31, 2028, unless...

  19. Optogenetic inhibition of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calu, Donna J; Kawa, Alex B; Marchant, Nathan J; Navarre, Brittany M; Henderson, Mark J; Chen, Billy; Yau, Hau-Jie; Bossert, Jennifer M; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Deisseroth, Karl; Harvey, Brandon K; Hope, Bruce T; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-02

    Relapse to maladaptive eating habits during dieting is often provoked by stress. Recently, we identified a role of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons in stress-induced reinstatement of palatable food seeking in male rats. It is unknown whether endogenous neural activity in dorsal mPFC drives stress-induced reinstatement in female rats. Here, we used an optogenetic approach, in which female rats received bilateral dorsal mPFC microinjections of viral constructs coding light-sensitive eNpHR3.0-eYFP or control eYFP protein and intracranial fiber optic implants. Rats were food restricted and trained to lever press for palatable food pellets. Subsequently, pellets were removed, and lever pressing was extinguished; then the effect of bilateral dorsal mPFC light delivery on reinstatement of food seeking was assessed after injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (an α-2 andrenoceptor antagonist) or pellet priming, a manipulation known to provoke food seeking in hungry rats. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected rats. This optical manipulation had no effect on pellet-priming-induced reinstatement or ongoing food-reinforced responding. Dorsal mPFC light delivery attenuated yohimbine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and disrupted neural activity during in vivo electrophysiological recording in awake rats. Optical stimulation caused significant outward currents and blocked electrically evoked action potentials in eNpHR3.0-injected but not eYFP-injected mPFC hemispheres. Light delivery alone caused no significant inflammatory response in mPFC. These findings indicate that intracranial light delivery in eNpHR3.0 rats disrupts endogenous dorsal mPFC neural activity that plays a role in stress-induced relapse to food seeking in female rats.

  20. Biodistribution and safety of a live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine in the cynomolgus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Guillaume; Mantel, Nathalie; Silvano, Jeremy; Rogue, Alexandra; Guy, Bruno; Jackson, Nicholas; Burdin, Nicolas

    2017-10-13

    The first licensed dengue vaccine is a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue virus vaccine (CYD-TDV; Sanofi Pasteur). This study assessed the biodistribution, shedding, and toxicity of CYD-TDV in a non-human primate model as part of the nonclinical safety assessment program for the vaccine. Cynomolgus monkeys were given one subcutaneous injection of either one human dose (5log 10 CCID 50 /serotype) of CYD-TDV or saline control. Study endpoints included clinical observations, body temperature, body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology, immunogenicity, and post-mortem examinations including histopathology. Viral load, distribution, persistence, and shedding in tissues and body fluids were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The subcutaneous administration of CYD-TDV was well tolerated. There were no toxicological findings other than expected minor local reactions at the injection site. A transient low level of CYD-TDV viral RNA was detected in blood and the viral genome was identified primarily at the injection site and in the draining lymph nodes following immunization. These results, together with other data from repeat-dose toxicity and neurovirulence studies, confirm the absence of toxicological concern with CYD-TDV and corroborate clinical study observations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Garlic-supplemented diet attenuates gentamicin-induced ototoxicity: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Lokman; Balbaloglu, Evrim; Akinci, Harun

    2012-02-01

    Gentamicin sulfate is a potent aminoglycoside antibiotic associated with serious side effects, including ototoxicity. Garlic, with its intrinsic antioxidant activity, may prove beneficial in prevention of ototoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effect of a 4% garlic-supplemented diet on the ototoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats by using brain stem evoked response audiometry. Eighteen male Wistar rats with an intact Preyer's reflex and an initial weight of 220 to 260 g were randomly assigned to a group with gentamicin injection and garlic supplementation, a group with gentamicin injection without garlic supplementation, or a control group (6 rats each group). Gentamicin was given by intraperitoneal injection at 120 mg/kg body weight once daily for 16 days. The garlic-supplemented diet was prepared by adding pulverized whole garlic cloves to standard chow in a 4% proportion. After 21 days, hearing thresholds were evaluated by use of brain stem evoked response audiometry at 10 kHz. The mean (+/- SD) amplitudes of the auditory thresholds (sensation level) measured by use of brain stem evoked response audiometry for the group with garlic supplementation, the group without garlic, and the control group were 43.3 +/- 8.16, 78.0 +/- 4.47, and 16.7 +/- 5.16 dB sensation level, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (p garlic-supplemented diet seems to attenuate aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss.

  2. MEMANTINE ATTENUATES THE OKADAIC ACID INDUCED SHORT-TERM SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LOSS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashniani, M; Chighladze, M; Burjanadze, M; Beselia, G; Kruashvili, L

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the possible beneficial effect of memantine on the Okadaic Acid (OA) induced spatial short-term memory impairment was examined in spatial alternation task, and the neuroprotective potential of memantine on OA-induced structural changes in the hippocampus was evaluated by Nissl staining. OA was dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and injected intracerebroventriculary (ICV) 200 ng in a volume of 10 μl bilaterally. Vehicle control received aCSF ICV bilaterally. Control and OA injected rats were divided into 2 subgroups injected i.p. with saline or memantine (5 mg/kg). Memantine or saline were given daily for 13 days starting from the day of OA injection. Behavioral study showed that bilateral ICV microinjection of OA induced impairment in spatial short-term memory. Nissl staining in the present study showed that the ICV microinjection of OA significantly decreased the number of surviving pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Chronic administration of memantine effectively attenuated OA induced spatial short-term memory impairment and the OA-induced neuropathological changes in the hippocampus. Therefore, ICV injection of OA can be used as an experimental model to study mechanisms of neurodegeneration and define novel therapeutics targets for AD pathology.

  3. Ototoxicity-induced loss of hearing and inner hair cells is attenuated by HSP70 gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Takada

    Full Text Available The most common reason for sensorineural deafness is death of hair cells (HCs. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are molecular chaperones that participate in folding, targeting, and degrading proteins. HSP expression is increased in response to various environmental stresses to protect cells from damage. Here, we tested whether viral-mediated overexpression of HSP70 can protect HCs and hearing from severe ototoxicity (kanamycin and furosemide in guinea pigs. Adenovirus-HSP70 mCherry (Ad.HSP70-mCherry was injected to experimental animals and adenovirus-mCherry to controls, 4 days before the ototoxic insult. Hearing thresholds were measured by auditory brainstem response before the insult and again before sacrificing the animals, 14 days after the insult. Epi-fluorescence immunocytochemistry showed that injection of Ad.HSP70-mCherry resulted in mCherry fluorescence in nonsensory cells of the organ of Corti. The ototoxic insult eliminated both outer HCs and inner HCs throughout most of the cochlea of control (adenovirus-mCherry-injected ears and contralateral (uninjected ears. Ad.HSP70-mCherry-injected ears exhibited a significant preservation of inner HCs compared to control and contralateral ears, but outer HCs were not protected. Auditory brainstem response thresholds were significantly better in Ad.HSP70-mCherry-injected ears than in control and contralateral ears. Our data show that HSP70 augmentation may represent a potential therapy attenuating ototoxic inner HC loss.

