WorldWideScience

Sample records for intracerebral ic recombinant-methionyl

  1. Clearance and toxicity of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHu GDNF) following acute convection-enhanced delivery into the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Hannah; Barua, Neil; Bienemann, Alison; Wyatt, Marcella; Castrique, Emma; Foster, Rebecca; Luz, Matthias; Fibiger, Christian; Mohr, Erich; Gill, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Despite promising early results, clinical trials involving the continuous delivery of recombinant methionyl human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (r-metHuGDNF) into the putamen for the treatment of Parkinson's disease have shown evidence of poor distribution and toxicity due to point-source accumulation. Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has the potential to facilitate more widespread and clinically effective drug distribution. We investigated acute CED of r-metHuGDNF into the striatum of normal rats in order to assess tissue clearance, toxicity (neuron loss, gliosis, microglial activation, and decreases in synaptophysin), synaptogenesis and neurite-outgrowth. We investigated a range of clinically relevant infused concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 µg/µL) and time points (2 and 4 weeks) in order to rationalise a dosing regimen suitable for clinical translation. Two weeks after single dose CED, r-metHuGDNF was below the limit of detection by ELISA but detectable by immunohistochemistry when infused at low concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 µg/µL). At these concentrations, there was no associated neuronal loss (neuronal nuclei, NeuN, immunohistochemistry) or synaptic toxicity (synaptophysin ELISA). CED at an infused concentration of 0.2 µg/µL was associated with a significant increase in synaptogenesis (partificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) control was observed with any infused concentration. The results of this study suggest that acute CED of low concentrations of GDNF, with dosing intervals determined by tissue clearance, has most potential for effective clinical translation by optimising distribution and minimising the risk of toxic accumulation.

  2. Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Patients & Families » About Stroke » Intracerebral Hemorrhage Intracerebral Hemorrhage What is a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Warning Signs Stroke Statistics ...

  3. Recurrent Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Linnea Boegeskov; Goertz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a disease with high mortality and a substantial risk of recurrence. However, the recurrence risk is poorly documented and the knowledge of potential predictors for recurrence among co-morbidities and medicine with antithrombotic effect is limited....... OBJECTIVES: 1) To estimate the short- and long-term cumulative risks of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). 2) To investigate associations between typical comorbid diseases, surgical treatment, use of medicine with antithrombotic effects, including antithrombotic treatment (ATT), selective serotonin...

  4. Intracerebral polyposis. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, P K; Rao, G P; Prakasham, A; Purnanand, A; Sulochana, C; Kumar, R S; Reddy, Y R; Chandramala; Indumathi, D

    1993-02-01

    A 25-year-old man presented with nontraumatic cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea and meningitis. On investigation, he was found to have a multiloculated intracerebral cystic lesion of the right frontal lobe with a bony lesion inside the cyst, just above the right cribriform plate. Surgery revealed multiple grape-like cystic pedunculated lesions with narrow stalks attached to a bony outgrowth which was adherent to the right cribriform plate. Macroscopically and microscopically, the excised lesions were similar to nasal polyps.

  5. Emergency caesarean section in a patient with intracerebral tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranju Gandhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tuberculosis in pregnancy ranges between 1-2% amongst hospital deliveries in the trop-ics. Tuberculosis of central nervous system accounts for about 5% of extra pulmonary cases and manifests as meningitis or uncommonly as tuberculoma. The management of intracerebral tuberculoma diagnosed during pregnancy should be same as that in non-pregnant subjects with antituberculous treatment. Emergency caesar-ean section in a patient with intracerebral tuberculoma poses unique challenges to the anaesthesiologist. There are no published reports on anaesthetic management of pregnancy with tuberculoma. We report the case of a woman with intracerebral tuberculoma presenting for emergency caesarean section. The anaesthetic goals in this patient were combined to that of principles of obstetrical anaesthesia to ensure a favourable maternal and fetal outcome. The anaesthetic technique chosen should prevent aspiration, avoid fluctuations in intracranial pressure, maintain stable haemodynamics, provide a sufficient depth of anaesthesia and good postoperative analgesia. We believe that general anaesthesia is the safest approach in such patients. We suggest general anaesthesia to be preferred over regional anaesthesia technique.

  6. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  7. IC Associated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  8. IC Treatment: Antidepressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  9. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  10. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  11. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  12. Children and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as: Calcium gylcerophosphate (Prelief) Yoga Relaxation techniques Pelvic floor physical therapy Oral IC therapies for children with IC include ... Prostatitis Constipation Endometriosis Fibromyalgia Irritable Bowel ... Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  13. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  14. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  15. Clinical practice guidelines in intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Yáñez, M; Castellanos, M; Freijo, M M; López Fernández, J C; Martí-Fàbregas, J; Nombela, F; Simal, P; Castillo, J; Díez-Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Alvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Casado, I; Dávalos, A; Díaz-Otero, F; Egido, J A; Gállego, J; García Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Maestre, J; Masjuan, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Martínez-Vila, E; Molina, C; Morales, A; Purroy, F; Ribó, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Tejada, J; Vivancos, J

    2013-05-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage accounts for 10%-15% of all strokes; however it has a poor prognosis with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Neurological deterioration is often observed during the first hours after onset and determines poor prognosis. Intracerebral haemorrhage, therefore, is a neurological emergency which must be diagnosed and treated properly as soon as possible. In this guide we review the diagnostic procedures and factors that influence the prognosis of patients with intracerebral haemorrhage and we establish recommendations for the therapeutic strategy, systematic diagnosis, acute treatment and secondary prevention for this condition. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Men and IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pains and pain generators can be more challenging. Physical therapy for the pelvic floor can be very helpful for both men and women, but more physical therapists are prepared to treat the IC and ...

  17. LD to IC

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    LC to IC – Publication of posts: Following the publication of new LD to IC posts, we regret that a large number of post descriptions are not available in both CERN official languages, English and French. Consequently, the Staff Association has decided to provide assistance to those who need it with the translation of one or more posts of interest. To do this, please contact the Staff Association secretariat, tel. 72819 or 72761 or 74224.

  18. Various phases of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Cases of intracerebral hemorrhage except typical putamen thalamic hemorrhage were reported. It is not difficult to diagnose typical attacks of cerebral apoplexy in patients older than 40 years with hypertension by CT. When the condition of the onset is not typical, cerebral infarction must be considered. Though conservative treatment is performed for severe cerebral hemorrhage and cerbral infarction, there is no specific medicine curing these diseases completely. On the contrary, the risk that the administration of fibrinolysis activators and STA-MCA anastomosis may induce cerebral hemorrhage is stressed. Not a few patients with cerebral apoplexy accompanied by small hemorrhagic focuses have been found, especially since CT was used widely. However, treatment for this disease has many inconsistencies. From above-mentioned facts, we recognize excellent roles of CT in an application of surgery for cerebral hemorrhage of early stage, and we, general radiologists, are under an obligation to advise most adequate theraphy for each patient. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Intracerebral haemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Boesen, J

    1987-01-01

    Among 662 consecutive carotid endarterectomies eight cases of postoperative ipsilateral intracerebral haemorrhage were identified, occurring into brain areas which, preoperatively were without infarction. As blood pressures across the stenosis were routinely measured during surgery, the internal...... to their haemorrhage. All eight patients had a high grade of ICA stenosis and a marked reduction of ICA perfusion pressure (average of 40%) which was significantly greater than that observed (average of 6%) in the other patients undergoing carotid surgery (P less than 0.0001). Relative hyperperfusion...... of the ipsilateral hemisphere was seen in the four patients studied postoperatively. In at least two cases the haematoma was preceded by an asymptomatic postoperative ischaemic infarct. Histologic examination did not confirm previous findings of changes resembling those seen in malignant hypertensive encephalopathy...

  20. Two cases of intracerebral cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakase, Hiroyuki; Kamada, Kitaro; Inui, Shoji; Hiramatsu, Ken-ichiro; Okuchi, Kazuo; Minami, Shigenori; Araki, Kouji.

    1986-01-01

    We report 2 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis. One was followed up by CT with preservative treatment, and the other, treated surgically. Case 1: A 60-year-old man who had lived in Korea until the age of 12 and who had often eaten raw pork. He had been diagnosed as having cysticercosis after the excision of facial and somatic nodules. On January 17, 1980, he visited our clinic first with a complaint of generalized convulsions. CT revealed multiple low-density areas. For the subsequent 4 years, the patient was followed-up by CT. Meanwhile, the cyst became large and was calcified; in addition, brain atrophy progressed, and a new lesion of the cyst appeared. Case 2: A 50-year-old man who had also lived in Korea and who had also eaten raw pork often. He had been diagnosed as having ''cestodiasis'' in a gastro-intestinal hospital 7 or 8 years before. He visited our clinic because of sensory aphasia which developed on January 15, 1980. CT disclosed multiple low-density areas and a calcification of the left cerebellar hemisphere. Ring enhancement was also found on enhanced CT. The patient was then surgically treated. The excised specimen contained a three-layer structure characteristic of cysticercosis. The immunoelectrophoresis of the cyst fluid gave a positive result for the disease. Postoperatively, the symptoms improved. Intracerebral cysticercosis is a very rare disease in Japan. Its incidence, however, is likely to increase on account of the development of transportation. For this reason, and because of the necessity to differentiate it from a brain tumor or abscess on CT, it seems that this disease is of concern. (author)

  1. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2011-01-01

    Over 2 million people are affected by intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) worldwide every year, one third of them dying within 1 month, and many survivors being left with permanent disability. Unlike most other stroke types, the incidence, morbidity and mortality of ICH have not declined over time...... and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH....

  2. Treatment for Supra-tentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    長島, 梧郎; 藤本, 司; 鈴木, 龍太; 浅井, 潤一郎; 松永, 篤子; 張, 智為; 永井, 美穂; Goro, NAGASHIMA; Tsukasa, FUJIMOTO; Ryuta, SUZUKI; Jun-ichiro, ASAI; Atsuko, MATSUNAGA; Tomoo, CHANG; Miho, NAGAI; 昭和大学藤が丘病院脳神経外科

    2002-01-01

    Only vague guidelines exist for the surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the indications for surgical management of intracerebral hemorrhage and compared the outcomes of computed tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration with those after hematoma removal under craniotomy. Our indications for CT-guided stereotactic hematoma aspiration were an age < 80 years old, a hematoma volume ≧ 10 ml, and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≦ 14. Those for hemat...

  3. Dipole localization using simulated intracerebral EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nathalie; Gulrajani, Ramesh; Gotman, Jean

    2005-11-01

    In the clinical interpretation of intracerebral EEGs, epileptic foci are commonly identified by visually analyzing the amplitude of the potentials. This is potentially misleading since electrodes record activity from several sources, but the nearest ones generate large amplitudes that can overpower distant sources. Our objective was to improve foci detection in intracerebral recordings by applying source localization methods. Data were simulated by placing 3 sources in a semi-infinite medium near 3 intracerebral electrodes. Potentials were generated and contaminated with white and correlated noise. Two inverse problem algorithms, beamforming and RAP-MUSIC, were used to calculate equivalent dipoles. Simulations for each noise types showed that the two methods detected the source locations accurately, with RAP-MUSIC reporting lower orientation errors. With correlated noise, beamforming reconstructed original source waveforms poorly. A spatial resolution analysis was performed, in which beamforming adequately distinguished sources separated by 1.2 cm, whereas RAP-MUSIC separated sources as close as 0.4-0.6 cm. Both source localization methods proved useful in detecting the location of dipolar sources based on simulated intracerebral potentials. For all simulations, RAP-MUSIC was more accurate than beamforming. It is possible to use source localization methods traditionally applied to scalp recordings for improving source detection from intracerebral recordings.

  4. Invasive intracerebral fungal infection in a leukaemic patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-06-01

    Intracerebral abscesses secondary to Zygomycosis are potentially fatal. A 12-year-old girl with acute promyelocytic leukaemia was successfully treated for intracerebral abscess caused by Zygomycosis with complete surgical excision and combination antifungal therapy.

  5. Aphasia caused by intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Isao; Sano, Keiji

    1992-01-01

    It is generally accepted that cases of aphasia can be divided into several groups according to verbal fluency, auditory comprehension, and repetition abilities. Although many authors have studied aphasia and its location by means of a CT scan, the primary lesion on a CT scan with regard to the subtypes of aphasia still remains controversial. In this report we present our new CT classification for the syndromes of aphasia and the prognosis. Twenty-one patients with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) were followed up for more than 3 months after onset. ICH was classified according to the mode of the horizontal extension of the hematoma on a CT scan. Four lines were decided as follows: Line (a) is between the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the midpoint of the third ventricle; Line (b) is the vertical line to the saggital line which originates from the midpoint of the third ventricle; Line (c) is between the trigone of the lateral ventricle and the midpoint of the third ventricle. The CT classification consisted of 4 types: in Type A, ICH was located anterior to line (a); in Type B, ICH was located between line (a) and line (b); in Type C, ICH was located between line (b) and line (c); Type B+C, was a combination of Type B and Type C. Transcortical motor aphasia belonged to the Type A group. Transcortical sensory aphasia belonged to the Type B and Type B+C groups. Wernicke's and anomic aphasia belonged to the Type C group. Conduction and global aphasia belonged to the Type B+C group. Pure Broca's aphasia could not be observed in this series. Several relationships between the syndromes of aphasia and its CT findings were evident. On the other hand, the syndromes of aphasia and the degree of recovery were not correlated, except for global aphasia. (author)

  6. Glyceryl Trinitrate for Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    if patients were randomized within 6 hours of stroke onset. METHODS: In this prespecified subgroup analysis, the effect of GTN (5 mg/d for 7 days) versus no GTN was studied in 629 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage presenting within 48 hours and with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg. The primary outcome......% confidence interval, 0.07-0.69; P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the rates of serious adverse events between GTN and no GTN. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with intracerebral hemorrhage within 48 hours of onset, GTN lowered blood pressure was safe but did not improve functional outcome. Very early...

  7. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  8. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this re...

  9. Continued bleeding following acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    In this Ph.D. thesis, ‘Continued bleeding following acute intracerebral hemorrhage’, we have discussed the background literature, risk factors, and underlying biology of hematoma expansion, as well as the clinical applicability of the CT angiography (CTA) 'spot sign' as an imaging marker of this

  10. Error processing - evidence from intracerebral ERP recordings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, M.; Roman, R.; Falkenstein, M.; Daniel, P.; Jurák, Pavel; Rektor, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 4 (2002), s. - ISSN 1432-1106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/95/0467; GA ČR GA102/02/1339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : error processing * event-related potentials * intracerebral recordings Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  11. Glioblastoma Multiforme Presenting as Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Ozdol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage are rarely encountered. Hemorrhage as the initial presentation of a brain tumour may pose some diagnostic problems, especially if the tumour is small or the hemorrhage is abundant. We present a 47-year-old man who admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset headache, right blurred vision and gait disturbance. A non-contrast cranial computerized tomography scan performed immediately after his admission revealed a well circumscribed right occipitoparietal haematoma with intense peripheral edema causing compression of the ipsilateral ventricles. On 6th hour of his admission the patient%u2019s neurological status deteriorated and he subsequently underwent emergent craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation of the haematoma. The histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a glioblastoma multiforme. Neoplasms may be hidden behind each case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Histological sampling and investigation is mandatory in the presence of preoperative radiological features suggesting a neoplasm.

  12. Chronological changes in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shinsuke; Kashihara, Michiharu; Okamoto, Junji; Hondo, Hideki; Yamashita, Shigeru

    1983-01-01

    The clinical series consisted of 28 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hematoma observed in the natural course from 1976 through 1978. A total of 114 repeated computer tomographic (CT) examinations were made with an EMI-1010 or an ACTA-0100 scanner. The experimental series consisted of 26 adult mongrel dogs with intracerebral hematoma near the basal ganglia. In 20 dogs, autopsy and histological examinations were performed, and in 12 dogs a total of 31 repeated CT examinations were carried out with an EMI scanner (matrix 320 x 320, high-definition scan). In the clinical series, the time of the decrease in density beginning in the periphery of the hematoma, like the first appearance of ring enhancement and its concentric concentration toward the center of the hematoma, was not affected by the size of the hematoma. However, the time when the intracerebral hematoma was resolved did vary with the size of the hematoma. In the experimental series, the tissue reaction near the periphery of the intracerebral hematoma seemed to be a constant process. First, a necrotic layer appeared, and then this was replaced by immature connective tissue with granular cells, newly formed vessels, and reticulin fibers; finally, the immature layer was gradually transformed into mature connective tissue with collagenous fibers. Moreover, this process of change was not related to the size of the hematoma. The following correlations were suggested by a chronological observation of the CT images and the histological appearance: 1) acute stage - homogeneous high-density extending to the periphery, apperance of a necrotic layer; 2) subacute stage - decreased density spreading from the periphery and formation of ring enhancement, apperance of immature connective tissue with reticulin fibers; 3) chronic stage - concentric concentration of ring enhancement, mature connective tissue with collagenous fibers

  13. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  14. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  15. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  16. Delayed intracerebral hemorrhage as demonstrated by CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, J.; Zingesser, L.; Dunn, J.; Rovit, R.L.; Saint Vincent's Hospital and Medical Center, New York

    1979-01-01

    Three patients are presented who developed delayed intracerebral hematomas after head injury. Two patients had essentially negative CT scans on admission and developed intracerebral hematomas within 24 h after injury. They required surgical treatment and had fatal outcomes. The third patient presented with an epidural hematoma on CT scan, developed an intracerebral hematoma 48 h after evacuation of the epidural hematoma, and did well with conservative management. (orig.) [de

  17. IC3, PDR, and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    IC3, PDR, and Friends ? Arie Gurfinkel ariecmu.edu Abstract. We describe the IC3/PDR algorithms and their various gen- eralizations. Our goal is to...projection, GPDR is incomplete for LRA. That is, it might get stuck alternating between Decide and Conflict rules, never making progress. This version of

  18. BNCT of intracerebral melanoma. Enhanced survival and cure following Cereport mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, R.F.; Yang, W.; Bartus, R.T.; Rotaru, J.H.; Ferketich, A.K.; Moeschberger, M.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cereport is a bradykinin analogue that produces a transient, pharmacologically mediated opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study was designed to determine if Cereport could enhance the delivery of BPA and the efficacy of BNCT in nude rats bearing intracerebral implants of the human MRA 27 melanoma. Animals that received intracarotid (i.c.) injection of Cereport and i.c. BPA had a mean survival time of 115 d compared to 82 d without Cereport, 42 d for i.v. BPA with Cereport and 31 d for irradiated controls. The combination of i.c. Cereport and BPA produced a 400% increase in the life span with 35% long-term survivors (>180 d). (author)

  19. European research priorities for intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Petersson, Jesper; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam

    2011-01-01

    . No standardised diagnostic workup for the detection of the various underlying causes of ICH currently exists, and the evidence for medical or surgical therapeutic interventions remains limited. A dedicated European research programme for ICH is needed to identify ways to reduce the burden of ICH-related death...... and disability. The European Research Network on Intracerebral Haemorrhage EURONICH is a multidisciplinary academic research collaboration that has been established to define current research priorities and to conduct large clinical studies on all aspects of ICH....

  20. Massive intracerebral hemorrhage associated with Wegener granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceri, Mevlut; Ortabozkoyun, Levent; Unverdi, Selman; Kirac, Mustafa; Duranay, Murat

    2012-06-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is a necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis that predominantly affects airways and kidneys. But central nervous system involvement (7-11%) is an uncommon. Massive ICH may occur in the course of WG, and this serious condition is related with high risk of mortality. Therefore, the new treatment strategies may be considered in addition to classical practices in serious organ involvement and recurrent attack. Here, we present an adult patient with WG whose disease was complicated by a massive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which subsequently led to death.

  1. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  2. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  3. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  4. A new treatment for hypertensive intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiwaku, Tetsushi; Tanikawa, Tatsuya; Amano, Keiichi

    1986-01-01

    Durining the last 2 years, 46 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in the basal ganglia were treated by CT guided stereotactic aspiration and their outcome was evaluated in terms of the rate of hematoma removal, the change of consciousness level and the recovery of motor and sensory functions. They are aged from 45 to 79 years old, the average 56, and aspirated 1 to 24 days after the onset, two third of them being within 1 week. The whole procedure was done in the CT room under direct CT guidance and by one trial. In putaminal type hemorrhage, the removed hematoma volumes ranged from 9 to 48 ml, average being 23.7 ml, in thalamic type from 5 to 29 ml, average being 15.5 ml. The average rate of removal was 81.1 % in 30 cases within 1 week. In most cases, preoperative consciousness was not severely disturbed, in putaminal type, 19 were alert or confused, 4 somnolent, 5 stuperous and in thalamic type, 6, 6, 3 respectively and 2 were semicomatous, one of them had herniation sign. In putaminal type all but 2 cases recovered to alert or confused state, the first one had postoperative bleeding and the other was already apallic preoperatively. In thalamic type, we lost 3 cases, 2 by gastrointestinal bleeding and 1 DIC, by rehemorrhage 2 months after the operation. All but one who was semicomatous preoperatively recovered to alertness. In motor function, some cases of the putaminal bleeding with intact internal capsule remained hemiplegic. On the other hand, most of the cases with partial destruction of the internal capsule on CT recovered well in both types of hematoma. Especially in thalamic type, only 2 had inability to walk durinig the follow-up period. In sensory function, two thirds of the cases recovered to almost normal level. CT guided stereotactic aspiration, therefore, can be evaluated as less invasive and more definitive treatment for intracerebral hematoma in the basal ganglia. (author)

  5. Duck Tembusu virus exhibits pathogenicity to Kunming mice by intracerebral inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng eTi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Kunming mice were used as the animal models to study the pathogenicity of TMUV. Three groups of 3-week-old female Kunming mice (n=15 mice per group were infected with the SDSG strain of TMUV in 50μL allantoic fluid (104.8 ELD50/ 0.2ml respectively by the intracerebral (i.c., subcutaneous (s.c. and intranasal (i.n. routes. The control group (n=15 mice was inoculated with 50μL sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads in different tissues, and serum antibody titers were examined and recorded. Kunming mice infected intracerebrally showed typical clinical symptoms, including severe hindlimb paralysis, weight loss and death. Only dead mice presented severe intestinal mucosal edema. No gross lesions were observed in mice sequentially euthanized. However, microscopic lesions in the brain, spleen, liver, kidney and lung were very typical including varying degrees of viral encephalitis, lymphocytes depletion, liver cell necrosis and nephritis, etc. Viral loads in different tissues were detected by the SYBR Green I real-time PCR assay. Viral loads in the brain, liver and spleen were first detected and maintained a longer time, which indicated that these organs may be the target organs of TMUV. The level of viral loads was consistent with the severity of clinical signs and microscopic lesions in different tissues. The neutralizing antibody began to seroconvert at 8dpi. Clinical signs, microscopic lesions, viral loads and serum neutralizing antibodies weren’t observed in other groups. In summary, TMUV can cause systemic infections and death in Kunming mice by i.c., which provides some experimental basis for further study of the significance of TMUV in public health.

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of ECG Abnormalities After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bree, Maurits D. R.; Roos, Yvo B. W. E. M.; van der Bilt, Ivo A. C.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Sprengers, Marieke E. S.; de Gans, Koen; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are well known in ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, these changes have only rarely been investigated systematically in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and

  7. Intravenous tranexamic acid for hyperacute primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprigg, Nikola; Robson, Katie; Bath, Philip

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage remains poor. Tranexamic acid is easy to administer, readily available, inexpensive, and effective in other hemorrhagic conditions. AIM: This randomized trial aims to test the hypothesis that intravenous tranexamic acid given within 8 h...... of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage reduces death or dependency. DESIGN: Phase III prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Participants within 8 h of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage are randomized to receive either intravenous tranexamic acid 1 g 10 min bolus followed by 1 g 8 h......, and institutionalization. DISCUSSION: This pragmatic trial is assessing efficacy of tranexamic acid after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Recruitment started in 2013; as of 15th January 2016 1355 participants have been enrolled, from 95 centers in seven countries. Recruitment is due to end in 2017. TICH-2 Trial...

  8. Spreading depolarizations in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbok, Raimund; Schiefecker, Alois Josef; Friberg, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiologic mechanisms of secondary brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage and in particular mechanisms of perihematomal-edema progression remain incompletely understood. Recently, the role of spreading depolarizations in secondary brain injury was established in ischemic stroke......, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury patients. Its role in intracerebral hemorrhage patients and in particular the association with perihematomal-edema is not known. A total of 27 comatose intracerebral hemorrhage patients in whom hematoma evacuation and subdural electrocorticography......-edema progression (85% of patients) was significantly associated with occurrence of isolated and clustered spreading depolarizations. Monitoring of spreading depolarizations may help to better understand pathophysiologic mechanisms of secondary insults after intracerebral hemorrhage. Whether they may serve...

  9. ICS - i et minoritetsetnisk perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Birgit Raundahl

    ICS anvendes i hovedparten af landets kommuner, som en generel socialfaglig metode i sagsbehandlingen omkring udsatte børn, unge og deres familier. Imidlertid findes der ingen forskning, erfaringsopsamling, evaluering eller systematiseret viden fra dansk kontekst, der sætter fokus på anvendelse a...

  10. Reliability in CMOS IC processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreeve, R.; Ferrier, S.; Hall, D.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    Critical CMOS IC processing reliability monitors are defined in this paper. These monitors are divided into three categories: process qualifications, ongoing production workcell monitors, and ongoing reliability monitors. The key measures in each of these categories are identified and prioritized based on their importance.

  11. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-si...

  12. Surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in imaging and surgical techniques, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH has defied attempts to find a scientifically proven effective therapy. The pathophysiology of SICH suggests that early removal of the clot with minimal additional surgical trauma should prove beneficial. Trials in this direction have been few, and for some unknown reason, surgery has not proved to be superior to best medical management in most of these trials. This has led to substantial variability in the management of ICH throughout the world, and the treatment of SICH remains a controversy. SICH encompasses spectra of possible clot locations with varying volumes. Surgery so far has been reserved only for patients with large hematomas and impending brain herniation. Critical analysis of the earlier studies has now shown that surgery does help in clots in certain locations and of particular volume and when done at an optimal time. Poor grade patients with large hematomas, earlier considered poor surgical candidates are being taken up for aggressive decompressive craniectomies with fair results. In addition, minimally invasive surgical techniques complemented by thrombolytic techniques seem to providing surprisingly good results. Overall surgery seems to be going through a period of renaissance with respect to primary spontaneous ICHs.

  13. Computed tomographic findings of intracerebral cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Kyo; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ho Kyun; Ahn, Chi Yul [School of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease in which man serves as the intermediate host of Taenia Solium, the pork tapeworm. The computed tomographic findings of 25 cases of intracerebral cysticercosis proven by pathologic and/or clinical findings during past 2 years were analysed. The results were as follows; 1. The sex was 19 males and 6 females, and 56 percent of the patients were seen in fourth and fifth decades. The most common symptom was epilepsy (72%). 2. The C. T. findings in precontrast study were varied; such as ill defined low density (48%), cystic low density (20%), dilated ventricles (20%), ill defined low density with isodense nodule (18%), cystic low density with isodense mural nodule (12%) and calcification (8%). 3. The areas of involvement were 20 cases (80%) of parenchymal form, 3 cases (12%) of ventricular form and 2 cases (8%) of mixed form. 4. The contrast-enhanced 13 cases were 5 nodular, 5 ring or rim-like and 3 mixed type enhancements, while 12 cases were not enhanced. 5. C.T. scan demonstrated more precise location and extents of cerebral cysticercosis, especially in parenchymal form. It was considered to be important in determination of surgical feasibility and its approach.

  14. Advances in the management of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramatsu, J B; Huttner, H B; Schwab, S

    2013-09-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most detrimental sub-types of stroke and accounts for 10-15% of all strokes Qureshi et al. (Lancet 373(9675):1632-1644, 2009). ICH has an incidence of 10-30 cases per 100,000 people/year which is increasing and expected to double by the year 2050 Qureshi et al. (N Engl J Med 344 (19):1450-1460, 2001). Mortality rates still remain poor (30-50%) and functional dependency after ICH is high (~75%) van Asch et al. (Lancet Neurol 9 (2):167-176, 2010). Up to now, all randomized controlled trials investigating treatment approaches in ICH have failed to document improvements on clinical endpoints Mayer et al. (N Engl J Med 358 (20):2127-2137, 2008); Brouwers and Goldstein (Neurotherapeutics 9 (1):87-98, 2012). Only a specialized treatment of severely injured patients at dedicated neuro intensive care units [NICU] has been shown to be beneficial Qureshi et al. (Lancet 373(9675):1632-1644, 2009); Suarez et al. (Crit Care Med 32 (11):2311-2317, 2004). Currently, ongoing trials are investigating aggressive blood pressure lowering, hemostatic therapies, different operative strategies, intraventricular thrombolysis as well as neuroprotective approaches, and brain edema therapies. This review will summarize advanced treatment strategies and novel approaches which are currently under investigation.

  15. Nosocomial infections in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Archana; Dibu, Jamil; Achi, Eugene; Patel, Anand; Samant, Rohan; Yaghi, Shadi

    2015-05-01

    Nosocomial infections are frequent complications in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of nosocomial infections in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Prospectively collected data on patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage between January 2009 and June 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had nosocomial infection during the hospital stay were compared with patients who did not. Poor outcome was defined as death or discharge to a long-term nursing facility. At least 1 nosocomial infection developed in 26% of 202 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. The most common infections were pneumonia (18%), urinary tract infection (12%), meningitis or ventriculitis (3%), and bacteremia (1%). On univariate analysis, independent predictors of nosocomial infection were intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, low score on the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, hyperglycemia at admission, and treatment with mechanical ventilation. On multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of nosocomial infection was intraventricular hemorrhage (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.2-11.4; P = .02). Patients with nosocomial infection were more likely than those without to require a percutaneous gastrostomy tube (odds ratio, 33.1, 95% CI, 23.3-604.4; P nosocomial pneumonia were also more likely to have a poor outcome (P infection among patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  17. Computing fundamentals IC3 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Kick start your journey into computing and prepare for your IC3 certification With this essential course book you'll be sending e-mails, surfing the web and understanding the basics of computing in no time. Written by Faithe Wempen, a Microsoft Office Master Instructor and author of more than 120 books, this complete guide to the basics has been tailored to provide comprehensive instruction on the full range of entry-level computing skills. It is a must for students looking to move into almost any profession, as entry-level computing courses have become a compulsory requirement in the modern w

  18. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  19. Brain Perfusion Changes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Mazilu, C.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Codorean, I.; Bajenaru, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the latest advances in medical treatment and neuro critical care, patients suffering spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) still have a very poor prognosis, with a greater mortality and larger neurological deficits at the survivors than for ischemic stroke. Many authors have shown that there are many mechanisms involved in the pathology of SICH: edema, ischemia, inflammation, apoptosis. All of these factors are affecting brain tissue surrounding hematoma and are responsible of the progressive neurological deterioration; most of these damages are not revealed by anatomical imaging techniques. The aim of our study was to asses the role of brain perfusion SPECT in demonstrating perfusion changes in SICH patients. Method: 17 SICH pts were studied. All pts underwent same day CT and brain SPECT with 99mTcHMPAO, 24h-5d from onset of stroke. Results: 14/17 pts showed a larger perfusion defect than expected after CT. In 2 pts hematoma diameter was comparable on CT and SPECT; 1pt had quasinormal aspect of SPECT study. In pts with larger defects, SPECT revealed a large cold spot with similar size compared with CT, and a surrounding hypo perfused area. 6/17 pts revealed cortical hyper perfusion adjacent to hypo perfused area and corresponding to a normal-appearing brain tissue on CT. In 3 pts we found crossed cerebellar diaskisis.In 2 pts we found cortical hypo perfused area in the contralateral cortex, with normal appearing brain tissue on CT. Conclusions: Brain perfusion SPECT revealed different types of perfusion changes in the brain tissue surrounding hematoma. These areas contain viable brain tissue that may be a target for future ne uroprotective strategies. Further studies are definitely required to demonstrate prognostic significance of these changes, but we can conclude that brain perfusion SPECT can play an important role in SICH, by early demonstrating functional changes responsible of clinical deterioration, thus allowing prompt

  20. Factors Associated with Fever in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillow, Sabreena J; Ouyang, Bichun; Lee, Vivien H; John, Sayona

    2017-06-01

    Fever is common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We sought to identify predictors of fever in patients hospitalized with ICH, and compare infectious fever with noninfectious fever. A retrospective review on consecutive spontaneous ICH patients from April 2009 to March 2010 was performed. Fever was defined as temperature 100.9°F or higher and attributed to infectious versus noninfectious etiology, based upon the National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression model were used to determine factors associated with fever and with infection. Among the 351 ICH patients, 136 (39%) developed fever. Factors associated with fever included mean ICH volume, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), external ventricular drain (EVD) placement or surgical evacuation, positive microbial cultures, longer length of stay (LOS), and higher in-hospital mortality. Among patients with fever, 96 (71%) were noninfectious and 40 (29%) were infectious. Infectious fever was associated with higher LOS. Noninfectious fever was associated with higher in-hospital mortality. In multivariable analysis, ICH volume (OR = 1.01, P = .04), IVH (OR = 2.0, P = .03), EVD (OR = 3.7, P fever. Infectious fever (OR = 5.26, P = .004), EVD (OR = 4.86, P = .01), and surgical evacuation (OR = 4.77, P = .04) correlated with prolonged LOS when dichotomized using a median of 15 days. Fever is common in ICH patients and is not associated with a clear infectious etiology in the majority of patients. Patients with noninfectious fever have higher in-hospital mortality, but survivors have shorter LOS. Further studies are warranted to better understand fevers in ICH. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Blood Pressure Management After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shoichiro; Carcel, Cheryl; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-12-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), which presents in approximately 80 % of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), is associated with increased risk of poor outcome. The Second Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2) study, a multinational, multicenter, randomized controlled trial published in 2013, demonstrated better functional outcomes with no harm for patients with acute spontaneous ICH within 6 h of onset who received target-driven, early intensive BP lowering (systolic BP target <140 mmHg within 1 h, continued for 7 days) and suggested that greater and faster reduction in BP might enhance the treatment effect by limiting hematoma growth. The trial resulted in revisions of guidelines for acute management of ICH, in which intensive BP lowering in patients with acute ICH is recommended as safe and effective treatment for improving functional outcome. BP lowering is also the only intervention that is proven to reduce the risk of recurrent ICH. Current evidences from several randomized trials, including PROGRESS and SPS3, indicate that long-term strict BP control in patients with ICH is safe and could offer additional benefits in major reduction in risk of recurrent ICH. The latest American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines recommended a target BP of <130/80 mmHg after ICH, but supporting evidence is limited. Randomized controlled trials are needed that focus on strict BP control, initiated early after onset of the disease and continued long-term, to demonstrate effective prevention of recurrent stroke and other major vascular events without additional harms in the ICH population.

  2. The brain as a photoreceptor: intracerebral ocelli in the firefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyama, T.

    This paper deals with the structure and function of the intracerebral ocelli in the caudal area of the brain of the Japanese firefly. A pair of epilaterally placed specialized pigmented organs was found at the caudal ends of the brains of the fireflies Luciola cruciata and L. lateralis. On the basis of light and transmission electron micrographs of both male and female individuals these organs seemed photoreceptive in nature. Intracellular and extracellular recordings were obtained from the intracerebral ocelli of the fireflies with microelectrodes. The physiological evidence revealed that the cells found in the brain were, indeed, photoreceptors.

  3. Congenital intracerebral teratoma: a rare differential diagnosis in newborn hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storr, U. [Landratsamt Neuburg-Schrobenhausen, Gesundheitsamt, Neuburg an der Donau (Germany)]|[Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Rupprecht, T. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Bornemann, A. [Inst. for General Pathology, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Ries, M. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Beinder, E. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Boewing, B. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Harms, D. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Cogenital hydrocephalus is caused by a broad spectrum of underlying disorders. In the majority of cases it is due to aqueductal stenosis and other distinct congenital anomalies, like Arnold-Chiari malformation. Nevertheless, in the differential diagnosis rare conditions such as cerebral malignancies must also be considered. We present two cases of congenital intracerebral teratoma as a differential diagnosis in congenital obstructive hydrocephalus. A teratoma is suggested when a rapidly growing hydrocephalus with a central calcified and vascularized mass is found sonographically. Regular cerebral structures using cannot be detected. Early diagnosis in such cases is of clinical importance as the prognosis of congential intracerebral teratoma is generally very poor. (orig.)

  4. Preexisting cognitive impairment in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, M; Horstmann, S; Möhlenbruch, M; Schueler, S; Rizos, T; Veltkamp, R

    2017-06-01

    Preexisting cognitive impairment is a predictor of cognitive decline after ischemic stroke, but evidence in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence of premorbid cognitive impairment in patients with ICH. We included patients with acute ICH. Pre-ICH cognitive impairment was determined based on the results of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) that uses information from close relatives. Patients were assessed as having been cognitively impaired with an IQCODE score of ≥3.44; an IQCODE ≥4.00 indicated pre-ICH dementia. CT and MRI images were reviewed to determine the extent of white matter lesions and to measure the radial width of the temporal horn as marker of brain atrophy. We investigated differences of cardiovascular risk factors and imaging data between patients with and without pre-ICH cognitive impairment using correlation analyses, uni- and multivariable regression models. Functional neurological state was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The mRS was dichotomized at the level of 3, and a premorbid mRS of 0-2 was considered as functional independency. Among the 89 participants, median age was 70 years (interquartile range 58-78) and 52 (58.4%) were male. IQCODE indicated pre-ICH cognitive impairment in 18.0% (16 of 89), and 83.1% were functionally independent before ICH. Cognitive impairment was associated with a premorbid mRS≥3 (chi squared test, P=0.009). In multivariable analysis, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack (OR 18.29, 95%-CI 1.945-172.033, P=.011) and hematoma volume (OR 0.90, 95%-CI 0.812-0.991, P=.033) were independently associated with pre-ICH cognitive impairment. In conclusion, cognitive impairment frequently precedes ICH. A higher frequency of cerebrovascular events suggests a role of vascular processes in the development of cognitive impairment before ICH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  6. CT guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive and traumatic intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondo, Hideki; Matsumoto, Keizo

    1983-01-01

    Recent advancement of CT system provides not only definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematoma but also coordinates of the center of the hematoma. Trials of stereotactic evacuation of the hematoma have been reported by some authors in the cases of subacute or chronic stages of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. In this series, similar surgery has been performed in 33 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma including 22 cases in acute stage, and 2 cases of traumatic hematoma. Clinical outcomes were investigated and the results were considered to be equivalent or rather better in the conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. However, there still remained controversial problems in the cases of threatened herniation signs, because in these cases regular surgery with total evacuation of the hematoma at one time might have been preferable. The benefits of this CT guided stereotactic approach for the evacuation of the hematoma were thought to be as follow: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation is readily performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma was drained out totally by means of urokinase activity. It is our impression that this surgery not only is indicated as emergency treatment for the patients of high-age or in high risk, but also can institute as a routine surgery for the intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herniation sign. (J.P.N.)

  7. Intracerebral Event-related Potentials to Subthreshold Target Stimuli

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, M.; Rektor, I.; Daniel, P.; Dufek, M.; Jurák, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 4 (2001), s. 650-661 ISSN 1388-2457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/98/0490 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : event-related potentials * intracerebral recordings * oddball paradigm Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.922, year: 2001

  8. Intracerebral abscesses: Outcome following management in the CT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracerebral abscesses: Outcome following management in the CT era. ... In our practice, burr hole drainage augmented with a minimum of 4 weeks intravenous antibiotics, was the most frequently used treatment modality. Conclusion: The outcome was satisfactory (ability to return to pre-morbid activities and duties, with no ...

  9. Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH...

  10. Pattern and location of intracerebral hemorrhage in Enugu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The incidence rates and location of nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have been shown to vary between population and races. Knowledge of ICH patterns may give some insight into the etiology of ICH and help reduce its burden particularly among Africans where health infrastructure is poorly ...

  11. Intracerebral hemorrhage in children | Zidan | Alexandria Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in children is relatively less common as compared to adults. It could be traumatic or spontaneous. Objective: There are limited studies about ICH in children. In this study, we analyze the etiology, clinical features, management options and outcome assessment in this population.

  12. Clinical characteristics and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2014-01-01

    Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980

  13. Prognostic Factors for Cognitive Decline After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedictus, M.R.; Hochart, A.; Rossi, C.; Boulouis, G.; Henon, H.; van der Flier, W.M.; Cordonnier, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Stroke and dementia are closely related, but no prospective study ever focused on poststroke cognitive decline in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to determine prognostic factors for cognitive decline in patients with ICH. Methods-We prospectively

  14. Pathogenesis of lober intracerebral hemorrhage related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Naoto; Namba, Hiroki; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Satoshi; Isoda, Haruo; Yokoyama, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is an important cause of lober intracerebral hemorrhage in the elderly. Although leptomeningeal and cortical arteries with the deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) have been thought to rupture in CAA, the pathogenesis of CAA-related hemorrhage still remains obscure. We studied 10 cases of CAA according to the Boston criteria from April 2006 to July 2009 in Omaezaki Municipal Hospital. Based on clinical data, we examined the primary site of hemorrhage and hypothesized the mechanisms of bleeding. Intracerebral hematoma evacuation was performed to alleviate neurological deteriolation in 2 patients and to make diagnosis in 3 patients. The surgical specimens were pathologically examined. The characteristic MR images of CAA related hemorrhage were characterized by microbleeds, superficial siderosis, subpial or subarachnoid hemorrhage, subcortical hemorrhage and lober intracerebral hemorrhage. Chronological images obtained in 1 patient revealed that lober intracerebral hemorrhage developed from microbleed with subpial hemorrhage without subarachnoid hemorrhage in one side of the cortex in the affected facing cerebral sulci. Operative findings showed subpial and subarachnoid hemorrhages around the cortical veins on the affected cerebral sulci in all cases. Abnormal fragile vessels existed in one side of the cortex of the affected sulci but not in the other side of the cortex. Complete hamatoma evacuation was performed in 4 cases. The surgical specimens of the hematoma and the adjacent brain parenchyma were pathologically examined by tissue staining with hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red. Many vessels in subpial, subcortical and subarachnoid space along the cerebral sulci were deposited with Aβ. From these findings, we speculated that the primary hemorrhage related to CAA occurred from the cortical arteries with Aβ deposition in the subpial space along the cerebral sulci and formed a lober intracerebral hematoma. Subarachnoid

  15. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  16. Contralateral delayed epidural hematoma following intracerebral hematoma surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomiichuk, Volodymyr O.; Drizhdov, Konstantin I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Delayed epidural hematoma (EDH) is an uncommon finding in patients after intracranial hematomas evacuation. It occurs in 6.7-7.4% of cases. A total of 29 reports were found in literature. Between them were no cases of delayed contralateral EDH after intracerebral hematoma evacuation. Case Description: This paper represents a clinical case of a 28-year-old male patient with opened penetrating head injury, who underwent left frontal lobe intracerebral hematoma evacuation and one day later a contralateral EDH was found and successfully surgically treated. Conclusion: Contralateral EDH is a life-threatening neurosurgical emergency case, which can occur during first 24 hours after decompressive craniectomy. Control CT scans must be performed next day after the operation to verify and treat contralateral EDH timely. PMID:24233058

  17. Mortality Prediction in Patients with Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Suárez Quesada

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is the deadliest, most disabling, and least treatable form of stroke. No therapy has proven to improve its outcome or reduce its mortality. Objective: to identify predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: a single cohort study was conducted involving 176 patients admitted consecutively to the stroke ward of the Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Provincial General Hospital with neuroimaging and clinical diagnosis of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage from January 2013 to November 2015. Independent predictors were obtained using multivariable logistic regression. Results: seventy four point four percent of the patients were hypertensive. The median age among those who died was 67.45 ± 14.84 years. Forty three point eight percent of the patients under study died. Subjects with fatal outcome had lower score on the Glasgow Coma Scale (10.00 ± 3.47 vs. 14.00 ± 1.93, higher hematoma volume expressed in cubic centimeters (26.27 ± 36.86 vs. 6.19 ± 19.59, and displacement of the midline structures (2.00 ± 5.95 vs. 0.00 ± 4.49. The following predictors were identified: Glasgow score ≤ 10 points (Exp (B: 10.74; 95 % CI=4.69 to 24.59, hematoma volume ≥ 20 cm3 (Exp (B: 4.44; 95 % CI= 1.95 to 10.06, and pulse pressure ≥ 60 mmHg (Exp (B: 2.42, 95 % CI=1.10 to 5.33. The area under the ROC curve was 0.85. Conclusions: the Glasgow Coma Scale is the most significant independent variable to predict mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  18. Hypereosinophilia with Multiple Thromboembolic Cerebral Infarcts and Focal Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Hyun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    We report a case of hypereosinophilia causing multiple areas of cerebral infarcts. A 52-year-old Korean man presented with dysarthria and weakness in both arms. A brain MRI revealed multiple acute infarcts in the distal border zone with focal intracerebral hemorrhage, whereas a cerebral angiogram was not remarkable. The eosinophil count was 5,500/{mu}L and was accompanied by elevated cardiac enzyme levels. The pattern of cerebral infarcts and laboratory results suggest a thromboembolic infarction associated with hypereosinophilia.

  19. Genomic profiles of damage and protection in human intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, S Thomas; Vespa, Paul M; Saver, Jeffery L; Coppola, Giovanni; Geschwind, Daniel H; Starkman, Sidney; Miller, Chad M; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Liebeskind, David S; Martin, Neil A

    2008-11-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) produces a high rate of death and disability. The molecular mechanisms of damage in perihematomal tissue in humans have not been systematically characterized. This study determines the gene expression profile and molecular networks that are induced in human perihematomal tissue through molecular analysis of tissue obtained from endoscopic clot evacuation. Differentially expressed genes and their cellular origin were confirmed in a mouse model of ICH. A total of 624 genes showed altered regulation in human ICH. Bioinformatic analysis shows that these genes form interconnected networks of proinflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuronal signaling cascades. Intracerebral hemorrhage evokes coordinated upregulation of proinflammatory signaling through specific cytokines and chemokines and their downstream molecular pathways. Anti-inflammatory networks are also induced by ICH, including annexins A1 and A2 and transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and their intracellular cascades. Intracerebral hemorrhage downregulates many neuronal signaling systems, including the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor complex and membrane ion channels. Select portions of these molecular networks were confirmed in the mouse, and the proteins in a subset of these networks localized to subsets of neurons, oligodendrocytes, or leukocytes. These inflammatory and anti-inflammatory networks interact at several key points in neutrophil signaling, apoptotic cell death, and protease responses, and indicate that secondary damage in ICH activates opposing molecular systems.

  20. Hematoma Expansion is Common after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Gindville, Melissa C.; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Bastian, Rachel A.; Smith, Sabrina E.; Licht, Daniel J.; Hillis, Argye E.; Jordan, Lori C.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Hematoma expansion is the only modifiable predictor of outcome in adult intracerebral hemorrhage; however, the frequency and clinical significance of hematoma expansion after childhood intracerebral hemorrhage are unknown. Objective To assess the frequency and extent of hematoma expansion in children with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Participants Children (≥37 weeks gestation-18 years) with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in a three-center prospective observational study from 2007–2012 focused on predictors of outcome. For this planned sub-study of hematoma expansion, neonates ≤28 days and participants with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Children with two head CTs within 48 hours were evaluated for hematoma expansion and were compared to children with only one head CT. Consent for the primary cohort was obtained from 73 of 87 eligible subjects (84%); 41 of 73 children enrolled in the primary cohort met all inclusion/exclusion criteria for this sub-study in whom 22 had two head CTs obtained within 48 hours that could be evaluated for hematoma expansion. Within our sub-study cohort, 21/41 (51%) were male, 25/41 (61%) were white, 16/25 (39%) were black, and median age was 7.7 years (interquartile range 2.0–13.4 years). Main Outcome Measure Primary outcome was prevalence of hematoma expansion. Results Of 73 children, 41 (56%) met inclusion criteria, and 22 (30%) had 2 head CTs to evaluate expansion. Among these 22 children, median time from symptom onset to first CT was two hours (interquartile range 1.3–6.5 hours). Median baseline hemorrhage volume was 19.5mL, 1.6% of brain volume. Hematoma expansion occurred in (7/22) 32%. Median expansion was 4mL (interquartile range 1–11mL). Three children had significant (>33%) expansion; two required urgent hematoma evacuation. Expansion was not associated with poorer

  1. The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intercontinental schizophrenia outpatient health outcomes (IC-SOHO) study: baseline clinical and functional characteristics and antipsychotic use patterns in the North Africa and Middle Eastern (AMEA) region: original article.

  2. Semiconductor/High-Tc-Superconductor Hybrid ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) containing both Si-based semiconducting and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) superconducting circuit elements on sapphire substrates developed. Help to prevent diffusion of Cu from superconductors into semiconductors. These hybrid ICs combine superconducting and semiconducting features unavailable in superconducting or semiconducting circuitry alone. For example, complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout and memory devices integrated with fast-switching Josephson-junction super-conducting logic devices and zero-resistance interconnections.

  3. The H II regions of IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Mason, Stephen F.; Gullixson, Craig A.

    1990-01-01

    New H-alpha images are presented of IC 1613, a small irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The images, obtained with a CCD on the 42-in telescope at Lowell Observatory, have been calibrated and used to produce an H-alpha luminosity function and a size distribution for the H II regions in IC 1613. The results are compared to results for NGC 6822 and the Magellanic Clouds. The size distribution is found to be Poissonian over a limited range.

  4. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical current...

  5. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondo, Hideki

    1983-01-01

    Computerized tomography (CT) is now effective not only for definite diagnosis and location of intracerebral hematomas but also for coordination of the center of a hematoma. CT-guided stereotactic evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma was performed in 51 cases: 34 of basal ganglionic hematoma with or without ventricular perforation, 11 of subcortical hematoma, 3 of thalamic hematoma and 3 of cerebellar hematoma. Three dimensional CT images or biplane CT images were taken to determine the coordinates of the target point, which was the center of the hematoma. Then, a silicon tube (O.D. 3.5 phi, I.D. 2.1 phi) was inserted into the center of the hematoma through a burr-hole under local anesthesia, and the liquid or solid hematoma was aspirated as completely as possible with a syringe. Urokinase (6,000 I.U./5 ml saline) was administered through this silicon tube every 6 or 12 hours for several days until the hematoma had drained out competely. The silicon tube was taken out when repeated CT scanning revealed no hematoma. The results of clinical follow-ups indicated that this procedure is as good as, or rather better than conventional microsurgery with evacuation of hematoma under direct vision. Moreover this CT-guided stereotactic approach for evacuation of the hematoma has the following advantages: 1) the procedure is simple and safe, 2) operation can be performed under local anesthesia, and 3) the hematoma is drained out completely with the aid of urokinase. This surgery seems indicated as an emergency treatment for high-age or high risk patients and also as a routine surgery for intracerebral hematomas in patients showing no herination signs. (author)

  6. Evaluation of intracerebral hematoma resorption dynamics with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzesniewski, P.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Ksiazkiewicz, B.; Wanat-Slupska, E.

    2004-01-01

    High mortality and severe grade of disability observed in patients after intracerebral hemorrhage provide efforts to improve diagnostics and therapy of the hemorrhagic cerebral stroke. An aim of this paper was an evaluation of blood resorption dynamics in patients with intracerebral hematoma, performed with computed tomography of the head and an analysis of clinical significance of this process. An examined group included 133 patients with intracerebral hematoma proven by a CT exam. In 97 patients resorption of the hematoma was measured, based on control scans taken on 15 th and 30 th day on average. Volume of the hemorrhagic foci was measured as well as the width of ventricles and the displacement of medial structures. The mean hematoma volume reached 11,59 ml after 15 days, and 3,16 m after 30 days (average decrease of the volume 0,67 ml/day). There was a significant difference in the rate of resorption between the first (0-15 days) and the second (15-30 days) observation period - 0,78 and 0,62 ml/day respectively. The dynamics of the process was dependent on volume and localization of the hematoma and independent of the grade of displacement and compression of the ventricles. The calculated mean rate of the hematomas resorption enables to schedule control examinations precisely. The significant differences of the dynamics of blood resorption depending on hematomas size and the independence of compression and displacement of ventricular system suggest, that the most important factor in therapeutic decision-making should be a clinical status of the patient. (author)

  7. Calcified subdural hematoma associated with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishige, Naoki; Sunami, Kenro; Sato, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu

    1984-01-01

    A case of calcified subdural hematoma associated with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is reported. A left frontal subdural hematoma with left putaminal hemorrhage was incidentally found when a CT scan was performed to evaluate right hemiparesis and aphasia in a 55-year-old man. The putaminal hemorrhage was not very extensive, but his clinical symptoms were rather serious. Not only the putaminal hemorrhage, but also the presence of the calcified subdural hematoma was considered to have caused his clinical deterioration. The subtotal removal of the calcified subdural hematoma brought about a good result. (author)

  8. Early MR abnormality indicating functional recovery from spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumeya, Hiroshi; Hideshima, Hiroshi (Hideshima Hospital, Musashino, Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as an indicator of recovery from hemiparesis was evaluated in 60 patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images revealed early MR abnormality (EMA) of the corticospinal tract within 1 week of ictus. Most patients without EMA recovered beyond Brunnstrom's Recovery Stage 3 while only a few patients with EMA did so. Patients with EMA cannot regain motor function because EMA is almost always followed by complete tract degeneration. EMA in the brainstem and poor motor function recovery are closely correlated. (author).

