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Sample records for intracellular localization map

  1. Intracellular temperature mapping with a fluorescent polymeric thermometer and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kohki; Inada, Noriko; Gota, Chie; Harada, Yoshie; Funatsu, Takashi; Uchiyama, Seiichi

    2012-02-28

    Cellular functions are fundamentally regulated by intracellular temperature, which influences biochemical reactions inside a cell. Despite the important contributions to biological and medical applications that it would offer, intracellular temperature mapping has not been achieved. Here we demonstrate the first intracellular temperature mapping based on a fluorescent polymeric thermometer and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The spatial and temperature resolutions of our thermometry were at the diffraction limited level (200 nm) and 0.18-0.58 °C. The intracellular temperature distribution we observed indicated that the nucleus and centrosome of a COS7 cell, both showed a significantly higher temperature than the cytoplasm and that the temperature gap between the nucleus and the cytoplasm differed depending on the cell cycle. The heat production from mitochondria was also observed as a proximal local temperature increase. These results showed that our new intracellular thermometry could determine an intrinsic relationship between the temperature and organelle function.

  2. Intracellular localization of VAMP-1 protein in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabokina, S M

    2001-02-01

    We studied the intracellular localization of vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP-1 in human neutrophils. VAMP-1 was associated with membranes of gelatinase and specific secretory granules rapidly mobilized during exocytosis. VAMP-1 probably acts as a component of the SNARE complex during exocytosis of gelatinase and specific granules in human neutrophils.

  3. Functional maps of neocortical local circuitry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Thomson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to summarize data obtained with different techniques to provide a functional map of the local circuit connections made by neocortical neurones, a reference for those interested in cortical circuitry and the numerical information required by those wishing to model the circuit. A brief description of the main techniques used to study circuitry is followed by outline descriptions of the major classes of neocortical excitatory and inhibitory neurones and the connections that each layer makes with other cortical and subcortical regions. Maps summarizing the projection patterns of each class of neurone within the local circuit and tables of the properties of these local circuit connections are provided.This review relies primarily on anatomical studies that have identified the classes of neurones and their local and long distance connections and on paired intracellular and whole-cell recordings which have documented the properties of the connections between them. A large number of different types of synaptic connections have been described, but for some there are only a few published examples and for others the details that can only be obtained with paired recordings and dye-filling are lacking. A further complication is provided by the range of species, technical approaches and age groups used in these studies. Wherever possible the range of available data are summarised and compared. To fill some of the more obvious gaps for the less well-documented cases, data obtained with other methods are also summarized.

  4. Intracellular localization of GASP/ECOP/VOPP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baras, Alexander; Moskaluk, Christopher A

    2010-04-01

    Vesicular Over-expressed in cancer Prosurvival Protein 1 (VOPP1), also known as Glioblastoma Amplified and Secreted Protein and EGFR-Coamplified and Over-expressed Protein has been previously shown to be over-expressed in human glioblastoma multiforme and squamous cell carcinoma. Additionally, previous experimental work suggests that it confers a prosurvival cellular phenotype. A query of a public database of gene expression profiling data (Oncomine) shows that the VOPP1 transcript is also highly expressed in several other common human cancers, including breast carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, and lymphoma. Analysis of VOPP1 sequence structure shows both a signal sequence and a transmembrane domain, and examination of a public microarray dataset for endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound mRNA transcripts is consistent with the VOPP1 protein product being synthesized into the ER. Immunoblot analysis of cell culture and conditioned media confirms that the protein product is not secreted and is retained intracellularly. VOPP1 protein tagged with a fluorescence reporter, as well as antibody-mediated visualization of recombinant and native forms of the protein reveals an intracellular vesicular pattern of localization. Co-localization experiments reveal that VOPP1 vesicles do not co-localize with mitochondria or peroxisomes, but show partial co-localization with perinuclear lysosomes. Additionally, markers of endocytosis and autophagy show partial perinuclear co-localization, suggesting that VOPP1-containing vesicles enter final common pathways of the lysosomal system. These findings throw into doubt the hypothesis that VOPP1 interacts directly with cytoplasmic mediators of the NF kappa B pathway, and suggest that the prosurvival phenotype conferred by this gene product is mediated by other mechanisms.

  5. Ultrasonic Sensor Based 3D Mapping & Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Fahim Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a basic level introduction to 3D mapping using sonar sensors and localization. It describes the methods used to construct a low-cost autonomous robot along with the hardware and software used as well as an insight to the background of autonomous robotic 3D mapping and localization. We have also given an overview to what the future prospects of the robot may hold in 3D based mapping.

  6. Intracellular localization of human cytidine deaminase. Identification of a functional nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasekaram, A; Jarmuz, A; How, A; Scott, J; Navaratnam, N

    1999-10-01

    The cytidine deaminases belong to the family of multisubunit enzymes that catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of their substrate to a corresponding uracil product. They play a major role in pyrimidine nucleoside and nucleotide salvage. The intracellular distribution of cytidine deaminase and related enzymes has previously been considered to be cytosolic. Here we show that human cytidine deaminase (HCDA) is present in the nucleus. A highly specific, affinity purified polyclonal antibody against HCDA was used to analyze the intracellular localization of native HCDA in a variety of mammalian cells by in situ immunochemistry. Native HCDA was found to be present in the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm in several cell types. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated a predominantly nuclear localization of FLAG-tagged HCDA overexpressed in these cells. We have identified an amino-terminal bipartite nuclear localization signal that is both necessary and sufficient to direct HCDA and a non-nuclear reporter protein to the nucleus. We also show HCDA binding to the nuclear import receptor, importin alpha. Similar putative bipartite nuclear localization sequences are found in other cytidine/deoxycytidylate deaminases. The results presented here suggest that the pyrimidine nucleotide salvage pathway may operate in the nucleus. This localization may have implications in the regulation of nucleoside and nucleotide metabolism and nucleic acid biosynthesis.

  7. Strategies for mapping synaptic inputs on dendrites in vivo by combining two-photon microscopy, sharp intracellular recording and pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eLevy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering the functional properties of individual synaptic inputs on single neurons is critical for understanding the computational role of synapses and dendrites. Previous studies combined whole-cell patch recording to load neurons with a fluorescent calcium indicator and two-photon imaging to map subcellular changes in fluorescence upon sensory stimulation. By hyperpolarizing the neuron below spike threshold, the patch electrode ensured that changes in fluorescence associated with synaptic events were isolated from those caused by back-propagating action potentials. This technique holds promise for determining whether the existence of unique cortical feature maps across different species may be associated with distinct wiring diagrams. However, the use of whole-cell patch for mapping inputs on dendrites is challenging in large mammals, due to brain pulsations and the accumulation of fluorescent dye in the extracellular milieu. Alternatively, sharp intracellular electrodes have been used to label neurons with fluorescent dyes, but the current passing capabilities of these high impedance electrodes may be insufficient to prevent spiking. In this study, we tested whether sharp electrode recording is suitable for mapping functional inputs on dendrites in the cat visual cortex. We compared three different strategies for suppressing visually evoked spikes: (1 hyperpolarization by intracellular current injection, (2 pharmacological blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by intracellular QX-314, and (3 GABA iontophoresis from a perisomatic electrode glued to the intracellular electrode. We found that functional inputs on dendrites could be successfully imaged using all three strategies. However, the best method for preventing spikes was GABA iontophoresis with low currents (5 to 10 nA, which minimally affected the local circuit. Our methods advance the possibility of determining functional connectivity in preparations where whole-cell patch may be

  8. Giardia lamblia: intracellular localization of alpha8-giardin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao Jun; Tian, Xi Feng; Adam, Rodney D; Lu, Si Qi

    2010-12-01

    Alpha8-giardin (α8-giardin) is a member of the multi-gene α-giardin family in the intestinal parasitic protozoan, Giardia lamblia. This gene family shares an ancestry with the annexin super family, whose common characteristic is calcium dependent binding to membranes that contain acidic phospholipids. In the present study, the antigenicity, hydrophilicity, flexibility, surface probability, and secondary structure of α8-giardin amino acids were predicted by bioinformatics applications. A specific anti-peptide antiserum, anti-P3, was used to determine the intracellular location of α8-giardin with confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy. The results indicated that α8-giardin was located on the plasma membrane and flagella, but not on the ventral disk. Reduction of α8-giardin transcript levels by ribozyme-mediated cleavage decreased trophozoite motility and growth rate, indicating the functional importance of α8-giardin to Giardia trophozoite biology.

  9. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  10. Approach of simultaneous localization and mapping based on local maps for robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bai-fan; CAI Zi-xing; HU De-wen

    2006-01-01

    An extended Kalman filter approach of simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) was proposed based on local maps.A local frame of reference was established periodically at the position of the robot, and then the observations of the robot and landmarks were fused into the global frame of reference. Because of the independence of the local map, the approach does not cumulate the estimate and calculation errors which are produced by SLAM using Kalman filter directly. At the same time, it reduces the computational complexity. This method is proven correct and feasible in simulation experiments.

  11. Kodaira-Spencer maps in local algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Bernd

    1994-01-01

    The monograph contributes to Lech's inequality - a 30-year-old problem of commutative algebra, originating in the work of Serre and Nagata, that relates the Hilbert function of the total space of an algebraic or analytic deformation germ to the Hilbert function of the parameter space. A weakened version of Lech's inequality is proved using a construction that can be considered as a local analog of the Kodaira-Spencer map known from the deformation theory of compact complex manifolds. The methods are quite elementary, and will be of interest for researchers in deformation theory, local singularities and Hilbert functions.

  12. Hippocampus Segmentation Based on Local Linear Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shumao; Jiang, Jun; Lu, Zhentai; Li, Xueli; Yang, Wei; Huang, Meiyan; Zhang, Yu; Feng, Yanqiu; Huang, Wenhua; Feng, Qianjin

    2017-04-01

    We propose local linear mapping (LLM), a novel fusion framework for distance field (DF) to perform automatic hippocampus segmentation. A k-means cluster method is propose for constructing magnetic resonance (MR) and DF dictionaries. In LLM, we assume that the MR and DF samples are located on two nonlinear manifolds and the mapping from the MR manifold to the DF manifold is differentiable and locally linear. We combine the MR dictionary using local linear representation to present the test sample, and combine the DF dictionary using the corresponding coefficients derived from local linear representation procedure to predict the DF of the test sample. We then merge the overlapped predicted DF patch to obtain the DF value of each point in the test image via a confidence-based weighted average method. This approach enabled us to estimate the label of the test image according to the predicted DF. The proposed method was evaluated on brain images of 35 subjects obtained from SATA dataset. Results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method, which yields mean Dice similarity coefficients of 0.8697, 0.8770 and 0.8734 for the left, right and bi-lateral hippocampus, respectively.

  13. A method for spatially resolved local intracellular mechanochemical sensing and organelle manipulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, S.; Cambi, A.; Figdor, C.G.; Subramaniam, V.; Kanger, J.S.

    2012-01-01

    Because both the chemical and mechanical properties of living cells play crucial functional roles, there is a strong need for biophysical methods to address these properties simultaneously. Here we present a novel (to our knowledge) approach to measure local intracellular micromechanical and

  14. A method for spatially resolved local intracellular mechanochemical sensing and organelle manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekhar, S.; Cambi, A.; Figdor, Carl; Subramaniam, Vinod; Kanger, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    Because both the chemical and mechanical properties of living cells play crucial functional roles, there is a strong need for biophysical methods to address these properties simultaneously. Here we present a novel (to our knowledge) approach to measure local intracellular micromechanical and

  15. Retrieving the intracellular topology from multi-scale protein mobility mapping in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Michael; Erdel, Fabian; Wachsmuth, Malte; Rippe, Karsten

    2014-07-24

    In living cells, most proteins diffuse over distances of micrometres within seconds. Protein translocation is constrained due to the cellular organization into subcompartments that impose diffusion barriers and guide enzymatic activities to their targets. Here, we introduce an approach to retrieve structural features from the scale-dependent mobility of green fluorescent protein monomer and multimers in human cells. We measure protein transport simultaneously between hundreds of positions by multi-scale fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy using a line-illuminating confocal microscope. From these data we derive a quantitative model of the intracellular architecture that resembles a random obstacle network for diffusing proteins. This topology partitions the cellular content and increases the dwell time of proteins in their local environment. The accessibility of obstacle surfaces depends on protein size. Our method links multi-scale mobility measurements with a quantitative description of intracellular structure that can be applied to evaluate how drug-induced perturbations affect protein transport and interactions.

  16. Expression and intracellular localization of ACA and TRA-1-81 in smooth muscle cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, G T; Becker-Kojić, Z; Kogan, E A; Demura, T A; Faizullina, N M; Nizyaeva, N V; Schott, A; Ureña-Peralta, J J; Askol'skaya, S I; Popov, Yu V

    2013-08-01

    We studied the expression and intracellular localization of ACA and TRA-1-81 in smooth muscle cell tumors. The study was performed on tissue specimens obtained during surgery from patients with uterine leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma (mean age 34 and 51 years, respectively). ACA was present in leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, and control myometrium. Intracellular expression of ACA varied in different types of tumors and was minimum in normal myometrium and maximum in leiomyosarcoma. Membrane localization of the protein is typical of common and cellular leiomyoma, while in the growth zones of mitotically active leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma the reaction product was primarily located in tumor cell cytoplasm. TRA was detected in some leiomyosarcoma cells. Thus, ACA dysregulation was revealed in the growth zones of leiomyomas and in leiomyosarcomas, which manifested in enhanced expression of this protein and its detachment from the plasma membrane, which leads ACA translocation into the cytoplasm and nucleus of tumor cells and potentiates their proliferative activity.

  17. Simplest relationship between local field potential and intracellular signals in layered neural tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhov, Anton V.; Sanchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Rodrigues, Serafim; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the extracellularly measured electric field potential resulting from synaptic activity in an ensemble of neurons and intracellular signals in these neurons is an important but still open question. Based on a model neuron with a cylindrical dendrite and lumped soma, we derive a formula that substantiates a proportionality between the local field potential and the total somatic transmembrane current that emerges from the difference between the somatic and dendritic membrane potentials. The formula is tested by intra- and extracellular recordings of evoked synaptic responses in hippocampal slices. Additionally, the contribution of different membrane currents to the field potential is demonstrated in a two-population mean-field model. Our formalism, which allows for a simple estimation of unknown dendritic currents directly from somatic measurements, provides an interpretation of the local field potential in terms of intracellularly measurable synaptic signals. It is also applicable to the study of cortical activity using two-compartment neuronal population models.

  18. Polycaprolactone/maltodextrin nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery: formulation, uptake mechanism, internalization kinetics, and subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Gorantla, Yamini; Paulos, Simon A; Sharma, Pankaj; Chaudhary, Jaideep; Palaniappan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) disease progression is associated with significant changes in intracellular and extracellular proteins, intracellular signaling mechanism, and cancer cell phenotype. These changes may have direct impact on the cellular interactions with nanocarriers; hence, there is the need for a much-detailed understanding, as nanocarrier cellular internalization and intracellular sorting mechanism correlate directly with bioavailability and clinical efficacy. In this study, we report the differences in the rate and mechanism of cellular internalization of a biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/maltodextrin (MD) nanocarrier system for intracellular drug delivery in LNCaP, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines. PCL/MD nanocarriers were designed and characterized. PCL/MD nanocarriers significantly increased the intracellular concentration of coumarin-6 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, a model hydrophobic and large molecule, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed rapid internalization of the nanocarrier. The extent of nanocarrier cellular internalization correlated directly with cell line aggressiveness. PCL/MD internalization was highest in PC3 followed by DU145 and LNCaP, respectively. Uptake in all PCa cell lines was metabolically dependent. Extraction of endogenous cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced uptake by 75%±4.53% in PC3, 64%±6.01% in LNCaP, and 50%±4.50% in DU145, indicating the involvement of endogenous cholesterol in cellular internalization. Internalization of the nanocarrier in LNCaP was mediated mainly by macropinocytosis and clathrin-independent pathways, while internalization in PC3 and DU145 involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-independent pathways, and macropinocytosis. Fluorescence microscopy showed a very diffused and non-compartmentalized subcellular localization of the PCL/MD nanocarriers with possible intranuclear localization and minor colocalization in

  19. Magnesium intracellular content and distribution map in drug-resistant and -sensitive whole cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Malucelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg plays crucial structural and regulatory roles within cells. Despite the extensive amount of data about the biochemistry of Mg, a complete picture of its regulation and cellular homeostasis is lacking. Thanks to recent improvements in third generation synchrotron X-ray sources, X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM is becoming a highly sensitive method for mapping elemental distributions in cells. XRFM maps the element content but not the concentration, which is a relevant variable in a biological context. We tackled this issue by combining XRFM with atomic force microscopy that was used to obtain morphological information of the sample. The aim of the present study was to compare the content and the distribution of Mg in drug-resistant and -sensitive tumor cell lines. Our data has shown a massive increase of Mg in LoVo drug-resistant cells. Moreover, the map of intracellular Mg showed marked differences in the pattern distribution between sensitive and resistant cells.

  20. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Planetary Surface Mobility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop localization and mapping technologies for planetary rovers....

  1. A New Method for Local Dependence Map and Its Applications

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    Burcu H. ÜÇER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work introduces a new method to construct local dependence map based on the estimate for the linear local dependence function H(x,y, which is generalization of Pearson correlation coefficient. The new local dependence map demonstrates a practical tool for local dependence structure between two random variables. The analysis of theoretical concepts is verified by an application based on real datasets in endocrinology. Material and Methods: The method, local dependence map, requires the estimation new local dependence function which is based on regression concepts. After this local dependence function must be converted with local permutation tests in local dependence map which make the local dependence function more interpretable by identifying the regions of positive, negative and zero local dependence. Results: Based on the proposed method and we give two examples based on the real data C-peptide, insulin and TSH, FT3, FT4 from endocrinology in order to show the advantageous of the current dependence maps. They show interesting local dependence features on the other hand overall correlation coefficient is not much informative. Conclusion: Scalar dependence measures such as correlation coefficient are often used as a measure of dependence for data in medical and biological science. However, they cannot reflect the complex dependence structure of two variables. Hence we are now concerned exclusively with the statistical aspects of the dependence structure in dependence maps that will be constructed for the dataset. In this work a new method to construct local dependence map based on the regression concept for the linear local dependence function H(x,y, which is generalization of Pearson correlation coefficient, is established. The proposed new local dependence map is devoted to two examples based on the real data C-peptide, insulin and TSH, FT3, FT4 from endocrinology in order to illustrate the usefulness of the current dependence

  2. Bacteriome-localized intracellular symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae

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    Benjamin Weiss

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several insect taxa are associated with intracellular symbionts that provision limiting nutrients to their hosts. Such tightly integrated symbioses are especially common in insects feeding on nutritionally challenging diets like phloem sap or vertebrate blood, but also occur in seed-eating and omnivorous taxa. Here, we characterize an intracellular symbiosis in pollen-feeding beetles of the genus Dasytes (Coleoptera, Dasytidae. High-throughput tag-encoded 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of adult D. plumbeus and D. virens revealed a single gamma-proteobacterial symbiont that amounts to 52.4-98.7% of the adult beetles’ entire microbial community. Almost complete 16S rRNA sequences phylogenetically placed the symbiont into a clade comprising Buchnera and other insect endosymbionts, but sequence similarities to these closest relatives were surprisingly low (83.4 to 87.4%. Using histological examination, three-dimensional reconstructions, and fluorescence in situ hybridization, we localized the symbionts in three mulberry-shaped bacteriomes that are associated with the mid- to hind-gut transition in adult male and female beetles. Given the specialized pollen-feeding habits of the adults that contrasts with the larvae’s carnivorous lifestyle, the symbionts may provision limiting essential amino acids or vitamins as in other intracellular symbioses, or they might produce digestive enzymes that break up the fastidious pollen walls and thereby contribute to the host’s nutrition. In either case, the presence of gamma-proteobacterial symbionts in pollen-feeding beetles indicates that intracellular mutualists are more widely distributed across insects with diverse feeding habits than previously recognized.

  3. Intracellular Localization and Trafficking of Serine Proteinase AhSub and Cysteine Proteinase AhCP of Acanthamoeba healyi

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, E.-K.; Lee, S.-T.; Chung, D.-I.; Kong, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Proteinases have been proposed to play important roles in pathogenesis and various biologic actions in Acanthamoeba. Although genetic characteristics of several proteases of Acanthamoeba have been reported, the intracellular localization and trafficking of these enzymes has yet to be studied. In the present study, we analyzed the intracellular localization and trafficking of two proteinases, AhSub and AhCP, of Acanthamoeba healyi by transient transfection. Full-length AhSub-enhanced green flu...

  4. Intracellular localization and interaction of mRNA binding proteins as detected by FRET

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    Port J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of RNA binding proteins (BPs bind to A+U rich elements (AREs, commonly present within 3'UTRs of highly regulated RNAs. Individual RNA-BPs proteins can modulate RNA stability, RNA localization, and/or translational efficiency. Although biochemical studies have demonstrated selectivity of ARE-BPs for individual RNAs, less certain is the in vivo composition of RNA-BP multiprotein complexes and how their composition is affected by signaling events and intracellular localization. Using FRET, we previously demonstrated that two ARE-BPs, HuR and AUF1, form stable homomeric and heteromeric associations in the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the current study, we use immuno-FRET of endogenous proteins to examine the intracellular localization and interactions of HuR and AUF1 as well as KSRP, TIA-1, and Hedls. These results were compared to those obtained with their exogenously expressed, fluorescently labeled counterparts. Results All ARE-BPs examined were found to colocalize and to form stable associations with selected other RNA-BPs in one or more cellular locations variably including the nucleus, cytoplasm (in general, or in stress granules or P bodies. Interestingly, FRET based interaction of the translational suppressor, TIA-1, and the decapping protein, Hedls, was found to occur at the interface of stress granules and P bodies, dynamic sites of intracellular RNA storage and/or turnover. To explore the physical interactions of RNA-BPs with ARE containing RNAs, in vitro transcribed Cy3-labeled RNA was transfected into cells. Interestingly, Cy3-RNA was found to coalesce in P body like punctate structures and, by FRET, was found to interact with the RNA decapping proteins, Hedls and Dcp1. Conclusions Biochemical methodologies, such as co-immunoprecipitation, and cell biological approaches such as standard confocal microscopy are useful in demonstrating the possibility of proteins and/or proteins and RNAs interacting. However, as

  5. Methods to analyze subcellular localization and intracellular trafficking of Claudin-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausalya, P Jaya; Hunziker, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The integral tight junction protein Claudin-16 (Cldn16) is predominantly expressed in renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop where, together with claudin-19, it forms a cation-selective pore that allows influx of Na+ from the interstitial fluid into the lumen of the kidney tubule. This leads to an electrochemical gradient that drives the reabsorbtion of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions from the renal filtrate. Mutations in the Cldn16 gene have been identified in patients suffering from familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis, with excessive renal wastage of Mg2+ and Ca2+ being a hallmark of this condition. Studies into the mechanism by which mutations impair Cldn16 function have shown that although several mutations affect paracellular ion transport, many interfere with intracellular trafficking of Cldn16, ultimately compromising its localization to TJs. Here, we describe the experimental approaches that can be used to monitor intracellular localization and trafficking of Cldn16. These methods can easily be adapted to study other claudins, provided suitable antibodies are available.

  6. Alterations in expression, proteolysis and intracellular localizations of clusterin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Zhi He; Xiao-Hang Zhao; Zhen-Mei Song; Kun Wang; Liang-Hong Teng; Fang Liu; You-Sheng Mao; Ning Lu; Shang-Zhong Zhang; Min Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate biogenesis and intracellular localizations of clusterin to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms implicated in tumorigenesis of esophageal mucosa.METHODS: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR for multi-region alteration analysis, Western blot for different transcriptional forms and immunohistochemical staining for intracellular localizations of clusterin were carried out in both tissues and cell lines of ESCC.RESULTS: The N-terminal deletions of the clusterin gene and the appearance of a 50-53 ku nuclear clusterin, an uncleaved, nonglycosylated, and disulfide-linked isoform,were the major alterations in cancer cells of esophagus.Naturally the 40 ku clusterin was located in the connective tissue of the lamina propria of epithelial mucosa and right under the basal membrane of epithelia, but it was disappeared in stromal mucosa of esophagus and the pre-matured clusterin was found positive in cancerous epithelia.CONCLUSION: The N-terminal deletion of clusterin may be essential for its alterations of biogenesis in ESCC.

  7. Harmonic Riemannian Maps on Locally Conformal Kaehler Manifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bayram Sahin

    2008-11-01

    We study harmonic Riemannian maps on locally conformal Kaehler manifolds ($lcK$ manifolds). We show that if a Riemannian holomorphic map between $lcK$ manifolds is harmonic, then the Lee vector field of the domain belongs to the kernel of the Riemannian map under a condition. When the domain is Kaehler, we prove that a Riemannian holomorphic map is harmonic if and only if the $lcK$ manifold is Kaehler. Then we find similar results for Riemannian maps between $lcK$ manifolds and Sasakian manifolds. Finally, we check the constancy of some maps between almost complex (or almost contact) manifolds and almost product manifolds.

  8. Intracellular localization of lipoplexed siRNA in vascular endothelial cells of different mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleku, Manuela; Fisch, Gerald; Möpert, Kristin; Keil, Oliver; Arnold, Wolfgang; Kaufmann, Jörg; Santel, Ansgar

    2008-05-01

    Liposomally formulated siRNA can be used for RNAi applications in vivo. Intravenous bolus administration of lipoplexed siRNA has been shown to reduce gene expression in the vascular endothelium. Here, we applied immunofluorescence staining for different endothelial markers (PECAM-1, CD34, laminin) on paraffin sections to compare the respective expression pattern with the intracellular localization of intravenously administered, fluorescently labeled siRNA (siRNA-Cy3-lipoplex). By confocal microscopy, lipoplexed siRNA-Cy3 was detected inside vascular endothelial cells in vivo, which where identified with co-staining of endothelial markers. Consequently, the finding of intracellular siRNA uptake by vascular endothelial cells correlated with RNAi based specific protein reduction in situ as revealed by PECAM-1 specific immunofluorescence staining in lung tissue sections. Therefore, by using a cell biological approach these in situ data emphasize the functional uptake of liposomal siRNA molecules in vascular endothelial cells of different mouse tissues as indicated in our previous molecular study.

  9. AROMA: Automatic Generation of Radio Maps for Localization Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eleryan, Ahmed; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    WLAN localization has become an active research field recently. Due to the wide WLAN deployment, WLAN localization provides ubiquitous coverage and adds to the value of the wireless network by providing the location of its users without using any additional hardware. However, WLAN localization systems usually require constructing a radio map, which is a major barrier of WLAN localization systems' deployment. The radio map stores information about the signal strength from different signal strength streams at selected locations in the site of interest. Typical construction of a radio map involves measurements and calibrations making it a tedious and time-consuming operation. In this paper, we present the AROMA system that automatically constructs accurate active and passive radio maps for both device-based and device-free WLAN localization systems. AROMA has three main goals: high accuracy, low computational requirements, and minimum user overhead. To achieve high accuracy, AROMA uses 3D ray tracing enhanced wi...

  10. Mapping Queer Bioethics: Space, Place, and Locality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlert, Lance

    2016-01-01

    This article, which introduces the special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," begins by offering an overview of the analytical scope of the issue. Specifically, the first half of this essay raises critical questions central to the concept of a space-related queer bioethics, such as: How do we appreciate and understand the special needs of queer parties given the constraints of location, space, and geography? The second half of this article describes each feature article in the issue, as well as the subsequent special sections on the ethics of reading literal, health-related maps ("Cartographies") and scrutinizing the history of this journal as concerns LGBT health ("Mapping the Journal of Homosexuality").

  11. Genetically encoded fluorescent probe to visualize intracellular phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate localization and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhao, Mingkun; Tsang, Wai Lok; Zhang, Yanling; Yau, Richard Gar Wai; Weisman, Lois S; Xu, Haoxing

    2013-12-24

    Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate [PI(3,5)P2] is a low-abundance phosphoinositide presumed to be localized to endosomes and lysosomes, where it recruits cytoplasmic peripheral proteins and regulates endolysosome-localized membrane channel activity. Cells lacking PI(3,5)P2 exhibit lysosomal trafficking defects, and human mutations in the PI(3,5)P2-metabolizing enzymes cause lysosome-related diseases. The spatial and temporal dynamics of PI(3,5)P2, however, remain unclear due to the lack of a reliable detection method. Of the seven known phosphoinositides, only PI(3,5)P2 binds, in the low nanomolar range, to a cytoplasmic phosphoinositide-interacting domain (ML1N) to activate late endosome and lysosome (LEL)-localized transient receptor potential Mucolipin 1 (TRPML1) channels. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe, generated by the fusion of fluorescence tags to the tandem repeats of ML1N. The probe was mainly localized to the membranes of Lamp1-positive compartments, and the localization pattern was dynamically altered by either mutations in the probe, or by genetically or pharmacologically manipulating the cellular levels of PI(3,5)P2. Through the use of time-lapse live-cell imaging, we found that the localization of the PI(3,5)P2 probe was regulated by serum withdrawal/addition, undergoing rapid changes immediately before membrane fusion of two LELs. Our development of a PI(3,5)P2-specific probe may facilitate studies of both intracellular signal transduction and membrane trafficking in the endosomes and lysosomes.

  12. Intracellular localization of gold nanoparticles with targeted delivery in MT-4 lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Lavanya; Parboosing, Raveen; Kruger, Hendrik G.; Maguire, Glenn E. M.; Govender, Thavendran

    2016-12-01

    The clinical utility of important therapeutic agents is often limited by the poor permeability of biological membranes. Cell penetrating peptides are usually employed to circumvent this challenge. This approach, coupled with gold nanoparticles, are a promising vehicle for drug delivery due to its good biocompatibility profile, negligable toxicity and possibility for multi-functionalization. Here we report the functionalization and intracellular tracking of gold nanoparticles decorated with a TAT cell penetrating peptide and a fluorescein tag in a simple, two step process. Fluorescence microscopy has confirmed the localization of the functionalized nanoparticles to be inside the cells, specifically within, or in close proximity to the nuclei of MT-4 lymphocytes; a HIV-relevant cell line in which this has not been previously demonstrated. The results of this study demonstrate that TAT has been efficiently conjugated to gold nanoparticles to facilitate both cellular and targeted nuclear entry.

  13. A Simulation Platform for Localization and Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejerøe, Thomas Hanefeld; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Ravn, Ole

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a simulation platform for evaluate methods for simultaneous location and mapping. The platform is based on The Kalmtool 3 toolbox which is a set of MATLAB tools for state estimation for nonlinear systems. The toolbox contains functions for extended Kalman filtering as wel...

  14. Mobile Robot Hierarchical Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Monocular Vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A hierarchical mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method that allows us to obtain accurate maps was presented. The local map level is composed of a set of local metric feature maps that are guaranteed to be statistically independent. The global level is a topological graph whose arcs are labeled with the relative location between local maps. An estimation of these relative locations is maintained with local map alignment algorithm, and more accurate estimation is calculated through a global minimization procedure using the loop closure constraint. The local map is built with Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF), where the particle filter is used to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through extended Kalman filter (EKF). Monocular vision mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) feature pairs. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features is implemented with a KD-tree in the time cost of O(lbN). Experiment results on Pioneer mobile robot in a real indoor environment show the superior performance of our proposed method.

  15. Intracellular localization of Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like proteinase in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Marttila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Treponema denticola is an important periodontal pathogen capable of tissue invasion. Its chymotrypsin-like proteinase (CTLP can degrade a number of basement membrane components in vitro, thus suggesting a contribution to tissue invasion by the spirochete. The aim of this study was to analyze the localization of CTLP in chronic periodontitis tissues ex vivo. A polyclonal antibody specific to T. denticola cell-bound CTLP was used to detect the spirochetes in the gingival tissues of patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis (n=25 by immunohistochemistry and periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS. The presence of T. denticola in the periodontal tissue samples was analyzed by PCR. Periodontal tissue samples of 12 of the 25 patients were found to be positive for T. denticola by PCR. Moreover, CTLP could be detected in the periodontal tissues of all these patients by immunohistochemistry. In the epithelium, the CTLP was mostly intracellular. Typically, the positive staining could be seen throughout the whole depth of the epithelium. When detected extracellularly, CTLP was localized mainly as granular deposits. The connective tissue stained diffusely positive in four cases. The positive staining co-localized with the PAS stain in nine cases. T. denticola and its CTLP could be detected in diseased human periodontium both intra- and extracellularly. The granular staining pattern was suggestive of the presence of T. denticola bacteria, whereas the more diffused staining pattern was indicative of the recent presence of the bacterium and shedding of the cell-bound proteinase.