  4. Forum for Injection Techniques, India: The First Indian Recommendations for Best Practice in Insulin Injection Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Baruah, Manash P.; Chadha, Manoj; Chandalia, Hemraj B.; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Kumar, K. M. Prasanna; Modi, Sonal; Pitale, Shailesh; Shukla, Rishi; Sahay, Rakesh; Sundaram, Annamalai; Unnikrishnan, Ambika G.; Wangnoo, Subhash K.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of diabetes have led to an increase in the number of injectable therapies, such as human insulin, insulin analogues, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique, among many other factors. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes. From the patients′ and health-care providers′ perspective, it is essential to have guideline...

  5. Cranking model and attenuation of Coriolis interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutorovich, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    Description of rotational bands of odd deformed nuclei in the self-consistent Cranking model (SCM) is given. Causes of attenuation of the Coriolis interaction in the nuclei investigated are studied, and account of bound of one-particle degrees of freedom with rotation of the Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) self-consistent method is introduced additionally to SCM for qualitative agreement with experimental data. Merits and shortages of SCM in comparison with the quadruparticle-rotor (QR) model are discussed. All know ways for constructing the Hamiltonian QR model (or analog of such Hamiltonian) on the basis of the microscopic theory are shown to include two more approximations besides others: quasi-particle-rotational interaction leading to pair break is taken into account in the second order of the perturbation theory; some exchange diagrams are neglected among diagrams of the second order according to this interaction. If one makes the same approximations in SCM instead of HFB method, then the dependence of level energies on spin obtained in this case is turned out to be close to the results of the QR model. Besides, the problem on renormalization of matrix elements of quasi-rotational interaction occurs in such nonself-consistent approach as in the QR model. In so far as the similar problem does not occur in SCM, one can make the conclusion that the problem of attenuation of Coriolis interaction involves the approximations given above

  6. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yujun [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Li, Jian-Dong [Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, and Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Yan, Chen, E-mail: Chen_Yan@urmc.rochester.edu [Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis.

  7. Vinpocetine attenuates lipid accumulation and atherosclerosis formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yujun; Li, Jian-Dong; Yan, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Vinpocetine attenuates hyperlipidemia-induced atherosclerosis in a mouse model. •Vinpocetine antagonizes ox-LDL uptake and accumulation in macrophages. •Vinpocetine blocks the induction of ox-LDL receptor LOX-1 in vitro and in vivo. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis, the major cause of myocardial infarction and stroke, is a chronic arterial disease characterized by lipid deposition and inflammation in the vessel wall. Cholesterol, in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vinpocetine, a derivative of the alkaloid vincamine, has long been used as a cerebral blood flow enhancer for treating cognitive impairment. Recent study indicated that vinpocetine is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. However, its role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that vinpocetine significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE knockout mice fed with a high-fat diet. In cultured murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, vinpocetine markedly attenuated oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) uptake and foam cell formation. Moreover, vinpocetine greatly blocked the induction of ox-LDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) in cultured macrophages as well as in the LOX-1 level in atherosclerotic lesions. Taken together, our data reveal a novel role of vinpocetine in reduction of pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, at least partially through suppressing LOX-1 signaling pathway. Given the excellent safety profile of vinpocetine, this study suggests vinpocetine may be a therapeutic candidate for treating atherosclerosis

  8. Ultra-low acoustoelectric attenuation in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the acoustoelectric properties of graphene and extract its acoustoelectric attenuation Γ as a function of the carrier density n, tuned via ionic liquid gating. Acoustoelectric effects in graphene are induced by launching surface acoustic waves (SAWs) on a piezoelectric LiNbO3 substrate. We measure the acoustoelectric current Iae through graphene and extract the SAW attenuation factor Γ as a function of n. The magnitude of Iae increases with decreasing n when the n is far from the charge neutral point (CNP). When n is tuned across the CNP, Iae first exhibits a local maximum, vanishes at the CNP, and then changes sign in accordance with the associated change in the carrier polarity. By contrast, Γ monotonically increases with decreasing n and reaches a maximum at the CNP. The extracted values of Γ, calibrated at the central frequency of 189 MHz, vary from ˜0.4 m-1 to 6.8 m-1, much smaller than the values for known two-dimensional systems. Data analysis suggests that the evolution of Iae and Γ with n manifests the electronic states of graphene. Our experimental findings provide insightful information for developing innovative graphene-based devices.

  9. Omentin functions to attenuate cardiac hypertrophic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Rei; Ohashi, Koji; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Enomoto, Takashi; Yuasa, Daisuke; Joki, Yusuke; Ito, Masanori; Hayakawa, Satoko; Ogawa, Hayato; Kihara, Shinji; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in many obesity-related conditions. Omentin is an adipose-derived plasma protein that is downregulated under obese conditions. Here, we investigated whether omentin modulates cardiac hypertrophic responses in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of an adenoviral vector expressing human omentin (Ad-OMT) to wild-type (WT) mice led to the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and ERK phosphorylation induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or angiotensin II infusion. In cultured cardiomyocytes, stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) led to an increase in myocyte size, which was prevented by pretreatment with human omentin protein. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with omentin protein also reduced ERK phosphorylation in response to PE stimulation. Ad-OMT enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the heart of WT mice after TAC operation. Blockade of AMPK activation by transduction with dominant-negative mutant forms of AMPK reversed the inhibitory effect of omentin on myocyte hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following PE stimulation. Moreover, fat-specific transgenic mice expressing human omentin showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following TAC surgery compared to littermate controls. These data suggest that omentin functions to attenuate the pathological process of myocardial hypertrophy via the activation of AMPK in the heart, suggesting that omentin may represent a target molecule for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  11. Rings with finite Gorenstein injective dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Henrik Granau

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we prove that for any associative ring R, and for any left R-module M with nite projective dimension, the Gorenstein injective dimension GidRM equals the usual injective dimension idRM. In particular, if GidRR is nite, then also idRR is nite, and thus R is Gorenstein (provided that ...

  12. The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Rikke; Just, Søren Andreas; Jensen Hansen, Inger Marie

    The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87......The risk of intraarticular injections are overestimated. Volume 73, Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, the EULAR Journal,, June 2014 volume 73, supplement 2, p. 286-87...

  13. Charge Injection and Transport in Organic Nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Bøggild, Peter; Rubahn, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the carrier injection and transport in individual para-hexaphenylene nanofibers by electrical transport measurements at different temperatures. The injected current shows much weaker temperature dependence than what would be anticipated from a simplistic model that considers the in...

  14. Polyamide 6-long glass fiber injection mouldings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, H.; Gaymans, R.J.; Bijsterbosch, H.