  9. Brain alpha- and beta-globin expression after intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yangdong; Hua, Ya; Lee, Jin-Yul; Liu, Wenquan; Keep, Richard F; Wang, Michael M.; Xi, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that hemoglobin (Hb) is present in cerebral neurons and neuronal Hb is inducible after cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we examined the effects of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on the mRNA levels of the α-globin (HbA) and the β-globin (HbB) components of Hb and Hb protein in the brain in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, male Sprague-Dawley rats received either a needle insertion (sham) or an infusion of autologous whole blood into the basal ganglia and we...

  10. Intracerebral haemorrhage in primary and metastatic brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Silvani, Antonio; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may both be a presenting manifestation in unrecognised brain tumour or--more frequently--take place in the disease course of known/suspected brain tumour due to diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, including biopsy, locoregional treatments and anti-angiogenic therapies. Apart from the difficulties inherent to accurate neuroradiological diagnosis in selected cases with small tumour volume, the main clinical problem that neurologists face is represented by decision making in prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism in these patients. These points are briefly discussed and available evidence on the last point is commented on.

  11. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  12. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to

  13. Zinc Protoporphyrin Attenuates White Matter Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuxiang; Gong, Ye; Liu, Wen-Quan; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced white matter injury has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) on white matter injury induced by ICH. This study was divided into two parts. In the first part, rats received either a needle insertion (sham) or 100 μl autologous blood into the right basal ganglia. The rats were euthanized at 1, 3, 7, 14, or 28 days later for myelin basic protein (MBP) measurement. In the second part, rats had intracerebral infusion of 100 μl autologous blood, and an intraperitoneal osmotic mini-pump was implanted immediately after ICH to deliver vehicle or ZnPP (1 nmol/h), a heme oxygenase inhibitor, for up to 14 days. Rats were euthanized at day 28 for MBP staining. The number of MBP-labeled fiber bundles and their area were determined. The time-course showed that the white matter was lost in the ipsilateral basal ganglia from day 1 to day 28 after ICH. The number of MBP-labeled bundles and their area were significantly lower 2 weeks after ICH compared with sham-operated rats (p ZnPP attenuated the loss of MBP-labeled bundles (p ZnPP reduces white matter injury, suggesting a role of heme degradation products in ICH-induced white matter damage.

  14. Surgical Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendevski Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate the surgical outcome in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH after surgical intervention, in respect to the initial clinical conditions, age, sex, hemispheric side and anatomic localization of ICH. Thirty-eight surgically treated patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were included in the study. The surgical outcome was evaluated three months after the initial admission, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. The surgical treatment was successful in 14 patients (37%, whereas it was unsuccessful in 24 patients (63%. We have detected a significant negative correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores on admission and the GOS scores after three months, suggesting worse neurological outcome in patients with initially lower GCS scores. The surgical outcome in patients with ICH was not affected by the sex, the hemispheric side and the anatomic localization of ICH, but the age of the patients was estimated as a significant factor for their functional outcome, with younger patients being more likely to be treated successfully. The surgical outcome is affected from the initial clinical state of the patients and their age. The treatment of ICH is still an unsolved clinical problem and the development of new surgical techniques with larger efficiency in the evacuation of the hematoma is necessary, thus making a minimal damage to the normal brain tissue, as well as decreasing the possibility of postoperative bleeding.

  15. Intracerebral abscesses: outcome following management in the CT era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emejulu, J K C; Shokunbi, M T; Malomo, A O

    2004-01-01

    There are no pathognomonic presenting features of intracerebral abscesses. Their clinical features could be confused with those of a tumour or any other space occupying lesion. We analyzed the symptoms, predisposing factors, diagnostic modalities, prevalent causative microbes, management and outcome in 11 patients, for whom complete records were available and who were managed for confirmed intracerebral abscess in our Neurosurgical Unit from 1996 to 2000 and compared our findings with those from other series. In these patients focal neurological deficit was the most common clinical feature, trauma was the most predisposing event and Computerised Tomography (CT) Scanning remained the most dependable diagnostic tool. In our practice, burr hole drainage augmented with a minimum of 4 weeks intravenous antibiotics, was the most frequently used treatment modality. The outcome was satisfactory (ability to return to pre-morbid activities and duties, with no disabling neurological deficits) in 72.8% cases. There was one death. This modality remains an effective way of treating patients with intracebrebral abscess.

  16. Evaluation of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pediatric Intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; Beslow, Lauren A; Engelmann, Kyle; Smith, Sabrina E; Licht, Daniel J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage have investigated isolated intraparenchymal hemorrhage. We investigated whether detailed assessment of intraventricular hemorrhage enhanced outcome prediction after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 46 children, full-term to 17 years, median age 2.7 years with spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage and/or intraventricular hemorrhage. Outcome was assessed with the King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury. Twenty-six (57%) had intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (22%) had pure intraventricular hemorrhage, and 10 (22%) had both. There were 2 deaths, both with intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume ≥4% of total brain volume. Presence of intraventricular hemorrhage was not associated with poor outcome, but hydrocephalus showed a trend (p=0.09) toward poor outcome. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, combined intraparenchymal hemorrhage + intraventricular hemorrhage volume also showed a trend toward better outcome prediction than intraparenchymal hemorrhage volume alone. Although not an independent outcome predictor, future studies should assess intraventricular hemorrhage qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:22068828

  17. A case of repeated intracerebral hemorrhages secondary to ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbing Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a routinely performed treatment in neurosurgical department. Intracerebral hemorrhage, as a complication after shunt catheterization, is really rare but with high mortality. In this study, we reported a case of a 74-year-old man who suffered from repeated intracerebral hemorrhage after ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The first hemorrhage happened 63 h after the 1st surgery, and most hematomas were located in the ipsilateral occipital lobe and intraventricles, along the ventricular catheter. Fresh blood clot casts blocked the external ventricular draining catheter, which was inserted into the right front horn during the 3rd surgery, indicating new intraventricular bleeding happened. A large hematoma in ipsilateral frontal lobe was detected on the 3rd day after the removal of external ventricular draining catheter. Different hemorrhagic locations and time points were encountered on the same case. We discussed the possible causes of repeated hemorrhage for this case, and the pre-operative preparation including risk evaluation in future clinical work.

  18. Hematoma Locations Predicting Delirium Symptoms After Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Polnaszek, Kelly L; Berman, Michael D; Voss, Joel L

    2016-06-01

    Delirium symptoms are associated with later worse functional outcomes and long-term cognitive impairments, but the neuroanatomical basis for delirium symptoms in patients with acute brain injury is currently uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that hematoma location is predictive of delirium symptoms in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, a model disease where patients are typically not sedated or bacteremic. We prospectively identified 90 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent routine twice-daily screening for delirium symptoms with a validated examination. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping with acute computed tomography was used to identify hematoma locations associated with delirium symptoms (N = 89). Acute delirium symptoms were predicted by hematoma of right-hemisphere subcortical white matter (superior longitudinal fasciculus) and parahippocampal gyrus. Hematoma including these locations had an odds ratio for delirium of 13 (95 % CI 3.9-43.3, P delirium symptoms. Higher odds ratio for delirium was increased due to hematoma location. The location of neurological injury could be of high prognostic value for predicting delirium symptoms.

  19. gerIatrIc ImperatIve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gerIatrIc. •. •. ImperatIve. A major challenge to health professionals. D. GLAJCHEN. In recent years I have noted, with increasing envy, the inherent strength as well as the impressive clinical and ... ments of geriatrics in this country will form the basis of a separate .... effects of nutrition (quantity, under-nutrition without malnutri-.

  20. Measurement selection for parametric IC fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A.; Meador, J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with the use of measurement reduction for statistical IC fault diagnosis are described. The reduction method used involves data pre-processing in a fashion consistent with a specific definition of parametric faults. The effects of this preprocessing are examined.

  1. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    . The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...

  2. Embedded I&C for Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project uses embedded instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies to demonstrate potential performance gains of nuclear power plant components in extreme environments. Extreme environments include high temperature, radiation, high pressure, high vibration, and high EMI conditions. For extreme environments, performance gains arise from moment-to-moment sensing of local variables and immediate application of local feedback control. Planning for embedding I&C during early system design phases contrasts with the traditional, serial design approach that incorporates minimal I&C after mechanical and electrical design is complete. The demonstration application involves the development and control of a novel, proof-of-concept motor/pump design. The motor and pump combination operate within the fluid environment, eliminating the need for rotating seals. Actively controlled magnetic bearings also replace failure-prone mechanical contact bearings that typically suspend rotating components. Such as design has the potential to significantly enhance the reliability and life of the pumping system and would not be possible without embedded I&C.

  3. TDR method for determine IC's parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshenkov, V.; Rodionov, D.; Khlybov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Frequency domain simulation is a widely used approach for determine integrated circuits parameters. This approach can be found in most of software tools used in IC industry. Time domain simulation approach shows intensive usage last years due to some advantages. In particular it applicable for analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary systems where frequency domain is inapplicable. Resolution of time domain systems allow see heterogeneities on distance 1mm, determine it parameters and properties. Authors used approach based on detecting reflected signals from heterogeneities - time domain reflectometry (TDR). Field effect transistor technology scaling up to 30-60nm gate length and 10nm gate dielectric, heterojunction bi-polar transistors with 10-30nm base width allows fabricate digital IC's with 20GHz clock frequency and RF-IC's with tens GHz bandwidth. Such devices and operation speed suppose transit signal by use microwave lines. There are local heterogeneities can be found inside of the signal path due to connections between different parts of signal lines (stripe line-RF-connector pin, stripe line - IC package pin). These heterogeneities distort signals that cause bandwidth decrease for RF-devices. Time domain research methods of transmission and reflected signals give the opportunities to determine heterogeneities, it properties, parameters and built up equivalent circuits. Experimental results are provided and show possibility for inductance and capacitance measurement up to 25GHz. Measurements contains result of signal path research on IC and printed circuit board (PCB) used for 12GHz RF chips. Also dielectric constant versus frequency was measured up to 35GHz.

  4. Comparison of computer tomography and magnetic resonance tomography in the diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, S.; Elste, V.; Sartor, K.; Reith, W.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Muenchen Univ.

    1999-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Stroke symptoms are caused in 10 to 15% by intracerebral hemorrhage. From the clinical examination it is often impossible to differentiate intracerebralhemorrhage from cerebral ischemia. To exclude intracerebral hemorrhage as the cause of clinical symptoms a CT is usually performed. The aim of our study was a direct comparison of the sensitivity of Computed Tomography and MRI using different MR sequences for the detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods: In 8 male Wistar rats intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by infusion of collagenase into the caudate nucleus. After 1 hour the brains were subsequently imaged with CT and MRI using T2- and T1-weighted Spin Echo sequences, diffusion-weighted sequences, T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences and FLAIR-sequences. Visibility of the intracerebral hemorrhage was examined using a scoring system for 1=not visible to 5=excellent visible. Finally, the intracerebral hemorrhage was verified by histological staining. Results: In all animals, intracerebral hemorrhage was visible in T2*-weighted gradient echo and diffusion weighted MR images 1 h after infusion of collagenase. T2- and PD-weighted SE images were positive in 7/8 rats. T1-weighted images revealed signal changes in 5/8 rats, and FLAIR sequence was positive in 8/8 rats. In CT intracerebral hemorrhage was only visible in 3/8 rats. When measuring the increase of Hounsfield units within the suspected hemisphere we saw a mean increase of 7% compared to the normal hemisphere in 3/8 rats. Conclusions: In this animal model, T2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging proved to be the most sensitive imaging modality in the detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage and is by far more sensitive than CT. (orig.) [de

  5. Rehabilitation following intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsby, Amanda; Buddha, Sandeep

    2013-05-24

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was first used in adults with severe respiratory failure in the 1970s. Its use has been steadily increasing since the 1990s after a trial demonstrated improved survival. There are currently seven centres in the UK offering ECMO to adults. Neurological complications are often picked up within the first few days of initiating ECMO. Intracerebral haemorrhage is a well recognised complication and it is the leading cause of death in infants on ECMO and rates of 9-18.9% in adults have been reported. We report a 52-year-old woman admitted in severe type 1 respiratory failure in January 2012. She was transferred to a tertiary centre and suffered bitemporal and right parietal haemorrhages on ECMO in late February. She was repatriated to our unit for rehabilitation in April 2012. Her rehabilitation needs represent the complexity of this patient group with multiple medical, behavioural and physical challenges.

  6. [MRI semiotics features of experimental acute intracerebral hematomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenchev, D V; Skvortsova, V I; Tvorogova, T V; Guseva, O I; Gubskiĭ, L V; Kupriianov, D A; Pirogov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of revealing intracerebral hematomas (ICH), using MRI, within the first hours after onset and to determine their MRI semiotics features. Thirty animals with experimental ICH were studied. A method of two-stage introduction of autologous blood was used to develop ICH as human spontaneous intracranial hematomas. Within 3-5h after blood introduction to the rat brain. The control MRI was performed in the 3rd and 7th days after blood injections. ICH were definitely identified in the first MRI scans. The MRI semiotics features of acute ICH and their transformations were assessed. The high sensitivity of MRI to ICH as well as the uniform manifestations in all animals were shown. In conclusion, the method has high specificity for acute ICH detection.

  7. Intracerebral Infusion of Antisense Oligonucleotides Into Prion-infected Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karah Nazor Friberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mice deficient for the cellular prion protein (PrPC do not develop prion disease; accordingly, gene-based strategies to diminish PrPC expression are of interest. We synthesized a series of chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs targeted against mouse Prnp messenger RNA (mRNA and identified those that were most effective in decreasing PrPC expression. Those ASOs were also evaluated in scrapie-infected cultured cells (ScN2a for their efficacy in diminishing the levels of the disease-causing prion protein (PrPSc. When the optimal ASO was infused intracerebrally into FVB mice over a 14-day period beginning 1 day after infection with the Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML strain of mouse prions, a prolongation of the incubation period of almost 2 months was observed. Whether ASOs can be used to develop an effective therapy for patients dying of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease remains to be established.

  8. Bilateral hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage diagnosed by CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yoshio; Nakayama, Kenji; Matsumori, Kuniaki

    1982-01-01

    Five (9.6%) of 52 cases of supretentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage which suffered rehemorrhage in the contralateral regions were analyzed in the present study, and the 28 cases reported since 1950 were reviewed. The literature suggests that the time between the first hemorrhage and the second was quite long. However, the present series showed that re-hemorrhage in the contralateral side developed within one month in three out of five cases. In case 1, hemorrhages developed almost simultaneously in the left thalamus and in the right putamen. Three characteristics were observed: The symptoms including hemiparesis and/or hemispheric signs related to the first hemorrhage had a tendency to exacerbate after the second attack in other the contralateral region in the second attack, symptoms excessively severe for the size of the hematoma developed. Finally, the clinical course after the second hemorrhage was poor. (author)

  9. Causes and clinical characteristics of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-ju MENG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, clinical data of 31 patients in childhood with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH were retrospectively analyzed. According to various imaging examinations (CT, MRI, CTA, MRA and DSA, 22 cases (70.97% had definite causes, including 9 cases (29.03% with intracranial arteriovenous malformation, 6 cases (19.35% with cavernous hemangioma, 3 cases (9.68% with hematopathy, 2 cases (6.45% with tumor apoplexy, one case (3.23% with intracranial aneurysm and one case (3.23% with moyamoya disease; 9 cases (29.03% had unclear causes. All cases were timely diagnosed and treated. Among all the patients, 23 cases (74.19% were cured with good prognosis, 6 cases (19.35% improved, and the other 2 cases (6.45% died. Therefore, primary diseases should be timely treated as hematoma was removed.

  10. Prophylaxis of venous thrombosis in patients with spontaneous intracerebral bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Rezoagli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SIH represents a severe clinical event that is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. Only a minority of SIH patients receive surgical treatment, whereas the majority are treated conservatively. Venous thromboembolism (VTE is one of the most common complications in SIH patients and a potential cause of death. Because of the lack of adequate evidences from the literature, the risk to benefit ratio of pharmacologic prophylaxis of VTE, represented on the one hand by hematoma enlargement and/or rebleeding and on the other hand by an expected reduction of the risk of VTE, remains controversial. Mechanical prophylaxis is a potentially safer alternative, but the efficacy of this approach is uncertain. In the absence of specific clinical guidelines containing clear-cut recommendations, physicians have insufficient tools to assist their therapeutic decisions.

  11. The open cluster IC 4996: new parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard P.; Straizys, Vytautas; Munari, Ulisse; Milasius, Kristupas; Cernis, Kazimieras; Zdanavicius, Justas; Kazlauskas, Algirdas; Maskoliunas, Marius; Janusz, Robert; Zdanavicius, Kazimieras

    2018-01-01

    The open cluster IC 4996 area in Cygnus is investigated applying two-dimensional photometric classification of stars observed in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system down to V = 18.5 mag. B-type stars are identified as possible cluster members applying their proper motions from the Altmann et al. A&A 600, L4 (2017) catalog based on the Gaia DR1 and the PPMXL catalog. For most of them spectroscopic MK types are also obtained from the Asiago spectra. New parameters of the cluster are derived. The mean interstellar extinction in the central part of the cluster Av = 2.02 mag, the distance is close to 2 kpc and the age 9--10 million years. The plot of Av versus d in the area of IC 4996 shows a steep increase of the extinction at 500--600 pc which is related to dust clouds in the Great Cygnus Rift.

  12. Surgical Trial in Lobar Intracerebral Haemorrhage (STICH II Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Elise N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the spectrum of spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage there are some patients with large or space occupying haemorrhage who require surgery for neurological deterioration and others with small haematomas who should be managed conservatively. There is equipoise about the management of patients between these two extremes. In particular there is some evidence that patients with lobar haematomas and no intraventricular haemorrhage might benefit from haematoma evacuation. The STICH II study will establish whether a policy of earlier surgical evacuation of the haematoma in selected patients will improve outcome compared to a policy of initial conservative treatment. Methods/Design an international multicentre randomised parallel group trial. Only patients for whom the treating neurosurgeon is in equipoise about the benefits of early craniotomy compared to initial conservative treatment are eligible. All patients must have a CT scan confirming spontaneous lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (≤1 cm from the cortex surface of the brain and 10-100 ml in volume. Any clotting or coagulation problems must be corrected and randomisation must take place within 48 hours of ictus. With 600 patients, the study will be able to demonstrate a 12% benefit from surgery (2p Stratified randomisation is undertaken using a central 24 hour randomisation service accessed by telephone or web. Patients randomised to early surgery should have the operation within 12 hours. Information about the status (Glasgow Coma Score and focal signs of all patients through the first five days of their trial progress is also collected in addition to another CT scan at about five days (+/- 2 days. Outcome is measured at six months via a postal questionnaire to the patient. Primary outcome is death or severe disability defined using a prognosis based 8 point Glasgow Outcome Scale. Secondary outcomes include: Mortality, Rankin, Barthel, EuroQol, and Survival. Trial

  13. Evaluation of permselective membranes for optimization of intracerebral amperometric glutamate biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahono, N.; Qin, S.; Oomen, P.; Cremers, T. I. F.; de Vries, M. G.; Westerink, B. H. C.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of extracellular brain glutamate concentrations by intracerebral biosensors is a promising approach to further investigate the role of this important neurotransmitter. However, amperometric biosensors are typically hampered by Faradaic interference caused by the presence of other

  14. Effects of intracerebral implantation of corticosteroids on extinction of an avoidance response in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Wied, D. de

    Intracerebral implantation of dexamethasone phosphate facilitated the rate of extinction of a pole jumping avoidance response when implanted into various areas in the median and posterior thalamus and in the ventriculus lateralis. Corticosterone, the rat's natural corticosteroid, also facilitated

  15. Use of Antithrombotic Therapy and Long-Term Clinical Outcome Among Patients Surviving Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Tobias Pilgaard; Grijota, Miriam; Hansen, Morten Lock

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The effectiveness and safety of antithrombotic therapy (AT) among patients with a history of intracerebral hemorrhage remain uncertain. We therefore determined the prevalence of indication for AT among patients hospitalized with first-time intracerebral hemorrhage...... and examined the impact of subsequent AT use on the long-term clinical outcome. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study using nationwide Danish medical registries. Patients with risk of thromboembolism surviving the first 30 days after hospitalization because of intracerebral hemorrhage were...... inhibitors was not related to statistically significantly improved clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 1 of 2 patients surviving intracerebral hemorrhage had a high risk of thromboembolism. Postdischarge use of oral anticoagulation therapy was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality...

  16. Variation in restarting antithrombotic drugs at hospital discharge after intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasquini, Marta; Charidimou, Andreas; van Asch, Charlotte J. J.; Baharoglu, Merih I.; Samarasekera, Neshika; Werring, David J.; Klijn, Catharina J. M.; Roos, Yvo B.; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Cordonnier, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Whether intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) survivors should restart antithrombotic drugs is unknown. We analyzed the frequency of restarting antithrombotic drugs in ICH survivors who had taken prophylactic antithrombotic drugs in atrial fibrillation or after thromboembolic disease in 5 cohorts and

  17. The analysis of initial cranial CT of early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    BEI Yu-zhang; CHEN Ben-yang; QI Hao-bo; ZHOU Zheng-ping; LI Yu-bo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive effect of initial cranial CT on early hematoma enlargement in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods Three hundred patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours after onset were studied. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to detect the related factors which may indicate hematoma enlargement. Results Sixty-one (20.33% ) patients presented hematoma enlargement on cranial CT. Single factor and multivariate...

  18. Analysis of angiographic findings in cerebral arteriovenous malformation with hemorrhage: comparison between intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kwon, Jin Sook; Yoon, Soo Woong; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the angioarchitectures of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and to determine whether there was correlation between angioarchitectures and patterns of intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral, intraventricular, and both) in cerebral AVM. One hundred and twenty-eight patients who between November 1989 and December 1994 suffered supratentorial AVM with intracranial hemorrhage were studied retrospectively. Among 128 patients, intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage were seen in 68(53%) and 24 patients(19%), respectively, while both types were seen in the remaining 36 (28%). We analyzed the angioarchitectual characteristics of AVM, namely nidi, feeding arteries and draining veins, in three hemorrhagic groups of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage and both. The X 2 test or Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. A cortically located nidus was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, while a periventricular location was most common in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001). Location in the corpus callosum, choroid plexus, or intraventricular area was more frequent in the intraventricular than the intracerebral hemorrhagic group (p<0.05). Superficial venous drainage was most common in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.001), and deep venous drainage in those with intraventricular hemorrhage (p=3D0.001). The angioarchitectual characteristics of cerebral arteriovenous malformation correlate significantly with patterns of intracranial hemorrhage, and awareness of the type of hemorrhage could help to manage patients and determine prognosis.=20

  19. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Surgery for Patients With Spontaneous Deep Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0

  1. Studying Radiation Tolerant ICs for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Faccio, F; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Casas-cubillos, J; Gomes, P

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\In the recent years, intensive work has been carried out on the development of custom ICs for the readout electronics for LHC experiments. As far as radiation hardness is concerned, attention has been focussed on high total dose applications, mainly for the tracker systems. The dose foreseen in this inner region is estimated to be higher than 1~Mrad/year. In the framework of R&D projects (RD-9 and RD-20) and in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, the study of different radiation hard processes has been pursued and good contacts with the manufacturers have been established. The results of these studies have been discussed during the Microelectronics User Group (MUG) rad-hard meetings, and now some HEP groups are working to develop radiation hard ICs for the LHC experiments on some of the available rad-hard processes.\\\\ \\\\In addition, a lot of the standard commercial electronic components and ASICs which are planned to be installed near the LHC machine and in the detectors will receive total doses in ...

  2. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Roderick [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  3. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process

  4. Scalable IC Platform for Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Broers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart cameras are among the emerging new fields of electronics. The points of interest are in the application areas, software and IC development. In order to reduce cost, it is worthwhile to invest in a single architecture that can be scaled for the various application areas in performance (and resulting power consumption. In this paper, we show that the combination of an SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data processor and a general-purpose DSP is very advantageous for the image processing tasks encountered in smart cameras. While the SIMD processor gives the very high performance necessary by exploiting the inherent data parallelism found in the pixel crunching part of the algorithms, the DSP offers a friendly approach to the more complex tasks. The paper continues to motivate that SIMD processors have very convenient scaling properties in silicon, making the complete, SIMD-DSP architecture suitable for different application areas without changing the software suite. Analysis of the changes in power consumption due to scaling shows that for typical image processing tasks, it is beneficial to scale the SIMD processor to use the maximum level of parallelism available in the algorithm if the IC supply voltage can be lowered. If silicon cost is of importance, the parallelism of the processor should be scaled to just reach the desired performance given the speed of the silicon.

  5. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Capital (IC) can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. Developing a critical understanding of IC requires a historical and contextual understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. This paper, drawing...... this process of social construction. The paper concludes by proposing some methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research on intellectual capital....

  6. Brain perihematoma genomic profile following spontaneous human intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH represents about 15% of all strokes and is associated with high mortality rates. Our aim was to identify the gene expression changes and biological pathways altered in the brain following ICH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve brain samples were obtained from four deceased patients who suffered an ICH including perihematomal tissue (PH and the corresponding contralateral white (CW and grey (CG matter. Affymetrix GeneChip platform for analysis of over 47,000 transcripts was conducted. Microarray Analysis Suite 5.0 was used to process array images and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis System was used to analyze biological mechanisms and functions of the genes. We identified 468 genes in the PH areas displaying a different expression pattern with a fold change between -3.74 and +5.16 when compared to the contralateral areas (291 overexpressed and 177 underexpressed. The top genes which appeared most significantly overexpressed in the PH areas codify for cytokines, chemokines, coagulation factors, cell growth and proliferation factors while the underexpressed codify for proteins involved in cell cycle or neurotrophins. Validation and replication studies at gene and protein level in brain samples confirmed microarray results. CONCLUSIONS: The genomic responses identified in this study provide valuable information about potential biomarkers and target molecules altered in the perihematomal regions.

  7. Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Risk Factors Associated with Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Santiago; Gómez, Pedro A; Castaño-Leon, Ana María; Martínez-Pérez, Rafael; Munarriz, Pablo M; Lagares, Alfonso

    2015-08-15

    The increase in the volume of a traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (TICH) is a widely studied phenomenon that has a direct impact on the prognosis of patients. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the progression of TICH. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 1970 adult patients >15 years of age who were consecutively admitted after sustaining a closed severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) between January 1987 and November 2013 at a single center. Beginning in 2007, patients with moderate TBIs were also included. A total of 782 patients exhibited one or more TICH on the initial CT scan, and met the selection criteria. The main outcome variable was the presence or absence of progression of the TICH. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed. Factors independently associated with the growth of TICH obtained through logistic regression included the following: an initial volume ratio [OR] 2.42, pcompression (OR 1.95, pvariables, such as multiple TICHs, a lower initial volume, acute subdural hematoma, cisternal compression, older patient age, hypoxia, falls, and decompressive craniectomy.

  8. A comparative evaluation of existing grading scales in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Samuel S; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Piazza, Matthew; Hwang, Brian Y; Kellner, Christopher; Carpenter, Amanda M; Bagiella, Emilia; Mayer, Stephan; Connolly, E Sander

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, a multitude of clinical grading scales have been created to help identify patients at greater risk of poor outcome following ICH. We sought to validate and compare eight of the most frequently used ICH grading scales in a prospective cohort. Eight grading scales were calculated for 67 patients with non-traumatic ICH enrolled in the prospective intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes project (ICHOP) database. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, including area under the curve (AUC) and maximum Youden Index were used to assess the ability of each score to predict in-hospital mortality, long-term (3 months) mortality, and functional outcome at 3 months (mRS ≥ 3). All scales demonstrated excellent to outstanding discrimination for in-hospital and long-term mortality, with no significant differences between them after controlling for the false discovery rate. All scales demonstrated acceptable to outstanding discrimination for functional outcome at 3 months, with the new ICH score demonstrating significantly lower AUC than 6 of the 8 scores. Essen ICH score was the only score to demonstrate outstanding discrimination for each outcome measure. Though significant differences were minimal in our cohort, we showed the existing selection of ICH grading scales to be useful in stratifying patients according to risk of mortality and poor functional outcome. Continued validation and comparison in large prospective cohorts will bring the goal of a singular prognostic model for ICH closer to fruition.

  9. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  10. Assessing human brain impedance using simultaneous surface and intracerebral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranta, Radu; Le Cam, Steven; Tyvaert, Louise; Louis-Dorr, Valérie

    2017-02-20

    Most of the literature on the brain impedance proposes a frequency-independent resistive model. Recently, this conclusion was tackled by a series of papers (Bédard et al., 2006; Bédard and Destexhe, 2009; Gomes et al., 2016), based on microscopic sale modeling and measurements. Our paper aims to investigate the impedance issue using simultaneous in vivo depth and surface signals recorded during intracerebral electrical stimulation of epileptic patients, involving a priori different tissues with different impedances. Our results confirm the conclusions from Logothethis et al. (2007): there is no evidence of frequency dependence of the brain tissue impedance (more precisely, there is no difference, in terms of frequency filtering, between the brain and the skull bone), at least at a macroscopic scale. In order to conciliate findings from both microscopic and macroscopic scales, we recall different neural/synaptic current generators' models from the literature and we propose an original computational model, based on fractional dynamics. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Robot-assisted intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation: an experimental evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgner, Jessica; Swaney, Philip J.; Lathrop, Ray A.; Weaver, Kyle D.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel robotic approach for the rapid, minimally invasive treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH), in which a hematoma or blood clot arises in the brain parenchyma. We present a custom image-guided robot system that delivers a steerable cannula into the lesion and aspirates it from the inside. The steerable cannula consists of an initial straight tube delivered in a manner similar to image-guided biopsy (and which uses a commercial image guidance system), followed by the sequential deployment of multiple individual precurved elastic tubes. Rather than deploying the tubes simultaneously, as has been done in nearly all prior studies, we deploy the tubes one at a time, using a compilation of their individual workspaces to reach desired points inside the lesion. This represents a new paradigm in active cannula research, defining a novel procedure-planning problem. A design that solves this problem can potentially save many lives by enabling brain decompression both more rapidly and less invasively than is possible through the traditional open surgery approach. Experimental results include a comparison of the simulated and actual workspaces of the prototype robot, and an accuracy evaluation of the system.

  12. Tranexamic Acid as Antifibrinolytic Agent in Non Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARUMUGAM, Ananda; A RAHMAN, Noor Azman; THEOPHILUS, Sharon Casilda; SHARIFFUDIN, Ashraf; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mortality and morbidity associated with intracerebral hemorrhage is still high. Up to now, there are no evidence-based effective treatments for acute ICH. This study is to assess the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on hematoma growth of patients with spontaneous ICH compared to a placebo. Methods: We performed a single-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled trial of TXA (intravenous 1g bolus, followed by infusion TXA 1 g/hour for 8 hours) in acute (< 8 hours) primary ICH. Strict blood pressure control (target SBP 140-160 mmHg). A repeat Computed Tomography brain was done after 24 hours to reassess hematoma growth. The primary objective is to test the effect of TXA on hematoma growth. Other objective was to test the feasibility, tolerability, and adverse events of TXA in primary ICH. Results: Statistical analysis showed significant hematoma growth in control group after 24 hours compared to baseline (14.3300 vs 17.9940, P = 0.001) whereas the treatment group there is no significant hematoma size expansion between baseline and after 24 hours (P = 0.313). Conclusions: This study showed a significant hematoma volume expansion in the control group compared to the treatment group. PMID:27006639

  13. Relation of Climate Temperature to Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semai Bek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In our study we aimed to investigate the correlation between volumes of intracerebral parenchymal hemorrhage, control of hypertension and daily weather temperature changes. METHODS: Data of total 88 patients (49 male-39 female, age 66.50 ± 15.00 with parenchymal hemorrhage were analysed retrospectively (June 2004-June 2009. Hypertension in medical history, arterial blood pressure levels at the time of referral to our clinic, antihypertensive drug usage, hemorrhage volume measured in computerized tomography and daily highest weather temperature were analysed. RESULTS: There was no correlation between volume of hemorrhage and existence of hypertension and drug usage (p> 0.05. There was no correlation between patients’s age and volume of hemorrhage (p> 0.05. There was no correlation between daily weather temperature and volume of hemorrhage in the normotensive patients according to our results. Furthermore there was statistically significant negative correlation between weather temperature and volume of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients without any effect of being on antihypertensive treatment (correlation factor: -0.254 (p< 0.05. CONCLUSION: The volume of hemorrhage in hypertensive patients with hemorrhagic stroke during colder weather seems to be larger. Thus their prognosis are worse. Probably change in the blood viscosity might be responsible

  14. Necrostatin-1 Reduces Neurovascular Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie D. King

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is the most common form of hemorrhagic stroke, accounting for 15% of all strokes. ICH has the highest acute mortality and the worst long-term prognosis of all stroke subtypes. Unfortunately, the dearth of clinically effective treatment options makes ICH the least treatable form of stroke, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic targets. Recent work by our laboratory identified a novel role for the necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1, in limiting neurovascular injury in tissue culture models of hemorrhagic injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that necrostatin-1 reduces neurovascular injury after collagenase-induced ICH in mice. Necrostatin-1 significantly reduced hematoma volume by 54% at 72 h after-ICH, as compared to either sham-injured mice or mice administered an inactive, structural analogue of necrostatin-1. Necrostatin-1 also limited cell death by 48%, reduced blood-brain barrier opening by 51%, attenuated edema development to sham levels, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes after ICH. These data suggest a potential clinical utility for necrostatin-1 and/or novel necroptosis inhibitors as an adjunct therapy to reduce neurological injury and improve patient outcomes after ICH.

  15. Analysis of three surgical treatments for spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qiang; Zhang, Huaping; Zhao, Dong; Yang, Zhaohui; Hu, Keqi; Wang, Long; Zhang, Wenfei; Chen, Zhibiao; Chen, Qianxue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of 3 surgical procedures for Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage (SICH). A total of 63 patients with SICH were randomized into 3 groups. Group A (n = 21) underwent craniotomy surgery, group B (n = 22) underwent burr hole, urokinase infusion and catheter drainage, and group C (n = 20) underwent neuroendoscopic surgery. The hematoma evacuation rate of the operation was analyzed by 3D Slice software and the average surgery time, visualization during operation, decompressive effect, mortality, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) improvement, complications include rebleeding, pneumonia, intracranial infection were also compared among 3 groups. All procedures were successfully completed and the hematoma evacuation rate was significant differences among 3 groups which were 79.8%, 43.1%, 89.3% respectively (P intracranial infection, GCS improvement and mortality rate. All these 3 methods had its own advantages and shortcomings, and every approach had its indications for SICH. Although for neuroendoscopic technical's minimal invasive, direct vision, effectively hematoma evacuation rate, and the relatively optimistic result, it might be a more promising approach for SICH. PMID:29069046

  16. Injury of fornix in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Choi, Byung Yeon; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin; Chang, Min Cheol; Lee, Dong Gyu; Jang, Sung Ho

    2012-04-01

    Many diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies have reported on fornix injury in various diseases. However, there has been no DTT study on fornix injury by intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We attempted to investigate fornix body injury in patients with ICH, using DTT. We identified 58 consecutive stroke patients using the following criteria: (1) first-ever stroke, (2) age: 45-65 years, (3) hemorrhage confined within the corona radiata and basal ganglion level, (4) an available DTT scan performed during the early stage of ICH (1-5 weeks after onset). Among 58 consecutive patients, we identified six patients who showed disruption at the fornix body. Following ICH, 10.7% of patients revealed complete disruption of the fornix body on DTT. Results from DTT of the fornix showed disruption in anterior and posterior portions of the fornix body in three patients, in the anterior portion of the fornix body in two patient, and in the posterior portion of the fornix body in one patient. We report on six patients who showed complete disruption of the fornix body following ICH. It is our belief that the fornix of patients with ICH could be evaluated using DTT.

  17. Nanometer CMOS ICs from basics to ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    J M Veendrick, Harry

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.

  18. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  19. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Hematology Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimim@sums.ac.ir; Rasekhi, A.R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: rasekhia@sums.ac.ir; Rasekh, M. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Rasekhm@sums.ac.ir; Nabavizadeh, S.A. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: nabavia@gmail.com; Assadsangabi, R. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Imaging Research Center, Department of Radiology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: assadsangabi@yahoo.com; Amirhakimi, G.H. [Iran-Shiraz-Namazee Hospital, Namazee Square, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: amirhakimig@sums.ac.ir

    2009-06-15

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  20. Hypoparathyroidism and intracerebral calcification in patients with beta-thalassemia major

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, M.; Rasekhi, A.R.; Rasekh, M.; Nabavizadeh, S.A.; Assadsangabi, R.; Amirhakimi, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypoparathyroidism is one of the most important endocrine complications of thalassemia major. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of intracerebral calcifications in patients with thalassemia with and without hypoparathyroidism. Methods: 47 beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism underwent a brain CT scan to investigate the presence and extent of intracerebral calcification. 30 age- and sex-matched beta-thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function who had undergone brain CT for headache, or some other minor neurologic problems were also enrolled in the study serving as controls. The amount of intracerebral calcification, hematologic parameters, and some clinical findings were compared between both groups. Results: Intracerebral calcification was present in 54.2% of beta-thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism. The most frequent sites of calcification were basal ganglia, and frontoparietal areas of the brain. Thalami, internal capsule, cerebellum and posterior fossa were other less frequently calcified regions of the brain. In contrast, there was no evidence of intracerebral calcifications in the 30 thalassemic patients with normal parathyroid function. There was not a statistically significant difference between serum ferritin concentrations in thalassemia patient with hypoparathyroidism and those with normal parathyroid function (2781 vs. 2178, P > 0.05). Conclusion: Intracranial calcification is a common finding in thalassemia patients with hypoparathyroidism, it can be extensive and involves most regions of the brain.

  1. Effect of dexamethasone in primary intracerebral hemorrhage in the south west of iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafadinzadeh, N.; Baghebanian, S.M.; Pipelzadeh, M.; Moravej, A. A.; Ghanavatiz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous study revealed the value of dexamethasone in the treatment of vasogenic edema associated with brain tumor and abscess. However there are poor documented studies about its usefulness in primary intracerebral hemorrhage. In this study we evaluated dexamethasone effects in primary intracerebral hemorrhage. In a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial we evaluated 200 intracerebral hemorrhage cases between 40 to 80 years old whom were admitted at Golestan Hospital (Ahwaz, IR) between March 2002 and March 2003. They were divided in two groups dexamethasone (N=100) and placebo (N=100). Then mortality, GI bleeding, fever, electrolytes disturbances, hypertension and hyperglycemic status were analyzed in two groups. Ethical considerations were employed and subjects were followed by appropriate statistical methods for 21 days to assess the major outcomes. Mortality was much higher in the dexamethasone group; Dexamethasone group (49.3%) and placebo (23.4%) and also fever was higher seen in the dexamethasone group; dexamethasone group (40.2%) and placebo group (24.7%) but there was not any significant statistical difference between two groups as regards other complications. Dexamethasone is widely used for cerebral edema associated conditions but in this study we saw that it's complications in intracerebral hemorrhage such as increasing fever and mortality are significantly higher. Hence it use for treatment of primary intracerebral hemorrhage should be reconsidered. (author)

  2. Relationship of cerebral microbleeds with hematoma growth in elderly patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-feng LIU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate whether cerebral microbleeds (CMBs can predict hematoma growth in elderly patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.  Methods The clinical records of 98 elderly patients with acute hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent initial CT within 6 h and repeated CT and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI within 24 h of onset were analyzed. Based on the performance of SWI, patients were divided into microbleeds group and non-microbleeds group. Forward multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the predicting value of CMBs on the growth of intracerebral hematoma.  Results Among 98 patients, hematoma growth was found in 25 cases in the second CT scan. The ratio in microbleeds group was significantly higher than that in non-microbleeds group (43.75% vs 16.67%; χ2 = 8.319, P = 0.004. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that CMBs was independent risk factor for intracerebral hematoma (OR = 0.241, 95%CI: 0.065-0.861; P = 0.017.  Conclusions CMBs in patients with acute intracerebral hematoma can predict high risk of hemotoma growth, and effective treatment should be taken to improve the prognosis of patients. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.012

  3. Magnesium, hemostasis, and outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Eric M; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Sangha, Rajbeer S; Bush, Robin A; Long, Alan E; Trevick, Stephen A; Potts, Matthew B; Jahromi, Babak S; Kim, Minjee; Manno, Edward M; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Naidech, Andrew M; Maas, Matthew B

    2017-08-22

    We tested the hypothesis that admission serum magnesium levels are associated with hematoma volume, hematoma growth, and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in an observational cohort study that prospectively collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and outcome data. We performed univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses to assess for associations between serum magnesium levels and initial hematoma volume, final hematoma volume, and in-hospital hematoma growth as radiographic measures of hemostasis, and functional outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. We included 290 patients for analysis. Admission serum magnesium was 2.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL. Lower admission magnesium levels were associated with larger initial hematoma volumes on univariate ( p = 0.02), parsimoniously adjusted ( p = 0.002), and fully adjusted models ( p = 0.006), as well as greater hematoma growth ( p = 0.004, p = 0.005, and p = 0.008, respectively) and larger final hematoma volumes ( p = 0.02, p = 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). Lower admission magnesium level was associated with worse functional outcomes at 3 months (i.e., higher mRS; odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.64, p = 0.011) after adjustment for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, initial hematoma volume, time from symptom onset to initial CT, and hematoma growth, with evidence that the effect of magnesium is mediated through hematoma growth. These data support the hypothesis that magnesium exerts a clinically meaningful influence on hemostasis in patients with ICH. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Response of intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts to multifraction radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Tomoko; Faddegon, Bruce A.; Hu, Lily J.; Bollen, Andrew W.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Deen, Dennis F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the effects of fractionated radiation treatments on the life spans of athymic rats bearing intracerebral brain tumors. Methods and Materials: U-251 MG or U-87 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the brains of athymic rats, and the resulting tumors were irradiated once daily with various doses of ionizing radiation for 5 consecutive days or for 10 days with a 2-day break after Day 5. Results: Five daily doses of 1 and 1.5 Gy, and 10 doses of 0.75 and 1 Gy, cured some U-251 MG tumors. However, five daily doses of 0.5 Gy increased the survival time of animals bearing U-251 MG tumors 5 days without curing any animals of their tumors. Ten doses of 0.3 Gy given over 2 weeks extended the lifespan of the host animals 9 days without curing any animals. For U-87 MG tumors, 5 daily doses of 3 Gy produced an increased lifespan of 8 days without curing any animals, and 10 doses of 1 Gy prolonged lifespan 5.5 days without curing any animals. The differences in extension of life span between the 5- and 10-fraction protocols were minor for either tumor type. Conclusion: The finding that the U-251 MG tumors are more sensitive than U-87 MG tumors, despite the fact that U-251 MG tumors contain many more hypoxic cells than U-87 MG tumors, suggests the intrinsic cellular radiosensitivities of these cell lines are more important than hypoxia in determining their in vivo radiosensitivities

  5. MRI findings of vascular dementia following hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oana, Katsumaro; Beppu, Takaaki; Ohwada, Masanobu; Sohma, Masao; Mikami, Mitsuharu; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1990-01-01

    This study reviewed 23 patients with vascular dementia following hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. There were 12 male and 11 female patients with an age range between 46 and 88 years (median, 62.6 years). They consisted of 9 putaminal, 9 thalamic and 5 recurrent hemorrhages. Vascular dementia was diagnosed by Hasegawa's test for the demented patient. Patients with Hasegawa's score of less than 21.5 were enrolled as dementia. A superconducting magnet MIR system (MRT-50A, 0.5 Tesla) was used. The highest incidence of finding depicted by MRI was cortical atrophy (100%), followed by periventricular high intensity zone (91.3%), periventricular of deep white matter patchy-like high intensity area (73.9%), hydrocephalus and multiple putaminal low intensity spots (52.1%), scattered cortical high intensity area (47.8%) and subdural ring-like high intensity zone (21.7%). Older group of more than 71 years had more frequent multiple putaminal low intensity spots, scattered cortical high intensity area, and relatively frequent hydrocephalus, periventricular high intensity zone, as compared with younger group of less than 69 years. Subdural ring-like high intensity zone was frequently observed in patients with an interval from onset of more than 2 years. Multiple putaminal low intensity spots were frequently seen in patients with less than 1 year's interval. Multiple putaminal low intensity spots and periventricular high intensity zone were more frequently observed in patients with thalamic and recurrent hemorrhages, periventricular or deep white matter patchy-like high intensity areas were seen more frequently in patients with putaminal hemorrhage. Both scattered cortical high intensity area and subdural ring-like high intensity zone were more frequently observed in patients with recurrent hemorrhages. Both hydrocephalus and multiple putaminal low intensity spots were more common in demented patients than predemented patients. (J.P.N.)

  6. APOE polymorphisms influence longitudinal lipid trends preceding intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuah, Chia-Ling; Raffeld, Miriam R; Ayres, Alison M; Gurol, M Edip; Viswanathan, Anand; Greenberg, Steven M; Biffi, Alessandro; Rosand, Jonathan; Anderson, Christopher D

    2016-08-01

    We sought to determine whether APOE genotype influences a previously observed decline in serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels preceding primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), as a potential demonstration of nonamyloid mechanisms of APOE in ICH risk. We performed a single-center retrospective longitudinal analysis using patients with known APOE genotype drawn from an ongoing cohort study of ICH. Serum lipid measurements for TC, triglycerides (TGs), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) collected within 2 years before and after index ICH were extracted from electronic medical records. Piecewise linear mixed-effects models were used to compare APOE allele-specific effects on temporal serum lipid trends in ICH. Demographics, medical history, medications, and health maintenance data were included as fixed effects. Inter- and intraindividual variations in lipid levels were modeled as random effects. A total of 124 ICH cases were analyzed. APOE ε4 carriers had greater rates of decline in serum TC and LDL within 6 months preceding ICH (TC: -7.30 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0035; LDL: -8.44 mg/dL/mo, p = 0.0001). Conversely, serum TC and LDL levels in APOE ε2 carriers were unchanged within the same time period. APOE genotype had no associations with serum HDL or TG trends. APOE allele status predicts serum TC and LDL changes preceding acute ICH. Our results have implications for ongoing efforts in dissecting the role of dyslipidemia in cerebrovascular disease risk. APOE genotype-specific influence on lipid trends provides a clue for one mechanism by which APOE may influence risk of ICH. Further characterization of the metabolic roles of APOE is needed to improve the understanding of APOE biology in cerebrovascular disease risk.

  7. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil in brain parenchyma after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiurong; Sun, Guanghua; Zhang, Han; Ting, Shun-Ming; Song, Shen; Gonzales, Nicole; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) infiltration into brain parenchyma after cerebrovascular accidents is viewed as a key component of secondary brain injury. Interestingly, a recent study of ischemic stroke suggests that after ischemic stroke, PMNs do not enter brain parenchyma and as such may cause no harm to the brain. Thus, the present study was designed to determine PMNs' behavior after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using the autologous blood injection model of ICH in rats and immunohistochemistry for PMNs and vascular components, we evaluated the temporal and spatial PMNs distribution in the ICH-affected brain. We found that, similar to ischemia, there is a robust increase in presence of PMNs in the ICH-injured tissue that lasts for at least 1 to 2 weeks. However, in contrast to what was suggested for ischemia, besides PMNs that stay in association with the vasculature, after ICH, we found abundance of intraparenchymal PMNs (with no obvious association with vessels) in the ICH core and hematoma border, especially between 1 and 7 days after the ictus. Interestingly, the increased presence of intraparenchymal PMNs after ICH coincided with the massive loss of microvascular integrity, suggesting vascular disruption as a potential cause of PMNs presence in the brain parenchyma. Our study indicates that in contrast to ischemic stroke, after ICH, PMNs target not only vascular compartment but also brain parenchyma in the affected brain. As such, it is possible that the pathogenic role and therapeutic implications of targeting PMNs after ICH could be different from these after ischemic stroke. Our work suggests the needs for more studies addressing the role of PMNs in ICH.

  8. Low Ambient Temperature and Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The INTERACT2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danni Zheng

    Full Text Available Rates of acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH increase in winter months but the magnitude of risk is unknown. We aimed to quantify the association of ambient temperature with the risk of ICH in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Haemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2 participants on an hourly timescale.INTERACT2 was an international, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trial of patients with spontaneous ICH (<6h of onset and elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP, 150-220 mmHg assigned to intensive (target SBP <140 mmHg or guideline-recommended (SBP <180 mmHg BP treatment. We linked individual level hourly temperature to baseline data of 1997 participants, and performed case-crossover analyses using a distributed lag non-linear model with 24h lag period to assess the association of ambient temperature and risk of ICH. Results were presented as overall cumulative odds ratios (ORs and 95% CI.Low ambient temperature (≤10°C was associated with increased risks of ICH: overall cumulative OR was 1.37 (0.99-1.91 for 10°C, 1.92 (1.31-2.81 for 0°C, 3.13 (1.89-5.19 for -10°C, and 5.76 (2.30-14.42 for -20°C, as compared with a reference temperature of 20°C.There was no clear relation of low temperature beyond three hours after exposure. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses.Exposure to low ambient temperature within several hours increases the risk of ICH.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00716079.

  9. Acute intracerebral haemorrhage: grounds for optimism in management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig

    2012-12-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most devastating types of stroke, which has considerable disease burden in "non-white" ethnic groups where the population-attributable risks of elevated blood pressure are very high. Since the treatment of ICH remains largely supportive and expectant, nihilism and the early withdrawal of active therapy influence management decisions in clinical practice. However, approaches to management are now better defined on the basis of evidence that both survival and speed (and degree) of recovery are critically dependent on the location, size, and degree of expansion and extension into the intraventricular system of the haematoma of the ICH. Although no medical treatment has been shown to improve outcome in ICH, several promising avenues have emerged that include haemostatic therapy and intensive control of elevated blood pressure. Conversely, there is continued controversy over the role of evacuation of the haematoma of ICH via open craniotomy. Despite being an established practice for several decades, and having undergone evaluation in multiple randomised trials, there is uncertainty over which patients have the most to gain from an intervention with clear procedural risk. Minimally invasive surgery via local anaesthetic applied drill-puncture of the cranium and infusion of a thrombolytic agent is an attractive option for patients requiring critical management of the haematoma, not just in low resource settings but arguably also in specialist centres of western countries. With several ongoing clinical trials nearing completion, these treatments could enter routine practice within the next few years, further justifying the urgency of "time is brain" and that active management within well-organized, comprehensive acute stroke care units includes patients with ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Putative role of prostaglandin receptor in intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekher eMohan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Each year, approximately 795,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Of all strokes, 84% are ischemic, 13% are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH strokes and 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH strokes. Despite the decreased incidence of ischemic stroke, there has been no change in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the last decade. ICH is a devastating disease 37-38% of patients between the ages of 45-64 die within 30 days. In an effort to prevent ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes we and others have been studying the role of prostaglandins and their receptors. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. They sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Most prostaglandins are produced from specific enzymes and act upon cells via distinct G-protein coupled receptors. The presence of multiple prostaglandin receptor’s cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways allow differentiated cells to respond to prostaglandins in a unique manner. Due to the number of prostaglandin receptors, prostaglandin-dependent signaling can function either to promote neuronal survival or injury following acute excitotoxicity, hypoxia, and stress induced by ICH. To better understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival and neurotoxicity mediated by prostaglandin receptors, it is essential to understand downstream signaling. Several groups including ours have discovered unique roles for prostaglandin receptors in rodent models of ischemic stroke, excitotoxicity, and Alzheimer disease, highlighting the emerging role of prostaglandin receptor signaling in hemorrhagic stroke with a focus on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and calcium (Ca2+ signaling. We review current ICH data and discuss future directions notably on prostaglandin receptors, which may lead to the development of unique therapeutic targets against hemorrhagic stroke and

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bo Kiung; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Byun, Hong Sik; Roh, Hong Gee; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To document the signal characteristics of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) at evolving stages on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) by comparison with conventional MR images. In our retrospective study, 38 patients with ICH underwent a set of imaging sequences that included DWI, T1-and T2-weighted imaging, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). In 33 and 10 patients, respectively, conventional and echo-planar T2 gradient-echo images were also obtained. According to the time interval between symptom onset and initial MRI, five stages were categorized: hyperacute (n=6); acute (n=7); early subacute (n=7); late subacute (n=10); and chronic (n=8). We investigated the signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of ICH and compared the signal intensities of hematomas at DWI and on conventional MR images. DWI showed that hematomas were hyperintense at the hyperacute and late subacute stages, and hypointense at the acute, early subacute and chronic stages. Invariably, focal hypointensity was observed within a hyperacute hematoma. At the hyperacute, acute and early subacute stages, hyperintense rims that corresponded with edema surrounding the hematoma were present. The mean ADC ratio was 0.73 at the hyperacute stage, 0.72 at the acute stage, 0.70 at the early subacute stage, 0.72 at the late subacute stage, and 2.56 at the chronic stage. DWI showed that the signal intensity of an ICH may be related to both its ADC value and the magnetic susceptibility effect. In patients with acute stroke, an understanding of the characteristic features of ICH seen at DWI can be helpful in both the characterization of intracranial hemorrhagic lesions and the differentiation of hemorrhage from ischemia.