  16. Cell array-based intracellular localization screening reveals novel functional features of human chromosome 21 proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahlem Pascal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Chr21 results in Down's syndrome, a complex developmental and neurodegenerative disease. Molecular analysis of Down's syndrome, however, poses a particular challenge, because the aneuploid region of Chr21 contains many genes of unknown function. Subcellular localization of human Chr21 proteins may contribute to further understanding of the functions and regulatory mechanisms of the genes that code for these proteins. Following this idea, we used a transfected-cell array technique to perform a rapid and cost-effective analysis of the intracellular distribution of Chr 21 proteins. Results We chose 89 genes that were distributed over the majority of 21q, ranging from RBM11 (14.5 Mb to MCM3AP (46.6 Mb, with part of them expressed aberrantly in the Down's syndrome mouse model. Open reading frames of these genes were cloned into a mammalian expression vector with an amino-terminal His6 tag. All of the constructs were arrayed on glass slides and reverse transfected into HEK293T cells for protein expression. Co-localization detection using a set of organelle markers was carried out for each Chr21 protein. Here, we report the subcellular localization properties of 52 proteins. For 34 of these proteins, their localization is described for the first time. Furthermore, the alteration in cell morphology and growth as a result of protein over-expression for claudin-8 and claudin-14 genes has been characterized. Conclusion The cell array-based protein expression and detection approach is a cost-effective platform for large-scale functional analyses, including protein subcellular localization and cell phenotype screening. The results from this study reveal novel functional features of human Chr21 proteins, which should contribute to further understanding of the molecular pathology of Down's syndrome.

  17. Prokaryotic Expression of α-13 Giardin Gene and Its Intracellular Localization in Giardia lamblia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingang; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Hu, Wei; Tan, Liping; Li, Kangxin; Wang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    To study prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization of α-13 giardin in Giardia lamblia trophozoites, α-13 giardin gene was amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression by using IPTG and autoinduction expression system (ZYM-5052). The target protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and purified by Ni-NTA Resin. Rabbits were immunized with purified fusion proteins for preparation of polyclonal antibody; then the intracellular location of α-13 giardin was determined by fluorescence immunoassay. The results showed that the length of α-13 giardin gene was 1038 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 345 amino acids. The expressed product was a fusion protein with about 40 kDa largely present in soluble form. The target protein accounted for 21.0% of total proteins after being induced with IPTG, while it accounted for 28.8% with ZYM-5052. The anti-α13-giardin polyclonal antibody possessed good antigenic specificity as well as excellent binding activity with recombinant α-13 giardin. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that α-13 giardin was localized in the cytoplasm of G. lamblia trophozoite, suggesting that it is a cytoplasm-associated protein. The present study may lay a foundation for further functional research on α-13 giardin of G. lamblia. PMID:28286754

  18. Localization of plasma membrane t-SNAREs syntaxin 2 and 3 in intracellular compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuismanen Esa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane fusion requires the formation of a complex between a vesicle protein (v-SNARE and the target membrane proteins (t-SNAREs. Syntaxin 2 and 3 are t-SNAREs that, according to previous over-expression studies, are predominantly localized at the plasma membrane. In the present study we investigated localization of the endogenous syntaxin 2 and 3. Results Endogenous syntaxin 2 and 3 were found in NRK cells in intracellular vesicular structures in addition to regions of the plasma membrane. Treatment of these cells with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, which is known to inactivate membrane fusion, caused syntaxin 3 to accumulate in the trans-Golgi network and syntaxin 2 in perinuclear membrane vesicles. Kinetic analysis in the presence of NEM indicated that this redistribution of syntaxin 2 and 3 takes place via actin containing structures. Conclusion Our data suggest that syntaxin 2 cycles between the plasma membrane and the perinuclear compartment whereas syntaxin 3 cycles between the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. It is possible that this cycling has an important role in the regulation of t-SNARE function.

  19. Prokaryotic Expression of α-13 Giardin Gene and Its Intracellular Localization in Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Pan, Weida; Shi, Xianli; Hu, Wei; Tan, Liping; Li, Kangxin; Wang, Zhen; Li, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    To study prokaryotic expression and subcellular localization of α-13 giardin in Giardia lamblia trophozoites, α-13 giardin gene was amplified and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+). The positive recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expression by using IPTG and autoinduction expression system (ZYM-5052). The target protein was validated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and purified by Ni-NTA Resin. Rabbits were immunized with purified fusion proteins for preparation of polyclonal antibody; then the intracellular location of α-13 giardin was determined by fluorescence immunoassay. The results showed that the length of α-13 giardin gene was 1038 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 345 amino acids. The expressed product was a fusion protein with about 40 kDa largely present in soluble form. The target protein accounted for 21.0% of total proteins after being induced with IPTG, while it accounted for 28.8% with ZYM-5052. The anti-α13-giardin polyclonal antibody possessed good antigenic specificity as well as excellent binding activity with recombinant α-13 giardin. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that α-13 giardin was localized in the cytoplasm of G. lamblia trophozoite, suggesting that it is a cytoplasm-associated protein. The present study may lay a foundation for further functional research on α-13 giardin of G. lamblia.

  20. Tissue distribution, intracellular localization and proteolytic processing of rat 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Søren; Aarenstrup, Lene; Tornehave, Ditte; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik; Corydon, Thomas Juhl; Roepstorff, Peter; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD) is an important enzyme involved in tyrosine catabolism. HPD was shown to be identical to a protein named the F-antigen, exploited by immunologists because of its unique immunological properties. Congenital HPD deficiency is a rare, relatively benign condition known as hereditary type III tyrosinemia. Decreased expression of HPD is often observed in association with the severe type I tyrosinemia, and interestingly, inhibition of HPD activity seems to ameliorate the clinical symptoms of type I tyrosinemia. In this study we present a comprehensive analysis of tissue specific expression and intracellular localization of HPD in the rat. By combined use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we confirm previously known sites of expression in liver and kidney. In addition, we show that HPD is abundantly expressed in neurons in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. By using immunoelectron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we provide evidence that HPD contrary to earlier assumptions specifically localizes to membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Detailed mass spectrometric analyses of HPD purified from rat liver revealed N-terminal and C-terminal processing of HPD, and expression of recombinant HPD suggested that C-terminal processing enhances the enzymatic activity.

  1. Spitzer/IRS Mapping of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H; Colina, Luis

    2008-01-01

    We present results of our program Spitzer/IRS Mapping of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs). The maps cover the central 20"x20" or 30"x 30" regions of the galaxies, and use all four IRS modules to cover the full 5-38 microns spectral range. We have built spectral maps of the main mid-IR emission lines, continuum and PAH features, and extracted 1D spectra for regions of interest in each galaxy. The final goal is to fully characterize the mid-IR properties of local LIRGs as a first step to understanding their more distant counterparts.

  2. Stochastic Wheel-Slip Compensation Based Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDHARTHAN, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Wheel slip compensation is vital for building accurate and reliable dead reckoning based robot localization and mapping algorithms. This investigation presents stochastic slip compensation scheme for robot localization and mapping. Main idea of the slip compensation technique is to use wheel-slip data obtained from experiments to model the variations in slip velocity as Gaussian distributions. This leads to a family of models that are switched depending on the input command. To obtain the wheel-slip measurements, experiments are conducted on a wheeled mobile robot and the measurements thus obtained are used to build the Gaussian models. Then the localization and mapping algorithm is tested on an experimental terrain and a new metric called the map spread factor is used to evaluate the ability of the slip compensation technique. Our results clearly indicate that the proposed methodology improves the accuracy by 72.55% for rotation and 66.67% for translation motion as against an uncompensated mapping system. The proposed compensation technique eliminates the need for extro receptive sensors for slip compensation, complex feature extraction and association algorithms. As a result, we obtain a simple slip compensation scheme for localization and mapping.

  3. Biochemical properties of potato phosphorylase change with its intracellular localization as revealed by immunological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E M; Becker, J U; Volkmann, D

    1981-02-01

    Phosphorylase was purified from young and senescent potato tubers. Antibodies raised against the enzyme from young tubers crossreacted with phosphorylase from old tissue, although the latter exhibited different physico-chemical properties. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis it migrated with higher mobility, its subunit molecular weight was determined in the range of 40,000 in contrast to 100,000 of the phosphorylase in young tubers. The enzyme of senescent tubers displayed an isoelectric point of 5.4 different from the one of young tubers with 5.0, and the diffusion coefficients of the two enzymes varied. The appearance of the phosphorylase form typical for senescent tissue is connected with changes in the intracellular localization as revealed by immunofluorescence. Before massive starch accumulation is initiated, non-vacuolated subepidermal cells contain antigenically active material in their cytoplasm. During starch accumulation in fully differentiated storage parenchyma, only amyloplasts fluoresce, indicating the presence of adsorbed phosphorylase protein. Cytoplasmic phosphorylase can be detected in the continuance of senescence and, finally, after 16 months of tuber storage, the particle-bound enzyme had mostly disappeared. Simultaneously, we observed membrane destruction and decomposition on the ultrastructural level. The phosphorylase from senescent potatoes is a converted molecule and seems to be formed by proteolytic cleavage. The location of phosphorylase in the amyloplasts during starch synthesis indicates that it also plays a role in starch synthesis and not only in its degradation.

  4. Glucose regulates diacylglycerol intracellular levels and protein kinase C activity by modulating diacylglycerol kinase subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Claudia; Paturzo, Flora; Teperino, Raffaele; Sakane, Fumio; Fiory, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Ungaro, Paola; Valentino, Rossella; Beguinot, Francesco; Formisano, Pietro

    2007-11-02

    Although chronic hyperglycemia reduces insulin sensitivity and leads to impaired glucose utilization, short term exposure to high glucose causes cellular responses positively regulating its own metabolism. We show that exposure of L6 myotubes overexpressing human insulin receptors to 25 mm glucose for 5 min decreased the intracellular levels of diacylglycerol (DAG). This was paralleled by transient activation of diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and of insulin receptor signaling. Following 30-min exposure, however, both DAG levels and DGK activity returned close to basal levels. Moreover, the acute effect of glucose on DAG removal was inhibited by >85% by the DGK inhibitor R59949. DGK inhibition was also accompanied by increased protein kinase C-alpha (PKCalpha) activity, reduced glucose-induced insulin receptor activation, and GLUT4 translocation. Glucose exposure transiently redistributed DGK isoforms alpha and delta, from the prevalent cytosolic localization to the plasma membrane fraction. However, antisense silencing of DGKdelta, but not of DGKalpha expression, was sufficient to prevent the effect of high glucose on PKCalpha activity, insulin receptor signaling, and glucose uptake. Thus, the short term exposure of skeletal muscle cells to glucose causes a rapid induction of DGK, followed by a reduction of PKCalpha activity and transactivation of the insulin receptor signaling. The latter may mediate, at least in part, glucose induction of its own metabolism.

  5. Localization of outer surface proteins A and B in both the outer membrane and intracellular compartments of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, J S; McDowall, A W; Norgard, M V; Radolf, J D

    1991-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi B31 with and without outer membranes contained nearly identical amounts of outer surface proteins A and B. The majority of each immunogen also was localized intracellularly by immunocryoultramicrotomy. These results are inconsistent with the widely held belief that outer surface proteins A and B are exclusively outer membrane proteins. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1744059

  6. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  7. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Teruyuki; Fukuda, Nanaho; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Inada, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT) in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  8. Mapping of the Local Interstellar Medium using Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penprase, Bryan Edward

    2017-01-01

    Using the Yale SMARTS 1.5-meter telescope at CTIO and the CHIRON spectrograph, we have developed a program for mapping the local interstellar medium using a sample of over 200 newly observed B stars previously unobserved using Na I absorption lines. This sample includes stars that extend out to map beyond the local bubble to 500 pc. The sample has been observed using high resolution absorption lines, and when combined with previously observed stars with Na I and Ca II data provides a more complete picture of the local ISM than previous surveys. The distances to the stars using the new GAIA database also allows for more accurate determination of distances to features in the lcoal ISM, and new maps of the structure of the ISM hav been prepared with the data.

  9. Intracellular sAPP retention in response to Abeta is mapped to cytoskeleton-associated structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Vieira, Sandra Isabel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Guiomar de Oliveira, Márcio A; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B

    2009-05-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and provides a close association between molecular events and pathology, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the work described here, Abeta did not induce amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, but APP processing/trafficking was markedly affected. In COS-7 cells, Abeta provokes retention of intracellular sAPPalpha (isAPPalpha). Intracellular holo-APP levels remain unchanged, and extracellular total sAPP increases, although extracellular sAPPalpha alone was not altered significantly. In primary neuronal cultures and PC12 cells, isAPP also increased, but this was mirrored by a decrease in extracellular total sAPP. The isAPP retention was particularly associated with the cytoskeletal fraction. The retention "per se" occurred in vesicular-like densities, negative for a C-terminal antibody and strongly positive for the 6E10 antibody, clearly showing abnormal intracellular accumulation of sAPPalpha in response to Abeta. Our data support a dynamic model for intracellular retention of sAPPalpha as an early response to Abeta exposure. Particularly noteworthy was the observation that removal of Abeta reversed the isAPP accumulation. Mechanistically, these findings disclose an attractive physiological response, revealing the capacity of cells to deal with adverse effects induced by Abeta.

  10. Robust discriminative response map fitting with constrained local models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asthana, Akshay; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Cheng, Shiyang; Pantic, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel discriminative regression based approach for the Constrained Local Models (CLMs) framework, referred to as the Discriminative Response Map Fitting (DRMF) method, which shows impressive performance in the generic face fitting scenario. The motivation behind this approach is that, u

  11. FAST Mapping of Diffuse HI Gas in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Pisano, D. J.; Ai, M.; Jiao, Q.

    2016-02-01

    We propose to use the Five hundred meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) to map the diffuse intergalactic HI gas in the local universe at column densities of NHI=1018 cm-2 and below. The major science goal is to study gas accretion during galaxy evolution, and trace cosmic web features in the local universe. We disuss the technical feasibilty of such a deep survey, and have conducted test observations with the Arecibo 305 m telescope. Our preliminary results shows that, with about a few thousand hours of observing time, FAST will be able to map several hundred square degree regions at 1 σ of NHI=2×1017 cm-2 level out to a distance of 5-10 Mpc, and with a volume 1000 larger than that of the Local Group.

  12. A technical review of optical mapping of intracellular calcium within myocardial tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Rafael; Walton, Richard D; Pasdois, Philippe; Bernus, Olivier; Efimov, Igor R; Kay, Matthew W

    2016-06-01

    Optical mapping of Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescence probes has become an extremely useful approach and adopted by many cardiovascular research laboratories to study a spectrum of myocardial physiology and disease conditions. Optical mapping data are often displayed as detailed pseudocolor images, providing unique insight for interpreting mechanisms of ectopic activity, action potential and Ca(2+) transient alternans, tachycardia, and fibrillation. Ca(2+)-sensitive fluorescent probes and optical mapping systems continue to evolve in the ongoing effort to improve therapies that ease the growing worldwide burden of cardiovascular disease. In this technical review we provide an updated overview of conventional approaches for optical mapping of Cai (2+) within intact myocardium. In doing so, a brief history of Cai (2+) probes is provided, and nonratiometric and ratiometric Ca(2+) probes are discussed, including probes for imaging sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) and probes compatible with potentiometric dyes for dual optical mapping. Typical measurements derived from optical Cai (2+) signals are explained, and the analytics used to compute them are presented. Last, recent studies using Cai (2+) optical mapping to study arrhythmias, heart failure, and metabolic perturbations are summarized.

  13. Assessing local knowledge use in agroforestry management with cognitive maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 +/- 3 variables and 19 +/- 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  14. Assessing Local Knowledge Use in Agroforestry Management with Cognitive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Marney E.; Dawoe, Evans; Sieciechowicz, Krystyna

    2009-06-01

    Small-holder farmers often develop adaptable agroforestry management techniques to improve and diversify crop production. In the cocoa growing region of Ghana, local knowledge on such farm management holds a noteworthy role in the overall farm development. The documentation and analysis of such knowledge use in cocoa agroforests may afford an applicable framework to determine mechanisms driving farmer preference and indicators in farm management. This study employed 12 in-depth farmer interviews regarding variables in farm management as a unit of analysis and utilized cognitive mapping as a qualitative method of analysis. Our objectives were (1) to illustrate and describe agroforestry management variables and associated farm practices, (2) to determine the scope of decision making of individual farmers, and (3) to investigate the suitability of cognitive mapping as a tool for assessing local knowledge use. Results from the cognitive maps revealed an average of 16 ± 3 variables and 19 ± 3 links between management variables in the farmer cognitive maps. Farmer use of advantageous ecological processes was highly central to farm management (48% of all variables), particularly manipulation of organic matter, shade and food crop establishment, and maintenance of a tree stratum as the most common, highly linked variables. Over 85% of variables included bidirectional arrows, interpreted as farm management practices dominated by controllable factors, insofar as farmers indicated an ability to alter most farm characteristics. Local knowledge use on cocoa production revealed detailed indicators for site evaluation, thus affecting farm preparation and management. Our findings suggest that amid multisourced information under conditions of uncertainty, strategies for adaptable agroforestry management should integrate existing and localized management frameworks and that cognitive mapping provides a tool-based approach to advance such a management support system.

  15. Immunomicroscopic localization of aminopeptidase N in the pig enterocyte. Implications for the route of intracellular transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Sjöström, H; Norén, Ove

    1987-01-01

    . Labelling was demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus and in a minor fraction of the intracellular smooth vesicles positioned between the Golgi apparatus and the microvillar membrane. These observations are compatible with the view that newly synthesized aminopeptidase N is delivered directly to the microvillar...

  16. Local thermodynamic mapping for effective liquid density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrlidis, Agathagelos; Brown, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    The structural-mapping approximation introduced by Lutsko and Baus (1990) in the generalized effective-liquid approximation is extended to include a local thermodynamic mapping based on a spatially dependent effective density for approximating the solid phase in terms of the uniform liquid. This latter approximation, called the local generalized effective-liquid approximation (LGELA) yields excellent predictions for the free energy of hard-sphere solids and for the conditions of coexistence of a hard-sphere fcc solid with a liquid. Moreover, the predicted free energy remains single valued for calculations with more loosely packed crystalline structures, such as the diamond lattice. The spatial dependence of the weighted density makes the LGELA useful in the study of inhomogeneous solids.

  17. BatSLAM: Simultaneous localization and mapping using biomimetic sonar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Jan; Peremans, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office) environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building.

  18. BatSLAM: Simultaneous localization and mapping using biomimetic sonar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Steckel

    Full Text Available We propose to combine a biomimetic navigation model which solves a simultaneous localization and mapping task with a biomimetic sonar mounted on a mobile robot to address two related questions. First, can robotic sonar sensing lead to intelligent interactions with complex environments? Second, can we model sonar based spatial orientation and the construction of spatial maps by bats? To address these questions we adapt the mapping module of RatSLAM, a previously published navigation system based on computational models of the rodent hippocampus. We analyze the performance of the proposed robotic implementation operating in the real world. We conclude that the biomimetic navigation model operating on the information from the biomimetic sonar allows an autonomous agent to map unmodified (office environments efficiently and consistently. Furthermore, these results also show that successful navigation does not require the readings of the biomimetic sonar to be interpreted in terms of individual objects/landmarks in the environment. We argue that the system has applications in robotics as well as in the field of biology as a simple, first order, model for sonar based spatial orientation and map building.

  19. 'IntraCell' plugin for assessment of intracellular localization of nano-delivery systems and their targeting to the individual organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneh-Edri, Hadas; Stepensky, David

    2011-02-11

    Efficient intracellular targeting of drugs and drug delivery systems (DDSs) is a major challenge that should be overcome to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of biopharmaceuticals and other intracellularly-acting drugs. Studies that quantitatively assess the mechanisms, barriers, and efficiency of intracellular drug delivery are required to determine the therapeutic potential of intracellular targeting of nano-delivery systems. In this study we report development and application of a novel 'IntraCell' plugin for ImageJ that is useful for quantitative assessment of uptake and intracellular localization of the drug/DDS and estimation of targeting efficiency. The developed plugin is based on threshold-based identification of borders of cell and of the individual organelles on confocal images and pixel-by-pixel analysis of fluorescence intensities. We applied the developed 'IntraCell' plugin to investigate uptake and intracellular targeting of novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeted delivery system based on PLGA nanoparticles decorated with ER-targeting or control peptides and encapsulating antigenic peptide and fluorescent marker. Decoration of the nanoparticles with peptidic residues affected their uptake and intracellular trafficking in HeLa cells, indicating that the targeting peptide was identified as ER-targeting signal by the intracellular trafficking mechanisms in HeLa cells and that these mechanisms can handle nano-DDS of the size comparable to some intracellular vesicles (hundreds of nanometers in diameter). We conclude that decoration of nanoparticles with peptidic residues affects their intracellular localization and trafficking and can be potentially used for intracellularly-targeted drug delivery. 'IntraCell' plugin is an useful tool for quantitative assessment of efficiency of uptake and intracellular drug targeting. In combination with other experimental approaches, it will be useful for the development of intracellularly-targeted formulations with

  20. Using M Dwarfs to Map Extinction in the Local Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; West, A. A.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    We use spectra of more than 56,000 M dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to create a high-latitude extinction map of the local Galaxy. Our technique compares spectra from low-extinction lines of sight as determined by Schlegel, Finkbeiner, & Davis to other SDSS spectra in order to derive improved distances and accurate extinctions for the stars in the SDSS data release 7 M dwarf sample. Unlike most previous studies, which have used a two-color method to determine extinction, we fit extinction curves to fluxes across the entire spectral range from 5700 to 9200 angstroms for every star in our sample. Our result is an extinction map that extends from a few tens of pc to approximately 2 kpc from the Sun. We also use a similar technique to create a map of Rv values within approximately 1 kpc of the Sun and find that they are roughly consistent with the widely accepted diffuse interstellar medium value of 3.1. Using our extinction data, we derive a dust scale height for the local galaxy of 176 ± 15 parsecs.

  1. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor β superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Shunsuke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Results Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFβ superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1, pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Conclusion Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  2. Intracellular localization of markers within injected or cut frog muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, B R; Mathias, R T; Gilai, A

    1979-07-01

    Many experimental procedures require drastic alterations of muscle fibers, such as cutting the fiber or injecting molecular probes through microelectrodes. We report the ultrastructure of similarly altered muscle fibers and the intracellular distribution of injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Cut fibers appear structurally normal at distances greater than 500 microM from the cut end, however, the structure deteriorates nearer to the cut. HRP diffuses longitudinally about 2,000 micrometer from the cut end and the concentration is uniform over the fiber's cross section. If HRP is introduced intracellularly either by pressure injection or through a nick in the sarcolemma, it distributes in a C-shaped annulus extending approximately 2,000 micrometer longitudinally and 1-20 micrometer radially. The ultrastructure of injected or nicked fibers appears normal. The HRP freely entered the junctional gap between T-system and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) but was excluded from either structure. Occasionally, a light pillar could be seen between T-system and SR; the space of these pillars suggest they are the central area of the "feet" appearing light against the dark marker.

  3. Sonar scan matching for simultaneous localization and mapping in confined underwater environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mallios, Angelos

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of a localization and mapping algorithm for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). It is based on probabilistic scan matching of raw sonar scans within a pose-based simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) framework

  4. Self-maps of p-local infinite projective spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN XianZu

    2012-01-01

    Denote by Z(p) (resp.(Z)p) the p localization (resp.p completion) of Z.Then we have the canonical inclusion Z(p) (→) (Z)p.Let S2n-1(p) be the p-local (2n-1)-sphere and let B2n(p) be a connected p-local space satisfying S2n-1(p) (≌) ΩB2n(p); then H*(B2n(p),Z(p)) =Z(p)[u] with |u| =2n.Define the degree of a self-map f of B2n(p) to be k ∈ Z(p) such that f*(u) =ku.Using the theory of integer-valued polynomials we show that there exists a self-map of B2n(p) of degree k if rand only if k is an n-th power in (Z)p.

  5. Localized thermal mapping using coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Hope T; Noojin, Gary D; Rockwell, Benjamin A

    2012-08-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is explored as a tool for obtaining micro-scale thermal measurements. A single femtosecond oscillator is used to pump a photonic crystal fiber to provide the broadband Stokes pulse. The CARS signals from the broad OH-stretching modes between 3000 and 3600 cm(-1) are shown to correlate with temperature with an accuracy of ± 1°C for water and ± 1.5°C for phosphate-buffered saline. Local variation of temperature is mapped on a microscopic level, using black-dyed microspheres as thermal sources.

  6. Local dimension and finite time prediction in coupled map lattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Muruganandam; G Francisco

    2005-03-01

    Forecasting, for obvious reasons, often become the most important goal to be achieved. For spatially extended systems (e.g. atmospheric system) where the local nonlinearities lead to the most unpredictable chaotic evolution, it is highly desirable to have a simple diagnostic tool to identify regions of predictable behaviour. In this paper, we discuss the use of the bred vector (BV) dimension, a recently introduced statistics, to identify the regimes where a finite time forecast is feasible. Using the tools from dynamical systems theory and Bayesian modelling, we show the finite time predictability in two-dimensional coupled map lattices in the regions of low BV dimension.

  7. Local Relation Map: A Novel Illumination Invariant Face Recognition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Zhichao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel illumination invariant face recognition approach is proposed. Different from most existing methods, an additive term as noise is considered in the face model under varying illuminations in addition to a multiplicative illumination term. High frequency coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT are discarded to eliminate the effect caused by noise. Based on the local characteristics of the human face, a simple but effective illumination invariant feature local relation map is proposed. Experimental results on the Yale B, Extended Yale B and CMU PIE demonstrate the outperformance and lower computational burden of the proposed method compared to other existing methods. The results also demonstrate the validity of the proposed face model and the assumption on noise.

  8. Accounting for Protein Subcellular Localization: A Compartmental Map of the Rat Liver Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadot, Michel; Boonen, Marielle; Thirion, Jaqueline; Wang, Nan; Xing, Jinchuan; Zhao, Caifeng; Tannous, Abla; Qian, Meiqian; Zheng, Haiyan; Everett, John K; Moore, Dirk F; Sleat, David E; Lobel, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Accurate knowledge of the intracellular location of proteins is important for numerous areas of biomedical research including assessing fidelity of putative protein-protein interactions, modeling cellular processes at a system-wide level and investigating metabolic and disease pathways. Many proteins have not been localized, or have been incompletely localized, partly because most studies do not account for entire subcellular distribution. Thus, proteins are frequently assigned to one organelle whereas a significant fraction may reside elsewhere. As a step toward a comprehensive cellular map, we used subcellular fractionation with classic balance sheet analysis and isobaric labeling/quantitative mass spectrometry to assign locations to >6000 rat liver proteins. We provide quantitative data and error estimates describing the distribution of each protein among the eight major cellular compartments: nucleus, mitochondria, lysosomes, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, plasma membrane and cytosol. Accounting for total intracellular distribution improves quality of organelle assignments and assigns proteins with multiple locations. Protein assignments and supporting data are available online through the Prolocate website (http://prolocate.cabm.rutgers.edu). As an example of the utility of this data set, we have used organelle assignments to help analyze whole exome sequencing data from an infant dying at 6 months of age from a suspected neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder of unknown etiology. Sequencing data was prioritized using lists of lysosomal proteins comprising well-established residents of this organelle as well as novel candidates identified in this study. The latter included copper transporter 1, encoded by SLC31A1, which we localized to both the plasma membrane and lysosome. The patient harbors two predicted loss of function mutations in SLC31A1, suggesting that this may represent a heretofore undescribed recessive lysosomal storage disease

  9. EicosaCell - an immunofluorescent-based assay to localize newly synthesized eicosanoid lipid mediators at intracellular sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira-Melo, Christianne; Weller, Peter F; Bozza, Patricia T

    2011-01-01

    Eicosanoids (prostaglandins, leukotrienes and lipoxins) are a family of signaling lipids derived from arachidonic acid that have important roles in physiological and pathological processes. Over the past years, it has been established that successful eicosanoid production is not merely determined by arachidonic acid and eicosanoid-forming enzymes availability, but requires sequential interactions between specific biosynthetic proteins acting in cascade and may involve very unique spatial interactions. Direct assessment of specific subcellular locales of eicosanoid synthesis has been elusive, as those lipid mediators are newly formed, not stored and often rapidly released upon cell stimulation. In this chapter, we discuss the EicosaCell protocol for intracellular detection of eicosanoid-synthesizing compartments by means of a strategy to covalently cross-link and immobilize the lipid mediators at their sites of synthesis followed by immunofluorescent-based localization of the targeted eicosanoid.

  10. Observation of intracellular interactions between DNA origami and lysosomes by the fluorescence localization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Meifang; Dai, Luru; Jiang, Qiao; Tang, Yunqing; Zhang, Xiaoming; Ding, Baoquan; Li, Junbai

    2016-07-28

    We obtained the fluorescence localization images of tube DNA origami nanostructures in NIH 3T3 cells for the first time. The fluorescence localization images of tube DNA origami nanostructures and TIRF images of lysosomes were combined and they revealed the detailed interactions between the two structures. Quantitative analysis illustrated that the tube origami can be captured as well as degraded by lysosomes with time.

  11. Mapping and localization of susceptible genes in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ming-liang; ZHAO Jing

    2011-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the development of mapping and localization of susceptible genes on chromosomes to asthma related phenotypes.Data sources Published articles about susceptibility genes for asthma related phenotypes were selected using PubMed.Study selection Using methods of candidate gene positional clone and genome-wide scan with linkage and association analysis to determine the location in the genome of susceptibility genes to asthma and asthma related phenotypes.Results There are multiple regions in the genome harboring susceptibility genes to asthma and asthma relatedphenotypes, including chromosomes 5, 11, 12, 6, 2, 3, 13, 7, 14, 9, 19 and 17. Many of these regions contain candidate genes involved in asthma development and progression. Some susceptible genes may affect the phenotype expression or response to therapy. In addition, the interaction of multiple genes with the environment may contribute to the susceptibility to asthma.Conclusions As an essential step toward cloning the susceptible genes to asthma, fine mapping and localization onchromosomes are definitely needed. Novel powerful tools for gene discovery and the integration of genetics, biology and bioinformatics should be pursued.

  12. Localization and Mapping Using Only a Rotating FMCW Radar Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Chapuis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotating radar sensors are perception systems rarely used in mobile robotics. This paper is concerned with the use of a mobile ground-based panoramic radar sensor which is able to deliver both distance and velocity of multiple targets in its surrounding. The consequence of using such a sensor in high speed robotics is the appearance of both geometric and Doppler velocity distortions in the collected data. These effects are, in the majority of studies, ignored or considered as noise and then corrected based on proprioceptive sensors or localization systems. Our purpose is to study and use data distortion and Doppler effect as sources of information in order to estimate the vehicle’s displacement. The linear and angular velocities of the mobile robot are estimated by analyzing the distortion of the measurements provided by the panoramic Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW radar, called IMPALA. Without the use of any proprioceptive sensor, these estimates are then used to build the trajectory of the vehicle and the radar map of outdoor environments. In this paper, radar-only localization and mapping results are presented for a ground vehicle moving at high speed.

  13. The effect of hypusine modification on the intracellular localization of eIF5A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Kaevel, Jörn; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto; Park, Myung Hee

    2009-06-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and is the only protein containing hypusine, [N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the post-translational synthesis of hypusine. eIF5A also undergoes an acetylation at specific Lys residue(s). In this study, we have investigated the effect of hypusine modification and acetylation on the subcellular localization of eIF5A. Immunocytochemical analyses showed differences in the distribution of non-hypusinated eIF5A precursor and the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. While the precursor is found in both cytoplasm and nucleus, the hypusinated eIF5A is primarily localized in cytoplasm. eIF5A mutant proteins, defective in hypusine modification (K50A, K50R) were localized in a similar manner to the eIF5A precursor, whereas hypusine-modified mutant proteins (K47A, K47R, K68A) were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. These findings provide strong evidence that the hypusine modification of eIF5A dictates its localization in the cytoplasmic compartment where it is required for protein synthesis.

  14. The effect of hypusine modification on the intracellular localization of eIF5A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Bum; Park, Jong Hwan; Kaevel, Joern; Sramkova, Monika; Weigert, Roberto [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 30 Rm 211, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892-4340 (United States); Park, Myung Hee, E-mail: mhpark@nih.gov [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 30 Rm 211, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892-4340 (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a highly conserved protein essential for eukaryotic cell proliferation and is the only protein containing hypusine, [N{sup {epsilon}}-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine]. eIF5A is activated by the post-translational synthesis of hypusine. eIF5A also undergoes an acetylation at specific Lys residue(s). In this study, we have investigated the effect of hypusine modification and acetylation on the subcellular localization of eIF5A. Immunocytochemical analyses showed differences in the distribution of non-hypusinated eIF5A precursor and the hypusine-containing mature eIF5A. While the precursor is found in both cytoplasm and nucleus, the hypusinated eIF5A is primarily localized in cytoplasm. eIF5A mutant proteins, defective in hypusine modification (K50A, K50R) were localized in a similar manner to the eIF5A precursor, whereas hypusine-modified mutant proteins (K47A, K47R, K68A) were localized mainly in the cytoplasm. These findings provide strong evidence that the hypusine modification of eIF5A dictates its localization in the cytoplasmic compartment where it is required for protein synthesis.