    1995-01-01

    The injection molding ability of long glass fiber reinforced polyamide pellets was studied. The injection moldable materials were produced by a melt impregnation process of continuous fiber rovings. The rovings were chopped to pellets of 9 mm length. Chopped pellets with a variation in the degree of

  15. Ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nayera Saber

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... injection;. Plantar fascia thickness;. Mayo clinic scoring system. Abstract Objective: This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound guided local steroid injection versus medium frequency shock wave therapy in plantar fasciitis treatment among Egyptian population.

  16. Nursing Students and Gluteal Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornwall J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNurses are required to perform gluteal intramuscular (IM injections in practice. There are dangers associated with erroneous performance of this task, particularly with dorsogluteal injections. Knowledge regarding safe injection practice is therefore vital for nursing students.Method Fifty-eight second year students at a New Zealand Nursing School were given schematic drawings of the posterior and lateral aspects of the gluteal region. They were asked to mark and justify the safest location for gluteal IM injections.ResultsFifty-seven students marked the dorsal schematic and one the lateral, with 38 (66.7% marking in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ. Twenty indicating the UOQ (52.6% wrote ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ in justifying their location.Nineteen (33.3% marked a location outside the UOQ; nine (47.4% of these mentioned ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ as reasons for injection safety. Overall, 50% of students mentioned ‘sciatic’ or ‘nerve’ in justifying the safety of their chosen injection location.ConclusionResults suggest some second year nursing students do not understand safe gluteal IM injection locations and rationale. Current teaching practices and IM injection techniques could be revisited to prepare students more effectively; this may help prevent pathologies arising from this procedure.

  17. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  18. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  19. RESEARCH Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH. 884 November 2012, Vol. 102, No. 11 SAMJ. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices in children with intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal venous ... Progress has been made in developing newer endoscopic techniques ... a sclerosant, usually 0.5 - 0.75 ml per injection, at multiple (up to.

  20. Intentional intravenous mercury injection | Yudelowitz | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intravenous mercury injection is rarely seen, with few documented cases. Treatment strategies are not clearly defined for such cases, although a few options do show benefit. This case report describes a 29-year-old man suffering from bipolar disorder, who presented following self-inflicted intravenous injection of mercury.

  1. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine...

  2. Injection Molding of Plastics from Agricultural Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, M.; Ruan, R.

    2001-02-22

    The objective of this research was to conduct a systematic study to relate injection molding parameters to properties of blends of starch and synthetic polymer. From this study, we wished to develop a thorough understanding of the injection molding process and gain significant insight into designing molds and aiding in developing products cheaply and efficiently.

  3. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  4. 21 CFR 522.1150 - Hydrochlorothiazide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrochlorothiazide injection. 522.1150 Section... § 522.1150 Hydrochlorothiazide injection. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 25 milligrams of hydrochlorothiazide. (b) Sponsor. See No. 050604 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. 5...

  5. Injection Molding of High Aspect Ratio Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Larsen, Niels Bent

    We present a process for injection molding of 40 nm wide and >100 nm high pillars (pitch: 200 nm). We explored the effects of mold coatings and injection molding conditions on the replication quality of nanostructures in cyclic olefin copolymer. We found that optimization of molding parameters...

  6. Complications of penile self-injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensøy, Johannes Nordsteien; Travers, Valentine; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth

    2018-01-01

    treated conservatively. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that penile self-injections with mineral oil are more prevalent in certain areas than previously acknowledged. In 5 years, more than 680 patients presented with complications to penile self-injections, of which 75% needed surgical intervention, mainly...

  7. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  8. Effect of Shenmai injection on preventing the development of nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhou

    Full Text Available Long-term nitroglycerin (NTG therapy causes tolerance to its effects attributing to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Shenmai injection (SMI, which is clinically used to treat cardiovascular diseases, consists of two herbal medicines, Ginseng Rubra and Ophiopogonjaponicas, and is reported to have antioxidant effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential preventive effects of Shenmai injection on development of nitroglycerin-induced tolerance. The present study involves both in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate nitroglycerin-induced tolerance. We examined the effect of Shenmai injection on the cardiovascular oxidative stress by measuring the serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD. Endothelial dysfunction was determined by an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation method in aortic rings and NOS activity. Inhibition of the cGMP/cGK-I signalling pathway was determined from released serum levels of cGMP and the protein expression levels of sGC, cGK-I, PDE1A and P-VASP by western blot. Here, we showed that SMI ameliorated the decrease in AV Peak Vel, the attenuation in the vasodilation response to nitroglycerin and endothelial dysfunction. SMI also reduced the cardiovascular oxidative stress by reducing the release of MDA and increasing the activity of SOD. Shenmai injection further ameliorated inhibition of the cGMP/cGK-I signalling pathway triggered by nitroglycerin-induced tolerance through up-regulating the protein expression of sGC, cGK-I, and P-VASP and down- regulating the proteins expression of PDE1A. In vitro studies showed that Shenmai injection could recover the attenuated vasodilation response to nitroglycerin following incubation (of aortic rings with nitroglycerin via activating the enzymes of sGC and cGK-I. Therefore, we conclude that Shenmai injection could prevent NTG nitroglycerin-induced tolerance at least in part by decreasing the cardiovascular

  9. Production of IgY by layers injected with Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee, H. L.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, production of IgY and performance of layers immunised with Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated. Thirty 23-wk old layers (Lohmann Brown with average body weight of 1.6 � 0.03 kg. were randomly and equally divided into two groups. Both groups were placed in a specific pathogen free room equipped with an exhaust fan. The layers were placed in single battery cages with slightly tilted floor which allowed eggs to roll straight into the collecting tray. Lyophilized, attenuated whole cells of S. typhimurium strain [serotype: Somatic (O, antigen 1, 4, (5, 12, flagella (H N12 phase I: 1; phase II: 1, 2 (Group B] that were emulsified with Freund�s complete adjuvant were used to immunise the layers intramuscularly 3 times at 2-wk interval (treatment group. Layers in the control group were injected with a solution of sterilized phosphate-buffered saline (PBS emulsified with an equal volume of Freund�s complete adjuvant. The experimental period lasted for 14 wks. Specific antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the birds lost weight during the injection period, but the weights slowly increased in the following weeks. However, the weight of layers in the treated group remained lower (P<0.05 when compared to the period before injection. The loss in body weight of layers was the result of reduced feed intake, in particular during the injection weeks. Layers in the control group had a higher egg production, by about 10.1% than layers in the treatment group throughout the experimental period. The egg production for layers in treatment group showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 during the immunization period by 28.8%. The egg production significantly increased (P<0.05 to 71.9% after this period, but the production did not reach the level before immunisation. The weight of eggs of treated layers were significantly lower (P<0.05 than the control layers during the injection weeks. The egg