  12. CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and improves neurological functions in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jing Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical outcomes are positively associated with hematoma absorption. The monocyte-macrophage scavenger receptor, CD163, plays an important role in the metabolism of hemoglobin, and a soluble form of CD163 is present in plasma and other tissue fluids; therefore, we speculated that serum CD163 affects hematoma absorption after intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were divided into high- and low-level groups according to the average CD163 level (1,977.79 ± 832.91 ng/mL. Compared with the high-level group, the low-level group had a significantly slower hematoma absorption rate, and significantly increased National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores and modified Rankin Scale scores. These results suggest that CD163 promotes hematoma absorption and the recovery of neurological function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

  13. Delayed Traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage: For How Many Hours Should Patients with Mild Head Trauma be Observed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdegul Karadas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma is a rare complication of head injury. The etiopatogenesis of DTIH is not precisely known. We herein report a case of delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma, with mild HT. This 25-year-old male fell down while playing in a footbal match. He had headache and vertigo. He was kept under observation for about 12 hours at the emergency department. At the 26th hour after the HT incident, he presented to our hospital again with the complaints of nausea, vomiting and headache. A control brain computed tomography was performed and a traumatic intracerebral hematoma was determined in the frontal region. As a result, DTIH may be fatal. Close observation and repeat CBT scanning may reduce complications and mortality.

  14. Radiation immunomodulatory gene tumor therapy of rats with intracerebral glioma tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Bertil R R; Koch, Catrin Bauréus; Grafström, Gustav

    2010-01-01

    Single-fraction radiation therapy with 5 or 15 Gy (60)Co gamma radiation was combined with intraperitoneal injections of syngeneic interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)-transfected cells in rats with intracerebral N29 or N32 glioma tumors at days 7, 21 and 35 after inoculation. For intracerebral N29 tumors......, single-fraction radiation therapy with 5 or 15 Gy had no significant effect on the survival time. Immunization with IFN-gamma-transfected N29 cells significantly increased the survival time by 61%. Single-fraction radiation therapy with 5 Gy combined with immunization increased the survival time...... significantly by 87% and complete remissions by 75% while with 15 Gy the survival time increased 45% with 38% complete remissions. For intracerebral N32 tumors, single-fraction radiation therapy with 15 Gy increased the survival time significantly by 20%. Immunization by itself had no significant effect...

  15. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephan A; Brun, Nikolai C; Begtrup, Kamilla

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. METHODS: We randomly assigned 841...... patients with intracerebral hemorrhage to receive placebo (268 patients), 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (276 patients), or 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (297 patients) within 4 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary end point was poor outcome, defined as severe disability...... or death according to the modified Rankin scale 90 days after the stroke. RESULTS: Treatment with 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram resulted in a significant reduction in growth in volume of the hemorrhage. The mean estimated increase in volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours was 26...

  16. Upgrading of IC-100 Cycle Implantator

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Dmitriev, S N; Bogomolov, S L; Bashevoy, V V; Bekhterev, V V; Borisov, O N; Efremov, A A; Ivanenko, I A; Kazarinov, N; Kazacha, V I; Kolesov, I V; Mironov, V I; Melnikov, V N; Tikhomirov, A V

    2003-01-01

    The description of main upgraded systems of the IC-100 cycle implantator is given in this work. In the new variant the cyclotron will have an outside ion source with superconducting windings. The channel of the axial beam injection has been worked up. The analysis of conditions for ^{85}Kr^{15+} ion acceleration by 4th accelerating voltage mode in the cyclotron centre has been carried out. The ion injection from the axial channel into the acceleration region is realized with the help of a spiral electrostatic inflector. The beam extraction from the cyclotron chamber is carried out by means of an electrostatic deflector placed in the valley at the azimuth theta = 39-67^\\circ. The ion transportation from the extraction point to the target is carried out with the help of two quadrupoles. The placement of the beam scanning system is foreseen in the channel of the extracted beam transportation. It allows one to implantate heavy ions into the target, having an area of 600\\times 300 mm, with highly uniform density. ...

  17. The H II regions of IC 1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, P.; Lee, M.G.; Gurwell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD H-alpha imaging of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has revealed a total of 77 H II regions, five of which are complexes of several smaller emission regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The H-alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, following a power law with an exponent of -1.6. The faintest H II regions are at the low-luminosity end of the generally observed luminosity function for H II regions in galaxies, with fluxes of only 10 to the 35th erg/sec. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 56 pc. The morphologies of different H II regions are discussed and compared to those in other galaxies. Published radio continuum maps compare well with the H-alpha emission distribution. The distribution of H I is also similar in the central areas to the H II with, however, a tendency for the H II regions to lie to one side of H I peaks. 31 refs

  18. High precision localization of intracerebral hemorrhage based on 3D MPR on head CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianyong; Hou, Xiaoshuai; Sun, Shujie; Zhang, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    The key step for minimally invasive intracerebral hemorrhage surgery is precisely positioning the hematoma location in the brain before and during the hematoma surgery, which can significantly improves the success rate of puncture hematoma. We designed a 3D computerized surgical plan (CSP) workstation precisely to locate brain hematoma based on Multi-Planar Reconstruction (MPR) visualization technique. We used ten patients' CT/MR studies to verify our designed CSP intracerebral hemorrhage localization method. With the doctor's assessment and comparing with the results of manual measurements, the output of CSP WS for hematoma surgery is more precise and reliable than manual procedure.

  19. Prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian; Havsteen, Inger; Rosenbaum, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiologi......Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review...

  20. Variations in IC50 Values with Purity of Mushroom Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Neeley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC50 values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC50 values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC50 value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin showed variations in IC50 values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn2+, and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol had IC50 values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC50 values were observed.

  1. Sleep influences the intracerebral EEG pattern of focal cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes Cordeiro, Inês; von Ellenrieder, Nicolas; Zazubovits, Natalja; Dubeau, François; Gotman, Jean; Frauscher, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is able to generate an intrinsic pathological EEG activity characterized by a continuous or near-continuous spiking. Different patterns of discharge were described. We examined quantitatively the distribution of the intracerebral FCD patterns in relation to sleep in order to investigate whether this activity is independent of thalamocortical influences. We analyzed the first sleep cycle of 5 patients with a diagnosis of FCD type II who underwent combined scalp-intracranial electroencephalography (EEG), and showed an intracranial EEG pattern typical for FCD. Three patterns of FCD intracranial EEG activity were identified in all 5 patients, and visually marked for a maximum of 30min of each stage (wake, N1, N2, N3, REM): spike or polyspike exceeding 2Hz (pattern 1), spike or polyspike interrupted by flat periods below 2Hz (pattern 2) and discharges of >15Hz low-voltage rhythmic activity with regular morphology (pattern 3). After marking, the percentages of the three patterns across the different stages were calculated. The three patterns of FCD were present between 45% and 97% of the total time analyzed. Pattern 1 was the predominant pattern in wakefulness (73-100%), N1 (76-97%) and N2 (58-88.5%) in all patients, and in REM in 4 of 5 patients (91-100%). During N2 and N3, there was an increase in pattern 2 in all patients, becoming the predominant pattern in 3 of the 5 patients during N3 (63-89%). Pattern 3 was rare and only sporadically observed during N2 and N3. Wakefulness and REM sleep showed a similar pattern (pattern 1) with a slight amplitude reduction in REM sleep. Despite the presence of an almost continuous discharge, sleep is an important modulator of the pathological EEG patterns found in FCD type II. This might suggest that dysplastic tissue is influenced by the thalamo-cortical control mechanisms involved in the generation of sleep. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage: acute symptomatic seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslow, Lauren A; Abend, Nicholas S; Gindville, Melissa C; Bastian, Rachel A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Hillis, Argye E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

    2013-04-01

    Seizures are believed to be common presenting symptoms in neonates and children with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, few data are available on the epidemiology of acute symptomatic seizures or the risk for later epilepsy. To define the incidence of and explore risk factors for seizures and epilepsy in children with spontaneous ICH. Our a priori hypotheses were that younger age at presentation, cortical involvement of ICH, acute symptomatic seizures after presentation, ICH due to vascular malformation, and elevated intracranial pressure requiring urgent intervention would predict remote symptomatic seizures and epilepsy. Prospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2007, and January 1, 2012. Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Seventy-three pediatric subjects with spontaneous ICH including 20 perinatal (≥37 weeks' gestation to 28 days) and 53 childhood subjects (>28 days to Acute symptomatic seizures (clinically evident and electrographic-only seizures within 7 days), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy. Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 subjects (48%). Acute symptomatic seizures as a presenting symptom of ICH occurred in 12 perinatal (60%) and 19 childhood (36%) subjects (P = .07). Acute symptomatic seizures after presentation occurred in 7 children. Electrographic-only seizures were present in 9 of 32 subjects (28%) with continuous electroencephalogram monitoring. One-year and 2-year remote symptomatic seizure-free survival rates were 82% (95% CI, 68-90) and 67% (95% CI, 46-82), respectively. One-year and 2-year epilepsy-free survival rates were 96% (95% CI, 83-99) and 87% (95% CI, 65-95), respectively. Elevated intracranial pressure requiring acute intervention was a risk factor for seizures after presentation (P = .01; Fisher exact test), remote symptomatic seizures, and epilepsy (P = .03, and P = .04, respectively; log-rank test). Presenting seizures are common in perinatal and childhood ICH. Continuous

  3. Erythropoietin reduces brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Tang, Ling; Chen, Lifen; Li, Jinfang; Wu, Wanfu; Hu, Changlin

    2013-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be neuroprotective in various models of neuronal injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the beneficial effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. ICH was induced using autologous blood injection in adult rats. rhEPO (5000 IU/kg) or vehicle was administered to rats with ICH 2 h following surgery and every 24 h for 1 or 3 days. To study the involvement of the PI3K signaling pathway in the rhEPO‑mediated effect, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (15 µg/kg), was intravenously administered to rats with ICH 90 min prior to rhEPO treatment. Brain edema was measured 3 days following ICH and behavioral outcomes were measured at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following ICH using the modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and the corner turn test. Proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, in the ipsilateral striatum were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 24 h following ICH. Neuronal apoptosis in the perihematomal area was determined by NeuN and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) double-staining. The results showed that rhEPO treatment reversed ICH, increased brain water content, upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, neuronal loss and apoptosis in the perihematomal area and rescued behavioral deficits in injured rats. Inhibiting the PI3K pathway with wortmannin abolished the rhEPO‑mediated neuroprotective effects. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that rhEPO induced the upregulation of Akt phosphorylation and downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)‑3β phosphorylation, which were reversed by pretreatment with wortmannin, indicating the involvement of PI3K signaling in rhEPO-mediated anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects following ICH. In conclusion, these results suggested that rhEPO may exert its

  4. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-08-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Black Hole Sign: Novel Imaging Marker That Predicts Hematoma Growth in Patients With Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Gang; Xiong, Xin; Wang, Xing-Chen; Yang, Wen-Song; Li, Ke-Wei; Wei, Xiao; Xie, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Early hematoma growth is a devastating neurological complication after intracerebral hemorrhage. We aim to report and evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) black hole sign in predicting hematoma growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage were screened for the presence of CT black hole sign on admission head CT performed within 6 hours after onset of symptoms. The black hole sign was defined as hypoattenuatting area encapsulated within the hyperattenuating hematoma with a clearly defined border. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of CT black hole sign in predicting hematoma expansion were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the presence of the black hole sign and early hematoma growth. A total of 206 patients were enrolled. Black hole sign was found in 30 (14.6%) of 206 patients on the baseline CT scan. The black hole sign was more common in patients with hematoma growth (31.9%) than those without hematoma growth (5.8%; Phole sign in predicting early hematoma growth were 31.9%, 94.1%, 73.3%, and 73.2%, respectively. The time-to-admission CT scan, baseline hematoma volume, and the presence of black hole sign on admission CT independently predict hematoma growth in multivariate model. The CT black hole sign could be used as a simple and easy-to-use predictor for early hematoma growth in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Leukocyte invasion of the brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mracsko, Eva; Javidi, Ehsan; Na, Shin-Young; Kahn, Alexandra; Liesz, Arthur; Veltkamp, Roland

    2014-07-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes contribute to secondary neuronal damage after intracerebral hemorrhage. We aimed to characterize the time course of brain immigration of different leukocyte subsets after striatal injection of either autologous blood or collagenase in mice. Intracerebral hemorrhage was induced by injection of either autologous blood (20 μL) or collagenase (0.03 U) in C57Bl/6J mice. Hematoma volumetry was performed on cryosections. Blood volume was measured by hemoglobin spectrophotometry. Leukocytes were isolated from hemorrhagic hemisphere 1, 3, 5, and 14 days after intracerebral hemorrhage, stained for leukocyte markers, and measured by flow cytometry. Heterologous blood injection from CD45.1 mice was used to investigate the origin of brain-invading leukocytes. Collagenase injection induced a larger hematoma volume but a similar blood content compared with blood injection. Cerebral leukocyte infiltration in the hemorrhagic hemisphere was similar in both models. The majority of leukocytes isolated from the brain originated from the circulation. CD4+ T lymphocytes were the predominant brain leukocyte population in both models. However, cerebral granulocyte counts were higher after collagenase compared with blood injection. Brain infiltration of systemic immune cells is similar in both murine intracerebral hemorrhage models. The pathophysiological impact of invading leukocytes and, in particular, of T cells requires further investigation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Water dissection technique of Toth for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiandong; Qian Surong; Lin Liqing; Wang Chenqiu; Wang Jianren; Wang Chen; Ying Guangzhong; Hui Guozhen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investige the possibility of water dissection technique of Toth for craniotomy with small bone flap through lateral fissure approach for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage were treated by making a incision on sclap long about 6 cm across sylvian fissure, making a small bone flap about 3 cm x 3 cm, After opening dual, we injected water under microscopic control by a handheld syringe with a blunt needle applying repeated injection of physiological saline into the sylvian fissure to open it, opening the insular cortex, evacuation of intracerebral hematoma. Results: There was no further mortality. Patients who returned to ADL 1 and 2 (good recovery) after surgical treatment were 10, ADL 3 were 5, ADL 4 were 4, ADL 5 were 1. Conclusion: A method of water dissection technique of Toth for craniotomy with small bone flap through lateral fissure approach for the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral putamen hemorrhage is a method of convenient, safe, and with effective result. (authors)

  8. Changes in body temperature and water intake following intracerebral implantation of carbachol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.T.; Wied, D. de

    1967-01-01

    Intracerebral carbachol produced a fall in core temperature in the rat when implanted in the area preoptica, the nucleus lateralis septi and the area between the thalamic nuclei and the nucleus ruber. Cholinergic stimulation of the anterohypothalamic region did not affect body temperature, while

  9. Intracerebral implantation of carbachol in the rat: Its effect on water intake and body temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, S.G.Th.

    Intracerebral carbachol produces a fall in body temperature as well as drinking in the rat when implanted in various subcortical structures, related to the emotion-motivation limbic circuit. These effects are due to a central cholinergic stimulation since they can be prevented by the systemic

  10. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Beer, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounted for 9% to 27% of all strokes worldwide in the last decade, with high early case fatality and poor functional outcome. In view of recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the management of ICH, the European Stroke Organisation (ESO) has...

  11. Left atrial appendage occlusion versus standard medical care in patients with atrial fibrillation and intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Wester, Per

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognosis in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) having a left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) versus patients receiving standard medical therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 151 patients from the Nord...

  12. The absence of the CD163 receptor has distinct temporal influences on intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Lampert, Andrew S; Loyola Amador, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity precipitates secondary brain damage following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). CD163 is an anti-inflammatory Hb scavenger receptor and CD163-positive macrophages/microglia locally accumulate post-bleed, yet no studies have investigated the role of CD163 after ICH. ICH...

  13. Time Course of Early Postadmission Hematoma Expansion in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Christian; Christensen, Anders Fogh; Krieger, Derk W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Early hematoma expansion (EHE) in patients with intracerebral hematoma is a promising treatment target. To date, the time course of EHE has remained poorly described. We prospectively investigated the time course of EHE. METHODS: We included consecutive patients presenting...

  14. Treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage with tranexamic acid – A review of current evidence and ongoing trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Law, Zhe Kang; Meretoja, Atte; Engelter, Stefan T

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Haematoma expansion is a devastating complication of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with no established treatment. Tranexamic acid had been an effective haemostatic agent in reducing post-operative and traumatic bleeding. We review current evidence examining the efficacy of tranexamic ac...

  15. Association between eye position on brain scan and hospital mortality in acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frusch, K.J.; Houben, R.; Schreuder, F.H.B.M.; Postma, A.A.; Staals, J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conjugate eye deviation (CED) and horizontal skew deviation are often seen in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but its prognostic significance is unclear. In this study, the association between brain scan assessed eye position and hospital mortality in patients

  16. Silent intracerebral microhemorrhages in patients with ischemic stroke. Amsterdam Vascular Medicine Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, V. I.; Franke, C. L.; Verbeeten, B.; Stam, J.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the frequencies of signs of old intracerebral hemorrhages on brain magnetic resonance imaging scans in 66 patients with ischemic stroke, 69 with myocardial infarction, and 86 with peripheral arterial disease (a total of 221 patients). Magnetic resonance imaging scans were independently

  17. Is haemosiderin visible indefinitely on gradient-echo MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messori, A.; Polonara, G.; Mabiglia, C.; Salvolini, U. [Department of Neuroradiology, Umberto I Hospital and University of Ancona, via Conca, Torrette, 60020, Ancona (Italy)

    2003-12-01

    Gradient-echo (GE) MRI has been demonstrated to be the most sensitive current technique for detection of intracerebral haemosiderin, especially in the chronic stage of haemorrhage. Our purpose was to see whether GE MRI shows old haemorrhage indefinitely. We reviewed serial GE images of 105 adults with imaging features consistent with post-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage, who had serial MRI at 1, 4-6, 12, and 24 months after trauma. Of 1235 scattered low-signal foci consistent with isolated intracerebral haemosiderin deposits on images at 4-6 months, 248 (20.1%) were not seen at 24-month assessment. Reviewing individual patients, we saw that in 71.8% of those with scattered haemosiderin deposits and 46.4% of those with haemosiderin surrounded by gliosis, the low-signal foci appeared less conspicuous with time. Even given certain limitations to the interpretation of these findings, it would appear that, even with the use of GE MRI, time affects the visibility of haemorrhagic intracerebral lesions. We therefore conclude that a time of 4-6 months to 1 year or slightly more should be recommended for most precise detection of haemosiderin deposits on MRI of head-injured patients, should this be thought desirable. Normal GE images may not exclude old haemorrhage. (orig.)

  18. Is haemosiderin visible indefinitely on gradient-echo MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messori, A; Polonara, G; Mabiglia, C; Salvolini, U

    2003-12-01

    Gradient-echo (GE) MRI has been demonstrated to be the most sensitive current technique for detection of intracerebral haemosiderin, especially in the chronic stage of haemorrhage. Our purpose was to see whether GE MRI shows old haemorrhage indefinitely. We reviewed serial GE images of 105 adults with imaging features consistent with post-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage, who had serial MRI at 1, 4-6, 12, and 24 months after trauma. Of 1235 scattered low-signal foci consistent with isolated intracerebral haemosiderin deposits on images at 4-6 months, 248 (20.1%) were not seen at 24-month assessment. Reviewing individual patients, we saw that in 71.8% of those with scattered haemosiderin deposits and 46.4% of those with haemosiderin surrounded by gliosis, the low-signal foci appeared less conspicuous with time. Even given certain limitations to the interpretation of these findings, it would appear that, even with the use of GE MRI, time affects the visibility of haemorrhagic intracerebral lesions. We therefore conclude that a time of 4-6 months to 1 year or slightly more should be recommended for most precise detection of haemosiderin deposits on MRI of head-injured patients, should this be thought desirable. Normal GE images may not exclude old haemorrhage.

  19. Dark Globule in IC 1396 (IRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of inset NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope image of a glowing stellar nursery provides a spectacular contrast to the opaque cloud seen in visible light (inset). The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas. The dark globule is seen in silhouette at visible-light wavelengths, backlit by the illumination of a bright star located to the left of the field of view.The Spitzer Space Telescope pierces through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and previously unseen young stars. The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The image is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red). The filamentary appearance of the globule results from the sculpting effects of competing physical processes. The winds from a massive star, located to the left of the image, produce a dense circular rim comprising the 'head' of the globule and a swept-back tail of gas.A pair of young stars (LkHa 349 and LkHa 349c) that formed from the dense gas has cleared a spherical cavity within the globule head. While one of these stars is significantly fainter than the other in the visible-light image, they are of comparable brightness in the infrared Spitzer image. This implies the presence of a thick and dusty disc around LkHa 349c. Such circumstellar discs are the precursors of planetary systems. They are much thicker in the early stages of stellar formation when the placental planet-forming material (gas and dust) is still present.

  20. Plasma experiments on the Scylla I-C theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, K.F.

    1976-08-01

    Scylla I-C is a small scale (1-meter) research theta pinch developed for the experimental investigation of basic plasma physics processes and advanced concepts. The properties and stability characteristics of the Scylla I-C plasma, over a range of initial fill pressure from 100-500 mTorr D 2 , are discussed

  1. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  2. H I debris in the IC 1459 galaxy group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponara, Juliana; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; Benaglia, Paula; Fernández López, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    We present H I synthesis imaging of the giant elliptical galaxy IC 1459 and its surroundings with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Our search for extended H I emission revealed a large complex of H I clouds near IC 1459, likely to be the debris from tidal interactions with neighbouring galaxies. The total H I mass (∼109 M⊙) in the detected clouds spans 250 kpc from the north-east of the gas-rich spiral NGC 7418A to the south-east of IC 1459. The extent and mass of the H I debris, which shows rather irregular morphology and kinematics, are similar to those in other nearby groups. Together with H I clouds recently detected near two other IC 1459 group members, namely IC 5270 and NGC 7418, using phased-array feeds on the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder, the detected debris make up a significant fraction of the group's intergalactic medium.

  3. Investigational drugs for bladder pain syndrome (BPS) / interstitial cystitis (IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Chermansky, Christopher; Kashyap, Mahendra; Tyagi, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) is associated with sensory lower urinary tract symptoms. Unfortunately, many of the existing oral treatments are ineffective in most patients of BPS/IC, which is the motivation for developing new drugs and therapeutic approaches. This review covers the latest drugs that have been investigated in BPS/IC patients. Intravesical treatments offer the opportunity to directly target the painful bladder with less systemic side effects. In this review, the authors analyze the existing literature supporting the treatment of BPS/IC with conventional drugs including heparin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Furthermore, investigational drugs such as tanezumab and adalimumab, capable of sequestering nerve growth factor (NGF), and Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) are discussed. Investigational treatments such as liposomes, botulinum toxin (BTX), liposomal BTX, PD-0299685 (a Ca(2+) channel ɑ2δ ligand), continuous intravesical lidocaine, and AQX-1125 (a novel SHIP1 activating compound) are also covered. New investigational drugs offer promising improvements in clinical outcomes for BPS/IC patients; however, BPS/IC is a chronic pain disorder that is very vulnerable to a strong placebo effect. In addition, BPS/IC is a heterogeneous disorder that can be classified into several phenotypes. Since different phenotypes of BPS/IC respond differently to systemic and intravesical treatments, the authors believe that new drugs developed for BPS/IC are more likely to meet their predetermined clinical endpoints if the inclusion/exclusion criterion is tailored to specific phenotype of BPS/IC patients.

  4. Comparison of blood pressure-associated risk of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Korea Medical Insurance Corporation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon Chang; Nam, Chung Mo; Jee, Sun Ha; Suh, Il

    2005-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage have different pathogeneses and risk factor profiles. However, little information is available on the difference between intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages in relation to blood pressure. We prospectively investigated the relationships between blood pressure and risks of stroke subtypes. We measured blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in 100,147 men and 59,558 women 35 to 59 years of age in 1990 and 1992. Outcomes were fatal and nonfatal events of stroke and its subtypes from 1993 to 2002. Independent relationships between baseline blood pressure and stroke subtypes were assessed using Cox's proportional hazard models. During the 10 years, 1714 ischemic and 1159 hemorrhagic strokes (742 intracerebral and 308 subarachnoid hemorrhages) occurred. Blood pressure was related more closely with hemorrhagic stroke than ischemic stroke, and the difference was more prominent in women. Among the subtypes of hemorrhagic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage was more closely related with blood pressure than subarachnoid hemorrhage. For each 20 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure, adjusted relative risks of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.68 to 1.90), 2.48 (2.30 to 2.68), and 1.65 (1.38 to 1.97) in men, and 1.64 (1.42 to 1.89), 3.15 (2.61 to 3.80), and 2.29 (1.82 to 2.89) in women, respectively. In conclusion, blood pressure is more closely related with intracerebral hemorrhage than subarachnoid hemorrhage, thus proportion of intracerebral hemorrhage in hemorrhagic stroke may affect the association between blood pressure and hemorrhagic stroke. Our data also emphasize the importance of blood pressure control for the prevention of stroke, especially in countries with a high incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage.

  5. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  6. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  7. Study on Mine Emergency Mechanism based on TARP and ICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jian; Wu, Zongzhi

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the experiences and practices of mine emergency in China and abroad, especially the United States and Australia, normative principle, risk management principle and adaptability principle of constructing mine emergency mechanism based on Trigger Action Response Plans (TARP) and Incident Command System (ICS) are summarized. Classification method, framework, flow and subject of TARP and ICS which are suitable for the actual situation of domestic mine emergency are proposed. The system dynamics model of TARP and ICS is established. The parameters such as evacuation ratio, response rate, per capita emergency capability and entry rate of rescuers are set up. By simulating the operation process of TARP and ICS, the impact of these parameters on the emergency process are analyzed, which could provide a reference and basis for building emergency capacity, formulating emergency plans and setting up action plans in the emergency process.

  8. Indigenous chickens (ICS) the underutilised resource of food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICs) to contribute to household food and nutrition security; while creating opportunities to generate livelihoods. A purposive sample of 60 households participated in a survey in Makhamabthini local municipality. A complementary six focus group ...

  9. Rates and characteristics of radiographically detected intracerebral cavernous malformations after cranial radiation therapy in pediatric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Erica; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy; Roddy, Erika; Randazzo, Dominica; Chettout, Nassim; Hess, Christopher; Cotter, Jennifer; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A; Fullerton, Heather; Mueller, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Rates and characteristics of intracerebral cavernous malformations after cranial radiation therapy remain poorly understood. Herein we report on intracerebral cavernous malformations detected on follow-up imaging in pediatric cancer patients who received cranial radiation therapy at age ≤18 years from 1980 to 2009. Through chart reviews (n = 362) and phone interviews (n = 104) of a retrospective cohort, we identified 10 patients with intracerebral cavernous malformations. The median latency time for detection of intracerebral cavernous malformations after cranial radiation therapy was 12 years (range 1-24 years) at a median age of 21.4 years (interquartile range = 15-28). The cumulative incidence was 3% (95% confidence interval 1%-8%) at 10 years post cranial radiation therapy and 14% (95% confidence interval 7%-26%) at 15 years. Three patients underwent surgical resection. Two surgical specimens were pathologically similar to sporadically occurring intracerebral cavernous malformations; one was consistent with capillary telangiectasia. Intracerebral cavernous malformations are common after cranial radiation therapy and can show a spectrum of histologic features. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Targeting Secondary Hematoma Expansion in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage—State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Guan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH, defined broadly as intracerebral hemorrhage not related to trauma, results in long-term disability or death in a large proportion of afflicted patients. Current management of this disease is predominantly supportive, including airway protection, optimization of hemodynamic parameters, and management of intracranial pressure. No active treatments that demonstrate beneficial effects on clinical outcome are currently available. Animal models of SICH have allowed for the elucidation of multiple pathways that may be attractive therapeutic targets. A minority of these, such as aggressive blood pressure management and recombinant activated factor VII administration, have lead to large-scale clinical trials. There remains a critical need for further translational research in the realm of SICH.

  11. Application of electronic endoscopy and CT-guided stereotactic aspiration to intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Masahiko

    1991-01-01

    According to the development of computer technology and operative instruments, stereotactic neurosurgery became more precise, and extended as its indication. CT-guided stereotactic aspiration of intracerebral hematoma is superior operative procedure with rare complications. Using Stereotactic Aqua-Stream and Aspirator at the same time, hematoma was removed sufficiently. However, stereotactic neurosurgery had a major weak points, it was a blind operation. An endoscope (FVS-1000, M and M Co.) and SASA (Marui Medical Co.) were applied in 5 cases of intracerebral hematoma. In physiological saline, the endoscope had 32.9 deg angle of visual field, 1 mm - 25 mm depth of vision, and 16 pair/mm resolution. It was excellent ability for neurosurgery. Using for clinical cases, the bloody fluid in the hematoma cavity disturbed visibility. It was a difficult problem. Influence of bloody fluid concentration to depth of vision and resolution was investigated, and method of making clear visibility was described. (author)

  12. Recent advances in the management of post-operative intracerebral vasospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harihar Dash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative intracerebral vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following clipping of intra cranial aneurysm. Early diagnosis, prompt and effective management helps in salvaging these patients. Umpteen modalities of treatment strategies are available to achieve good neurologic recovery. Intraarterial nimodipine, nicardipine and milrinon provide good neurologic recovery. Stellate ganglion block on the affected side is also a treatment modality which needs to be investigated.

  13. CORRELATION C-REACTIVE PROTEIN LEVELS WITH CLINICAL OUTCOME INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE STROKE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Catur Arisetianto; Hari Purnomo; Eko Arisetijono Marhendraputro; Widodo Mardi Santoso

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Intracerebral hemorrhage stroke remains a major health problem and disability. Increased levels of markers of inflammatory factors after hemorrhage stroke was able to predict poor clinical outcome. Until now, the role of C Reactive Protein (CRP) in the local inflammatory response and clinical determinants output remains unclear. Aims to investigate the correlation of CRP level with poor clinical outcome as measured by Barthel Index. Methods and material. This study was...

  14. Intracerebral neurocysticercosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme: a rare differential diagnosis in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabel, M.; Weber, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Neuen-Jacob, E. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Vogt, C. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    A 47-year-old Greek man presented with a 4-week history of speech difficulties. CT and MRI revealed a low-density multilobulated cystic frontal mass with peripheral ring contrast enhancement adjacent to the sylvian fissure. Examination was normal. Blood tests revealed leucocytosis (16,000 cells/{mu}l) and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (30/52). A malignant brain tumour was suspected and surgically removed. Histological examination disclosed intracerebral neurocysticercosis. (orig.)

  15. Intracerebral neurocysticercosis mimicking glioblastoma multiforme: a rare differential diagnosis in Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabel, M.; Weber, F.; Neuen-Jacob, E.; Vogt, C.

    2001-01-01

    A 47-year-old Greek man presented with a 4-week history of speech difficulties. CT and MRI revealed a low-density multilobulated cystic frontal mass with peripheral ring contrast enhancement adjacent to the sylvian fissure. Examination was normal. Blood tests revealed leucocytosis (16,000 cells/μl) and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (30/52). A malignant brain tumour was suspected and surgically removed. Histological examination disclosed intracerebral neurocysticercosis. (orig.)

  16. The Association between Specific Substances of Abuse and Subcortical Intracerebral Hemorrhage Versus Ischemic Lacunar Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Emma H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Marsh, Elisabeth B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension damages small vessels, resulting in both lacunar infarction and subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Substance abuse has also been linked to small vessel pathology. This study explores whether the use of specific substances (e.g., cocaine, tobacco) is associated with subcortical ICH over ischemia in hypertensive individuals. Methods: Patients with hypertension, admitted with lacunar infarcts (measuring 1 drink per day (women), >2 drinks per day (men). Logist...

  17. The Association Between Specific Substances of Abuse and Subcortical Intracerebral Hemorrhage versus Ischemic Lacunar Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Emma H Kaplan; Rebecca F Gottesman; Rebecca F Gottesman; Rafael H Llinas; Rafael H Llinas; Elisabeth Breese Marsh; Elisabeth Breese Marsh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension damages small vessels, resulting in both lacunar infarction and subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Substance abuse has also been linked to small vessel pathology. This study explores whether the use of specific substances (eg., cocaine, tobacco) is associated with subcortical ICH over ischemia in hypertensive individuals.Methods: Patients with hypertension, admitted with lacunar infarcts (measuring 1 drink per day (women), >2 drinks per day (men). Logistic re...

  18. Delayed angiography in the investigation of intracerebral hematomas caused by small arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willinsky, R.A. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada)); Fitzgerald, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada)); TerBrugge, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada)); Montanera, W. (Dept. of Radiology, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., Toronto, ON (Canada)); Wallace, M. (Div. of Neurosurgery, Dept. of Surgery, Toronto Hospital, Western Div., ON (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Brain Vascular Malformation Study Group, ON (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    We reviewed the clinical and radiological features of ten patients with small arteriovenous malformations that caused intracerebral hematomas. In six patients, angiography showed a small nidus (less than 1 cm in diameter) with a shunt at the site of the hematoma, and in four only an early-filling vein was evident. Six patients had only delayed angiography (4 weeks or more after the ictus). In three, angiography within 2 days of the ictus failed to reveal the cause of the bleed, but repeat angiography showed an early-filling vein in two, and a nidus with shunting in one. In only one patient did early angiography reveal the malformation. MRI was obtained in eight patients, and in two prominent vessels were evident in the wall of the hematoma cavity. In investigation of an unexplained intracerebral hematoma, MRI may be useful to exclude a neoplasm or cavernoma, although the latter may be not be evident in the presence of a recent hematoma. We suggest early MRI and angiography for investigation of an unexplained, nonhypertensive intracerebral bleed, with follow-up MRI and dealyed angiography if the initial studies fail to reveal the cause. (orig.)

  19. Systemic zinc protoporphyrin administration reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y; Tian, H; Xi, G; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Hua, Y

    2006-01-01

    Hemoglobin degradation products result in brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recent studies found that intracerebral infusion of heme oxygenase inhibitors reduces hemoglobin- and ICH-induced brain edema in rats and pigs. The present study examined whether systemic use of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a heme oxygenase inhibitor, can attenuate brain edema, behavioral deficits, and brain atrophy following ICH. All rats had intracerebral infusion of 100-microL autologous blood. ZnPP (1 nmol/hour/rat) or vehicle was given immediately or 6 hours following ICH. ZnPP was delivered intraperitoneally up to 14 days through an osmotic mini-pump. Rats were killed at day 3 and day 28 after ICH for brain edema and brain atrophy measurements, respectively. Behavioral tests were performed. We found that ZnPP attenuated brain edema in animals sacrificed 3 days after ICH (p ZnPP also reduced ICH-induced caudate atrophy (p ZnPP given immediately or 6 hours after ICH improved neurological deficits (p < 0.05). In conclusion, systemic zinc protoporphyrin treatment started at 0 or 6 hours after ICH reduced brain edema, neurological deficits, and brain atrophy after ICH. These results indicate that heme oxygenase may be a new target for ICH therapeutics.

  20. Dipole localization using beamforming and RAP-MUSIC on simulated intracerebral recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N; Gotman, J; Gulrajani, R

    2004-01-01

    Interpreting intracerebral recordings in the search of an epileptic focus can be difficult because the amplitude of the potentials are misleading. Small generators located near the electrode site generate large potentials, which could swamp the signal of a nearby epileptic focus. In order to address this problem, two inverse problem algorithms, beamforming and recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC), were used with simulated intracerebral potentials to calculate equivalent dipole positions. Three dipoles were positioned in an infinite plane medium near three intracerebral electrodes. The potentials generated by the dipoles were simulated and contaminated with white noise. Initial localization simulations showed that both methods detected the sources accurately with RAP-MUSIC reporting lower orientation errors. A spatial resolution analysis for both methods was undertaken in which two dipoles were placed on a plane with the same orientation and overlapping time-courses. Beamforming was able to adequately distinguish the sources for separation distances of 1.2 cm, whereas RAP-MUSIC managed to separate the sources for dipoles as close as 0.4-0.6 cm.

  1. Comparison of application value of DSA and MRA in diagnosis of subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingli; Qu Tianrong; Feng Jun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in diagnosis of cerebral vascular structural abnormalities in the patients with spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage in subacute phase, and to provide clinical basis for detection of cerebral vascular structural abnormalities. Methods: 183 patients with subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 1 week were selected, the vascular structures of the patients were detected by DSA and MRA, and the influence factors were analyzed. Results: The DSA and MRA results showed that the parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and lenticular nucleus had the largest incidence rates of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, and accounted for 17.5% , 16.9% , and 14.2% , respectively. The age and the incidence of the hypertension of the patients with cerebral vascular structural abnormalities were significantly lower than those of the patients without cerebral vascular structural abnormalities (P<0.05). There were positive correlations between subacute spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage and the age and the incidence of hypertension (r=0.43, r=0.46, P<0.05). The rates of cerebrovascular malformation detected with MRA and DSA had no statistically significant difference. The DSA was regarded as detection gold standard, the sensitivities and specificities of MRA in detection of cerebrovascular malformation were 98.8% and 96.9% . Conclusion: The abnormal vascular structures of patients with subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage can be detected mostly by MRA and DSA. MRA has the advantages of non-invasion, which is worthy to be applied in clinic. (authors)

  2. The CT Swirl Sign Is Associated with Hematoma Expansion in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, D; Churilov, L; Mitchell, P; Dowling, R; Yan, B

    2018-02-01

    Hematoma expansion is an independent determinant of poor clinical outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage. Although the "spot sign" predicts hematoma expansion, the identification requires CT angiography, which limits its general accessibility in some hospital settings. Noncontrast CT, without the need for CT angiography, may identify sites of active extravasation, termed the "swirl sign." We aimed to determine the association of the swirl sign with hematoma expansion. Patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage between 2007 and 2014 who underwent an initial and subsequent noncontrast CT at a single center were retrospectively identified. The swirl sign, on noncontrast CT, was defined as iso- or hypodensity within a hyperdense region that extended across 2 contiguous 5-mm axial CT sections. A total of 212 patients met the inclusion criteria. The swirl sign was identified in 91 patients with excellent interobserver agreement (κ = 0.87). The swirl sign was associated with larger initial hematoma ( P sign compared with those without. The NCCT swirl sign was reliably identified and is associated with hematoma expansion. We propose that the swirl sign be included in risk stratification of intracerebral hemorrhage and considered for inclusion in clinical trials. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Ethnic Disparities in Ischemic Stroke, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Incidence in The Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    . We studied the following stroke subtypes: ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence differences between first-generation ethnic minorities and the Dutch majority population (ethnic Dutch). RESULTS: Compared...... with ethnic Dutch, Surinamese men and women had higher incidence rates of all stroke subtypes combined (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-1.50 and 1.34; 1.28-1.41), ischemic stroke (1.68; 1.57-1.81 and 1.57; 1.46-1.68), intracerebral hemorrhage (2.08; 1.82-2.39 and 1.74; 1.......50-2.00), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (1.25; 0.92-1.69 and 1.26; 1.04-1.54). By contrast, Moroccan men and women had lower incidence rates of all stroke subtypes combined (0.42; 0.36-0.48 and 0.37; 0.30-0.46), ischemic stroke (0.35; 0.27-0.45 and 0.34; 0.24-0.49), intracerebral hemorrhage (0.61; 0.41-0.92 and 0.32; 0...

  4. Importance of serial CT scanning in the diagnosis and treatment of delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hidetoshi; Kuwayama, Naoya; Kagawa, Shigeki; Sonobe, Makoto; Takahashi, Shinichiro (Mito National Hospital, Mito (Japan))

    1984-02-01

    Between January, 1980, and December, 1982, 99 cases of traumatic intracranial hemorrhage were admitted to our hospital. Of these cases, we analyzed 25 cases which had been submitted to initial CT scanning within 4 hours after head trauma. We found 17 cases which had no hematoma on the initial CT scan but which were found to have formed intracerebral hematoma on a repeated CT scan. We found that we could classify the delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma into two types: Type I hematoma, which had a relatively bad outcome, and Type II hematoma which had a relatively good outcome. The neurological sign comes to deteriorate in accordance with the hematoma formation in Type I, while the neurological sign remains unchanged or takes an uphill course in accordance with hematoma formation in Type II. We recognized some differences between the two types both in the time from trauma to hematoma formation and in the serial CT findings. However, we could not differentiate the two types of hematoma on the basis only of the initial CT findings, probably because of a dynamic change in the damaged brain tissue. There seems to be no means to predict the course of delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma; therefore, we stress the importance of strict observation both of the clinical course and of the serial CT findings in order to diagnose and to choose an appropriate course of therapy, medical or surgical.

  5. The Implications Related to Different IC, Different Projects and Different Thinking Addressing the Common Core of IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - In the field of innovation of business models on behalf of networks of different intellectual capabilities (ICA), the development of Intellectual Capital (IC) are highly in focus. An increased work of innovation in groups, projects and by individuals outside the core of the organization...... the different ICA´s to bring learning and knowledge back to the core with the purpose to develop IC at the organizational core level....

  6. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: Key learning points from the Danish experience

    OpenAIRE

    Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Informed by the findings of a follow-up research study of companies originally involved in the Danish Guideline Project for Intellectual Capital Statements, this paper provides valuable insights for a potential shift from IC reporting, largely informed by an accounting perspective, towards IC-related disclosures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on data obtained from 21 semi-structured interviews with respondents in 16 companies. The respondents were contacted follow...

  7. Multilevel models improve precision and speed of IC50 estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vis, Daniel J; Bombardelli, Lorenzo; Lightfoot, Howard; Iorio, Francesco; Garnett, Mathew J; Wessels, Lodewyk Fa

    2016-05-01

    Experimental variation in dose-response data of drugs tested on cell lines result in inaccuracies in the estimate of a key drug sensitivity characteristic: the IC50. We aim to improve the precision of the half-limiting dose (IC50) estimates by simultaneously employing all dose-responses across all cell lines and drugs, rather than using a single drug-cell line response. We propose a multilevel mixed effects model that takes advantage of all available dose-response data. The new estimates are highly concordant with the currently used Bayesian model when the data are well behaved. Otherwise, the multilevel model is clearly superior. The multilevel model yields a significant reduction of extreme IC50 estimates, an increase in precision and it runs orders of magnitude faster.

  8. Extreme low-power mixed signal IC design

    CERN Document Server

    Tajalli, Armin

    2010-01-01

    This book describes a completely novel class of techniques for designing ultra-low-power integrated circuits (ICs). In many applications such as battery operated systems and battery-less (energy-scavenging) systems, power dissipation is a critical parameter. As a result, there is a growing demand for reducing the power (energy) consumption in ICs to extremely low levels, not achievable by using classical ""subthreshold CMOS"" techniques. This book introduces a new family of ""subthreshold circuits"" called ""source-coupled circuits"". This family of circuits can be used for implementing digita

  9. Improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorthm for constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan R. Bulatović

    Full Text Available Constrained optimization is very important issue in engineering design. The problem of constrained optimization contains the objective function with linear and nonlinear constraint equations. In this paper the Improved Cuckoo Search (ICS algorithm has been applied for solving problems of constrained engineering optimization, which gives better solutions than the standard CS algorithm and the other optimization algorithms used in solving engineering problems from the literature. In the proposed ICS algorithm, dynamic change of parameters of probability and step size is introduced, which are constant in the standard algorithm.

  10. Transient SEU characterization of analog IC's for ESA's satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harboe-Soerensen, R.; Van Dooren, J.; Guerre, F.X.; Constans, H.; Berger, G.; Hajdas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Data analysis of four self switch-off power supply events in the SOHO satellite pointed strongly in the direction of being Cosmic Ray or Proton induced. Further analysis of the relevant power supply schematics identified a number of analog IC's capable of causing or contributing to such events. This paper concentrates on the testing aspects of these analog IC's and presents the results of a Single Event Effects (SEEs) test program. Ground testing, simulating the flight conditions, were carried out at both heavy ion and proton accelerators. (authors)

  11. Use of advanced commercial ICs (COTS) for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, D.J.; Czajkowski, D.R.; Layton, P.; Shanken, S.

    1999-01-01

    A product line of space-qualified radiation-tolerant ICs based on a high-volume commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon has been developed. The basic results from over 300 lots of COTS silicon, assembled and screened to Class B and Class S requirements will be presented. Intelligent use of commercial ICs engineered to improve radiation performance, is effective in introducing advanced technology to new satellite systems. Space Electronics has introduced over 125 space-qualified microelectronics standard products, that are used on over 90 space projects. (authors)

  12. Performance of Naturally Aspirating IC Engines Operating at High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The loss of power and the increase of fuel consumption of naturally aspirating IC engines operating with low atmospheric pressure at high altitude as well as changes in the mixture quality with non adapting mixture formation systems are principally known. Other effects like the additional advance of ignition timing in petrol ...

  13. Development of an ASD IC for the Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Orito, R; Kubo, H; Miuchi, K; Nagayoshi, T; Okada, Y; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, M

    2004-01-01

    A new amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and manufactured for the Micro Pixel Chamber ($\\mu$-PIC). The design of this ASD IC is based on the ASD IC (TGC-ASD) for the Thin Gap Chamber in the LHC Atlas Experiment. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 5-times longer than that of the TGC-ASD, and some other modifications have been made in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the $\\mu$-PIC. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 80 ns and its gain is approximately 0.8 V/pC. The output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. A baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier, and the current used for the baseline restoration is 5-times smaller than that of the TGC-ASD. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The ASD...

  14. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  15. Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten R; GLUD, AN; Margolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig......Safety and function of a new clinical intracerebral microinjection instrument for stem cells and therapeutics examined in the Göttingen minipig...

  16. Low plasma eicosapentaenoic acid concentration as a possible risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Yoshimori; Fukuyama, Naoto; Mori, Hidezo

    2015-03-01

    N-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevent ischemic stroke. The preventive effect has been attributed to an antithrombic effect induced by elevated EPA and reduced arachidonic acid (AA) levels. However, the relationship between intracranial hemorrhage and N-3 fatty acids has not yet been elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we compared common clinical and lifestyle parameters between 70 patients with intracranial hemorrhages and 66 control subjects. The parameters included blood chemistry data, smoking, alcohol intake, fish consumption, and the incidences of underlying diseases. The comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test followed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Nonparametric tests revealed that the 70 patients with intracerebral hemorrhages exhibited significantly higher diastolic blood pressures and alcohol intakes and lower body mass indices, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, EPA concentrations, EPA/AA ratios, and vegetable consumption compared with the 66 control subjects. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher diastolic blood pressure and alcohol intake and lower body mass index, HDL cholesterol, EPA/AA ratio, and vegetable consumption were relative risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage. High HDL cholesterol was a common risk factor in both of the sex-segregated subgroups and the Eicosapentaenoic acid was relative risk factor only in the ≥65-year-old subgroup. Rather than higher EPA levels, lower EPA concentrations and EPA/AA ratios were found to be risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage in addition to previously known risk factors such as blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and lifestyle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Effect of blood activating stasis removing method on prognosis of intracerebral hemorrhage patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li-xin; Chen, Che; Zhang, Gen-ming; Zhou, Li; Chen, Ying; Cui, Fang-yuan; Gao, Ying

    2015-02-01

    To observe the clinical effect and safety of blood activating stasis removing method (BASRM) on intracerebral hemorrhage patients. A multi-center, prospective, randomized, open, controlled and blinded endpoint design was adopted. Totally 228 intracerebral hemorrhage patients were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 114 in each group by center randomized method. All patients received basic treatment of Western internal medicine. Patients in the treatment group received intravenous infusion with Xingnaojing Injection (XI) from the 1st day of grouping, 20 mL per day for 14 days. Then they took or were nasally fed with Chinese medical granules (by syndrome typing as complicated with wind syndrome, fire syndrome, and phlegm syndrome) for 21 days. Finally they took Naoxueshu Oral Liquid (NOL), 10 mL each time, 3 times per day till the 3rd month of incidence. Patients' disability degree, activities of daily living, neurological impairment, the effective rate, physiologic functions, mental status, social relationship, and degree of treatment satisfaction were assessed using Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Barthel index (BI), National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and patient reported outcome (PRO). Head CT was performed to evaluate the absorption of hematoma at the 1st and 7th day of grouping. The safety was also assessed. Totally 108 patients in the treatment group and 112 patients in the control group completed the trial. There was no statistical difference in the total effective rate between the two groups after 3 months of treatment (P>0.05). The MRS score was obviously lower in the treatment group than in the control group (P0.05). BASRM could lower the deformity rate of intracerebral hemorrhage patients at month 3, effectively promote hematoma absorption within 7 days, improve neurologic impairment, and elevate living abilities at month 3 of onset.

  18. Protection of Momordica charantia polysaccharide against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through JNK3 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Ling; Li, Yi-Hang; Zhang, Feng; Li, Feng-Ying; Su-Hua, Qi

    2015-01-01

    It has been well documented that Momordica charantia polysaccharide (MCP) has multiple biological effects such as immune enhancement, anti-oxidation and anti-cancer. However, the potential protective effects of MCP on stroke damage and its relative mechanisms remain unclear. Our present study demonstrated that MCP could scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in intra-cerebral hemorrhage damage, significantly attenuating the neuronal death induced by thrombin in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that MCP prevented the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK3), c-Jun and caspase-3, which was caused by the intra-cerebral hemorrhage injury. Taken together, our study demonstrated that MCP had a neuroprotective effect in response to intra-cerebral hemorrhage and its mechanisms involved the inhibition of JNK3 signaling pathway.

  19. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph taken April 17, 1963, gives a look at the four tower legs of the S-IC test stand at their completed height.

  20. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken from ground level on May 7, 1963, gives a close look at one of the four towers legs of the S-IC test stand nearing its completed height.

  1. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of November 20, 1963.

  2. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken April 4, 1963, gives a close up look at the ever-growing four towers of the S-IC Test Stand.

  3. Tumor localization of boronated porphyrins in an intracerebral model of glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.S.; Kaye, A.H.; Gonzales, M.F.; Stylli, S.S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kahl, S.B.; Vardaxis, N.J.; Johnson, C.I.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of the most common cerebral tumor, cerebral glioma, is unsatisfactory as the tumor recurs due to inadequate local control. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) offer some promise as adjuvant treatments for cerebral glioma. Several clinical trials have been reported utilizing PDT and BNCT to treat the high grade glioma, glioblastoma multiforme. The authors have investigated the pharmacokinetic tissue distribution of the photosensitizer Haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), the nido carboranyl porphyrin, boron tetraphenyl porphine (BTPP) and the closo carboranyl monomeric protoporphyrin (BOPP) in CBA mice bearing the intracerebral C6 glioma xenograft

  4. Evolution of blood pressure management in acute intracerebral hemorrhage [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH remains a prevalent and severe cause of death and disability worldwide. Control of the hypertensive response in acute ICH has been a mainstay of ICH management, yet the optimal approaches and the yield of recommended strategies have been difficult to establish despite a large body of literature. Over the years, theoretical and observed risks and benefits of intensive blood pressure reduction in ICH have been studied in the form of animal models, radiographic studies, and two recent large, randomized patient trials. In this article, we review the historical and developing data and discuss remaining questions surrounding blood pressure management in acute ICH.

  5. Secondary decline of cerebral autoregulation is associated with worse outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Matthias; Neunhoeffer, Florian; Gerds, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blood pressure management in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) relies on functioning cerebral autoregulation. The time course of autoregulation in acute ICH and its relation with clinical outcome are not known. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with spontaneous ICH were studied on days 1, 3...... related with lower Glasgow coma score, ventricular hemorrhage (both sides) and lower noninvasive cerebral perfusion pressure (ipsilateral). Increasing ipsilateral Mx between days 3 and 5 was related with lower Glasgow coma score and ventricular hemorrhage. In a multivariate analysis controlling for other......, ventricular hemorrhage, lower cerebral perfusion pressure and worse clinical outcome....