  15. Local communities on-line: mapping local Web-TVs in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Andreucci

    2013-01-01

    A wider spreading of broadband in Italy in recent years has led to the birth of many web-TVs originating from a variety of actors (educational institutions, public administrations, informal groups, etc.). A specific role is being played by local communities (neighborhoods, social centers, parishes, etc.) which, thanks to the on-line spreading of video content, can have their own TV channel to reach their members and promote themselves in global networks. This essay will map the distribution o...

  16. Immunocytochemical study on the intracellular localization of the type 2 glucocorticoid receptor in the rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekelen, J.A.M. van; Kiss, J.Z.; Westphal, H.M.; Kloet, E.R. de

    1987-01-01

    The localization of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (type 2) in the rat brain was studied with immunocytochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against the rat liver GR. Strong GR immunoreactivity (GR-ir) was observed in neurons of limbic and brainstem structures known to be associated with the stre

  17. Nuclear localization of DMP1 proteins suggests a role in intracellular signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siyam, Arwa [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States); Wang, Suzhen; Qin, Chunlin; Mues, Gabriele [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Stevens, Roy [Department of Endodontology, Kornberg School of Dentistry, Temple University, 3223 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, PA 19140-5007 (United States); D' Souza, Rena N. [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States); Lu, Yongbo, E-mail: ylu@bcd.tamhsc.edu [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Baylor College of Dentistry, Texas A and M Health Science Center, 3302 Gaston Ave., Dallas, TX 75246-2013 (United States)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of DMP1 in various cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-synchronized cells show either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of DMP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear DMP1 is restricted to the nucleoplasm but absent in the nucleolus. -- Abstract: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is highly expressed in odontoblasts and osteoblasts/osteocytes and plays an essential role in tooth and bone mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. It is debatable whether DMP1, in addition to its function in the extracellular matrix, can enter the nucleus and function as a transcription factor. To better understand its function, we examined the nuclear localization of endogenous and exogenous DMP1 in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal cells, MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells and 17IIA11 odontoblast-like cells. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of endogenous Dmp1 in all three cell lines, while Western-blot analysis detected a major DMP1 protein band corresponding to the 57 kDa C-terminal fragment generated by proteolytic processing of the secreted full-length DMP1. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that non-synchronized cells presented two subpopulations with either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of endogenous DMP1. In addition, cells transfected with a construct expressing HA-tagged full-length DMP1 also showed either nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of the exogenous DMP1 when examined with an antibody against the HA tag. Furthermore, nuclear DMP1 was restricted to the nucleoplasm but was absent in the nucleolus. In conclusion, these findings suggest that, apart from its role as a constituent of dentin and bone matrix, DMP1 might play a regulatory role in the nucleus.

  18. Dependence of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio on intracellular localization in ceria nanoparticles internalized by human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Daniela; Tredici, Ilenia G; Ghigna, Paolo; Castillio-Michel, Hiram; Falqui, Andrea; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Alberti, Giancarla; Ricci, Vittorio; Anselmi-Tamburini, Umberto; Sommi, Patrizia

    2017-01-26

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) have been investigated as promising antioxidant agents with significant activity in the therapy of diseases involving free radicals or oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism responsible for CNP activity has not been completely elucidated. In particular, in situ evidence of modification of the oxidative state of CNPs in human cells and their evolution during cell internalization and subsequent intracellular distribution has never been presented. In this study we investigated modification of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio following internalization in human cells by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). From this analysis on cell pellets, we observed that CNPs incubated for 24 h showed a significant increase in Ce(iii). By coupling on individual cells synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with micro-XANES (μXANES) we demonstrated that the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio is also dependent on CNP intracellular localization. The regions with the highest CNP concentrations, suggested to be endolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy, were characterized by Ce atoms in the Ce(iv) oxidation state, while a higher Ce(iii) content was observed in regions surrounding these areas. These observations suggest that the interaction of CNPs with cells involves a complex mechanism in which different cellular areas play different roles.

  19. Dependence of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio on intracellular localization in ceria nanoparticles internalized by human cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ferraro, Daniela

    2017-01-09

    CeO2 nanoparticles (CNPs) have been investigated as promising antioxidant agents with significant activity in the therapy of diseases involving free radicals or oxidative stress. However, the exact mechanism responsible for CNP activity has not been completely elucidated. In particular, in situ evidence of modification of the oxidative state of CNPs in human cells and their evolution during cell internalization and subsequent intracellular distribution has never been presented. In this study we investigated modification of the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio following internalization in human cells by X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). From this analysis on cell pellets, we observed that CNPs incubated for 24 h showed a significant increase in Ce(iii). By coupling on individual cells synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with micro-XANES (μXANES) we demonstrated that the Ce(iii)/Ce(iv) ratio is also dependent on CNP intracellular localization. The regions with the highest CNP concentrations, suggested to be endolysosomes by transmission electron microscopy, were characterized by Ce atoms in the Ce(iv) oxidation state, while a higher Ce(iii) content was observed in regions surrounding these areas. These observations suggest that the interaction of CNPs with cells involves a complex mechanism in which different cellular areas play different roles.

  20. Subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Morgado-Díaz

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the subcellular localization of an intracellular serine protease of 68 kDa in axenic promastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis, using subcellular fractionation, enzymatic assays, immunoblotting, and immunocytochemistry. All fractions were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy and the serine protease activity was measured during the cell fractionation procedure using a-N-r-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester (L-TAME as substrate, phenylmethylsulphone fluoride (PMSF and L-1-tosylamino-2-phenylethylchloromethylketone (TPCK as specific inhibitors. The enzymatic activity was detected mainly in a membranous vesicular fraction (6.5-fold enrichment relative to the whole homogenate, but also in a crude plasma membrane fraction (2.0-fold. Analysis by SDS-PAGE gelatin under reducing conditions demonstrated that the major proteolytic activity was found in a 68 kDa protein in all fractions studied. A protein with identical molecular weight was also recognized in immunoblots by a polyclonal antibody against serine protease (anti-SP, with higher immunoreactivity in the vesicular fraction. Electron microscopic immunolocalization using the same polyclonal antibody showed the enzyme present at the cell surface, as well as in cytoplasmic membranous compartments of the parasite. Our findings indicate that the internal location of this serine protease in L. amazonensis is mainly restricted to the membranes of intracellular compartments resembling endocytic/exocytic elements.

  1. Specific intracellular localization and antiviral property of genetic and splicing variants in bovine Mx1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kohji; Nakatsu, Yuichiro; Onogi, Akio; Ueda, Junji; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2009-12-01

    In bovine Mx1, only an amino acid substitution between Ile and Met at position 120 was detected by the nucleotide sequence and mismatched PCR-RFLP technique. The Ile variant was assumed to distribute mainly in the bovine population since the gene frequency was 79.3%. Furthermore, we cloned water buffalo Mx1 cDNA, which showed 51 nucleotide and 20 amino acid substitutions in comparison with that of the cow. Another kind of Mx1 cDNA, bovine Mx1B cDNA, was found and it was deduced to cause 27 amino acid substitutions at the N-terminus compared to the original Mx1 by alternative splicing. However, no variation was detected in 27 amino acids specific for Mx1B among 29 cows and a water buffalo. We established four kinds of mRNA-expressing 3T3 cells and Vero cells. When infection experiments were performed using recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVDeltaG*-G), bovine Ile and Met types and water buffalo Mx1 mRNA-expressing cell lines showed equally positive antiviral activities (p Mx1 and Mx1B proteins was examined by a transiently GFP-fused expression system in 3T3 cells. Bovine Mx1 was localized in the cytoplasm, while bovine Mx1B was mainly localized in the nucleus. An arginine-rich nuclear localization signal was found in 27 amino acids specific for Mx1B. N-terminus-deleted Mx1B was only localized in the cytoplasm, and the deleted Mx1B-expressing cell lines showed significantly positive antiviral activities (p < 0.05) against VSVDeltaG*-G.

  2. MTT assay for cell viability: Intracellular localization of the formazan product is in lipid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockert, Juan C; Blázquez-Castro, Alfonso; Cañete, Magdalena; Horobin, Richard W; Villanueva, Angeles

    2012-12-01

    Although MTT is widely used to assess cytotoxicity and cell viability, the precise localization of its reduced formazan product is still unclear. In the present study the localization of MTT formazan was studied by direct microscopic observation of living HeLa cells and by colocalization analysis with organelle-selective fluorescent probes. MTT formazan granules did not colocalize with mitochondria as revealed by rhodamine 123 labeling or autofluorescence. Likewise, no colocalization was observed between MTT formazan granules and lysosomes labeled by neutral red. Taking into account the lipophilic character and lipid solubility of MTT formazan, an evaluation of the MTT reaction was performed after treatment of cells with sunflower oil emulsions to induce a massive occurrence of lipid droplets. Under this condition, lipid droplets revealed a large amount of MTT formazan deposits. Kinetic studies on the viability of MTT-treated cells showed no harmful effects at short times. Quantitative structure-activity relations (QSAR) models were used to predict and explain the localization of both the MTT tetrazolium salt and its formazan product. These predictions were in agreement with experimental observations on the accumulation of MTT formazan product in lipid droplets.

  3. Localization/mapping motion control system for a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang-Syu, Jr.; Su, Chiun-Shiang; Yang, Chan-Yun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to design a mobile robot with automatic motion behaviors and obstacle avoidance functions. The robot is also able to make the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization And Mapping) at an unknown environment. The robot position is calculated by the developed software program from the motor encoders. An obstacle avoidance controller is developed by the fuzzy theory. A LRF(laser ranger finder) is installed on the robot. The sensing data of this LRF are applied to calculate the environmental information for the obstacle avoidance controller. Then, the ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm is applied to compare the position error of the environmental data in order to obtain the estimated position of the LRF. Finally, these estimated position data are used to calculate the final SLAM of this mobile robot. Both the simulation and experimental results show that this developed robot system work very well.

  4. A novel method for mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mao-hai; HONG Bing-rong; LUO Rong-hua; WEI Zhen-hua

    2006-01-01

    A novel mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method is implemented by using the RaoBlackwellized particle filter (RBPF) for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for extending the path posterior by sampling new poses integrating the current observation. Landmark position estimation and update is implemented through UKF. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which greatly reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KD-Tree. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 showed that our method is very precise and stable.

  5. Automatic traveltime picking using local time-frequency maps

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The arrival times of distinct and sufficiently concentrated signals can be computed using Fourier transforms. In real seis- mograms, however, signals are far from distinct. We use local time-frequency maps of the seismograms and its frequency derivatives to obtain frequency-dependent (instantaneous) traveltimes. A smooth division is utilized to control the resolution of the instantaneous traveltimes to allow for a trade-off between resolution and stability. We average these traveltimes over the frequency band which is data-dependent. The resulting traveltime attribute is used to isolate different signals in seismic traces. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this automatic method for picking arrivals by applying it on synthetic and real data. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Intracellular ZnO Nanorods Conjugated with Protoporphyrin for Local Mediated Photochemistry and Efficient Treatment of Single Cancer Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Per-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanorods (NRs with high surface area to volume ratio and biocompatibility is used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system and at the same time providing intrinsic white light needed to achieve cancer cell necrosis. In this letter, ZnO nanorods used for the treatment of breast cancer cell (T47D are presented. To adjust the sample for intracellular experiments, we have grown the ZnO nanorods on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter by aqueous chemical growth technique. The grown ZnO nanorods were conjugated using protoporphyrin dimethyl ester (PPDME, which absorbs the light emitted by the ZnO nanorods. Mechanism of cytotoxicity appears to involve the generation of singlet oxygen inside the cell. The novel findings of cell-localized toxicity indicate a potential application of PPDME-conjugated ZnO NRs in the necrosis of breast cancer cell within few minutes.

  7. Aberrant intracellular localization of H3k4me3 demonstrates an early epigenetic phenomenon in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Diego; Delvaux, Elaine; Nolz, Jennifer; Tan, Yuyan; Grover, Andrew; Oddo, Salvatore; Coleman, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the mislocalization of epigenetic molecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have extended our finding to include the aberrant localization of histone 3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3k4me3), an epigenetic mark associated with actively transcribing genes as well as those poised for transcription. These findings raise the question of where the ectopic localization of H3k4me3 fits within the cascade of cell biological events in the progression of AD. We, therefore, examined the expression and intracellular location of H3k4me3 as a function of Braak stage and also in relation to a series of tau markers that are indicative of disease state. Both lines of evidence showed that ectopic localization of H3k4me3 is early in the course of disease. Because of the known role of H3k4me3 in the expression of synaptic genes, our data suggest an epigenetic role in synaptic deficits early in the course of AD. PMID:26553823

  8. Aberrant intracellular localization of H3k4me3 demonstrates an early epigenetic phenomenon in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Diego; Delvaux, Elaine; Nolz, Jennifer; Tan, Yuyan; Grover, Andrew; Oddo, Salvatore; Coleman, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    We have previously reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) the mislocalization of epigenetic molecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have extended our finding to include the aberrant localization of histone 3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3k4me3), an epigenetic mark associated with actively transcribing genes as well as those poised for transcription. These findings raise the question of where the ectopic localization of H3k4me3 fits within the cascade of cell biological events in the progression of AD. We, therefore, examined the expression and intracellular location of H3k4me3 as a function of Braak stage and also in relation to a series of tau markers that are indicative of disease state. Both lines of evidence showed that ectopic localization of H3k4me3 is early in the course of disease. Because of the known role of H3k4me3 in the expression of synaptic genes, our data suggest an epigenetic role in synaptic deficits early in the course of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Intracellular localization and trafficking of fluorescein-labeled cisplatin in human ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Roohangiz; Katano, Kuniyuki; Larson, Barrett J; Samimi, Goli; Holzer, Alison K; Naerdemann, Wiltrud; Tomioka, Mika; Goodman, Murray; Howell, Stephen B

    2005-01-15

    We sought to identify the subcellular compartments in which cisplatin [cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (DDP)] accumulates in human ovarian carcinoma cells and define its export pathways. Deconvoluting digital microscopy was used to identify the subcellular location of fluorescein-labeled DDP (F-DDP) in 2008 ovarian carcinoma cells stained with organelle-specific markers. Drugs that block vesicle movement were used to map the traffic pattern. F-DDP accumulated in vesicles and were not detectable in the cytoplasm. F-DDP accumulated in the Golgi, in vesicles belonging to the secretory export pathway, and in lysosomes but not in early endosomes. F-DDP extensively colocalized with vesicles expressing the copper efflux protein, ATP7A, whose expression modulates the cellular pharmacology of DDP. Inhibition of vesicle trafficking with brefeldin A, wortmannin, or H89 increased the F-DDP content of vesicles associated with the pre-Golgi compartments and blocked the loading of F-DDP into vesicles of the secretory pathway. The importance of the secretory pathway was confirmed by showing that wortmannin and H89 increased whole cell accumulation of native DDP. F-DDP is extensively sequestered into vesicular structures of the lysosomal, Golgi, and secretory compartments. Much of the distribution to other compartments occurs via vesicle trafficking. F-DDP detection in the vesicles of the secretory pathway is consistent with a major role for this pathway in the efflux of F-DDP and DDP from the cell.

  10. Localized intracellular calcium signaling in muscle: calcium sparks and calcium quarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, E

    1999-01-01

    Subcellularly localized Ca2+ signals in cardiac and skeletal muscle have recently been identified as elementary Ca2+ signaling events. The signals, termed Ca2+ sparks and Ca2+ quarks, represent openings of Ca2+ release channels located in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). In cardiac muscle, the revolutionary discovery of Ca2+ sparks has allowed the development of a fundamentally different concept for the amplification of Ca2+ signals by Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release. In such a system, a graded amplification of the triggering Ca2+ signal entering the myocyte via L-type Ca2+ channels is accomplished by a recruitment process whereby individual SR Ca2+ release units are locally controlled by L-type Ca2+ channels. In skeletal muscle, the initial SR Ca2+ release is governed by voltage-sensors but subsequently activates additional Ca2+ sparks by Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the SR. Results from studies on elementary Ca2+ release events will improve our knowledge of muscle Ca2+ signaling at all levels of complexity, from the molecule to normal cellular function, and from the regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle force to the pathophysiology of excitation-contraction coupling.

  11. Improved Distributed Particle Filter for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM problem have become a focus of many researches on robot navigation. Generally the most widely used filter in SLAM problems are centralized filter. It is well known that SLAM based on conventional centralized filter must reconfigure the entire state vectors when the observation dimension changes, which cause an exponential growth in computation quantities and difficulties in isolate potential faults. In this paper, we proposed improved DPF distributed particle filter-SLAM in two aspects, in DPF-SLAM one centralized filter is divided into several distributed filters which reduce the computation quantities efficiently and avoid the necessary to reconfigure the entire state vectors in every step. First, we improved the important function of the local filters in distributed particle filter. By changed a set constant in the important function to an adaptive value, we improved the robustness of the system. Second, we propose an information fusion method that mixed the innovation method and the number of effective particles method, which combined the advantages of these two methods. The result of simulations shows that the algorithms we proposed improved the virtue of the DPF-SLAM system in isolate faults and enabled the system has a better tolerance and robustness.    

  12. Characterization of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and intracellular localization signals in Duck Enteritis Virus UL54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoyue; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu; Chen, Shun; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Sun, Kunfeng; Yang, Qiao; Chen, Xiaoyue

    2016-08-01

    Duck Enteritis virus (DEV) UL54 is a homolog of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) trafficking protein ICP27, which plays an essential role in infection. In this study, DEV UL54 shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm was verified with a heterokaryon assay. One predicted nuclear export sequence (NES) (339-348 aa) was shown to be functional and chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent; however, the insensitivity of UL54 to Leptomycin B (LMB) and NES mutation suggests that other mechanisms are responsible for the observed nuclear export. Next, three non-classical nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), referred to as NLS1 (105-122 aa), NLS2 (169-192 aa) and NLS3 (257-274 aa), were identified. Furthermore, a recombinant DEV with the UL54 NLSs deleted (DEV- UL54 mNLSs) was constructed and showed that UL54 NLSs moderately affected DEV growth.

  13. Intracellular localization of Saffold virus Leader (L) protein differs in Vero and HEp-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yishi; Victorio, Carla Bianca Luena; Ng, Qimei; Prabakaran, Mookkan; Tan, Yee-Joo; Chua, Kaw Bing

    2016-10-12

    The Saffold virus (SAFV) genome is translated as a single long polyprotein precursor and co-translationally cleaved to yield 12 separate viral proteins. Little is known about the activities of SAFV proteins although their homologs in other picornaviruses have already been described. To further support research on functions and activities of respective viral proteins, we investigated the spatio-temporal distribution of SAFV proteins in Vero and HEp-2 cells that had been either transfected with plasmids that express individual viral proteins or infected with live SAFV. Our results revealed that, with the exception of the Leader (L) protein, all viral proteins were localized in the cytoplasm at all the time points assayed. The L protein was found in the cytoplasm at an early time point but was subsequently translocated to the nucleus of HEp-2, but not Vero, cells. This was observed in both transfected and infected cells. Further mutational analysis of L protein revealed that Threonine 58 of the Ser/Thr-rich domain of L protein is crucial for protein trafficking between the cytoplasm and nucleus in HEp-2 cells. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding and stimulate investigation of the differetial cellular responses of HEp-2 cells in comparison to other mammalian cell lines during SAFV infection.

  14. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, C R; Maciel, F M; Silva, L B; Ferreira, A T S; da Cunha, M; Machado, O L T; Fernandes, K V S; Oliveira, A E A; Xavier-Filho, J

    2006-11-01

    Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó"), a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL) on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1) diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  15. Isolation and intracellular localization of insulin-like proteins from leaves of Bauhinia variegata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based on immunological cross-reactivity and anti-diabetic properties has suggested the presence of insulin-like peptides in plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of insulin-like proteins in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata ("pata-de-vaca", "mororó", a plant widely utilized in popular medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. We show that an insulin-like protein was present in the leaves of this plant. A chloroplast protein with a molecular mass similar to that of bovine insulin was extracted from 2-mm thick 15% SDS-PAGE gels and fractionated with a 2 x 24 cm Sephadex G-50 column. The activity of this insulin-like protein (0.48 mg/mL on serum glucose levels of four-week-old Swiss albino (CF1 diabetic mice was similar to that of commercial swine insulin used as control. Further characterization of this molecule by reverse-phase hydrophobic HPLC chromatographic analysis as well as its antidiabetic activity on alloxan-induced mice showed that it has insulin-like properties. Immunolocalization of the insulin-like protein in the leaves of B. variegata was performed by transmission electron microscopy using a polyclonal anti-insulin human antibody. Localization in the leaf blades revealed that the insulin-like protein is present mainly in chloroplasts where it is also found associated with crystals which may be calcium oxalate. The presence of an insulin-like protein in chloroplasts may indicate its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. This finding has strengthened our previous results and suggests that insulin-signaling pathways have been conserved through evolution.

  16. Construction of pH-Sensitive "Submarine" Based on Gold Nanoparticles with Double Insurance for Intracellular pH Mapping, Quantifying of Whole Cells and in Vivo Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kang-Kang; Li, Kun; Qin, Hui-Huan; Zhou, Qian; Qian, Chen-Hui; Liu, Yan-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2016-09-07

    A series of "submarines", which composed of gold nanoparticles and modified with rhodamine and fluorescein derivatives, were presented. With dual sensitive units for both acidic and basic environment, these "gold nano-submarines" not only allow efficient intracellular pH mapping but also provide more accurate quantitative detection of pH alteration under different stimuli with distinct pH quantification range. Moreover, they even have the ability to pass through the blood brain barrier (BBB).

  17. Instant outdoor localization and SLAM initialization from 2.5D maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, Clemens; Pirchheim, Christian; Ventura, Jonathan; Schmalstieg, Dieter; Lepetit, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    We present a method for large-scale geo-localization and global tracking of mobile devices in urban outdoor environments. In contrast to existing methods, we instantaneously initialize and globally register a SLAM map by localizing the first keyframe with respect to widely available untextured 2.5D maps. Given a single image frame and a coarse sensor pose prior, our localization method estimates the absolute camera orientation from straight line segments and the translation by aligning the city map model with a semantic segmentation of the image. We use the resulting 6DOF pose, together with information inferred from the city map model, to reliably initialize and extend a 3D SLAM map in a global coordinate system, applying a model-supported SLAM mapping approach. We show the robustness and accuracy of our localization approach on a challenging dataset, and demonstrate unconstrained global SLAM mapping and tracking of arbitrary camera motion on several sequences.

  18. Non-microtubular localizations of microtubule-associated protein 6 (MAP6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Gory-Fauré

    Full Text Available MAP6 proteins (MAP6s, which include MAP6-N (also called Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide, or STOP and MAP6d1 (MAP6 domain-containing protein 1, also called STOP-Like protein 21 kD, or SL21, bind to and stabilize microtubules. MAP6 deletion in mice severely alters integrated brain functions and is associated with synaptic defects, suggesting that MAP6s may also have alternative cellular roles. MAP6s reportedly associate with the Golgi apparatus through palmitoylation of their N-terminal domain, and specific isoforms have been shown to bind actin. Here, we use heterologous systems to investigate several biochemical properties of MAP6 proteins. We demonstrate that the three N-terminal cysteines of MAP6d1 are palmitoylated by a subset of DHHC-type palmitoylating enzymes. Analysis of the subcellular localization of palmitoylated MAP6d1, including electron microscopic analysis, reveals possible localization to the Golgi and the plasma membrane but no association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Moreover, we observed localization of MAP6d1 to mitochondria, which requires the N-terminus of the protein but does not require palmitoylation. We show that endogenous MAP6d1 localized at mitochondria in mature mice neurons as well as at the outer membrane and in the intermembrane space of purified mouse mitochondria. Last, we found that MAP6d1 can multimerize via a microtubule-binding module. Interestingly, most of these properties of MAP6d1 are shared by MAP6-N. Together, these results describe several properties of MAP6 proteins, including their intercellular localization and multimerization activity, which may be relevant to neuronal differentiation and synaptic functions.

  19. Constructions of k-regular maps using finite local schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Buczyński, Jarosław; Januszkiewicz, Tadeusz; Jelisiejew, Joachim; Michałek, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    A continuous map from R^m to R^N or from C^m to C^N is called k-regular if the images of any $k$ points are linearly independent. Given integers m and k a problem going back to Chebyshev and Borsuk is to determine the minimal value of N for which such maps exist. The methods of algebraic topology provide lower bounds for N, however there are very few results on the existence of such maps for particular values m and k. Using the methods of algebraic geometry we construct k-regular maps. We rel...

  20. Human Sirtuin 2 Localization, Transient Interactions, and Impact on the Proteome Point to Its Role in Intracellular Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budayeva, Hanna G; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-10-01

    Human sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase that primarily functions in the cytoplasm, where it can regulate α-tubulin acetylation levels. SIRT2 is linked to cancer progression, neurodegeneration, and infection with bacteria or viruses. However, the current knowledge about its interactions and the means through which it exerts its functions has remained limited. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of its cellular functions by characterizing SIRT2 subcellular localization, the identity and relative stability of its protein interactions, and its impact on the proteome of primary human fibroblasts. To assess the relative stability of SIRT2 interactions, we used immunoaffinity purification in conjunction with both label-free and metabolic labeling quantitative mass spectrometry. In addition to the expected associations with cytoskeleton proteins, including its known substrate TUBA1A, our results reveal that SIRT2 specifically interacts with proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, secretory processes, and transcriptional regulation. By quantifying their relative stability, we found most interactions to be transient, indicating a dynamic SIRT2 environment. We discover that SIRT2 localizes to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), and that this recruitment requires an intact ER-Golgi trafficking pathway. Further expanding these findings, we used microscopy and interaction assays to establish the interaction and coregulation of SIRT2 with liprin-β1 scaffolding protein (PPFiBP1), a protein with roles in focal adhesions disassembly. As SIRT2 functions may be accomplished via interactions, enzymatic activity, and transcriptional regulation, we next assessed the impact of SIRT2 levels on the cellular proteome. SIRT2 knockdown led to changes in the levels of proteins functioning in membrane trafficking, including some of its interaction partners. Altogether, our study expands the knowledge of SIRT2 cytoplasmic functions to define a

  1. AMP-activated kinase in human spermatozoa: identification, intracellular localization, and key function in the regulation of sperm motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle-Guisado, Violeta; de Llera, Ana Hurtado; Martin-Hidalgo, David; Mijares, Jose; Gil, Maria C; Alvarez, Ignacio S; Bragado, Maria J; Garcia-Marin, Luis J

    2016-09-27

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a protein that regulates energy balance and metabolism, has recently been identified in boar spermatozoa where regulates key functional sperm processes essential for fertilization. This work's aims are AMPK identification, intracellular localization, and their role in human spermatozoa function. Semen was obtained from healthy human donors. Sperm AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK were analyzed by Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence. High- and low-quality sperm populations were separated by a 40%-80% density gradient. Human spermatozoa motility was evaluated by an Integrated Semen Analysis System (ISAS) in the presence or absence of the AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). AMPK is localized along the human spermatozoa, at the entire acrosome, midpiece and tail with variable intensity, whereas its active form, phospho-Thr172-AMPK, shows a prominent staining at the acrosome and sperm tail with a weaker staining in the midpiece and the postacrosomal region. Interestingly, spermatozoa bearing an excess residual cytoplasm show strong AMPK staining in this subcellular compartment. Both AMPK and phospho-Thr172-AMPK human spermatozoa contents exhibit important individual variations. Moreover, active AMPK is predominant in the high motility sperm population, where shows a stronger intensity compared with the low motility sperm population. Inhibition of AMPK activity in human spermatozoa by CC treatment leads to a significant reduction in any sperm motility parameter analyzed: percent of motile sperm, sperm velocities, progressivity, and other motility coefficients. This work identifies and points out AMPK as a new molecular mechanism involved in human spermatozoa motility. Further AMPK implications in the clinical efficiency of assisted reproduction and in other reproductive areas need to be studied.

  2. Facial landmark localization by curvature maps and profile analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippold, Carsten; Liu, Xiang; Wangdo, Kim; Drerup, Burkhard; Schreiber, Kristina; Kirschneck, Christian; Moiseenko, Tatjana; Danesh, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    .... This study wants to evaluate and present an objective method for measuring selected facial landmarks based on an analysis of curvature maps and of sagittal profile obtained by a laser-scanning method...

  3. Mapping how local perturbations influence systems-level brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; James A. Roberts; Cocchi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The human brain exhibits a relatively stable spatiotemporal organization that supports brain function and can be manipulated via local brain stimulation. Such perturbations to local cortical dynamics are globally integrated by distinct neural systems. However, it remains unclear how and why local changes in neural activity affect large-scale system dynamics. Here, we briefly review empirical and computational studies addressing how localized perturbations affect brain activity. We then system...

  4. Integrated multi-sensor fusion for mapping and localization in outdoor environments for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Thomas; Petereit, Janko

    2014-05-01

    An integrated multi-sensor fusion framework for localization and mapping for autonomous navigation in unstructured outdoor environments based on extended Kalman filters (EKF) is presented. The sensors for localization include an inertial measurement unit, a GPS, a fiber optic gyroscope, and wheel odometry. Additionally a 3D LIDAR is used for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). A 3D map is built while concurrently a localization in a so far established 2D map is estimated with the current scan of the LIDAR. Despite of longer run-time of the SLAM algorithm compared to the EKF update, a high update rate is still guaranteed by sophisticatedly joining and synchronizing two parallel localization estimators.

  5. Whole genome association mapping by incompatibilities and local perfect phylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas; Besenbacher, Søren; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2006-01-01

    Background: With current technology, vast amounts of data can be cheaply and efficiently produced in association studies, and to prevent data analysis to become the bottleneck of studies, fast and efficient analysis methods that scale to such data set sizes must be developed. Results: We present...... a fast method for accurate localisation of disease causing variants in high density case-control association mapping experiments with large numbers of cases and controls. The method searches for significant clustering of case chromosomes in the "perfect" phylogenetic tree defined by the largest region....... Haplotype data and phased genotype data can be analysed. The power and efficiency of the method is investigated on 1) simulated genotype data under different models of disease determination 2) artificial data sets created from the HapMap ressource, and 3) data sets used for testing of other methods in order...

  6. Real‐Time Precision Vehicle Localization Using Numerical Maps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Han, Seung‐Jun; Choi, Jeongdan

    2014-01-01

    .... Optimum vehicle ego‐motion estimation and road marking feature extraction techniques are adopted and then combined by an extended Kalman filter and particle filter to make up the localization technology...

  7. Multirobot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Manifold Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    plausible guesses based on patterns of nonunique features. These two methods have been well treated in the single-robot mapping literature [2], [6...Time Series Analysis ser. Electrical and Computer Engineering : Digital Signal Processing, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. [18] A. Howard and N. Roy...RS Andrew Howard (Member, IEEE) received the B.Sc. (Hons) degree in physics and the Ph.D. degree in engineering from the University of Melbourne

  8. Bayesian Localization and Mapping Using GNSS SNR Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    are with Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Cal- ifornia, Santa Barbara {jtisaacs, andrewirish, madhow, hespanha...ece.ucsb.edu 2F. Quitin is with the School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University,fquitin@ntu.edu.sg NLOS Low SNR LOS...building. The proposed algorithm pushes the particles away from the building and back on the sidewalk near the true path. Additionally, the resulting map

  9. Local analyses of Planck maps with Minkowski Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Novaes, C P; Marques, G A; Ferreira, I S

    2016-01-01

    Minkowski Functionals (MF) are excellent tools to investigate the statistical properties of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) maps. Between their notorious advantages is the possibility to use them efficiently in patches of the CMB sphere, which allow studies in masked skies, inclusive analyses of small sky regions. Then, possible deviations from Gaussianity are investigated by comparison with MF obtained from a set of Gaussian isotropic simulated CMB maps to which are applied the same cut-sky masks. These analyses are sensitive enough to detect contaminations of small intensity like primary and secondary CMB anisotropies. Our methodology uses the MF, widely employed to study non-Gaussianities in CMB data, and asserts Gaussian deviations only when all of them points out an exceptional $\\chi^2$ value, at more than $2.2 \\sigma$ confidence level, in a given sky patch. Following this rigorous procedure, we find 13 regions in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps that evince such high levels of non-Gaussian devia...