  10. Peripheral injections of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist S38151 decrease food intake and body weight in rodent obesity models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile eDella-Zuana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The compound S38151 is a nanomolar antagonist that acts at the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCH1. S38151 is more stable than its purely peptide counterpart, essentially because of the blockade of its N-terminus. Therefore, , its action on various models of obesity was studied. Acute intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. administration of S38151 in wild-type rats counteracted the effect of the stable precursor of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, NEI-MCH, in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.5 to 50 nmol/kg. In genetically obese Zucker fa/fa rats, daily i.c.v. administration of S38151 induced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 20 nmol/kg inhibition of food intake, water intake, and body weight gain, as well as increased motility (maximal effect observed at 20 nmol/kg. In Zucker fa/fa rats, intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (30 mg/kg induced complete inhibition of food consumption within 1 h. Daily intraperitoneal injection of S38151 (10 and 30 mg/kg into genetically obese ob/ob mice or diet-induced obese mice is able to limit body weight gain. Furthermore, S38151 administration (10 and 30 mg/kg does not affect food intake, water intake, or body weight gain in MCHR1-deleted mice, demonstrating that its effects are linked to its interaction with MCH1. These results validate MCH1 as a target of interest in obesity. S38151 cannot progress to the clinical phase because it is still too poorly stable in vivo.

  11. Optical Injection into Laser Wake Field Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cary, John R; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G R; Giacone, Rodolfo; Leemans, Wim; Nieter, Chet

    2005-01-01

    The accelerating gradient of laser-generated wake fields in plasmas can be orders of magnitude greater than the gradients obtainable in traditional, rf structures. One of the hurdles to overcome on the road to practical utilization of said plasma wake fields for production of high energy particles is the creation of quality beams having significant charge, low emittance, and narrow energy spread. To generate appropriate beams, various injection methods have been proposed. Injection by conventional means of beam prepartion using conventional technology is very difficult, as the accelerating buckets are only tens of microns long. Therefore, the field has turned to all-optical injection schemes, which include injection by colliding pulses, plasma ramps, wave breaking, and self-trapping through pulse evolution. This talk will review the various concepts proposed for injection, including plasma ramps, colliding pulses, and self trapping. The results of simulations and experiments will be discussed along with propo...

  12. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2005-01-01

    topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection......In recent years polymer components with surface microstructures have been in rising demand for applications such as lab-on-a-chip and optical components. Injection moulding has proven to be a feasible and efficient way to manufacture such components. In injection moulding the mould surface...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...

  13. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...... used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant...... advancement in the area of micro injection moulding, multi-component and two component injection mounding. In near future it is likely to be the way of manufacturing moulded interconnects devices (MID) for a low cost integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities on a single device. This paper...

  14. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazare, O.

    1985-07-01

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101) [fr

  15. An attenuated projector-backprojector for iterative SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.; Pelc, N.J.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.; Malko, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A new ray-driven projector-backprojector which can easily be adapted for hardware implementation is described and simulated in software. The projector-backprojector discretely models the attenuated Radon transform of a source distributed within an attenuating medium as line integrals of discrete pixels, obtained using the standard sampling technique of averaging the emission source or attenuation distribution over small square regions. Attenuation factors are calculated for each pixel during the projection and backprojection operations instead of using precalculated values. The calculation of the factors requires a specification of the attenuation distribution, estimated either from an assumed constant distribution and an approximate body outline or from transmission measurements. The distribution of attenuation coefficients is stored in memory for efficient access during the projection and backprojection operations. The reconstruction of the source distribution is obtained by using a conjugate gradient or SIRT type iterative algorithm which requires one projection and one backprojection operation for each iteration. (author)

  16. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Onoda, Junjiro; Minesugi, Kenji; Miyakawa, Takeya

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments

  17. An acoustic eikonal equation for attenuating VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2016-09-06

    We present an acoustic eikonal equation governing the complex-valued travel time of P-waves in attenuating, transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI). This equation is based on the assumption that the Pwave complex-valued travel time is independent of the Swave velocity parameter v in Thomsen\\'s notation and the attenuation coefficient A in the Thomsen-type notation for attenuating VTI media. We combine perturbation theory and Shanks transform to develop practical approximations to the attenuating acoustic eikonal equation, capable of admitting analytical description of the attenuation in homogeneous media. For a horizontal, attenuating VTI layer, we also derive non-hyperbolic approximations for the real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued reflection travel time.

  18. Assessment of complications due to intratympanic injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuan Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the study is to report and to analyze the complications following intratympanic injections (ITI of steroids. The occurrence rate of complications at different ITI sites, four quadrants of eardrum, was also compared. Methods: A retrospective clinical review in a medical center. Each patient received ITI twice in a week for 2–3 consecutive weeks as a salvage therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Post-injection complications, especially transient dizziness and vertigo, were recorded. Patients with acute or chronic vertigo episodes in 1 month were excluded. Results: A total of 59 patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss and a total of 278 times of ITI were performed in 1 year. The post-injection complications included pain, tongue numbness, transient dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus, and a small persistent perforation. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of these complications between the injections sites on the 4 quadrants of the tympanic membrane. However, there was statistical significance in the post-injection vertiginous episode after IT injections to posterior-inferior quadrant (Q3 and posterior-superior quadrant (Q4 compared to anterior-superior quadrant (Q1 and anterior-inferior quadrant (Q2 (P = 0.0113. Conclusion: IT injection is recommended to be applied to the Q2 since the Q1 and Q4 injections are more likely to induce the adverse effect of tongue numbness, while the Q3 and Q4 areas are more likely to induce post-injection vertigo. Keywords: Intratympanic injection, Sudden deafness, Complications, Vertigo

  19. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  20. Rational design of a live attenuated dengue vaccine: 2'-o-methyltransferase mutants are highly attenuated and immunogenic in mice and macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Züst

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and infects at least 100 million people every year. Progressive urbanization in Asia and South-Central America and the geographic expansion of Aedes mosquito habitats have accelerated the global spread of dengue, resulting in a continuously increasing number of cases. A cost-effective, safe vaccine conferring protection with ideally a single injection could stop dengue transmission. Current vaccine candidates require several booster injections or do not provide protection against all four serotypes. Here we demonstrate that dengue virus mutants lacking 2'-O-methyltransferase activity are highly sensitive to type I IFN inhibition. The mutant viruses are attenuated in mice and rhesus monkeys and elicit a strong adaptive immune response. Monkeys immunized with a single dose of 2'-O-methyltransferase mutant virus showed 100% sero-conversion even when a dose as low as 1,000 plaque forming units was administrated. Animals were fully protected against a homologous challenge. Furthermore, mosquitoes feeding on blood containing the mutant virus were not infected, whereas those feeding on blood containing wild-type virus were infected and thus able to transmit it. These results show the potential of 2'-O-methyltransferase mutant virus as a safe, rationally designed dengue vaccine that restrains itself due to the increased susceptibility to the host's innate immune response.