  6. Progress in translational research on intracerebral hemorrhage: Is there an end in sight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Guohua; Strahle, Jennifer; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a common and often fatal stroke subtype for which specific therapies and treatments remain elusive. To address this, many recent experimental and translational studies of ICH have been conducted, and these have led to several ongoing clinical trials. This review focuses on the progress of translational studies of ICH including those of the underlying causes and natural history of ICH, animal models of the condition, and effects of ICH on the immune and cardiac systems, among others. Current and potential clinical trials also are discussed for both ICH alone and with intraventricular extension. PMID:24139872

  7. Lack of Early Improvement Predicts Poor Outcome Following Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Smith, Eric E; Demchuk, Andrew M; Aviv, Richard I; Rodriguez-Luna, David; Molina, Carlos A; Silva Blas, Yolanda; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Kobayashi, Adam; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Lum, Cheemun; Gubitz, Gord; Padma, Vasantha; Roy, Jayanta; Kase, Carlos S; Bhatia, Rohit; Ali, Myzoon; Lyden, Patrick; Hill, Michael D; Dowlatshahi, Dar

    2018-04-01

    There are limited data as to what degree of early neurologic change best relates to outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage. We aimed to derive and validate a threshold for early postintracerebral hemorrhage change that best predicts 90-day outcomes. Derivation: retrospective analysis of collated clinical stroke trial data (Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive). retrospective analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort study (Prediction of haematoma growth and outcome in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage using the CT-angiography spot sign [PREDICT]). Neurocritical and ICUs. Patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage presenting less than 6 hours. Derivation: 552 patients; validation: 275 patients. None. We generated a receiver operating characteristic curve for the association between 24-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale change and clinical outcome. The primary outcome was a modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6 at 90 days; secondary outcomes were other modified Rankin Scale score ranges (modified Rankin Scale, 2-6, 3-6, 5-6, 6). We employed Youden's J Index to select optimal cut points and calculated sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. We determined independent predictors via multivariable logistic regression. The derived definitions were validated in the PREDICT cohort. Twenty-four-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale change was strongly associated with 90-day outcome with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75. Youden's method showed an optimum cut point at -0.5, corresponding to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale change of greater than or equal to 0 (a lack of clinical improvement), which was seen in 46%. Early neurologic change accurately predicted poor outcome when defined as greater than or equal to 0 (sensitivity, 65%; specificity, 73%; positive predictive value, 70%; adjusted odds ratio, 5.05 [CI, 3.25-7.85]) or greater than or equal to 4 (sensitivity, 19%; specificity

  8. An update on surgical and medical management strategies for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Natalie; Adeoye, Opeolu

    2013-11-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for ∼ 10 to 15% of all strokes and is one of the major causes of stroke-related death and disability. After the initial hemorrhage, further bleeding and edema contribute to secondary damage and worsened outcomes. As such, goals of previous and ongoing trials are to prevent continued bleeding, as well as mitigate the impact of cerebral edema. Although no trials have shown a definite functional outcome benefit with a given intervention, much progress has been made recently. This review focuses on recent developments that inform the acute management of ICH. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Positron emission tomography in the newborn: extensive impairment of regional cerebral blood flow with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, J.J.; Herscovitch, P.; Perlman, J.M.; Raichle, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) now provides the capability of measuring regional cerebral blood flow with high resolution and little risk. In this study, we utilized PET in six premature infants (920 to 1,200 g) with major intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement to measure regional cerebral blood flow during the acute period (5 to 17 days of age). Cerebral blood flow was determined after intravenous injection of H 2 O, labeled with the positron-emitting isotope, 15 O. Findings were similar and dramatic in all six infants. In the area of hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement, little or no cerebral blood flow was detected. However, in addition, surprisingly, a marked two- to fourfold reduction in cerebral blood flow was observed throughout the affected hemisphere, well posterior and lateral to the intracerebral hematoma, including cerebral white matter and, to a lesser extent, frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex. In the one infant studied a second time, ie, at 3 months of age, the extent and severity of the decreased cerebral blood flows in the affected hemisphere were similar to those observed on the study during the neonatal period. At the three autopsies, the affected left hemisphere showed extensive infarction, corroborating the PET scans. These observations, the first demonstration of the use of PET in the determination of regional cerebral blood flow in the newborn, show marked impairments in regional cerebral blood flow in the hemisphere containing an apparently restricted intracerebral hematoma, indicating that the hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement is only a component of a much larger lesion, ischemic in basic nature, ie, an infarction. This large ischemic lesion explains the poor neurologic outcome in infants with intraventricular hemorrhage and hemorrhagic intracerebral involvement

  10. [A preliminary study on the effects of meteorological factors on intracerebral hemorrhage death using the BP neural network model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han-lu; Lan, Li; Qiao, Dong-ju; Zhao, Na; Yang, Jia-qi; Shao, Bing; Jiao, Zhe; Li, Hang; Wang, Bin-you

    2012-09-01

    Using the Back Propagation (BP) Neural Network Model to discover the relationship between meteorological factors and mortality of intracerebral hemorrhage, to provide evidence for developing an intracerebral hemorrhage prevention and control program, in Harbin. Based on the characteristics of BP neural network, a neural network Toolbox of MATLAB 7.0 software was used to build Meteorological data of 2007 - 2009 with intracerebral hemorrhage mortality to predict the effect of BP neural network model, and to compare with the traditional multivariate linear regression model. Datas from the multivariate linear regression indicated that the cerebral hemorrhage death mortality had a negative correlation with maximum temperature and minimum humidity while having a positive correlation with the average relative humidity and the hours of sunshine. The linear correlation coefficient of intracerebral hemorrhage mortality was 0.7854, with mean absolute percentage (MAPE) as 0.21, mean square error (MSE) as 0.22, mean absolute error (MAE) as 0.19. The accuracy of forecasting was 81.31% with an average error rate as 0.19. The Fitting results of BP neural network model showed that non-linear correlation coefficient of intracerebral hemorrhage mortality was 0.7967, with MAPE as 0.19, MSE as 0.21, MAE as 0.18. The forecasting accuracy was 82.53% with the average error rate as 0.17. The BP neural network model showed a higher forecasting accuracy when compared to the multiple linear regression model on intracerebral hemorrhage mortality, using the data of 2010's.

  11. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: key learning points from the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2017-01-01

    structure. Overall, a trend towards more integrated forms of reporting was discernible, in some part being motivated by the need to reduce the levels of reporting overload. Examples of integration designed to legitimise IC or corporate social responsibility reports, involving issuing them in tandem...

  12. Decreased expression of transient receptor potential channels in cerebral vascular tissue from patients after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Suess, Olaf; Liu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    the expression of TRP expression and hypoxic conditions caused by the intracerebral bleeding, we examined the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1a (HIF1a). Transcripts of TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPM6, and HIF1a were significantly reduced in cerebral vascular tissue from patients after hypertensive intracerebral...... hemorrhage compared to controls. TRPC3 mRNA correlated well with the expression of HIF1a mRNA (r(2) = 0.59; p = 0.01). TRPC3 expression is associated with hypertension and hypoxic conditions in human cerebral vascular tissue....

  13. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    OpenAIRE

    Li Weiwei; Gu Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the sup...

  14. Organ- and cell-specific immune responses are associated with the outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Shi, Kaibin; Li, Zhiguo; Li, Minshu; Han, Yujuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Zhecheng; Yu, Changlu; Zhang, Fang; Song, Lijuan; Dong, Jing-Fei; La Cava, Antonio; Sheth, Kevin N; Shi, Fu-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Severe brain injury significantly influences immune responses; however, the levels at which this influence occurs and which neurogenic pathways are involved are not well defined. Here, we used MRI to measure spleen volume and tissue diffusion changes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We observed increased capillary exchange and spleen shrinkage by d 3 post-ICH, with recovery by d 14. The extent of spleen shrinkage was associated with brain hematoma size, and a reduced progression of perihematomal edema was observed in the presence of severe spleen shrinkage. At the cellular level, lymphopenia was present in patients with ICH at admission and persisted up to 14 d. Lymphopenia did not parallel the observed spleen alteration. In addition, patients with ICH with infection had significant deficiencies of T and NK cells and poor functional outcomes. Finally, in mouse models of ICH, spleen shrinkage could be related to innervations from adrenergic input and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In sum, the profound impact of ICH on the immune system involves the coordinated actions of sympathetic innervation and the HPA axis, which modulate spleen shrinkage and cellular immunity.-Zhang, J., Shi, K., Li, Z., Li, M., Han, Y., Wang, L., Zhang, Z., Yu, C., Zhang, F., Song, L., Dong, J.-F., La Cava, A., Sheth, K. N., Shi, F.-D. Organ- and cell-specific immune responses are associated with the outcomes of intracerebral hemorrhage. © The Author(s).

  15. Probable Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome with Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Epstein-Barr Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Mark P; Young, Adam M H; O'Leary, Ronan; Damian, Maxwell S; Lavinio, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a rare, severe variant of antiphospholipid syndrome with a high mortality rate. We report a unique case of CAPS secondary to Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) infection complicated by pulmonary and intracerebral hemorrhage. A review of the CAPS literature relevant to intensive care practice is used to outline a rational approach to diagnosis and management. All data are from a single patient admitted to the Neurosciences Critical Care Unit in Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, in March 2016. Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched through September 2016 without restrictions for cases of CAPS, management of CAPS in the intensive care unit, and hemorrhage complicating CAPS. The patient gave express written consent to access and publish these data. This is only the second reported case of probable CAPS secondary to EBV infection. Furthermore, pulmonary and intracerebral hemorrhage is rare manifestations of this multisystem prothrombotic state which provided unique challenges to the management. While rare, CAPS should be considered in any patient presenting with rapidly progressive multiorgan failure, evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy, and antiphospholipid antibodies. A high index of suspicion is required as early, aggressive, multimodal treatment with anticoagulation, and immunosuppression improves outcomes.

  16. [CT perfusion imaging evaluation on hemodynamic changes of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage surrounding tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yi; Chen, Weijian; Zheng, Kuikui; Fu, Jun; Hu, Zilong; Yang, Yunjun; Dai, Yichuan

    2015-11-17

    To discuss the hemodynamic changes in patients with acute supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (within 72 hours) by using 320-slice of low-dose volume CT perfusion imaging. Twenty-six patients of The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University during December 2012 to December 2013 with acute supratentorial SICH diagnosed by plain CT scanning and clinic were enrolled. With hematoma maximum level for reference, the hematoma volume, edema area and perfusion defect area were measured, and the perfusion parameters values of the marginal area and outer area of the intracerebral hematoma and contralateral mirror area were measured, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time-to-peak (TTP), and rCBF, rCBV, rMTT and rTTP were calculated by ipsilateral/contralateral value. The CBF, CBV of the marginal area were lower than the contralateral mirror area (tCBF=-8.125, tCBV=-8.671, PCBF, CBVperfusion defect area showed a positive linear relation with the volume of acute hematoma (r=0.440, Pperfusion defect area (r=0.400, r=0.81, PCT perfusion imaging can perfectly reflect the hemodynamic changes in brain tissuse after acute supratentorial SICH. Hypoperfusion was appeared in perihematomal area of acute supratentorial SICH. The perihematomal brain tissue may exists ischemic injury associated with the size of hematoma.The hematoma place holder effect, ischemic injury are the important cause of acute brain edema formation.

  17. Spontaneous intracerebral haematomas - the influence of computerized tomography on the results of surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziejczyk, D.

    1981-01-01

    The report covers 30 patients of 10 to 74 years of age who has hard spontaneous intracerebral haematomas in the time from 1975 to 1980 and had been operated on after diagnosing by means of computerized tomography. The total mortality rate was 40% and was not significantly different from the total operative result obtained by other authors in the CT-period, but it compares poor to the pre-CT-aera. This deterioration despite improved diagnoses might be an effect of computerized tomography on the operating surgeon. Out of 18 survivors, 8 were completely healed. 4 patients kept some neurological symptoms, but could manage everyday life on their own. 6 patients kept serious neurological defects needing care. The influence of neurological-clinical parameters on the final operation result hasn't lost its importance in the CT-aera. The value of CT for the therapy of intracerebral haematomas lies in course control which often justifies a conservative proceeding with good absorption tendency taking into consideration the clinical-neurological picture, despite the persistence of growing and displacing processes. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids increase oxidative stress in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon; Nam, Somyoung; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Hong, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Myoungsook

    2009-11-01

    Intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been suggested to associate with an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. The present study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that EPA and DHA increase oxidative stress and hemorrhage volume in rats with intracerebral hemorrhagic (ICH) stroke. Thirty-five-week-old male rats were fed an American Institute of Nutrition-93M diet containing 0% (n = 27), 0.5% (n = 15), or 1% EPA + DHA of total energy for 5 weeks. Of 5 rats fed 1% EPA + DHA (41%), 5 died because of excessive bleeding within 12 hours after ICH surgery. Behavior test score and hemorrhage volume were significantly (P surgery rats. Brain levels of EPA and DHA were highest in rats fed 1% EPA + DHA than in rats fed 0% and 0.5% EPA + DHA. These results suggested that intake of 1% EPA + DHA of total energy could lead to oxidative damage to the brain and thus increase the risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in this rat model.

  19. STARTING-SICH Nomogram to Predict Symptomatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Intravenous Thrombolysis for Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Manuel; Turcato, Gianni; Forlivesi, Stefano; Zivelonghi, Cecilia; Bovi, Paolo; Bonetti, Bruno; Toni, Danilo

    2018-02-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is a rare but the most feared complication of intravenous thrombolysis for ischemic stroke. We aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for individualized prediction of sICH in intravenous thrombolysis-treated stroke patients included in the multicenter SITS-ISTR (Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register). All patients registered in the SITS-ISTR by 179 Italian centers between May 2001 and March 2016 were originally included. The main outcome measure was sICH per the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study II definition (any type of intracerebral hemorrhage with increase of ≥4 National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score points from baseline or death Stroke Scale score, glucose, aspirin alone, aspirin plus clopidogrel, anticoagulant with INR ≤1.7, current infarction sign, hyperdense artery sign) nomogram. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of STARTING-SICH was 0.739. Calibration was good ( P =0.327 for the Hosmer-Lemeshow test). The STARTING-SICH is the first nomogram developed and validated in a large SITS-ISTR cohort for individualized prediction of sICH in intravenous thrombolysis-treated stroke patients. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  1. 3D-ICs created using oblique processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckel, D. Bruce

    2016-03-01

    This paper demonstrates that another class of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) exists, distinct from through silicon via centric and monolithic 3D-ICs. Furthermore, it is possible to create devices that are 3D at the device level (i.e. with active channels oriented in each of the three coordinate axes), by performing standard CMOS fabrication operations at an angle with respect to the wafer surface into high aspect ratio silicon substrates using membrane projection lithography (MPL). MPL requires only minimal fixturing changes to standard CMOS equipment, and no change to current state-of-the-art lithography. Eliminating the constraint of 2D planar device architecture enables a wide range of new interconnect topologies which could help reduce interconnect resistance/capacitance, and potentially improve performance.

  2. Missing the Mark: Is ICS Training Achieving Its Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of simply responding to emotions and innate compulsions .165 So if we stress the brain and inhibit the pre-frontal cortex’s ability to make critical...that individual “ buying into” the training and actually putting it into practice at his or her own organization...have key leadership personnel buy -in to be successful.211 3. Why Are Key Personnel Not Seeing the Value in True ICS Adoption? Key personnel in

  3. Protecting ICS Systems Within the Energy Sector from Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Shaquille

    Advance persistent threat (APT) groups are continuing to attack the energy sector through cyberspace, which poses a risk to our society, national security, and economy. Industrial control systems (ICSs) are not designed to handle cyber-attacks, which is why asset owners need to implement the correct proactive and reactive measures to mitigate the risk to their ICS environments. The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) responded to 290 incidents for fiscal year 2016, where 59 of those incidents came from the Energy Sector. APT groups know how vulnerable energy sector ICS systems are and the destruction they can cause when they go offline such as loss of production, loss of life, and economic impact. Defending against APT groups requires more than just passive controls such as firewalls and antivirus solutions. Asset owners should implement a combination of best practices and active defense in their environment to defend against APT groups. Cyber-attacks against critical infrastructure will become more complex and harder to detect and respond to with traditional security controls. The purpose of this paper was to provide asset owners with the correct security controls and methodologies to help defend against APT groups.

  4. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Competition between ices Ih and Ic in homogeneous water freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Alberto; Conde, Maria M.; Espinosa, Jorge R.; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The role of cubic ice, ice Ic, in the nucleation of ice from supercooled water has been widely debated in the past decade. Computer simulations can provide insightful information about the mechanism of ice nucleation at a molecular scale. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study the competition between ice Ic and hexagonal ice, ice Ih, in the process of ice nucleation. Using a seeding approach, in which classical nucleation theory is combined with simulations of ice clusters embedded in supercooled water, we estimate the nucleation rate of ice for a pathway in which the critical nucleus has an Ic structure. Comparing our results with those previously obtained for ice Ih [Sanz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15008 (2013)], we conclude that within the accuracy of our calculations both nucleation pathways have the same rate for the studied water models (TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005). We examine in detail the factors that contribute to the nucleation rate and find that the chemical potential difference with the fluid, the attachment rate of particles to the cluster, and the ice-water interfacial free energy are the same within the estimated margin of error for both ice polymorphs. Furthermore, we study the morphology of the ice clusters and conclude that they have a spherical shape.

  6. Exploring the use of Cadence IC in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Efnusheva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microelectronics technologies and structures is electronics subfield, related to the study of integrated circuit design and fabrication. To familiarize with this widely applicable area, engineering students should gain practical experience, in addition to the theoretical knowledge attained on different microelectronics courses. Cadence IC is a world standard tool in this area, applicable not only in industry, but also in academic institutions. The academic environment of Republic of Macedonia has the ability to use this package through cooperation with foreign partners. Assuming that the access to the provided design kits is limited, the freely available NCSU CDK library from the North Carolina State University is integrated within the Cadence IC environment, and later used for educational purposes. The basic contribution of this paper is the systematization of the methodology for NCSU CDK library application by the students at FEEIT - Skopje, at both third cycle, and other levels of studies. Our general opinion is that the Cadence IC tool suite provides novel opportunities to academia and students in many educational and research activities.

  7. Intellectual Capital (IC Determinants: Impact on Productivity of Islamic Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ridhwan Ab. Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the relationship between the Intellectual Capital (IC efficiency empirically. It consisted of human capital, structural capital, capital employed, and relational capital with the impact on the productivity of Islamic banks in Malaysia. The Pulic’s Value-Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC method with the extended and modified version introduced by former scholars was used to measure IC, whereas bank productivity was measured through Assets Turnover Ratio (ATO. Three internal factors that might have determinants effect on VAIC, namely bank size, bank risks, and leverage were further tested to find their relationship. Structural stability tests and dynamic regression models for panel data were also used for the data of 16 Islamic banks in Malaysia from 2009 to 2016. The panel-corrected standard errors estimation technique was used to estimate a panel regression model with bank productivity and VAIC as the dependent variables. The regression analysis suggests that Malaysian Islamic banks are depending heavily on the capital employed component of intellectual capital, followed by human capital, structural capital, and relational capital. The results also suggest that bank’s risks and leverage play a major role in determining intellectual capital. The findings may serve as a useful input for Islamic bankers to indicate whether the contribution of intellectual capital and its components needs further improvement which it has produced the best results, and internal factor might affect IC.

  8. Interleukin-4 ameliorates the functional recovery of intracerebral hemorrhage through the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjing eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-inflammation plays an important role in the recovery of brain injury after stroke. Microglia/macrophage is the major executor in the neuro-inflammation, which can be polarized into two distinct phenotypes: injurious/toxic classical activation (M1 phenotype and protective alternative activation (M2 phenotype. Here, we investigated whether intracerebral administration of interleukin-4 (IL-4 at an early stage could affect the activation of microglia/macrophage and the corresponding outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. The neuro-behavior was recorded between different groups in the rat ICH model. The M1 and M2 markers were then determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, ELISA and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed aberrant activation of microglia/macrophage after ICH. After intracerebral injection of IL-4, M1 activation was greatly inhibited while M2 activation was enhanced, along with improving neurobehavioral recovery from deficits after ICH. Our study showed that early intracerebral injection of IL-4 potentially promotes neuro-functional recovery, probably through enhancing the alternative activation of microglia/macrophage.

  9. Curative effect of minimally invasive puncture and drainage assisted with alteplase on treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Lin Hu

    2017-01-01

    >Conclusions: As for the effect on evacuation of hematoma and also the ameliorative effect on nerve injury, inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress response in treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage, minimally invasive puncture and drainage assisted with alteplase was superior to adjuvant therapy with urokinase.

  10. Identical event-related potentials to target and frequent stimuli of visual oddball task recorded by intracerebral electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukleta, M.; Brázdil, M.; Roman, R.; Jurák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 7 (2003), s. 1292 - 1297 ISSN 1388-2457 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : event-related potential * intra-cerebral EEG recording in humans * oddball task Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.485, year: 2003

  11. The Role of Anterior Nuclei of the Thalamus: A Subcortical Gate in Memory Processing: An Intracerebral Recording Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štillová, K.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Chrastina, J.; Halámek, Josef; Bočková, M.; Goldemundová, S.; Říha, I.; Rektor, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 11 (2015), e140778:1-13 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : anterior nuclei * thalamus * hippocampus * visual * verbal memory * DBS * P300 * ERP * intracerebral EEG Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  12. Intracerebral P3-like waveforms and the length of the stimulus-response interval in a visual oddball paradigm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roman, R.; Brázdil, M.; Jurák, Pavel; Rektor, I.; Kukleta, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 1 (2005), s. 160-171 ISSN 1388-2457 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Keywords : P3 waveform * ERP s * intracerebral Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2005

  13. Pheochromocytoma complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage - a case report; Feocromocitoma complicado com acidente vascular encefalico hemorragico - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Aline Silva; Marchiori, Edson; Almeida, Fabiola Assuncao de; Martins, Renata Romano; Sales, Anderson Ribeiro; Santos, Tereza Cristina C.R.S. dos; Reis, Simone Teixeira [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Silveira, Sonia Marcelino T. da

    1999-06-01

    The authors report a case of pheochromocytoma that was complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage in a 17-year-old female patient. Computed tomography showed a solid mass, heterogeneous, on the right adrenal. The patient underwent a right adrenalectomy. She is being observed by our out-patients clinic, presenting normal blood pressure levels and a left hemiparesis. (author)

  14. An analysis to compare the effects of stereotactic surgery and conservative medical treatment on hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-dong GUO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the therapeutic effects of stereotactic surgery and conservative medical treatment in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.Methods The clinical data of 100 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who underwent stereotactic surgery(stereotactic surgery group from June 2002 to October 2009 were retrospectively analyzed,and the result was compared with that of 80 contemporaneous patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage who received conservative medical treatment(medical treatment group.There was no significant difference of bleeding site,bleeding volume and state of consciousness on admission between two groups.Results The mortality rate of stereotactic surgery group was 21.0%,and of medical treatment group was 30.0%.The average hematoma absorption time in stereotactic surgery group was 4.8d,and that of medical treatment group was 15.1d.All of the surviving patients were followed-up for 6 months,the rate of cure and mild disability in stereotactic surgery group(37% was significantly higher than that of medical treatment group(26%,P 0.05.Conclusion Compared with conservative medical treatment,stereotactic surgery could decrease the mortality rate and improve the quality of life in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

  15. ASASSN-16fp (SN 2016coi): a transitional supernova between Type Ic and broad-lined Ic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Singh, A.; Srivastav, S.; Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.

    2018-01-01

    We present results based on a well-sampled optical (UBVRI) and ultraviolet (Swift/UVOT) imaging, and low-resolution optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of the nearby Type Ic supernova (SN) ASASSN-16fp (SN 2016coi). The SN was monitored during the photospheric phase (-10 to +33 d with respect to the B-band maximum light). The rise to maximum light and early post-maximum decline of the light curves are slow. The peak absolute magnitude (MV = -17.7 ± 0.2 mag) of ASASSN-16fp is comparable with broad-lined Ic SN 2002ap, SN 2012ap and transitional Ic SN 2004aw but considerably fainter than the gamma-ray burst/X-ray flash associated SNe (e.g. SN 1998bw, 2006aj). Similar to the light curve, the spectral evolution is also slow. ASASSN-16fp shows distinct photospheric phase spectral lines along with the C II features. The expansion velocity of the ejecta near maximum light reached ∼16 000 km s-1 and settled to ∼8000 km s-1, ∼1 month post-maximum. Analytical modelling of the quasi-bolometric light curve of ASASSN-16fp suggests that ∼0.1 M⊙ 56Ni mass was synthesized in the explosion, with a kinetic energy of 6.9^{+1.5}_{-1.3} × 1051 erg and total ejected mass of ∼4.5 ± 0.3 M⊙.

  16. Det særlige etniske perspektiv rundt om ICS-trekanten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koldsø, Birgit Raundahl

    Integrated Children´s System (ICS) er en generel socialfaglig systematik eller metode i sagsbehandlingsprocessen omkring udsatte børn, unge og deres familier. Forskningsprojektet ”ICS - i et minoritetsetnisk perspektiv” har undersøgt myndighedsrådgivernes arbejde med den børnefaglige ICS-undersøg......Integrated Children´s System (ICS) er en generel socialfaglig systematik eller metode i sagsbehandlingsprocessen omkring udsatte børn, unge og deres familier. Forskningsprojektet ”ICS - i et minoritetsetnisk perspektiv” har undersøgt myndighedsrådgivernes arbejde med den børnefaglige ICS...

  17. Broad-line Type Ic supernova SN 2014ad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Srivastav, S.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2018-04-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy of the broad-line Type Ic supernova SN 2014ad in the galaxy PGC 37625 (Mrk 1309), covering the evolution of the supernova during -5 to +87 d with respect to the date of maximum in the B band. A late-phase spectrum obtained at +340 d is also presented. With an absolute V-band magnitude at peak of MV = -18.86 ± 0.23 mag, SN 2014ad is fainter than supernovae associated with gamma ray bursts (GRBs), and brighter than most of the normal and broad-line Type Ic supernovae without an associated GRB. The spectral evolution indicates that the expansion velocity of the ejecta, as measured using the Si II line, is as high as ˜33 500 km s-1 around maximum, while during the post-maximum phase it settles at ˜15 000 km s-1. The expansion velocity of SN 2014ad is higher than that of all other well-observed broad-line Type Ic supernovae except for the GRB-associated SN 2010bh. The explosion parameters, determined by applying Arnett's analytical light-curve model to the observed bolometric light-curve, indicate that it was an energetic explosion with a kinetic energy of ˜(1 ± 0.3) × 1052 erg and a total ejected mass of ˜(3.3 ± 0.8) M⊙, and that ˜0.24 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion. The metallicity of the host galaxy near the supernova region is estimated to be ˜0.5 Z⊙.

  18. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Sanae [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ayata, Minoru, E-mail: maverick@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kaoru [Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Division of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Makoto [Department of Virology 3, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo (Japan); Shintaku, Haruo [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Ogura, Hisashi [Department of Virology and Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene.

  19. Biased hypermutation occurred frequently in a gene inserted into the IC323 recombinant measles virus during its persistence in the brains of nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Sanae; Ayata, Minoru; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Takeda, Makoto; Shintaku, Haruo; Ogura, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is the causative agent of measles and its neurological complications, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and measles inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE). Biased hypermutation in the M gene is a characteristic feature of SSPE and MIBE. To determine whether the M gene is the preferred target of hypermutation, an additional transcriptional unit containing a humanized Renilla reniformis green fluorescent protein (hrGFP) gene was introduced into the IC323 MV genome, and nude mice were inoculated intracerebrally with the virus. Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene and also in the hrGFP gene when it was inserted between the leader and the N gene, but not between the H and L gene. These results indicate that biased hypermutation is usually found in a gene whose function is not essential for viral proliferation in the brain and that the location of a gene in the MV genome can affect its mutational frequency. - Highlights: • Wild-type MV can cause persistent infections in nude mice. • Biased hypermutation occurred in the M gene. • Biased hypermutation occurred in an inessential gene inserted between the leader and the N gene

  20. 3D IC Pixel Electronics- the Next Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Yarema, R

    2008-01-01

    There is no question that 3D integrated circuit design will play an important role in the continuing development of high performance integrated circuits. This paper will provide a brief introduction to the markets for 3D integrated circuits and the technologies that are used, followed by a review of 3D activities in High Energy Physics (HEP). The paper will review the first 3D chip for HEP and conclude with discussion of a collaborative effort to use a commercial vendor to fabricate 3D ICs as a path forward to meet the next challenge for electronics designers in HEP .

  1. Feature extraction of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chia-Te; Kao, Chen-Ting; Wang, Chau-Shing

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an image processing approach to extract six features of the probe mark on semiconductor wafer pads. The electrical characteristics of the chip pad must be tested using a probing needle before wire-bonding to the wafer. However, this test leaves probe marks on the pad. A large probe mark area results in poor adhesion forces at the bond ball of the pad, thus leading to undesirable products. In this paper, we present a method to extract six features of the wafer probe marks in IC packaging for further digital image processing.

  2. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Gases. ... 216 Effects of Substrate Surface . . . . . . eco . yt . . . . . 216 Applicability of Results to Other CVD Reco ytms .. . 216 Post-Deposition...October 11, - eCo .,1,Nolp.4,ardNok, ZE6 1970). 193) 363. D. S. Zoroglu and L. E. Cak EE~rf5 358, Staff Article, "How Phosphorus Abets IC Destruc- Eeto...lmghthroghpt, b sipleIn these reactors, thke substrate wafers are placed and qafv to operate, and easy to maintainl. Tile captal cst o theo lkptlnt

  3. Construction Progress S-IC Test Stand Block House Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. This photograph, taken August 12, 1963, offers a view of the Block House interior.

  4. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast east was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph of the Pump House area was taken August 13, 1963. The massive round water storage tanks can be seen to the left of

  5. Depression following intracerebral hemorrhage and the evaluation of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masada, Tetsuya; Makabe, Tetsuo; Kunishio, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Akira

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied patients who presented depression and apathy following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Twelve patients who were admitted in our hospital were divided into two groups according to the presence of post-stroke depression (PSD). Five patients with PSD are in group A, and another seven patients without PSD are in group B. Zung-self depression scale (SDS) and apathy scale were used for screening of depression and apathy. PSD was recognized in 5 (42%) of patients following ICH. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT) suggested the reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the frontal lobe in all patients of the group A (100%), whereas only 29% of patients of the group B. The reduction of CBF in the frontal lobe might be involved in the mechanism of depression following ICH in subacute stage. (author)

  6. The Injury and Therapy of Reactive Oxygen Species in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Looking at Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage is an emerging major health problem often resulting in death or disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been identified as one of the major damaging factors in ischemic stroke. However, there is less discussion about ROS in hemorrhage stroke. Metabolic products of hemoglobin, excitatory amino acids, and inflammatory cells are all sources of ROS, and ROS harm the central nervous system through cell death and structural damage, especially disruption of the blood-brain barrier. We have considered the antioxidant system of the CNS itself and the drugs aiming to decrease ROS after ICH, and we find that mitochondria are key players in all of these aspects. Moreover, when the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opens, ROS-induced ROS release, which leads to extensive liberation of ROS and mitochondrial failure, occurs. Therefore, the mitochondrion may be a significant target for elucidating the problem of ROS in ICH; however, additional experimental support is required.

  7. Resveratrol Attenuates Neurodegeneration and Improves Neurological Outcomes after Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Bonsack

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is a devastating type of stroke with a substantial public health impact. Currently, there is no effective treatment for ICH. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the post-injury administration of Resveratrol confers neuroprotection in a pre-clinical model of ICH. To this end, ICH was induced in adult male CD1 mice by collagenase injection method. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg or vehicle was administered at 30 min post-induction of ICH and the neurobehavioral outcome, neurodegeneration, cerebral edema, hematoma resolution and neuroinflammation were assessed. The Resveratrol treatment significantly attenuated acute neurological deficits, neurodegeneration and cerebral edema after ICH in comparison to vehicle treated controls. Further, Resveratrol treated mice exhibited improved hematoma resolution with a concomitant reduction in the expression of proinflammatory cytokine, IL-1β after ICH. Altogether, the data suggest the efficacy of post-injury administration of Resveratrol in improving acute neurological function after ICH.

  8. Experience with contrast-enhanced CT in delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Shiro; Nakazawa, Shozo; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Isayama, Kazuo; Yajima, Kouzo; Otsuka, Toshibumi

    1984-01-01

    During the four-and-a-half-year period from April, 1976, to September, 1980, out of 257 patients with severe head injuries graded 8 or less by the Glasgow Coma Scale in the Department of Neurosurgery and Critical Care Medicine of the Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan, 33 cases showed the development of delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH) upon the serial computerized tomography (CT). Contrast-enhanced CT was performed in 20 cases of the 33 patients demonstrating DTICH. Among these, 8 cases (40%) indicated the development of DTICH in the lesions of cerebral contusion (a salt-and-pepper appearance in the initial plain CT) which showed a remarkable enhancement, sustaining the extravasation of the contrast medium into the contused brain tissue. The authors discuss the pathogenesis of DTICH and suggest that vasoparalysis in the cerebral contusion might be a factor in the development of DTICH in patients with servere head injuries. (author)

  9. Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Transcatheter Thrombolysis of Non-Occluding Superior Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumori, Tetsuya; Katoh, Kazuharu; Takase, Keisuke; Nishiue, Takashi; Tani, Naoki; Shirato, Mitsuru; Hino, Akihiko; Fujimoto, Masato; Maeda, Tomoho

    1998-01-01

    We performed transcatheter thrombolysis on a 64-year-old man with non-occluding superior mesenteric artery (SMA) thrombosis because his severe symptoms could not be controlled with medication. An enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan revealed intramural thrombosis in the SMA. We were concerned that the narrowing of the SMA lumen might progress to complete occlusion, resulting in a high likelihood of mortality. After dissolution of the SMA thrombosis, the original symptoms almost completely disappeared. However, intracranial hemorrhage occurred 8 hr after thrombolysis, requiring surgical intervention. Transcatheter thrombolysis is thought to be a useful treatment for SMA thrombosis, especially in elderly patients with a high operative risk; however, the possibility of intracerebral hemorrhage must be taken into consideration

  10. Childhood Stature and Growth in Relation to First Ischemic Stroke or Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral...... hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with CIs.......90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92]) and with ICH in men (HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.84-0.94]) but not in women (HR=0.97 [95% CI: 0.91-1.04]). Associations were similar at older childhood ages and were stable throughout the study period. No statistically significant associations for growth from 7 to 13 years were observed...

  11. Showing no spot sign is a strong predictor of independent living after intracerebral haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havsteen, Inger; Ovesen, Christian; Christensen, Anders F

    2014-01-01

    on the ability to identify patients with a spontaneous, acceptable outcome. METHODS: In a prospective, consecutive single-centre registry of acute stroke patients, we investigated patients with spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) admitted within 4.5 h after symptom onset from April 2009 to January 2013....... RESULTS: Of the 128 patients, 37 (28.9%) had a spot sign on admission CTA. The presence of a spot sign was associated with larger median admission haematoma volume [38.0 ml (IQR 18.0-78.0) vs. 12.0 ml (5.0-24.0); pStroke Scale score [19 (IQR 12......-23) vs. 12 (6-16); pstroke, the median functional outcome was considerably better in patients without spot sign [mRS score 3 (IQR 2-4) vs. 6 (4-6); p

  12. Stereotactic aspiration versus craniotomy for primary intracerebral hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A wealth of evidence based on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs has indicated that surgery may be a better choice in the management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH compared to conservative treatment. However, there is considerable controversy over selecting appropriate surgical procedures for ICH. Thus, this meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of stereotactic aspiration compared to craniotomy in patients with ICH. METHODS: According to the study strategy, we searched PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other sources such as the internet-based clinical trial registries, relevant journals and the lists of references were also searched. After literature searching, two investigators independently performed literature screening, assessment of quality of the included trials and data extraction. The outcome measures included death or dependence, total risk of complication, and the risk of rebleeding, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and systematic infection. RESULTS: Four RCTs with 2996 participants were included. The quality of the included trials was acceptable. Stereotactic aspiration significantly decreased the odds of death or dependence at the final follow-up (odds ratio (OR: 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69-0.93; P = 0.004 and the risk of intracerebral rebleeding (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.74; P = 0.002 compared to craniotomy with no significant heterogeneity among the study results. CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis provides evidence that the stereotactic aspiration may be associated with a reduction in the odds of being dead or dependent in primary ICH, which should be interpreted with caution. Further trials are needed to identify those patients most likely to benefit from the stereotactic aspiration.

  13. Community-based study on intracerebral hemorrhage in northern Hokkaido. Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study (NOHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, Kazuhiro; Shirai, Wakako; Tokumitu, Naoki; Aizawa, Shizuka

    2008-01-01

    A survey on stroke was conducted to evaluate the incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the prevalence of risk factors. The subjects, comprising those patients who suffesed a stroke, were registered on the Northern Hokkaido Stroke Study between July 2002 and June 2006. The severity of their illness was rated by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at hospital admission, while their outcome was determined by the mortality within 3 months and the mRS (modified Rankin Scale score). Of the 1,046 registered stroke patients, 271 (25.9%) were found to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage. Their mean age was 70.3±11.7 years; male-to-female ratio, 154/117; mean NIHSS at admission, 11.8±8.1; mortality within 3 months, 19.2%; and percentage who regained independence within 3 months (mRS: ≤2), 32.5%. A history of hypertension was found in 72.6%, and 13.7% had no treatment. MRI (T2*) revealed micro-hemorrhage outside the lesions in 67.5%. Forty-seven patients (17.3%) were taking anti-platelet agents at the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. There was no significant difference between the mortalities of the anti-platelet-agent-users and non-users but the percentage of those regaining independence within 3 months was 19.1% for the users against 37.3% for the non-users (p=0.0177), with a significantly poor outcome in the user group. In northern Hokkaido, the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage remains high, and the percentage of those with poorly controlled or uncontrolled hypertension was 30%. These findings suggest a need to educate not only the inhabitants themselves but also the physicians engaged in their care. (author)

  14. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haveman Jaap

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic brain tumors. Methods Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 105 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BEDtumor = 30.6 Gy. Results In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90% showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18% died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. Conclusion The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy.

  15. Experimental iodine-125 seed irradiation of intracerebral brain tumors in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, Joost JC; Stalpers, Lukas JA; Coumou, Annet W; Koedooder, Kees; Lavini, Cristina; Van Noorden, Cornelis JF; Haveman, Jaap; Vandertop, William P; Furth, Wouter R van

    2007-01-01

    High-dose radiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with brain cancer. However, in preclinical research external beam radiotherapy is limited to heterotopic murine models– high-dose radiotherapy to the murine head is fatal due to radiation toxicity. Therefore, we developed a stereotactic brachytherapy mouse model for high-dose focal irradiation of experimental intracerebral (orthotopic) brain tumors. Twenty-one nude mice received a hollow guide-screw implanted in the skull. After three weeks, 5 × 10 5 U251-NG2 human glioblastoma cells were injected. Five days later, a 2 mCi iodine-125 brachytherapy seed was inserted through the guide-screw in 11 randomly selected mice; 10 mice received a sham seed. Mice were euthanized when severe neurological or physical symptoms occurred. The cumulative irradiation dose 5 mm below the active iodine-125 seeds was 23.0 Gy after 13 weeks (BED tumor = 30.6 Gy). In the sham group, 9/10 animals (90%) showed signs of lethal tumor progression within 6 weeks. In the experimental group, 2/11 mice (18%) died of tumor progression within 13 weeks. Acute side effects in terms of weight loss or neurological symptoms were not observed in the irradiated animals. The intracerebral implantation of an iodine-125 brachytherapy seed through a stereotactic guide-screw in the skull of mice with implanted brain tumors resulted in a significantly prolonged survival, caused by high-dose irradiation of the brain tumor that is biologically comparable to high-dose fractionated radiotherapy– without fatal irradiation toxicity. This is an excellent mouse model for testing orthotopic brain tumor therapies in combination with radiation therapy

  16. Development of a multi-fraction radiation protocol for intracerebral human glioblastoma xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, T.; Santos, R.A.; Hu, L.H.; Faddegon, B.A.; Lamborn, K.R.; Deen, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    Patients with malignant gliomas are typically treated by surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Fractionated radiotherapy consists of 30 daily doses of 1.8 to 2 Gy given over a 6-week period. We have investigated a multi-fraction radiation protocol in which rats bearing intracerebral tumors are irradiated once daily for 10 days with a 2-day break in the middle. This scheme simulates the first third of a typical human radiation protocol, and it is a practical scheme to conduct in the laboratory. U-87 MG or U-251 MG human glioblastoma cells were implanted into the right caudate-putamens of male athymic rats. We irradiated rats using an irradiation jig that allowed us to deliver Cesium-137 photons at a dose rate of 280 cGy/minute selectively to the portion of the head containing the tumor. This device adequately shields all other parts of rat, including the critically sensitive oropharynx. Animals received the first radiation dose when intracerebral tumors were ∼20 mg in size. Untreated U-87 MG tumor-bearing rats died with a median survival of 23 days, while tumor bearing rats that were given ten 1-Gy doses died with a median survival of 28.5 days. Untreated U-251 MG tumor-bearing rats died with a median survival of 34.5 days, while tumor-bearing rats that were given ten 1-Gy doses died with a median survival of 58 days. However, 5 of 14 of these rats had a lifespan >68 days and were considered cured. A daily dose of 0.75 Gy produced a median survival of 43 days, but again 2 rats had a lifespan >70 days. Currently, we are seeking a dose that causes reproducible tumor growth delay of 1 to 2 weeks, without curing any animals, to use in future studies that combine radiation with other anti-tumor agents

  17. Stereotactic Aspiration versus Craniotomy for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Wei; Li, Jin-Ping; Song, Ying-Lun; Tan, Ke; Wang, Yu; Li, Tao; Guo, Peng; Li, Xiong; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Qi-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Background A wealth of evidence based on the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has indicated that surgery may be a better choice in the management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) compared to conservative treatment. However, there is considerable controversy over selecting appropriate surgical procedures for ICH. Thus, this meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of stereotactic aspiration compared to craniotomy in patients with ICH. Methods According to the study strategy, we searched PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other sources such as the internet-based clinical trial registries, relevant journals and the lists of references were also searched. After literature searching, two investigators independently performed literature screening, assessment of quality of the included trials and data extraction. The outcome measures included death or dependence, total risk of complication, and the risk of rebleeding, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and systematic infection. Results Four RCTs with 2996 participants were included. The quality of the included trials was acceptable. Stereotactic aspiration significantly decreased the odds of death or dependence at the final follow-up (odds ratio (OR): 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69–0.93; P = 0.004) and the risk of intracerebral rebleeding (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26–0.74; P = 0.002) compared to craniotomy with no significant heterogeneity among the study results. Conclusions The present meta-analysis provides evidence that the stereotactic aspiration may be associated with a reduction in the odds of being dead or dependent in primary ICH, which should be interpreted with caution. Further trials are needed to identify those patients most likely to benefit from the stereotactic aspiration. PMID:25237813

  18. Neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, vasculopathic changes, intracerebral granulomas and basal ganglia infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurek Seyfi C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Central nervous system involvement is a rare but serious manifestation of brucellosis. We present an unusual case of neurobrucellosis with transient ischemic attack, intracerebral vasculopathy granulomas, seizures, and paralysis of sixth and seventh cranial nerves. Case presentation A 17-year-old Caucasian man presented with nausea and vomiting, headache, double vision and he gave a history of weakness in the left arm, speech disturbance and imbalance. Physical examination revealed fever, doubtful neck stiffness and left abducens nerve paralysis. An analysis of his cerebrospinal fluid showed a pleocytosis (lymphocytes, 90%, high protein and low glucose levels. He developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, facial paralysis and left hemiparesis. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated intracerebral vasculitis, basal ganglia infarction and granulomas, mimicking the central nervous system involvement of tuberculosis. On the 31st day of his admission, neurobrucellosis was diagnosed with immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G positivity by standard tube agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples (the tests had been negative until that day. He was treated successfully with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, doxycyline and rifampicin for six months. Conclusions Our patient illustrates the importance of suspecting brucellosis as a cause of meningoencephalitis, even if cultures and serological tests are negative at the beginning of the disease. As a result, in patients who have a history of residence or travel to endemic areas, neurobrucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any neurologic symptoms. If initial tests fail, repetition of these tests at appropriate intervals along with complementary investigations are indicated.

  19. Hyperintense vessels on FLAIR: A useful non-invasive method for assessing intracerebral collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenhua; Xu Gelin; Yue Xuanye; Wang Xiaoliang; Ma Minmin; Zhang Renliang; Wang Handong; Zhou Changsheng; Liu Xinfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate relationship between hyperintense vessels (HV) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and artery steno-occlusion related intracerebral collaterals. Materials and methods: A total of 233 patients with 260 atherosclerotic lesions in the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were examined with FLAIR and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). HV were graded as 0, 1, 2 and 3 by its distributions in the MCA territory. Grade 0 indicated no HV; Grade 1 indicated the HV limited in Sylvian fissure; Grade 2 indicated the HV limited in Sylvian fissure and the temporal-occipital junction; Grade 3 indicated the HV extended to frontal-parietal lobes. Collateral blood flows were classified by DSA results. The relationship between HV grades and patterns of collateral flows was analyzed. Results: HV were observed in 76 out of 260 hemispheres. For patients with Grade 1 HV, most of their collateral flows (80.8%) were antegrade; for patients with Grade 2, the retrograde leptomeningeal flows were commonly manifested as anterior cerebral artery to MCA (75%); for patients with Grade 3 HV, most of the retrograde leptomeningeal flows were manifested as posterior cerebral artery to MCA (81.8%). As the grade HV increased, the frequency of retrograde leptomeningeal collateral from ACA to MCA decreased (100% to 75% and to 18.2%), and increased (0% to 25% and to 81.8%) for the retrograde leptomeningeal collateral via PCA to MCA (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The HV could assess non-invasively intracerebral collaterals in patients with steno-occlusive lesions of M1 segment of MCA.

  20. THE SPECTRAL SN-GRB CONNECTION: SYSTEMATIC SPECTRAL COMPARISONS BETWEEN TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE AND BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE WITH AND WITHOUT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modjaz, Maryam; Liu, Yuqian Q.; Bianco, Federica B.; Graur, Or, E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present the first systematic investigation of spectral properties of 17 Type Ic Supernovae (SNe Ic), 10 broad-lined SNe Ic (SNe Ic-bl) without observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and 11 SNe Ic-bl with GRBs (SN-GRBs) as a function of time in order to probe their explosion conditions and progenitors. Using a number of novel methods, we analyze a total of 407 spectra, which were drawn from published spectra of individual SNe as well as from the densely time-sampled spectra of Modjaz et al (2014). In order to quantify the diversity of the SN spectra as a function of SN subtype, we construct average spectra of SNe Ic, SNe Ic-bl without GRBs, and SNe Ic-bl with GRBs. We find that SN 1994I is not a typical SN Ic, contrasting the general view, while the spectra of SN 1998bw/GRB 980425 are representative of mean spectra of SNe Ic-bl. We measure the ejecta absorption and width velocities using a new method described here and find that SNe Ic-bl with GRBs, on average, have quantifiably higher absorption velocities, as well as broader line widths than SNe without observed GRBs. In addition, we search for correlations between SN-GRB spectral properties and the energies of their accompanying GRBs. Finally, we show that the absence of clear He lines in optical spectra of SNe Ic-bl, and in particular of SN-GRBs, is not due to them being too smeared-out due to the high velocities present in the ejecta. This implies that the progenitor stars of SN-GRBs are probably free of the He-layer, in addition to being H-free, which puts strong constraints on the stellar evolutionary paths needed to produce such SN-GRB progenitors at the observed low metallicities.

  1. Instantaneous flywheel torque of IC engine grey-box identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milašinović, A.; Knežević, D.; Milovanović, Z.; Škundrić, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a mathematical model developed for the identification of excitation torque acting on the IC engine flywheel is presented. The excitation torque gained through internal combustion of the fuel in the IC engine is transmitted from the flywheel to the transmission. The torque is not constant but variable and is a function of the crank angle. The verification of the mathematical model was done on a 4-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine for which the in-cylinder pressure was measured in one cylinder and the instantaneous angular speed of the crankshaft at its free end. The research was conducted on a hydraulic engine brake. Inertial forces of all rotational parts, from flywheel to the turbine wheel of the engine brake, are acting on the flywheel due to the nonuniform motion of the flywheel. It is known from the theory of turbomachinery that the torque on the hydraulic brake is a quadratic function of angular speed. Due to that and the variable angular speed of the turbine wheel of the engine brake, the torque during one engine cycle is also variable. The motivation for this research was the idea (intention) to determine the instantaneous torque acting on the flywheel as a function of the crank angle with a mathematical model without any measuring and based on this to determine the quality of work of specific cylinders of the multi-cylinder engine. The crankshaft was considered elastic and also its torsional vibrations were taken into account.

  2. Functional independence: A comparison of the changes during neurorehabilitation between patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage or acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stabel, Henriette Holm; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in functional independence measured by the FIM after specialized neurorehabilitation between patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Design Historical cohort study...

  3. Bipyridine, an iron chelator, does not lessen intracerebral iron-induced damage or improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliaperumal, Jayalakshmi; Wowk, Shannon; Jones, Sarah; Ma, Yonglie; Colbourne, Frederick

    2013-12-01

    Iron chelators, such as the intracellular ferrous chelator 2,2'-bipyridine, are a potential means of ameliorating iron-induced injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We evaluated bipyridine against the collagenase and whole-blood ICH models and a simplified model of iron-induced damage involving a striatal injection of FeCl2 in adult rats. First, we assessed whether bipyridine (25 mg/kg beginning 12 h post-ICH and every 12 h for 3 days) would attenuate non-heme iron levels in the brain and lessen behavioral impairments (neurological deficit scale, corner turn test, and horizontal ladder) 7 days after collagenase-induced ICH. Second, we evaluated bipyridine (20 mg/kg beginning 6 h post-ICH and then every 24 h) on edema 3 days after collagenase infusion. Body temperature was continually recorded in a subset of these rats beginning 24 h prior to ICH until euthanasia. Third, bipyridine was administered (as per experiment 2) after whole-blood infusion to examine tissue loss, neuronal degeneration, and behavioral impairments at 7 days post-stroke, as well as body temperature for 3 days post-stroke. Finally, we evaluated whether bipyridine (25 mg/kg given 2 h prior to surgery and then every 12 h for 3 days) lessens tissue loss, neuronal death, and behavioral deficits after striatal FeCl2 injection. Bipyridine caused a significant hypothermic effect (maximum drop to 34.6 °C for 2-5 h after each injection) in both ICH models; however, in all experiments bipyridine-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle controls on all other measures (e.g., tissue loss, behavioral impairments, etc.). These results do not support the use of bipyridine against ICH.

  4. Resenya del blog IC-Investigación Cualitativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Flores-Pons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available El blog IC-Investigación Cualitativa és una eina interessant per a les persones que realitzem recerca social, ja que ofereix un recull parcial dels recursos, sobre metodologia qualitativa, disponibles a la xarxa i els exposa organitzats temàticament. Així, hi podem trobar articles, capítols, llibres, pàgines d'autora, vincles a revistes, grups de recerca, congressos, programes informàtics o altres portals web. No es tracta d'una centralització de materials, sinó de l'enxarxament de diferents recursos ja existents, ja que es mantenen els links a les pàgines on es localitzen. Això permet una doble tasca, difondre els propis materials i visibilitzar les fonts i recursos que els han fet disponibles.

  5. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  6. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Mukherjee, K.; Twarog, B.A.; Caldwell, N.

    1988-05-01

    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987). 16 references.

  7. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.; Mukherjee, Krishna; Twarog, Bruce A.; Caldwell, Nelson

    1988-05-01

    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987).

  8. 60 V tolerance full symmetrical switch for battery monitor IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qidong; Yang, Yintang; Chai, Changchun

    2017-06-01

    For stacked battery monitoring IC high speed and high precision voltage acquisition requirements, this paper introduces a kind of symmetrical type high voltage switch circuit. This kind of switch circuit uses the voltage following structure, which eliminates the leakage path of input signals. At the same time, this circuit adopts a high speed charge pump structure, in any case the input signal voltage is higher than the supply voltage, it can fast and accurately turn on high voltage MOS devices, and convert the battery voltage to an analog to digital converter. The proposed high voltage full symmetry switch has been implemented in a 0.18 μm BCD process; simulated and measured results show that the proposed switch can always work properly regardless of the polarity of the voltage difference between the input signal ports and an input signal higher than the power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334003).

  9. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  10. The Implementation of a Vulnerability Topology Analysis Method for ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Industrial Control System (ICS is becoming more and more important in significant fields. However, the using of the general facilities in these systems makes lots of security issues exposed. Because there are a number of differences between the original IT systems and ICSs. At the same time, the traditional vulnerability scan technology lacks the ability to recognize the interactions between vulnerabilities in the network. ICSs are always in a high risk state. So, this paper focuses on the vertex polymerization of the topological vulnerability analysis. We realized a topological analysis method oriented ICSs on the basis of achievements at home and abroad. The result shows that this method can solve the problem of the complex fragility correlation among industrial control networks.

  11. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  12. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-09-30

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm². A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions.

  13. An Infrared Search for Young Stellar Objects in IC 1396

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Gibbs, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Archibald, Andrew R.; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hart, Erica A.; Hedlund, Audrey R.; Hilfer, Shannon L.; Lacher, Thomas; McKernan, John T.; Medeiros, Emma M.; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Leary, Harrison; Peña, Nicholas D.; Peterson, Alexis; Reader, Livia K.; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Sundeen, Kiera A.; Takara, Amber L.; Thiel, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    About 700 parsecs away from Earth, IC1396 lies along the galactic plane, in the direction of the constellation Cepheus, and includes many dark nebulae, including the Elephant’s Trunk Nebula. IC 1396A has been examined with a variety of telescopes, including Spitzer, 2MASS, IPHAS, Chandra, and WISE. The YSOVAR project (Rebull et al. 2014) also has Spitzer monitoring data in this region at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Our team has merged these catalogs and identified candidate YSOs using IR color selection, X-ray detection, and variability metrics. In order to interpret the YSOVAR light curves, it is critical to understand which of the 700+ YSO candidates in this region are likely YSOs, and which are foreground/background stars or are extragalactic objects. As a first attempt to confirm these candidate YSOs, we have created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for wavelengths from IPHAS r band to 24 microns, which we use, coupled with image inspection, to confirm (or refute) YSO candidates from this list of identified YSO candidates. We will then compare our vetted list of YSO candidates to the lists of YSO candidates already identified in the literature in this region. The goal of this study is to identify candidate YSO sources, as well as support the greater understanding of the variety, evolution and variability of young stars. This project is a collaborative effort of high school students from three states. They analyzed data individually and later collaborated online to compare results. This project is the result of many years of work with the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP).

  14. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE integrated circuit (IC is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA to achieve low input referred noise (IRN and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O pads is 10.5 mm2. A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions.

  15. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF A NEW ARSINE SULFIDE CONTAINING ARSENOSUGAR IN MOLLUSCS BY IC-ICP-MS AND IC-ESI-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using IC-ICP-MS and IC-ESI-MS/MS, an unknown arsenical compound in mollusks has been identified as a new arsine sulfide containing analog of a known arsenosugar and is referred to as As(498). This species has been observed in four separate shellfish species following a mild metha...