  10. Effect of local immunization of the mammary gland on phagocytosis and intracellular kill of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidry, A J; Paape, M J; Pearson, R E; Williams, W F

    1980-09-01

    Four cows in the latter part of their 2nd, 3rd, or 4th lactations were immunized by multiple intramammary infusions of heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus in 2 quarters. The direct bactericidal effects of milk whey from the immunized and control quarters, before and after immunization, and the ability of these whey to support phagocytosis and intracellular kill were determined by incubating live S aureus with polymorphonuclear neutrophils isolated from milk. Immunoglobulins (Ig) were determined by single radial immunodiffusion. One immunized and 1 control quarter in each cow were challenge exposed with live S aureus and the courses of the infections were determined for 2 weeks. There were significant cow differences in all Ig classes and in percentage of phagocytosis. Immunization resulted in a significant increase in IgA, IgG2, and IgM in the immunized quarters. Whey collected from immunized quarters supported phagocytosis of S aureus by isolated milk polymorphonuclear neutrophils significantly greater than did whey from control quarters. Extracellular live S aureus in the incubation medium was decreased by 59% in whey collected after immunization from immunized quarters. This decrease in extracellular S aureus was associated with a concomitant increase in total intracellular S aureus. However, intracellular live organisms showed no change. This lack of change indicated that the additional S aureus that were phagocytosed were killed. Direct bactericidal effects of whey were not observed. Intracellular live S aureus was not significantly correlated with any of the variables measured.

  11. Local analyses of Planck maps with Minkowski functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Marques, G. A.; Ferreira, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    Minkowski functionals (MF) are excellent tools to investigate the statistical properties of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) maps. Between their notorious advantages is the possibility to use them efficiently in patches of the CMB sphere, which allow studies in masked skies, inclusive analyses of small sky regions. Then, possible deviations from Gaussianity are investigated by comparison with MF obtained from a set of Gaussian isotropic simulated CMB maps to which are applied the same cut-sky masks. These analyses are sensitive enough to detect contaminations of small intensity like primary and secondary CMB anisotropies. Our methodology uses the MF, widely employed to study non-Gaussianities in CMB data, and asserts Gaussian deviations only when all of them points out an exceptional χ2 value, at more than 2.2σ confidence level, in a given sky patch. Following this rigorous procedure, we find 13 regions in the foreground-cleaned Planck maps that evince such high levels of non-Gaussian deviations. According to our results, these non-Gaussian contributions show signatures that can be associated to the presence of hot or cold spots in such regions. Moreover, some of these non-Gaussian deviations signals suggest the presence of foreground residuals in those regions located near the Galactic plane. Additionally, we confirm that most of the regions revealed in our analyses, but not all, have been recently reported in studies done by the Planck collaboration. Furthermore, we also investigate whether these non-Gaussian deviations can be possibly sourced by systematics, like inhomogeneous noise and beam effect in the released Planck data, or perhaps due to residual Galactic foregrounds.

  12. Global and local magnetic mapping using CrowdMag data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R.; Nair, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), in partnership with the University of Colorado's CIRES develop magnetic field models to aid navigation, resource exploration and scientific research. We use observatories, satellites and ship/airborne surveys to map and model the Earth's magnetic field. However, the available measurements leave gaps in coverage, particularly for short-wavelength anomalies associated with man-made infrastructure ("urban noise"). In 2014, we started a project to address these gaps through the collection of vector magnetic data from digital magnetometers in smartphones. In October 2014, we released the "CrowdMag" Android and iOS apps for harvesting data from phones. Currently, the CrowdMag project has more than 10,000 enthusiastic users contributing more than 12 million magnetic data measurements from around the world. We present the first analysis results from the crowdsourced magnetic data. A global magnetic model derived solely from CrowdMag data is consistent to degree and order 4 with satellite-derived models such as World Magnetic Model. A unique contribution of CrowdMag project is the collection of ground level magnetic data in densely populated regions with an unprecedented spatial resolution. To demonstrate, we generated a magnetic map (by binning the data collected in 200x200m cells) of central Boulder, Colorado using 170,000 data points collected by about 60 devices over the duration October 2014- January 2016. The median value is consistent with the expected magnitude of the Earth's background magnetic field. The standard deviation of the CrowdMag total field (F) values is much higher than the expected natural (i.e., diurnal and geologic) magnetic field variation. However, the phone's magnetometer is sensitive enough to capture the larger magnitude magnetic signature from the urban magnetic sources. We discuss the potential reliability of crowdsourced magnetic maps and their applications to navigation and other

  13. Mapping chemical performance on molecular structures using locally interpretable explanations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Leanne S; Hudson, Corey M

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present an application of Locally Interpretable Machine-Agnostic Explanations to 2-D chemical structures. Using this framework we are able to provide a structural interpretation for an existing black-box model for classifying biologically produced fuel compounds with regard to Research Octane Number. This method of "painting" locally interpretable explanations onto 2-D chemical structures replicates the chemical intuition of synthetic chemists, allowing researchers in the field to directly accept, reject, inform and evaluate decisions underlying inscrutably complex quantitative structure-activity relationship models.

  14. A Probabilistic Feature Map-Based Localization System Using a Monocular Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjin Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Image-based localization is one of the most widely researched localization techniques in the robotics and computer vision communities. As enormous image data sets are provided through the Internet, many studies on estimating a location with a pre-built image-based 3D map have been conducted. Most research groups use numerous image data sets that contain sufficient features. In contrast, this paper focuses on image-based localization in the case of insufficient images and features. A more accurate localization method is proposed based on a probabilistic map using 3D-to-2D matching correspondences between a map and a query image. The probabilistic feature map is generated in advance by probabilistic modeling of the sensor system as well as the uncertainties of camera poses. Using the conventional PnP algorithm, an initial camera pose is estimated on the probabilistic feature map. The proposed algorithm is optimized from the initial pose by minimizing Mahalanobis distance errors between features from the query image and the map to improve accuracy. To verify that the localization accuracy is improved, the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional algorithm in a simulation and realenvironments

  15. Localization of canine brachycephaly using an across breed mapping approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Bannasch

    Full Text Available The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, exhibits profound phenotypic diversity and is an ideal model organism for the genetic dissection of simple and complex traits. However, some of the most interesting phenotypes are fixed in particular breeds and are therefore less tractable to genetic analysis using classical segregation-based mapping approaches. We implemented an across breed mapping approach using a moderately dense SNP array, a low number of animals and breeds carefully selected for the phenotypes of interest to identify genetic variants responsible for breed-defining characteristics. Using a modest number of affected (10-30 and control (20-60 samples from multiple breeds, the correct chromosomal assignment was identified in a proof of concept experiment using three previously defined loci; hyperuricosuria, white spotting and chondrodysplasia. Genome-wide association was performed in a similar manner for one of the most striking morphological traits in dogs: brachycephalic head type. Although candidate gene approaches based on comparable phenotypes in mice and humans have been utilized for this trait, the causative gene has remained elusive using this method. Samples from nine affected breeds and thirteen control breeds identified strong genome-wide associations for brachycephalic head type on Cfa 1. Two independent datasets identified the same genomic region. Levels of relative heterozygosity in the associated region indicate that it has been subjected to a selective sweep, consistent with it being a breed defining morphological characteristic. Genotyping additional dogs in the region confirmed the association. To date, the genetic structure of dog breeds has primarily been exploited for genome wide association for segregating traits. These results demonstrate that non-segregating traits under strong selection are equally tractable to genetic analysis using small sample numbers.

  16. Localization microscopy: mapping cellular dynamics with single molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A J; Hess, S T

    2014-04-01

    Resolution describes the smallest details within a sample that can be recovered by a microscope lens system. For optical microscopes detecting visible light, diffraction limits the resolution to ∼200-250 nm. In contrast, localization measures the position of an isolated object using its image. Single fluorescent molecules can be localized with an uncertainty of a few tens of nanometres, and in some cases less than one nanometre. Superresolution fluorescence localization microscopy (SRFLM) images and localizes fluorescent molecules in a sample. By controlling the visibility of the fluorescent molecules with light, it is possible to cause a sparse subset of the tags to fluoresce and be spatially separated from each other. A movie is acquired with a camera, capturing images of many sets of visible fluorescent tags over a period of time. The movie is then analysed by a computer whereby all of the single molecules are independently measured, and their positions are recorded. When the coordinates of a sufficient number of molecules are collected, an image can be rendered by plotting the coordinates of the localized molecules. The spatial resolution of these rendered images can be better than 20 nm, roughly an order of magnitude better than the diffraction limited resolution. The invention of SRFLM has led to an explosion of related techniques. Through the use of specialized optics, the fluorescent signal can be split into multiple detection channels. These channels can capture additional information such as colour (emission wavelength), orientation and three-dimensional position of the detected molecules. Measurement of the colour of the detected fluorescence can allow researchers to distinguish multiple types of fluorescent tags and to study the interaction between multiple molecules of interest. Three-dimensional imaging and determination of molecular orientations offer insight into structural organization of the sample. SRFLM is compatible with living samples and

  17. Constitutive expression of a COOH-terminal leucine mutant of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 causes its exclusive localization in low density intracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaki, Kenji; Shiotsu, Keiko; Michihara, Akihiro; Ide, Norie; Wada, Ikuo

    2014-07-01

    Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) is a type I transmembrane protein with a short cytoplasmic tail that possesses a lysosome-targeting signal of GYQTI(382)-COOH. Wild-type (WT)-LAMP-1 was exclusively localized in high density lysosomes, and efficiency of LAMP-1's transport to lysosomes depends on its COOH-terminal amino acid residue. Among many different COOH-terminal amino acid substitution mutants of LAMP-1, a leucine-substituted mutant (I382L) displays the most efficient targeting to late endosomes and lysosomes [Akasaki et al. (2010) J. Biochem. 148: , 669-679]. In this study, we generated two human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cell lines) that stably express WT-LAMP-1 and I382L, and compared their intracellular distributions. The subcellular fractionation study using Percoll density gradient centrifugation revealed that WT-LAMP-1 had preferential localization in the high density secondary lysosomes where endogenous human LAMP-1 was enriched. In contrast, a major portion of I382L was located in a low density fraction. The low density fraction also contained approximately 80% of endogenous human LAMP-1 and significant amounts of endogenous β-glucuronidase and LAMP-2, which probably represents occurrence of low density lysosomes in the I382L-expressing cells. Double immunofluorescence microscopic analyses distinguished I382L-containing intracellular vesicles from endogenous LAMP-1-containing lysosomes and early endosomes. Altogether, constitutive expression of I382L causes its aberrant intracellular localization and generation of low density lysosomes, indicating that the COOH-terminal isoleucine is critical for normal localization of LAMP-1 in the dense lysosomes.

  18. Whole genome association mapping by incompatibilities and local perfect phylogenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besenbacher Søren

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current technology, vast amounts of data can be cheaply and efficiently produced in association studies, and to prevent data analysis to become the bottleneck of studies, fast and efficient analysis methods that scale to such data set sizes must be developed. Results We present a fast method for accurate localisation of disease causing variants in high density case-control association mapping experiments with large numbers of cases and controls. The method searches for significant clustering of case chromosomes in the "perfect" phylogenetic tree defined by the largest region around each marker that is compatible with a single phylogenetic tree. This perfect phylogenetic tree is treated as a decision tree for determining disease status, and scored by its accuracy as a decision tree. The rationale for this is that the perfect phylogeny near a disease affecting mutation should provide more information about the affected/unaffected classification than random trees. If regions of compatibility contain few markers, due to e.g. large marker spacing, the algorithm can allow the inclusion of incompatibility markers in order to enlarge the regions prior to estimating their phylogeny. Haplotype data and phased genotype data can be analysed. The power and efficiency of the method is investigated on 1 simulated genotype data under different models of disease determination 2 artificial data sets created from the HapMap ressource, and 3 data sets used for testing of other methods in order to compare with these. Our method has the same accuracy as single marker association (SMA in the simplest case of a single disease causing mutation and a constant recombination rate. However, when it comes to more complex scenarios of mutation heterogeneity and more complex haplotype structure such as found in the HapMap data our method outperforms SMA as well as other fast, data mining approaches such as HapMiner and Haplotype Pattern Mining (HPM

  19. Local current mapping and patterning of reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mativetsky, Jeffrey M; Treossi, Emanuele; Orgiu, Emanuele; Melucci, Manuela; Veronese, Giulio Paolo; Samorì, Paolo; Palermo, Vincenzo

    2010-10-13

    Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) has been used to correlate the detailed structural and electrical characteristics of graphene derived from graphene oxide. Uniform large currents were measured over areas exceeding tens of micrometers in few-layer films, supporting the use of graphene as a transparent electrode material. Moreover, defects such as electrical discontinuities were easily detected. Multilayer films were found to have a higher conductivity per layer than single layers. It is also shown that a local AFM-tip-induced electrochemical reduction process can be used to pattern conductive pathways on otherwise-insulating graphene oxide. Transistors with micrometer-scale tip-reduced graphene channels that featured ambipolar transport and an 8 order of magnitude increase in current density upon reduction were successfully fabricated.

  20. Locally optimized separability enhancement indices for urban land cover mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina L.; Meilby, Henrik; Darrel Jenerette, G.

    2016-01-01

    Landsat data were used to assess urbanization-induced dynamics in Land use/cover (LULC), surface thermal intensity, and its relationships with urban biophysical composition. The study was undertaken in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia. Ground-based data and high resolution images were used as reference...... data in LULC classification. To more accurately quantify landscape patterns and their changes, we applied new locally optimized separability enhancement indices and decision rules (SEI–DR approach) to address commonly observed classification accuracy problems in urban environments. We tested the SEI...... classification method, use of hotspot analysis, and the investigations of the UHI for an African city fill important research gaps for studies of urban thermal variation....

  1. Keyframes Global Map Establishing Method for Robot Localization through Content-Based Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyang Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-localization and mapping are important for indoor mobile robot. We report a robust algorithm for map building and subsequent localization especially suited for indoor floor-cleaning robots. Common methods, for example, SLAM, can easily be kidnapped by colliding or disturbed by similar objects. Therefore, keyframes global map establishing method for robot localization in multiple rooms and corridors is needed. Content-based image matching is the core of this method. It is designed for the situation, by establishing keyframes containing both floor and distorted wall images. Image distortion, caused by robot view angle and movement, is analyzed and deduced. And an image matching solution is presented, consisting of extraction of overlap regions of keyframes extraction and overlap region rebuild through subblocks matching. For improving accuracy, ceiling points detecting and mismatching subblocks checking methods are incorporated. This matching method can process environment video effectively. In experiments, less than 5% frames are extracted as keyframes to build global map, which have large space distance and overlap each other. Through this method, robot can localize itself by matching its real-time vision frames with our keyframes map. Even with many similar objects/background in the environment or kidnapping robot, robot localization is achieved with position RMSE <0.5 m.

  2. In vivo transfer of intracellular labels from locally implanted bone marrow stromal cells to resident tissue macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Pawelczyk

    Full Text Available Intracellular labels such as dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU or green fluorescent protein (GFP are frequently used to study the fate of transplanted cells by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging or fluorescent microscopy. Bystander uptake of labeled cells by resident tissue macrophages (TM can confound the interpretation of the presence of intracellular labels especially during direct implantation of cells, which can result in more than 70% cell death. In this study we determined the percentages of TM that took up SPION, BrdU or GFP from labeled bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs that were placed into areas of angiogenesis and inflammation in a mouse model known as Matrigel plaque perfusion assay. Cells recovered from digested plaques at various time points were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The analysis of harvested plaques revealed 5% of BrdU(+, 5-10% of GFP(+ and 5-15% of dextran(+ macrophages. The transfer of the label was not dependent on cell dose or viability. Collectively, this study suggests that care should be taken to validate donor origin of cells using an independent marker by histology and to assess transplanted cells for TM markers prior to drawing conclusions about the in vivo behavior of transplanted cells.

  3. Direct mapping of local redox current density on a monolith electrode by laser scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Woo; Lopez, Jeffrey; Saraf, Ravi F

    2013-09-15

    An optical method of mapping local redox reaction over a monolith electrode using simple laser scanning is described. As the optical signal is linearly proportional to the maximum redox current that is measured concomitantly by voltammetry, the optical signal quantitatively maps the local redox current density distribution. The method is demonstrated on two types of reactions: (1) a reversible reaction where the redox moieties are ionic, and (2) an irreversible reaction on two different types of enzymes immobilized on the electrode where the reaction moieties are nonionic. To demonstrate the scanning capability, the local redox behavior on a "V-shaped" electrode is studied where the local length scale and, hence, the local current density, is nonuniform. The ability to measure the current density distribution by this method will pave the way for multianalyte analysis on a monolith electrode using a standard three-electrode configuration. The method is called Scanning Electrometer for Electrical Double-layer (SEED).

  4. Goal oriented soil mapping: applying modern methods supported by local knowledge: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Oliva, Marc; Estebaranz, Ferran; Depellegrin, Daniel; Novara, Agata; Cerda, Artemi; Menshov, Oleksandr

    2017-04-01

    In the recent years the amount of soil data available increased importantly. This facilitated the production of better and accurate maps, important for sustainable land management (Pereira et al., 2017). Despite these advances, the human knowledge is extremely important to understand the natural characteristics of the landscape. The knowledge accumulated and transmitted generation after generation is priceless, and should be considered as a valuable data source for soil mapping and modelling. The local knowledge and wisdom can complement the new advances in soil analysis. In addition, farmers are the most interested in the participation and incorporation of their knowledge in the models, since they are the end-users of the study that soil scientists produce. Integration of local community's vision and understanding about nature is assumed to be an important step to the implementation of decision maker's policies. Despite this, many challenges appear regarding the integration of local and scientific knowledge, since in some cases there is no spatial correlation between folk and scientific classifications, which may be attributed to the different cultural variables that influence local soil classification. The objective of this work is to review how modern soil methods incorporated local knowledge in their models. References Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Oliva, M., Estebaranz, F., Depellegrin, D., Novara, A., Cerda, A., Menshov, O. (2017) Goal Oriented soil mapping: applying modern methods supported by local knowledge. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Munoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (Eds.) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (Elsevier Publishing House) ISBN: 9780128052006

  5. Simultaneous localization and mapping of mobile robot using a RGB-D camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junqin; Han, Baoling; Ge, Zhuo; Liang, Guanhao; Zhao, Jiahang

    2016-10-01

    Localization algorithm based on machine vision is a hot topic in the field of intelligent mobile robot A fast method for mobile robot 3D SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) was presented to address the problem of 3D modeling in complex indoor environment. After filtering, the SIFT feature is extracted and matched between every two frames of the sequence. According to the camera calibration model and the image feature extraction and matching procedure, the association between two 3D point clouds was established. On the basis of the RANSAC (random sample consensus) algorithm, the correspondence based iterative closest point arithmetic model was solved to realize the robot's precise localization effectively. With the key frame-to-frame selection mechanism, the 3D map method and the unique normal characteristic of a spatial point were used for maintaining and updating the global map. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in the indoor environment.

  6. Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on a Monocular Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songmin Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel monocular vision-based SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm for mobile robot. In this proposed method, the tracking and mapping procedures are split into two separate tasks and performed in parallel threads. In the tracking thread, a ground feature-based pose estimation method is employed to initialize the algorithm for the constraint moving of the mobile robot. And an initial map is built by triangulating the matched features for further tracking procedure. In the mapping thread, an epipolar searching procedure is utilized for finding the matching features. A homography-based outlier rejection method is adopted for rejecting the mismatched features. The indoor experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a great performance on map building and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  7. Single Image Super-Resolution Using Global Regression Based on Multiple Local Linear Mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Seok; Kim, Munchurl

    2017-03-01

    Super-resolution (SR) has become more vital, because of its capability to generate high-quality ultra-high definition (UHD) high-resolution (HR) images from low-resolution (LR) input images. Conventional SR methods entail high computational complexity, which makes them difficult to be implemented for up-scaling of full-high-definition input images into UHD-resolution images. Nevertheless, our previous super-interpolation (SI) method showed a good compromise between Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) performances and computational complexity. However, since SI only utilizes simple linear mappings, it may fail to precisely reconstruct HR patches with complex texture. In this paper, we present a novel SR method, which inherits the large-to-small patch conversion scheme from SI but uses global regression based on local linear mappings (GLM). Thus, our new SR method is called GLM-SI. In GLM-SI, each LR input patch is divided into 25 overlapped subpatches. Next, based on the local properties of these subpatches, 25 different local linear mappings are applied to the current LR input patch to generate 25 HR patch candidates, which are then regressed into one final HR patch using a global regressor. The local linear mappings are learned cluster-wise in our off-line training phase. The main contribution of this paper is as follows: Previously, linear-mapping-based conventional SR methods, including SI only used one simple yet coarse linear mapping to each patch to reconstruct its HR version. On the contrary, for each LR input patch, our GLM-SI is the first to apply a combination of multiple local linear mappings, where each local linear mapping is found according to local properties of the current LR patch. Therefore, it can better approximate nonlinear LR-to-HR mappings for HR patches with complex texture. Experiment results show that the proposed GLM-SI method outperforms most of the state-of-the-art methods, and shows comparable PSNR performance with much lower

  8. Local Free-Space Mapping and Path Guidance for Mobile Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    CM a CD U 00 Technical Document 1227 March 1988 Local Free-Space Mapping o and Path Guidance for Mobile Robots o William T. Gex N’% Nancy L. Campbell...TITLE (inludvSeocutCl&sas~o*) Local Free-Space Mapping and Path Guidance for Mobile Robots 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) William T. Gex and Nancy L...INTRODUCTION Autonomous mobile robots must be able not only to sense their environment, but also to navigate through it, avoiding obstacles and heading

  9. Maximal elements and generalized games involving condensing mappings in locally FC-uniform spaces and applications (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    First, the notions of the measure of noncompactness and condensing setvalued mappings are introduced in locally FC-uniform spaces without convexity structure. A new existence theorem of maximal elements of a family of set-valued mappings involving condensing mappings is proved in locally FC-uniform spaces. As applications,some new equilibrium existence theorems of generalized game involving condensing mappings are established in locally FC-uniform spaces. These results improve and generalize some known results in literature to locally FC-uniform spaces. Some further applications of our results to the systems of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems will be given in a follow-up paper.

  10. Immune evolutionary algorithms with domain knowledge for simultaneous localization and mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mei-yi; CAI Zi-xing

    2006-01-01

    Immune evolutionary algorithms with domain knowledge were presented to solve the problem of simultaneous localization and mapping for a mobile robot in unknown environments. Two operators with domain knowledge were designed in algorithms, where the feature of parallel line segments without the problem of data association was used to construct a vaccination operator, and the characters of convex vertices in polygonal obstacle were extended to develop a pulling operator of key point grid. The experimental results of a real mobile robot show that the computational expensiveness of algorithms designed is less than other evolutionary algorithms for simultaneous localization and mapping and the maps obtained are very accurate. Because immune evolutionary algorithms with domain knowledge have some advantages, the convergence rate of designed algorithms is about 44 % higher than those of other algorithms.

  11. The role of Urbis' noise and noise effects maps in local policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of the EU noise policy is mapping of noise and noise effects and the formulation of noise action plans. In the Netherlands, due to the new policy on noise (MIG), the municipalities will be responsible for the formulation of a local noise policy. An instrument for the assessment o

  12. Mapping the Local Density of Optical States of a Photonic Crystal with Single Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qin; Stobbe, Søren; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We use single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots as internal probes to map the local density of optical states of photonic crystal membranes. The employed technique separates contributions from nonradiative recombination and spin-flip processes by properly accounting for the role of the exciton...

  13. Non-probabilistic cellular automata-enhanced stereo vision simultaneous localization and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalpantidis, Lazaros; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Gasteratos, Antonios

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a visual non-probabilistic simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm suitable for area measurement applications is proposed. The algorithm uses stereo vision images as its only input and processes them calculating the depth of the scenery, detecting occupied areas and progressively building a map of the environment. The stereo vision-based SLAM algorithm embodies a stereo correspondence algorithm that is tolerant to illumination differentiations, the robust scale- and rotation-invariant feature detection and matching speeded-up robust features method, a computationally effective v-disparity image calculation scheme, a novel map-merging module, as well as a sophisticated cellular automata-based enhancement stage. A moving robot equipped with a stereo camera has been used to gather image sequences and the system has autonomously mapped and measured two different indoor areas.

  14. Aberrant intracellular localization of H3k4me3 demonstrates an early epigenetic phenomenon in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroeni, Diego; Delvaux, Elaine; Nolz, Jennifer; Tan, Yuyan; Grover, Andrew; Oddo, Salvatore; Coleman, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) the mislocalization of epigenetic molecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have extended our finding to include the aberrant localization of histone 3 trimethylation on lysine 4 (H3k4me3), an epigenetic mark associated with actively transcribing genes as well as those poised for transcription. These findings raise the question of where the ectopic localization of H3k4me3 fits within the cascade of cell biological events i...

  15. Indoor Localization and Radio Map Estimation using Unsupervised Manifold Alignment with Geometry Perturbation

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Khaqan

    2015-12-22

    The Received Signal Strength (RSS) based fingerprinting approaches for indoor localization pose a need for updating the fingerprint databases due to dynamic nature of the indoor environment. This process is hectic and time-consuming when the size of the indoor area is large. The semi-supervised approaches reduce this workload and achieve good accuracy around 15% of the fingerprinting load but the performance is severely degraded if it is reduced below this level. We propose an indoor localization framework that uses unsupervised manifold alignment. It requires only 1% of the fingerprinting load, some crowd sourced readings and plan coordinates of the indoor area. The 1% fingerprinting load is used only in perturbing the local geometries of the plan coordinates. The proposed framework achieves less than 5m mean localization error, which is considerably better than semi-supervised approaches at very small amount of fingerprinting load. In addition, the few location estimations together with few fingerprints help to estimate the complete radio map of the indoor environment. The estimation of radio map does not demand extra workload rather it employs the already available information from the proposed indoor localization framework. The testing results for radio map estimation show almost 50% performance improvement by using this information as compared to using only fingerprints.

  16. Crowd-Sourced Mobility Mapping for Location Tracking Using Unlabeled Wi-Fi Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing requirements of the seamless and round-the-clock Location-based services (LBSs, a growing interest in Wi-Fi network aided location tracking is witnessed in the past decade. One of the significant problems of the conventional Wi-Fi location tracking approaches based on received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting is the time-consuming and labor intensive work involved in location fingerprint calibration. To solve this problem, a novel unlabeled Wi-Fi simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM approach is developed to avoid the location fingerprinting and additional inertial or vision sensors. In this approach, an unlabeled mobility map of the coverage area is first constructed by using the crowd-sourcing from a batch of sporadically recorded Wi-Fi RSS sequences based on the spectral cluster assembling. Then, the sequence alignment algorithm is applied to conduct location tracking and mobility map updating. Finally, the effectiveness of this approach is verified by the extensive experiments carried out in a campus-wide area.

  17. Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Romanelli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1 and type 2 (HTLV-2 present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity.

  18. Position Estimation and Local Mapping Using Omnidirectional Images and Global Appearance Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerai Berenguer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some methods to create local maps and to estimate the position of a mobile robot, using the global appearance of omnidirectional images. We use a robot that carries an omnidirectional vision system on it. Every omnidirectional image acquired by the robot is described only with one global appearance descriptor, based on the Radon transform. In the work presented in this paper, two different possibilities have been considered. In the first one, we assume the existence of a map previously built composed of omnidirectional images that have been captured from previously-known positions. The purpose in this case consists of estimating the nearest position of the map to the current position of the robot, making use of the visual information acquired by the robot from its current (unknown position. In the second one, we assume that we have a model of the environment composed of omnidirectional images, but with no information about the location of where the images were acquired. The purpose in this case consists of building a local map and estimating the position of the robot within this map. Both methods are tested with different databases (including virtual and real images taking into consideration the changes of the position of different objects in the environment, different lighting conditions and occlusions. The results show the effectiveness and the robustness of both methods.

  19. Mobile Ground-Based Radar Sensor for Localization and Mapping: An Evaluation of two Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Vivet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with robotic applications using a ground‐based radar sensor for simultaneous localization and mapping problems. In mobile robotics, radar technology is interesting because of its long range and the robustness of radar waves to atmospheric conditions, making these sensors well‐suited for extended outdoor robotic applications. Two localization and mapping approaches using data obtained from a 360° field of view microwave radar sensor are presented and compared. The first method is a trajectory‐ oriented simultaneous localization and mapping technique, which makes no landmark assumptions and avoids the data association problem. The estimation of the ego‐motion makes use of the Fourier‐Mellin transform for registering radar images in a sequence, from which the rotation and translation of the sensor motion can be estimated. The second approach uses the consequence of using a rotating range sensor in high speed robotics. In such a situation, movement combinations create distortions in the collected data. Velocimetry is achieved here by explicitly analysing these measurement distortions. As a result, the trajectory of the vehicle and then the radar map of outdoor environments can be obtained. The evaluation of experimental results obtained by the two methods is presented on real‐world data from a vehicle moving at 30 km/h over a 2.5 km course.

  20. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy); Caligo, Maria Adelaide [Section of Genetic Oncology, University Hospital and University of Pisa, via Roma 57, 56125 Pisa (Italy); Galli, Alvaro, E-mail: alvaro.galli@ifc.cnr.it [Yeast Genetics and Genomics, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research (CNR), via Moruzzi 1, 56122 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) gene affects growth and UV-induced homologous recombination in yeast. • PARP-1 chemical inhibition impacts yeast growth and UV-induced recombination. • A genome-wide screen identifies 99 yeast genes that suppress the growth defect inferred by PARP-1. • Bioinformatics analysis identifies 41 human orthologues that may have a role in PARP-1 intracellular localization. • The findings suggest that PARP-1 nuclear localization may affect the response to PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy. - Abstract: The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the

  1. Intracellular localization of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor through clathrin-dependent constitutive internalization is mediated by a C-terminal tryptophan-based motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwada, Junsuke; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Masuoka, Takayoshi; Nishio, Matomo; Muramatsu, Ikunobu

    2014-07-15

    The M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1-mAChR, encoded by CHRM1) is a G-protein-coupled membrane receptor that is activated by extracellular cholinergic stimuli. Recent investigations have revealed the intracellular localization of M1-mAChR. In this study, we observed constitutive internalization of M1-mAChR in mouse neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells without agonist stimulation. Constitutive internalization depended on dynamin, clathrin and the adaptor protein-2 (AP-2) complex. A WxxI motif in the M1-mAChR C-terminus is essential for its constitutive internalization, given that replacement of W(442) or I(445) with alanine residues abolished constitutive internalization. This WxxI motif resembles YxxΦ, which is the canonical binding motif for the μ2 subunit of the AP-2 complex. The M1-mAChR C-terminal WxxI motif interacted with AP-2 μ2. W442A and I445A mutants of the M1-mAChR C-terminal sequence lost AP-2-μ2-binding activity, whereas the W442Y mutant bound more effectively than wild type. Consistent with these results, W442A and I445A M1-mAChR mutants selectively localized to the cell surface. By contrast, the W442Y receptor mutant was found only at intracellular sites. Our data indicate that the cellular distribution of M1-mAChR is governed by the C-terminal tryptophan-based motif, which mediates constitutive internalization.

  2. Localization and Classification of Paddy Field Pests using a Saliency Map and Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziyi; Gao, Junfeng; Yang, Guoguo; Zhang, Huan; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We present a pipeline for the visual localization and classification of agricultural pest insects by computing a saliency map and applying deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) learning. First, we used a global contrast region-based approach to compute a saliency map for localizing pest insect objects. Bounding squares containing targets were then extracted, resized to a fixed size, and used to construct a large standard database called Pest ID. This database was then utilized for self-learning of local image features which were, in turn, used for classification by DCNN. DCNN learning optimized the critical parameters, including size, number and convolutional stride of local receptive fields, dropout ratio and the final loss function. To demonstrate the practical utility of using DCNN, we explored different architectures by shrinking depth and width, and found effective sizes that can act as alternatives for practical applications. On the test set of paddy field images, our architectures achieved a mean Accuracy Precision (mAP) of 0.951, a significant improvement over previous methods.

  3. Discussions on equivalent solutions and localized structures via the mapping method based on Riccati equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling; Cheng, Xuan; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-12-01

    Although the mapping method based on Riccati equation was proposed to obtain variable separation solutions many years ago, two important problems have not been studied: i) the equivalence of variable separation solutions by means of the mapping method based on Riccati equation with the radical sign combined ansatz; and ii) lack of physical meanings for some localized structures constructed by variable separation solutions. In this paper, we re-study the (2+1)-dimensional Boiti-Leon-Pempinelli equation via the mapping method based on Riccati equation and prove that nine types of variable separation solutions are actually equivalent to each other. Moreover, we also re-study localized structures constructed by variable separation solutions. Results indicate that some localized structures reported in the literature are lacking real values due to the appearance of the divergent and un-physical phenomenon for the initial field. Therefore, we must be careful with the initial field to avoid the appearance of some un-physical or even divergent structures in it when we construct localized structures for the potential field.