  1. Time domain attenuation estimation method from ultrasonic backscattered signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Goutam; Oelze, Michael L

    2012-07-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation is important not only as a parameter for characterizing tissue but also for compensating other parameters that are used to classify tissues. Several techniques have been explored for estimating ultrasonic attenuation from backscattered signals. In the present study, a technique is developed to estimate the local ultrasonic attenuation coefficient by analyzing the time domain backscattered signal. The proposed method incorporates an objective function that combines the diffraction pattern of the source/receiver with the attenuation slope in an integral equation. The technique was assessed through simulations and validated through experiments with a tissue mimicking phantom and fresh rabbit liver samples. The attenuation values estimated using the proposed technique were compared with the attenuation estimated using insertion loss measurements. For a data block size of 15 pulse lengths axially and 15 beamwidths laterally, the mean attenuation estimates from the tissue mimicking phantoms were within 10% of the estimates using insertion loss measurements. With a data block size of 20 pulse lengths axially and 20 beamwidths laterally, the error in the attenuation values estimated from the liver samples were within 10% of the attenuation values estimated from the insertion loss measurements.

  2. Compensation for nonuniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.; Soares, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate compensation for photon attenuation is needed to perform quantitative brain single-photon-emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging. Bellini's attenuation-compensation method has been used with a nonuniform attenuation map to account for the nonuniform attenuation properties of the head. Simulation studies using a three-dimensional (3-D) digitized anthropomorphic brain phantom were conducted to compare quantitative accuracy of reconstructions obtained with the nonuniform Bellini method to that obtained with the Chang method and to iterative reconstruction using maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM). Using the Chang method and assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator gave reconstructions with an average bias of approximately 6-8%, whereas using the Bellini or the iterative ML-EM method with a nonuniform attenuation map gave an average bias of approximately 1%. The computation time required to implement nonuniform attenuation compensation with the Bellini algorithm is approximately equivalent to the time required to perform one iteration of ML-EM. Thus, using the Bellini method with a nonuniform attenuation map provides accurate compensation for photon attenuation within the head, and the method can be implemented in computation times suitable for routine clinical use

  3. Effect of attenuation models on communication system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Fred I.

    1995-01-01

    The atmosphere has a significant impact on the design of a global communication system operating at 20 GHz. The system under consideration has a total atmospheric link attenuation budget that is less than 6 dB. For this relatively small link margin, rain, cloud, and molecular attenuation have to be taken into account. For an assessment of system performance on a global basis, attenuation models are utilized. There is concern whether current models can adequately describe the atmospheric effects such that a system planner can properly allocate his resources for superior overall system performance. The atmospheric attenuation as predicted by models will be examined.

  4. Self-attenuation factors in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.

    1999-01-01

    The relation between the self-attenuation factors and the distribution function describing the number of photons detected in the full-energy peaks, as a function of their path length in the sample is presented. The relations between the self-attenuation factor and the moments of the distribution function, the average path length and the variance are also presented. The use of these relations is illustrated by applying them to self-attenuation factors describing attenuation in cylindrical samples. The results of the calculations are compared with the measured average path lengths and discussed in terms of the properties of the distribution function. (author)

  5. An Approximate Method for the Acoustic Attenuating VTI Eikonal Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Q.

    2017-05-26

    We present an approximate method to solve the acoustic eikonal equation for attenuating transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI). A perturbation method is used to derive the perturbation formula for complex-valued traveltimes. The application of Shanks transform further enhances the accuracy of approximation. We derive both analytical and numerical solutions to the acoustic eikonal equation. The analytic solution is valid for homogeneous VTI media with moderate anellipticity and strong attenuation and attenuation-anisotropy. The numerical solution is applicable for inhomogeneous attenuating VTI media.

  6. Patient dose reduction by changing the amount of {sup 18}F-FDG radiopharmaceutical injected

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Fernanda G. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pós Graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares; Santana, Priscila C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Mourão Filho, Arnaldo P., E-mail: fgpaiva92@gmail.com, E-mail: pridili@gmail.com, E-mail: apratabhz@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Biomédica

    2017-07-01

    Images of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) associated with Computed Tomography (CT) have important diagnostic applications, mainly for oncology. These compound tomographic devices allow the overlapping of functional images obtained from the administration of radiopharmaceuticals and anatomical images generated by X-ray beam attenuation. This work evaluated the impact of reducing the effective dose by reducing the activity injected into the patient using the ICRP 106 biokinetic model. The activity to be injected may vary according to the patient mass and the detector sensitivity. In this work was used the fixed mass of Alderson phantoms, as a standard adult, this mass is 73.5 kg for the male, and 50 kg for the female. Different values of activity to be injected were simulated, from 0.07 mCi to 0.15 mCi, and with 10 mCi, protocol used in some services. Thus, for the acquisition of PET scans, any reduction of the administered activity implies a proportional reduction of the effective dose in patient. The effective dose may vary up to 114% altering the injected activity between 0.07 and 0.15 mCi. Comparing the results found for the effective dose range using 10 mCi the effective dose may vary by up to approximately 14000%. It is expected that the PET/CT scans protocols are changed at the end of the study, so that the absorbed and effective dose received by the patient decreases. (author)

  7. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  8. A Curve Fitting Approach Using ANN for Converting CT Number to Linear Attenuation Coefficient for CT-based PET Attenuation Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chia-Lin; Lee, Jhih-Shian; Chen, Jyh-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Energy-mapping, the conversion of linear attenuation coefficients (μ) calculated at the effective computed tomography (CT) energy to those corresponding to 511 keV, is an important step in CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) for positron emission tomography (PET) quantification. The aim of this study was to implement energy-mapping step by using curve fitting ability of artificial neural network (ANN). Eleven digital phantoms simulated by Geant4 application for tomographic emission (GATE) and 12 physical phantoms composed of various volume concentrations of iodine contrast were used in this study to generate energy-mapping curves by acquiring average CT values and linear attenuation coefficients at 511 keV of these phantoms. The curves were built with ANN toolbox in MATLAB. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, another two digital phantoms (liver and spine-bone) and three physical phantoms (volume concentrations of 3%, 10% and 20%) were used to compare the energy-mapping curves built by ANN and bilinear transformation, and a semi-quantitative analysis was proceeded by injecting 0.5 mCi FDG into a SD rat for micro-PET scanning. The results showed that the percentage relative difference (PRD) values of digital liver and spine-bone phantom are 5.46% and 1.28% based on ANN, and 19.21% and 1.87% based on bilinear transformation. For 3%, 10% and 20% physical phantoms, the PRD values of ANN curve are 0.91%, 0.70% and 3.70%, and the PRD values of bilinear transformation are 3.80%, 1.44% and 4.30%, respectively. Both digital and physical phantoms indicated that the ANN curve can achieve better performance than bilinear transformation. The semi-quantitative analysis of rat PET images showed that the ANN curve can reduce the inaccuracy caused by attenuation effect from 13.75% to 4.43% in brain tissue, and 23.26% to 9.41% in heart tissue. On the other hand, the inaccuracy remained 6.47% and 11.51% in brain and heart tissue when the bilinear transformation