  16. Intracerebral hemorrhage associated with Sneddon's syndrome: is ischemia-related angiogenesis the cause? Case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino Gondim, F. de A.; Leacock, R.O.; Subrammanian, T.A.; Cruz-Flores, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sneddon's syndrome is characterized by livedo reticularis and multiple ischemic infarcts often associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unusual in Sneddon's syndrome and has not been reported as the presenting complaint. We report a 38-year-old woman with a history of two miscarriages, Raynaud's phenomenon and livedo reticularis who presented acutely with ICH. Angiography showed prominent leptomeningeal and transdural anastomoses (pseudoangiomatosis). Anticardiolipin antibodies were positive. A right frontal brain biopsy failed to reveal vasculitis and a skin biopsy was nonspecific. MRI showed residual intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), diffuse atrophy, multiple small white matter infarcts and leptomeningeal enhancement. This is the first report of Sneddon's syndrome presenting with an ICH. It shares features with the Divry-van Bogaert syndrome. We discuss the cause of the pseudoangiomatosis pattern and its role in the genesis of the hemorrhage and suggest that cerebral angiography should be done in every patient with Sneddon's syndrome, as it could impact therapy. (orig.)

  17. Changes of TXA2 and PGI2 during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Weiguang; Wang, Laizang; Lei, Ting

    2008-02-01

    In order to explore the changes and the roles of TXA2 and PGI2 during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage, 31 cases subject to craniotomy were divided into three groups: group A, 9 patients with postoperative hypertensive crisis; group B, 13 patients without postoperative hypertensive crisis; and group C, 9 patients without history of hypertension and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. TXA2, TXB2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and PGI2 were measured after operation in the three groups respectively. The postoperative blood pressure in group A, including SBP and DBP, was elevated more obviously than that in the other two groups. TXA2 and PGI2 in group A were significantly higher than those in other two groups (Phypertensive crisis. And the increased value of TXB2 to 6-keto-PGF1 alpha could provide the basis for diagnosis of postoperative hypertensive crisis.

  18. MRI of intracerebral haematoma at low field (0.15T) using T2 dependent partial saturation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bydder, G.M.; Pennock, J.M.; Porteous, R.; Dubowitz, L.M.S.; Gadian, D.G.; Young, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    Results of MRI at 0.15T in twelve successive patients with intracerebral haematoma are reviewed. Using T 2 weighted spin echo (SE) and partial saturation (PS without a refocussing 180 0 pulse) sequences, low intensity areas were seen in eleven of the twelve cases. These included central regions (three cases), a peripheral rim (seven cases) and more diffuse patterns involving the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres (two cases). One case initially displayed a peripheral rim and later a central low intensity region. Central low intensity regions were seen in acute, subacute, and chronic cases. Follow up in five cases displayed an increase in signal within the haematoma in three cases and a decrease in signal intensity in two cases. Low signal intensity areas can be seen within and around intracerebral haematomas imaged with T 2 weighted sequences at low field strength. (orig.)

  19. Early alterations in cerebral hemodynamics, brain metabolism, and blood-brain barrier permeability in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E J; Hung, Y C; Lee, M Y

    1999-12-01

    The authors sought to ascertain the nature of the hemodynamic and metabolic derangement underlying acute pathophysiological events that occur after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), flow velocity (FV) of the middle cerebral artery, and the arteriovenous contents of oxygen and lactate were investigated in 24 dogs subjected to sham operations (Group A, four animals) or intracerebral injections of 3 ml (Group B, 11 animals) or 5 ml (Group C, nine animals) autologous arterial blood. Twelve additional dogs received intravenous injections of 2% Evans blue or trypan blue dye to evaluate blood-brain barrier (BBB) changes. Within 1 hour, animals with ICH exhibited a rise in FV associated with significant reductions (pglycolysis. Furthermore, the data suggest that a selective increase in permeability, rather than anatomical disruption, of the BBB is involved in the acute pathophysiological events that occur after ICH, which may provide a possible gateway for systemic arterial lactate entering the SSS.

  20. Association between cerebral microbleeds and the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhage - a 3.0 T MR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shengjun; Gao, Peiyi; Sui, Binbin; Xue, Jing; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qiong; Jing, Lina (Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)); Zhai, Renyou (Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)), Email: ryzhai219@hotmail.com

    2012-03-15

    Background. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) detected by gradient-echo MRI have been proven to be a potential risk factor for further bleeding, while the association between CMBs and the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhage has not been well investigated. Purpose. To analyze the association between CMBs and the first onset of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH). Material and Methods. Two hundred and two consecutive inpatients with ICH and 234 consecutive outpatients without ICH as control group were enrolled in this study. MR imaging including T2-GRE, T{sub 1}W, T{sub 2}W and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were performed to detect CMBs and other abnormalities. Prevalence, distribution, and grades of CMBs, as well as the location and size of the intracerebral hematoma were analyzed, respectively. Comparison was made between pICH and control group. Logistic analysis was performed to evaluate the association between CMBs and ICH. The correlation between hematoma size and CMBs grade/numbers was analyzed. Results. CMBs were detected in 140 patients in pICH (69.3%) group and 62 patients in control group (26.5%). The incidence of CMBs in pICH group was significantly higher than that in control group (P < 0.0001). As the logistic regression analysis results, CMBs was the risk factor associated with ICH, with modulation OR value of 8.363 (95% CI 5.210-13.421). The volume of ICH with CMBs was 12.57 +- 17.23 mL, and the volume of ICH without CMBs was 17.77 +- 26.97 mL. Negative correlation was demonstrated between CMBs number and ICH volume (rs = -0.1769, P = 0.0118), as well as between CMBs grade and hematoma volume (rs = -0.1185, P = 0.1557). Conclusion CMBs may be an independent risk factor for the first onset of intracerebral hemorrhage

  1. Randomized controlled trial of early rehabilitation after intracerebral hemorrhage stroke: difference in outcomes within 6 months of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Zeng, Lingxia; Li, Zongfang; Li, Jin; Li, Yan; Yu, Xuewen; Mi, Baibing; Li, Zhe; Xu, Honghai; Chen, Yangjing; Wang, Juan; Yao, Wanxia; Li, Kuo; Yan, Feng; Wang, Jue

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms, acute management, and outcomes for patients who experience intracerebral hemorrhage may differ from patients with ischemic stroke. Studies of very early rehabilitation have been mainly undertaken in patients with ischemic stroke, and it is unknown if benefits apply to those with intracerebral hemorrhage. We hypothesized that early rehabilitation, within 48 hours of stroke, would improve survival and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. This was a multicenter, randomized controlled study, with blinded assessment of outcome at 3 and 6 months. Eligible patients were randomized to receive standard care or standard care plus early rehabilitation. Primary outcome includes survival. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life using the 36-item Short Form Questionnaire, function measured with the modified Barthel Index, and anxiety measured with the Zung Self-Rated Anxiety Scale. Two hundred forty-three of 326 patients were randomized (mean age, 59 years; 56% men). At 6 months, patients receiving standard care were more likely to have died (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-15.87); for morbidity outcomes, a 6-point difference in the Physical Component Summary score of the 36-item Short Form Questionnaire (95% CI, 4.2-8.7), a 7-point difference for the Mental Component Summary score (95% CI, 4.5-9.5), a 13-point difference in Modified Barthel Index scores (95% CI, 6.8-18.3), and a 6-point difference in Self-Rating Anxiety Scale scores (95% CI, 4.4-8.3) was reported in favor of the intervention groups. For the first time, we have shown that commencing rehabilitation within 48 hours of intracerebral hemorrhage improves survival and functional outcomes at 6 months after stroke in hospitalized patients in China. http://www.chictr.org/en. Unique identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-13004039. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. MR imaging of intracerebral hemorrhage lesions: Comparison of 2.0 T and 0.5 T images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1990-01-01

    Seventeen patients with intracerebral hemorrhage lesions were examined with magnetic resonance imaging at both 2.0 T and 0.5 T, in order to evaluate the capability of detecting and characterizing the hemorrhagic lesions at each field strength and to compare the signal intensities of the hemorrhages between both field strengths. The intervals between two imagings were within 2 hours in all patients except for 4 patients with subacute hematoma and occult cerebrovascular malformations in whom the intervals were 1 to 4 days. At each field strength, both T1 and T2-weighted spin echo(SE) images were obtained in all patients. All the hemorrhagic lesions were readily detected and characterized as hemorrhagic lesions at 2.0 T, whereas one lesion of chronic hemorrhage was not detected, and three lesions(one acute hemorrhage, one chronic hemorrhage and one occult cerebrovascular malformation) could not be characterized as hemorrhagic lesions at 0.5 T. There were statistically significant differences in signal intensity of the hematomas between 2.0 T and 0.5 T on proton density-weighted and T2-weighted images in cases of acute intracerebral hematomas: the hematomas seen as low intensity at 2.0 T appeared iso-or slightly high at 0.5 T. In conclusion, the intracerebral hematomas may be difficult to detect and to characterize with SE technique at 0.5 T, and then the gradient echo technique may be useful at 0.5 T

  3. Establishment of 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-yu XIAO

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells.  Methods Rat 9L gliosarcoma stem-like cells were cultured in serum-free suspension. The expression of CD133 and nestin were tested by immunohistochemistry. A total of 48 inbredline male F344 rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, and 9L tumor sphere cells and 9L monolayer cells were respectively implanted into the right caudate nucleus of F344 rats in 2 groups. Survival time was observed and determined using the method of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Fourteen days after implantation or when the rats were dying, their brains were perfused and sectioned for HE staining, and CD133 and nestin were detected by immunohistochemistry.  Results Rat 9L tumor spheres were formed with suspension culture in serum-free medium. The gliomas formed in both groups were invasive without obvious capsule. More new vessels, bleeding and necrosis could be detected in 9L tumor spheres group. The tumor cells in both groups were positive for CD133 and nestin. There was no significant difference in the expression of CD133 and nestin between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. According to the expression of nestin, the tumors formed by 9L tumor sphere cells were more invasive. The median survival time of the rats bearing 9L tumor sphere cells was 15 d (95%CI: 15.219-15.781, and the median survival time of the rats bearing 9L monolayer cells was 21 d (95%CI: 20.395-21.605. There was significant difference between 2 groups (χ2 = 12.800, P = 0.000.  Conclusions 9L/F344 rat intracerebral glioma model of brain tumor stem cells is successfully established, which provides a glioma model for the future research. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.012

  4. Minimal invasive puncture and drainage versus endoscopic surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhihong Li,1,* Yuqian Li,1,* Feifei Xu,2,* Xi Zhang,3 Qiang Tian,4 Lihong Li1 1Department of Neurosurgery, Tangdu Hospital, 2Department of Foreign Languages, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, 4Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Two prevalent therapies for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH in basal ganglia are, minimally invasive puncture and drainage (MIPD, and endoscopic surgery (ES. Because both surgical techniques are of a minimally invasive nature, they have attracted greater attention in recent years. However, evidence comparing the curative effect of MIPD and ES has been uncertain. The indication for MIPD or ES has been uncertain till now. In the present study, 112 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia who received MIPD or ES were reviewed retrospectively. Baseline parameters prior to the operation, evacuation rate (ER, perihematoma edema, postoperative complications, and rebleeding incidences were collected. Moreover, 1-year postictus, the long-term functional outcomes of patients with regard to hematoma volume (HV or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score were judged, respectively, by the case fatality, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS, Barthel Index (BI, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS. The ES group had a higher ER than the MIPD group on postoperative day 1. The MIPD group had fewer adverse outcomes, which included less perihematoma edema, anesthetic time, and blood loss, than the ES group. The functional outcomes represented by GOS, BI, and mRS were better in the MIPD group than in the ES group for patients with HV 30–60 mL or GCS score 9–14. These results indicate that ES is more effective in evacuating hematoma in basal ganglia, while MIPD is less invasive than ES. Patients with HV 30–60 mL or GCS score 9–14 may benefit more from the MIPD

  5. Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Outcome After Thrombolysis in Stroke Patients Using Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitz, Jan F; Turc, Guillaume; Kujala, Linda; Polymeris, Alexandros A; Heldner, Mirjam R; Zonneveld, Thomas P; Erdur, Hebun; Curtze, Sami; Traenka, Christopher; Brenière, Céline; Wiest, Roland; Rocco, Andrea; Sibolt, Gerli; Gensicke, Henrik; Endres, Matthias; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Béjot, Yannick; Nederkoorn, Paul J; Oppenheim, Catherine; Arnold, Marcel; Engelter, Stefan T; Strbian, Daniel; Nolte, Christian H

    2017-12-01

    Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) impair platelet function and have been linked to a higher risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage-an association that may be augmented by oral anticoagulants (OAC). We aimed to assess whether preadmission treatment with SSRIs in patients with acute ischemic stroke is associated with post-thrombolysis symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and functional outcome. A multicenter retrospective analysis was conducted in prospective registries of patients treated by thrombolysis within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. The association between preadmission treatment with SSRIs and sICH (ECASS II definition [European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study]) or unfavorable 3-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale >2) was assessed by logistic regression, taking into account potential interaction with concomitant use of antithrombotics. Six thousand two hundred forty-two patients were included (mean age, 70.1±14.0 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, 9 [5-16]). Preadmission treatment with SSRIs was present in 4.3% (n=266) of patients. Overall, SICH rate was 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5%-4.4%; n=244), and SSRI use was not significantly associated with sICH in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; 95% CI, 0.72-2.27) or adjusted (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.71-2.40) analysis. However, there was a significant interaction of concomitant use of OACs (international normalized ratio <1.7) and SSRI for occurrence of sICH ( P =0.01). SICH was significantly more frequent in patients taking both OAC and SSRI (23.1%; 95% CI, 8.2%-50.3%) than in patients taking OAC but not SSRI (adjusted OR, 9.04; 95% CI, 1.95-41.89). Preadmission use of SSRI was associated with unfavorable 3-month outcome (unadjusted OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.48-2.46; adjusted OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.15-2.19). Preadmission treatment with SSRIs was not significantly associated with an increased risk of post-thrombolysis sICH in this cohort study. However, subgroup

  6. The OptIC Data Assimilation Intercomparison: A Statistical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Clisby, N.

    2008-12-01

    The development of improved terrestrial carbon models has assumed great importance because of concerns about significant climate-to-carbon feedback processes. The complexity of the interactions leads to considerable difficulties in the process of model calibration. The OptIC intercomparison explored some aspects of model calibration, using an idealised terrestrial carbon model. Participants were invited to estimate model parameters in various cases defined by specified time series of the model state, with various forms of added noise. The study identified the crucial importance of the choice of cost function. The present analysis revisits the OptIC study, by considering it as an exercise in statistical estimation. This treats the observations as random variables. Consequently parameter estimates, â, based on observations will also be random variables whose distribution is known as the 'sampling distribution'. Key questions for any specific case are: Are departures from â/a_true =1 indication of bias or sampling error? Under what circumstance are uncertainty estimates (of Var[â]) reliable? We consider cases where the estimate is obtained by minimising a cost function, ΘX. Assuming that we know the true form of ℓ, the log likelihood, there are three different characterisations of uncertainty that should be distinguished: (i) The uncertainty from maximum-likelihood estimates, corresponding (either exactly or asymptotically) to the Cramer-Rao bound. In a realistic calibration situation, we won't be able to determine this because the 'true' form of the likelihood is unknown. (ii) The actual uncertainty associated with using a particular cost function. If the true noise distribution is known, this can be calculated in simple cases and determined from simulations in more complicated cases. (iii) The 'formal uncertainty' based on assuming (usually incorrectly) that ΘX is the true likelihood. In the first stage of the analysis, the distinctions are illustrated by

  7. Retrospective Validation of a Computer-Assisted Quantification Model of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Volume on Accuracy, Precision, and Acquisition Time, Compared with Standard ABC/2 Manual Volume Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, W; Vegunta, S; Zwart, C M; Aguilar, M I; Patel, A C; Hoxworth, J M; Demaerschalk, B M; Mitchell, J R

    2017-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for 6.5%-19.6% of all acute strokes. Initial intracerebral hemorrhage volume and expansion are both independent predictors of clinical outcomes and mortality. Therefore, a rapid, unbiased, and precise measurement of intracerebral hemorrhage volume is a key component of clinical management. The most commonly used method, ABC/2, results in overestimation. We developed an interactive segmentation program, SegTool, using a novel graphic processing unit, level set algorithm. Until now, the speed, bias, and precision of SegTool had not been validated. In a single stroke academic center, 2 vascular neurologists and 2 neuroradiologists independently performed a test-retest experiment that involved repeat measurements of static, unchanging intracerebral hemorrhage volumes on CT from 76 intracerebral hemorrhage cases. Measurements were made with SegTool and ABC/2. True intracerebral hemorrhage volumes were estimated from a consensus of repeat manual tracings by 2 operators. These data allowed us to estimate measurement bias, precision, and speed. The measurements with SegTool were not significantly different from the true intracerebral hemorrhage volumes, while ABC/2 overestimated volume by 45%. The interrater measurement variability with SegTool was 50% less than that with ABC/2. The average measurement times for ABC/2 and SegTool were 35.7 and 44.6 seconds, respectively. SegTool appears to have attributes superior to ABC/2 in terms of accuracy and interrater reliability with a 9-second delay in measurement time (on average); hence, it could be useful in clinical trials and practice. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Prognostic Significance of Hyponatremia in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Cheryl; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Heeley, Emma; Arima, Hisatomi; Yang, Jie; Wu, Guojun; Chen, Guofang; Zhang, Shihong; Delcourt, Candice; Lavados, Pablo; Robinson, Thompson; Lindley, Richard I; Wang, Xia; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association of hyponatremia at presentation with clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Retrospective pooled analysis of prospectively collected data from 3,243 participants of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trials 1 and 2 (international, multicenter, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trials designed to assess the effects of early intensive blood pressure lowering in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage). Clinical hospital sites in 21 countries. Patients with predominantly mild-moderate severity of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours of onset and elevated systolic blood pressure (150-220 mm Hg) were included in the study. Patients were assigned to receive intensive (target systolic blood pressure, < 140 mm Hg within 1 hr) or guideline-recommended (target systolic blood pressure, < 180 mm Hg) blood pressure-lowering therapy. Presentation hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium less than 135 mEq/L. The primary outcome was death at 90 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of hyponatremia with important clinical events. Of 3,002 patients with available data, 349 (12%) had hyponatremia. Hyponatremia was associated with death (18% vs 11%; multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.28-2.57; p < 0.001) and larger baseline intracerebral hemorrhage volume (multivariable adjusted, p = 0.046) but not with baseline perihematomal edema volume nor with growth of intracerebral hemorrhage or perihematomal edema during the initial 24 hours. Hyponatremia at presentation is associated with increased mortality in patients with predominantly deep and modest volume intracerebral hemorrhage through mechanisms that seem independent of growth in intracerebral hemorrhage or perihematomal edema.

  9. Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Intraventricular Extension—Getting the Prognosis Right Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Stretz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEarly accurate outcome prognostication for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH and accompanying intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is often challenging (1. Acute hydrocephalus often contributes to a poor clinical exam (2 and can portend significant morbidity and mortality (3. Accordingly, the inpatient neurologist may feel inclined to recommend limitations of care for an ICH patient admitted with a large IVH burden and poor exam.Case presentationWe present a patient with significant IVH and minimal ICH who deteriorated rapidly to coma after presentation. Despite this exam, an initially non-functioning diversion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and temporary halt of further attempts of CSF diversion in the setting of an early “do not resuscitate order,” our patient gradually improved and, with supportive ICU care and rehabilitation, was able to communicate and ambulate with assistance at 12 weeks.ConclusionPatients with ICH with IVH do have the capacity to improve dramatically even with relatively conservative management. Unless previous limitations of care exist, we recommend that early judgments of prognosis for patients with ICH and/or IVH should be delayed for at least 72 h until the patient’s clinical trajectory over time is better understood.

  10. Correlative study between a serial changes of rCBF and aphasia in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yizhen; He Guangren

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the dynamic changes of rCBF of aphasic patients and its correlation with clinical findings. Methods: 32 dominant lateral hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhagic patients underwent the language function evaluation, rCBF tomographic imaging and CT scans. Semiquantitative analysis was used. Results: 1) 19 of 32 cases were aphasia while 13 were not. 2) There was a close correlation between aphasia and the size and location of hematoma. 3) There was only hemonrrhagic foci demonstrated with CT while multiple and extensive cortical hypo-perfused area were found in SPECT, especially in aphasic cases. Frontal and temporal lobes of each aphasia were involved 100%. 4) The rCBF ratio in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas of aphasias were lower than those of non-aphasias (t = 4.31, 5.52, P < 0.001). The degree of rCBF decrement in Wernicke's area varied with different aphasic types, among which the rCBF of sensory aphasia was the lowest (t 2.53, P<0.05). 5) 10 aphasias were followed with SPECT, CT and clinic evaluation 1 week, 1 month and 3 months after hemorrhage respectively. The rCBF ratios in cerebral cortex of 5 recovery cases increased gradually, but not in 5 not recovered cases. Conclusions: SPECT was superior to CT, it can provide useful information for diagnosing and staging aphasias, especially in early stage, and can also assess the prognosis of the disease

  11. Intracerebral hemorrhage and deep microbleeds associated with cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans; a hospital cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Ihara, Masafumi; Kawano, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Okuno, Yoshinori; Saito, Satoshi; Friedland, Robert P; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nomura, Ryota; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-05

    Oral infectious diseases are epidemiologically associated with stroke. We previously showed that oral Streptococcus mutans with the cnm gene encoding a collagen-binding Cnm protein induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) experimentally and was also associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in our population-based cohort study. We therefore investigated the roles of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans in this single hospital-based, observational study that enrolled 100 acute stroke subjects. The cnm gene in Streptococcus mutans isolated from saliva was screened using PCR techniques and its collagen-binding activities examined. CMBs were evaluated on T2* gradient-recalled echo MRI. One subject withdrew informed consent and 99 subjects (63 males) were analyzed, consisting of 67 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5 with transient ischemic attack, and 27 with ICH. Eleven cases showed Streptococcus mutans strains positive for cnm. The presence of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans was significantly associated with ICH [OR vs. ischemic stroke, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.17-19.1] and increased number of deep CMBs [median (IQR), 3 (2-9) vs. 0 (0-1), p = 0.0002]. In subjects positive for Streptococcus mutans, collagen binding activity was positively correlated with the number of deep CMBs (R(2) = 0.405; p < 0.0001). These results provide further evidence for the key role of oral health in stroke.

  12. Female Gender Remains an Independent Risk Factor for Poor Outcome after Acute Nontraumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha Ganti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study whether gender influences outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods. Cohort study of 245 consecutive adults presenting to the emergency department with spontaneous ICH from January 2006 to December 2008. Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, extradural hemorrhage, and recurrence of hemorrhage were excluded. Results. There were no differences noted between genders in stroke severity (NIHSS at presentation, ICH volume, or intraventricular extension (IVE of hemorrhage. Despite this, females had 1.94 times higher odds of having a bad outcome (modified Rankin score (mRs as compared to males (95% CI 1.12 to 3.3 and 1.84 times higher odds of early mortality (95% CI 1.02–3.33. analyzing known variables influencing mortality in ICH, the authors found that females did have higher serum glucose levels on arrival ( and 4.2 times higher odds for a cerebellar involvement than males (95% CI 1.63–10.75. After adjusting for age, NIHSS, glucose levels, hemorrhage volume, and IVE, female gender remained an independent predictor of early mortality (. Conclusions. Female gender may be an independent predictor of early mortality in ICH patients, even after adjustment for stroke severity, hemorrhage volume, IVE, serum glucose levels, and age.

  13. Comparison of TMS and DTT for predicting motor outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Ahn, Sang Ho; Sakong, Joon; Byun, Woo Mok; Choi, Byung Yun; Chang, Chul Hoon; Bai, Daiseg; Son, Su Min

    2010-03-15

    TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation) and DTT (diffusion tensor tractography) have different advantages in evaluating stroke patients. TMS has good clinical accessibility and economical benefit. On the contrary, DTT has a unique advantage to visualize neural tracts three-dimensionally although it requires an expensive and large MRI machine. Many studies have demonstrated that TMS and DTT have predictive values for motor outcome in stroke patients. However, there has been no study on the comparison of these two evaluation tools. In the current study, we compared the abilities of TMS and DTT to predict upper motor outcome in patients with ICH (intracerebral hemorrhage). Fifty-three consecutive patients with severe motor weakness were evaluated by TMS and DTT at the early stage (7-28 days) of ICH. Modified Brunnstrom classification (MBC) and the motricity index of upper extremity (UMI) were evaluated at onset and 6 months after onset. Patients with the presence of a motor evoked potential (MEP) in TMS or a preserved corticospinal tract (CST) in DTT showed better motor outcomes than those without (p=0.000). TMS showed higher positive predictive value than DTT. In contrast, DTT showed higher negative predictive value than TMS. TMS and DTT had different advantages in predicting motor outcome, and this result could be a reference to predict final neurological deficit at the early stage of ICH.

  14. α4 integrin is a regulator of leukocyte recruitment after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Ambler, William G; Ai, Youxi; Sansing, Lauren H

    2014-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is swiftly followed by an inflammatory response. A key component of this response is the recruitment of leukocytes into the brain, which promotes neurological injury in rodent models. However, the mechanisms by which leukocytes transmigrate across the endothelium into the injured brain are unclear. The present study examines leukocyte adhesion molecules (α4 integrin, L-selectin, and αLβ2 integrin) on 4 leukocyte subtypes to determine which are important for leukocyte recruitment after ICH. We used the blood injection mouse model of ICH, whereby 25 μL of blood was injected into the striatum. Flow cytometry was used to quantify leukocyte populations and adhesion molecule expression in brain and blood. An α4 integrin-blocking antibody was administered to evaluate the contribution of α4 integrin in leukocyte migration and neurological injury. α4 integrin was elevated on all leukocyte populations in brain after ICH, whereas L-selectin was unchanged and αLβ2 was increased only on T cells. Antagonism of α4 resulted in decreased leukocyte transmigration and lessened neurobehavioral disability. α4 integrin is an important cell adhesion molecule involved in neuroinflammation after ICH. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Neuroprotection of brain-permeable iron chelator VK-28 against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wan, Jieru; Lan, Xi; Han, Xiaoning; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Iron overload plays a key role in the secondary brain damage that develops after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The significant increase in iron deposition is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which leads to oxidative brain damage. In this study, we examined the protective effects of VK-28, a brain-permeable iron chelator, against hemoglobin toxicity in an ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) model and in middle-aged mice subjected to an in vivo, collagenase-induced ICH model. We found that the effects of VK-28 were similar to those of deferoxamine (DFX), a well-studied iron chelator. Both decreased cell death and ROS production in OHSCs and in vivo, decreased iron-deposition and microglial activation around hematoma in vivo, and improved neurologic function. Moreover, compared with DFX, VK-28 polarized microglia to an M2-like phenotype, reduced brain water content, deceased white matter injury, improved neurobehavioral performance, and reduced overall death rate after ICH. The protection of VK-28 was confirmed in a blood-injection ICH model and in aged-male and young female mice. Our findings indicate that VK-28 is protective against iron toxicity after ICH and that, at the dosage tested, it has better efficacy and less toxicity than DFX does.

  16. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Management of Patients With Nonlobar Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Despite the increased use and availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its role in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains uncertain. In this retrospective study, we assessed the utility of MRI in diagnosis and management of patients with hypertensive ICH. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with ICH presenting to our hospital over an 18-month period. We included patients who presented with hypertensive ICH in typical locations and excluded lobar hemorrhages. We further isolated cases that had undergone MRI. Collected data included mean age, gender, location of hematoma, neuroradiologist’s interpretative report of the MRI, and management steps taken in response to the results of the MRI. Logistic regression was used to determine whether the overall yield of MRI in these patients was significant. Results: We found 222 patients with ICH in our database. Forty-eight patients met our inclusion criteria, of which 24 had brain MRI done as a part of their hospital workup. Brain MRI obtained in 2 (8%) of the 24 patients revealed abnormalities that led to a change in management. The diagnostic yield of MRI and the management decisions that followed were both insignificant. Conclusions: The diagnostic yield of brain MRI in patients with nonlobar hypertensive ICH is low and does not result in significant changes in management. PMID:25829985

  17. Cerebral microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and anticoagulant-associated intracerebral haemorrhage risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eCharidimou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of antithrombotic drugs in an ageing population (including anticoagulants to prevent future ischaemic stroke in individuals with atrial fibrillation has been associated with a dramatic increase in the incidence of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in users of antithrombotic drugs. Several lines of evidence suggest that cerebral small vessel disease (particularly sporadic cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a risk factor for this rare but devastating complication of these commonly used treatments. Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs have emerged as a key MRI marker of small vessel disease and a potentially powerful marker of future ICH risk, but adequately powered, high quality prospective studies of CMBs and ICH risk on anticoagulation are not available. Further data are urgently needed to determine how neuroimaging and other biomarkers may contribute to individualised risk prediction to make anticoagulation as safe and effective as possible. In this review we discuss the available evidence on cerebral small vessel disease and CMBs in the context of antithrombotic treatments, especially regarding their role as a predictor of future ICH risk after ischaemic stroke, where risk-benefit judgements can be a major challenge for physicians. We will focus on patients with atrial fibrillation because these are frequently treated with anticoagulation. We briefly describe the rationale and design of a new prospective observational inception cohort study (Clinical Relevance of Microbleeds in Stroke; CROMIS-2 which investigates the value of MRI markers of small vessel disease (including CMBs and genetic factors in assessing the risk of oral anticoagulation-associated ICH.

  18. Intracerebral haemorrhage in Down syndrome: protected or predisposed? [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Buss

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, which arises from trisomy of chromosome 21, is associated with deposition of large amounts of amyloid within the central nervous system. Amyloid accumulates in two compartments: as plaques within the brain parenchyma and in vessel walls of the cerebral microvasculature. The parenchymal plaque amyloid is thought to result in an early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD dementia, a phenomenon so common amongst people with DS that it could be considered a defining feature of the condition. The amyloid precursor protein (APP gene lies on chromosome 21 and its presence in three copies in DS is thought to largely drive the early onset AD. In contrast, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH, the main clinical consequence of vascular amyloidosis, is a more poorly defined feature of DS. We review recent epidemiological data on stroke (including haemorrhagic stroke in order to make comparisons with a rare form of familial AD due to duplication (i.e. having three copies of the APP region on chromosome 21, here called ‘dup-APP’, which is associated with more frequent and severe ICH. We conclude that although people with DS are at increased risk of ICH, this is less common than in dup-APP, suggesting the presence of mechanisms that act protectively. We review these mechanisms and consider comparative research into DS and dup-APP that may yield further pathophysiological insight.

  19. History and Mechanism for Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage with Scalp Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is an important public health problem with high rates of mortality, morbidity, and disability, but no clinically proven treatment strategy is available to date. Scalp acupuncture (SA refers to a therapy for treating diseases by needling and stimulating the specific areas of the scalp. The evidence from clinical studies suggested that SA therapy may produce significant benefits for patients with acute ICH. However, the therapeutic mechanisms are yet not well addressed. Therefore, in this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview on the history and mechanisms of SA therapy on acute ICH. Although SA has been practiced for thousands of years in China and could date back to 5 BC, SA therapy for acute ICH develops only in the recent 30 years. The possible mechanisms associated with the therapeutic effects of SA on ICH include the influence on hematoma, brain edema, and blood brain barrier, the products released from haematoma, the immune and inflammatory reaction, focal perihemorrhagic hypoperfusion and hemorheology, neuroelectrophysiology, and so on. At last, the existence of instant effect of SA on acute ICH and its possible mechanisms are presented.

  20. Factors predicting intracerebral hemorrhage of patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoichiro; Torihashi, Kouichi; Sadamasa, Nobutake; Narumi, Osamu; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen; Yoshida, Kazumichi

    2010-01-01

    The use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was approved in Japan in October 2005, and has had a marked effect on the treatment of patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke. Since the administration of rt-PA might cause intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and a poor prognosis, it is necessary to identify predictors of ICH after treatment with rt-PA. In this article, we examined 58 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with intravenous rt-PA within 3 hours of symptom onset for 45 months, March 2006 to November 2009. In principle, we evaluated patients before and one day after rt-PA with MRI. We made a retrospective comparison of 21 patients with hemorrhagic change on CT and MRI T2* within 36 hours and 37 patients without hemorrhagic change. The rate of ICH with or without symptoms was increased with a higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and infarction range, defined by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (ASPECTS). Major artery occlusion and reperfusion, including partial recanalization in MR angiography (MRA), were taken as factors in the hemorrhage group. In conclusion, DWI ASPECTS and NIHSS were useful predictors of ICH after rt-PA administration. (author)

  1. Lack of evidence for an association between hemodynamic variables and hematoma growth in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher J; Adeoye, Opeolu; Khoury, Jane; Barsan, William; Broderick, Joseph; Pancioli, Arthur; Brott, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Early hematoma expansion in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with worse clinical outcome. We hypothesized that hemodynamic parameters are associated with the increase in hematoma volume owing to their relationship to blood vessel wall stresses. We performed a post hoc analysis of clinical and computed tomography (CT) data from patients enrolled in a prospective observational study of ICH patients presenting within 3 hours from symptom onset. Hematoma volumes were measured at hospital arrival and at 1 and 20 hours from presentation. Blood pressure and heart rate, recorded at 19 time points between presentation and 20 hours, were used to derive hemodynamic variables. Multivariable logistic-regression models were constructed to assess the relation between hemodynamic parameters and hematoma growth, adjusted for clinical covariates. From the original study, 98 patients underwent baseline and 1-hour CT scans; of these, 65 had 20-hour CT scans. Substantial hematoma growth was observed in 28% within the first hour. Of the 65 patients not undergoing surgery within 20 hours, 37% experienced hematoma growth by 20 hours. Neither baseline or peak hemodynamic parameters nor changes in hemodynamic parameters were significantly associated with hematoma growth at either 1 or 20 hours. We found no blood pressure or heart rate parameters, individually or in combination, that were associated with hematoma growth. Our data suggest the influence of hemodynamic parameters on vessel wall stress to be an unlikely target for intervention in reducing the risk of early hematoma growth in ICH.

  2. Risk stratification for prognosis in intracerebral hemorrhage: A decision tree model and logistic regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang WU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the risk factors for prognosis in intracerebral hemorrhage using decision tree (classification and regression tree, CART model and logistic regression model. Methods  CART model and logistic regression model were established according to the risk factors for prognosis of patients with cerebral hemorrhage. The differences in the results were compared between the two methods. Results  Logistic regression analyses showed that hematoma volume (OR-value 0.953, initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score (OR-value 1.210, pulmonary infection (OR-value 0.295, and basal ganglia hemorrhage (OR-value 0.336 were the risk factors for the prognosis of cerebral hemorrhage. The results of CART analysis showed that volume of hematoma and initial GCS score were the main factors affecting the prognosis of cerebral hemorrhage. The effects of two models on the prognosis of cerebral hemorrhage were similar (Z-value 0.402, P=0.688. Conclusions  CART model has a similar value to that of logistic model in judging the prognosis of cerebral hemorrhage, and it is characterized by using transactional analysis between the risk factors, and it is more intuitive. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.13

  3. Predictors of mortality and poor functional outcome in severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete-Araujo, A M; Egea-Guerrero, J J; Vilches-Arenas, Á; Godoy, D A; Murillo-Cabezas, F

    2015-10-01

    To analyze mortality and functional outcome in patients with severe spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and identify the clinical characteristics, radiological findings and therapeutic procedures predictive of mortality in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and during hospitalization, as well as of poor functional results at 6 months. A prospective, observational study was carried out. Neurocritical Care Unit of a university hospital. Patients diagnosed with ICH were included over a period of 23 months. Demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, regular medication, laboratory test parameters, cranial CT findings, therapeutic procedures and outcome data. None. A total of 186 patients with ICH met the inclusion criteria. Surgery to evacuate ICH was performed in 25.8% of the patients. The mortality rate was 46.7%. The modified Rankin score at 6 months was 5 (RI: 4.6). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed the presence of diabetes, prior anticoagulation, as well as APACHE II severity and the type of bleeding on the cranial CT scan to be predictors of mortality and poor functional outcomes. On the other hand, neurosurgical procedures and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring were associated with better outcomes. The presence of comorbidities such as diabetes, or previous anticoagulation, as well as the CT findings were associated to poorer outcomes. In contrast, ICP monitoring and early neurosurgery were predictive of longer survival and better functional outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender Differences in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Hospital-Based Multicenter Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Bueno Alves

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences are well described for patients with ischemic stroke. Conversely, sex disparities in stroke presentation, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH were not previously studied. Our objective was to compare the frequency of risk factors, management patterns, symptoms at presentation, complication rates, and outcomes between genders in patients with ICH in Fortaleza, Brazil. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from patients admitted to 19 hospitals in Fortaleza with a diagnosis of ICH by trained research coordinators from June 2009 to October 2010. Daily visits to the selected hospitals were performed, and all patients admitted with a diagnosis of ICH were prospectively evaluated. Results: We evaluated 364 patients, 47.5% of whom were women. Men were younger (59.3 ± 14.58 years vs. 66.3 ± 14.6 years, p Conclusion: Overall risk factors for ICH in men and women were similar in our series. Men had a higher frequency of alcohol abuse and smoking. Women were older, had an increased time length from symptoms onset to hospital admission and had a worse prognosis at discharge. A better understanding of the gender disparities in patients with ICH will hopefully lead to better outcomes in both sexes in the future.

  5. Changes of vasoactive polypeptides during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wang, Xue-feng; Wang, Chao; Luan, Wen-zhong

    2007-12-05

    Hypertensive crisis could be found after operation in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). The aim of this study was to explore the changes and the roles of some vasoactive polypeptides during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with HICH. A total of 31 patients, who were admitted for craniotomy, were enrolled into this study. After the operation, the patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of 9 patients with postoperative hypertensive crisis, and group II was composed of 13 patients without postoperative hypertensive crisis. Nine patients, who denied history of hypertension or HICH, were set as group III. The levels of some vasoactivators in the three groups were measured before and after the operation. The differences in the results among the groups were analyzed using the ANOVA. The data collected before and after the operation in the group I was compared by Wilcoxon test. The concentration of endothelin in group I was significantly higher than that in group III (P 0.05). Postoperative hypertensive crisis may be due to the increased thromboxane A2 and relatively inadequate prostacyclin, especially 6-keto-PGF1a. The increased level of endothelin and intraoperative stimulation also play a certain role in the development of postoperative hypertensive crisis.

  6. Serum Copper Homeostasis in Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage and its Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Ding, Shan; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Zhexuan; Li, Kangsheng

    2018-01-11

    This study was to investigate the alterations of serum copper homeostasis after hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), which is not yet clear. We recruited 85 hypertensive ICH patients and determined their serum levels of total copper (TCu), small molecule copper (SMC), and ceruloplasmin (Cp). Sera from 32 healthy persons and 12 primary hypertension patients were collected and analyzed as well. Serum TCu levels in ICH patients were tested at three time points (on admission, day 3, and day 7) and found to be higher than that in hypertension patients (p < 0.05). The serum SMC levels in hypertension patients and ICH patients at three time points were higher than that in healthy controls (p < 0.05). Higher serum SMC levels on days 3 and 7 were associated with death in the hospital. Additionally, higher serum SMC levels on the seventh day were associated with poor outcome at discharge. High serum Cp levels on admission, as well as low serum Cp levels on the seventh day, were associated with death in the hospital (p = 0.002 and p = 0.034, respectively). Our findings indicated that declines in serum Cp and increases in serum SMC are correlated with lethal or poor outcome in hypertensive ICH patients, possibly as a result of contributions to secondary injury of brain after hemorrhage due to impairment of iron transport and enhanced oxidative stress.

  7. Performance of blend sign in predicting hematoma expansion in intracerebral hemorrhage: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-12-01

    Hematoma expansion is independently associated with poor outcome in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Blend sign is a simple predictor for hematoma expansion on non-contrast computed tomography. However, its accuracy for predicting hematoma expansion is inconsistent in previous studies. This meta-analysis is aimed to systematically assess the performance of blend sign in predicting hematoma expansion in ICH. A systematic literature search was conducted. Original studies about predictive accuracy of blend sign for hematoma expansion in ICH were included. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated. Summary receiver operating characteristics curve was constructed. Publication bias was assessed by Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test. A total of 5 studies with 2248 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of blend sign for predicting hematoma expansion were 0.28, 0.92, 3.4 and 0.78, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.85. No significant publication bias was found. This meta-analysis demonstrates that blend sign is a useful predictor with high specificity for hematoma expansion in ICH. Further studies with larger sample size are still necessary to verify the accuracy of blend sign for predicting hematoma expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PGE2 receptor agonist misoprostol protects brain against intracerebral hemorrhage in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, He; Wu, Tao; Hua, Wei; Dong, Xianghui; Gao, Yufeng; Zhao, Xiaochun; Chen, Wenwu; Cao, Wangsen; Yang, Qingwu; Qi, Jiping; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke. Misoprostol, a synthetic PGE1 analog and PGE2 receptor agonist, has shown protection against cerebral ischemia. In this study, we tested the efficacy of misoprostol in 12-month-old mice subjected to one of two complementary ICH models, the collagenase model (primary study) and blood model (secondary study, performed in an independent laboratory). We also investigated its potential mechanism of action. Misoprostol post-treatment decreased brain lesion volume, edema, and brain atrophy and improved long-term functional outcomes. In the collagenase-induced ICH model, misoprostol decreased cellular inflammatory response; attenuated oxidative brain damage and gelatinolytic activity; and decreased HMGB1 expression, Src kinase activity, and interleukin-1β expression without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Further, HMGB1 inhibition with glycyrrhizin decreased Src kinase activity, gelatinolytic activity, neuronal death, and brain lesion volume. Src kinase inhibition with PP2 decreased gelatinolytic activity and brain edema and improved neurologic function, but did not decrease HMGB1 protein level. These results indicate that misoprostol protects brain against ICH injury through mechanisms that may involve the HMGB1, Src kinase, and MMP-2/9 pathway. PMID:25623334

  9. Patient-tailored multimodal neuroimaging, visualization and quantification of human intra-cerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Sheng-Yang M.; Irimia, Andrei; Vespa, Paul M.; Van Horn, John D.

    2016-03-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the heterogeneity of lesion sizes and types necessitates a variety of imaging modalities to acquire a comprehensive perspective on injury extent. Although it is advantageous to combine imaging modalities and to leverage their complementary benefits, there are difficulties in integrating information across imaging types. Thus, it is important that efforts be dedicated to the creation and sustained refinement of resources for multimodal data integration. Here, we propose a novel approach to the integration of neuroimaging data acquired from human patients with TBI/ICH using various modalities; we also demonstrate the integrated use of multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data for TBI analysis based on both visual observations and quantitative metrics. 3D models of healthy-appearing tissues and TBIrelated pathology are generated, both of which are derived from multimodal imaging data. MRI volumes acquired using FLAIR, SWI, and T2 GRE are used to segment pathology. Healthy tissues are segmented using user-supervised tools, and results are visualized using a novel graphical approach called a `connectogram', where brain connectivity information is depicted within a circle of radially aligned elements. Inter-region connectivity and its strength are represented by links of variable opacities drawn between regions, where opacity reflects the percentage longitudinal change in brain connectivity density. Our method for integrating, analyzing and visualizing structural brain changes due to TBI and ICH can promote knowledge extraction and enhance the understanding of mechanisms underlying recovery.

  10. The influence of hypothermia on outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Crystal L; Davies, Laura M; Fingas, Matthew S; Colbourne, Frederick

    2006-05-01

    Late hypothermia (HYPO) reduces injury after collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), whereas early HYPO does not because it exacerbates the protracted bleeding that occurs in this model. We hypothesized that early HYPO would not increase bleeding after whole blood infusion and thus expected early HYPO to improve outcome through reducing secondary consequences of ICH (eg, inflammation). Autologous blood (100 microL) was infused into the striatum. Rats were maintained at normothermia or subjected to mild (33 degrees C to 35 degrees C) HYPO for 2 days starting 1 (HYPO-1) or 4 hours (HYPO-4) after ICH. Hematoma volume was measured at 12 hours to determine whether HYPO-1 aggravated bleeding. We measured blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and edema 2 days after ICH in all groups. At 4 days, we counted degenerating neurons, neutrophils, and iron-positive cells (eg, macrophages) in the lesioned hemisphere. Recovery was assessed using several behavioral tests (ie, staircase reaching task, ladder walking task, limb use cylinder test) over 7 or 30 days, at which time we quantified lesion volume. HYPO did not increase bleeding. Both HYPO treatments reduced BBB disruption and infiltration of inflammatory cells. HYPO-1 treatment modestly reduced edema and provided limited to no functional benefit in the behavioral tests. HYPO did not affect lesion volume. HYPO reduced edema, BBB disruption, and inflammation. Although encouraging, HYPO treatment must be improved so that histological and functional benefit are obtained before clinical investigation. Otherwise clinical failure is anticipated.

  11. Serum tenascin-C predicts severity and outcome of acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Guo; Huangfu, Xue-Qin; Tao, Bo; Zhong, Guan-Jin; Le, Zhou-Di

    2018-06-01

    Tenascin-C is a matricellular protein related to brain injury. We studied serum tenascin-C in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and examined the associations with severity and outcome following the acute event. Tenascin-C samples were obtained from 162 patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke and 162 healthy controls. Poor 90-day functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score > 2. Early neurological deterioration (END) and hematoma growth (HG) were recorded at 24 h. Patients had higher tenascin-C levels than controls. Tenascin-C levels were positively correlated with hematoma volume or National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at baseline. Elevated tenascin-C levels were independently associated with END, HG, 90-day mortality and poor functional outcome. Moreover, tenascin-C levels significantly predicted END, HG and 90-day outcomes under receiver operating characteristic curves. An increase in serum tenascin-C level is associated with an adverse outcome in ICH patients, supporting the potential role of serum tenascin-C as a prognostic biomarker for hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Steps to consider in the approach and management of critically ill patient with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Daniel Agustin; Piñero, Gustavo Rene; Koller, Patricia; Masotti, Luca; Di Napoli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is a type of stroke associated with poor outcomes. Mortality is elevated, especially in the acute phase. From a pathophysiological point of view the bleeding must traverse different stages dominated by the possibility of re-bleeding, edema, intracranial hypertension, inflammation and neurotoxicity due to blood degradation products, mainly hemoglobin and thrombin. Neurological deterioration and death are common in early hours, so it is a true neurological-neurosurgical emergency. Time is brain so that action should be taken fast and accurately. The most significant prognostic factors are level of consciousness, location, volume and ventricular extension of the bleeding. Nihilism and early withdrawal of active therapy undoubtedly influence the final result. Although there are no proven therapeutic measures, treatment should be individualized and guided preferably by pathophysiology. The multidisciplinary teamwork is essential. Results of recently completed studies have birth to promising new strategies. For correct management it’s important to establish an orderly and systematic strategy based on clinical stabilization, evaluation and establishment of prognosis, avoiding secondary insults and adoption of specific individualized therapies, including hemostatic therapy and intensive control of elevated blood pressure. Uncertainty continues regarding the role of surgery. PMID:26261773

  13. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo; Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele; Azzini, Cristiano; Chieregato, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p 20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  14. How often is haemosiderin not visible on routine MRI following traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardlaw, J.M.; Statham, P.F.X. [Dept. of Clinical Neurosciences, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2000-02-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may be visible indefinitely on MRI, due to persistence of haemosiderin in macrophages around the lesion, but it is not clear whether all haemorrhages produce haemosiderin or, if not, what proportion cannot be identified as former haemorrhages on routine MRI. We performed routine MRI (spin-echo T2- and proton-density weighted images) in 116 survivors of moderate to severe head injury, 1-5 years after injury. We reviewed the images blindly and correlated them with CT in the acute stage, to determine how many haemorrhages from the acute stage were identifiable by virtue of haemosiderin deposition on late MRI. Of 106 haemorrhages in 78 patients on CT at the time of injury, 96 (90 %) were visible as haemosiderin on late MRI. Of the old haemorrhages without haemosiderin, seven of ten were in patients where another haemorrhage with haemosiderin was still visible elsewhere in the brain. No patient or haemorrhage features explained the formation or absence of haemosiderin. Thus about 10 % of definite haematomas show no trace of haemosiderin on routine spin-echo MRI. Radiologists should be alerted to supplement routine spin-echo with gradient-echo sequences if there is a reason to suspect, or specifically exclude, prior haemorrhage. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy for supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Hu, Xin; Fang, Fang; You, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: In recent years, neuroendoscopy has been used as a method for treating intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs). However, the efficacy and safety of neuroendoscopic surgery is still controversial compared with that of craniotomy. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy in patients with supratentorial hypertensive ICH using a meta-analysis. Methods: We searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant studies in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Quality of eligible studies was evaluated and the related data were extracted by 2 reviewers independently. This study assessed clinical outcomes, evacuation rates, complications, operation time, and hospital stay for patients who underwent neuroendoscopic surgery (NE group) or craniotomy (craniotomy group). Results: Meta-analysis included 1327 subjects from verified studies of acceptable quality. There was no significant heterogeneity between the included studies based on clinical outcomes. Compared with craniotomy, neuroendoscopic surgery significantly improved clinical outcomes in both randomized controlled studies (RCTs) group (relative risk: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47–0.81, P craniotomy group for patients with supratentorial hypertensive ICH. Moreover, the patients who underwent neuroendoscopy had a higher evacuation rate, lower risk of complications, and shorter operation time compared with those that underwent a craniotomy. PMID:28858100

  16. Comparison of neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy for supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zengpanpan; Ai, Xiaolin; Hu, Xin; Fang, Fang; You, Chao

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, neuroendoscopy has been used as a method for treating intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs). However, the efficacy and safety of neuroendoscopic surgery is still controversial compared with that of craniotomy. Our aim was to compare the outcomes of neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy in patients with supratentorial hypertensive ICH using a meta-analysis. We searched on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify relevant studies in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Quality of eligible studies was evaluated and the related data were extracted by 2 reviewers independently. This study assessed clinical outcomes, evacuation rates, complications, operation time, and hospital stay for patients who underwent neuroendoscopic surgery (NE group) or craniotomy (craniotomy group). Meta-analysis included 1327 subjects from verified studies of acceptable quality. There was no significant heterogeneity between the included studies based on clinical outcomes. Compared with craniotomy, neuroendoscopic surgery significantly improved clinical outcomes in both randomized controlled studies (RCTs) group (relative risk: 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-0.81, P craniotomy group for patients with supratentorial hypertensive ICH. Moreover, the patients who underwent neuroendoscopy had a higher evacuation rate, lower risk of complications, and shorter operation time compared with those that underwent a craniotomy.

  17. Outcomes from intracerebral hemorrhage among patients pre-treated with statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ramalho Romero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or statins, have been associated with improved clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but with an increased risk of incidental spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. We investigated whether the statin use before ICH, was associated with functional independence, 90 days after treatment. METHOD: We analyzed 124 consecutive ICH patients with 90-day outcome data who were enrolled in a prospective cohort study between 2006 and 2009. Eighty-three patients were included in this study. Among ICH survivors, univariate Cox regression models and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to determine subject characteristics that were associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Statin usage was determined through interviewing the patient at the time of ICH and confirmed by reviewing their medical records. Independent status was defined as Glasgow Outcome Scale grades 4 or 5. RESULTS: Statins were used by 20 out of 83 patients (24% before ICH onset. There was no effect from pre-ICH statin use on functional independence rates (28% versus 29%, P=0.84 or mortality (46% versus 45%, P=0.93. CONCLUSION: Pre-ICH statin use is not associated with changes to ICH functional outcome or mortality.

  18. Minimally Invasive Subcortical Parafascicular Transsulcal Access for Clot Evacuation (Mi SPACE for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ritsma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is common and causes significant mortality and morbidity. To date, optimal medical and surgical intervention remains uncertain. A lack of definitive benefit for operative management may be attributable to adverse surgical effect, collateral tissue injury. This is particularly relevant for ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex. Minimally invasive surgery (MIS offers the potential advantage of reduced collateral damage. MIS utilizing a parafascicular approach has demonstrated such benefit for intracranial tumor resection. Methods. We present a case of dominant hemisphere spontaneous ICH evacuated via the minimally invasive subcortical parafascicular transsulcal access clot evacuation (Mi SPACE model. We use this report to introduce Mi SPACE and to examine the application of this novel MIS paradigm. Case Presentation. The featured patient presented with a left temporal ICH and severe global aphasia. The hematoma was evacuated via the Mi SPACE approach. Postoperative reassessments showed significant improvement. At two months, bedside language testing was normal. MRI tractography confirmed limited collateral injury. Conclusions. This case illustrates successful application of the Mi SPACE model to ICH in dominant, eloquent cortex and subcortical regions. MRI tractography illustrates collateral tissue preservation. Safety and feasibility studies are required to further assess this promising new therapeutic paradigm.

  19. Tempol alleviates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury possibly by attenuating nitrative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyong, Yang; Zefeng, Tan; Xiufeng, Xin; Dawei, Dong; Xiaoyan, Liu; Ying, Zhao; Yaogao, Fu

    2015-09-30

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury leads to irreversible disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and fatality brain edema with massive cell death. Although secondary damage could, in principle, be preventable, no effective treatment approaches currently exist for patients with ICH. Tempol, a catalytic scavenger of peroxynitrite (ONOO)-derived free radicals, has been proven to ameliorate brain injury in several types of brain insults. This study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of tempol after ICH and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Collagenase-induced ICH was performed in rats. Tempol was administered immediately after ICH. The effects of tempol on ICH were evaluated by assessing neurological deficits, BBB permeability, brain edema, and apoptotic cell death. The mechanisms of action of tempol, with its clear ability on the derivative of ONOO [3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), ONOO, and its derivative-mediated nitration marker] and expression of tight junction protein [zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)], were also investigated. Perihematomal 3-NT increased significantly following ICH and expressed around vessels accompanied by reduced and discontinuous expression of ZO-1. Tempol treatment significantly suppressed 3-NT formation and preserved ZO-1 levels, and led to improvement in neurological outcomes and reduction of BBB leakiness, brain edema, and apoptosis. In conclusion, tempol has neuroprotective potential in experimental ICH and may help combat ICH-induced brain injury in patients.