  4. Imaging and Intracellular Tracking of Cancer-Derived Exosomes Using Single-Molecule Localization-Based Super-Resolution Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Lu, Ju; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Yizhi; Cui, Yiping

    2016-10-05

    Exosomes are small membrane vesicles secreted by cells and enriched with plenty of proteins. Considering their significant roles in different physical activities and potential value for diagnostic drug delivery, researchers have put great efforts in in vitro tracking and content analysis of exosomes. Recently, the emergence of different kinds of super-resolution microscopy provides powerful tools for exosome study. Here, we demonstrate the application of single-molecule localization based super-resolution imaging technique in the imaging and tracking of cancer-derived exosomes. In the experiment, first, cancer-derived exosomes are extracted from the culture media of tumor cells. Then the exosome membrane receptors are labeled with photoswitchable probes, which allow super-resolution imaging of these membrane receptors via photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) or stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). By using human breast cancer cell-derived exosomes, we demonstrated simultaneous dual-color PALM/STORM imaging of two kinds of membrane receptors on the exosome membrane. Moreover, the successful labeling and imaging of exosomes make it possible to observe the interaction between cancer-derived exosomes and normal cells. Meanwhile, we realized the colocalization of cancer-derived exosomes and lysosomes in recipient cells with PALM/STORM imaging. Since exosomes play a vital role in intercellular communications, we anticipate that the presented PALM/STORM-based imaging and tracking of exosomes holds a great potential in the investigation of the mechanism of exosome-mediated cancer metastasis.

  5. Implementation of extended Kalman filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping: a point feature approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANIGANDAN NAGARAJAN SANTHANAKRISHNAN; JOHN BOSCO BALAGURU RAYAPPAN; RAMKUMAR KANNAN

    2017-09-01

    The implementation of extended Kalman filter-based simultaneous localization and mapping is challenging as the associated system state and covariance matrices along with the memory requirements become significantly large as the information space increases. Unique and consistent point features representing a segment of the map would be an optimal choice to control the size of covariance matrix and maximize the operating speed in a real-time scenario. A two-wheel differential drive mobile robot equipped with a Laser Range Finder with 0.02 m resolution was used for the implementation. Unique point features from the environment were extracted through an elegant line fitting algorithm, namely split only technique. Finally, the implementation showed remarkably good results with a success rate of 98% in feature identification and ±0.08 to ±0.11 m deviation in the generated map

  6. Mobile robot simultaneous localization and map building based on improved particle filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Maohai; Hong Bingrong; Wei Zhenhua

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation into the use of pan tilt zoom camera and sonar sensors for simultaneous localization and mapping with artificial colored landmarks. An improved particle filter is applied to estimate a posterior of the pose of the robot, in which each particle has associated it with an entire map. The distributions of landmarks are also represented by particle sets, where separate particles are used to represent the robot and the landmarks. Hough transform is used to extract line segments from sonar observations and build map simultaneously. The key advantage of our method is that the full posterior over robot poses and landmarks can be nonlinearly approximated at every point in time by particles. Especially the landmarks are affixed on the moving robots, which can reduce the impact of the depletion problem and the impoverishment problem produced by basic particle filter. Experimental results show that this approach has advantages over the basic particle filter and the extended Kalman filter.

  7. Strategy to Improvement Sustainability of Distinctively Local Snacks Based on Evaluation and Profile Mapping of SMEs Distinctively Local Snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nurendah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SMEs snacks include in group industries which develop quite progressively in Indonesia. There are typical regional food or local food specialties which have been distinctively long-grown specifically in an area, however there are also some food specialties which are area-based potentially developed. Therefore, efforts to develop and empower SMEs distinctively local snacks should be done to be able to increase its competitiveness in facing the globalization and the free market.The objective of Profile Mapping of SMEs is that the development of distinctively local snacks can be implemented in an integrated, focused way, and on target. If SMEs snacks get special attention with the pattern of development and directed policy, it will become the backbone of the rise of the real sector in the region.  The study of profile mapping of SMEs distinctively local snacks is conducted by combining descriptive research method based on the results of field surveys combined with SWOT analysis Data processing and analysis with Profile Mapping of SMEs Snacks, Performance Analysis and Competitive Strategy of SMEs Snacks, SWOT Analysis, Strategy and Feasibility and concept Development models of SMEs Snacks. Bakpia becomes a top priority as a superior snack product from Jogjakarta (DIY, which can be further developed in the process of production and marketing. The attributes of main and additional ingredients, water supply, and production tools are still in average performance. In this case, the performance measure is based on the perception of bakpia producers in medium scale, while there are expectations on a high scale. Thus, there needs to be an increase in these attributes. After knowing the score of IFA, then a right strategy to be applied for SMEs position is a strategy of growth through horizontal integration which is an activity to expand SMEs by building in another location and increasing the variety of products and services. When referring to the SWOT

  8. Local activation time sampling density for atrial tachycardia contact mapping: how much is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven E; Harrison, James L; Chubb, Henry; Whitaker, John; Kiedrowicz, Radek; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Cooklin, Michael; Wright, Matthew; Niederer, Steven; O'Neill, Mark D

    2017-04-03

    Local activation time (LAT) mapping forms the cornerstone of atrial tachycardia diagnosis. Although anatomic and positional accuracy of electroanatomic mapping (EAM) systems have been validated, the effect of electrode sampling density on LAT map reconstruction is not known. Here, we study the effect of chamber geometry and activation complexity on optimal LAT sampling density using a combined in silico and in vivo approach. In vivo 21 atrial tachycardia maps were studied in three groups: (1) focal activation, (2) macro-re-entry, and (3) localized re-entry. In silico activation was simulated on a 4×4cm atrial monolayer, sampled randomly at 0.25-10 points/cm2 and used to re-interpolate LAT maps. Activation patterns were studied in the geometrically simple porcine right atrium (RA) and complex human left atrium (LA). Activation complexity was introduced into the porcine RA by incomplete inter-caval linear ablation. In all cases, optimal sampling density was defined as the highest density resulting in minimal further error reduction in the re-interpolated maps. Optimal sampling densities for LA tachycardias were 0.67 ± 0.17 points/cm2 (focal activation), 1.05 ± 0.32 points/cm2 (macro-re-entry) and 1.23 ± 0.26 points/cm2 (localized re-entry), P = 0.0031. Increasing activation complexity was associated with increased optimal sampling density both in silico (focal activation 1.09 ± 0.14 points/cm2; re-entry 1.44 ± 0.49 points/cm2; spiral-wave 1.50 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P density (0.61 ± 0.22 points/cm2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.34 points/cm2, P = 0.0015). Optimal sampling densities can be identified to maximize diagnostic yield of LAT maps. Greater sampling density is required to correctly reveal complex activation and represent activation across complex geometries. Overall, the optimal sampling density for LAT map interpolation defined in this study was ∼1.0-1.5 points/cm2.

  9. Entanglement Holographic Mapping of Many-Body Localized System by Spectrum Bifurcation Renormalization Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Cenke

    We introduce the spectrum bifurcation renormalization group (SBRG) as a generalization of the real-space renormalization group for the many-body localized (MBL) system without truncating the Hilbert space. Starting from a disordered many-body Hamiltonian in the full MBL phase, the SBRG flows to the MBL fixed-point Hamiltonian, and generates the local conserved quantities and the matrix product state representations for all eigenstates. The method is applicable to both spin and fermion models with arbitrary interaction strength on any lattice in all dimensions, as long as the models are in the MBL phase. In particular, we focus on the 1 d interacting Majorana chain with strong disorder, and map out its phase diagram using the entanglement entropy. The SBRG flow also generates an entanglement holographic mapping, which duals the MBL state to a fragmented holographic space decorated with small blackholes.

  10. Fast image search with locality-sensitive hashing and homogeneous kernels map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-yi; Li, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    Fast image search with efficient additive kernels and kernel locality-sensitive hashing has been proposed. As to hold the kernel functions, recent work has probed methods to create locality-sensitive hashing, which guarantee our approach's linear time; however existing methods still do not solve the problem of locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) algorithm and indirectly sacrifice the loss in accuracy of search results in order to allow fast queries. To improve the search accuracy, we show how to apply explicit feature maps into the homogeneous kernels, which help in feature transformation and combine it with kernel locality-sensitive hashing. We prove our method on several large datasets and illustrate that it improves the accuracy relative to commonly used methods and make the task of object classification and, content-based retrieval more fast and accurate.

  11. Fast Image Search with Locality-Sensitive Hashing and Homogeneous Kernels Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast image search with efficient additive kernels and kernel locality-sensitive hashing has been proposed. As to hold the kernel functions, recent work has probed methods to create locality-sensitive hashing, which guarantee our approach’s linear time; however existing methods still do not solve the problem of locality-sensitive hashing (LSH algorithm and indirectly sacrifice the loss in accuracy of search results in order to allow fast queries. To improve the search accuracy, we show how to apply explicit feature maps into the homogeneous kernels, which help in feature transformation and combine it with kernel locality-sensitive hashing. We prove our method on several large datasets and illustrate that it improves the accuracy relative to commonly used methods and make the task of object classification and, content-based retrieval more fast and accurate.

  12. Fixed point theorems in locally convex spaces—the Schauder mapping method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the appendix to the book by F. F. Bonsal, Lectures on Some Fixed Point Theorems of Functional Analysis (Tata Institute, Bombay, 1962 a proof by Singbal of the Schauder-Tychonoff fixed point theorem, based on a locally convex variant of Schauder mapping method, is included. The aim of this note is to show that this method can be adapted to yield a proof of Kakutani fixed point theorem in the locally convex case. For the sake of completeness we include also the proof of Schauder-Tychonoff theorem based on this method. As applications, one proves a theorem of von Neumann and a minimax result in game theory.

  13. Protection by DMSO against Cell Death Caused by Intracellularly Localized Iodine-125, Iodine-131 and Polonium-210

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Rao, Dandamudi V.; Bouchet, Lionel G.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which DNA-incorporated radionuclides impart lethal damage to mammalian cells were investigated by examining the capacity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to protect against lethal damage to Chinese hamster V79 cells caused by unbound tritium (3H2O), DNA-incorporated 125I-and 131I-iododeoxyuridine (125IdU, 131IdU), and cytoplasmically localized 210Po citrate. The radionuclides 3H and 131I emit low-and medium-energy β particles, respectively, 125I is a prolific Auger electron emitter, and 210Po emits 5.3 MeV α particles. Cells were radiolabeled and maintained at 10.5°C for 72 h in the presence of different concentrations of DMSO (5–12.5% v/v), and the surviving fraction compared to that of unlabeled controls was determined. DMSO afforded no protection against the lethal effects of the high-LET α particles emitted by 210Po. Protection against lethal damage caused by unbound 3H, 131IdU and 125IdU depended on the concentration of DMSO in the culture medium. Ten percent DMSO provided maximum protection in all cases. The dose modification factors obtained at 10% DMSO for 3H2O, 131IdU, 125IdU and 210Po citrate were 2.9 ± 0.01, 2.3 ± 0.5, 2.6 ± 0.2 and 0.95 ± 0.07, respectively. These results indicate that the toxicity of Auger electron and β-particle emitters incorporated into the DNA of mammalian cells is largely radical-mediated and is therefore indirect in nature. This is also the case for the low-energy β particles emitted by 3H2O. In contrast, α particles impart lethal damage largely by direct effects. Finally, calculations of cellular absorbed doses indicate that β-particle emitters are substantially more toxic when incorporated into the DNA of mammalian cells than when they are localized extracellularly. PMID:10761002

  14. Local deformation and processing maps of Ti-24Al-17Nb-0.5Mo alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong WANG; Bin LU; Rui YANG; Xiaodong HAN; Ping REN

    2012-01-01

    The processing maps were used to identify the optimal forging parameters of Ti-24Al-17Nb-0.5Mo alloy by evaluating the flow data according to the DMM model.The actual local strain rate and strain distribution in the samples were obtained by finite element calculations.The local microstructures of the deformed samples were related to the local deformation parameters and correlated with the processing maps at 0.3,0.4,0.5 and 0.6 of logarithmic strain.Flow regimes predicted by DMM analysis were then correlated with the local microstructural observations.Five domains of efficient coefficient could be distinguished.Unstable regions were microstructurally related to shear band formation within the α2+B2 phase deformation field,and to flow localization at grain boundaries of B2 phase in the near B2 phase deformation field.Stable flow regimes were shown to be associated with dynamic globularization of the platelike α2 in the α2+B2 phase deformation zone,and with dynamic recrystallization of B2 in the near B2 phase deformation zone.

  15. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin; Syed Muhammad Mamduh; Ali Yeon Md. Shakaff; Ammar Zakaria

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor wi...

  16. Intracellular localization of membrane-bound ATPases in the compartmentalized anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niftrik, Laura; van Helden, Mary; Kirchen, Silke; van Donselaar, Elly G; Harhangi, Harry R; Webb, Richard I; Fuerst, John A; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M; Strous, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are divided into three compartments by bilayer membranes (from out- to inside): paryphoplasm, riboplasm and anammoxosome. It is proposed that the anammox reaction is performed by proteins located in the anammoxosome and on its membrane giving rise to a proton-motive-force and subsequent ATP synthesis by membrane-bound ATPases. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the location of membrane-bound ATPases in the anammox bacterium ‘Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis’. Four ATPase gene clusters were identified in the K. stuttgartiensis genome: one typical F-ATPase, two atypical F-ATPases and a prokaryotic V-ATPase. K. stuttgartiensis transcriptomic and proteomic analysis and immunoblotting using antisera directed at catalytic subunits of the ATPase gene clusters indicated that only the typical F-ATPase gene cluster most likely encoded a functional ATPase under these cultivation conditions. Immunogold localization showed that the typical F-ATPase was predominantly located on both the outermost and anammoxosome membrane and to a lesser extent on the middle membrane. This is consistent with the anammox physiology model, and confirms the status of the outermost cell membrane as cytoplasmic membrane. The occurrence of ATPase in the anammoxosome membrane suggests that anammox bacteria have evolved a prokaryotic organelle; a membrane-bounded compartment with a specific cellular function: energy metabolism. PMID:20545867

  17. A novel thyroid cancer nodal map classification system to facilitate nodal localization and surgical management: The A to D map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Marybeth; Kyriazidis, Natalia; Kamani, Dipti; Juliano, Amy F; Kelly, Hillary R; Curtin, Hugh D; Barber, Samuel R; Randolph, Gregory W

    2016-11-30

    To evaluate the effectiveness, reproducibility, and usability of our proposed nodal nomenclature and classification system employed for several years in our high-volume thyroid cancer unit, for the adequate localization and mapping of lymph nodes in thyroid cancer patients with extensive nodal disease. Retrospective review. Thirty-three thyroid cancer patients with extensive nodal disease treated from January 2004 to May 2013 were included in our study. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography scans of these patients were reanalyzed by blinded radiologists to investigate the feasibility for the assignment of abnormal lymph nodes to compartments defined in our proposed nodal classification system and to identify areas of difficulty in the assignment. Analysis of nodal localization revealed a discrepancy in compartment agreement between the two radiologists in the assignment of abnormal nodes in nine patients (9/33, 27%). In six patients (6/33, 18%), discrepancy existed in labeling paratracheal and pretracheal nodes. In three patients (3/33, 9%), disagreement arose in the classification of retrocarotid nodes into lateral versus central compartment. A further refinement of the definition of key borderline regions of the pretracheal versus paratracheal and retrocarotid regions of our classification improved the agreement and demonstrated a complete concordance (100%) amongst the reviewing radiologists. The proposed nodal classification system, derived specifically for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, with readily identifiable anatomic boundaries on imaging and at surgery, facilitates communication among multidisciplinary physicians and aids in creating a uniform and reproducible radiographic nodal map to guide surgical therapy. 4 Laryngoscope, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Intracardiac intracellular angiotensin system in diabetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, R.; Yong, Q.C.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Baker, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has mainly been categorized as a circulating and a local tissue RAS. A new component of the local system, known as the intracellular RAS, has recently been described. The intracellular RAS is defined as synthesis and action of ANG II intracellularly. This RAS appea

  19. Counter tunnel exploration, mapping, and localization with an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jacoby; Okorn, Brian; Pastore, Tracy; Hooper, David; Edwards, Jim

    2014-06-01

    Covert, cross-border tunnels are a security vulnerability that enables people and contraband to illegally enter the United States. All of these tunnels to-date have been constructed for the purpose of drug smuggling, but they may also be used to support terrorist activity. Past robotic tunnel exploration efforts have had limited success in aiding law enforcement to explore and map the suspect cross-border tunnels. These efforts have made use of adapted explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) or pipe inspection robotic systems that are not ideally suited to the cross-border tunnel environment. The Counter Tunnel project was sponsored by the Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise (JGRE) to develop a prototype robotic system for counter-tunnel operations, focusing on exploration, mapping, and characterization of tunnels. The purpose of this system is to provide a safe and effective solution for three-dimensional (3D) localization, mapping, and characterization of a tunnel environment. The system is composed of the robotic mobility platform, the mapping sensor payload, and the delivery apparatus. The system is able to deploy and retrieve the robotic mobility platform through a 20-cm-diameter borehole into the tunnel. This requirement posed many challenges in order to design and package the sensor and robotic system to fit through this narrow opening and be able to perform the mission. This paper provides a short description of a few aspects of the Counter Tunnel system such as mobility, perception, and localization, which were developed to meet the unique challenges required to access, explore, and map tunnel environments.

  20. Reduced Search Space Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping in Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Omranpour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping in mobile robots which uses evolutionary algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The proposed method is based on both local and global heuristic search methods. In each step of robot movements, the local search is applied in the small search space of odometry errors to improve the map accuracy. A global search method is applied for loop closing. The proposed algorithm detects loops and closes them, detects and solves correspondence and avoids local extremums. With a proper representation of problem parameters in chromosome, the dimensionality of search space is reduced. The proposed algorithm utilizes occupancy grid and does not require land marks which are not available in most natural environments. A new fitness function is proposed that is computationally efficient and eliminates the need for complex statistical calculations as used in current approaches. Results of experiments on real datasets exhibit the superior performance of the proposed method compared to the current methods.

  1. Mapping Electrochemical Heterogeneity at Iron Oxide Surfaces: A Local Electrochemical Impedance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marie; Boily, Jean-François

    2015-12-22

    Alternating current scanning electrochemical microscopy (AC-SECM) was used for the first time to map key electrochemical attributes of oriented hematite (α-Fe2O3) single crystal surfaces at the micron-scale. Localized electrochemical impedance spectra (LEIS) of the (001) and (012) faces provided insight into the spatial variations of local double layer capacitance (C(dl)) and charge transfer resistance (R(ad)). These parameters were extracted by LEIS measurements in the 0.4-8000 Hz range to probe the impedance response generated by the redistribution of water molecules and charge carriers (ions) under an applied AC. These were attributed to local variations in the local conductivity of the sample surfaces. Comparison with global EIS measurements on the same samples uncovered highly comparable frequency-resolved processes, that were broken down into contributions from the bulk hematite, the interface as well as the microelectrode/tip assembly. This work paves the way for new studies aimed at mapping electrochemical processes at the mesoscale on this environmentally and technologically important material.

  2. COMBINATION OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL APPROXIMATION SCHEMES FOR HARMONIC MAPS INTO SPHERES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S(o)ren Bartels

    2009-01-01

    It is well understood that a good way to discretize a pointwise length constraint in partial differential equations or variational problems is to impose it at the nodes of atriangulation that defines a lowest order finite element space. This article pursues thisapproach and discusses the iterative solution of the resulting discrete nonlinear system of equations for a simple model problem which defines harmonic maps into spheres. An iterative scheme that is globally convergent and energy decreasing is combined with a locally rapidly convergent approximation scheme. An explicit example proves that the local approach alone may lead to ill-posed problems; numerical experiments show that it may diverge or lead to highly irregular solutions with large energy if the starting value is not chosen carefully. The combination of the global and local method defines a reliable algorithm that performs very efficiently in practice and provides numerical approximations with low energy.

  3. Static Performance of Wireless Localization Algorithm Exploiting Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinh, Pham Doan; Kawai, Makoto

    In wireless communications, determining the physical location of nodes (localization) is very important for many network services and protocols. This paper evaluates the static performance of wireless localization algorithm exploiting Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) to deal with this issue. Our proposed algorithm utilizes only connectivity information and information from some heard anchors in the network to determine the location of nodes. By introducing an efficient two-hop utilization scheme and the multi-hop anchor update, the algorithm has maximized the correlation between neighboring nodes and the global topology in distributed implementation of SOM. From our intensive simulations on various static network deployment scenarios, the results show that the proposed scheme achieves very good localization accuracy. It also reduces the SOM learning steps to around 15 to 30 steps to overcome the huge computational problem of the classical SOM.

  4. Local elasticity mapping of aluminum matrix composites using scanning acoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordatou, T. Z.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Matikas, T. E.

    2017-04-01

    Scanning acoustic microscopy uses a focused acoustic beam to investigate local elastic properties on the surface of a material. The measurement is based on the difference in propagation time between the direct reflection and the Rayleigh wave. This work deals with the development of a fully automated acoustic microscopy method in order to determine the near-surface elastic property and map sub-surface features in metallic and composite materials. This method allows for the detection and analysis of Rayleigh waves, which are sensitive to subtle changes in the material's local elasticity. Via this process, the periodicity of the V(Z) curve can be initially assessed and the local Rayleigh velocity of the material is determined. In this work, the automated acoustic microscopy method was applied for the assessment of aluminum and Al-SiC metal matrix composites.

  5. Nuclear Localization of the Autism Candidate Gene Neurobeachin and Functional Interaction with the NOTCH1 Intracellular Domain Indicate a Role in Regulating Transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krizia Tuand

    Full Text Available Neurobeachin (NBEA is an autism spectrum disorders (ASD candidate gene. NBEA deficiency affects regulated secretion, receptor trafficking, synaptic architecture and protein kinase A (PKA-mediated phosphorylation. NBEA is a large multidomain scaffolding protein. From N- to C-terminus, NBEA has a concanavalin A-like lectin domain flanked by armadillo repeats (ACA, an A-kinase anchoring protein domain that can bind to PKA, a domain of unknown function (DUF1088 and a BEACH domain, preceded by a pleckstrin homology-like domain and followed by WD40 repeats (PBW. Although most of these domains mediate protein-protein interactions, no interaction screen has yet been performed.Yeast two-hybrid screens with the ACA and PBW domain modules of NBEA gave a list of interaction partners, which were analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO enrichment. Neuro-2a cells were used for confocal microscopy and nuclear extraction analysis. NOTCH-mediated transcription was studied with luciferase reporter assays and qRT-PCR, combined with NBEA knockdown or overexpression.Both domain modules showed a GO enrichment for the nucleus. PBW almost exclusively interacted with transcription regulators, while ACA interacted with a number of PKA substrates. NBEA was partially localized in the nucleus of Neuro-2a cells, albeit much less than in the cytoplasm. A nuclear localization signal was found in the DUF1088 domain, which was shown to contribute to the nuclear localization of an EGFP-DPBW fusion protein. Yeast two-hybrid identified the Notch1 intracellular domain as a physical interactor of the PBW domain and a role for NBEA as a negative regulator in Notch-mediated transcription was demonstrated.Defining novel interaction partners of conserved NBEA domain modules identified a role for NBEA as transcriptional regulator in the nucleus. The physical interaction of NBEA with NOTCH1 is most relevant for ASD pathogenesis because NOTCH signaling is essential for neural development.

  6. Biocompatibility and characterization of polyglycerol-based thermoresponsive nanogels designed as novel drug-delivery systems and their intracellular localization in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerecke, Christian; Edlich, Alexander; Giulbudagian, Michael; Schumacher, Fabian; Zhang, Nan; Said, Andre; Yealland, Guy; Lohan, Silke B; Neumann, Falko; Meinke, Martina C; Ma, Nan; Calderón, Marcelo; Hedtrich, Sarah; Schäfer-Korting, Monika; Kleuser, Burkhard

    2017-03-01

    Novel nanogels that possess the capacity to change their physico-chemical properties in response to external stimuli are promising drug-delivery candidates for the treatment of severe skin diseases. As thermoresponsive nanogels (tNGs) are capable of enhancing penetration through biological barriers such as the stratum corneum and are taken up by keratinocytes of human skin, potential adverse consequences of their exposure must be elucidated. In this study, tNGs were synthesized from dendritic polyglycerol (dPG) and two thermoresponsive polymers. tNG_dPG_tPG are the combination of dPG with poly(glycidyl methyl ether-co-ethyl glycidyl ether) (p(GME-co-EGE)) and tNG_dPG_pNIPAM the one with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM). Both thermoresponsive nanogels are able to incorporate high amounts of dexamethasone and tacrolimus, drugs used in the treatment of severe skin diseases. Cellular uptake, intracellular localization and the toxicological properties of the tNGs were comprehensively characterized in primary normal human keratinocytes (NHK) and in spontaneously transformed aneuploid immortal keratinocyte cell line from adult human skin (HaCaT). Laser scanning confocal microscopy revealed fluorescently labeled tNGs entered into the cells and localized predominantly within lysosomal compartments. MTT assay, comet assay and carboxy-H2DCFDA assay, demonstrated neither cytotoxic or genotoxic effects, nor any induction of reactive oxygen species of the tNGs in keratinocytes. In addition, both tNGs were devoid of eye irritation potential as shown by bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test and red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis assay. Therefore, our study provides evidence that tNGs are locally well tolerated and underlines their potential for cutaneous drug delivery.

  7. Mapping Local Effects of Forest Properties on Fire Risk across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Y. Bernier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a dominant mechanism of forest renewal in most of Canada’s forests and its activity is predicted to increase over the coming decades. Individual fire events have been considered to be non-selective with regards to forest properties, but evidence now suggests otherwise. Our objective was therefore to quantify the effect of forest properties on fire selectivity or avoidance, evaluate the stability of these effects across varying burn rates, and use these results to map local fire risk across the forests of Canada. We used Canada-wide MODIS-based maps of annual fires and of forest properties to identify burned and unburned pixels for the 2002–2011 period and to bin them into classes of forest composition (% conifer and broadleaved deciduous, above-ground tree biomass and stand age. Logistic binomial regressions were then used to quantify fire selectivity by forest properties classes and by zones of homogeneous fire regime (HFR. Results suggest that fire exhibits a strong selectivity for conifer stands, but an even stronger avoidance of broadleaved stands. In terms of age classes, fire also shows a strong avoidance for young (0 to 29 year stands. The large differences among regional burn rates do not significantly alter the overall preference and avoidance ratings. Finally, we combined these results on relative burn preference with regional burn rates to map local fire risks across Canada.

  8. A special kind of local structure in the CMB intensity maps: duel peak structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Liu; Ti-Pei Li

    2009-01-01

    We study the local structure of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) tem-perature maps released by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team, and find a new kind of structure, which can be described as follows: a peak (or valley) of average temperature is often followed by a peak of temperature fluctuation that is 4° away. This structure is important for the following reasons: both the well known cold spot detected by Cruz et al. and the hot spot detected by Vielva et al. with the same technology (the third spot in their article) have such structure; more spots that are similar to them can be found on CMB maps and they also tend to be significant cold/hot spots; if we change the 4° characteristic into an artificial one, such as 3° or 5°, there will be less "similar spots", and the temperature peaks or valleys will be less significant. The presented "sim-ilar spots" have passed a strict consistency test which requires them to be significant on at least three different CMB temperature maps. We hope that this article could arouse some interest in the relationship of average temperature with temperature fluctuation in local areas; meanwhile, we are also trying to find an explanation for it which might be important to CMB observation and theory.

  9. Feature Point Extraction from the Local Frequency Map of an Image

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    Jesmin Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel technique for detecting rotation- and scale-invariant interest points from the local frequency representation of an image. Local or instantaneous frequency is the spatial derivative of the local phase, where the local phase of any signal can be found from its Hilbert transform. Local frequency estimation can detect edge, ridge, corner, and texture information at the same time, and it shows high values at those dominant features of an image. For each pixel, we select an appropriate width of the window for computing the derivative of the phase. In order to select the width of the window for any given pixel, we make use of the measure of the extent to which the phases, in the neighborhood of that pixel, are in the same direction. The local frequency map, thus obtained, is then thresholded by employing a global thresholding approach to detect the interest or feature points. Repeatability rate, a performance evaluation criterion for an interest point detector, is used to check the geometric stability of the proposed method under different transformations. We present simulation results of the detection of feature points from image utilizing the suggested technique and compare the proposed method with five existing approaches that yield good results. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed feature point detection algorithm. Moreover, in terms of repeatability rate; the results show that the performance of the proposed method with respect to different aspect is compatible with the existing methods.

  10. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corso, N; Zakhor, A

    2013-12-03

    Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  11. Indoor Localization Algorithms for an Ambulatory Human Operated 3D Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Corso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Indoor localization and mapping is an important problem with many applications such as emergency response, architectural modeling, and historical preservation. In this paper, we develop an automatic, off-line pipeline for metrically accurate, GPS-denied, indoor 3D mobile mapping using a human-mounted backpack system consisting of a variety of sensors. There are three novel contributions in our proposed mapping approach. First, we present an algorithm which automatically detects loop closure constraints from an occupancy grid map. In doing so, we ensure that constraints are detected only in locations that are well conditioned for scan matching. Secondly, we address the problem of scan matching with poor initial condition by presenting an outlier-resistant, genetic scan matching algorithm that accurately matches scans despite a poor initial condition. Third, we present two metrics based on the amount and complexity of overlapping geometry in order to vet the estimated loop closure constraints. By doing so, we automatically prevent erroneous loop closures from degrading the accuracy of the reconstructed trajectory. The proposed algorithms are experimentally verified using both controlled and real-world data. The end-to-end system performance is evaluated using 100 surveyed control points in an office environment and obtains a mean accuracy of 10 cm. Experimental results are also shown on three additional datasets from real world environments including a 1500 meter trajectory in a warehouse sized retail shopping center.

  12. A Novel Map-Based Dead-Reckoning Algorithm for Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Bao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Step counting-based dead-reckoning has been widely accepted as a cheap and effective solution for indoor pedestrian tracking using a hand-held device equipped with motion sensors. To compensate for the accumulating error in a dead-reckoning tracking system, extra techniques are always fused together to form a hybrid system. In this paper, we first propose a map matching (MM enhanced particle filter (PF as a robust localization solution, in which MM utilizes the corridor information to calibrate the step direction estimation and PF is applied to filter out impossible locations. To overcome the dependency on manually input corridor information in the MM algorithm, as well as the computational complexity in combining two such algorithms, an improved PF is proposed. By better modelling of the location error, the improved PF calibrates the location estimation, as well as step direction estimation when the map information is available, while keeping the computational complexity the same as the original PF. Experimental results show that in a quite dense map constraint environment with corridors, the proposed methods have similar accuracy, but outperform the original PF in terms of accuracy. When only partial map constraints are applied to simulate a new testbed, the improved PF obtains the most robust and accurate results. Therefore, the improved PF is the recommended DR solution, which is adaptive to various indoor environments.

  13. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Comesaña, D.; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez-Grande, E.

    2016-08-01

    One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially in the acoustic near-field.

  14. Environment map building and localization for robot navigation based on image sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-hu SHEN; Ji-lin LIU; Xin DU

    2008-01-01

    SLAM is one of the most important components in robot navigation. A SLAM algorithm based on image sequences captured by a single digital camera is proposed in this paper. By this algorithm, SIFT feature points are selected and matched between image pairs sequentially. After three images have been captured, the environment's 3D map and the camera's positions are initialized based on matched feature points and intrinsic parameters of the camera. A robust method is applied to estimate the position and orientation of the camera in the forthcoming images. Finally, a robust adaptive bundle adjustment algorithm is adopted to optimize the environment's 3D map and the camera's positions simultaneously. Results of quantitative and qualitative experiments show that our algorithm can reconstruct the environment and localize the camera accurately and efficiently.

  15. Local Mapping Based Modeling Sensor Network Data Algorithm for Query Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN, sensors are devices used to collect data from the environment related to the detection or measurement of physical phenomena. The original sensor network data are commonly large amounts of measurements and high-dimensional. Spatial data mining techniques used to retrieve high-dimensional spatial information from WSN is effectively. Due to the limited energy of the sensors in WSN, energy efficient query evaluation is critical to prolong the system lifetime. In this paper, we propose a local mapping based modeling sensor network data algorithm for query processing to render effective spatial data retrieval services in the resource constrained WSN. The algorithm can be associated with the present features in spatial data and project high-dimensional data to feature space by using local mapping linear embedding for reducing the computation of spatial data retrieval. As the experiment results shown, the algorithm can preserve important spatial feature information and provide effective preprocessing analysis results. Furthermore, the algorithm is the more effectual on feature preserving than local linear embedding (LLE when the sample space is sparse source data.

  16. Performance of Global-Appearance Descriptors in Map Building and Localization Using Omnidirectional Vision

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    Luis Payá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Map building and localization are two crucial abilities that autonomous robots must develop. Vision sensors have become a widespread option to solve these problems. When using this kind of sensors, the robot must extract the necessary information from the scenes to build a representation of the environment where it has to move and to estimate its position and orientation with robustness. The techniques based on the global appearance of the scenes constitute one of the possible approaches to extract this information. They consist in representing each scene using only one descriptor which gathers global information from the scene. These techniques present some advantages comparing to other classical descriptors, based on the extraction of local features. However, it is important a good configuration of the parameters to reach a compromise between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper we make an exhaustive comparison among some global appearance descriptors to solve the mapping and localization problem. With this aim, we make use of several image sets captured in indoor environments under realistic working conditions. The datasets have been collected using an omnidirectional vision sensor mounted on the robot.