  9. Comparison of randomized preemptive dexketoprofen trometamol or placebo tablets to prevent withdrawal movement caused by rocuronium injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Gözde Bumin; Polat, Reyhan; Ergil, Julide; Sayın, Murat; Caparlar, Ceyda Ozhan

    2014-06-01

    Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent which is associated with injection pain and induces withdrawal movement of the injected hand or arm or generalized movements of the body after intravenous injection. The aim of this randomized study was to compare the efficacy of pretreatment with oral dexketoprofen trometamol (Arvelles(®); Group A) with placebo (Group P) without tourniquet to prevent the withdrawal response caused by rocuronium injection. The study cohort comprised 150 American Society of Anaesthesiologists class I-III patients aged 18-75 years who were scheduled to undergo elective surgery with general anesthesia. The patients response to rocuronium was graded using a 4-point scale [0 = no response; 1 = movement/withdrawal at the wrist only, 2 = movement/withdrawal involving the arm only (elbow/shoulder); 3 = generalized response]. The overall incidence of withdrawal movement after rocuronium injection was significantly lower in Group A (30.1 %) than in Group P (64.6 %) (p  0.05). These results demonstrate that the preemptive administration of dexketoprofen trometamol can attenuate the degree of withdrawal movements caused by the pain of the rocuronium injection.

  10. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga, Tokumichi; Akino, Noboru; Ebisawa, Noboru

    1995-09-01

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  11. Bolus injections of measured amounts of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, C.A.; Hogendoorn, P.; Vandierendonck, R.; Driedger, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Many time-based radionuclide techniques, such as glomerular filtration rate measurement (GFR), require prompt intravenous delivery of and accurately measured tracer bolus with minimal residual tracer retention at the injection site. The quality assurance aspects of two antecubital vein, quantitative injection techniques were investigated. A flush bolus technique using a tuberculin syringe piggybacked onto a 10-ml saline flush was compared to a single blood pressure cuff injection technique. Scintillation camera data for each technique were compared for bolus duration in the abdominal aorta and for residual activity at the injection site at 5 min. Bolus times were measured as the FWHM of the gamma variate fit to the abdominal aortic regional time-activity curves. Relatively little focal activity was seen in the antecubital injection site following the flush bolus: marked residual activity was seen following the blood pressure cuff injections. The injection site/arm background ratios averaged 1.3 for the flush bolus and 30.1 for the cuff technique. Although both methods allowed accurate in vitro determination of administered radioactivity, only the tuberculin syringe flush bolus technique was acceptable for time-based quantitation because of its superior in vivo characteristics

  12. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  13. Immune responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Kristin G.-I.; Smith, Ingrid; Sjursen, Haakon; Cox, Rebecca Jane

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Since 2003 (US) and 2012 (Europe) the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has been used as an alternative to the traditional inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV). The immune responses elicted by LAIV mimic natural infection and have been found to provide broader clinical protection in children compared to the IIVs. However, our knowledge of the detailed immunological mechanisims induced by LAIV remain to be fully elucidated, and despite 14 years on the global market, there exists no correlate of protection. Recently, matters are further complicated by differing efficacy data from the US and Europe which are not understood. Better understanding of the immune responses after LAIV may aid in achieving the ultimate goal of a future “universal influenza vaccine”. In this review we aim to cover the current understanding of the immune responses induced after LAIV. PMID:28933664

  14. Controlled Attenuation Parameter And Alcoholic Hepatic Steatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Rausch, Vanessa; Fluhr, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    and patients with a CAP value above 290 dB/m were highly likely to have more than 5% fat in their livers, determined by liver biopsy. CAP was also better than regular ultrasound to determine the severity of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Finally, we show that three in four (non-obese) patients rapidly decrease......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a novel non-invasive measure of hepatic steatosis, but has not been evaluated in alcoholic liver disease. We therefore aimed to validate CAP for assessment of biopsy-verified alcoholic steatosis and to study the effect of alcohol...... a significantly higher CAP, which did not decrease significantly during detoxification. CONCLUSIONS: CAP has a good diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing severe alcoholic liver steatosis and can be used to rule in any steatosis. In non-obese but not in obese patients, CAP rapidly declines after alcohol withdrawal...

  15. Glutathione attenuates uranyl toxicity in Lactococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana; Solioz, M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in a large number of taxa plays a role in the protection against the toxicity of heavy metals. Anaerobically grown Lactococcus lactis containing an inducible GSH synthesis pathway was used as a model organism allowing the study of GSH-dependent uranyl detoxification without interference from additional reactive oxygen species. Microcalorimetric measurements of the metabolic heat showed that intracellular GSH attenuates the toxicity of uranium at a concentration in the range of 10-150 μM. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the endothermic binding of U(VI) to the carboxyl group(s) of GSH. The data indicate that the primary detoxifying mechanism is the intracellular sequestration of carboxyl-coordinated U(VI) into an insoluble complex with GSH.

  16. Attenuation of species abundance distributions by sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadzu, Hideyasu; Darnell, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying biodiversity aspects such as species presence/ absence, richness and abundance is an important challenge to answer scientific and resource management questions. In practice, biodiversity can only be assessed from biological material taken by surveys, a difficult task given limited time and resources. A type of random sampling, or often called sub-sampling, is a commonly used technique to reduce the amount of time and effort for investigating large quantities of biological samples. However, it is not immediately clear how (sub-)sampling affects the estimate of biodiversity aspects from a quantitative perspective. This paper specifies the effect of (sub-)sampling as attenuation of the species abundance distribution (SAD), and articulates how the sampling bias is induced to the SAD by random sampling. The framework presented also reveals some confusion in previous theoretical studies. PMID:26064626

  17. Glutathione attenuates uranyl toxicity in Lactococcus lactis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Obeid, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Solioz, M. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in a large number of taxa plays a role in the protection against the toxicity of heavy metals. Anaerobically grown Lactococcus lactis containing an inducible GSH synthesis pathway was used as a model organism allowing the study of GSH-dependent uranyl detoxification without interference from additional reactive oxygen species. Microcalorimetric measurements of the metabolic heat showed that intracellular GSH attenuates the toxicity of uranium at a concentration in the range of 10-150 μM. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the endothermic binding of U(VI) to the carboxyl group(s) of GSH. The data indicate that the primary detoxifying mechanism is the intracellular sequestration of carboxyl-coordinated U(VI) into an insoluble complex with GSH.