  20. Epileptic fast intracerebral EEG activity: evidence for spatial decorrelation at seizure onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Fabrice; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Bourien, Jérôme; Chauvel, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    Low-voltage rapid discharges (or fast EEG ictal activity) constitute a characteristic electrophysiological pattern in focal seizures of human epilepsy. They are characterized by a decrease of signal voltage with a marked increase of signal frequency (typically beyond 25 Hz). They have long been observed in stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) signals recorded with intra-cerebral electrodes, generally occurring at seizure onset and simultaneously involving distinct brain regions. Spectral properties of rapid ictal discharges as well as spatial correlations measured between SEEG signals generated from distant sites before, during and after these discharges were studied. Cross-correlation estimates within typical EEG sub-bands and statistical tests performed in ten patients suffering from partial epilepsy (frontal, temporal or fronto-temporal) reveal that SEEG signals are significantly de-correlated during the discharge period compared to periods that precede and follow this discharge. These results can be interpreted as a functional decoupling of distant brain sites at seizure onset followed by an abnormally high re-coupling when the seizure develops. They lead to the concept of “disruption” that is complementary of that of “activation” (revealed by significantly high correlations between signals recorded during seizures), both giving insights into our understanding of pathophysiological processes involved in human partial epilepsies as well as in the interpretation of clinical semiology. PMID:12764064

  1. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Medical and Surgical Management of Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Dae-Hee; Park, Sukh-Que; Sheen, Seung Hun; Park, Hyun Sun; Kang, Sung Don; Kim, Jae Min; Oh, Chang Wan; Hong, Keun-Sik; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kwon, Sun-Uck; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Park, In Sung; Rha, Joung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical practice guideline (CPG) is to provide current and comprehensive recommendations for the medical and surgical management of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Since the release of the first Korean CPGs for stroke, evidence has been accumulated in the management of ICH, such as intracranial pressure control and minimally invasive surgery, and it needs to be reflected in the updated version. The Quality Control Committee at the Korean Society of cerebrovascular Surgeons and the Writing Group at the Clinical Research Center for Stroke (CRCS) systematically reviewed relevant literature and major published guidelines between June 2007 and June 2013. Based on the published evidence, recommendations were synthesized, and the level of evidence and the grade of the recommendation were determined using the methods adapted from CRCS. A draft guideline was scrutinized by expert peer reviewers and also discussed at an expert consensus meeting until final agreement was achieved. CPGs based on scientific evidence are presented for the medical and surgical management of patients presenting with primary ICH. This CPG describes the current pertinent recommendations and suggests Korean recommendations for the medical and surgical management of a patient with primary ICH. PMID:25368758

  2. Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies of Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Therapies for Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Rosado-de-Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second leading cause of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually, and is also a major cause of disability-adjusted life years. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately 10 to 27% of all cases and has a fatality rate of about 50% in the first 30 days, with limited treatment possibilities. In the past two decades, the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived cells (particularly mesenchymal stem cells and mononuclear cells has been intensively investigated in preclinical models of different neurological diseases, including models of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. More recently, clinical studies, most of them small, unblinded, and nonrandomized, have suggested that the therapy with bone marrow-derived cells is safe and feasible in patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This review discusses the available evidence on the use of bone marrow-derived cells to treat hemorrhagic strokes. Distinctive properties of animal studies are analyzed, including study design, cell dose, administration route, therapeutic time window, and possible mechanisms of action. Furthermore, clinical trials are also reviewed and discussed, with the objective of improving future studies in the field.

  3. Morphological and histochemical changes in the brain stem in case of experimental hemispheric intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertishniy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigation of the extent of morphological changes and activity of biogenic amines (according to the intensity of luminescence in the neurons of the brain stem in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods and results. ICH was designed on 29 white rats of Vistar line by the administration of autologous blood in the cerebral hemisphere. It was revealed that increased luminescence intensity by 18.4±5.5% was registered in monoaminergic neurons in 1–6 hours after experimental ICH. After 12 hours – 1 day development of dislocation syndrome leads to mosaic focal ischemic neuronal injuries with maximum reduction in the level of catecholamines by 29.5±5.0% compared with control cases. Three–6 days after ICH on a background of selective neuronal necrosis in substantial number of neurons in the nuclei of the brainstem the level of catecholamines is significantly reduced. Conclusion. Disclosed observations reflect significant functional pathology of neurons responsible for the regulation of cardiorespiratory function and may underlie disturbances of integrative activity in the brain stem in general.

  4. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  5. Circadian variation in clinical features and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage: The INTERACT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Danni; Sato, Shoichiro; Cao, Yong-Jun; Arima, Hisatomi; Carcel, Cheryl; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies consistently reported a diurnal variation in the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with a morning peak. However, limited knowledge exists on the circadian pattern of ICH severity and outcome. This study aimed to determine possible associations between ICH onset time and admission severity and 90-day outcomes using the combined data set of the pilot and main-phase Intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction in an acute cerebral hemorrhage trial (INTERACT). The ICH onset time was categorized into three groups (1: 00:00-07:59; 2: 08:00-15:59; and 3: 16:00-23:59). We found an association between onset time and low Glasgow Coma Scale score: aOR (time 1: 1.72, 95% CI 1.12-2.66; time 3: 1.95, 95% CI 1.31-2.89, p = 0.003; in comparison to time 2). There was no association between onset time and volume of ICH (adjusted p = 0.354) or 90-day outcomes of death or major disability, and death and major disability separately (all adjusted p > 0.4). The results showed that more severe cases of ICH patients, defined by a reduced level of consciousness, had late afternoon to early morning stroke onset, but this was unrelated to baseline hematoma volume or location. There was no circadian influence on ICH clinical outcome.

  6. Intracerebral neural stem cell transplantation improved the auditory of mice with presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongmiao; Chen, Jichuan; Wang, Yinan; Zhang, Shichang; Zhang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell-based regenerative therapy is a potential cellular therapeutic strategy for patients with incurable brain diseases. Embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) represent an attractive cell source in regenerative medicine strategies in the treatment of diseased brains. Here, we assess the capability of intracerebral embryonic NSCs transplantation for C57BL/6J mice with presbycusis in vivo. Morphology analyses revealed that the neuronal rate of apoptosis was lower in the aged group (10 months of age) but not in the young group (2 months of age) after NSCs transplantation, while the electrophysiological data suggest that the Auditory Brain Stem Response (ABR) threshold was significantly decreased in the aged group at 2 weeks and 3 weeks after transplantation. By contrast, there was no difference in the aged group at 4 weeks post-transplantation or in the young group at any time post-transplantation. Furthermore, immunofluorescence experiments showed that NSCs differentiated into neurons that engrafted and migrated to the brain, even to sites of lesions. Together, our results demonstrate that NSCs transplantation improve the auditory of C57BL/6J mice with presbycusis.

  7. Association between eye position on brain scan and hospital mortality in acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusch, K J M; Houben, R; Schreuder, F H B M; Postma, A A; Staals, J

    2016-04-01

    Conjugate eye deviation (CED) and horizontal skew deviation are often seen in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but its prognostic significance is unclear. In this study, the association between brain scan assessed eye position and hospital mortality in patients with supratentorial ICH was tested. A retrospective analysis was performed in 316 patients with supratentorial ICH. Eye position was measured on first brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with CED, horizontal skew deviation or no deviation were distinguished. The association between eye position and hospital mortality was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Conjugate eye deviation was present in 96 (30.4%), skew deviation in 44 (13.9%) and no deviation in 176 (55.7%) patients. In patients with CED, 81.3% had an eye position to the ipsilateral side of the hemorrhage. In univariable regression analysis, skew deviation was associated with mortality (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 1.57-6.11; P = 0.001). In multivariable regression analysis, adjusting for age, ICH volume, intraventricular extension and Glasgow Coma Scale, eye position was not independently associated with mortality. Horizontal skew eyes were found to be an unfavorable prognostic factor. However, this was not independent of other important predictors of ICH mortality and is most probably explained by its association with worse initial clinical presentation. © 2016 EAN.

  8. Pathomorphological changes of lungs and functional biochemical parameters of respiratory function in patients with intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Tertyishniy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications and closely related with them systemic functional-biochemical abnormalities are the most common complications of cerebral stroke. The purpose of the work was to research functional-biochemical parameters of respiratory function and to find it’s association with morphological changes in the lungs because of intracerebral hemorrhage. 37 sectional observations in patients who die of intracerebral hemorrhage were analized. It was conducted analysis of morphological transformations and retrospective analysis of functional-biochemical findings of respiratory functions, in order to detect changes of systemic hemodynamics, oxygen balance and ion-osmotic one and acid-alkaline status. The results of the study. The changes of blood gas composition and acid-alkaline status are registered in the lungs in the background of microcirculation disturbance from the first hours of development of intracerebral hemorrhage. During the first days of the onset of disease the partial oxygen pressure in arterial blood (РаО2 decreased 50,88% in comparison with the calculated normative findings. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (РаСО2 in the arterial blood rosed by 52,17%. Without conducting artificial lung ventilation PO2 in venous blood decreased by 45,9%, and PCO2 increased by 40%. I has been marked a decrease in the oxygen capacity of the blood, due to the reduction of hemoglobin content in the blood to 103,7 minus 2 g/l and the concomitant decline in hematocrit up to 0,24-0,3. Deficit of the foundations has averaged from -6 to -10 mmol/l. These changes have led to a impression of the respiratory and metabolic acidosis, with a significant increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions. In the first day after the development of the disease with a rapid growing marks of swelling of the brain with concomitant dislocation of the brain stem, blood pH was 7,28 minus 0,02. It has been histologically determined interstitial edema, that

  9. CLINICAL AND NEUROIMAGING STUDIES IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SPONTANEOUS INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мaya P. Danovska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define the prognostic value of clinical and neuroimaging parameters on the 30-th day mortality and clinical outcome after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH. Materials and methods: we examined 88 patients with sICH admitted to Neurology Clinic, UMHAT Pleven within 48 hours after clinical symptoms onset. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score was used to assess the primary stroke severity; neurological deficit on admission was assessed by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS; clinical outcome at discharge was evaluated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS and by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS on the 30-th day after sICH onset. Hematoma volume was measured by the formula of Kothari: AxBxC/2 in ml. The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 19.0 and Statgraphics plus 4.1 for Windows. Results: Initial assessment of primary stroke severity and neurological deficit by GCS и NIHSS, hematoma localization and volume were found strongly correlated with the clinical outcome on the 30-th day after the sICH onset. Age and vascular risk factors did not correlate with the clinical outcome. Male patients had better survival on the 30-th day compared with the female ones. Discussion: Neurological deficit on admission, hematoma localization and volume were found reliable predictors of the 30-th day clinical outcome that could serve for early stratification of patients and optimal choice of therapeutic approach.

  10. Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy induces hypoxia in intracerebral gliosarcoma but not in the normal brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Audrey; Lemasson, Benjamin; Christen, Thomas; Potez, Marine; Rome, Claire; Coquery, Nicolas; Le Clec’h, Céline; Moisan, Anaick; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Leduc, Géraldine; Rémy, Chantal; Laissue, Jean A.; Barbier, Emmanuel L.; Brun, Emmanuel; Serduc, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an innovative irradiation modality based on spatial fractionation of a high-dose X-ray beam into lattices of microbeams. The increase in lifespan of brain tumor-bearing rats is associated with vascular damage but the physiological consequences of MRT on blood vessels have not been described. In this manuscript, we evaluate the oxygenation changes induced by MRT in an intracerebral 9L gliosarcoma model. Methods: Tissue responses to MRT (two orthogonal arrays (2 × 400 Gy)) were studied using magnetic resonance-based measurements of local blood oxygen saturation (MR S O 2 ) and quantitative immunohistology of RECA-1, Type-IV collagen and GLUT-1, marker of hypoxia. Results: In tumors, MR S O 2 decreased by a factor of 2 in tumor between day 8 and day 45 after MRT. This correlated with tumor vascular remodeling, i.e. decrease in vessel density, increases in half-vessel distances (×5) and GLUT-1 immunoreactivity. Conversely, MRT did not change normal brain MR S O 2 , although vessel inter-distances increased slightly. Conclusion: We provide new evidence for the differential effect of MRT on tumor vasculature, an effect that leads to tumor hypoxia. As hypothesized formerly, the vasculature of the normal brain exposed to MRT remains sufficiently perfused to prevent any hypoxia

  11. Prediction and Observation of Post-Admission Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eOvesen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiological concepts in predicting and observing post-admission hematoma expansion. Hematoma expansion can be observed within the first 24 hours after symptom onset, but predominantly occurs in the early hours. Thus capturing markers of on-going bleeding on imaging techniques could predict hematoma expansion. The spot sign observed on CTA is believed to represent on-going bleeding and is to date the most well investigated and reliable radiological predictor of hematoma expansion as well as functional outcome and mortality. On non-contrast CT, the presence of foci of hypoattenuation within the hematoma along with the hematoma-size is reported to be predictive of hematoma expansion and outcome. Because patients tend to arrive earlier to the hospital, a larger fraction of acute ICH-patients must be expected to undergo hematoma expansion. This renders observation and radiological follow-up investigations increasingly relevant. Transcranial duplex sonography has in recent years proven to be able to estimate hematoma volume with good precision and could be a valuable tool in bedside serial observation of acute ICH patients. Future studies will elucidate, if better prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion can help select patients, who will benefit from haemostatic treatment.

  12. Prediction and Observation of Post-Admission Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovesen, Christian; Havsteen, Inger; Rosenbaum, Sverre; Christensen, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Post-admission hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) comprises a simultaneous major clinical problem and a possible target for medical intervention. In any case, the ability to predict and observe hematoma expansion is of great clinical importance. We review radiological concepts in predicting and observing post-admission hematoma expansion. Hematoma expansion can be observed within the first 24 h after symptom onset, but predominantly occurs in the early hours. Thus capturing markers of on-going bleeding on imaging techniques could predict hematoma expansion. The spot sign observed on computed tomography angiography is believed to represent on-going bleeding and is to date the most well investigated and reliable radiological predictor of hematoma expansion as well as functional outcome and mortality. On non-contrast CT, the presence of foci of hypoattenuation within the hematoma along with the hematoma-size is reported to be predictive of hematoma expansion and outcome. Because patients tend to arrive earlier to the hospital, a larger fraction of acute ICH-patients must be expected to undergo hematoma expansion. This renders observation and radiological follow-up investigations increasingly relevant. Transcranial duplex sonography has in recent years proven to be able to estimate hematoma volume with good precision and could be a valuable tool in bedside serial observation of acute ICH-patients. Future studies will elucidate, if better prediction and observation of post-admission hematoma expansion can help select patients, who will benefit from hemostatic treatment. PMID:25324825

  13. The Association Between Specific Substances of Abuse and Subcortical Intracerebral Hemorrhage versus Ischemic Lacunar Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma H Kaplan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension damages small vessels, resulting in both lacunar infarction and subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Substance abuse has also been linked to small vessel pathology. This study explores whether the use of specific substances (eg., cocaine, tobacco is associated with subcortical ICH over ischemia in hypertensive individuals.Methods: Patients with hypertension, admitted with lacunar infarcts (measuring 1 drink per day (women, >2 drinks per day (men. Logistic regression was performed with ICH as the dependent variable comparing those presenting with ICH to those presenting with ischemia.Results: Of the 580 patients included in analysis, 217 (37% presented with ICH. The average age was similar between the two groups (64.7 versus 66.3 years. Illicit/controlled drug use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ICH over stroke in unadjusted models (25% versus 15%, p=0.02, with the largest effect seen in users ≥65 years old (not statistically significant. Smoking was associated with ischemia over ICH in a dose-dependent manner: any history of smoking OR 1.84, CI 1.19-2.84; current use OR 2.23, CI 1.37-3.62; heavy use OR 2.48, CI 1.50-4.13. Alcohol use was not preferentially associated with either outcome (p=0.29.Conclusions: In hypertensive patients, tobacco use is associated with an increased risk of subcortical ischemia compared to ICH; while use of illicit/controlled substances appears to be predictive of hemorrhage.

  14. IC 630: Piercing the Veil of the Nuclear Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy; Schartmann, Marc; Ashraf Uddin, Syed; Cotter, Garrett

    2017-04-01

    IC 630 is a nearby early-type galaxy with a mass of 6× {10}10 M ⊙ with an intense burst of recent (6 Myr) star formation (SF). It shows strong nebular emission lines, with radio and X-ray emission, which classifies it as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). With VLT-SINFONI and Gemini North-NIFS adaptive optics observations (plus supplementary ANU 2.3 m WiFeS optical IFU observations), the excitation diagnostics of the nebular emission species show no sign of standard AGN engine excitation; the stellar velocity dispersion also indicates that a supermassive black hole (if one is present) is small ({M}\\bullet =2.25× {10}5 {M}⊙ ). The luminosity at all wavelengths is consistent with SF at a rate of about 1-2 M ⊙ yr-1. We measure gas outflows driven by SF at a rate of 0.18 M ⊙ yr-1 in a face-on truncated cone geometry. We also observe a nuclear cluster or disk and other clusters. Photoionization from young, hot stars is the main excitation mechanism for [Fe II] and hydrogen, whereas shocks are responsible for the H2 excitation. Our observations are broadly comparable with simulations where a Toomre-unstable, self-gravitating gas disk triggers a burst of SF, peaking after about 30 Myr and possibly cycling with a period of about 200 Myr.

  15. Plasma end-loss studies on Scylla I-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, K.F.; York, T.M.

    1976-08-01

    The end-loss process in the collision dominated Scylla I-C plasma has been investigated with a local pressure sensitive diagnostic, integrated density measurement and axially arrayed diamagnetic loop probes. The development of a plasma loss orifice, well within the theta-pinch coil, has been identified. The magnitude of the observed orifice is found to be in excellent agreement with that predicted from collisional MHD theories. The axially flowing plasma is well confined until it flows through the loss orifice. After passing through the orifice, rapid axial expansion is observed. An indication of the existence of inward traveling rarefaction waves has been observed from the plasma midplane temperature data; an abrupt decrease in the plasma temperature at t approximately equal to 6.5 μs corresponds to the predicted time of arrival of rarefaction waves at the coil midplane. The plasma loss rate derived from the pressure data indicates an initial period (t 4 μs) of gradual decay in the loss rate. This initial period of high loss rate is predicted from the MHD flow theories when the measured, time dependent plasma parameters are substituted into the analytical models. The loss rate determined from the end-on interferograms does not respond to the detailed structure of the plasma loss process

  16. MagIC: Geomagnetic Applications from Earth History to Archeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.

    2016-12-01

    Major scientific challenges increasingly require an interdisciplinary approach, and highlight the need for open archives, incorporating visualization and analysis tools that are flexible enough to address novel research problems. Increasingly modern standards for publication are (or should be) demanding direct links to data, data citations, and adequate documentation that allow other researchers direct access to the fundamental measurements and analyses producing the results. Carefully documented metadata are essential and data models may need considerable complexity to accommodate re-use of observations originally collected with a different purpose in mind. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an online home for all kinds of paleo-, archeo-magnetic, rock, and environmental magnetic data, from documentation of fieldwork, through lab protocols, to interpretations in terms of geomagnetic history. Examples of their application to understanding geomagnetic field behavior, archeological dating, and voyages of exploration to discover America will be used to highlight best practices and illustrate unexpected benefits of data archived using best practices with the goal of maintaining high standards for reproducibility.

  17. IRNSS/NavIC L5 Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Zaminpardaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS has recently (May 2016 become fully-operational and has been provided with the operational name of NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation. It has been developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO with the objective of offering positioning, navigation and timing (PNT to the users in its service area. This contribution provides for the first time an assessment of the IRNSS L5-signal capability to achieve instantaneous attitude determination on the basis of data collected in Perth, Australia. Our evaluations are conducted for both a linear array of two antennas and a planar array of three antennas. A pre-requisite for precise and fast IRNSS attitude determination is the successful resolution of the double-differenced (DD integer carrier-phase ambiguities. In this contribution, we will compare the performances of different such methods, amongst which the unconstrained and the multivariate-constrained LAMBDA method for both linear and planar arrays. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous ambiguity success rates increase from 15% to 90% for the linear array and from 5% to close to 100% for the planar array, thus showing that standalone IRNSS can realize 24-h almost instantaneous precise attitude determination with heading and elevation standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.10 degrees, respectively.

  18. FinFET modeling for IC simulation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chenming; Lu, Darsen D

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to explain FinFET modeling for IC simulation and the industry standard - BSIM-CMG - describing the rush in demand for advancing the technology from planar to 3D architecture, as now enabled by the approved industry standard. The book gives a strong foundation on the physics and operation of FinFET, details aspects of the BSIM-CMG model such as surface potential, charge and current calculations, and includes a dedicated chapter on parameter extraction procedures, providing a step-by-step approach for the efficient extraction of model parameters. With this book you will learn: * Why you should use FinFET* The physics and operation of FinFET* Details of the FinFET standard model (BSIM-CMG)* Parameter extraction in BSIM-CMG* FinFET circuit design and simulation * Authored by the lead inventor and developer of FinFET, and developers of the BSIM-CM standard model, providing an experts' insight into the specifications of the standard* The first book on the industry-standard FinFET model - BSIM...

  19. UX Ori Variables in the Cluster IC 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Sergeev, S. G.; Semenov, A. O.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Results are presented from many years of photometric (VRCIC) observations of three variable T Tauri type stars in the cluster IC 348: V712 Per, V719 Per, and V909 Per. All three stars have photometric activity characteristic of UX Ori stars. The activity of V719 Per has increased significantly over the last 10 years: the amplitude of its Algol-like minima has increased by roughly a factor of 4 and has reached three stellar magnitudes in the I band. Periodograms of the light curves do not confirm the periods found previously by other authors on the basis of shorter series of observations. The slope of the color tracks on "color-magnitude" diagrams is used to determine the reddening law for these stars owing to selective absorption by circumstellar dust. Modelling of these parameters by the Mie theory shows that the maximum size amax of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disks of these stars is 1.5-2 times greater than in the interstellar medium. In V712 Per and V909 Per, the bulk of the mass of the dust particles is concentrated near amax, while in V719 Per the average mass of the dust particles is determined by the minimum size of the particles. It should be emphasized that these conclusions rely on an analysis of the optical variability of these stars.

  20. Advances in intravesical therapy for bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, En; Hsu, Yu-Chao; Chuang, Yao-Chi

    2018-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS)/interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic symptom complex that may cause bothersome storage symptoms and pain or discomfort of the bladder, adversely affecting a patient's quality of life. The etiology of IC/BPS remains unclear, and its cause may be multifactorial. Diagnosis of IC/BPS is based on clinical features, and the possibility of other conditions must be ruled out first. Although no definitive treatment is currently available for IC/BPS, various intravesical therapies are used for IC/BPS, including heparin, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, dimethylsulfoxide, liposomes, and botulinum onabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A). This review summarizes the intravesical therapy for IC/BPS and discusses recent advances in the instillation of liposomal-mediated BoNT-A and other newly developed intravesical therapies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. The influence of the stress state on Ksub(Ic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.; Helms, R.; Schmidt, P.; Veith, H.; Ziebs, J.

    1977-01-01

    To get a first impression of the influence of stress states of higher multi-axiality than plane strain on Ksub(c) a specimen has been created, in which a bi-axial nominal stress state arises by uniaxial tension. This is attained by tension superimposed by transverse bending stress. The stress distribution without crack was analysed by photoelasticity as well as by finite element method. The results were identical. The stress distribution in the fracture (crack) plane was somewhat inhomogeneous, of course. But the ratio of the stress parallel to the tension axis to that perpendicular to it was max. 1:0.3 with a mean value 1:0.15. Specimens of this type were machined from a rolled sheet of the steel 22 NiMoCr 37, with specimen thickness of about 50 mm. For comparison single-edge notched specimens of the same cross section were prepared from the same material. Fatigue cracks were made following ASTM Recommendations. The fracture mechanics tests were carried out at a temperature of -100 0 C. Although valid Ksub(Ic)-values following the rigorous intention of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (ASTM Recommendations) were not obtained, the differences between the results of the two types of specimens and stress states were significant. The Ksub(Q)-values of the bi-axial stressed specimen were about 25% lower than that of the single-edge notched specimen. The deviation of the load-displacement trace from the linear elastic behavior was greater for the single-edge notched specimens than for the bi-axial stressed specimens. The consequences of these results for the assessment of flaws in pressure vessels are evident considering that bi-axial nominal stress states occur in pressure vessels

  2. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  3. Measuring IC following a semi-qualitative approach: An integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verbano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Considering the different IC measures adopted in literature, the advantages of adopting semi-qualitative measures, and the lack of an agreed system for IC evaluation, the purpose of the paper is to analyse literature on IC measurement following a semi-qualitative approach, with the final intent to build an IC measurement framework. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on IC measurement system, following a semi-qualitative approach, has been conducted and analysed, in order to re-organize and synthesize all items used in previous researches. Findings: An integrated framework emerged from this research and it constitutes an IC  measurement system, created gathering and integrating different items previously adopted in literature. Each of these variables has been organized in categories belonging to one of the three main components of IC: human capital, internal structural capital and relational capital. Originality/value: This research provides an integrated tool for IC evaluation, fostering toward a well agreed measurement system that is still lacking in literature. This framework could be interesting  not only for the academic world, which in the last two decades reveals increasing attention to IC, but also for the management of the companies, that with IC measurement can increase awareness of the firm’s value and develop internal auditing system to support the management of these assets. Moreover, it could be a useful instrument for the communication of IC value to the external stakeholders, as customers, suppliers and especially shareholders, and to investors and financial analysts.

  4. Imaging features of intracerebral hemorrhage with cerebral amyloid angiopathy: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neshika Samarasekera

    Full Text Available We sought to summarize Computed Tomography (CT/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI features of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA in published observational radio-pathological studies.In November 2016, two authors searched OVID Medline (1946-, Embase (1974- and relevant bibliographies for studies of imaging features of lobar or cerebellar ICH with pathologically proven CAA ("CAA-associated ICH". Two authors assessed studies' diagnostic test accuracy methodology and independently extracted data.We identified 22 studies (21 cases series and one cross-sectional study with controls of CT features in 297 adults, two cross-sectional studies of MRI features in 81 adults and one study which reported both CT and MRI features in 22 adults. Methods of CAA assessment varied, and rating of imaging features was not masked to pathology. The most frequently reported CT features of CAA-associated ICH in 21 case series were: subarachnoid extension (pooled proportion 82%, 95% CI 69-93%, I2 = 51%, 12 studies and an irregular ICH border (64%, 95% CI 32-91%, I2 = 85%, five studies. CAA-associated ICH was more likely to be multiple on CT than non-CAA ICH in one cross-sectional study (CAA-associated ICH 7/41 vs. non-CAA ICH 0/42; χ2 = 7.8, p = 0.005. Superficial siderosis on MRI was present in 52% of CAA-associated ICH (95% CI 39-65%, I2 = 35%, 3 studies.Subarachnoid extension and an irregular ICH border are common imaging features of CAA-associated ICH, but methodologically rigorous diagnostic test accuracy studies are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these features.

  5. Aphasia caused by intracerebral hemorrhage; CT-scan findings and prognosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Kazuhide; Segawa, Hiromu; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Hasegawa, Isao; Sano, Keiji (Fuji Brain Institute and Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    It is generally accepted that cases of aphasia can be divided into several groups according to verbal fluency, auditory comprehension, and repetition abilities. Although many authors have studied aphasia and its location by means of a CT scan, the primary lesion on a CT scan with regard to the subtypes of aphasia still remains controversial. In this report we present our new CT classification for the syndromes of aphasia and the prognosis. Twenty-one patients with intracerebral hematoma (ICH) were followed up for more than 3 months after onset. ICH was classified according to the mode of the horizontal extension of the hematoma on a CT scan. Four lines were decided as follows: Line (a) is between the anterior horn of the lateral ventricle and the midpoint of the third ventricle; Line (b) is the vertical line to the saggital line which originates from the midpoint of the third ventricle; Line (c) is between the trigone of the lateral ventricle and the midpoint of the third ventricle. The CT classification consisted of 4 types: in Type A, ICH was located anterior to line (a); in Type B, ICH was located between line (a) and line (b); in Type C, ICH was located between line (b) and line (c); Type B+C, was a combination of Type B and Type C. Transcortical motor aphasia belonged to the Type A group. Transcortical sensory aphasia belonged to the Type B and Type B+C groups. Wernicke's and anomic aphasia belonged to the Type C group. Conduction and global aphasia belonged to the Type B+C group. Pure Broca's aphasia could not be observed in this series. Several relationships between the syndromes of aphasia and its CT findings were evident. On the other hand, the syndromes of aphasia and the degree of recovery were not correlated, except for global aphasia. (author).

  6. Black Hole Sign Predicts Poor Outcome in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Chen, Sheng-Li; Lv, Fu-Rong; Lv, Fa-Jin; Hu, Xi; Zhu, Dan; Cao, Du; Wang, Xing-Chen; Li, Rui; Yuan, Liang; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-01

    In spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), black hole sign has been proposed as a promising imaging marker that predicts hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. The aim of our study was to investigate whether admission CT black hole sign predicts hematoma growth in patients with ICH. From July 2011 till February 2016, patients with spontaneous ICH who underwent baseline CT scan within 6 h of symptoms onset and follow-up CT scan were recruited into the study. The presence of black hole sign on admission non-enhanced CT was independently assessed by 2 readers. The functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between the presence of the black hole sign and functional outcome. A total of 225 patients (67.6% male, mean age 60.3 years) were included in our study. Black hole sign was identified in 32 of 225 (14.2%) patients on admission CT scan. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that age, intraventricular hemorrhage, baseline ICH volume, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, and presence of black hole sign on baseline CT independently predict poor functional outcome at 90 days. There are significantly more patients with a poor functional outcome (defined as mRS ≥4) among patients with black hole sign than those without (84.4 vs. 32.1%, p black hole sign independently predicts poor outcome in patients with ICH. Early identification of black hole sign is useful in prognostic stratification and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for anti-expansion clinical trials. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Top 100 Most-Cited Articles on Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Syed Ali Raza; Gilani, Jaleed Ahmed; Fatima, Kaneez; Faheem, Urooba; Kazmi, Omar; Siddiqi, Javed; Khosa, Faisal

    2018-02-01

    A bibliometric uses the citation count of an article to determine its impact on the clinical world. There is a paucity of literature concerning top article citations on spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The main objective of this investigation was to bridge this gap and to provide understanding of the trends on the most influential articles written on this subject. The Scopus Library database was searched to determine the citations of all articles published on spontaneous ICH. Articles that focused on other forms of ICH, such as trauma-related hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, or hemorrhages caused by anticoagulation, vascular malformations, or cavernomas, were excluded from our list. The articles were divided into 2 groups: "specific" articles, which focused specifically on spontaneous ICH, and "generalized" articles, which were about ICH in general, including spontaneous as well as other forms of ICH. We did not apply any time or study-type restriction in our search. The top 100 cited articles were selected and analyzed by 2 independent investigators. J. Broderick was the author with most publications in the list (n = 21). The largest subset of spontaneous ICH articles was published in the 5-year periods from 1996 to 2000 and 2001 to 2005 (n = 27 each). The United States had the highest number of articles (n = 49). The journal with the highest number of top 100 cited articles was Stroke, with 39, followed by Neurology with 16. Our study identifies the trends related to spontaneous ICH by analyzing the citation frequency of the most-cited articles in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats by regulating microglia characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Jiang, Bing; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Yihao; Li, Lin; Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang

    2015-11-19

    Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ICH) results in a detrimental neurologic disorder with complicated secondary brain injury. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBOP) may be a safe and effective therapeutic method for ICH victims. Our previous studies have demonstrated that HBOP induces neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia and traumatic brain injury. This study aimed to investigate whether HBOP could alleviate neuroinflammation by regulating changes in microglia characteristics in a rat model of ICH. ICH was induced by autologous arterial blood injection, and animals were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 72 h post injury. We measured motor function and brain water content to evaluate the extent of inflammation. Fluoro-Jade C and TNF-α staining was used to characterize neuronal degeneration and neuroinflammatory cytokines, and immunofluorescence staining was performed for CD11b to show activated microglia and Iba-1 to show microglia. Our results indicate that motor dysfunction and brain water content are alleviated by HBOP, and Fluoro-Jade C staining demonstrates that neuron degeneration decreased in the HBOP group. The growth of Iba-1-positive microglia decreased in the HBOP group. Moreover, TNF-α was dynamically reduced in the HBOP group compared with the ICH group. CD11b-Iba-1 double staining demonstrated that the ratio of CD11b and Iba-1 was significantly decreased in the HBOP group. Overall, the data demonstrated that HBOP could significantly alleviate the ICH-induced neuroinflammation by regulating microglia characteristics changing. The phenomenon may propel the progress of the relation between microglia and HBOP and represent a novel target for ICH treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Association Between Paraoxonase Gene Polymorphisms and Intracerebral Hemorrhage in a Korean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jeong; Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2015-11-01

    The human paraoxonase (PON) gene family includes three members: PON1, PON2, and PON3. PON, which prevents the oxidative modification of lipoproteins, has been implicated as a potential risk factor of the cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we investigated associations between coding region single-nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) of PON1, PON2, and PON3 genes and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a Korean population. Six cSNPs [rs13306698 and rs662 for PON1; rs12026 and rs7493 for PON2; rs13226149 and rs1053275 for PON3] were genotyped using direct sequencing in 145 ICH patients and 372 control subjects. Of the six cSNPs, rs12026 and rs7493, which were in complete linkage disequilibrium, were associated with ICH in log-additive (GC vs. CC vs. GG, p = 0.0008, OR = 0.53, 95 % CI = 0.36-0.78) and dominant models (GC/CC vs. GG, p = 0.0006, OR = 0.47, 95 % CI = 0.30-0.73). In addition, rs13226149 was associated with ICH in log-additive model (GA vs. AA vs. GG, p = 0.0033, OR = 0.58, 95 % CI = 0.39-0.84). In the allele frequency analysis, the C alleles of rs12026 and rs7493 and the A allele of rs13226149 were also shown to contribute to the decreased risk of ICH (p = 0.001, OR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.38-0.80 in rs12026 and rs7493; p = 0.003, OR = 0.58, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.83 in rs13226149). These results suggest that PON genes may be involved in the susceptibility of ICH.

  10. Factors affecting the occurrence of symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis depending on the haemorrhage definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzińska-Dźwigał, M; Sobolewski, Piotr; Szczuchniak, W

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) remains the most feared complication of systemic thrombolysis in patients with ischaemic stroke. The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of different factors on the occurrence of sICH, depending on definition used. We retrospectively evaluated the influence of several factors on the occurrence of sICH (according to definitions used in ECASS2, SITS-MOST and NINDS studies) in 200 patients treated with systemic thrombolysis from 2006 to 2011. Multivariate analysis of impact of individual variables on the occurrence of haemorrhagic transformation (HT) and parenchymal haemorrhage type 2 (PH2) were performed. Haemorrhagic transformation occurred in 35 cases (17.5%). SICH was found in 10 cases according to ECASS2, in 7 cases according to SITS and in 13 cases according to NINDS. Older age was related to higher risk of sICH, regardless which definition was used (ECASS2: p = 0.014, SITS-MOST: p = 0.048, NINDS: p = 0.008), and female sex was related to higher risk of sICH according to NINDS and ECASS2 definition (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). Blood glucose level and high NIHSS score (> 14 pts) were found as risk factor of sICH in ECASS2 definition (p = 0.044 and p = 0.03, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression higher NIHSS scores were associated with HT independent of age, gender and glucose level (p = 0.012). Multivariate analysis showed no impact of age, gender, severity of stroke and glucose level on presence of PH2. Definition of sICH can determine variables that are related to a high risk of this complication. In our study most factors correlated with sICH using the ECASS2 definition.

  11. Medication History versus Point-of-Care Platelet Activity Testing in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Matthew B; Naidech, Andrew M; Kim, Minjee; Batra, Ayush; Manno, Edward M; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Liotta, Eric M

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated whether reduced platelet activity detected by point-of-care (POC) testing is a better predictor of hematoma expansion and poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) than a history of antiplatelet medication exposure. Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study that collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic data. We measured platelet activity using the PFA-100 (Siemens AG, Germany) and VerifyNow-ASA (Accumetrics, CA) systems on admission. We performed univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses to assess the strength of association between those measures and (1) hematoma growth at 24 hours and (2) functional outcomes measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. We identified 278 patients for analysis (mean age 65 ± 15, median ICH score 1 [interquartile range 0-2]), among whom 164 underwent initial neuroimaging within 6 hours of symptom onset. Univariate association with hematoma growth was stronger for antiplatelet medication history than POC measures, which was confirmed in multivariable models (β 3.64 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-6.26], P = .007), with a larger effect size measured in the under 6-hour subgroup (β 7.20 [95% CI 3.35-11.1], P < .001). Moreover, antiplatelet medication history, but not POC measures of platelet activity, was independently associated with poor outcome at 3 months (mRS 4-6) in the under 6-hour subgroup (adjusted OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.2-11], P = .023). A history of antiplatelet medication use better identifies patients at risk for hematoma growth and poor functional outcomes than POC measures of platelet activity after spontaneous ICH. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nosocomial Infections and Outcomes after Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Santosh B; Moradiya, Yogesh; Shah, Jharna; Merkler, Alexander E; Mangat, Halinder S; Iadacola, Costantino; Hanley, Daniel F; Kamel, Hooman; Ziai, Wendy C

    2016-10-01

    Infections after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may be associated with worse outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the association between nosocomial infections (>48 h) and outcomes of ICH at a population level. We identified patients with ICH using ICD-9-CM codes in the 2002-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Demographics, comorbidities, surgical procedures, and hospital characteristics were compared between patients with and without concomitant nosocomial infections. Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and home discharge. Secondary outcome was permanent cerebrospinal shunt placement. Logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between infections and outcomes. Among 509,516 ICH patients, infections occurred in 117,636 (23.1 %). Rates of infections gradually increased from 18.7 % in 2002-2003 to 24.1 % in 2010-2011. Pneumonia was the most common nosocomial infection (15.4 %) followed by urinary tract infection (UTI) (7.9 %). Patients with infections were older (p Nosocomial infection was associated with longer hospital stay (11 vs. 5 days, p infection had higher odds of mortality [odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95 % CI 2.08-2.14] and cerebrospinal shunt placement (OR 2.19, 95 % CI 2.06-2.33) and lower odds of home discharge (OR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.47-0.51). Similar results were observed in subgroup analyses of individual infections. In a nationally representative cohort of ICH patients, nosocomial infection was associated with worse outcomes and greater resource utilization.

  13. Time course of NMR images and T1 values associated with hypertensive intracerebral hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inao, Suguru; Furuse, Masahiro; Saso, Katsuyoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Motegi, Yoshimasa; Kaneoke, Yoshiki; Kamata, Noriko; Izawa, Akira

    1986-01-01

    The present study describes time courses in tissue T 1 values, as well as in NMR imagings, associated with hypertensive intracerebral hematoma (ICH). Non-operative 21 cases of ICH were examined by FONAR QED 80-α NMR system, which possessed dual modes of image display and focal T 1 measurement (static magnetic field : 433 gauss). As the first step of examination SSFP images are displayed and then, at the regions of interest, absolute values of T 1 are measured by field focusing technique. The extent of ICH was revealed as high density zone in NMR imaging, occasionally represented much wider extent of high density area than the finding on X-ray CT. Prolonged T 1 values were obtained from such high density zone. This widespread high density area was regarded to reflect the spread of perifocal brain edema. T 1 value of the hematoma itself was rather shortened in its initial phase within 2 weeks, thereafter followed by prolongation in the time lapse. This seemed to reflect the alterations in the properties of hematoma such as clot formation in earlier phase and resolution in later phase. On the contrary, T 1 in the brain tissue surrounded to hematoma was apparently prolonged in the early phase within 2 weeks, representing the maximal values of 312 msec arround 2 to 4 weeks after the onset, and then gradually normalized in the period over 1 month. This alteration in tissue T 1 likely represents the processes of edema formation and its regression in perifocal zone. T 1 values measured in perifocal region might be available for the evaluation of edema state in association with cerebrovascular accident. (author)

  14. Minimal invasive puncture and drainage versus endoscopic surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhihong; Li, Yuqian; Xu, Feifei; Zhang, Xi; Tian, Qiang; Li, Lihong

    2017-01-01

    Two prevalent therapies for the treatment of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in basal ganglia are, minimally invasive puncture and drainage (MIPD), and endoscopic surgery (ES). Because both surgical techniques are of a minimally invasive nature, they have attracted greater attention in recent years. However, evidence comparing the curative effect of MIPD and ES has been uncertain. The indication for MIPD or ES has been uncertain till now. In the present study, 112 patients with spontaneous ICH in basal ganglia who received MIPD or ES were reviewed retrospectively. Baseline parameters prior to the operation, evacuation rate (ER), perihematoma edema, postoperative complications, and rebleeding incidences were collected. Moreover, 1-year postictus, the long-term functional outcomes of patients with regard to hematoma volume (HV) or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were judged, respectively, by the case fatality, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS), Barthel Index (BI), and modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The ES group had a higher ER than the MIPD group on postoperative day 1. The MIPD group had fewer adverse outcomes, which included less perihematoma edema, anesthetic time, and blood loss, than the ES group. The functional outcomes represented by GOS, BI, and mRS were better in the MIPD group than in the ES group for patients with HV 30-60 mL or GCS score 9-14. These results indicate that ES is more effective in evacuating hematoma in basal ganglia, while MIPD is less invasive than ES. Patients with HV 30-60 mL or GCS score 9-14 may benefit more from the MIPD procedure than from ES.

  15. Tigecycline reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha level and inhospital mortality in spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Saekhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SSICH is unsatisfactory. Inflammatory response secondary to brain injury as well as those resulted from surgical procedure were considered responsible of this outcome. This study was intended to elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity of tigecycline by measuring TNF-α level and its neuroprotective effect as represented by inhospital mortality rate.Methods: Patients with SSICH who were prepared for hematoma evacuation were randomized to receive either tigecycline (n=35 or fosfomycine (n=37 as prophylactic antibiotic. TNF-α level was measured in all subjects before surgery and postoperatively on day-1 and day-7. A repeated brain CT Scan was performed on postoperative day-7. The Glasgow outcome scale (GOS and length of stay (LOS were recorded at the time of hospital discharge. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Chi square test. Relative clinical effectiveness was measured by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT.Results: There was a significant difference regarding the proportion of subject who had  reduced TNF-α level on postoperative day-7 between the groups receiving tigecycline and fosfomycine (62% vs 29%, p=0.022. Decrease brain edema on CT control (86% vs 80%, p=0.580. Tigecycline administration showed a tendency of better clinical effectiveness in lowering inhospital mortality (17% vs 35%; p=0.083; OR=0.49; NNT=5 and worse clinical outcome / GOS ≤ 2 (20% vs 38% ; p=0.096; OR=0.41; NNT=6. LOS ≥ 15 hari ( 40% vs 27%; p=0.243; OR=1.81; NNT=8.Conclusion: Tigecycline showed anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. These activities were associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with SSICH after hematoma evacuation.

  16. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C.; Lingitz, H.; Eder, H.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  17. Intracerebral cavernous hemangioma after cranial irradiation in childhood. Incidence and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenger, V.; Sovinz, P.; Lackner, H.; Dornbusch, H.J.; Moser, A.; Urban, C. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Div. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Lingitz, H. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology; Eder, H.G. [Graz Medical Univ. (Austria). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2008-05-15

    Background and Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of various therapeutic regimens in pediatric and adult oncology. Endocrine dysfunction, neurologic and psychiatric deficits, secondary malignancies and radiation-induced necrosis are well-known possible late effects of cranial irradiation. However, only sporadic cases of radiation-induced cavernous hemangiomas (RICH) have been reported so far. Patients and Methods: Pediatric patients who underwent cranial radiation therapy for malignant diseases between January 1980 and December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. After the end of therapy they entered a detailed follow-up program. Results: Of 171 patients, eight (three patients with medulloblastoma, three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and one patient each with ependymoma and craniopharyngioma) developed intracerebral cavernoma 2.9-18.4 years after irradiation representing a cumulative incidence (according to the Kaplan-Meier method) of 2.24%, 3.86%, 4.95%, and 6.74% within 5, 10, 15, and 20 years following radiation therapy, respectively. In patients treated in the first 10 years of life, RICH occurred with shorter latency and significantly more often (p = 0.044) resulting in an even higher cumulative incidence. Conclusion: These findings and previously published cases show that cavernous hemangiomas may occur after irradiation of the brain several years after the end of therapy irrespective of the radiation dose and type of malignancy. Particularly children < 10 years of age at the time of irradiation are at higher risk. Since patients with RICH frequently do not show symptoms but hemorrhage is a possible severe complication, imaging of the central nervous system should be performed routinely for longer follow- ups, particularly in patients who were treated as young children. (orig.)

  18. Large-scale identification of human cerebrovascular proteins: Inter-tissue and intracerebral vascular protein diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jung Lee

    Full Text Available The human cerebrovascular system is responsible for regulating demand-dependent perfusion and maintaining the blood-brain barrier (BBB. In addition, defects in the human cerebrovasculature lead to stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, vascular malformations, and vascular cognitive impairment. The objective of this study was to discover new proteins of the human cerebrovascular system using expression data from the Human Protein Atlas, a large-scale project which allows public access to immunohistochemical analysis of human tissues. We screened 20,158 proteins in the HPA and identified 346 expression patterns correlating to blood vessels in human brain. Independent experiments showed that 51/52 of these distributions could be experimentally replicated across different brain samples. Some proteins (40% demonstrated endothelial cell (EC-enriched expression, while others were expressed primarily in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC; 18%; 39% of these proteins were expressed in both cell types. Most brain EC markers were tissue oligospecific; that is, they were expressed in endothelia in an average of 4.8 out of 9 organs examined. Although most markers expressed in endothelial cells of the brain were present in all cerebral capillaries, a significant number (21% were expressed only in a fraction of brain capillaries within each brain sample. Among proteins found in cerebral VSMC, virtually all were also expressed in peripheral VSMC and in non-vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC. Only one was potentially brain specific: VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor. HRC (histidine rich calcium binding protein and VHL were restricted to VSMC and not found in non-vascular tissues such as uterus or gut. In conclusion, we define a set of brain vascular proteins that could be relevant to understanding the unique physiology and pathophysiology of the human cerebrovasculature. This set of proteins defines inter-organ molecular differences in the vasculature and

  19. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neurosurgery Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Azzini, Cristiano [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ferrara (Italy); Chieregato, Arturo [Ospedale M. Bufalini, Neurocritical Care Unit, Cesena (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p < 0.0001). Perfusion absolute values were indicative of ischemia in hemorrhagic core, oligemia in perihematomal area, and hyperemia in normal-appearing and contralateral areas. Perihematomal rCBF and rCBV mean levels were higher in small ({<=}20 ml) than in large (>20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  20. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of intracerebral tuberculomas and its role in differentiating tuberculomas from metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankhe, Shilpa; Baheti, Akshay [Dept. of Radiology, Seth GS Medical Coll. and KEM Hospital, Thane (India)], e-mail: akshaybaheti@gmail.com; Ihare, Ashish; Mathur, Shobhit; Dabhade, Poonam; Sarode, Ashish [Dept. of Radiology, Seth GS Medical Coll. and KEM Hospital, Thane (India)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Intracerebral tuberculomas usually manifest as ring-enhancing of nodular lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These imaging findings are also observed in other lesions like metastases and toxoplasmosis. Purpose: To study the MRI perfusion characteristics of tuberculomas and its potential role in their definitive diagnosis. Material and Methods: Thirty-four tuberculomas were evaluated by conventional and perfusion MRI. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values of the center, peripheral wall, and perilesional neuroparenchymal tissue were calculated using rCBV maps. Ten ring-enhancing metastases were similarly evaluated and rCBV values of their peripheral walls were calculated. Results: Thirty-one of the 34 tuberculomas were ring-enhancing or conglomerate lesions and revealed hypoperfused centers with hyperperfused peripheral walls, with the mean rCBV {+-} SD being 0.42 {+-} 0.25 and 2.04 {+-} 0.61, respectively. Three nodular enhancing lesions showed predominantly homogenous hyperperfusion, with the mean rCBV measuring 2.96 {+-} 0.39 (mean {+-} SD). The perilesional neuroparenchyma was hypoperfused in both cases. The metastases revealed mean rCBV ratio of the peripheral wall to be 5.43 {+-} 2.1 (mean {+-} SD). Analysis of the values by ROC curve method revealed a cut-off value of {>=}3.745 for differentiating ring-enhancing metastases from ring-enhancing tuberculomas. Conclusion: Perfusion MR is a useful tool for the assessment of tuberculomas and can help differentiate them from neoplasms like metastases. It also has a potential role in monitoring therapy and for early detection of drug resistance.

  1. Electroacupuncture Exerts Neuroprotection through Caveolin-1 Mediated Molecular Pathway in Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Qin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH is one of the most devastating types of stroke. Here, we aim to demonstrate that electroacupuncture on Baihui (GV20 exerts neuroprotection for acute ICH possibly via the caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway. The model of ICH was established by using collagenase VII. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham-operation group, Sham electroacupuncture group, and electroacupuncture group. Each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to the time points of 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH. The methods were used including examination of neurological deficit scores according to Longa’s scale, measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability through Evans Blue content, in situ immunofluorescent detection of caveolin-1 in brains, western blot analysis of caveolin-1 in brains, and in situ zymography for measuring matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activity in brains. Compared with Sham electroacupuncture group, electroacupuncture group has resulted in a significant improvement in neurological deficit scores and in a reduction in Evans Blue content, expression of caveolin-1, and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, and 7 d after ICH (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results suggested that electroacupuncture on GV20 can improve neurological deficit scores and reduce blood-brain barrier permeability after ICH, and the mechanism possibly targets caveolin-1/matrix metalloproteinase/blood-brain barrier permeability pathway.

  2. Intracerebral Hemorrhage; towards physiological imaging of hemorrhage risk in acute and chronic bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael eJakubovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in management and prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, there has been little improvement in mortality over the last 30 years. Hematoma expansion, primarily during the first few hours is highly predictive of neurological deterioration, poor functional outcome and mortality. For each 10% increase in ICH size, there is a 5% increase in mortality and an additional 16% chance of poorer functional outcome. As such, both the identification and prevention of hematoma expansion are attractive therapeutic targets in ICH. Previous studies suggest that contrast extravasation seen on CT Angiography (CTA, MRI, and digital subtraction angiography correlates with hematoma growth, indicating ongoing bleeding. Contrast extravasation on the arterial phase of a CTA has been coined the CTA Spot Sign. These easily identifiable foci of contrast enhancement have been identified as independent predictors of hematoma growth, mortality and clinical outcome in primary ICH. The Spot Sign score, developed to stratify risk of hematoma expansion, has shown high inter-observer agreement. Post-contrast leakage or delayed CTA Spot Sign, on post contrast CT following CTA or delayed CTA respectively are seen in an additional ~8% of patients and explain apparently false negative observations on early CTA imaging in patients subsequently undergoing hematoma expansion. CT perfusion provides an opportunity to acquire dynamic imaging and has been shown to quantify rates of contrast extravasation. Intravenous recombinant factor VIIa(rFVIIa within 4 hours of ICH onset has been shown to significantly reduce hematoma growth. However, clinical efficacy has yet to be proven. There is compelling evidence that cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA may precede the radiographic evidence of vascular disease and as such contribute to microbleeding. The interplay between microbleeding, CAA,CTA Spot Sign and genetic composition (ApoE genotype may be crucial in developing a

  3. Development of a mechanics-based model of brain deformations during intracerebral hemorrhage evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Saramati; Weis, Jared A.; Godage, Isuru S.; Webster, Robert; Weaver, Kyle; Miga, Michael I.

    2017-03-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) occur in 24 out of 100,000 people annually and have high morbidity and mortality rates. The standard treatment is conservative. We hypothesize that a patient-specific, mechanical model coupled with a robotic steerable needle, used to aspirate a hematoma, would result in a minimally invasive approach to ICH management that will improve outcomes. As a preliminary study, three realizations of a tissue aspiration framework are explored within the context of a biphasic finite element model based on Biot's consolidation theory. Short-term transient effects were neglected in favor of steady state formulation. The Galerkin Method of Weighted Residuals was used to solve coupled partial differential equations using linear basis functions, and assumptions of plane strain and homogeneous isotropic properties. All aspiration models began with the application of aspiration pressure sink(s), calculated pressures and displacements, and the use of von Mises stresses within a tissue failure criterion. With respect to aspiration strategies, one model employs an element-deletion strategy followed by aspiration redeployment on the remaining grid, while the other approaches use principles of superposition on a fixed grid. While the element-deletion approach had some intuitive appeal, without incorporating a dynamic grid strategy, it evolved into a less realistic result. The superposition strategy overcame this, but would require empirical investigations to determine the optimum distribution of aspiration sinks to match material removal. While each modeling framework demonstrated some promise, the superposition method's ease of computation, ability to incorporate the surgical plan, and better similarity to existing empirical observational data, makes it favorable.