  17. VCP Is an integral component of a novel feedback mechanism that controls intracellular localization of catalase and H2O2 Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Murakami

    Full Text Available Catalase is a key antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 to water and oxygen, and it appears to shuttle between the cytoplasm and peroxisome via unknown mechanisms. Valosin-containing protein (VCP belongs to the AAA class of ATPases and is involved in diverse cellular functions, e.g. cell cycle and protein degradation, etc. Here we show that VCP and PEX19, a protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis, interact with each other. Knockdown of either VCP or PEX19 resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic redistribution of catalase, and loss of VCP ATPase activity also increased its cytoplasmic redistribution. Moreover, VCP knockdown decreased intracellular ROS levels in normal and H2O2-treated cells, and an oxidation-resistant VCP impaired the ROS-induced cytoplasmic redistribution of catalase. These observations reveal a novel feedback mechanism, in which VCP can sense H2O2 levels, and regulates them by controlling the localization of catalase.

  18. Intracellular localization and induction of a dynamic RNA-editing event of macro-algal V-ATPase subunit A (VHA-A) in response to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, C A; Owen, J R; Thomas, M C; El-Hiti, G A; Harwood, J L; Kille, P

    2014-01-01

    A V-ATPase subunit A protein (VHA-A) transcript together with a variant (C793 to U), which introduces a stop codon truncating the subunit immediately downstream of its ATP binding site, was identified within a Fucus vesiculosus cDNA from a heavy metal contaminated site. This is intriguing because the VHA-A subunit is the crucial catalytic subunit responsible for the hydrolysis of ATP that drives ion transport underlying heavy metal detoxification pathways. We employed a chemiluminescent hybridization protection assay to quantify the proportion of both variants directly from mRNA while performing quantification of total transcript using Q-PCR. Polyclonal antisera raised against recombinant VHA-A facilitated simultaneous detection of parent and truncated VHA-A and revealed its cellular and subcellular localization. By exploiting laboratory exposures and samples from an environmental copper gradient, we showed that total VHA-A transcript and protein, together with levels of the truncated variant, were induced by copper. The absence of a genomic sequence representing the truncated variant suggests a RNA editing event causing the production of the truncated VHA-A. Based on these observations, we propose RNA editing as a novel molecular process underpinning VHA trafficking and intracellular sequestration of heavy metals under stress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS and forward-looking sonar (FLS images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF, includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop

  20. An Improved Otsu Threshold Segmentation Method for Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping-Based Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Martínez, José-Fernán; Eckert, Martina; López-Santidrián, Lourdes

    2016-07-22

    The main focus of this paper is on extracting features with SOund Navigation And Ranging (SONAR) sensing for further underwater landmark-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM). According to the characteristics of sonar images, in this paper, an improved Otsu threshold segmentation method (TSM) has been developed for feature detection. In combination with a contour detection algorithm, the foreground objects, although presenting different feature shapes, are separated much faster and more precisely than by other segmentation methods. Tests have been made with side-scan sonar (SSS) and forward-looking sonar (FLS) images in comparison with other four TSMs, namely the traditional Otsu method, the local TSM, the iterative TSM and the maximum entropy TSM. For all the sonar images presented in this work, the computational time of the improved Otsu TSM is much lower than that of the maximum entropy TSM, which achieves the highest segmentation precision among the four above mentioned TSMs. As a result of the segmentations, the centroids of the main extracted regions have been computed to represent point landmarks which can be used for navigation, e.g., with the help of an Augmented Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF)-based SLAM algorithm. The AEKF-SLAM approach is a recursive and iterative estimation-update process, which besides a prediction and an update stage (as in classical Extended Kalman Filter (EKF)), includes an augmentation stage. During navigation, the robot localizes the centroids of different segments of features in sonar images, which are detected by our improved Otsu TSM, as point landmarks. Using them with the AEKF achieves more accurate and robust estimations of the robot pose and the landmark positions, than with those detected by the maximum entropy TSM. Together with the landmarks identified by the proposed segmentation algorithm, the AEKF-SLAM has achieved reliable detection of cycles in the map and consistent map update on loop closure, which is

  1. DRIFT-FREE INDOOR NAVIGATION USING SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING OF THE AMBIENT HETEROGENEOUS MAGNETIC FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. K. Chow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of external reference position information (e.g. surveyed targets or Global Navigation Satellite Systems Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM has proven to be an effective method for indoor navigation. The positioning drift can be reduced with regular loop-closures and global relaxation as the backend, thus achieving a good balance between exploration and exploitation. Although vision-based systems like laser scanners are typically deployed for SLAM, these sensors are heavy, energy inefficient, and expensive, making them unattractive for wearables or smartphone applications. However, the concept of SLAM can be extended to non-optical systems such as magnetometers. Instead of matching features such as walls and furniture using some variation of the Iterative Closest Point algorithm, the local magnetic field can be matched to provide loop-closure and global trajectory updates in a Gaussian Process (GP SLAM framework. With a MEMS-based inertial measurement unit providing a continuous trajectory, and the matching of locally distinct magnetic field maps, experimental results in this paper show that a drift-free navigation solution in an indoor environment with millimetre-level accuracy can be achieved. The GP-SLAM approach presented can be formulated as a maximum a posteriori estimation problem and it can naturally perform loop-detection, feature-to-feature distance minimization, global trajectory optimization, and magnetic field map estimation simultaneously. Spatially continuous features (i.e. smooth magnetic field signatures are used instead of discrete feature correspondences (e.g. point-to-point as in conventional vision-based SLAM. These position updates from the ambient magnetic field also provide enough information for calibrating the accelerometer bias and gyroscope bias in-use. The only restriction for this method is the need for magnetic disturbances (which is typically not an issue for indoor environments; however

  2. Stage and cell-specific expression and intracellular localization of the small heat shock protein Hsp27 during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Katerina; Kotsiliti, Elena; Mintzas, Anastassios C

    2017-01-01

    The cell-specific expression and intracellular distribution of the small heat protein Hsp27 was investigated in the ovaries and testes of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (medfly), under both normal and heat shock conditions. For this study, a gfp-hsp27 strain was used to detect the chimeric protein by confocal microscopy. In unstressed ovaries, the protein was expressed throughout egg development in a stage and cell-specific pattern. In germarium, the protein was detected in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells in both unstressed and heat-shocked ovaries. In the early stages of oogenesis of unstressed ovaries, the protein was mainly located in the perinuclear region of the germ cells and in the cytoplasm of the follicle cells, while in later stages (9-10) it was distributed in the cytoplasm of the germ cells. In late stages (12-14), the protein changed localization pattern and was exclusively associated with the nuclei of the somatic cells. In heat shocked ovaries, the protein was mainly located in the nuclei of the somatic cells throughout egg chamber's development. In unstressed testes, the chimeric protein was detected in the nuclei of primary spermatocytes and in the filamentous structures of spermatid bundles, called actin cones. Interestingly, after a heat shock, the protein presented the same cell-specific localization pattern as in unstressed testes. Furthermore, the protein was also detected in the nuclei of the epithelial cells of the deferent duct, the accessory glands and the ejaculatory bulb. Our data suggest that medfly Hsp27 may have cell-specific functions, especially in the nucleus. Moreover, the association of this protein to actin cones during spermatid individualization, suggests a possible role of the protein in the formation and stabilization of actin cones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contribution of local thyroxine monodeiodination to intracellular 3,5, 3'-triiodothyronine in several tissues of hyperthyroid rats at isotopic equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Doorn, J.; van der Heide, D.; Roelfsema, F.

    1984-07-01

    The local conversion of T4 as a source of intracellular T3 in several organs of both hypothyroid and euthyroid rats has recently been recognized to be an important phenomenon. In the present study the source and quantity of T3 in various peripheral tissues of hyperthyroid rats were investigated. Athyreotic rats received a continuous iv infusion of T4 over a prolonged period in order to attain hyperthyroid conditions. At the same time, the animals also received a continuous iv infusion of (/sup 125/I)T4 and (/sup 131/I)T3 until isotopic equilibrium was achieved. After the animals were bled and perfused, the source and quantity of T3 in various tissue homogenates and subcellular preparations of liver, kidney, and the anterior pituitary gland were analyzed. In spite of the elevated plasma T3 and T4 levels, the concentration of T3 in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum was within the normal range. The contribution of T3 derived from local T4 to T3 conversion (Lc T3(T4)) was rather low in both parts of the brain when compared with values previously determined for euthyroid rats. Whereas previous studies revealed that Lc T3(T4) contributes significantly to the T3 in the pituitary glands of both hypothyroid and euthyroid rats, this was not the case for the hyperthyroid animals; virtually all T3 was derived from plasma. It was found that the T3 in muscle was derived exclusively from plasma. Both the liver and kidney showed high concentrations of T3. Whereas Lc T3(T4) was the main source of T3 in the liver, it contributed only a minor fraction of the total T3 content in the kidney.

  4. Local Dynamic Map als modulares Software Framework für Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisdorf, P.; Auerswald, A.; Wanielik, G.

    2015-11-01

    Moderne Fahrerassistenzsysteme basieren auf der Verarbeitung von Informationen, welche durch die Umfeldwahrnehmung mit unterschiedlicher Sensorik erfolgt. Neben den Informationen aus dem eigenen Fahrzeug ergeben sich durch unterschiedliche Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten (Car2Car, Car2X,...) erweiterte Umfeldwahrnehmungen (siehe Abb. 1). Diese Daten gilt es aufbereitet und zielorientiert einer Anwendung zur Verfügung zu stellen, was mit Hilfe einer Local Dynamic Map (LDM) erfüllt werden kann. Die vorliegende Veröffentlichung beschreibt den Aufbau, Verwendungszweck und Eigenschaften einer entwickelten LDM und geht auf einige Applikationen ein, die mit Hilfe dieser realisiert wurden.

  5. Underwater Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on Forward-looking Sonar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiedong Zhang; Wenjing Zeng; Lei Wan

    2011-01-01

    A method of underwater simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) based on forward-looking sonar was proposed in this paper.Positions of objects were obtained by the forward-looking sonar,and an improved association method based on an ant colony algorithm was introduced to estimate the positions.In order to improve the precision of the positions,the extended Kalman filter (EKF) was adopted.The presented algorithm was tested in a tank,and the maximum estimation error of SLAM gained was 0.25 m.The tests verify that this method can maintain better association efficiency and reduce navigation error.

  6. Maximal elements and generalized games involving condensing mappings in locally FC-uniform spaces and applications (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a continuum of the preceding paper of author. Some new systems of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems involving condensing mappings are introduced and studied in locally FC-uniform spaces. By applying the existence theorem of maximal elements of condensing set-valued mappings in locally FC-uniform spaces obtained by author in the preceding paper, some new existence theorems of solutions for the systems of generalized vector quasi-equilibrium problems are proved in locally FC-uniform spaces. These results improve and generalize some known results in literature to locally FC-uniform spaces.

  7. MapReduce Based Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing for Similarity Joins on Large Scale Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Lin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) has been proposed as an efficient technique for similarity joins for high dimensional data. The efficiency and approximation rate of LSH depend on the number of generated false positive instances and false negative instances. In many domains, reducing the number of false positives is crucial. Furthermore, in some application scenarios, balancing false positives and false negatives is favored. To address these problems, in this paper we propose Personalized Locality Sensitive Hashing (PLSH), where a new banding scheme is embedded to tailor the number of false positives, false negatives, and the sum of both. PLSH is implemented in parallel using MapReduce framework to deal with similarity joins on large scale data. Experimental studies on real and simulated data verify the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed PLSH technique, compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  8. MAPPING OF INNER AND OUTER CELESTIAL BODIES USING NEW GLOBAL AND LOCAL TOPOGRAPHIC DATA DERIVED FROM PHOTOGRAMMETRIC IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Karachevtseva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New estimation of fundamental geodetic parameters and global and local topography of planets and satellites provide basic coordinate systems for mapping as well as opportunities for studies of processes on their surfaces. The main targets of our study are Europa, Ganymede, Calisto and Io (satellites of Jupiter, Enceladus (a satellite of Saturn, terrestrial planetary bodies, including Mercury, the Moon and Phobos, one of the Martian satellites. In particular, based on new global shape models derived from three-dimensional control point networks and processing of high-resolution stereo images, we have carried out studies of topography and morphology. As a visual representation of the results, various planetary maps with different scale and thematic direction were created. For example, for Phobos we have produced a new atlas with 43 maps, as well as various wall maps (different from the maps in the atlas by their format and design: basemap, topography and geomorphological maps. In addition, we compiled geomorphologic maps of Ganymede on local level, and a global hypsometric Enceladus map. Mercury’s topography was represented as a hypsometric globe for the first time. Mapping of the Moon was carried out using new images with super resolution (0.5-1 m/pixel for activity regions of the first Soviet planetary rovers (Lunokhod-1 and -2. New results of planetary mapping have been demonstrated to the scientific community at planetary map exhibitions (Planetary Maps Exhibitions, 2015, organized by MExLab team in frame of the International Map Year, which is celebrated in 2015-2016. Cartographic products have multipurpose applications: for example, the Mercury globe is popular for teaching and public outreach, the maps like those for the Moon and Phobos provide cartographic support for Solar system exploration.

  9. Mapping of Inner and Outer Celestial Bodies Using New Global and Local Topographic Data Derived from Photogrammetric Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Rodionova, J. F.; Zharkova, A. Yu.; Lazareva, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    New estimation of fundamental geodetic parameters and global and local topography of planets and satellites provide basic coordinate systems for mapping as well as opportunities for studies of processes on their surfaces. The main targets of our study are Europa, Ganymede, Calisto and Io (satellites of Jupiter), Enceladus (a satellite of Saturn), terrestrial planetary bodies, including Mercury, the Moon and Phobos, one of the Martian satellites. In particular, based on new global shape models derived from three-dimensional control point networks and processing of high-resolution stereo images, we have carried out studies of topography and morphology. As a visual representation of the results, various planetary maps with different scale and thematic direction were created. For example, for Phobos we have produced a new atlas with 43 maps, as well as various wall maps (different from the maps in the atlas by their format and design): basemap, topography and geomorphological maps. In addition, we compiled geomorphologic maps of Ganymede on local level, and a global hypsometric Enceladus map. Mercury's topography was represented as a hypsometric globe for the first time. Mapping of the Moon was carried out using new images with super resolution (0.5-1 m/pixel) for activity regions of the first Soviet planetary rovers (Lunokhod-1 and -2). New results of planetary mapping have been demonstrated to the scientific community at planetary map exhibitions (Planetary Maps Exhibitions, 2015), organized by MExLab team in frame of the International Map Year, which is celebrated in 2015-2016. Cartographic products have multipurpose applications: for example, the Mercury globe is popular for teaching and public outreach, the maps like those for the Moon and Phobos provide cartographic support for Solar system exploration.

  10. Localization and quantification of intramuscular damage using statistical parametric mapping and skeletal muscle parcellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouré, Alexandre; Le Troter, Arnaud; Guye, Maxime; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Bendahan, David; Gondin, Julien

    2015-12-22

    In the present study, we proposed an original and robust methodology which combines the spatial normalization of skeletal muscle images, the statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis and the use of a specific parcellation in order to accurately localize and quantify the extent of skeletal muscle damage within the four heads of the quadriceps femoris. T2 maps of thigh muscles were characterized before, two (D2) and four (D4) days after 40 maximal isometric electrically-evoked contractions in 25 healthy young males. On the basis of SPM analysis of coregistrated T2 maps, the alterations were similarly detected at D2 and D4 in the superficial and distal regions of the vastus medialis (VM) whereas the proportion of altered muscle was higher in deep muscle regions of the vastus lateralis at D4 (deep: 35 ± 25%, superficial: 23 ± 15%) as compared to D2 (deep: 18 ± 13%, superficial: 17 ± 13%). The present methodology used for the first time on skeletal muscle would be of utmost interest to detect subtle intramuscular alterations not only for the diagnosis of muscular diseases but also for assessing the efficacy of potential therapeutic interventions and clinical treatment strategies.

  11. Performance Analysis of the Microsoft Kinect Sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulzaman Kamarudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS. The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect’s depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  12. Performance analysis of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarulzaman; Mamduh, Syed Muhammad; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Zakaria, Ammar

    2014-12-05

    This paper presents a performance analysis of two open-source, laser scanner-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques (i.e., Gmapping and Hector SLAM) using a Microsoft Kinect to replace the laser sensor. Furthermore, the paper proposes a new system integration approach whereby a Linux virtual machine is used to run the open source SLAM algorithms. The experiments were conducted in two different environments; a small room with no features and a typical office corridor with desks and chairs. Using the data logged from real-time experiments, each SLAM technique was simulated and tested with different parameter settings. The results show that the system is able to achieve real time SLAM operation. The system implementation offers a simple and reliable way to compare the performance of Windows-based SLAM algorithm with the algorithms typically implemented in a Robot Operating System (ROS). The results also indicate that certain modifications to the default laser scanner-based parameters are able to improve the map accuracy. However, the limited field of view and range of Kinect's depth sensor often causes the map to be inaccurate, especially in featureless areas, therefore the Kinect sensor is not a direct replacement for a laser scanner, but rather offers a feasible alternative for 2D SLAM tasks.

  13. TreeQA: quantitative genome wide association mapping using local perfect phylogeny trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; McMillan, Leonard; Pardo-Manuel De Villena, Fernando; Threadgill, David; Wang, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The goal of genome wide association (GWA) mapping in modern genetics is to identify genes or narrow regions in the genome that contribute to genetically complex phenotypes such as morphology or disease. Among the existing methods, tree-based association mapping methods show obvious advantages over single marker-based and haplotype-based methods because they incorporate information about the evolutionary history of the genome into the analysis. However, existing tree-based methods are designed primarily for binary phenotypes derived from case/control studies or fail to scale genome-wide. In this paper, we introduce TreeQA, a quantitative GWA mapping algorithm. TreeQA utilizes local perfect phylogenies constructed in genomic regions exhibiting no evidence of historical recombination. By efficient algorithm design and implementation, TreeQA can efficiently conduct quantitative genom-wide association analysis and is more effective than the previous methods. We conducted extensive experiments on both simulated datasets and mouse inbred lines to demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of TreeQA.

  14. Mapping single molecule sequencing reads using basic local alignment with successive refinement (BLASR: application and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaisson Mark J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent methods have been developed to perform high-throughput sequencing of DNA by Single Molecule Sequencing (SMS. While Next-Generation sequencing methods may produce reads up to several hundred bases long, SMS sequencing produces reads up to tens of kilobases long. Existing alignment methods are either too inefficient for high-throughput datasets, or not sensitive enough to align SMS reads, which have a higher error rate than Next-Generation sequencing. Results We describe the method BLASR (Basic Local Alignment with Successive Refinement for mapping Single Molecule Sequencing (SMS reads that are thousands of bases long, with divergence between the read and genome dominated by insertion and deletion error. The method is benchmarked using both simulated reads and reads from a bacterial sequencing project. We also present a combinatorial model of sequencing error that motivates why our approach is effective. Conclusions The results indicate that it is possible to map SMS reads with high accuracy and speed. Furthermore, the inferences made on the mapability of SMS reads using our combinatorial model of sequencing error are in agreement with the mapping accuracy demonstrated on simulated reads.

  15. Expression of human poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Effect on survival, homologous recombination and identification of genes involved in intracellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Ferla, Marco; Mercatanti, Alberto; Rocchi, Giulia; Lodovichi, Samuele; Cervelli, Tiziana; Pignata, Luca; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Galli, Alvaro

    2015-04-01

    The poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) actively participates in a series of functions within the cell that include: mitosis, intracellular signaling, cell cycle regulation, transcription and DNA damage repair. Therefore, inhibition of PARP1 has a great potential for use in cancer therapy. As resistance to PARP inhibitors is starting to be observed in patients, thus the function of PARP-1 needs to be studied in depth in order to find new therapeutic targets. To gain more information on the PARP-1 activity, we expressed PARP-1 in yeast and investigated its effect on cell growth and UV induced homologous recombination. To identify candidate genes affecting PARP-1 activity and cellular localization, we also developed a yeast genome wide genetic screen. We found that PARP-1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, but when yeast was exposed to the PARP-1 inhibitor 6(5-H) phenantridinone (PHE), it recovered from the growth suppression. Moreover, we showed that PARP-1 produced PAR products in yeast and we demonstrated that PARP-1 reduced UV-induced homologous recombination. By genome wide screening, we identified 99 mutants that suppressed PARP-1 growth inhibition. Orthologues of human genes were found for 41 of these yeast genes. We determined whether the PARP-1 protein level was altered in strains which are deleted for the transcription regulator GAL3, the histone H1 gene HHO1, the HUL4 gene, the deubiquitination enzyme gene OTU1, the nuclear pore protein POM152 and the SNT1 that encodes for the Set3C subunit of the histone deacetylase complex. In these strains the PARP-1 level was roughly the same as in the wild type. PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in the snt1Δ than in the wild type strain; after UV radiation, PARP-1 localized in the nucleus more in hho1 and pom152 deletion strains than in the wild type indicating that these functions may have a role on regulating PARP-1 level and activity in the nucleus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Robotic Mapping and Localization with Real-Time Dense Stereo on Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kalomiros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A reconfigurable architecture for dense stereo is presented as an observation framework for a real-time implementation of the simultaneous localization and mapping problem in robotics. The reconfigurable sensor detects point features from stereo image pairs to use at the measurement update stage of the procedure. The main hardware blocks are a dense depth stereo accelerator, a left and right image corner detector, and a stage performing left-right consistency check. For the stereo-processor stage, we have implemented and tested a global-matching component based on a maximum-likelihood dynamic programming technique. The system includes a Nios II processor for data control and a USB 2.0 interface for host communication. Remote control is used to guide a vehicle equipped with a stereo head in an indoor environment. The FastSLAM Bayesian algorithm is applied in order to track and update observations and the robot path in real time. The system is assessed using real scene depth detection and public reference data sets. The paper also reports resource usage and a comparison of mapping and localization results with ground truth.

  17. Mapping local anisotropy axis for scattering media using backscattering Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghui; Sun, Minghao; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; Guo, Yihong; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-03-01

    Mueller matrix imaging techniques can be used to detect the micro-structure variations of superficial biological tissues, including the sizes and shapes of cells, the structures in cells, and the densities of the organelles. Many tissues contain anisotropic fibrous micro-structures, such as collagen fibers, elastin fibers, and muscle fibers. Changes of these fibrous structures are potentially good indicators for some pathological variations. In this paper, we propose a quantitative analysis technique based on Mueller matrix for mapping local anisotropy axis of scattering media. By conducting both experiments on silk sample and Monte Carlo simulation based on the sphere-cylinder scattering model (SCSM), we extract anisotropy axis parameters from different backscattering Mueller matrix elements. Moreover, we testify the possible applications of these parameters for biological tissues. The preliminary experimental results of human cancerous samples show that, these parameters are capable to map the local axis of fibers. Since many pathological changes including early stage cancers affect the well aligned structures for tissues, the experimental results indicate that these parameters can be used as potential tools in clinical applications for biomedical diagnosis purposes.

  18. A multi-modal face recognition method using complete local derivative patterns and depth maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shouyi; Dai, Xu; Ouyang, Peng; Liu, Leibo; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-10-20

    In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, we propose a new feature called Complete Local Derivative Pattern (CLDP). It adopts the idea of layering and has four layers. In the whole system, we apply CLDP separately on Gabor features extracted from a 2D image and depth map. Then, we obtain two features: CLDP-Gabor and CLDP-Depth. The two features weighted by the corresponding coefficients are combined together in the decision level to compute the total classification distance. At last, the probe face is assigned the identity with the smallest classification distance. Extensive experiments are conducted on three different databases. The results demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the new approach. The experimental results also prove that the proposed multi-modal 2D + 3D method is superior to other multi-modal ones and CLDP performs better than other Local Binary Pattern (LBP) based features.

  19. Hazards mapping using local and scientific knowledge. A case in rural Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, B.; Bocco, G.

    2016-12-01

    Natural hazards in rural areas in developing countries usually affect poor peasants and their infrastructure. This poses a problem of social vulnerability that coupled to the risk may cause severe hazards. Research oriented to prevention and adaptation is crucial. Other studies have proved that local knowledge and peasant's perception on hazards is a valuable tool to tackle prevention and mitigation. In the valley of Huahua river, at the Pacific coast of Mexico, landslides have directly affected rural roads hampering communication between villages. In addition some of their deposits have changed the morphology of river channels, resulting in flooding and avalanches threatening rural life and assets. At least 21 landslides are still active in the area. In this research the leading questions are: how do people perceive landslides hazard? What is the knowledge possessed by villagers facing such hazards? Could scientific and local knowledge be coupled in a hybrid format to formulate an adequate hazards map? The investigation used ethnographic techniques (participant observation, semi-structured and structured interviews, and participatory mapping) and multivariate statistical approaches based on empirical data. We will present the preliminary results, based principally on interview data and a first hazard zoning of the lower valley of the Huahua River. Our results suggest that the approach can be used in this and similar areas in developing countries.

  20. Urban topography for flood modeling by fusion of OpenStreetMap, SRTM and local knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Donchyts, Gennadii; Eilander, Dirk; Chen, Jorik; Leskens, Anne; Coughlan, Erin; Mawanda, Shaban; Ward, Philip; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Luo, Tianyi; Iceland, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Topography data is essential for understanding and modeling of urban flood hazard. Within urban areas, much of the topography is defined by highly localized man-made features such as roads, channels, ditches, culverts and buildings. This results in the requirement that urban flood models require high resolution topography, and water conveying connections within the topography are considered. In recent years, more and more topography information is collected through LIDAR surveys however there are still many cities in the world where high resolution topography data is not available. Furthermore, information on connectivity is required for flood modelling, even when LIDAR data are used. In this contribution, we demonstrate how high resolution terrain data can be synthesized using a fusion between features in OpenStreetMap (OSM) data (including roads, culverts, channels and buildings) and existing low resolution and noisy SRTM elevation data using the Google Earth Engine platform. Our method uses typical existing OSM properties to estimate heights and topology associated with the features, and uses these to correct noise and burn features on top of the existing low resolution SRTM elevation data. The method has been setup in the Google Earth Engine platform so that local stakeholders and mapping teams can on-the-fly propose, include and visualize the effect of additional features and properties of features, which are deemed important for topography and water conveyance. These features can be included in a workshop environment. We pilot our tool over Dar Es Salaam.

  1. Global and local mapping of motor blocks liners roughness for the analysis of honing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanettes, F.; Fahlgren, L.; Hoering, T.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-03-01

    The manufacturing and finishing (honing) of cylinder liners for the automotive industry is a constant challenge in order to reduce friction losses and oil consumption. A better knowledge of surfaces generated during plateau honing is then required for optimization of the process. Despite a well-known and controlled honing process, variations in surface roughness appear at both global (due to honing tool wear) and local (TDC, middle stroke, BDC) scales and need to be mapped and analysed. The following paper proposes to map the global and local variations in roughness by using a confocal 3D measuring equipment able to measure and scan any area of a cylinder liner. Six motor blocks (five liners each) are evaluated with twenty topography measurements per liner. In total, six hundred 3D measurements of size 1×1 mm are performed and roughness parameters are computed. The results show that some parameters do correlate with the honing tool wear specific to each cylinder. Experimental models could be built. Furthermore surface roughness varies significantly over the axial length of the liners due to waviness deviations combined with a lack of flexibility of the honing tool in axial direction.

  2. A Multi-Modal Face Recognition Method Using Complete Local Derivative Patterns and Depth Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyi Yin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a multi-modal 2D + 3D face recognition method for a smart city application based on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN and various kinds of sensors. Depth maps are exploited for the 3D face representation. As for feature extraction, we propose a new feature called Complete Local Derivative Pattern (CLDP. It adopts the idea of layering and has four layers. In the whole system, we apply CLDP separately on Gabor features extracted from a 2D image and depth map. Then, we obtain two features: CLDP-Gabor and CLDP-Depth. The two features weighted by the corresponding coefficients are combined together in the decision level to compute the total classification distance. At last, the probe face is assigned the identity with the smallest classification distance. Extensive experiments are conducted on three different databases. The results demonstrate the robustness and superiority of the new approach. The experimental results also prove that the proposed multi-modal 2D + 3D method is superior to other multi-modal ones and CLDP performs better than other Local Binary Pattern (LBP based features.

  3. Phase quality map based on local multi-unwrapped results for two-dimensional phase unwrapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Heping; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Sen

    2015-02-01

    The efficiency of a phase unwrapping algorithm and the reliability of the corresponding unwrapped result are two key problems in reconstructing the digital elevation model of a scene from its interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) or interferometric synthetic aperture sonar (InSAS) data. In this paper, a new phase quality map is designed and implemented in a graphic processing unit (GPU) environment, which greatly accelerates the unwrapping process of the quality-guided algorithm and enhances the correctness of the unwrapped result. In a local wrapped phase window, the center point is selected as the reference point, and then two unwrapped results are computed by integrating in two different simple ways. After the two local unwrapped results are computed, the total difference of the two unwrapped results is regarded as the phase quality value of the center point. In order to accelerate the computing process of the new proposed quality map, we have implemented it in a GPU environment. The wrapped phase data are first uploaded to the memory of a device, and then the kernel function is called in the device to compute the phase quality in parallel by blocks of threads. Unwrapping tests performed on the simulated and real InSAS data confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Ultrastructural localization of intracellular immunoglobulins in Epon-embedded human lymph nodes. An immunoelectron microscopic investigation using the immunogold staining (IGS) and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viale, G; Dell'Orto, P; Braidotti, P; Coggi, G

    1985-05-01

    The ultrastructural localization of intracellular immunoglobulins on ultrathin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed, postosmicated, and Epon-embedded human lymph nodes has been achieved using such highly sensitive immunocytochemical techniques as immunogold staining and avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. These immunoelectron microscopic techniques allow the identification of intracellular immunoglobulins without affecting the ultrastructural morphology of the tissue, since they do not require any pretreatment of the sections with proteolytic enzymes or deresinating agents. Therefore, immunoglobulins can be precisely localized in the cell organelles; structures whose morphology is well preserved. The availability of a reliable postembedding staining procedure for the ultrastructural localization of immunoglobulins is of definite value for investigations on human lymphoid tissue, both normal and pathological.

  5. On a Hopping-Points SVD and Hough Transform-Based Line Detection Algorithm for Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Line detection is an important problem in computer vision, graphics and autonomous robot navigation. Lines detected using a laser range sensor (LRS mounted on a robot can be used as features to build a map of the environment, and later to localize the robot in the map, in a process known as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. We propose an efficient algorithm for line detection from LRS data using a novel hopping-points Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Hough transform-based algorithm, in which SVD is applied to intermittent LRS points to accelerate the algorithm. A reverse-hop mechanism ensures that the end points of the line segments are accurately extracted. Line segments extracted from the proposed algorithm are used to form a map and, subsequently, LRS data points are matched with the line segments to localize the robot. The proposed algorithm eliminates the drawbacks of point-based matching algorithms like the Iterative Closest Points (ICP algorithm, the performance of which degrades with an increasing number of points. We tested the proposed algorithm for mapping and localization in both simulated and real environments, and found it to detect lines accurately and build maps with good self-localization.

  6. On a Hopping-points SVD and Hough Transform-based Line Detection Algorithm for Robot Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Ravankar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Line detection is an important problem in computer vision, graphics and autonomous robot navigation. Lines detected using a laser range sensor (LRS mounted on a robot can be used as features to build a map of the environment, and later to localize the robot in the map, in a process known as Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM. We propose an efficient algorithm for line detection from LRS data using a novel hopping-points Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Hough transform-based algorithm, in which SVD is applied to intermittent LRS points to accelerate the algorithm. A reverse-hop mechanism ensures that the end points of the line segments are accurately extracted. Line segments extracted from the proposed algorithm are used to form a map and, subsequently, LRS data points are matched with the line segments to localize the robot. The proposed algorithm eliminates the drawbacks of point-based matching algorithms like the Iterative Closest Points (ICP algorithm, the performance of which degrades with an increasing number of points. We tested the proposed algorithm for mapping and localization in both simulated and real environments, and found it to detect lines accurately and build maps with good self-localization.