  18. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  19. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, A; Hirsch, L; Gaspar, R; Hicks, D; Kreugel, G; Liersch, J; Letondeur, C; Sauvanet, J P; Tubiana-Rufi, N; Strauss, K

    2010-09-01

    Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal guidelines have been published summarizing all that is known about best practice. We propose new injection guidelines which are thoroughly evidence-based, written and vetted by a large group of international injection experts. A systematic literature study was conducted for all peer-reviewed studies and publications which bear on injections in diabetes. An international group of experts met regularly over a two-year period to review this literature and draft the recommendations. These were then presented for review and revision to 127 experts from 27 countries at the TITAN workshop in September, 2009. Of 292 articles reviewed, 157 were found to meet the criteria of relevance to the recommendations. Each recommendation was graded by the weight it should have in daily practice and by its degree of support in the medical literature. The topics covered include The Role of the Professional, Psychological Challenges, Education, Site Care, Storage, Suspension and Priming, Injecting Process, Proper Use of Pens and Syringes, Insulin analogues, Human and Pre-mixed Insulins, GLP-1 analogs, Needle Length, Skin Folds, Lipohypertrophy, Rotation, Bleeding and Bruising, Pregnancy, Safety and Disposal. These injecting recommendations provide practical guidance and fill an important gap in diabetes management. If followed, they should help ensure comfortable, effective and largely complication-free injections. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of the immune responses in BALB/c mice following immunization with DNA-based and live attenuated vaccines delivered via different routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ming-sheng; Deng, Shu-xuan; Li, Mei-li

    2013-02-18

    The objective of this study was to compare immune responses induced in BALB/c mice following immunization with pcDNA-GPV-VP2 DNA by gene gun bombardment (6 μg) or by intramuscular (im) injection (100 μg) with the responses to live attenuated vaccine by im injection (100 μl). pcDNA3.1 (+) and physiological saline were used as controls. Peripheral blood samples were collected at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 77 and 105 d after immunization. T lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and enumeration of CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cell populations in peripheral blood was performed by flow cytometric analysis. Indirect ELISA was used to detect IgG levels. Cellular and humoral responses were induced by pcDNA-GPV-VP2 DNA and live virus vaccines. No differences were observed in T cell proliferation and CD8(+) T cell responses induced by the genetic vaccine regardless of the route of delivery. However, CD4(+) T cell responses and humoral immunity were enhanced in following gene gun immunization compared with im injection of the genetic vaccine. Cellular and humoral immunity was enhanced in following gene gun delivery of the genetic vaccine compared with the live attenuated vaccine. In conclusion, the pcDNA-GPV-VP2 DNA vaccine induced enhanced cellular and humoral immunity compared with that induced by the live attenuated vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary phenethylisothiocyanate attenuates bowel inflammation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar VummidiGiridhar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenethylisothiocyanate (PEITC is produced by Brassica food plants. PEO is a PEITC Essential Oil containing >95% natural PEITC. PEITC is known to produce various health benefits but its effect in alleviation of ulcerative colitis signs is unknown. Results In two efficacy studies (acute and chronic oral administration of PEO was effective at remitting acute and chronic signs of ulcerative colitis (UC in mice. Disease activity, histology and biochemical characteristics were measured in the treated animals and were compared with appropriate controls. PEO treatment significantly improved body weights and stool consistency as well as decreased intestinal bleeding. PEO treatment also reduced mucosal inflammation, depletion of goblet cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Attenuation of proinflammatory interleukin1β production was observed in the colons of PEO-treated animals. Expression analyses were also carried out for immune function related genes, transcription factors and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse macrophage cells. PEO likely affects an intricate network of immune signaling genes including a novel concentration dependent reduction of total cellular Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1 as well as nuclear phosphorylated-STAT1 (activated form of STAT1. A PEO-concentration dependent decrease of mRNA of C-X-C motif ligand 10 (a STAT1 responsive chemokine and Interleukin 6 were also observed. Conclusions PEO might be a promising candidate to develop as a treatment for ulcerative colitis patients. The disease attenuation by PEO is likely associated with suppression of activation of STAT1 transcription and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  2. LIVE ATTENUATED VACCINES FOR THE IMMUNOPROPHYLAXIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Shamsutdinova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review focuses on the history of the production of live antiviral vaccines and their use for the prevention of infectious diseases. It was noted that before the beginning of the 20th century, only three live vaccines were developed and put into practice — against smallpox, rabies, plague. The discovery of D. Enders, T.H. Weller and F.Ch. Robins of the ability of the polio virus, and then of a number of other viruses, to reproduce in vitro in cell cultures of various types, greatly expanded the studies on the production of attenuated strains of viruses for live vaccines. The historical stages of obtaining and introducing live vaccines for the prevention of smallpox, poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, and mumps are highlighted. Arguments in favor of the use of associated vaccine preparations for the prevention of viral infections are presented. Various variants of the strategy and tactics of using live vaccines, which are used for specific prevention of viral infections in different countries, are described. The review provides information on technological methods for obtaining antiviral vaccines. The publications testifying to the development of specific reactions in immunized vaccine strains of measles, mumps, poliomyelitis and rubella viruses, such as aseptic meningitis (vaccine strains of mumps virus, acute arthritis (vaccine rubella virus strains, temperature reactions, rash (vaccine strains of the virus Measles, vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP vaccine vaccine poliovirus. It is particularly noted that the long experience of vaccine prevention both in Russia and abroad convincingly shows that the risk of developing post-vaccination complications is incommensurably lower than the risk of causing harm to health from the corresponding infections. It is concluded that despite introduction of new third and fourth generation vaccines into practice, live attenuated vaccines do not lose their significance and are used in vaccine

  3. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  4. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  5. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification test under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out test in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident. (author)

  6. Dependency injection with AngularJS

    CERN Document Server

    Knol, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on approach to using dependency injection and implementing test-driven development using AngularJS. Dependency Injection with AngularJS is aimed at developers who are aware of AngularJS but need to get started with using it in real life applications. Also, developers who want to get into test-driven development with AngularJS can use this book as practical guide. Even if you know about dependency injection, it can serve as a good reference on how it is used within AngularJS. Readers are expected to have some experience with JavaScript.

  7. Massive Preperitoneal Hematoma after a Subcutaneous Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Katagiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Preperitoneal hematomas are rare and can develop after surgery or trauma. A 74-year-old woman, receiving systemic anticoagulation, developed a massive preperitoneal hematoma after a subcutaneous injection of teriparatide using a 32-gauge, 4 mm needle. In this patient, there were two factors, the subcutaneous injection of teriparatide and systemic anticoagulation, associated with development of the hematoma. These two factors are especially significant, because they are widely used clinically. Although extremely rare, physicians must consider this potentially life-threatening complication after subcutaneous injections, especially in patients receiving anticoagulation.

  8. Vibration of safety injection pump motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wattrelos, D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper covers a fault encountered in the safety injection pump motors of the French 900 MWe unit nuclear power stations. This fault was not revealed either during the low pressure safety injection and containment spray system pump qualification tests under accident conditions or during the special tests on a test bench carried out to attempt to replicate the fault and to identify ways of remedying it. This constitutes a potential common mode of failure of the safety injection system and the containment spray system pumps. The vibration phenomena illustrate the importance of carrying out tests in the plants under conditions as close as possible to those of actual accident situations.