  4. Delayed rehabilitation lessens brain injury and improves recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriat, Angela M; Colbourne, Frederick

    2009-01-28

    Rehabilitation improves recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. In some cases, brain damage is attenuated. In this study, we tested whether environmental enrichment (EE) combined with skilled reach training improves recovery and lessens brain injury after ICH in rats. Collagenase was injected stereotaxically to produce a moderate-sized striatal ICH. One week after ICH rats were either placed into a rehabilitation (REHAB) or control (CONT) condition. The REHAB rats received 15 h of EE and four 15-minute reach-training sessions daily over 5 days a week for 2 weeks. The CONT rats stayed in standard group cages. Skilled reaching (staircase test), walking (horizontal ladder) and forelimb use bias (cylinder test) were assessed at 4 and 6 weeks after ICH. Lesion volume, corpus callosum volume and cortical thickness were calculated 46 days after ICH. The REHAB treatment reduced lesion volume by 28% (p=0.019) without affecting the corpus callosum volume (p=0.405) or cortical thickness (p=0.300), thus indicating that protection was due to lessening striatal injury. As well, REHAB significantly improved skilled reaching ability in the staircase apparatus at 4 (p=0.002) and 6 weeks (pladder test at 4 weeks (p=0.021). Unexpectedly, REHAB treatment lessened spontaneous use of the contralateral-to-ICH limb at 4 (p=0.045) and 6 weeks (p=0.041). In summary, the combination of EE and reach training significantly attenuates lesion volume (striatal injury) while improving skilled reaching and walking ability. These findings encourage the use of early rehabilitation therapies in patients suffering from basal ganglia hemorrhaging.

  5. The absence of the CD163 receptor has distinct temporal influences on intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Lampert, Andrew S; Loyola Amador, Claudia; Schlakman, Brandon; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Svendsen, Pia; Moestrup, Søren K; Doré, Sylvain

    2018-02-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) toxicity precipitates secondary brain damage following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). CD163 is an anti-inflammatory Hb scavenger receptor and CD163-positive macrophages/microglia locally accumulate post-bleed, yet no studies have investigated the role of CD163 after ICH. ICH was induced in wildtype and CD163 -/- mice and various anatomical and functional outcomes were assessed. At 3 d, CD163 -/- mice have 43.4 ± 5.0% (p = 0.0002) and 34.8 ± 3.4% (p = 0.0003) less hematoma volume and tissue injury, respectively. Whereas, at 10 d, CD163 -/- mice have 49.2 ± 15.0% larger lesions (p = 0.0385). An inflection point was identified, where CD163 -/- mice perform better on neurobehavioral testing and have less mortality before 4 d, but increased mortality and worse function after 4 d (p = 0.0389). At 3 d, CD163 -/- mice have less Hb, iron, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction, increased astrogliosis and neovascularization, and no change in heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) expression. At 10 d, CD163 -/- mice have increased iron and VEGF immunoreactivity, but no significant change in HO1 or astrogliosis. These novel findings reveal that CD163 deficiency has distinct temporal influences following ICH, with early beneficial properties but delayed injurious effects. While it is unclear why CD163 deficiency is initially beneficial, the late injurious effects are consistent with the key anti-inflammatory role of CD163 in the recovery phase of tissue damage.

  6. Continuous monitoring of intracranial pressure for prediction of postoperative complications of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S-X; Zhang, Q-S; Yin, Y; Liu, Z; Wu, J-M; Yang, M-X

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the value of continuous dynamic monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage to predict early postoperative complications. Data from 80 patients treated in our hospital from February 2014 to February 2015 were analyzed. The patients all underwent decompressive craniectomies, and their ICP changes were monitored invasively and continuously for 1 to 7 days after surgery. The average blood loss during surgery for the group of patients was 65.3 ± 12.4 ml and the mean GCS score 8.7 ± 2.4. Cases were divided into three groups according to ICP values to compare early postoperative complications of the groups: a normal and mildly increased group (51 cases), a moderately increased group (19 cases) and a severely increased group (10 cases). To validate the analysis we first showed that comparisons among groups based on gender, age, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, bleeding time, blood loss, operation time, craniectomy localization, and preoperative mannitol dosage yielded no statistically significant differences. In contrast, the following comparisons produced statistically significant differences: the comparison of postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores showing that the lower intracranial pressure, the higher the GCS score; the postoperative rehemorrhage, cerebral edema and death ratios showing the higher the intracranial pressure, the higher the rehemorrhage ratio; the average ICP and the time to occurrence of rehemorrhage, cerebral edema or cerebral infarction, showing the relationship between the average ICP and the time to a complication. Patients with higher ICP averages suffered a complication of rehemorrhage within the first 9.6 ± 2.5 hours on average. Nevertheless, the comparison of GCS scores in those patients and the others showed no significant differences. Based on the findings, the dynamic monitoring of intracranial pressure can early and sensitively predict postoperative

  7. Intensive care management of patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, E.; Yonekawa, Y.; Imhof, H.G.; Tanaka, M.; Valavanis, Anton

    2002-01-01

    We studied the impact of emergency neurosurgery and intensive care on the outcome for patients with severe intracerebral haemorrhage after endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We reviewed the case notes of 18 patients with severe haemorrhage after embolisation of a brain AVM between 1986 and 2001. During this period the treatment changed: before 1993, these patients were not surgically treated, and they died, while after 1994, all patients underwent emergency surgery. We established a standardised protocol for emergency treatment and intensive care in May 1998, and emergency surgery was performed as soon as possible after the onset of symptoms of haemorrhage. Postoperative intensive care was according to a standardised regime. During these 15 years, 24 out of 605 patients undergoing 1066 interventions had a haemorrhage during or after the procedure, of which 18 were severe (3% of patients, 1.7% of interventions). All patients had a severe clinical deficit (mean Glasgow coma scale 4.2); eight had uni- or bilateral mydriasis. From 1989 to April 1998 four (31%) of 13 patients died, one (7.5%) remained in a vegetative state and eight (61.5%) made a good recovery. All five patients treated between 1998 and 2001 had a favourable outcome. The mean time from onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage to reaching the operation room was 129 min between 1989 and 1998 and 24 min between 1998 and 2001. Standardised emergency treatment and intensive care with early resuscitation, minimal radiological exploration before rapid surgery improved the outcome. A short time between the onset of the symptoms of haemorrhage and evacuation of the haematoma may be the most important factor for a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  8. Prognostic Significance of Ultraearly Hematoma Growth in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients Receiving Hematoma Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; You, Chao; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) and clinical outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) receiving hematoma evacuation. Supratentorial sICH patients receiving hematoma evacuation within 24 hours after ictus were enrolled in this study. uHG was defined as baseline hematoma volume/onset-to-computed tomography (CT) time (mL/h). The outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Unfavorable outcome was defined as mRS >2. A total of 93 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean uHG was 10.3 ± 5.5 mL/h. In 69 (74.2%) of patients, the outcome was unfavorable at 3 months. The uHG in patients with unfavorable outcome were significantly higher than in those with favorable outcome (11.0 ± 6.1 mL/h vs. 8.3 ± 2.5 mL/h, P = 0.003). The optimal cutoff of uHG for predicting unfavorable outcome was 8.7 mL/h. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of uHG >8.7 mL/h for predicting unfavorable outcome were 56.5%, 75.0%, 86.7%, and 37.5%, respectively. uHG is a helpful predictor of unfavorable outcome in sICH patients treated with hematoma evacuation. The optimal cutoff of uHG to assist in predicting unfavorable outcome in sICH patients receiving hematoma evacuation is 8.7mL/h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurosurgical outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage: results of the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke Trial (FAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Vincent, Catherine; Morris, Stephen; Davis, Stephen; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Christensen, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The value of neurosurgical interventions after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is uncertain. We evaluated clinical outcomes in patients diagnosed with SICH within 3 hours of symptom onset who underwent hematoma evacuation or external ventricular drainage (EVD) of the hematoma in the Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke Trial (FAST). FAST was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between May 2005 and February 2007 at 122 sites in 22 countries. Neurosurgical procedures (hematoma evacuation and external ventricular drainage) performed at any point after hospital admission were prospectively recorded. Clinical outcomes evaluated were post-SICH disability, as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale; neurologic impairment, as assessed by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; and mortality at 90 days after SICH onset. The impact of neurosurgical procedures on clinical outcomes was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis, controlling for relevant baseline characteristics. Fifty-five of 821 patients underwent neurosurgery. Patients who underwent hematoma evacuation or EVD were on average younger, had greater baseline neurologic impairment, and lower levels of consciousness compared with patients who did not undergo neurosurgery. After adjusting for these differences and other relevant baseline characteristics, we found that neurosurgery was generally associated with unfavorable outcomes at day 90. Among the patients who underwent hematoma evacuation, those with lobar ICH had less ICH expansion than those with deep gray matter ICH, and the smaller expansion was associated with lower mortality. ICH volume was substantially decreased in patients who underwent hematoma evacuation between 24 and 72 hours after hospital admission, and this was associated with better clinical outcome. In conclusion, a small number of patients who underwent neurosurgery in FAST exhibited no overall clinical benefit

  10. Dot-like hemosiderin deposition on T2*-weighted MR imaging associated with nonhypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Toshio; Horita, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Masahiko; Miyata, Kei; Toyama, Kentaro; Yoshifuji, Kazuhisa; Hashimoto, Yuji; Niwa, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Microangiopathy, a disorder often related to hypertension, is an important cause of deep intracerebral hematoma (ICH). The microangiopathy is associated with dot-like low-intensity spots (a dot-like hemosiderin spot: dotHS) on gradient-echo T2*-weighted MR images that have been histologically diagnosed as old microbleeds. The locations of dotHS are consistent with deep ICH. To investigate how dotHS or other risk factors contribute to nonhypertensive deep ICH, the number and location of dotHSs, as well as other risk factors were examined in 213 deep ICH patients (106 males, 107 females, age: 37-94 (65.8 +/- 11.2) years) consecutively admitted to Hakodate Municipal Hospital. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of hypertension. DotHSs were also divided into deep and subcortical dotHS and investigated independently. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated from logistic regression analyses. Furthermore, nonhypertensive ICH patients were compared with nonhypertensive healthy volunteers matched for age and sex. No risk factors were identified in the 31 nonhypertensive deep ICH patients that differed from those found in the 182 hypertensive deep ICH patients. Deep dotHS > or = 1 (OR: 25.5; 95% CI: 4.76-137; P = .0002), subcortical dotHS > or = 1 (OR: 9.0; 95% CI: 1.79-44.9; P = .046), diabetes mellitus (OR: 9.0; 95% CI: 1.53-52.3; P = .015), and smoking (OR, 9.6; 95% CI; 1.8-49.8, P = .007) significantly elevated the risk of nonhypertensive ICH, compared to the healthy volunteers. Our findings suggest that deep and subcortical dotHSs may be risk factors for the development of non-hypertensive deep ICH.

  11. Mendelian Genes and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Small-Vessel Ischemic Stroke in Sporadic Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Michael; O'Donnell, Martin; Thijs, Vincent; Dans, Antonio; López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Mondo, Charles; Czlonkowska, Anna; Skowronska, Marta; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Yusuf, Salim; Paré, Guillaume

    2017-08-01

    Mendelian strokes are rare genetic disorders characterized by early-onset small-vessel stroke. Although extensively studied among families with syndromic features, whether these genes affect risk among sporadic cases is unknown. We sequenced 8 genes responsible for Mendelian stroke in a case-control study of sporadic stroke cases (≤70 years). Participants included 1251 primary stroke cases of small-vessel pathology (637 intracerebral hemorrhage and 614 small-vessel ischemic stroke cases) and 1716 controls from the INTERSTROKE study (Study of the Importance of Conventional and Emerging Risk Factors of Stroke in Different Regions and Ethnic Groups of the World). Overall, the prevalence of canonical disease-causing mutations was 0.56% in cases and 0.23% in controls (odds ratio=1.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-7.57; P =0.33). CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathies with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathies) mutations were more frequent among cases (0.48%) than controls (0.23%) but were not significantly associated with stroke risk (odds ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-8.02; P =0.27). Next, we included all rare nonsynonymous mutations to investigate whether other types of mutations may contribute to stroke risk. Overall, 13.5% of cases and 14.2% of controls were carriers of at least one rare nonsynonymous mutation among the 8 Mendelian stroke genes. Mutation carriers were not at elevated risk of stroke (odds ratio=0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.16; P =0.55). In the absence of syndromic features and family history of stroke, screening for Mendelian mutations among small-vessel stroke patients is unlikely to have high diagnostic utility. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Interictal functional connectivity of human epileptic networks assessed by intracerebral EEG and BOLD signal fluctuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle Bettus

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate whether spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI reflect spontaneous neuronal activity in pathological brain regions as well as in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. This is a crucial issue as coherent fluctuations of fMRI signals between remote brain areas are now widely used to define functional connectivity in physiology and in pathophysiology. We quantified functional connectivity using non-linear measures of cross-correlation between signals obtained from intracerebral EEG (iEEG and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI in 5 patients suffering from intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Functional connectivity was quantified with both modalities in areas exhibiting different electrophysiological states (epileptic and non affected regions during the interictal period. Functional connectivity as measured from the iEEG signal was higher in regions affected by electrical epileptiform abnormalities relative to non-affected areas, whereas an opposite pattern was found for functional connectivity measured from the BOLD signal. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional connectivities of iEEG and BOLD signal when considering all pairs of signals (theta, alpha, beta and broadband and when considering pairs of signals in regions spared by epileptiform discharges (in broadband signal. This suggests differential effects of epileptic phenomena on electrophysiological and hemodynamic signals and/or an alteration of the neurovascular coupling secondary to pathological plasticity in TLE even in regions spared by epileptiform discharges. In addition, indices of directionality calculated from both modalities were consistent showing that the epileptogenic regions exert a significant influence onto the non epileptic areas during the interictal period. This study shows that functional

  13. Significance of satellite sign and spot sign in predicting hematoma expansion in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Ali, Hasan; Guo, Rui; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Ma, Lu; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Hematoma expansion is related to poor outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, a non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) based finding, termed the 'satellite sign', was reported to be a novel predictor for poor outcome in spontaneous ICH. However, it is still unclear whether the presence of the satellite sign is related to hematoma expansion. Initial computed tomography angiography (CTA) was conducted within 6h after ictus. Satellite sign on non-enhanced CT and spot sign on CTA were detected by two independent reviewers. The sensitivity and specificity of both satellite sign and spot sign were calculated. Receiver-operator analysis was conducted to evaluate their predictive accuracy for hematoma expansion. This study included 153 patients. Satellite sign was detected in 58 (37.91%) patients and spot sign was detected in 38 (24.84%) patients. Among 37 patients with hematoma expansion, 22 (59.46%) had satellite sign and 23 (62.16%) had spot sign. The sensitivity and specificity of satellite sign for prediction of hematoma expansion were 59.46% and 68.97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of spot sign were 62.16% and 87.07%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of satellite sign was 0.642 and the AUC of spot sign was 0.746. (P=0.157) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the satellite sign is an independent predictor for hematoma expansion in spontaneous ICH. Although spot sign has the higher predictive accuracy, satellite sign is still an acceptable predictor for hematoma expansion when CTA is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Childhood Stature and Growth in Relation to First Ischemic Stroke or Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-03-01

    Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with CIs separately for women and men. Among 311 009 individuals, 10 412 were diagnosed with IS and 2546 with ICH. Height at 7 years was inversely and significantly associated with IS in both sexes (per z score, equivalent to ≈5.2 cm in women and 5.1 cm in men; women: HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.87-0.92]; men: HR=0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92]) and with ICH in men (HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.84-0.94]) but not in women (HR=0.97 [95% CI: 0.91-1.04]). Associations were similar at older childhood ages and were stable throughout the study period. No statistically significant associations for growth from 7 to 13 years were observed for IS or ICH. Short stature at 7 to 13 years is significantly associated with increased risks of IS in both sexes and with ICH in men. Growth during this period of childhood is not significantly associated with either of these stroke subtypes, suggesting that underlying mechanisms linking height with risks of stroke may exert their influence already by early childhood. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Jugular Venous Reflux Is Associated with Perihematomal Edema after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether jugular venous reflux (JVR is associated with perihematomal edema (PHE in individuals with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH within 72 h of symptom onset were enrolled. Baseline brain computed tomography (CT scan was performed, with a follow-up CT examination at 12 ± 3 days after onset. Jugular venous color Doppler ultrasound was performed at 12 ± 3 days after onset to examine the JVR status. A total of 65 patients with ICH were enrolled. In logistic regression analysis, absolute PHE volume was significantly associated with JVR (OR, 5.46; 95% CI, 1.04–28.63; p=0.044 and baseline hematoma volume (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03–1.26; p=0.009 within 72 h of onset. It was also correlated with JVR (OR, 15.32; 95% CI, 2.52–92.99; p=0.003 and baseline hematoma volume (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04–1.24; p=0.006 at 12 ± 3 days after onset. In a similar manner, relative PHE volume was significantly associated with JVR (OR, 14.85; 95% CI, 3.28–67.17; p<0.001 within 72 h of onset and at 12 ± 3 days after onset (OR, 5.87; 95% CI, 1.94–17.77; p=0.002. JVR is associated with both absolute and relative PHE volumes after ICH.

  16. Seizures do not increase in-hospital mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage in the nationwide inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Michael T; Kasner, Scott E; Messé, Steven R

    2013-08-01

    Seizures are common after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) but their impact on outcome is uncertain and prophylactic anti-convulsant use is controversial. We hypothesized that seizures would not increase the risk of in-hospital mortality in a large administrative database. The study population included patients in the 2006 Nationwide Inpatient Sample over the age of 18 with a principal diagnosis of ICH (ICD9 = 431). Subjects with a secondary diagnosis of aneurysm, arterio-venous malformation, brain tumor, or traumatic brain injury were excluded. Seizures were defined by ICD9 codes (345.0x-345.5x, 345.7x-345.9x, 780.39). Logistic regression was used to quantify the relationship between seizures and in-hospital mortality. Pre-specified subgroups included age strata, length of stay, and invasive procedures. 13,033 subjects met all eligibility criteria, of which 1,430 (11.0 %) had a secondary diagnosis of seizure. Subjects with seizure were younger (64 vs. 70 years, p mortality (24.3 vs. 28.0 %, p = 0.003). In a multivariable model incorporating patient and hospital level variables, seizures were associated with reduced odds of in-hospital death (OR = 0.62, 95 % CI 0.52-0.75). A secondary diagnosis of seizure after ICH was not associated with increased in-hospital death overall or in any of the pre-specified subgroups; however, there may be residual confounding by severity. These findings do not support a need for routine prophylactic anti-epileptic drug use after ICH.

  17. Transferring Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage Does Not Increase In-Hospital Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidy, Farhaan; Nguyen, Claude; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Mir, Osman; Sands, Kara A; Savitz, Sean I

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive stroke centers (CSCs) accept transferred patients from referring hospitals in a given regional area. The transfer process itself has not been studied as a potential factor that may impact outcome. We compared in-hospital mortality and severe disability or death at CSCs between transferred and directly admitted intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients of matched severity. We retrospectively reviewed all primary ICH patients from a prospectively-collected stroke registry and electronic medical records, at two tertiary care sites. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were divided into two groups: patients transferred in for a higher level of care and direct presenters. We used propensity scores (PS) to match 175 transfer patients to 175 direct presenters. These patients were taken from a pool of 530 eligible patients, 291 (54.9%) of whom were transferred in for a higher level of care. Severe disability or death was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) sore of 4-6. Mortality and morbidity were compared between the 2 groups using Pearson chi-squared test and Student t test. We fit logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for association between transfer status and in-hospital mortality and severe disability or death in full and PS-matched patients. There were no significant differences in the PS-matched transfer and direct presentation groups. Patients transferred to a regional center were not at higher odds of in-hospital mortality (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.50-1.71) and severe disability or death (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.39-1.50), than direct presenters, even after adjustment for PS, age, baseline NIHSS score, and glucose on admission. Our observation suggests that transfer patients of similar disease burden are not at higher risk of in-hospital mortality than direct presenters.

  18. Common Variants within Oxidative Phosphorylation Genes Influence Risk of Ischemic Stroke and Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Biffi, Alessandro; Nalls, Michael A.; Devan, William J.; Schwab, Kristin; Ayres, Alison M.; Valant, Valerie; Ross, Owen A.; Rost, Natalia S.; Saxena, Richa; Viswanathan, Anand; Worrall, Bradford B.; Brott, Thomas G.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Brown, Devin; Broderick, Joseph P.; Norrving, Bo; Greenberg, Steven M.; Silliman, Scott L.; Hansen, Björn M.; Tirschwell, David L.; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Selim, Magdy; Roquer, Jaume; Montaner, Joan; Singleton, Andrew B.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Woo, Daniel; Furie, Karen L.; Meschia, James F.; Rosand, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prior studies demonstrated association between mitochondrial DNA variants and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated whether variants within a larger set of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes encoded by both autosomal and mitochondrial DNA were associated with risk of IS and, based on our results, extended our investigation to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods This association study employed a discovery cohort of 1643 individuals, a validation cohort of 2432 individuals for IS, and an extension cohort of 1476 individuals for ICH. Gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on all structural OXPHOS genes, as well as genes contributing to individual respiratory complexes. Gene-sets passing GSEA were tested by constructing genetic scores using common variants residing within each gene. Associations between each variant and IS that emerged in the discovery cohort were examined in validation and extension cohorts. Results IS was associated with genetic risk scores in OXPHOS as a whole (odds ratio (OR)=1.17, p=0.008) and Complex I (OR=1.06, p=0.050). Among IS subtypes, small vessel (SV) stroke showed association with OXPHOS (OR=1.16, p=0.007), Complex I (OR=1.13, p=0.027) and Complex IV (OR 1.14, p=0.018). To further explore this SV association, we extended our analysis to ICH, revealing association between deep hemispheric ICH and Complex IV (OR=1.08, p=0.008). Conclusions This pathway analysis demonstrates association between common genetic variants within OXPHOS genes and stroke. The associations for SV stroke and deep ICH suggest that genetic variation in OXPHOS influences small vessel pathobiology. Further studies are needed to identify culprit genetic variants and assess their functional consequences. PMID:23362085

  19. Association between alanine aminotransferase and intracerebral hemorrhage in East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon Chang; Oh, Sun Min; Pan, Wen-Harn; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Gu, Dongfeng; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Suh, Il

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and chronic liver disease are relatively common in East Asian countries. However, the relationship between the two diseases is unclear. Thus, we investigated the association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and ICH risk in East Asian populations. The East Asian Network for Stroke Prevention enrolled 279,982 participants with ALT measurements from four cohort studies in Korea, Taiwan, Japan and mainland China. Among them, 1,324 ICH events and 493 ICH deaths were observed. Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis was performed in each cohort to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) after adjusting for age, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. Combined HRs were then estimated using pooled analyses with fixed-effects models. The multivariate-adjusted pooled HRs (with 95% confidence interval, CI) for ICH incidence per 10 IU/l increments of ALT were 1.04 (1.03-1.04) in men and 1.01 (0.98-1.04) in women. Corresponding HRs for ICH mortality were 1.04 (1.02-1.05) in men and 1.04 (1.00-1.08) in women. The pooled HRs for ICH incidence in participants with ALT levels greater than or equal to 50 IU/l compared to those with levels less than 20 IU/l were 1.74 (1.41-2.16) in men and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) in women. The corresponding HRs for ICH mortality were 1.72 (1.21-2.44) in men and 1.63 (0.79-3.36) in women. An elevated ALT level was independently and significantly associated with an increased risk of ICH in East Asian men, but the association was less prominent in women. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Incidence and Characteristics of Remote Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Sook Young; Song, Jihye; Oh, Se-Yang; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lim, Yong Cheol; Park, Sang Kyu; Shin, Yong Sam; Chung, Joonho

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of remote intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) after endovascular treatment (EVT) of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Between March 2007 and September 2015, 11 patients with remote ICH from a series of 2258 consecutive patients with 2597 UIAs treated via EVT were identified. Baseline demographic characteristics, medical history, radiologic imaging data, characteristics of remote ICH, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. The characteristics of patients with remote ICH were compared with those of patients without remote ICH. All hematomas were single lesions located in the subcortical white matter as lobar-type in 9 patients (81.8%) and in the basal ganglia in 2 patients (18.2%). Events occurred mostly within 1 week and up to 3 weeks after EVT. Hematoma was located on the ipsilateral side in 8 patients (72.7%) and in the contralateral side in 3 patients (27.3%). Compared with patients without remote ICH, there were more aneurysms located on the internal carotid artery (ICA) (P = 0.041), more patients treated with stents (P < 0.001), more patients with hypertension (P = 0.026), and poorer clinical outcomes at discharge (P < 0.001) for patients with remote ICH. The incidence of remote ICH after EVT of UIAs was 0.46%. This event occurred mostly in patients with stents, hypertension, and UIAs on the ICA. It presented mostly as an ipsilateral lobar-type hemorrhage within 1 week after the procedure. This complication should not be neglected because of its poor clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and the hematoma volume and stroke severity in acute intracerebral hemorrhage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaming; You, Shoujiang; Zhong, Chongke; Huang, Zhichao; Hu, Lifang; Zhang, Xia; Shi, Jijun; Cao, Yongjun; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2017-03-01

    Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) serves as a powerful inflammatory marker for predicting cardiovascular events. Here, we investigate whether admission NLR is associated with hematoma volume, stroke severity, and 3-month outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). 352 patients with acute ICH were prospectively identified in this study. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, NIHSS score, hematoma volumes, and other clinical features were recorded for all participants. Patients was divided into quartiles based on the admission NLR levels (Q1: hematoma volume, admission severity, or the outcomes after ICH. Median NIHSS scores for each quartile (Q1 to Q4) were 6.0, 6.0, 6.0, and 11.0 (P=.001), and median hematoma volumes were 9.5, 9.3, 9.1, and 15.0ml (P=.005), respectively. After adjusting the age, sex, and other potential risk factors, the patients in Q4 had higher NIHSS scores (P=.042) and larger hematoma volume (P=.014). After 3-month follow-up, 148 poor outcomes (mRS, 3-6) and 47 all-cause deaths were documented. There were more patients with poor outcomes in Q4 than Q1. However, compared with the patients in Q1, those in Q4 were not associated with poor outcomes (P-trend=0.379), and all-cause mortality (P-trend=0.843) after adjust for other risk factors. Higher admission NLR are associated with larger hematoma volume and more serious stroke, but not 3-month outcomes in patients with acute ICH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Association between Specific Substances of Abuse and Subcortical Intracerebral Hemorrhage Versus Ischemic Lacunar Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Emma H; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Llinas, Rafael H; Marsh, Elisabeth B

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension damages small vessels, resulting in both lacunar infarction and subcortical intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Substance abuse has also been linked to small vessel pathology. This study explores whether the use of specific substances (e.g., cocaine, tobacco) is associated with subcortical ICH over ischemia in hypertensive individuals. Patients with hypertension, admitted with lacunar infarcts (measuring tobacco) was obtained. "Current use" and "history of use" were determined from patient history or a positive toxicology screen. "Heavy use" was defined as: smoking- ≥0.5 packs per day or 10 pack-years; alcohol- average of >1 drink per day (women), >2 drinks per day (men). Logistic regression was performed with ICH as the dependent variable comparing those presenting with ICH to those presenting with ischemia. Of the 580 patients included in analysis, 217 (37%) presented with ICH. The average age was similar between the two groups (64.7 versus 66.3 years). Illicit/controlled drug use was associated with a significantly increased risk of ICH over stroke in unadjusted models (25 versus 15%, p = 0.02), with the largest effect seen in users ≥65 years old (not statistically significant). Smoking was associated with ischemia over ICH in a dose-dependent manner: any history of smoking OR 1.84, CI 1.19-2.84; current use OR 2.23, CI 1.37-3.62; heavy use OR 2.48, CI 1.50-4.13. Alcohol use was not preferentially associated with either outcome (p = 0.29). In hypertensive patients, tobacco use is associated with an increased risk of subcortical ischemia compared to ICH, while use of illicit/controlled substances appears to be predictive of hemorrhage.

  3. Curative effect of minimally invasive puncture and drainage assisted with alteplase on treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Lin Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the different effects on evacuation of hematoma, the severity of nerve injury, inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress response in the treatment of acute intracerebral hemorrhage by using minimally invasive puncture and drainage assisted with alteplase or urokinase. Methods: A total of 114 patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage treated with minimally invasive puncture and drainage in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into alteplase group and urokinase group, which received adjuvant therapy with alteplase and urokinase, respectively. Before and after treatment, CT was used for scanning, and the volume of hematoma and edema and the distance of midline shift were examined. After treatment, serum was collected for detecting the contents of molecular markers of nerve injury, inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress response. Results: On the 3rd day after treatment, the volume of hematoma and edema and the distance of midline shift in minimally invasive group were significantly lower than those of craniotomy group, and incidence of intracranial infection was lower than that of craniotomy group. There was no significant difference of rebleeding incidence compared to craniotomy group. The serum contents of osteopontin, S100β, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, myelin basic protein, neuropeptide Y, ischemia modified albumin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, highmobility group protein 1, malonaldehyde, advanced oxidation protein products and 8-hydroxy- 2'-deoxyguanosine urine of patients from alteplase group were significantly lower than those of urokinase group. The content of total antioxidant capacity was obviously higher than that of urokinase group. Conclusions: As for the effect on evacuation of hematoma and also the ameliorative effect on nerve injury

  4. In-vivo measurements of human brain tissue conductivity using focal electrical current injection through intracerebral multicontact electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koessler, Laurent; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Cecchin, Thierry; Hofmanis, Janis; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Norcia, Anthony M; Maillard, Louis G

    2017-02-01

    In-vivo measurements of human brain tissue conductivity at body temperature were conducted using focal electrical currents injected through intracerebral multicontact electrodes. A total of 1,421 measurements in 15 epileptic patients (age: 28 ± 10) using a radiofrequency generator (50 kHz current injection) were analyzed. Each contact pair was classified as being from healthy (gray matter, n = 696; white matter, n = 530) or pathological (epileptogenic zone, n = 195) tissue using neuroimaging analysis of the local tissue environment and intracerebral EEG recordings. Brain tissue conductivities were obtained using numerical simulations based on conductivity estimates that accounted for the current flow in the local brain volume around the contact pairs (a cube with a side length of 13 mm). Conductivity values were 0.26 S/m for gray matter and 0.17 S/m for white matter. Healthy gray and white matter had statistically different median impedances (P conductivity was found to be homogeneous as normality tests did not find evidence of multiple subgroups. Gray matter had lower conductivity in healthy tissue than in the epileptogenic zone (0.26 vs. 0.29 S/m; P = 0.012), even when the epileptogenic zone was not visible in the magnetic resonance image (MRI) (P = 0.005). The present in-vivo conductivity values could serve to create more accurate volume conduction models and could help to refine the identification of relevant intracerebral contacts, especially when located within the epileptogenic zone of an MRI-invisible lesion. Hum Brain Mapp 38:974-986, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Crowdsourcing Disease Biomarker Discovery Research: The IP4IC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Michael B; Bartolone, Sarah N; Veerecke, Andrew; Lamb, Laura E

    2017-12-07

    Biomarker discovery is limited by readily assessable, cost efficient human samples available in large numbers that represent the entire heterogeneity of the disease. We developed a novel, active participation crowdsourcing method to determine BP-RS (Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score). It is based on noninvasive urinary cytokines to discriminate patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had Hunner lesions from controls and patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome but without Hunner lesions. We performed a national crowdsourcing study in cooperation with ICA (Interstitial Cystitis Association). Patients answered demographic, symptom severity and urinary frequency questionnaires on a HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant website. Urine samples were collected at home, stabilized with a preservative and sent to Beaumont Hospital for analysis. The expression of 3 urinary cytokines was used in a machine learning algorithm to develop BP-RS. The IP4IC study collected a total of 448 urine samples, representing 153 patients (147 females and 6 males) with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, of whom 54 (50 females and 4 males) had Hunner lesions. A total of 159 female and 136 male controls also participated, who were age matched. A defined BP-RS was calculated to predict interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with Hunner lesions or a bladder permeability defect etiology with 89% validity. In this novel participation crowdsourcing study we obtained a large number of urine samples from 46 states, which were collected at home, shipped and stored at room temperature. Using a machine learning algorithm we developed BP-RS to quantify the risk of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with Hunner lesions, which is indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology. To our knowledge BP-RS is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and one of

  6. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Premature birth, respiratory distress, intracerebral hemorrhage, and silvery-gray hair: differential diagnosis of the 3 types of Griscelli syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Idrissi, Eman; ElGhazali, Geyhad; Alzahrani, Mofarah; Ménasché, Gaël; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana; Basile, Geneviève de Saint

    2010-08-01

    A preterm neonate, born to consanguineous parents, presented with respiratory distress, intracerebral hemorrhage, and a silvery-gray sheen of the hair and eyelashes. Griscelli syndrome (GS) type 3 was diagnosed after the detection of a novel homozygous mutation of the melanophilin gene. Thus, only the hypopigmentation, but not the patient's other clinical features, were attributable to this form of GS. Differential diagnosis of the various forms of GS must be performed as early as possible as GS2 is associated with a life threatening but curable immune disorder.

  8. A 3-D circuit model to evaluate CDM performance of Ics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sowariraj, M.S.B.; de Jong, P.C.; Salm, Cora; Mouthaan, A.J.; Kuper, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a physical description of the static charge flow through an IC during a CDM event. Based on this description, an equivalent 3-D circuit to model the complete IC under CDM stress is proposed. The model takes into account various factors like package parasitics, substrate

  9. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the supervision and service of commercial vehicles, this paper puts forward the overall application framework of IC card electronic license for road transport. The application examples of IC card license in the supervision of passenger station, dangerous goods transport management, governance overload and logistics park and port area management are discussed. The practical application results show that the application of IC card electronic license for road transport is an important technical means to improve the supervision ability and service quality of the road transportation industry.

  10. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  12. Comparison between Modified Neuroendoscopy and Craniotomy Evacuation of Spontaneous Intra-Cerebral Hemorrhages: Study of Clinical Outcome and Glasgow Outcome Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Ibrahim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purposes: Stroke is still one of a leading health-care problem in industrial country and in the developing country. Spontaneous Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage accounts for 30–60% of all stroke admissions into a hospital. Presence of intra-cerebral hemorrhage is considered a poor prognostic factor due to the resultant obstruction to the mass effect following the presence of blood resulting in raised intracranial pressure. While the craniotomy procedure failed to show more benefits over functional outcome, a less invasive and quicker surgical decompression might improve the outcome. Neuroendoscopy is one of promising optional  on minimal invasive  treatment  for spontaneous intra-cerebral hemorrhage. Material and Methods: We evaluated Glasgow Outcome Score and clinical outcome of patients with Spontaneous Intra-cerebral Hemorrhage who underwent modified neuroendoscopic surgery and craniotomy. Randomized control trial was performed during 27 months in 43 patients. Twenty-five patients treated with neuroendoscopy surgery and 18 patients with craniotomy. The removal of intra-cerebral hemorrhage was done by a modified neuroendoscopic transparent sheath made of silastic material, derived from pieces of thoracic tube No. 21F as a conduit working channel. Results: We analyzed statistically, clinical outcome assessment and Glasgow Outcome Scale 6 months post operative follow-up period. The mortality rate was significantly higher by Pearson chi-square methods, in craniotomy group n=12 (63.2% compared with neuroendoscopy group, n=7 (36.8% (p<.005. Patients with Glasgow Outcome Scale score 3–5 was higher in neuroendoscopy group, n=18 (75% compared with craniotomy group n=6 (25%. The survival rate analyzed by Kaplan Meier methods, found that patients in the neuroendoscopy group were a significantly longer survival rate compare with the craniotomy group during 6 months post operative follow-up period. Conclusions: Treatment of spontaneous

  13. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vascellari

    Full Text Available Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(Res. Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8 and 10(-13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  14. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascellari, Sarah; Orrù, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; King, Declan; Barron, Rona; Wilham, Jason M; Baron, Gerald S; Race, Brent; Pani, Alessandra; Caughey, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc)) can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc) propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C), by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen)) as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc) (PrP(Res)). Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8) and 10(-13) were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res) levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C). Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res), RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res) strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res) levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc) immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  15. Increased expression of Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 after Intracerebral Hemorrage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Yang, Jing; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Xiaomei; Lv, Zhiyu; Shi, Chang Qing; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-03-23

    To investigate the changes of Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 protein expression in rats with intracerebral hemorrage. 150 SD adult rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) Normal Control (NC) group, (2) Sham group, (3) Intracerebral Hemorrage (ICH) group. The data were collected at 6h, 12h, 1d, 2d, 3d, 5d and 7d. Apoptosis was measured by Tunel staining. The distributions of the Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 proteins were determined by immunohistochemical staining. The levels of Apo-J mRNA and Omi/HtrA2 mRNA expressions were examined by RT-PCR. Apoptosis in ICH group was higher than Sham and NC groups (p<0.05). Both the Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 expression levels were increased in the peripheral region of hemorrhage, with a peak at 3d. The Apo-J mRNA level positively correlated with HtrA2 mRNA level in ICH group (r=0.883, p<0.001). The expressions of Apo-J and Omi/HtrA2 paralelly increased in peripheral region of rat cerebral hemorrhage. Local high expressed Apo-J in the peripheral regions might play a neuroprotective role by inhibiting apoptosis via Omi/HtrA2 pathway after hemorrhage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Difficulties with recruiting into neurosurgical clinical trials: the Surgical Trial in IntraCerebral Haemorrhage II as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Matthew Anthony; Greenwood, Naomi; Singh, Navneet; Tyrrell, Pippa J; King, Andrew T; Patel, Hiren C

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating condition with a high morbidity and mortality, and uncertainty remains regarding the role of surgery in many cases. The Surgical Trial in IntraCerebral Haemorrhage II (STICH II) was initiated to look at subjects with superficial lobar ICH, as the initial STICH trial showed the greatest benefit from early surgery in this subgroup. Our aim was to estimate how many patients with ICH referred to the Greater Manchester Neurosciences Centre (GMNC) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the STICH II trial. The number of patients eligible for STICH II was determined from the GMNC referral database and admissions to the stroke unit over 1 year (2008). Eligibility was determined by predefined criteria, and equipoise was agreed by two consultant neurosurgeons. One hundred and sixty-eight (38.7%) of 434 ICH referrals were lobar ICH; 53 (31.5% of lobar ICH) of these met the radiological and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) criteria for STICH II, but only 16 (9.5% of lobar ICH; 3.7% of all ICH) had equipoise agreed on by two neurosurgeons. Thirty-five ICH patients were admitted to the stroke unit, and 12 (34.3%) of these had lobar ICH; none were eligible for STICH II. The number of patients eligible for recruitment into STICH II is small, necessitating an aggressive recruitment approach. Recruitment should focus on neuroscience centres with neurosurgical units as opposed to stroke units.

  17. Treatment of 817 patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage: characteristics, predictive factors and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homajoun Maslehaty

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the data of a large cohort of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, who were treated in our department and give a current overview considering special clinical characteristics, performed therapy and different predictive factors for morbidity and mortality. We reviewed the data of all patients with spontaneous ICH, who were treated in our department in a time span of 11 years through an analysis of our prospective database. Patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH were included in the study. Patients with hemorrhage associated to vascular malformation or to cerebral ischemic stroke were excluded. The clinical performance at time of admission and discharge were scored using the Glasgow coma scale (GCS and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS respectively. The patients’ cohort was divided into surgically and conservatively treated groups. Statistical analysis [Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and ?²-test] was done for various parameters to analyze their impact on morbidity and mortality. In total, we analyzed the data of 817 patients (364 female and 453 male. Two hundred and sixty-nine patients (32% were treated conservatively and 556 patients (68% underwent surgical procedures, i.e. cerebrospinal fluid drainage in 110 (19.8%, craniotomy in 338 (60.7% and application of both methods in 108 patients (19.4%. Total mortality rate was estimated with 23.5%. GCS<8, age over 70 years, intraventricular and basal ganglia hemorrhage, coumadin medication, combination of co-morbidities, hypertensive hemorrhage and postoperative re-bleeding were statistically significant risk factors for worse outcome (GOS 1 and 2 in the operated group. Similar to the observations of the operated group, GCS<8, age over 70 years and coumadin medication were statistically significant for worse outcome in the conservative group. In contrast, lobar plus basal ganglia ICH and multi-lobar hemorrhages were the most

  18. Low-Density Lipoprotein and Intracerebral Hematoma Expansion in Daily Alcohol Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle R. Pletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies suggest that the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH rate correlates with alcohol consumption. Alcohol leads to elevated blood pressure (BP and inhibition of platelet aggregation. These factors could promote excessive bleeding. To our knowledge, in the setting of normal liver function tests, there are no studies that have systematically evaluated the relationship between daily alcohol use and hematoma expansion. The aim of this study is to compare the baseline ICH characteristics, frequency of hematoma expansion, and outcomes in patients with ICH who are daily alcohol users with those who are not daily alcohol users. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive patients who presented from July 2008 to July 2013 to the Tulane University Hospital in New Orleans, La., USA, with a spontaneous ICH. Ninety-nine patients who met these criteria were admitted. Patients who underwent hematoma evacuation were excluded. Hemorrhage volumes were calculated based on the ABC/2 method. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL was dichotomized into low (2 and nonparametric equivalents where appropriate. ICH growth in 24 h and LDL were evaluated using linear regression. Results: Of the 226 patients who met inclusion criteria, 20.4% had a history of daily alcohol use. The average age was 61 years (range 19-94, 55.6% of the patients were males, and 67.1% were of African American origin. Daily alcohol use was associated with male gender, lower rate of home antihypertensive, higher presenting BP, and lower platelet counts, but there was no difference in ICH characteristics, ICH growth, or clinical outcome. Daily alcohol use in patients with a low LDL level was associated with supratentorial location and trends for lower baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, higher ICH score, and follow-up ICH volume, but no significant difference in significant hematoma expansion or clinical outcome except for a trend for higher mortality was found

  19. Decompressive craniectomy and expansive duraplasty with evacuation of hypertensive intracerebral hematoma, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Wael Mohamed Mohamed; Khedr, Wael

    2017-01-01

    Hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has high morbidity and mortality rates. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is generally used for the treatment of cases associated with refractory increased intracranial pressure (ICP). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of adding DC and expansive duraplasty (ED) to hematoma evacuation in patients who underwent surgery for large hypertensive ICH. A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial where 40 patients diagnosed having large hypertensive ICH was randomly allocated to either group A or B, each comprised 20 patients. Group A patients, the treatment group, were submitted to hematoma evacuation together with DC and ED, whereas group B patients, the control group, were submitted only to hematoma evacuation. Twenty-three (57.5 %) of the patients were males, with an overall age range of 34-79 years (mean 59.3 years). Preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in group A ranged from 4 to 13 (mean 7.1), while in group B it ranged from 4 to 12 (mean 6.8). Postoperative hydrocephalus occurred in 3 (15 %) patients in group A and in 4 (20 %) patients in group B, whereas meningitis occurred in one patient (5 %) in group A. The mortality rate was 2 (10 %) patients in group A as compared to 5 (25 %) patients in group B (p = 0.407). High admission GCS (p = 0.0032), younger age (p = 0.0023), smaller hematoma volume (p = 0.044), subcortical hematoma location (p = 0.041), absent or minimal preoperative (p = 0.0068), and postoperative (p = 0.0031) midline shift as well as absent intraventricular extension of the hematoma (p = 0.036) contributed significantly to a better outcome. Selected patients' subgroups who benefited from adding DC and ED to ICH evacuation were age category of 30 to less than 50 (p = 0.0015) and from 50 to less than 70 (p = 0.00619) as well as immediate preoperative GCS from 6 to 8 (p = 0.000436) and from 9 to 12 (p = 0.00774). At 6

  20. ICECAP: an integrated, general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chou, Judy; King, Kristopher W; Jing, Jing; Wei, Dong; Yang, Liyu

    2015-02-01

    IC50 and EC50 values are commonly used to evaluate drug potency. Mass spectrometry (MS)-centric bioanalytical and biomarker labs are now conducting IC50/EC50 assays, which, if done manually, are tedious and error-prone. Existing bioanalytical sample preparation automation systems cannot meet IC50/EC50 assay throughput demand. A general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform was developed to automate the calculations of spiking solutions and the matrix solutions preparation scheme, the actual spiking and matrix solutions preparations, as well as the flexible sample extraction procedures after incubation. In addition, the platform also automates the data extraction, nonlinear regression curve fitting, computation of IC50/EC50 values, graphing, and reporting. The automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform can process the whole class of assays of varying assay conditions. In each run, the system can handle up to 32 compounds and up to 10 concentration levels per compound, and it greatly improves IC50/EC50 assay experimental productivity and data processing efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IC 4651 uvby photometry (Meibom, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibom, S.

    2000-08-01

    New accurate CCD photometry in the u, v, b and y bands of the Stroemgren system filters has been obtained for 17640 stars to approximately. V=20mag in a approximately 21' x 21' field centered on the intermediate-age open cluster IC 4651. The observations was obtained with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 contains information about the Date, Night, Filter, Exposure time, Airmass, CCD rotation angle, and RA- , DE-offsets for all 89 frames. Table 2 gives cross-references between the MEI-system (this paper) and the Lindoff (1972A&AS....7..231L, IC 4651 NNN), Eggen (1971ApJ...166...87E, Cl* IC 4651 Egg NN), Anthony-Twarog & Twarog (1987AJ.....94.1222A, Cl* IC 4651 AT 1-NNN, Cl* IC 4651 AT 2-NN), and Anthony-Twarog et al. (1988AJ.....95.1453A, Cl* IC 4651 AMC I-NNN, Cl* IC 4651 AMC NNNN) identification numbers. Table 3 is the final catalogue of the new Stroemgren uvby photometry, ordered by MEI identification number. For each star, it gives the MEI number, Global CCD x- and y-coordinates, J2000 coordinates , the new y, b, v, and u magnitudes on the standard system, number of detections of the individual stars, and their mean errors. (3 data files).

  2. Extracción de cobre desde soluciones clorhídricas con LIX 860N-IC y LIX 84-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Carlos María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the extraction of copper from chloride solutions with two hydroxyoximes: 5- nonylsalicylaldoxime (LIX 860N-IC and 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenona oxime (LIX 84-IC is discussed. The results showed that an increase in the acidity and an increase in the total concentration of chloride ions in the aqueous phase decreased significantly the extraction of copper as well as the extraction of iron for both extractants. This effect of the chloride ions can be explained by the formation of a series of chloro complexes of Cu(II and Fe(III in the aqueous phase. The effect of initial pH and total chloride concentration on the extraction of chloride by the organic phase suggests that LIX 860N-IC, and to a lesser extent LIX 84-IC, extract small amounts of the cationic complex, CuCl+. An increase in the concentration of chloride ions also produced a small decrease in the rate of copper extraction with both hydroxyoximes.

    En este trabajo se discute el estudio de la extracción de cobre desde soluciones clorhídricas con dos hidroxioximas: 5-nonilsalicilaldoxima (LIX 860N-IC, y 2-hidroxi-5 nonilacetofenona oxima (LIX 84-IC. Los resultados indicaron que al aumentar la acidez o aumentar la concentración de cloruro en la fase acuosa se produce una significativa disminución en la extracción de cobre y hierro con ambas hidroxioximas. Este efecto del ion cloruro se explica por la formación de varios clorocomplejos de Cu(II y Fe(III en la solución acuosa. El efecto del pH y la concentración total de cloruro en la extracción de cloruro sugiere que el LIX 860N-IC, y en menor grado el LIX 84-IC extraen pequeñas cantidades del catión monovalente, CuCl+. Se determinó también que un aumento en la concentración de cloruro en la solución acuosa produce una leve disminución en la velocidad de extracción del cobre con ambas hidroxioximas.

  3. Prion Seeding Activities of Mouse Scrapie Strains with Divergent PrPSc Protease Sensitivities and Amyloid Plaque Content Using RT-QuIC and eQuIC

    OpenAIRE

    Vascellari, Sarah; Orrù, Christina D.; Hughson, Andrew G.; King, Declan; Barron, Rona; Wilham, Jason M.; Baron, Gerald S.; Race, Brent; Pani, Alessandra; Caughey, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc)) can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc) propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C), by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen)) as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assay...

  4. Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Federico; Gentile, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Balsi, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2007-01-01

    We present a general method for the classification of independent components (ICs) extracted from functional MRI (fMRI) data sets. The method consists of two steps. In the first step, each fMRI-IC is associated with an IC-fingerprint, i.e., a representation of the component in a multidimensional space of parameters. These parameters are post hoc estimates of global properties of the ICs and are largely independent of a specific experimental design and stimulus timing. In the second step a machine learning algorithm automatically separates the IC-fingerprints into six general classes after preliminary training performed on a small subset of expert-labeled components. We illustrate this approach in a multisubject fMRI study employing visual structure-from-motion stimuli encoding faces and control random shapes. We show that: (1) IC-fingerprints are a valuable tool for the inspection, characterization and selection of fMRI-ICs and (2) automatic classifications of fMRI-ICs in new subjects present a high correspondence with those obtained by expert visual inspection of the components. Importantly, our classification procedure highlights several neurophysiologically interesting processes. The most intriguing of which is reflected, with high intra- and inter-subject reproducibility, in one IC exhibiting a transiently task-related activation in the 'face' region of the primary sensorimotor cortex. This suggests that in addition to or as part of the mirror system, somatotopic regions of the sensorimotor cortex are involved in disambiguating the perception of a moving body part. Finally, we show that the same classification algorithm can be successfully applied, without re-training, to fMRI collected using acquisition parameters, stimulation modality and timing considerably different from those used for training.

  5. Estimation of K/Ic/ from slow bend precracked Charpy specimen strength ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succop, G.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented concerning strength ratios which have been derived from slow bend tests on 0.25-in.-thick precracked Charpy specimens of steels, aluminum alloys, and a titanium alloy for which valid K(Ic) values have been established. The K(Ic) values considered are plane strain fracture toughness values as defined in the ASTM Method E 399-74. The strength ratios are used to develop calibration curves which could be useful in estimating K(Ic) for the purposes of alloy development or quality control.

  6. IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rusen, Ciprian Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on IC3 prep, with expert instruction and loads of tools IC3: Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 Study Guide is the ideal all-in-one resource for those preparing to take the exam for the internationally-recognized IT computing fundamentals credential. Designed to help candidates pinpoint weak areas while there's still time to brush up, this book provides one hundred percent coverage of the exam objectives for all three modules of the IC3-GS4 exam. Readers will find clear, concise information, hands-on examples, and self-paced exercises that demonstrate how to per

  7. The Effect of Combined Therapy ICS/LABA and ICS/LABA plus Montelukast in Patients with Uncontrolled Severe Persistent Asthma Based on the Serum IL-13 and FEV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Jovanovska Janeva

    2015-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Treatment with ICS/LABA plus Montelukast proved superior compared to therapy of ICS/LABA in patients with uncontrolled severe persistent asthma and allows achievement of well controlled of asthma with subjective clinical improvement.