  7. Developmental expression, intracellular localization, and selenium content of the cysteine-rich protein associated with the mitochondrial capsules of mouse sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, L; Baig, K; Oko, R; Mastrangelo, M A; Kleene, K C

    1996-11-01

    The outer membranes of mitochondria of mammalian sperm are encased in a keratinous structure known as the mitochondrial capsule. The experiments in the present study were designed to resolve a controversy surrounding the intracellular localization, developmental expression, and selenium-content of a cysteine-rich 17-20 kD protein that has been reported to constitute the major structural protein in the mitochondrial capsule of mammals. An antibody to a synthetic oligopeptide based on the predicted sequence of mouse cysteinerich protein recognizes a 24 kD protein in epididymal sperm tails of mice. The 24 kD protein does not appear to be a selenoprotein because: (1) it is not labeled with 75Se-selenite in seminiferous tubule culture; (2) cleavage with cyanogen bromide and translation of T7 RNA polymerase transcripts in vitro indicate that the translation start site is located downstream of potential UGA selenocysteine codons in the mouse cysteine-rich mRNA; (3) the reading frame encoding the cysteine-rich protein in rat lacks inphase UGA selenocysteine codons. Light and electron microscopy immunocytochemistry detects the cysteine-rich protein first during step 11 of spermiogenesis in the mouse demonstrating that the cysteine-rich protein mRNA is under temporal translational control. Electron microscope immunocytochemistry reveals that the cysteine-rich protein is evenly distributed in the cytoplasm in spermatids in steps 11 through early step 16 in mouse, and that it is associated with the outer mitochondrial membranes of spermatids in late step 16 and epididymal spermatozoa.

  8. The effect of irradiation on the intracellular transportation of the parotid gland acinar cells in the mouse. Localization of monosaccharides studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Hajime (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of radiation on the ability to ingest monosaccharides and intracellular transportation in the parotid gland in mice. The submandibular regions, including the parotid gland, was exposed to 10 Gy of X-rays. Three days after irradiation, the localization of reducing silver grains in organelles was determined, using electron microscopic autoradiography with H-3 labeled galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, and mannose. In the non-irradiated group, the proportion of reducing silver grains in the acinar cells began to increase 15 min after administration of monosaccharides, reached a peak at 180 min, and thereafter decreased. Similar findings were observed in the irradiated group, although the values were lower than the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the endoplasmic reticulum reached a peak at 15 min in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, and gradually decreased until 120 min. Thereafter, it became almost constant and low, but the proportion in the irradiated group was slightly higher than in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the Golgi apparatus was maximum at 60 min in the non-irradiated group, and gradually decreased until 360 min. A similar tendency was seen in the irradiated group, although its variation was not so marked as in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the condensing vacuoles was maximum at 120 min, and thereafter, it decreased; the decrease was only slight in the irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in secretory granules increased with time in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, although this was only slight in the irradiated group, and reached a peak at 360 min. Transportation of monosaccharides in an acinar cell was found to be delayed by irradiation. (N.K.).

  9. Regional and Local Temperature Maps of Dwarf Planet Ceres from Dawn/VIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Zambon, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Ciarniello, M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Longobardo, A.; Raponi, A.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J. P.; Hiesinger, H.; Li, J. Y.; McFadden, L. A.; Schorghofer, N.; Schroeder, S.; Stephan, K.; Rayman, M.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2015, the Visible InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer onboard the NASA Dawn mission has obtained hyperspectral images of Ceres, with improving spatial resolution. VIR operates in the overall spectral range 0.25-5.1 μm, with the main goal of inferring the surface composition of the target in its uppermost layer, as thick as tens of microns. Taking advantage of the wavelength range longward of 3 μm, VIR can be used as a thermal mapper, i.e. as a tool to derive thermal images and spatially-resolved temperature maps. To do this, the VIR team uses a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion that was extensively applied to the Vesta dataset earlier. Already in February 2015, VIR had the chance to acquire data with a spatial resolution of ~11 km/px. Those temperature images revealed that a spot of high-albedo (bright) material, highlighted by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) earlier and recently associated with the crater Haulani, was cooler than sorrounding regions seen under similar solar illumination, whereas the brightest spots on Ceres, in the crater Occator, did not display any thermal contrast. The following Survey phase yielded hyperspectral coverage of Ceres at ~1.3 km/px, and the High Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) phase starting in mid-August 2015 is expected to provide VIR data with a resolution of ~0.4 km/px. These datasets allow derivation of regional and local temperature maps as well as the study of thermal anomalies at those spatial scales. Due to the low overall thermal inertia of Ceres, the surface temperature is essentially dominated by the instantaneous value of the solar incidence angle. Small values of this angle result in high surface temperatures, and, unlike Vesta, the low obliquity of Ceres (~4°) does not result in observable seasonal effects for a given location on the surface. However, different responses to insolation as observed at the local scale may be indicative of differences in density/porosity and thermal

  10. Mapping trees in high resolution imagery across large areas using locally variable thresholds guided by medium resolution tree maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Adrian; Danaher, Tim; Gill, Tony

    2017-06-01

    Large area tree maps, important for environmental monitoring and natural resource management, are often based on medium resolution satellite imagery. These data have difficulty in detecting trees in fragmented woodlands, and have significant omission errors in modified agricultural areas. High resolution imagery can better detect these trees, however, as most high resolution imagery is not normalised it is difficult to automate a tree classification method over large areas. The method developed here used an existing medium resolution map derived from either Landsat or SPOT5 satellite imagery to guide the classification of the high resolution imagery. It selected a spatially-variable threshold on the green band, calculated based on the spatially-variable percentage of trees in the existing map of tree cover. The green band proved more consistent at classifying trees across different images than several common band combinations. The method was tested on 0.5 m resolution imagery from airborne digital sensor (ADS) imagery across New South Wales (NSW), Australia using both Landsat and SPOT5 derived tree maps to guide the threshold selection. Accuracy was assessed across 6 large image mosaics revealing a more accurate result when the more accurate tree map from SPOT5 imagery was used. The resulting maps achieved an overall accuracy with 95% confidence intervals of 93% (90-95%), while the overall accuracy of the previous SPOT5 tree map was 87% (86-89%). The method reduced omission errors by mapping more scattered trees, although it did increase commission errors caused by dark pixels from water, building shadows, topographic shadows, and some soils and crops. The method allows trees to be automatically mapped at 5 m resolution from high resolution imagery, provided a medium resolution tree map already exists.

  11. Bayesian Train Localization with Particle Filter, Loosely Coupled GNSS, IMU, and a Track Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Heirich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Train localization is safety-critical and therefore the approach requires a continuous availability and a track-selective accuracy. A probabilistic approach is followed up in order to cope with multiple sensors, measurement errors, imprecise information, and hidden variables as the topological position within the track network. The nonlinear estimation of the train localization posterior is addressed with a novel Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF approach. There, embedded Kalman filters estimate certain linear state variables while the particle distribution can cope with the nonlinear cases of parallel tracks and switch scenarios. The train localization algorithm is further based on a track map and measurements from a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver and an inertial measurement unit (IMU. The GNSS integration is loosely coupled and the IMU integration is achieved without the common strapdown approach and suitable for low-cost IMUs. The implementation is evaluated with real measurements from a regional train at regular passenger service over 230 km of tracks with 107 split switches and parallel track scenarios of 58.5 km. The approach is analyzed with labeled data by means of ground truth of the traveled switch way. Track selectivity results reach 99.3% over parallel track scenarios and 97.2% of correctly resolved switch ways.

  12. Predictable nonwandering localization of covariant Lyapunov vectors and cluster synchronization in scale-free networks of chaotic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptsov, Pavel V; Kuptsova, Anna V

    2014-09-01

    Covariant Lyapunov vectors for scale-free networks of Hénon maps are highly localized. We revealed two mechanisms of the localization related to full and phase cluster synchronization of network nodes. In both cases the localization nodes remain unaltered in the course of the dynamics, i.e., the localization is nonwandering. Moreover, this is predictable: The localization nodes are found to have specific dynamical and topological properties and they can be found without computing of the covariant vectors. This is an example of explicit relations between the system topology, its phase-space dynamics, and the associated tangent-space dynamics of covariant Lyapunov vectors.

  13. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Iterative Sparse Extended Information Filter for Autonomous Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Liu, Yang; Dong, Diya; Shen, Yue; Yan, Tianhong; Nian, Rui

    2015-08-13

    In this paper, a novel iterative sparse extended information filter (ISEIF) was proposed to solve the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (SLAM), which is very crucial for autonomous vehicles. The proposed algorithm solves the measurement update equations with iterative methods adaptively to reduce linearization errors. With the scalability advantage being kept, the consistency and accuracy of SEIF is improved. Simulations and practical experiments were carried out with both a land car benchmark and an autonomous underwater vehicle. Comparisons between iterative SEIF (ISEIF), standard EKF and SEIF are presented. All of the results convincingly show that ISEIF yields more consistent and accurate estimates compared to SEIF and preserves the scalability advantage over EKF, as well.

  14. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Iterative Sparse Extended Information Filter for Autonomous Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel iterative sparse extended information filter (ISEIF was proposed to solve the simultaneous localization and mapping problem (SLAM, which is very crucial for autonomous vehicles. The proposed algorithm solves the measurement update equations with iterative methods adaptively to reduce linearization errors. With the scalability advantage being kept, the consistency and accuracy of SEIF is improved. Simulations and practical experiments were carried out with both a land car benchmark and an autonomous underwater vehicle. Comparisons between iterative SEIF (ISEIF, standard EKF and SEIF are presented. All of the results convincingly show that ISEIF yields more consistent and accurate estimates compared to SEIF and preserves the scalability advantage over EKF, as well.

  15. a Performance Comparison of Feature Detectors for Planetary Rover Mapping and Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W.; Peng, M.; Xing, Y.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Z.; Di, K.; Teng, B.; Mao, X.; Zhao, Q.; Xin, X.; Jia, M.

    2017-07-01

    Feature detection and matching are key techniques in computer vision and robotics, and have been successfully implemented in many fields. So far there is no performance comparison of feature detectors and matching methods for planetary mapping and rover localization using rover stereo images. In this research, we present a comprehensive evaluation and comparison of six feature detectors, including Moravec, Förstner, Harris, FAST, SIFT and SURF, aiming for optimal implementation of feature-based matching in planetary surface environment. To facilitate quantitative analysis, a series of evaluation criteria, including distribution evenness of matched points, coverage of detected points, and feature matching accuracy, are developed in the research. In order to perform exhaustive evaluation, stereo images, simulated under different baseline, pitch angle, and interval of adjacent rover locations, are taken as experimental data source. The comparison results show that SIFT offers the best overall performance, especially it is less sensitive to changes of image taken at adjacent locations.

  16. Local Density-of-States Mapping in Photonic Crystal Resonators by Deterministically Positioned Germanium Quantum Dots

    CERN Document Server

    Schatzl, Magdalena; Glaser, Martin; Brehm, Moritz; Simbula, Angelica; Galli, Matteo; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    We report on mapping of the local density of states in L3 photonic crystal resonators (PCR) via deterministically positioned single Ge quantum dots (QDs). Perfect site-control of Ge QDs on pre-patterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 L3 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions in the cavities. The alignment precision of the QD emitters was better than 20 nm. This type of parallel processing is essentially based on standard Si device technologies and is therefore scalable to any number and configuration of PCR structures. As a first demonstrator, we probed the coupling efficiency of a single Ge QD to the L3 cavity modes as a function of their spatial overlap. The results are in excellent agreement with finite-difference time-domain simulations.

  17. Reverberation Mapping Measurements of Black Hole Masses in Six Local Seyfert Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Denney, K D; Pogge, R W; Adair, A; Atlee, D W; Au-Yong, K; Bentz, M C; Bird, J C; Brokofsky, D J; Chisholm, E; Comins, M L; Dietrich, M; Doroshenko, V T; Eastman, J D; Efimov, Y S; Ewald, S; Ferbey, S; Gaskell, C M; Hedrick, C H; Jackson, K; Klimanov, S A; Klimek, E S; Kruse, A K; Ladéroute, A; Lamb, J B; Leighly, K; Minezaki, T; Nazarov, S V; Onken, C A; Petersen, E A; Peterson, P; Poindexter, S; Sakata, Y; Schlesinger, K J; Sergeev, S G; Skolski, N; Stieglitz, L; Tobin, J J; Unterborn, C; Vestergaard, M; Watkins, A E; Watson, L C; Yoshii, Y

    2010-01-01

    We present the final results from a high sampling rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaign undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity AGNs. We have reliably measured thetime delay between variations in the continuum and Hbeta emission line in six local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) R-L relationship, where our results remove outliers and reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. We also present velocity-resolved Hbeta time delay measurements for our complete sample, though the clearest velocity-resolved kinematic signatures have already been published.

  18. An Adaptive Scheme for Robot Localization and Mapping with Dynamically Configurable Inter-Beacon Range Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Torres-González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons are used as landmarks for range-only (RO simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16% and similar beacon energy consumption.

  19. 3D maps of the local interstellar medium: searching for the imprints of past events

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, Rosine

    2014-01-01

    Inversion of interstellar gas or dust columns measured along the path to stars distributed in distance and direction allows reconstructing the distribution of interstellar matter (ISM) in 3D. A low resolution IS dust map based on the reddening of 23,000 stars illustrates the potential of future maps. It reveals the location of the main IS clouds within $\\sim$1kpc and, owing to biases towards weakly reddened targets, regions devoid of IS matter. It traces the Local Bubble and neighboring cavities, including a giant, $\\geq$1000 pc long cavity located beyond the so-called $\\beta$CMa tunnel, bordered by the main constituents of the Gould belt (GB), the rotating and expanding ring of clouds and young stars, inclined by $\\sim$ 20$^{\\circ}$ to the galactic plane. From comparison with diffuse X-ray background and absorption data it appears that the giant cavity is filled with warm, ionized and dust-poor gas in addition to million K gas. This set of structures must reflect the main events that occurred in the past. It...

  20. An adaptive scheme for robot localization and mapping with dynamically configurable inter-beacon range measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-González, Arturo; Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Ollero, Anibal

    2014-04-25

    This work is motivated by robot-sensor network cooperation techniques where sensor nodes (beacons) are used as landmarks for range-only (RO) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM). This paper presents a RO-SLAM scheme that actuates over the measurement gathering process using mechanisms that dynamically modify the rate and variety of measurements that are integrated in the SLAM filter. It includes a measurement gathering module that can be configured to collect direct robot-beacon and inter-beacon measurements with different inter-beacon depth levels and at different rates. It also includes a supervision module that monitors the SLAM performance and dynamically selects the measurement gathering configuration balancing SLAM accuracy and resource consumption. The proposed scheme has been applied to an extended Kalman filter SLAM with auxiliary particle filters for beacon initialization (PF-EKF SLAM) and validated with experiments performed in the CONET Integrated Testbed. It achieved lower map and robot errors (34% and 14%, respectively) than traditional methods with a lower computational burden (16%) and similar beacon energy consumption.

  1. Mapping Local Climate Zones for a Worldwide Database of the Form and Function of Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bechtel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Progress in urban climate science is severely restricted by the lack of useful information that describes aspects of the form and function of cities at a detailed spatial resolution. To overcome this shortcoming we are initiating an international effort to develop the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools (WUDAPT to gather and disseminate this information in a consistent manner for urban areas worldwide. The first step in developing WUDAPT is a description of cities based on the Local Climate Zone (LCZ scheme, which classifies natural and urban landscapes into categories based on climate-relevant surface properties. This methodology provides a culturally-neutral framework for collecting information about the internal physical structure of cities. Moreover, studies have shown that remote sensing data can be used for supervised LCZ mapping. Mapping of LCZs is complicated because similar LCZs in different regions have dissimilar spectral properties due to differences in vegetation, building materials and other variations in cultural and physical environmental factors. The WUDAPT protocol developed here provides an easy to understand workflow; uses freely available data and software; and can be applied by someone without specialist knowledge in spatial analysis or urban climate science. The paper also provides an example use of the WUDAPT project results.

  2. Human Collaborative Localization and Mapping in Indoor Environments with Non-Continuous Stereo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Edmundo; Munguia, Rodrigo; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem is presented in this work. Data obtained from additional bearing-only sensors deployed as wearable devices is fully fused into an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The wearable device is introduced in the context of a collaborative task within a human-robot interaction (HRI) paradigm, including the SLAM problem. Thus, based on the delayed inverse-depth feature initialization (DI-D) SLAM, data from the camera deployed on the human, capturing his/her field of view, is used to enhance the depth estimation of the robotic monocular sensor which maps and locates the device. The occurrence of overlapping between the views of both cameras is predicted through geometrical modelling, activating a pseudo-stereo methodology which allows to instantly measure the depth by stochastic triangulation of matched points found through SIFT/SURF. Experimental validation is provided through results from experiments, where real data is captured as synchronized sequences of video and other data (relative pose of secondary camera) and processed off-line. The sequences capture indoor trajectories representing the main challenges for a monocular SLAM approach, namely, singular trajectories and close turns with high angular velocities with respect to linear velocities. PMID:26927100

  3. Mapping local microstructure and mechanical performance around carbon nanotube grafted silica fibres: Methodologies for hierarchical composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Kalinka, Gerhard; Chan, K. L. Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Greenhalgh, Emile S.; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S. P.

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modifies bulk polymer properties, depending on intrinsic quality, dispersion, alignment, interfacial chemistry and mechanical properties of the nanofiller. These effects can be exploited to enhance the matrices of conventional microscale fibre-reinforced polymer composites, by using primary reinforcing fibres grafted with CNTs. This paper presents a methodology that combines atomic force microscopy, polarised Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques, to study the distribution, alignment and orientation of CNTs in the vicinity of epoxy-embedded micrometre-scale silica fibres, as well as, the resulting local mechanical properties of the matrix. Raman maps of key features in the CNT spectra clearly show the CNT distribution and orientation, including a `parted' morphology associated with long grafted CNTs. The hardness and indentation modulus of the epoxy matrix were improved locally by 28% and 24%, respectively, due to the reinforcing effects of CNTs. Moreover, a slower stress relaxation was observed in the epoxy region containing CNTs, which may be due to restricted molecular mobility of the matrix. The proposed methodology is likely to be relevant to further studies of nanocomposites and hierarchical composites.The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modifies bulk polymer properties, depending on intrinsic quality, dispersion, alignment, interfacial chemistry and mechanical properties of the nanofiller. These effects can be exploited to enhance the matrices of conventional microscale fibre-reinforced polymer composites, by using primary reinforcing fibres grafted with CNTs. This paper presents a methodology that combines atomic force microscopy, polarised Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques, to study the distribution, alignment and orientation of CNTs in the vicinity of epoxy-embedded micrometre-scale silica fibres, as well as, the resulting local mechanical properties of the matrix. Raman

  4. A study of photometry and image formation for application in localization and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Xue Iuan

    This dissertation studies the image formation process and physically based light reflection model. Purpose of this study is to expand the concept commonly used in computer graphic community toward develop a set of surface estimation algorithm and relative navigation sensor interested by aeronautical and astronautical application. Simplified camera model has been extensively applied toward developing image based relative pose sensing algorithm who are widely used in navigation and simultaneous localization and mapping purpose. Beside of providing data of measurement, navigation sensors are also expecting to provide uncertainty measurement who describe the accuracy of output data. Since most of the image space algorithms are commonly rely on various of image processing technique such as feature extract and tracking, who are generally difficult in providing uncertainty measurement in real time, one of the major objective of this research is to develop a computational efficient method to estimate confidential level of sensor outputs. Base on the study of camera projection model and light reflection model, this dissertation develop set of three algorithms. Digital VISNAV who provide real time six degree of freedom relative pose measurement from a set of structured light beacons and a camera. Photometric stereo in motion exploit the possibility of applying photometric stereo algorithm toward estimate surface geometry model of space object. At last, a newly developed algorithm base on both camera projection model and surface reflectance model named as PhotoNAV is providing a new method for dense image base simultaneous localization and mapping application on textureless surface. Each of these proposed algorithm are providing both sensing output along with estimated uncertainty measurement of the output. Performance of these algorithms are evaluated by both simulation and experiment. Under certain constraint when real measurements are not available, the experiment is carry

  5. Assessment and visualization of uncertainty for countrywide soil organic matter map of Hungary using local entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmári, Gábor; Pásztor, László

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty is a general term expressing our imperfect knowledge in describing an environmental process and we are aware of it (Bárdossy and Fodor, 2004). Sampling, laboratory measurements, models and so on are subject to uncertainty. Effective quantification and visualization of uncertainty would be indispensable to stakeholders (e.g. policy makers, society). Soil related features and their spatial models should be stressfully targeted to uncertainty assessment because their inferences are further used in modelling and decision making process. The aim of our present study was to assess and effectively visualize the local uncertainty of the countrywide soil organic matter (SOM) spatial distribution model of Hungary using geostatistical tools and concepts. The Hungarian Soil Information and Monitoring System's SOM data (approximately 1,200 observations) and environmental related, spatially exhaustive secondary information (i.e. digital elevation model, climatic maps, MODIS satellite images and geological map) were used to model the countrywide SOM spatial distribution by regression kriging. It would be common to use the calculated estimation (or kriging) variance as a measure of uncertainty, however the normality and homoscedasticity hypotheses have to be refused according to our preliminary analysis on the data. Therefore, a normal score transformation and a sequential stochastic simulation approach was introduced to be able to model and assess the local uncertainty. Five hundred equally probable realizations (i.e. stochastic images) were generated. The number of the stochastic images is fairly enough to provide a model of uncertainty at each location, which is a complete description of uncertainty in geostatistics (Deutsch and Journel, 1998). Furthermore, these models can be applied e.g. to contour the probability of any events, which can be regarded as goal oriented digital soil maps and are of interest for agricultural management and decision making as well. A

  6. MAPPING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONES WITH A VECTOR-BASED GIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lelovics

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined Local Climate Zones in a South-Hungarian city, using vector-based and raster-based databases. We calculated seven of the originally proposed ten physical (geometric, surface cover and radiative properties for areas which are based on the mobile temperature measurement campaigns earlier carried out in this city.As input data we applied 3D building database (earlier created with photogrammetric methods, 2D road database, topographic map, aerial photographs, remotely sensed reflectance information from RapidEye satellite image and our local knowledge about the area. The values of the properties were calculated by GIS methods developed for this purpose.We derived for the examined areas and applied for classification sky view factor, mean building height, terrain roughness class, building surface fraction, pervious surface fraction, impervious surface fraction and albedo.Six built and one land cover LCZ classes could be detected with this method on our study area. From each class one circle area was selected, which is representative for that class. Their thermal reactions were examined with the application of mobile temperature measurement dataset. The comparison was made in cases, when the weather was clear and calm and the surface was dry. We found that compact built-in types have more temperature surplus than open ones, and midrise types also have more than lowrise ones. According to our primary results, these categories provide a useful opportunity for intra- and inter-urban comparisons.

  7. Mapping local microstructure and mechanical performance around carbon nanotube grafted silica fibres: methodologies for hierarchical composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hui; Kalinka, Gerhard; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G; Greenhalgh, Emile S; Bismarck, Alexander; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) modifies bulk polymer properties, depending on intrinsic quality, dispersion, alignment, interfacial chemistry and mechanical properties of the nanofiller. These effects can be exploited to enhance the matrices of conventional microscale fibre-reinforced polymer composites, by using primary reinforcing fibres grafted with CNTs. This paper presents a methodology that combines atomic force microscopy, polarised Raman spectroscopy, and nanoindentation techniques, to study the distribution, alignment and orientation of CNTs in the vicinity of epoxy-embedded micrometre-scale silica fibres, as well as, the resulting local mechanical properties of the matrix. Raman maps of key features in the CNT spectra clearly show the CNT distribution and orientation, including a 'parted' morphology associated with long grafted CNTs. The hardness and indentation modulus of the epoxy matrix were improved locally by 28% and 24%, respectively, due to the reinforcing effects of CNTs. Moreover, a slower stress relaxation was observed in the epoxy region containing CNTs, which may be due to restricted molecular mobility of the matrix. The proposed methodology is likely to be relevant to further studies of nanocomposites and hierarchical composites.

  8. Mapping local orientation of aligned fibrous scatterers for cancerous tissues using backscattering Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghui; Sun, Minghao; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; Liu, Shaoxiong; Guo, Yihong; Wu, Jian; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Polarization measurements are sensitive to the microstructure of tissues and can be used to detect pathological changes. Many tissues contain anisotropic fibrous structures. We obtain the local orientation of aligned fibrous scatterers using different groups of the backscattering Mueller matrix elements. Experiments on concentrically well-aligned silk fibers and unstained human papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues show that the m22, m33, m23, and m32 elements have better contrast but higher degeneracy for the extraction of orientation angles. The m12 and m13 elements show lower contrast, but allow us to determine the orientation angle for the fibrous scatterers along all directions. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere-cylinder scattering model indicate that the oblique incidence of the illumination beam introduces some errors in the orientation angles obtained by both methods. Mapping the local orientation of anisotropic tissues may not only provide information on pathological changes, but can also give new leads to reduce the orientation dependence of polarization measurements.

  9. Putting chronic disease on the map: building GIS capacity in state and local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Casper, Michele; Tootoo, Joshua; Schieb, Linda

    2013-06-20

    Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants' experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments.

  10. Affine-Invariant Geometric Constraints-Based High Accuracy Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangchen Hua

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe a new appearance-based loop-closure detection method for online incremental simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM using affine-invariant-based geometric constraints. Unlike other pure bag-of-words-based approaches, our proposed method uses geometric constraints as a supplement to improve accuracy. By establishing an affine-invariant hypothesis, the proposed method excludes incorrect visual words and calculates the dispersion of correctly matched visual words to improve the accuracy of the likelihood calculation. In addition, camera’s intrinsic parameters and distortion coefficients are adequate for this method. 3D measuring is not necessary. We use the mechanism of Long-Term Memory and Working Memory (WM to manage the memory. Only a limited size of the WM is used for loop-closure detection; therefore the proposed method is suitable for large-scale real-time SLAM. We tested our method using the CityCenter and Lip6Indoor datasets. Our proposed method results can effectively correct the typical false-positive localization of previous methods, thus gaining better recall ratios and better precision.

  11. Towards Consistent Mapping of Urban Structures - Global Human Settlement Layer and Local Climate Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, B.; Pesaresi, M.; See, L.; Mills, G.; Ching, J.; Alexander, P. J.; Feddema, J. J.; Florczyk, A. J.; Stewart, I.

    2016-06-01

    Although more than half of the Earth's population live in urban areas, we know remarkably little about most cities and what we do know is incomplete (lack of coverage) and inconsistent (varying definitions and scale). While there have been considerable advances in the derivation of a global urban mask using satellite information, the complexity of urban structures, the heterogeneity of materials, and the multiplicity of spectral properties have impeded the derivation of universal urban structural types (UST). Further, the variety of UST typologies severely limits the comparability of such studies and although a common and generic description of urban structures is an essential requirement for the universal mapping of urban structures, such a standard scheme is still lacking. More recently, there have been two developments in urban mapping that have the potential for providing a standard approach: the Local Climate Zone (LCZ) scheme (used by the World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools project) and the Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) methodology by JRC. In this paper the LCZ scheme and the GHSL LABEL product were compared for selected cities. The comparison between both datasets revealed a good agreement at city and coarse scale, while the contingency at pixel scale was limited due to the mismatch in grid resolution and typology. At a 1 km scale, built-up as well as open and compact classes showed very good agreement in terms of correlation coefficient and mean absolute distance, spatial pattern, and radial distribution as a function of distance from town, which indicates that a decomposition relevant for modelling applications could be derived from both. On the other hand, specific problems were found for both datasets, which are discussed along with their general advantages and disadvantages as a standard for UST classification in urban remote sensing.

  12. Local-scale flood mapping on vegetated floodplains from radiometrically calibrated airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Radosław; Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Groom, Geoff; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge about the magnitude of localised flooding of riverine areas is crucial for appropriate land management and administration at regional and local levels. However, detection and delineation of localised flooding with remote sensing techniques are often hampered on floodplains by the presence of herbaceous vegetation. To address this problem, this study presents the application of full-waveform airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for detection of floodwater extent. In general, water surfaces are characterised by low values of backscattered energy due to water absorption of the infrared laser shots, but the exact strength of the recorded laser pulse depends on the area covered by the targets located within a laser pulse footprint area. To account for this we analysed the physical quantity of radiometrically calibrated ALS data, the backscattering coefficient, in relation to water and vegetation coverage within a single laser footprint. The results showed that the backscatter was negatively correlated to water coverage, and that of the three distinguished classes of water coverage (low, medium, and high) only the class with the largest extent of water cover (>70%) had relatively distinct characteristics that can be used for classification of water surfaces. Following the laser footprint analysis, three classifiers, namely AdaBoost with Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest, were utilised to classify laser points into flooded and non-flooded classes and to derive the map of flooding extent. The performance of the classifiers is highly dependent on the set of laser points features used. Best performance was achieved by combining radiometric and geometric laser point features. The accuracy of flooding maps based solely on radiometric features resulted in overall accuracies of up to 70% and was limited due to the overlap of the backscattering coefficient values between water and other land cover classes. Our point-based classification methods assure a high

  13. PRIMAL: Page Rank-Based Indoor Mapping and Localization Using Gene-Sequenced Unlabeled WLAN Received Signal Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the wide deployment of wireless local area networks (WLAN, received signal strength (RSS-based indoor WLAN localization has attracted considerable attention in both academia and industry. In this paper, we propose a novel page rank-based indoor mapping and localization (PRIMAL by using the gene-sequenced unlabeled WLAN RSS for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM. Specifically, first of all, based on the observation of the motion patterns of the people in the target environment, we use the Allen logic to construct the mobility graph to characterize the connectivity among different areas of interest. Second, the concept of gene sequencing is utilized to assemble the sporadically-collected RSS sequences into a signal graph based on the transition relations among different RSS sequences. Third, we apply the graph drawing approach to exhibit both the mobility graph and signal graph in a more readable manner. Finally, the page rank (PR algorithm is proposed to construct the mapping from the signal graph into the mobility graph. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves satisfactory localization accuracy and meanwhile avoids the intensive time and labor cost involved in the conventional location fingerprinting-based indoor WLAN localization.

  14. MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate...

  15. MeshSLAM: Robust Localization and Large-Scale Mapping in Barren Terrain Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Robots need to know their location to map of their surroundings but without global positioning data they need a map to identify their surroundings and estimate their...

  16. Intracellular concentration map of magnesium in whole cells by combined use of X-ray fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagomarsino, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.lagomarsino@cnr.it [IPCF-CNR -UOS Roma c/o Dip Fisica Universita' ' Sapienza' , P.le A. Moro, 2 Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Universita' Sapienza, P.le A. Moro, 2 Rome (Italy); Iotti, Stefano [Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, dell' Invecchiamento e Malattie Nefrologiche Universita di Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9 40138 Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi - Rome (Italy); Farruggia, Giovanna [Dipartimento di Biochimica ' G. Moruzzi' Universita di Bologna, Via Irnerio, 48 40126 Bologna (Italy); Cedola, Alessia [IFN-CNR - V. Cineto Romano, 42 00156 Rome (Italy); Trapani, Valentina [Istituto di Patologia Generale - Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - Facolta di Medicina ' A. Gemelli' L.go F. Vito, 1 00168 Rome (Italy); Fratini, Michela [IFN-CNR - V. Cineto Romano, 42 00156 Rome (Italy); Bukreeva, Inna [IFN-CNR - V. Cineto Romano, 42 00156 Rome (Italy); Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Leninskii prospekt 59, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation); Notargiacomo, Andrea [IFN-CNR - V. Cineto Romano, 42 00156 Rome (Italy); Mastrototaro, Lucia [Istituto di Patologia Generale - Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore - Facolta di Medicina ' A. Gemelli' L.go F. Vito, 1 00168 Rome (Italy); Marraccini, Chiara [Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, dell' Invecchiamento e Malattie Nefrologiche Universita di Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9 40138 Bologna (Italy); and others

    2011-11-15

    We report a novel experimental approach to derive quantitative concentration map of light elements in whole cells by combining two complementary nano-probe methods: X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The concentration is derived by normalizing point-by-point the elemental (here Mg) spatial distribution obtained by XRFM, by the thickness measured using AFM. The considerable difference between the elemental distribution and the concentration maps indicates that this procedure is essential to obtain reliable information on the role and function of elements in whole cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray fluorescence and AFM have been measured on the same de-hydrated whole cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The element distribution has been normalized point-by-point by the cell thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The element (Mg) concentration map has been obtained on a whole cell. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The element concentration map is quite different from the distribution map. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher Mg concentration is found in the cell periphery.