  9. Production of polymer injection molding machine

    OpenAIRE

    Zdaniauskis, Ernestas

    2016-01-01

    Production of Polymer Injection Molding Machine The aim of this work is to build a polymer injection molding machine which would match the set criteria: • Small dimensions of the machine. • Low electricity expenditure. • Automatized production process. • Inexpensive molds. In the process of work double two-stage screw-plunger polymer machine was designed and built. The working of the machine is unique: the mold is being heated, therefore, the cycle of polymer injection can consist of a few sm...

  10. J-regular rings with injectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A ring $R$ is called a J-regular ring if R/J(R) is von Neumann regular, where J(R) is the Jacobson radical of R. It is proved that if R is J-regular, then (i) R is right n-injective if and only if every homomorphism from an $n$-generated small right ideal of $R$ to $R_{R}$ can be extended to one from $R_{R}$ to $R_{R}$; (ii) R is right FP-injective if and only if R is right (J, R)-FP-injective. Some known results are improved.

  11. Sciatic nerve palsy associated with intramuscular quinine injections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, in children, gluteal injection of quinine dihydrochloride (QDH) may result in damage to the sciatic nerve. Forty-six children were seen with foot drop following intramuscular injections in the same limb. They were analyzed for the type of injection, injection site, route of injection, the ...

  12. An effective AIDS vaccine based on live attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N F; Marx, P A; Luckay, A; Nixon, D F; Moretto, W J; Donahoe, S M; Montefiori, D; Roberts, A; Buonocore, L; Rose, J K

    2001-09-07

    We developed an AIDS vaccine based on attenuated VSV vectors expressing env and gag genes and tested it in rhesus monkeys. Boosting was accomplished using vectors with glycoproteins from different VSV serotypes. Animals were challenged with a pathogenic AIDS virus (SHIV89.6P). Control monkeys showed a severe loss of CD4+ T cells and high viral loads, and 7/8 progressed to AIDS with an average time of 148 days. All seven vaccinees were initially infected with SHIV89.6P but have remained healthy for up to 14 months after challenge with low or undetectable viral loads. Protection from AIDS was highly significant (p = 0.001). VSV vectors are promising candidates for human AIDS vaccine trials because they propagate to high titers and can be delivered without injection.

  13. Development of an inexpensive, low attenuation styrofoam primate chair for use in a PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortekaas, R; van Waarde, A; Maguire, R P; Leenders, K L; Elsinga, P H

    2004-04-01

    Pharmacokinetic modelling of radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of neuroreceptors can be performed with time-activity data for brain and blood. We aimed to develop an alternative to withdrawal of arterial blood samples for acquisition of a blood curve. A supportive primate chair was constructed out of styrofoam and fixed to the head portion of the bed of a PET scanner. A lightly anaesthetised rhesus monkey was positioned in the chair in a sitting position and injected with the radiotracer. The styrofoam chair provided sufficient support for the monkey. The presence of the chair in the PET scanner caused negligible attenuation of radiation, allowing simultaneous acquisition of dynamic data from the subject's brain and heart. We conclude that a styrofoam primate chair is an ideal tool to measure blood and brain data from a rhesus monkey with PET. Invasiveness to the animal is reduced, as well as experimenter time.

  14. Oral exposure to Phytomonas serpens attenuates thrombocytopenia and leukopenia during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rosiane V; Malvezi, Aparecida D; Augusto, Leonardo da Silva; Kian, Danielle; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia H; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; Rizzo, Luiz V; Schenkman, Sergio; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2013-01-01

    Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, rapidly develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. These effects are partially promoted by the parasite trans-sialidase (TS), which is shed in the blood and depletes sialic acid from the platelets, inducing accelerated platelet clearance and causing thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of disease. Here, we demonstrate that oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice with Phytomonas serpens, a phytoflagellate parasite that shares common antigens with T. cruzi but has no TS activity, reduces parasite burden and prevents thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Immunization also reduces platelet loss after intraperitoneal injection of TS. In addition, passive transfer of immune sera raised in mice against P. serpens prevented platelet clearance. Thus, oral exposure to P. serpens attenuates the progression of thrombocytopenia induced by TS from T. cruzi. These findings are not only important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection but also for developing novel approaches of intervention in Chagas disease.

  15. Resveratrol Attenuates Neurodegeneration and Improves Neurological Outcomes after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Bonsack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating type of stroke with a substantial public health impact. Currently, there is no effective treatment for ICH. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the post-injury administration of Resveratrol confers neuroprotection in a pre-clinical model of ICH. To this end, ICH was induced in adult male CD1 mice by collagenase injection method. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg or vehicle was administered at 30 min post-induction of ICH and the neurobehavioral outcome, neurodegeneration, cerebral edema, hematoma resolution and neuroinflammation were assessed. The Resveratrol treatment significantly attenuated acute neurological deficits, neurodegeneration and cerebral edema after ICH in comparison to vehicle treated controls. Further, Resveratrol treated mice exhibited improved hematoma resolution with a concomitant reduction in the expression of proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β after ICH. Altogether, the data suggest the efficacy of post-injury administration of Resveratrol in improving acute neurological function after ICH.

  16. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficients of Al–4% Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gamma ray attenuation coefficients of metal matrix composites have been investigated. For this purpose, the linear attenuation coefficients of composites containing boron carbide (B4C) at different rates have been measured using a gamma spectrometer that contains a NaI(Tl) detector and MCA at 662, 1173 and 1332 keV, ...

  17. The Self Attenuation Correction for Holdup Measurements, a Historical Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.

    2006-01-01

    Self attenuation has historically caused both conceptual as well as measurement problems. The purpose of this paper is to eliminate some of the historical confusion by reviewing the mathematical basis and by comparing several methods of correcting for self attenuation focusing on transmission as a central concept

  18. Comparison of Attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two biostimulation treatments were compared in a laboratory incubation study with natural attenuation for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) attenuation in gasoline and diesel spiked sandy soil at two different depths. One of the treatments was amended with 5 % clay which had pH of 6.9 and 6.98 and the other was ...

  19. Developement of a Light Attenuator Based on Glassy Reflections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The light intensity control of a luminous source is a very important operation in many optical applications. Several types of light attenuator exploiting different optical phenomena like diffraction, absorption, and reflection exist and they differ principally in the maximum attenuation rate, the control range, the sensitivity and the ...

  20. Simulation on the shock attenuation behavior of coupled RHA and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based from the results, coupled RHA and sandwich composite structure configuration exhibit highest attenuation capability of 61.3% respectively. The study can be used as reference tool for the application related to automotive, naval and aeronautical structures, oil and gas industry. Keywords: shock attenuation; composite; ...