  8. Diagnostic yield and accuracy of CT angiography, MR angiography, and digital subtraction angiography for detection of macrovascular causes of intracerebral haemorrhage: Prospective, multicentre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.J. Van Asch (Charlotte J.J.); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); G.J.E. Rinkel (Gabriël J.E.); A. Algra (Ale); G.A.P. de Kort (G. A P); T.D. Witkamp (Theo); J.C.M. De Ridder (Johanna C.M.); K.M. Van Nieuwenhuizen (Koen M.); F.-E. De Leeuw (Frank-Erik); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); T.W.M. Raaymakers (Theodora W.M.); J. Hofmeijer; M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); H. Kerkhoff (Henk); K. Jellema (Korné); I.M. Bronner (Irene M.); M.J.M. Remmers (Michel ); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); R.J.G.M. Witjes (Ron J.G.M.); J.P. Greving (Jacoba); C.J.M. Klijn (Catharina J.M.); H.F. de Leeuw (Frank); H.B. Boogaarts; E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); W.J. Schonewille; W.M.J. Pellikaan; C. Puppels-De Waard; P.L.M. De Kort; J.P. Peluso; J. van Tuijl (Jordie); J. Hofmeijer; F.B.M. Joosten (Frank); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); L. Khajeh (Ladbon); T.W.M. Raaijmakers; M.J. Wermer; M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); H. Kerkhoff; E. Zock; K. Jellema (Korné); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); I.M. Bronner; M.J.M. Remmers; R.J.G.M. Witjes; H.P. Bienfait; K.E. Droogh-Greve; R. Donders (Rogier); V.I.H. Kwa; T.H.C.M.L. Schreuder (Tobien H. C. M. L.); C.L. Franke (Cees); J.S. Straver; C. Jansen; S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); C.C. Pleiter (C.); M.C. Visser; C.J.J. Van Asch; B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); G.J.E. Rinkel (Gabriel); K.M. Van Nieuwenhuizen; C.J.M. Klijn (Catharina J.M.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractStudy question What are the diagnostic yield and accuracy of early computed tomography (CT) angiography followed by magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage? Methods This

  9. Systematic Characterization of the Computed Tomography Angiography Spot Sign in Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage Identifies Patients at Highest Risk for Hematoma Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Almandoz, Josser E.; Yoo, Albert J.; Stone, Michael J.; Schaefer, Pamela W.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Rosand, Jonathan; Oleinik, Alexandra; Lev, Michael H.; Gonzalez, R. Gilberto; Romero, Javier M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The presence of active contrast extravasation (the spot sign) on computed tomography (CT) angiography has been recognized as a predictor of hematoma expansion in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We aim to systematically characterize the spot sign to identify features that are most predictive of hematoma expansion and construct a spot sign scoring system. Methods We retrospectively reviewed CT angiograms performed in all patients who presented to our emergency department over a 9-year period with primary intracerebral hemorrhage and had a follow-up noncontrast head CT within 48 hours of the baseline CT angiogram. Three neuroradiologists reviewed the CT angiograms and determined the presence and characteristics of spot signs according to strict radiological criteria. Baseline and follow-up intracerebral hemorrhage volumes were determined by computer-assisted volumetric analysis. Results We identified spot signs in 71 of 367 CT angiograms (19%), 6 of which were delayed spot signs (8%). The presence of any spot sign increased the risk of significant hematoma expansion (69%, OR=92, Pictus to CT angiogram evaluation. Conclusion The spot sign score predicts significant hematoma expansion in primary intracerebral hemorrhage. If validated in other data sets, it could be used to select patients for early hemostatic therapy. PMID:19574553

  10. Prognostic Significance of Hyponatremia in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carcel, C.; Sato, S.; Zheng, D.; Heeley, E.; Arima, H.; Yang, J.; Wu, G.; Chen, G.; Zhang, S.; Delcourt, C; Lavados, P.; Robinson, T.; Lindley, R.I.; Wang, X.; Chalmers, J.; Anderson, C.S.; Klijn, C.J.M.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of hyponatremia at presentation with clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN: Retrospective pooled analysis of prospectively collected data from 3,243 participants of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive

  11. Acute post-stroke blood pressure relative to premorbid levels in intracerebral haemorrhage versus major ischaemic stroke: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bull, Linda M; Silver, Louise E; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background It is often assumed that blood pressure increases acutely after major stroke, resulting in so-called post-stroke hypertension. In view of evidence that the risks and benefits of blood pressure-lowering treatment in acute stroke might differ between patients with major ischaemic stroke and those with primary intracerebral haemorrhage, we compared acute-phase and premorbid blood pressure levels in these two disorders. Methods In a population-based study in Oxfordshire, UK, we recruited all patients presenting with stroke between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2012. We compared all acute-phase post-event blood pressure readings with premorbid readings from 10-year primary care records in all patients with acute major ischaemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >3) versus those with acute intracerebral haemorrhage. Findings Of 653 consecutive eligible patients, premorbid and acute-phase blood pressure readings were available for 636 (97%) individuals. Premorbid blood pressure (total readings 13 244) had been measured on a median of 17 separate occasions per patient (IQR 8–31). In patients with ischaemic stroke, the first acute-phase systolic blood pressure was much lower than after intracerebral haemorrhage (158·5 mm Hg [SD 30·1] vs 189·8 mm Hg [38·5], pblood pressure after intracerebral haemorrhage was substantially higher than premorbid levels (mean increase of 40·7 mm Hg, pblood pressure also increased steeply in the days and weeks before intracerebral haemorrhage (regression pblood pressure reading after primary intracerebral haemorrhage was more likely than after ischaemic stroke to be the highest ever recorded (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·3–5·2, pblood pressure within 3 h of onset was 50 mm Hg higher, on average, than the maximum premorbid level whereas that after ischaemic stroke was 5·2 mm Hg lower (pblood pressure is substantially raised compared with usual premorbid levels after intracerebral haemorrhage, whereas acute

  12. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X

    1999-01-01

    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  13. Research on Methods of Processing Transit IC Card Information and Constructing Transit OD Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiuhua; Li, Jin; Peng, Han

    Transit OD matrix is of vital importance when planning urban transit system. Traditional transit OD matrix constructing method needs a large range of spot check survey. It is expensive and needs long cycle time to process information. Recently transit IC card charging systems have been widely applied in big cities. Being processed reasonably, transit passenger information stored in IC card database can turn into information resource. It will reduce survey cost a lot. The concept of transit trip chain is put forward in this paper. According to the characteristics of closed transit trip chain, it discusses how to process IC card information and construct transit OD matrix. It also points out that urban transit information platform and data warehouse should be constructed, and how to integrate IC card information.

  14. Autonomus I&C Maintenance and Health Monitoring System for Fission Surface Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal of this project is to design and develop an autonomous instrumentation and control (I&C) health monitoring system for space nuclear power...

  15. Isolation and sequencing of the cryIC-like delta endotoxin gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and sequencing of the cryIC-like delta endotoxin gene from Egyptian strains of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic against Lepidoptera. ME Elkashef, AM Heikal, MEDM Solliman, MI Kobeasy, HA El-Shemy ...

  16. Experimental acute intracerebral hemorrhage: Value of MR sequences for a safe diagnosis at 1.5 and 0.5 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueker, W.; Thron, A.; Thiex, R.; Rohde, I.; Rohde, V.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the detectability of intracerebral hematomas with MR imaging at 1.5 T and 0.5 T with fluid attenuated inversion recovery turbo spin-echo (FLAIR) and gradient-echo sequences. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven intracerebral hematomas were created in 25 piglets by injection of venous blood into the brain through a burr hole. All were imaged with T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences (fast field echo, FFE), T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery turbo spin-echo sequences (FLAIR), T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and T1-weighted spin-echo sequences. Follow-up was performed on the 2nd, 4th and 10th postoperative days. Ten animals were additionally investigated with similar sequences at 0.5 T. Histologic correlation was obtained in all cases. Results: T2* FFE sequences detected all acute intracerebral hematomas and demonstrated the size correctly at 1.5 T and 0.5 T. The conspicuity was better at 1.5 T. FLAIR sequences were unreliable in the hyperacute phase at 1.5 T. However, subarachnoid and intraventricular extension was best appreciated with FLAIR images. T2 TSE images were incapable of detecting para ventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhages, but clearly demonstrated intracerebral blood in other locations. T1-weighted images were insensitive to hemorrhage in the acute state but very useful in subacute and chronic hematomas. Conclusion: The safe and reliable diagnosis of intracerebral hemorrhage is probably possible with MR imaging at 1.5 T and 0.5 T even of hematomas less than 90 min old, but requires the application of at least FLAIR, T2* FFE and T1 sequences and is therefore time consuming

  17. Novel 3-N-Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase Gene, aac(3)-Ic, from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Integron

    OpenAIRE

    Riccio, Maria Letizia; Docquier, Jean-Denis; Dell'Amico, Emanuela; Luzzaro, Francesco; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2003-01-01

    A novel gene, aac(3)-Ic, encoding an AAC(3)-I aminoglycoside 3-N-acetyltransferase, was identified on a gene cassette inserted into a Pseudomonas aeruginosa integron that also carries a blaVIM-2 and a cmlA7 gene cassette. The aac(3)-Ic gene product is 59 and 57% identical to AAC(3)-Ia and AAC(3)-Ib, respectively, and confers resistance to gentamicin and sisomicin.

  18. The use of biomass syngas in ic engines and ccgt plants: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper studies the use of biomass syngas, obtained from pyrolysis or gasification, in traditional energy-production systems, specifically Internal Combustion (IC) engines and Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) plants. The biomass conversion stage has been simulated by means of a gas-solid thermodynamic model. The IC and CCGT plant configurations were optimised to maximise heat and power production. Several types of biomass feedstock were studied to assess their potentia...

  19. Estimation of Ksub Ic from slow bend precracked Charpy specimen strength ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succop, G.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Strength ratios are reported which were derived from slow bend tests on 0.25 inch thick precracked Charpy specimens of steels, aluminum alloys, and a titanium alloy for which valid K sub Ic values were established. The strength ratios were used to develop calibration curves typical of those that could be useful in estimating K sub Ic for the purposes of alloy development of quality control.

  20. Pre-History of a Starburst: Deep Imaging of IC 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    The peculiar Local Group dwarf galaxy IC 10 is the nearest case of a starburst in progress. Starburst galaxies are a prime laboratory for studying the physical processes which regulate star formation in galaxies; as the closest example, IC 10 is potentially the key galaxy for understanding the starburst phenomenon. We propose to obtain deep optical images of IC 10 with the ACS/WFC to achieve three main goals: 1} To make the first estimates of the pre-burst history of IC 10 based on morphological and statistical analysis of its {V, I} color-magnitude diagram; 2} to search for evidence of a past history of burst-dormancy cycles; and 3} to explore the connection between the ages and locations of bright stars and the large-scale structure of the interstellar medium. The distance {0.8 Mpc}, extinction {2.5 mag}, and high surface brightness of IC 10 make these goals unobtainable except with HST. The observations proposed here will yield far and away the deepest images, in absolute magnitudes, ever obtained for any starburst galaxy. Our photometry will reach to magnitudes {V, I} = {28.5, 27.5}, which is below the level of the red clump/horizontal branch and the location of the main-sequence turnoff of stars as old as a billion years. For the first time, it will be possible to measure the detailed history of a starburst host for the Gigayear time period leading up to the burst. The horizontal branch morphology and colors will provide new information on the metallicity and age distribution of stars spanning the entire age of IC 10. Because of its close distance, IC 10 is the ONLY starburst galaxy for which this type of information is obtainable now or in the next decade. We propose to use WFPC2 in parallel to search for a low-surface brightness population associated with the neutral gas filaments surrounding IC 10.

  1. SN2005da: A Spectroscopic and Photometric Analysis of a Peculiar Type Ic Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jacob

    2017-12-01

    Core collapse supernovae are an important class of objects in stellar evolution research as they are the final life stage of high mass stars. Supernovae in general are classified into several spectral types; this paper explores SN 2005da, classified as a Type Ic, meaning it lacks hydrogen and helium lines. The supernova was originally classified as a broad-lined Type Ic (Type Ic-BL), with expansion velocities near maximum light greater than or approximately equal to 15000 km/s. However, some of the elements present in the spectrum, namely carbon and oxygen, have narrower lines (FWHM approximately equal to 2300 km/s) than other elements, indicating an interaction with a previously ejected envelope. The supernova is also found to have a decay time, with a change in magnitude over 15 days following maximum light of about 1.4 magnitudes, that is significantly faster than typical Type Ic or Ic-BL. This is more akin to a rarer object type known as a Type Ibn, although it lacks the characteristic narrow helium lines of this type. Therefore, SN 2005da appears to be unlike known examples of Type Ic supernovae.

  2. PENGARUH MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: PADA PERUSAHAAN IC INTENSIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dista Amalia Arifah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible asset proxied by Intellectual Capital has important role to drive companies values creation. Although many companies have applied corporate governance mechanism in order to have IC disclosure recognition, most of them do not focus on Intellectual Capital disclosure yet. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of corporate governance mechanisms consisting of size of the board commissioners, the independence level of independent commissioner, the activities of independent commissioners, and audit committee on the intellectual capital disclosures of the companies listed in BEI in 2009 using intensive ICs category with the adding of kontrol variables. This study will provide an illustration on how the mechanisms of corporate governance practices and IC disclosure become a value creation source for the company. There are a total of 176 companies categorized as IC intensive. Using a purposive sampling method, 45 companies were selected as samples. The 2009 annual reports of the companies are used as secondary data source of this research. Furthermore, to get ICs disclosure data content analysis technique was used both for quantity and quality terms. The results indicate that audit committee is the only corporate governance mechanism that significantly affects the level of IC disclosures.

  3. PENGARUH IC TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN PERIODE 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subkhan -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti pengaruh intellectual capital (IC perusahaan pada kinerja keuangan mereka. Penelitian ini menggunakan Public Framework dan data dari 57 sektor perbankan Indonesia yang tercatat antara tahun 2005 dan 2007 pada Indonesian Stock Exchange. Penelitian ini menggunakan partial least square (PLS untuk menganalisis data. 3 elemen IC dan kinerja perusahaan dites dalam penelitian ini. Hasilnya memperlihatkan bahwa IC dan kinerja keuangan mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan, VACA mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja keuangan, VAHU mempuyai pengaruh yang signifikan  terhadap kinerja keuangan, dan STVA mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja keuangan. Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of firm’s intellectual capital (IC on their financial performance. This paper uses Public Framework and data from 57 Indonesian banking sectors listed between 2005 and 2007 on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This study uses partial least square (PLS for data analysis. Three elements of IC and company performances are tested by this study. The results show that IC and financial performance have significant influence, VACA has significant influence to financial performance, VAHU has significant influence to financial performance, and STVA has significant influence to financial performance.Keywords: intellectual capital; financial performance

  4. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-11-01

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Sensitivity Study on Availability of I&C Components Using Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khalil Ur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find out the impact of instrumentation and control (I&C components on the availability of I&C systems in terms of sensitivity analysis using Bayesian network. The analysis has been performed on I&C architecture of reactor protection system. The analysis results would be applied to develop I&C architecture which will meet the desire reliability features and save cost. RPS architecture unavailability P(x=0 and availability P(x=1 were estimated to 6.1276E-05 and 9.9994E-01 for failure (0 and perfect (1 states, respectively. The impact of I&C components on overall system risk has been studied in terms of risk achievement worth (RAW and risk reduction worth (RRW. It is found that circuit breaker failure (TCB, bi-stable processor (BP, sensor transmitter (TR, and pressure transmitter (PT have high impact on risk. The study concludes and recommends that circuit breaker bi-stable processor should be given more consideration while designing I&C architecture.

  6. A New Interface for the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Shaar, R.; Jonestrask, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of uploading data, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Data uploading has been simplified and no longer requires the use of the Excel SmartBook interface. Instead, properly formatted MagIC text files can be dragged-and-dropped onto an HTML 5 web interface. Data can be uploaded one table at a time to facilitate ease of uploading and data error checking is done online on the whole dataset at once instead of incrementally in an Excel Console. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the ability to use them in complex combinations. Searches may also be saved as permanent URLs for easy reference or for use as a citation in a publication. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. Data from the MagIC database may be downloaded from individual contributions or from online searches for offline use and analysis in the tab delimited MagIC text file format. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  7. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  8. Primary Multiple Simultaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhages between 1950 and 2013: Analysis of Data on Age, Sex and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denchai Laiwattana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary multiple simultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MSICHs are quite rare. Although occasional reports have been found, there have been no systematic reviews. The published case reports and case series contain overlapping data, leading to erroneous information about MSICHs. This is the first extensive review of accessible studies published in English on MSICHs. Our primary objective was to analyze the demographic data on age, sex, outcome and prognosis with regard to primary MSICHs. Summary: A PubMed search without language restriction for articles with results from human studies and registered between January 1950 and September 2013 yielded 677 articles. The following inclusion criteria were applied: (1 reported case(s or case series on primary MSICHs; (2 text partly or fully in English, and (3 text contains identifiable data on age, sex and outcome of patients. A total of 24 articles met all the inclusion criteria. The reference lists of these 24 articles were inspected for additional relevant articles, which yielded another 20 articles. In all, 248 cases were identified; 143 cases were excluded for various reasons: 52 duplicate cases, 18 cases of multiple nonsimultaneous intracerebral hemorrhages, 25 cases of secondary MSICHs, and 48 cases with incomplete data on age, sex and outcome. The remaining 105 cases were analyzed. MSICHs were found to be more common in bilateral cases (53.33%: there were bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhages (33.33%, bilateral thalamic hemorrhages (18.10%, bilateral lobar hemorrhages (0.95% and bilateral cerebellar hemorrhages (0.95%. Nonbilateral MSICHs were found in 46.67% of the cases. The hematomas were commonly distributed in the basal ganglia (45.83%, thalamus (30.56% and cerebellum (10.19%. MSICHs were more frequently encountered in males (60.95%; average age: 59.13 ± 12.49 years. The average age of the female patients was higher (63.89 ± 13.11 years. Patients with primary MSICHs had a

  9. Combined transcranial direct current stimulation and home-based occupational therapy for upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Figlewski, Krystian; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the combined effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and home-based occupational therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) and grip strength, in patients with upper limb motor impairment following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: A double...... with the sham group, from baseline to post-assessment (p = 0.158). CONCLUSIONS: Five consecutive days of tDCS combined with occupational therapy provided greater improvements in grip strength compared with occupational therapy alone. tDCS is a promising add-on intervention regarding training of upper limb motor......-blind randomized controlled trial with one-week follow-up. Patients received five consecutive days of occupational therapy at home, combined with either anodal (n = 8) or sham (n = 7) tDCS. The primary outcome was ADL performance, which was assessed with the Jebsen-Taylor test (JTT). RESULTS: Both groups improved...

  10. Statins and the Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients With Previous Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Goldstein, Larry B; Cea Soriano, Lucía

    2017-01-01

    of preadmission statin use with the risk of ICH in patients with a history of IS or TIA in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The Health Improvement Network primary care database in the United Kingdom was used to identify new users of low-dose aspirin and a matched comparison. Both cohorts were followed......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although there is no overall association between statin use and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), whether there is an increased risk among those with a history of ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains controversial. We evaluated the relationship...... to identify incident cases of ICH, with validation by manual review of patient records and linkage to hospitalization data. In a nested case-control study, we compared the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for ICH based on statin use in the subgroup of individuals with history...

  11. Nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 affects commensal gut microbiota composition and intracerebral immunopathology in acute Toxoplasma gondii induced murine ileitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available Within one week following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma (T. gondii, susceptible mice develop non-selflimiting acute ileitis due to an underlying Th1-type immunopathology. The role of the innate immune receptor nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2 (NOD2 in mediating potential extra-intestinal inflammatory sequelae including the brain, however, has not been investigated so far.Following peroral infection with 100 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49, NOD2-/- mice displayed more severe ileitis and higher small intestinal parasitic loads as compared to wildtype (WT mice. However, systemic (i.e. splenic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-γ were lower in NOD2-/- mice versus WT controls at day 7 p.i. Given that the immunopathological outcome might be influenced by the intestinal microbiota composition, which is shaped by NOD2, we performed a quantitative survey of main intestinal bacterial groups by 16S rRNA analysis. Interestingly, Bifidobacteria were virtually absent in NOD2-/- but not WT mice, whereas differences in remaining bacterial species were rather subtle. Interestingly, more distinct intestinal inflammation was accompanied by higher bacterial translocation rates to extra-intestinal tissue sites such as liver, spleen, and kidneys in T. gondii infected NOD2-/- mice. Strikingly, intracerebral inflammatory foci could be observed as early as seven days following T. gondii infection irrespective of the genotype of animals, whereas NOD2-/- mice exhibited higher intracerebral parasitic loads, higher F4/80 positive macrophage and microglia numbers as well as higher IFN-γ mRNA expression levels as compared to WT control animals.NOD2 signaling is involved in protection of mice from T. gondii induced acute ileitis. The parasite-induced Th1-type immunopathology at intestinal as well as extra-intestinal sites including the brain is modulated in a NOD2-dependent manner.

  12. Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial lobar intracerebral haematomas (STICH II): a randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelow, A David; Gregson, Barbara A; Rowan, Elise N; Murray, Gordon D; Gholkar, Anil; Mitchell, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background The balance of risk and benefit from early neurosurgical intervention for conscious patients with superficial lobar intracerebral haemorrhage of 10–100 mL and no intraventricular haemorrhage admitted within 48 h of ictus is unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that early surgery compared with initial conservative treatment could improve outcome in these patients. Methods In this international, parallel-group trial undertaken in 78 centres in 27 countries, we compared early surgical haematoma evacuation within 12 h of randomisation plus medical treatment with initial medical treatment alone (later evacuation was allowed if judged necessary). An automatic telephone and internet-based randomisation service was used to assign patients to surgery and initial conservative treatment in a 1:1 ratio. The trial was not masked. The primary outcome was a prognosis-based dichotomised (favourable or unfavourable) outcome of the 8 point Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) obtained by questionnaires posted to patients at 6 months. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN22153967. Findings 307 of 601 patients were randomly assigned to early surgery and 294 to initial conservative treatment; 298 and 291 were followed up at 6 months, respectively; and 297 and 286 were included in the analysis, respectively. 174 (59%) of 297 patients in the early surgery group had an unfavourable outcome versus 178 (62%) of 286 patients in the initial conservative treatment group (absolute difference 3·7% [95% CI −4·3 to 11·6], odds ratio 0·86 [0·62 to 1·20]; p=0·367). Interpretation The STICH II results confirm that early surgery does not increase the rate of death or disability at 6 months and might have a small but clinically relevant survival advantage for patients with spontaneous superficial intracerebral haemorrhage without intraventricular haemorrhage. Funding UK Medical Research Council. PMID:23726393

  13. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Stimulation Attenuates Neuroinflammation through JAK2-STAT3 Activation in Murine Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R. Krafft

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for high mortality and morbidity rates, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH remains one of the most detrimental stroke subtypes lacking a specific therapy. Neuroinflammation contributes to ICH-induced brain injury and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR stimulation ameliorates neuroinflammation after ICH. Male CD-1 mice and Sprague-Dawley were subjected to intracerebral injection of autologous blood or bacterial collagenase. ICH animals received either α7nAChR agonist PHA-543613 alone or combined with α7nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA or Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 antagonist AG490. Neurobehavioral deficits were evaluated at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 10 weeks after ICH induction. Perihematomal expressions of JAK2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase (MPO were quantified via Western blot. Histologic volumetric analysis of brain tissues was conducted after 10 weeks following ICH induction. PHA-543613 improved short-term neurobehavioral (sensorimotor deficits and increased activated perihematomal JAK2 and STAT3 expressions while decreasing TNF-α and MPO expressions after ICH. MLA reversed these treatment effects. PHA-543613 also improved long-term neurobehavioral (sensorimotor, learning, and memory deficits and ameliorated brain atrophy after ICH. These treatment effects were reduced by AG490. α7nAChR stimulation reduced neuroinflammation via activation of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway, thereby ameliorating the short- and long-term sequelae after ICH.

  14. Etiology and outcome determinants of intracerebral hemorrhage in a south Indian population, A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Narayan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is paucity of methodologically sound published studies on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH from India, on pub med/embase search. Aims: To explore etiology of ICH and correlate the causes, location, and size of hemorrhage to clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based descriptive study from South Indian eastern coastal town of Puducherry; 60 consecutive subjects aged > 12 years, predominantly of inbred Tamil population, with head CT evidence of intracerebral hemorrhage not associated with trauma and brain tumors, were recruited. Outcome at three months was measured using Glasgow Outcome scale, NIHSS and mortality. SPSS v 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Commonest etiological factor was hypertension, followed by bleeding diathesis, thrombolysis for myocardial infarction, and cortical vein thrombosis. Most frequent locations of hematoma were basal ganglia, thalamus, internal capsule, and cerebral and cerebellar parenchyma. Hematoma volume correlated significantly with systolic and mean arterial pressure but not with diastolic blood pressure. Poor outcome was correlated to size (P < 0.05 and intraventricular extension of hematoma (P < 0.05, and to systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, but not to age, gender, smoking, alcoholism, ischemic heart disease, and blood sugar level. Among diabetic patients with ICH, the size of hematoma (P = 0.04 and severity of coma (P = 0.01 at admission were significantly worse compared to the non-diabetic, but not the outcome at three months [Glasgow outcome scale or mortality (P = 0.94 and 0.14]. Conclusions: The location of hemorrhage and correlation with outcome agreed with the patterns described for the non-white races in prior reports. Independence of outcome to diabetic status despite a more severe initial presentation may indicate importance of good care, even in high risk groups.

  15. Admission Systolic Blood Pressure Predicts the Number of Blood Pressure Medications at Discharge in Patients With Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Shiue, Harn; Boehme, Amelia K; Albright, Karen C; Venkatraman, Anand; Kumar, Gyanendra; Lyerly, Michael J; Hays-Shapshak, Angela; Mirza, Maira; Gropen, Toby I; Harrigan, Mark R

    2018-03-01

    Control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage improves outcomes. Factors determining the number of blood pressure medications (BPM) required for goal SBP<160 mm Hg at discharge are unknown. We hypothesized that higher admission-SBPs require a greater number of BPM for goal discharge-SBP<160 mm Hg, and investigated factors influencing this goal. We conducted a retrospective review of 288 patients who presented with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Admission-SBP was obtained. Primary outcome was the number of BPM at discharge. Comparison was made between patients presenting with and without a history of hypertension, and patients discharged on <3 and ≥3 BPM. Patients with hypertension history had a higher median admission-SBP compared with those without (180 vs. 157 mm Hg, P=0.0001). In total, 133 of 288 (46.2%) patients were discharged on <3 BPM; 155/288 (53.8%) were discharged on ≥3 BPM. Hypertension history (P<0.0001) and admission-SBP (P<0.0001) predicted the number of BPM at discharge. In patients without hypertension history, every 10 mm Hg increase in SBP resulted in an absolute increase of 0.5 BPM at discharge (P=0.0011), whereas in those with hypertension, the absolute increase was 1.3 BPM (P=0.0012). In comparison with patients discharged on <3 BPM, patients discharged on ≥3 BPM were more likely to have a higher median admission-SBP, be younger in age, belong to the African-American race, have a history of diabetes, have higher median admission-National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 5 at discharge. An understanding of the factors influencing BPM at discharge may help clinicians better optimize blood pressure control both before and after discharge.

  16. Intracerebral hemorrhage and delirium symptoms. Length of stay, function, and quality of life in a 114-patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Rosenberg, Neil F; Maas, Matthew B; Kosteva, Adam R; Ault, Michael L; Cella, David; Ely, E Wesley

    2013-12-01

    The prognostic significance of delirium symptoms in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with focal neurologic injury is unclear. To determine the relationship between delirium symptoms and subsequent functional outcomes and quality of life (QOL) after intracerebral hemorrhage. We prospectively enrolled 114 patients. Delirium symptoms were routinely assessed twice daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU by trained nurses. Functional outcomes were recorded with modified Rankin Scale (scored from 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [dead]), and QOL outcomes with Neuro-QOL at 28 days, 3 months, and 12 months. Thirty-one (27%) patients had delirium symptoms ("ever delirious"), 67 (59%) were never delirious, and the remainder (14%) had persistent coma. Delirium symptoms were nearly always hypoactive, were detected mean 6 days after intracerebral hemorrhage presentation, and were associated with longer ICU length of stay (mean 3.5 d longer in ever vs. never delirious patients; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-8.3; P = 0.004) after correction for age, admit National Institutes of Health (NIH) Stroke Scale, and any benzodiazepine exposure. Delirium symptoms were associated with increased odds of poor outcome at 28 days (odds ratio, 8.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-52.5; P = 0.018) after correction for admission NIH Stroke Scale and age, and with worse QOL in the domains of applied cognition-executive function and fatigue after correcting for the NIH Stroke Scale, age, benzodiazepine exposure, and time of follow-up. After focal neurologic injury, delirium symptoms were common despite low rates of infection and sedation exposure, and were predictive of subsequent worse functional outcomes and lower QOL.

  17. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure versus IC/TLC ratio as predictors of mortality in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alastair J; Soler, Rosa Suades; Cetti, Edward J; Amanda Sathyapala, S; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Roughton, Michael; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I

    2010-09-01

    Hyperinflation is a recognized adverse prognostic factor in COPD. As the sniff inspiratory nasal pressure (SnIP) principally reflects the severity of hyperinflation in COPD, we hypothesized that it might also be a predictor of mortality. We therefore compared the SnIP to the inspiratory capacity-to-total lung capacity (IC/TLC) ratio as predictors of mortality in advanced COPD. A retrospective mortality analysis of 110 patients with COPD (mean FEV(1) 1.01litres, 37% predicted; 66% male) was performed. All patients had SnIP and lung volume measurements performed. The power of each test to predict mortality was determined, and predicted survival curves were created for both the SnIP and IC/TLC ratio. 37 patients (34%) died during the study period (29 male, 8 female). Mortality rates were analysed with a Chi(2) test; there was a significant trend towards male death (mortality rate male vs. female; 39.7% vs. 21.6% respectively; chi(2)p=0.058, Chi 3.6). ROC curves demonstrated that both SnIP and IC/TLC ratio are predictors of mortality, but analysis by Cox proportional hazards suggested the SnIP has a stronger predictive power (SnIP vs. IC/TLC ratio; p=0.017 vs 0.525; HR 0.97 vs 0.99 respectively), and analysis of the area under ROC curves (AUC) suggest that SnIP is a better discriminator than IC/TLC ratio (AUC SnIP vs IC/TLC; 0.679 vs 0.618). The SnIP conveys at least as much predictive power for mortality in COPD as hyperinflation determined by IC/TLC ratio. This test is cheaper, quicker and easier than measuring lung volumes by plethysmography.

  18. Analytical and experimental investigation of thermal transport in three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choobineh, Leila

    Thermal management of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) is recognized to be one of the foremost technological and research challenges currently blocking the widespread adoption of this promising technology. The computation of steady-state temperature fields in a 3D IC is critical for determining the thermal characteristics of a 3D IC and for evaluating any candidate thermal management technology. An analytical solution for the three-dimensional temperature field in a 3D IC based on solution of the governing energy equations using Fourier series expansion for steady-state temperature fields is studied. Comparison of the predicted temperature fields with finite-element simulation shows excellent agreement. The model is used to compute the temperature field in a 3D IC, and it is shown that by utilizing a thermal-friendly floorplanning approach, the maximum temperature of the 3D IC is reduced significantly. Several 3D IC manufacturing and packaging approaches require adjacent die sizes to be different from one another since this enables differentiated manufacturing and design. However, it is expected that unequally-sized die may cause deteriorated thermal performance due to heat spreading and constriction. Heat transfer model for predicting the three-dimensional temperature field in a multi-die 3D IC with unequally-sized die is studied. The model is used to compare the thermal performance of unequally-sized die stacks with a uniformly-sized die stack. Results indicate that the greater the degree of non-uniformity in the die stack, the greater in the peak temperature rise. An analytical modeling of heat transfer in interposer-based microelectronic systems is described. The analytical model is developed to study the effect of various parameters on the temperature field in an interposer system. A non-iterative, analytical heat transfer model for computing three-dimensional temperature fields in a 3D IC has been proposed. The governing energy equations with

  19. Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Aminoglycoside-2 ''-Phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2 '')-Ic] From Enterococcus Gallinarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, L.J.; /SLAC, SSRL; Badarau, A.; Vakulenko, S.B.; /Notre Dame U.; Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2{double_prime}-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2{double_prime})-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2{double_prime})-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14-20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.8{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 {angstrom} resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  20. Interdisciplinary Collaboration amongst Colleagues and between Initiatives with the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.; Shaar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Earth science grand challenges often require interdisciplinary and geographically distributed scientific collaboration to make significant progress. However, this organic collaboration between researchers, educators, and students only flourishes with the reduction or elimination of technological barriers. The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the geo-, paleo-, and rock magnetic scientific community to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples. MagIC is dedicated to facilitating scientific progress towards several highly multidisciplinary grand challenges and the MagIC Database team is currently beta testing a new MagIC Search Interface and API designed to be flexible enough for the incorporation of large heterogeneous datasets and for horizontal scalability to tens of millions of records and hundreds of requests per second. In an effort to reduce the barriers to effective collaboration, the search interface includes a simplified data model and upload procedure, support for online editing of datasets amongst team members, commenting by reviewers and colleagues, and automated contribution workflows and data retrieval through the API. This web application has been designed to generalize to other databases in MagIC's umbrella website (EarthRef.org) so the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal, Seamount Biogeosciences Network (http://earthref.org/SBN/), EarthRef Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/ERDA/) and EarthRef Reference Database (http://earthref.org/ERR/) will benefit from its development.

  1. A nu-space for ICS: characterization and application to measure protein transport in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Chen, Lingfeng; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Wiseman, Paul W

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new generalized theoretical framework for image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). Using this framework, we extend the ICS method in time-frequency ( ν , nu) space to map molecular flow of fluorescently tagged proteins in individual living cells. Even in the presence of a dominant immobile population of fluorescent molecules, nu-space ICS (nICS) provides an unbiased velocity measurement, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the flow, without requiring filtering. We also develop and characterize a tunable frequency-filter for STICS that allows quantification of the density, the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of biased diffusion. We show that the techniques are accurate over a wide range of parameter space in computer simulation. We then characterize the retrograde flow of adhesion proteins ( α 6- and αLβ 2-GFP integrins and mCherry-paxillin) in CHO.B2 cells plated on laminin and ICAM ligands respectively. STICS with a tunable frequency filter, in conjunction with nICS, measures two new transport parameters, the density and transport bias coefficient (a measure of the diffusive character of a flow/biased diffusion), showing that molecular flow in this cell system has a significant diffusive component. Our results suggest that the integrinligand interaction, along with the internal myosin-motor generated force, varies for different integrin-ligand pairs, consistent with previous results.

  2. Intellectual Capital (IC Analysis and The Effect to Financial Performance in PT Kalasuba Indonesia (KSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ermayanti Susilo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial Performance (FP is one of the important things for a company to know the development of the company. One important thing that influences FP is the Intellectual Capital (IC. Research was conducted to get the best IC analysis in order to get success and fulfill the daily human needs which always increases. Therefore, it had research problem ‘how was the components of IC affecting the FP of PT Kalasuba Indonesia (KSI, and the objective is to explore the IC components in affecting the FP. It was interesting to be explored because it had unique characteristics, which consist of spiritual knowledge, attitude, discipline, management knowledge and managerial experience, as well as skill and capabilities, in which the first three points were different from the rest. It used qualitative analysis method as the instrument. It was done by collecting the data through observation and was analyzed using the Robbins theory. It can be concluded that those five IC has important effect in increasing FP of PT KSI and keeping it stable.

  3. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I

    2013-01-01

    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  4. Watching AGN feedback at its birth: HST observations of nascent outflow host IC860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    IC860 is a nearby IR-luminous early-type spiral with a unique set of properties: it is a shocked, poststarburst galaxy that hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact core of molecular gas. IC860 can serve as a rosetta stone for the early stages of triggering AGN feedback. We propose to use WFC3 on HST to obtain NUV, optical and near-IR imaging of IC860. We will create a spatially-resolved history of star formation quenching through SED-fitting of 7 requested broadband filters, and compare the spatially resolved star formation histories to in different positions within the underlying stellar features (such as spiral structure) that might define a narrative of how star formation is quenching in IC860. These observations will also resolve the super-star cluster sites to trace the most recent star formation. Finally, these observations will trace the mass of the outflow by building an absorption map of the dust. IC860 presents a unique opportunity to study a galaxy at an early stage of transitioning from blue spiral to red early-type galaxy, that also hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact, turbulent molecular gas core.

  5. A Search for Hydrodynamical Interaction Between the ISM and Radio Jets in IC4296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI Data set on IC 4296 has been reduced and analysed. A draft paper on the small-scale structure of x-ray emission and its relation to the radio emission has been written. Mackie left the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in September 1997 and in January 1998 he joined the staff at Carter Observatory, New Zealand. Mackie is currently (May 1998) upgrading computer software at Carter to run IRAF-PROS and XSPEC x-ray software packages in order to reduce and analyze archival ROSAT PSPC data on IC 4296. The PSPC results are needed to investigate the hot gas temperature and abundance properties that will be used in conjunction with the radio jet properties to determine the hydrodynamical interaction status of IC 4296, and finalize the results of a research paper.

  6. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O

    1998-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC ATLAS experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 $9 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8 V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is $9 incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The IC also has analog output for the preamplifier. The equivalent $9 noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59 mW/ch. (8 refs).

  7. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O

    1999-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC Atlas experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8 V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS- compatible. The IC also has analog output of the preamplifier. The equivalent noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59 mW/ch.

  8. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  9. On the hydrogen emission from the type Ia supernova 2002ic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lifan; Baade, Dietrich; Hoflich, Peter; Wheeler, J. Craig; Kawabata, Koji; Nomoto, Ken' ichi

    2003-12-10

    The discovery of SN 2002ic by the Supernova Factory and the subsequent spectroscopic studies have led to the surprising finding that SN 2002ic is a type Ia supernova with strong ejecta-circumstellar interaction. Here we show that nearly 1 year after the explosion the supernova has become fainter overall, but the H-alpha emission has brightened and broadened dramatically compared to earlier observations. We have obtained spectropolarimetry data which show that the hydrogen-rich matter is highly aspherically distributed. These observations suggest that the supernova exploded inside a dense, clumpy, disk-like circumstellar environment.

  10. Advances in analog and RF IC design for wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manganaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Analog and RF IC Design for Wireless Communication Systems gives technical introductions to the latest and most significant topics in the area of circuit design of analog/RF ICs for wireless communication systems, emphasizing wireless infrastructure rather than handsets. The book ranges from very high performance circuits for complex wireless infrastructure systems to selected highly integrated systems for handsets and mobile devices. Coverage includes power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, modulators, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters

  11. Multi-band variability of the active nucleus of IC 310

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenacher, Dorit; Elsaesser, Dominik; Mannheim, Karl; Wilbert, Sven; Kadler, Matthias [Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Colin, Pierre; Paneque, David [MPIfP, Muenchen (Germany); Lombardi, Saverio [INAF National Institute for Astrophysics, Rome (Italy); Sitarek, Julian [IFAE, Barcelona (Spain); Zandanel, Fabio; Prada, Francisco [IAA, Granada (Spain); Dauser, Thomas; Krauss, Felicia; Wilms, Joern [Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte-ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Bach, Uwe [MPIfR, Bonn (Germany); Ros, Eduardo [Dept. Astronomia y Astrofisica, Valencia (Spain); Collaboration: MAGIC-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The active galaxy IC 310, located in the Perseus cluster of galaxies at z=0.0189, has been detected from radio up to energies above 100 GeV by space and ground based instruments. Originally classified as a head-tail radio galaxy, recent high resolution VLBI radio images have reveal IC 310 to have instead a blazar-like structure on parsec scales. Here we present the VLBI data of this source and investigate its variability at X-ray and gamma-ray energies.

  12. SN 2017dio: A Type-Ic Supernova Exploding in a Hydrogen-rich Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Ashall, Christopher J.; Prentice, Simon J.; Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Leloudas, Giorgos; Anderson, Joseph P.; Benetti, Stefano; Bersten, Melina C.; Cappellaro, Enrico; Cartier, Régis; Denneau, Larry; Della Valle, Massimo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Folatelli, Gastón; Fraser, Morgan; Galbany, Lluís; Gall, Christa; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Hamanowicz, Aleksandra; Heinze, Ari; Inserra, Cosimo; Kangas, Tuomas; Mazzali, Paolo; Melandri, Andrea; Pignata, Giuliano; Rest, Armin; Reynolds, Thomas; Roy, Rupak; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Sollerman, Jesper; Somero, Auni; Stalder, Brian; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Tomasella, Lina; Tonry, John; Weiland, Henry; Young, David R.

    2018-02-01

    SN 2017dio shows both spectral characteristics of a type-Ic supernova (SN) and signs of a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Prominent, narrow emission lines of H and He are superposed on the continuum. Subsequent evolution revealed that the SN ejecta are interacting with the CSM. The initial SN Ic identification was confirmed by removing the CSM interaction component from the spectrum and comparing with known SNe Ic and, reversely, adding a CSM interaction component to the spectra of known SNe Ic and comparing them to SN 2017dio. Excellent agreement was obtained with both procedures, reinforcing the SN Ic classification. The light curve constrains the pre-interaction SN Ic peak absolute magnitude to be around {M}g=-17.6 mag. No evidence of significant extinction is found, ruling out a brighter luminosity required by an SN Ia classification. These pieces of evidence support the view that SN 2017dio is an SN Ic, and therefore the first firm case of an SN Ic with signatures of hydrogen-rich CSM in the early spectrum. The CSM is unlikely to have been shaped by steady-state stellar winds. The mass loss of the progenitor star must have been intense, \\dot{M}∼ 0.02{({ε }{{H}α }/0.01)}-1 ({v}{wind}/500 km s‑1) ({v}{shock}/10,000 km s‑1)‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1, peaking at a few decades before the SN. Such a high mass-loss rate might have been experienced by the progenitor through eruptions or binary stripping. Based on observations made with the NOT, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935, 197.D-1075. Based on observations made with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the

  13. GENDER APPROACH IN MONITORING STUDIES OF PUPILS’ IC-COMPETENCE IN EDUCATIONAL PRACTICE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena O. Hrytsenchuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of gender issues in monitoring studies of students’ information and communication competence ( IC-competencies in european secondary schools at the present stage. There are highlighted the results of research of experience of international organizations, such as: UNDP, UNESCO, UNІSEF, The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement – IEA, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – OECD on monitoring studies of students’ IC-competencies. There are identified peculiarities, common trends and future development.

  14. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005: Emission nebulae: structure and evolution

  15. B-supergiants in IC1613: testing low-Z massive star physics and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Inés; García, Miriam; Urbaneja, Miguel A.; Herrero, Artemio

    2017-11-01

    The physical processes taking place in massive stars during their life and death are highly dependent on the metallicity (Z) of their parent cloud. Observations of these stars in low-Z nearby galaxies are crucial to understand these processes. IC1613 is the nearest Local Group galaxy with ongoing star formation and O-abundance lower than the SMC, although UV spectroscopy suggests it is not so metal poor. We performed a spectral analysis of early B-type stars in the galaxy, obtaining physical parameters and abundances. Our results confirm the low O-abundance of IC1613.

  16. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Complex Bunker House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC stand, additional related facilities were built during this time frame. Built to the east of the S-IC stand, the block house served as the control room. To the south of the blockhouse was a newly constructed pump house used for delivering water to the S-IC stand during testing. North of the massive test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built for testing a single F-1 engine. Just southeast of the S-IC stand a concrete bunker house was constructed. The bunker housed

  17. CT findings in initial diagnosis and follow-up in surgically and medically treated intracerebral hemorrhage of non-traumatic and non-aneurysmatic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahser, H.C.; Loehr, E.; Nau, H.E.; Reinhardt, V.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of computerized tomography (CT) in diagnosis and follow-up of intracerebral hemorrhage is demonstrated. The study is based on 37 patients suffering from medical diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetics, generalized arteriosclerosis, valvular heart disease and anticoagulation therapy. Ensuing complications, such as rupture into the ventricles and hydrocephalus, are being discussed. Special effort is made to explain the finding of the hyperdense ring structure occurring after contrast enhancement. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MKO [de

  18. Admission Heart Rate Predicts Poor Outcomes in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miaoyan; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Wang, Xia; Carcel, Cheryl; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Sandset, Else C; Delcourt, Candice; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Jiguang; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-06-01

    Faster heart rate predicts higher mortality in coronary heart disease and acute ischemic stroke, but its prognostic significance in intracerebral hemorrhage remains uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of admission heart rate on clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. A post hoc pooled analysis of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT 1 and 2). Clinical outcomes were mortality and modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days; and imaging outcome was absolute growth in hematoma volume during the initial 24 hours. Patients were divided into 4 categories according to baseline heart rate (<65, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 bpm) and analyzed using multivariable adjusted models with the lowest heart rate group as the reference. Of 3185 patients with available data, higher admission heart rate was associated with both mortality and worse modified Rankin Scale score: adjusted hazard ratio for heart rate (≥85 versus <65 bpm) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.11) and adjusted odds ratio 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.63), respectively (both P-trend <0.05). There was no significant relationship between heart rate and absolute growth in hematoma volume (P-trend, 0.196). Higher admission heart rate is independently associated with death and poor functional outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00226096 and NCT00716079. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Novel device and technique for minimally invasive intracerebral hematoma evacuation in the same setting of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm: combined treatment in the neurointerventional angiography suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Raymond D; Vargas, Jan; Turk, Aquilla S; Chaudry, M Imran; Spiotta, Alejandro M

    2015-03-01

    The presence of intracerebral hematoma from aneurysm rupture is an indication for craniotomy for clot evacuation and aneurysm clipping. Some centers have begun securing aneurysms with coil embolization followed by clot evacuation in the operating room. This approach requires transporting a patient from the angiography suite to the operating room, which can take valuable time and resources. To report our experience with 3 cases in which a novel technique for minimally invasive evacuation of intracerebral hematomas after endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms was used. The Penumbra Apollo system can be used in the angiography suite in conjunction with neuroendovascular techniques to simultaneously address a symptomatic hematoma associated with a ruptured aneurysm. Standard preoperative computed tomography angiography was performed on arrival to the emergency department. The patients underwent diagnostic cerebral angiography followed by balloon-assisted coil embolization and then remained in the neurointerventional suite for intracerebral hematoma evacuation with the Apollo system. All patients tolerated coil embolization and hematoma evacuation well. The combined procedures lasted hematoma evacuation, particularly when coupled with endovascular embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Future work will address which patient population is most likely to benefit from this promising technique.

  20. Relationship between alternation of cerebral blood flow and formation of brain edema around the hematoma after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jian; Gao Peiyi; Li Xiaoguang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of brain edema formation around the hematoma and the relationship between the formation of brain edema and the changes of regional cerebral blood flow after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats, and to provide experimental basis for the clinical treatment of ICH . Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into ICH groups and sham-operated groups. ICH was produced by microinjection of 40 ul fresh autologous blood or saline into the right caudatum. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging was performed, and the parameters of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and mean transit time (MTT) around the hematoma were calculated respectively. Then the rats were sacrificed, and the water content, sodium, potassium, and calcium concentrations were measured respectively. The correlative study between the water content and rCBF and rCBV were carried out. Results:The gradient of perihematomal hypoperfusion was revealed on CT perfusion maps in ICH groups. The alternation of rCBF around the hematomas were fluctuated, and rCBF reduction was most pronounced at 1 hour afer ICH, then the rCBF gradually returned, reaching the peaks at 6 hours and 24 hours after ICH, respectively. In the meantime, rCBV reduction around the hematoma was most pronounced at 1 hour after ICH. Then the rCBV gradually increased, and reaching the peak at 24 hours. The water contents were gradually increased in the ipsilateral basal ganglia in the animals sacrificed at 6, 24, and 72 hours. The accumulation of water was at its peak at 24 hours, and remained in the animals sacrificed at the 72 hours. The perihemorrhagic water contents correlated significantly with rCBV surrounding hematomas, r=0.372 (one-tailed), P<0.05. Conclusion: The perihemorrhagic brain edema results from the common effects of the blood-brain-barrier disruption, cytotoxic edema, and the accumulation of osmotically active substances. The r

  1. Intracerebral gene therapy in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB syndrome: an uncontrolled phase 1/2 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, Marc; Zérah, Michel; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Ausseil, Jérome; de Bournonville, Stéphanie; Husson, Béatrice; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios; Parenti, Giancarlo; Bourget, Philippe; Poirier, Béatrice; Furlan, Valérie; Artaud, Cécile; Baugnon, Thomas; Roujeau, Thomas; Crystal, Ronald G; Meyer, Christian; Deiva, Kumaran; Heard, Jean-Michel

    2017-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB syndrome (also known as Sanfilippo type B syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease resulting in progressive deterioration of cognitive acquisition after age 2-4 years. No treatment is available for the neurological manifestations of the disease. We sought to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel intracerebral gene therapy. Local regulatory authorities in France allowed inclusion of up to four children in this phase 1/2 study. Treatment was 16 intraparenchymal deposits (four in the cerebellum) of a recombinant adenoassociated viral vector serotype 2/5 (rAAV2/5) encoding human α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGLU) plus immunosuppressive therapy. We assessed tolerance, neurocognitive progression, brain growth, NAGLU enzymatic activity in CSF, and specific anti-NAGLU immune response for 30 months after surgery. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2012-000856-33, and the International Standard Clinical Trial Registry, number ISRCTN19853672. Of seven eligible children, the four youngest, from France (n=2), Italy (n=1), and Greece (n=1), aged 20, 26, 30, and 53 months, were included between February, 2012, and February, 2014. 125 adverse events were recorded, of which 117 were treatment emergent and included six classified as severe, but no suspected unexpected serious adverse drug reactions were seen. Vector genomes were detected in blood for 2 days after surgery. Compared with the natural history of mucopolysaccharidosis type III syndromes, neurocognitive progression was improved in all patients, with the youngest patient having function close to that in healthy children. Decrease in developmental quotient was -11·0 points in patient one, -23·0 in patient two, -29·0 in patient three, and -17·0 in patient four, compared with -37·7 in the natural history of the disease. NAGLU activity was detected in lumbar CSF and was 15-20% of that in unaffected children. Circulating T lymphocytes that proliferated and produced tumour

  2. The Effects of Industry Type, Company Size and Performance on Chinese Companies’ IC Disclosure: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of industry type, firm size and corporate performance on intellectual capital (IC disclosure among Chinese (mainland companies. It was found that industry type did not have a significant influence on IC reporting practices of Chinese firms; the larger firms generally reported more IC information than the relatively smaller firms; and there was a positive relationship between corporate performance and IC disclosure. This paper contributes to fairly limited literature regarding the associations between the level of IC disclosure and a variety of relevant impact factors, in particular in the Chinese mainland context. In addition, the findings of this research provide some references for policy-makers while developing an IC reporting framework applicable to the Chinese environment.

  3. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and

  4. A grammar of Ik (Icé-tód) : Northeast Uganda's last thriving Kuliak language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrock, Terrill B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ik language (Icé-tód), spoken in northeast Uganda, forms the Kuliak (Rub) subgroup along with So/Tepeth and Nyang’í. These latter two lects have already succombed to assimilative pressures from neighboring Nilotic pastoralists like the Karimojong, Turkana, and Pokot. Despite

  5. 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    * 3D integration: Opportunities and trends* e-CUBES: Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)* Package design including thermo-mechanical modeling* Technology development* Sensor packaging concept* Gold stud bump bonding* Device characterization and testing* Summary and outlook 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

  6. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  7. A three-point identity criteria tool for establishing product identity using icIEF method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Deepti; Belakavadi, Madesh; Das, Tapan K; Katiyar, Amit

    2018-04-15

    Product identity is one of the release testing requirements that needs to be established to ensure that there is no misidentification of drugs. Here, we demonstrated the challenges that can come across while establishing a product identity method for monoclonal antibody (mAb) and mAb-related products using icIEF method. A unique three-point identity criteria tool (visual comparison, pI of individual peaks and ΔpIs) was applied to distinguish mAb1 from the other in-house mAbs. A reduction approach followed by icIEF showed higher potential for establishing identity for mAb1 product as compared to native and enzymatic digestion approach. In general, icIEF method lacks specificity required to unequivocally establish the identity for mAbs, therefore, risk analysis is recommended before implementing icIEF as a stand-alone identity method for monoclonal antibodies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analog IC techniques for low-voltage low-power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdijn, W.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analog IC Techniques lor Low-Voltage Low Power Electronics addresses many very important, but recent, techniques which enable electronics to operate at a low supply voltage and consume a minimum amount of power. Apart from investigations at the device, circuit and system levels, the book provides a

  9. IC 3639 - A new bona fide Compton thick AGN unveiled by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse high-quality NuSTAR observations of the local (z = 0.011) Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) IC 3639, in conjunction with archival Suzaku and Chandra data. This provides the first broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the source, spanning nearly two decades in energy (0.5 -30 ke...

  10. Criminal Victimisation in International Perspective : Key findings from the 2004-2005 ICVS and EU ICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J. van; Kesteren, J. van; Smit, P.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the key results of the crime victim surveys that were carried out as part of the fifth sweep of the International Crime Victim Surveys (ICVS) conducted in 2004/2005. A large portion of the these data are derived from the European Survey on Crime and Safety (EU ICS), organised by

  11. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered By NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition f...

  12. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  13. Cardiovascular disease events and its predictors in women: Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In ICS, HTN, diabetes mellitus and high triglyceride are strong predictors for CV events in Iranian women. As almost all strong risk markers of CVD events are preventable, health policy makers have to give urgent consideration to make preventive public health strategies.

  14. A patient with hyperglycaemia and normal HbA Ic due to impaired glycation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J. M.; Salden, H. J. M.; DeVries, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    A diabetic Caucasian woman presented with discrepantly low HbA Ic values compared with her glycaemia. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis disclosed 80% HbA and 20% HbI Philadelphia (I6alpha2 lys --> glut). The calculated glycosylation gap from the fructosamine level was 1.2%. The

  15. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  16. The Spitzer IRS infrared spectrum and abundances of the planetary nebula IC 2448

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiles, S.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Pottasch, S. R.; Roellig, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mid-infrared spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 2448. In order to determine the chemical composition of the nebula, we use the infrared line fluxes from the Spitzer spectrum along with optical line fluxes from the literature and ultraviolet line fluxes from archival IUE spectra. We

  17. The Toby Jug nebula (IC 2220): a bipolar and biconical nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, H.G.; King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of IC 2220, the nebula surrounding the cool red giant HD 65750, is presented. The nebula appears to be bipolar and biconical in structure. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be 0.01 solar mass and is consistent with the nebula being formed from the current mass loss stage of the central star. (author)

  18. Comparison between dominant NB and dominant IC heated ELMy H-mode discharges in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T. W.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; de Vries, P. C.; Saibene, G.; Parail, V.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Boboc, A.; Budny, R.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Durodie, F.; Eich, T.; Giroud, C.; Kiptily, V.; Johnson, T.; Mantica, P.; Mayoral, M. L.; McDonald, D. C.; Monakhov, I.; Nave, M. F. F.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    The experiment described in this paper is aimed at characterization of ELMy H-mode discharges with varying momentum input, rotation, power deposition profiles and ion to electron heating ratio obtained by varying the proportion between ion cyclotron (IC) and neutral beam (NB) heating. The motivation

  19. Test impact on the overall die-to-wafer 3D stacked IC cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taouil, M.; Hamdioui, S.; Beenakker, K.; Marinissen, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the key challenges in 3D Stacked-ICs (3D-SIC) is to guarantee high product quality at minimal cost. Quality is mostly determined by the applied tests and cost trade-offs. Testing 3D-SICs is very challenging due to several additional test moments for the mid-bond stacks, i.e., partially

  20. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4,5]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [6,7] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [8] and other group's work [9] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Moreover, the stacking faults lead to kinks in the outer shapes of the minute ice Ic crystals as seen by cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM); these defective sites are likely to play some role in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. The cryo-SEM work suggests that stacking-faulty ice Ic has many more active centres for such reactions than the usually considered thermodynamically stable form, ice Ih. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] DM Murphy (2003) Dehydration in cold clouds is enhanced by a transition from from cubic to hexagonal ice. Geophys.Res.Lett.,30, 2230, doi:10.1029/2003GL018566. [3] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004