  17. Mapping and Measuring European Local Governments’ Priorities for a Sustainable and Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios Grafakos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to assess the priorities of local governments (LGs in Europe regarding climate change mitigation technologies evaluation in the electricity sector and to provide important insights for energy policy design. The study applies a hybrid weighting methodology to elicit LGs’ preferences in a constructive and iterative way regarding the evaluation criteria of low-carbon energy technologies. Furthermore, the study employs three data collection and preference elicitation methods, namely: survey, workshop, and webinar. The study was conducted across thirty one (31 European LGs that were categorized according to three variables: population size, geographical region and gross domestic product (GDP per capita. The analysis shows that “CO2 emissions” is the most important criterion among European LGs, followed by “mortality and morbidity” and “ecosystem damages”. The results illustrate the potential synergies of climate and energy policies for addressing both CO2 emissions and air pollution. It was also found, based on a correlation analysis, that LGs with higher GDP per capita tend to provide higher weights to criteria related to security of energy supply and technological innovation. The current study provides insights on the actual LGs’ priorities that are important to consider during low-carbon energy technologies evaluation and energy policy design. Interestingly, the results of the European LGs’ preferences clearly show that the EU climate policy objectives have reached different levels of governance—and at this particular case, the local level. Furthermore, the developed methodology could be applied at different geographical regions to map other regions’ LG priorities, but also at a group decision making context to elicit relevant stakeholders’ preferences regarding low-carbon energy technologies and policy objectives.

  18. Water-sanitation-hygiene mapping: an improved approach for data collection at local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné-Garriga, Ricard; de Palencia, Alejandro Jiménez-Fernández; Pérez-Foguet, Agustí

    2013-10-01

    Strategic planning and appropriate development and management of water and sanitation services are strongly supported by accurate and accessible data. If adequately exploited, these data might assist water managers with performance monitoring, benchmarking comparisons, policy progress evaluation, resources allocation, and decision making. A variety of tools and techniques are in place to collect such information. However, some methodological weaknesses arise when developing an instrument for routine data collection, particularly at local level: i) comparability problems due to heterogeneity of indicators, ii) poor reliability of collected data, iii) inadequate combination of different information sources, and iv) statistical validity of produced estimates when disaggregated into small geographic subareas. This study proposes an improved approach for water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) data collection at decentralised level in low income settings, as an attempt to overcome previous shortcomings. The ultimate aim is to provide local policymakers with strong evidences to inform their planning decisions. The survey design takes the Water Point Mapping (WPM) as a starting point to record all available water sources at a particular location. This information is then linked to data produced by a household survey. Different survey instruments are implemented to collect reliable data by employing a variety of techniques, such as structured questionnaires, direct observation and water quality testing. The collected data is finally validated through simple statistical analysis, which in turn produces valuable outputs that might feed into the decision-making process. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the method, outcomes produced from three different case studies (Homa Bay District-Kenya-; Kibondo District-Tanzania-; and Municipality of Manhiça-Mozambique-) are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A multicriteria framework for producing local, regional, and national insect and disease risk maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank J. Jr. Krist; Frank J. Sapio; Borys M. Tkacz

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the 2006 National Insect and Disease Risk Map, compiled by the USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry Area, Forest Health Protection Unit, resulted in the development of a GIS-based, multicriteria approach for insect and disease risk mapping that can account for regional variations in forest health concerns and threats. This risk mapping...

  20. Localization and Characterization of 170 BAC-derived clones and mapping of Ninety-Four Microsatellites in the Hessian Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninety-four microsatellites from enriched genomic libraries of Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor (Say)) were localized to 170 cognate clones in a Hessian fly bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. These microsatellite-positive BAC clones were physically mapped to polytene chromosomes by fl...

  1. Novel Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using Rao-Blackwellised Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Bingrong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the novel method of mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, which is implemented by using the Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF for monocular vision-based autonomous robot in unknown indoor environment. The particle filter is combined with unscented Kalman filter (UKF to extending the path posterior by sampling new poses that integrate the current observation. The landmark position estimation and update is implemented through the unscented transform (UT. Furthermore, the number of resampling steps is determined adaptively, which seriously reduces the particle depletion problem. Monocular CCD camera mounted on the robot tracks the 3D natural point landmarks, which are structured with matching image feature pairs extracted through Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT. The matching for multi-dimension SIFT features which are highly distinctive due to a special descriptor is implemented with a KDTree in the time cost of O(log2N. Experiments on the robot Pioneer3 in our real indoor environment show that our method is of high precision and stability.

  2. Local state-of-charge mapping of lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Jagjit [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Remillard, Jeffrey; O' Neill, Ann; Bernardi, Dawn; Ro, Tina; Nietering, Kenneth E.; Miller, Ted J. [Research and Advanced Engineering, Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Go, Joo-Young [SB LiMotive, R and D Team, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-09

    Current lithium-ion battery technology is gearing towards meeting the robust demand of power and energy requirements for all-electric transportation without compromising on the safety, performance, and cycle life. The state-of-charge (SOC) of a Li-ion cell can be a macroscopic indicator of the state-of-health of the battery. The microscopic origin of the SOC relates to the local lithium content in individual electrode particles and the effective ability of Li-ions to transport or shuttle between the redox couples through the cell geometric boundaries. Herein, micrometer-resolved Raman mapping of a transition-metal-based oxide positive electrode, Li{sub 1-x}(Ni{sub y}Co{sub z}Al{sub 1-y-z})O{sub 2}, maintained at different SOCs, is shown. An attempt has been made to link the underlying changes to the composition and structural integrity at the individual particle level. Furthermore, an SOC distribution at macroscopic length scale of the electrodes is presented. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Extension of an iterative closest point algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping in corridor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Haosong; Chen, Weihai; Wu, Xingming; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a crucial technique for intelligent robots to navigate autonomously and execute complex tasks. It can also be applied to shape measurement, reverse engineering, and many other scientific or engineering fields. A widespread SLAM algorithm, named KinectFusion, performs well in environments with complex shapes. However, it cannot handle translation uncertainties well in highly structured scenes. This paper improves the KinectFusion algorithm and makes it competent in both structured and unstructured environments. 3-D line features are first extracted according to both color and depth data captured by Kinect sensor. Then the lines in the current data frame are matched with the lines extracted from the entire constructed world model. Finally, we fuse the distance errors of these line-pairs into the standard KinectFusion framework and estimate sensor poses using an iterative closest point-based algorithm. Comparative experiments with the KinectFusion algorithm and one state-of-the-art method in a corridor scene have been done. The experimental results demonstrate that after our improvement, the KinectFusion algorithm can also be applied to structured environments and has higher accuracy. Experiments on two open access datasets further validated our improvements.

  4. Localization Methods of Weighted Centroid of dBZ on Weather-Radar Echo Maps in Vector Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-tao Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast generation of weather-radar echo maps in vector format and accurate localization of weighted centroid of dBZ (dBZ stands for decibels of reflectivity of a radar signal reflected off a remote object are the basis of studying the characteristic tracking algorithms which are based on the vector echoes. The authors principally studied the approach to generating the vector echo map, and discussed the localization methods of weighted centroid of dBZ on vector echo maps. First, based on the traditional calculation method on raster echo data, some new localization methods of weighted centroid of dBZ on vector echo data were proposed by considering the weights of features’ area and distance from their location to radar center. Second, taking the base reflectivity products of CINRAD/SA weather radar in Meizhou city of China as data sources, they illustrated the storage structure of this type of echo data and studied the drawing mode of changing this type of data into vector format files under the polar coordinate system in detail. Third, using the same vector echo maps created by the above method, the weighted centroid of the same area was calculated by the above localization methods. In the end, Compared with the calculated value of the same area by traditional method which is based on raster echo maps, the three new calculated results and the sources of error were analyzed in detail and two conclusions were drawn: the echo’s precision in vector format is much higher than that in raster format and it is more accurate to take the features’ area and distance to radar center as weights during the calculation of weighted centroid of dBZ on echo maps in vector format.

  5. 一种基于特征地图的移动机器人SLAM方案%Mobile Robot Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Based on Feature Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严文; 潘炼; 陶辉; 严共灿

    2011-01-01

    设计了一种结构化环境中基于特征地图的地图创建方案;采用激光测距仪进行特征地图创建,利用"聚合-分害虫-聚合"的方法来提取线段表示环境信息实现局部地图创建;为了实现移动机器人的同时定位与地图创建,采用扩展卡尔曼滤波方法对机器人的位姿与地图信息进行预测及更新,结合状态估计和数据关联理论,实验显示x的校正量保持在±0.9cm之内;y的校正量保持在±2.5cm之内;θ的校正量在±1.2之内,实现了基于扩展卡尔曼滤波器的SLAM.%A Map building algorithm basedon feature map in structured indoor environment is presented in this paper, this thesis introduces a method of feature-based map building based on laser range finder. In the process of local map building, an improved“ merge-divided-merge” method is adopted, using line segments to denote the environment information. To realize simultaneous localization and mapping, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is used to update the robot position and the environment character. Combining state estimates and data association theory, SLAM based on the extend Kalman filter is obtained. This method has been implemented on the mobile robot platform;its validity has been demonstrated.

  6. GIS and local knowledge in disaster management: a case study of flood risk mapping in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phong; Shaw, Rajib; Chantry, Guillaume; Norton, John

    2009-03-01

    Linking community knowledge with modern techniques to record and analyse risk related data is one way of engaging and mobilising community capacity. This paper discusses the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS) at the local level and the need for integrating modern technology and indigenous knowledge into disaster management. It suggests a way to mobilise available human and technical resources in order to strengthen a good partnership between local communities and local and national institutions. The paper also analyses the current vulnerability of two communes by correlating hazard risk and loss/damage caused by disasters and the contribution that domestic risk maps in the community can make to reduce this risk. The disadvantages, advantages and lessons learned from the GIS flood risk mapping project are presented through the case study of the Quang Tho Commune in Thua Thien Hue province, central Viet Nam.

  7. Understanding and mapping local conflicts related to protected areas in small islands: a case study of the Azores archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing Protected Areas (PAs is considered one of the most appropriate ways to conserve nature and cultural landscapes. However, conservation constraints can generate social conflicts, especially at a local level. In small islands (SIs, local conflicts may escalate due to an increase in competition for limited space and resources. Pico island in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal, part of the Outermost European region, was considered a good case to study conservation-development conflicts due to the amount of designated protected land (> 35% of its surface and the approval of a new Azorean PA network in 2007. This paper presents a new approach to understanding and mapping local conflicts within PAs in SIs by integrating qualitative data and spatially explicit information. This research takes stock of the benefits, needs and constraints related to Pico Natural Park as perceived by local stakeholders through face-to-face semi-structured interviews; it subsequently identifies and transposes the conflicts distilled from stakeholder discourse into spatially representative visual maps via GIS. Research outcomes show that PAs are perceived mainly as constraints to local development, showing inconsistency between local expectations and regional conservation policy. This highlights the importance of including public participation processes prior to any implementation of conservation strategies. The proposed method provides a springboard towards effective conflict management for PAs on Pico island, showing a relatively low-cost and straightforward approach to minimising future local conflicts which could be adapted to other similar Outermost European regions and SIs.

  8. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, S.

    2013-07-01

    In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC), flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address - in research as well as in practice - since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  9. Exploring local risk managers' use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes in Baden-Württemberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kjellgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In response to the EU Floods Directive (2007/60/EC, flood hazard maps are currently produced all over Europe, reflecting a wider shift in focus from "flood protection" to "risk management", for which not only public authorities but also populations at risk are seen as responsible. By providing a visual image of the foreseen consequences of flooding, flood hazard maps can enhance people's knowledge about flood risk, making them more capable of an adequate response. Current literature, however, questions the maps' awareness raising capacity, arguing that their content and design are rarely adjusted to laypeople's needs. This paper wants to complement this perspective with a focus on risk communication by studying how these tools are disseminated and marketed to the public in the first place. Judging from communication theory, simply making hazard maps publicly available is unlikely to lead to attitudinal or behavioral effects, since this typically requires two-way communication and material or symbolic incentives. Consequently, it is relevant to investigate whether and how local risk managers, who are well positioned to interact with the local population, make use of flood hazard maps for risk communication purposes. A qualitative case study of this issue in the German state of Baden-Württemberg suggests that many municipalities lack a clear strategy for using this new information tool for hazard and risk communication. Four barriers in this regard are identified: perceived disinterest/sufficient awareness on behalf of the population at risk; unwillingness to cause worry or distress; lack of skills and resources; and insufficient support. These barriers are important to address – in research as well as in practice – since it is only if flood hazard maps are used to enhance local knowledge resources that they can be expected to contribute to social capacity building.

  10. A Probabilistic Approach for Concurrent Map Acquisition and Localization for Mobile Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of building large scale geometric maps of indoor environments with mobile robots . It poses the map building problem as a constrained, probabilistic maximum likelihood estimation problem. It then devises a practical algorithm for generating the most likely map from data, along with the most likely path taken by the robot. Experimental results in cyclic environments of size up to 80 by 25 meter illustrate the appropriateness of the approach.

  11. A Robust Approach for a Filter-Based Monocular Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Grau

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  12. A robust approach for a filter-based monocular simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Castillo-Toledo, Bernardino; Grau, Antoni

    2013-07-03

    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is an important problem to solve in robotics theory in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. This work presents a novel method for implementing a SLAM system based on a single camera sensor. The SLAM with a single camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants. In this case, a single camera, which is freely moving through its environment, represents the sole sensor input to the system. The sensors have a large impact on the algorithm used for SLAM. Cameras are used more frequently, because they provide a lot of information and are well adapted for embedded systems: they are light, cheap and power-saving. Nevertheless, and unlike range sensors, which provide range and angular information, a camera is a projective sensor providing only angular measurements of image features. Therefore, depth information (range) cannot be obtained in a single step. In this case, special techniques for feature system-initialization are needed in order to enable the use of angular sensors (as cameras) in SLAM systems. The main contribution of this work is to present a novel and robust scheme for incorporating and measuring visual features in filtering-based monocular SLAM systems. The proposed method is based in a two-step technique, which is intended to exploit all the information available in angular measurements. Unlike previous schemes, the values of parameters used by the initialization technique are derived directly from the sensor characteristics, thus simplifying the tuning of the system. The experimental results show that the proposed method surpasses the performance of previous schemes.

  13. Investigation into local cell mechanics by atomic force microscopy mapping and optical tweezer vertical indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceano, G.; Yousafzai, M. S.; Ma, W.; Ndoye, F.; Venturelli, L.; Hussain, I.; Bonin, S.; Niemela, J.; Scoles, G.; Cojoc, D.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-02-01

    Investigating the mechanical properties of cells could reveal a potential source of label-free markers of cancer progression, based on measurable viscoelastic parameters. The Young’s modulus has proved to be the most thoroughly studied so far, however, even for the same cell type, the elastic modulus reported in different studies spans a wide range of values, mainly due to the application of different experimental conditions. This complicates the reliable use of elasticity for the mechanical phenotyping of cells. Here we combine two complementary techniques, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical tweezer microscopy (OTM), providing a comprehensive mechanical comparison of three human breast cell lines: normal myoepithelial (HBL-100), luminal breast cancer (MCF-7) and basal breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cells. The elastic modulus was measured locally by AFM and OTM on single cells, using similar indentation approaches but different measurement parameters. Peak force tapping AFM was employed at nanonewton forces and high loading rates to draw a viscoelastic map of each cell and the results indicated that the region on top of the nucleus provided the most meaningful results. OTM was employed at those locations at piconewton forces and low loading rates, to measure the elastic modulus in a real elastic regime and rule out the contribution of viscous forces typical of AFM. When measured by either AFM or OTM, the cell lines’ elasticity trend was similar for the aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells, which were found to be significantly softer than the other two cell types in both measurements. However, when comparing HBL-100 and MCF-7 cells, we found significant differences only when using OTM.

  14. Spatial epidemiological techniques in cholera mapping and analysis towards a local scale predictive modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasam, A. R. A.; Ghazali, R.; Noor, A. M. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Bazlan, M. J.; Ahmad, N.

    2014-02-01

    Cholera spatial epidemiology is the study of the spread and control of the disease spatial pattern and epidemics. Previous studies have shown that multi-factorial causation such as human behaviour, ecology and other infectious risk factors influence the disease outbreaks. Thus, understanding spatial pattern and possible interrelationship factors of the outbreaks are crucial to be explored an in-depth study. This study focuses on the integration of geographical information system (GIS) and epidemiological techniques in exploratory analyzing the cholera spatial pattern and distribution in the selected district of Sabah. Spatial Statistic and Pattern tools in ArcGIS and Microsoft Excel software were utilized to map and analyze the reported cholera cases and other data used. Meanwhile, cohort study in epidemiological technique was applied to investigate multiple outcomes of the disease exposure. The general spatial pattern of cholera was highly clustered showed the disease spread easily at a place or person to others especially 1500 meters from the infected person and locations. Although the cholera outbreaks in the districts are not critical, it could be endemic at the crowded areas, unhygienic environment, and close to contaminated water. It was also strongly believed that the coastal water of the study areas has possible relationship with the cholera transmission and phytoplankton bloom since the areas recorded higher cases. GIS demonstrates a vital spatial epidemiological technique in determining the distribution pattern and elucidating the hypotheses generating of the disease. The next research would be applying some advanced geo-analysis methods and other disease risk factors for producing a significant a local scale predictive risk model of the disease in Malaysia.

  15. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF

  16. Gas source localization and gas distribution mapping with a micro-drone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Patrick P.

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this Ph.D. thesis is the development and validation of a VTOL-based (Vertical Take Off and Landing) micro-drone for the measurement of gas concentrations, to locate gas emission sources, and to build gas distribution maps. Gas distribution mapping and localization of a static gas source are complex tasks due to the turbulent nature of gas transport under natural conditions and becomes even more challenging when airborne. This is especially so, when using a VTOL-based micro-drone that induces disturbances through its rotors, which heavily affects gas distribution. Besides the adaptation of a micro-drone for gas concentration measurements, a novel method for the determination of the wind vector in real-time is presented. The on-board sensors for the flight control of the micro-drone provide a basis for the wind vector calculation. Furthermore, robot operating software for controlling the micro-drone autonomously is developed and used to validate the algorithms developed within this Ph.D. thesis in simulations and real-world experiments. Three biologically inspired algorithms for locating gas sources are adapted and developed for use with the micro-drone: the surge-cast algorithm (a variant of the silkworm moth algorithm), the zigzag / dung beetle algorithm, and a newly developed algorithm called ''pseudo gradient algorithm''. The latter extracts from two spatially separated measuring positions the information necessary (concentration gradient and mean wind direction) to follow a gas plume to its emission source. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in simulations and real-world experiments. The distance overhead and the gas source localization success rate are used as main performance criteria for comparing the algorithms. Next, a new method for gas source localization (GSL) based on a particle filter (PF) is presented. Each particle represents a weighted hypothesis of the gas source position. As a first step, the PF

  17. Assessment and application of national environmental databases and mapping tools at the local level to two community case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Davyda; Conlon, Kathryn; Barzyk, Timothy; Chahine, Teresa; Zartarian, Valerie; Schultz, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Communities are concerned over pollution levels and seek methods to systematically identify and prioritize the environmental stressors in their communities. Geographic information system (GIS) maps of environmental information can be useful tools for communities in their assessment of environmental-pollution-related risks. Databases and mapping tools that supply community-level estimates of ambient concentrations of hazardous pollutants, risk, and potential health impacts can provide relevant information for communities to understand, identify, and prioritize potential exposures and risk from multiple sources. An assessment of existing databases and mapping tools was conducted as part of this study to explore the utility of publicly available databases, and three of these databases were selected for use in a community-level GIS mapping application. Queried data from the U.S. EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment, Air Quality System, and National Emissions Inventory were mapped at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions for identifying risks of exposure to air pollutants in two communities. The maps combine monitored and model-simulated pollutant and health risk estimates, along with local survey results, to assist communities with the identification of potential exposure sources and pollution hot spots. Findings from this case study analysis will provide information to advance the development of new tools to assist communities with environmental risk assessments and hazard prioritization.

  18. Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (VSLAM) methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautot, Felix; Dubart, Philippe; Bacri, Charles-Olivier; Chagneau, Benjamin; Abou-Khalil, Roger

    2017-09-01

    New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enables to merge sensors to allow fast realtime localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near-real time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarii and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations

  19. Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (VSLAM methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautot Felix

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enables to merge sensors to allow fast realtime localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near-real time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators’ dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarii and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations

  20. Mapping cellular magnesium using X-ray microfluorescence and atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium is the most abundant intracellular divalent cation. We present an innovative experimental approach to localizing intracellular magnesium that combines elemental and morphological information from individual cells with high-resolution spatial information. Integration of information from scanning fluorescence X-ray microscopy with information from atomic force microscopy was used to generate a magnesium concentration map and to determine the X-ray linear absorption coefficient map wit...

  1. Mapping urban poverty for local governance in an Indian mega-city: The case of Delhi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Sridharan, N.; Pfeffer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The article maps urban poverty, using the `livelihoods assets framework' to develop a new index of multiple deprivation, examining the implications for area and sector targeting by policy-makers. This article deals with the index and the results for Delhi. The study maps: the spatial concentration o

  2. Map Building and Localization of a Robot Using Omnidirectional Image Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Vámossy

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a map building module, where the image sequences of theomnidirectional camera are transformed into virtual top-view ones and melted into theglobal dynamic map. After learning the environment from training images, a current imageis compared to the training set by appearance-based matching. Appropriate classificationstrategies yield an estimate of the robot's current position.

  3. Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hautot Felix

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enable to merge sensors to allow fast real-time localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near real-time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarios and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations. In this communication, we will present our current developments of an instrument that combines these methods and parameters for specific applications in the field of nuclear investigations.

  4. Real-Time Two-Dimensional Mapping of Relative Local Surface Temperatures with a Thin-Film Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic mapping of an object’s local temperature distribution may offer valuable information for failure analysis, system control and improvement. In this letter we present a computerized measurement system which is equipped with a hybrid, low-noise mechanical-electrical multiplexer for real-time two-dimensional (2D mapping of surface temperatures. We demonstrate the performance of the system on a device embedded with 32 pieces of built-in Cr-Pt thin-film thermocouples arranged in a 4 × 8 matrix. The system can display a continuous 2D mapping movie of relative temperatures with a time interval around 1 s. This technique may find applications in a variety of practical devices and systems.

  5. A Generic Approach to Self-localization and Mapping of Mobile Robots Without Using a Kinematic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesper, Patrick; Berscheid, Lars; Wörgötter, Florentin;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach to the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problem is proposed. The approach is based on a probabilistic SLAM algorithm and employs only two portable sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a laser range finder (LRF) to estimate the state and envi......In this paper a generic approach to the SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) problem is proposed. The approach is based on a probabilistic SLAM algorithm and employs only two portable sensors, an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a laser range finder (LRF) to estimate the state...... and environment of a robot. Scan-matching is applied to compensate for noisy IMU measurements. This approach does not require any robot-specific characteristics, e.g. wheel encoders or kinematic models. In principle, this minimal sensory setup can be mounted on different robot systems without major modifications...

  6. A Novel Edge-Map Creation Approach for Highly Accurate Pupil Localization in Unconstrained Infrared Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris segmentation in the iris recognition systems is a challenging task under noncooperative environments. The iris segmentation is a process of detecting the pupil, iris’s outer boundary, and eyelids in the iris image. In this paper, we propose a pupil localization method for locating the pupils in the non-close-up and frontal-view iris images that are captured under near-infrared (NIR illuminations and contain the noise, such as specular and lighting reflection spots, eyeglasses, nonuniform illumination, low contrast, and occlusions by the eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrow hair. In the proposed method, first, a novel edge-map is created from the iris image, which is based on combining the conventional thresholding and edge detection based segmentation techniques, and then, the general circular Hough transform (CHT is used to find the pupil circle parameters in the edge-map. Our main contribution in this research is a novel edge-map creation technique, which reduces the false edges drastically in the edge-map of the iris image and makes the pupil localization in the noisy NIR images more accurate, fast, robust, and simple. The proposed method was tested with three iris databases: CASIA-Iris-Thousand (version 4.0, CASIA-Iris-Lamp (version 3.0, and MMU (version 2.0. The average accuracy of the proposed method is 99.72% and average time cost per image is 0.727 sec.

  7. Fixed point theorems in locally convex spaces—the Schauder mapping method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cobzaş

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the appendix to the book by F. F. Bonsal, Lectures on Some Fixed Point Theorems of Functional Analysis (Tata Institute, Bombay, 1962 a proof by Singbal of the Schauder-Tychonoff fixed point theorem, based on a locally convex variant of Schauder mapping method, is included. The aim of this note is to show that this method can be adapted to yield a proof of Kakutani fixed point theorem in the locally convex case. For the sake of completeness we include also the proof of Schauder-Tychonoff theorem based on this method. As applications, one proves a theorem of von Neumann and a minimax result in game theory.

  8. Two-Photon Irradiation of an Intracellular Singlet Oxygen Photosensitizer: Achieving Localized Sub-Cellular Excitation in Spatially-Resolved Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Breitenbach, Thomas; Redmond, Robert W.;

    2010-01-01

    The response of a given cell to spatially-resolved sub-cellular irradiation of a singlet oxygen photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX, PpIX) using a focused laser was assessed. In these experiments, incident light was scattered over a volume greater than that defi ned by the dimensions of the laser...... beam as a consequence of the inherent inhomogeneity of the cell. Upon irradiation at a wavelength readily absorbed by PpIX in a one-photon transition, this scattering of light eliminated any advantage accrued to the use of focused irradiation. However, upon irradiation at a longer wavelength where Pp......IX can only absorb light under non-linear two-photon conditions, meaningful intracellular resolution was achieved in the small spatial domain where the light intensity was high enough for absorption to occur....

  9. Synchronization and suppression of chaos in non-locally coupled map lattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R M Szmoski; S E De S Pinto; M T Van Kan; A M Batista; R L Viana; S R Lopes

    2009-12-01

    We considered coupled map lattices with long-range interactions to study the spatiotemporal behaviour of spatially extended dynamical systems. Coupled map lattices have been intensively investigated as models to understand many spatiotemporal phenomena observed in extended system, and consequently spatiotemporal chaos. We used the complex order parameter to quantify chaos synchronization for a one-dimensional chain of coupled logistic maps with a coupling strength which varies with the lattice in a power-law fashion. Depending on the range of the interactions, complete chaos synchronization and chaos suppression may be attained. Furthermore, we also calculated the Lyapunov dimension and the transversal distance to the synchronization manifold.

  10. Characterization of genetic diversity and gene mapping in two Swedish local chicken breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Johansson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study genetic diversity in the two Swedish local chicken breeds Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and Hedemorahöna. The now living birds of both of these breeds (about 500 for Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 2600 for Hedemorahöna originate from small relicts of earlier larger populations. An additional aim was to make an attempt to map loci associated with a trait that are segregating in both these breeds. The 60k SNP chip was used to genotype 12 Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna and 22 Hedemorahöna. The mean inbreeding coefficient was considerably larger in the samples from Hedemorahöna than in the samples from Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. Also the proportion of homozygous SNPs in individuals was larger in Hedemorahöna. In contrast, on the breed level, the number of segregating SNPs were much larger in Hedemorahöna than in Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna. A multidimensional scaling plot shows that the two breeds form clusters well separated from each other. Both these breeds segregate for the dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype. In Bohuslän-Dals svarthöna most animals have dark skin, but some individuals with lighter skin exists (most easily detected by their red comb. An earlier study of the Fm locus showed that this breed has the same complex rearrangement involving the EDN3 gene as Silkie chicken and two other studied Asian breeds. In the breed Hedemorahöna, most individuals have normal skin pigmentation (and red comb, but there are some birds with darker skin and dark comb. In this study the involvement of the EDN3 gene is confirmed also in Hedemorahöna. In addition we identify a region on chromosome 21 that is significantly associated with the trait.

  11. Usefulness of ventricular endocardial electric reconstruction from body surface potential maps to noninvasively localize ventricular ectopic activity in patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.

  12. HBLAST: Parallelised sequence similarity--A Hadoop MapReducable basic local alignment search tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Driscoll, Aisling; Belogrudov, Vladislav; Carroll, John; Kropp, Kai; Walsh, Paul; Ghazal, Peter; Sleator, Roy D

    2015-01-01

    ... large, complex and require rapid processing. The Hadoop framework, comprised of distributed storage and a parallelised programming framework known as MapReduce, is specifically designed to work with such datasets but it is...

  13. The usefulness of fractional anisotropy maps in localization of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H.K.; Lee, S.K.; Kim, D.I. [Dept. of Radiology and Research, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); JHeo, J.H. [Dept. of Neurology, Yonsei University Coll. of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-04-01

    We aimed in this study to assess the clinical usefulness of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the evaluation of lacunar infractions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients (18 mean, 10 women; mean age 63 years) who had acute lacunar infraction in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus on diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated in addition to conventional T2 weigthed images (T2WI) and trace masp of DWI. Two radiologists reviewed the location of infraction was determined by FA maps. i.e. on the white band of internal capsule. Accuracy and inter-observer agreement on determination of the location of interfraction was evaluated. Accuracy of infract localization by T2WI-DWI only was varied from 72 to 91% according to the observers. Inter-observer agreement value was moderate (Kappa=0.446), when images were interpreted by T2WI-DWI only. Clinical manifestation of each lesions wre varied, but sensory motor stroke was mainly observed in thalamic lesion (50%) while pure motor hemiparesis was predominant in the case of infract involving internal capsule, corona radiata (91%) and basal ganglia (83%). The FA maps is useful in the evaluation of lacunar lesions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. Clinical presentation varies according to the exact location of lacunar infractions, and more accurate diagnosis can be made by FA maps as well as conventional T2-weighted image and DWI.

  14. Definitive localization of intracellular proteins: Novel approach using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, with glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Netanya Y; Yan, Ziying; Cong, Le; Zhang, Yulong; Engelhardt, John F; Stanton, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Studies to determine subcellular localization and translocation of proteins are important because subcellular localization of proteins affects every aspect of cellular function. Such studies frequently utilize mutagenesis to alter amino acid sequences hypothesized to constitute subcellular localization signals. These studies often utilize fluorescent protein tags to facilitate live cell imaging. These methods are excellent for studies of monomeric proteins, but for multimeric proteins, they are unable to rule out artifacts from native protein subunits already present in the cells. That is, native monomers might direct the localization of fluorescent proteins with their localization signals obliterated. We have developed a method for ruling out such artifacts, and we use glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) as a model to demonstrate the method's utility. Because G6PD is capable of homodimerization, we employed a novel approach to remove interference from native G6PD. We produced a G6PD knockout somatic (hepatic) cell line using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome engineering. Transfection of G6PD knockout cells with G6PD fluorescent mutant proteins demonstrated that the major subcellular localization sequences of G6PD are within the N-terminal portion of the protein. This approach sets a new gold standard for similar studies of subcellular localization signals in all homodimerization-capable proteins.

  15. An organized approach to the localization, mapping, and ablation of outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mathew D; Garcia, Fermin C

    2013-10-01

    The outflow tract (OT) regions of the right and left ventricles, common sites of origin for idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VA), have complex three-dimensional anatomical relationships. The understanding of in situ or "attitudinal" relationships not only informs the electrocardiographic interpretation of VA site of origin, but also facilitates their catheter-based mapping and ablation strategies. By viewing each patient as his or her own "control," the expected changes in ECG morphology (i.e., frontal plane QRS axis and precordial transition) between adjacent intracardiac structures (e.g., RVOT and aortic root) can be reliably predicted. Successful mapping of OT VAs involve a combination of activation and pacemapping guided by fluoroscopy, electroanatomical mapping, and intracardiac echocardiography. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a simple, reliable strategy for catheter based mapping and ablation of OT VAs. We also discuss 2 specific challenges in OT VA mapping: (1) differentiating posterior RVOT from right coronary cusp VA origin; and (2) mapping VAs originating from the LV summit.

  16. Localization in Self-Healing Autonomous Sensor Networks (SASNet): Studies on Cooperative Localization of Sensor Nodes using Distributed Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    capteurs sans fil, pour proposer un nouveau schéma de localisation coopérative fondé sur l’analyse de composants curviligne (Curvilinear Component...à nouveau les avantages et désavantages de l’approche coopérative sélectionnée en comparaison aux autres approches, surtout l’approche itérative à...shortcomings of the cooperative approach that was selected. For a more detailed survey of the state-of- art of WSN localization, please refer to our

  17. Mechanisms of Intracellular Chlamydiae Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukic Ruzica

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are Gram-negative, non-motile, obligate intracellular, and spherically shaped bacteria with a diameter of 0.2-1.5 μm. Chlamydiae are present in several different morphological forms: the elementary body, the reticular body, and in the last several years, there has been the observation of a third form known as the persistent or atypical form. The intracellular localization of Chlamydia provides a unique replication cycle that occurs inside a membrane-surrounded vacuole in the host cell cytoplasm and is significantly different from the method of multiplication of other microorganisms. Chlamydiae are capable of manipulating different signalling pathways inside the infected cell, thus avoiding the host immune response. This ensures intracellular multiplication, survival, and long-term persistence of Chlamydiae. There are two basic means of achieving this persistence: inhibition of apoptosis and manipulation of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B-mediated signals in the host.

  18. Advanced Susceptibility Mapping for Natural Hazards at a Local Scale - The Case of the Swiss Alpine Valley of Bagnes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Mazotti, Benoît.; Choffet, Marc; Dubois, Jérôme; Breguet, Alain; Métraux, Valentin; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Alpine municipalities are exposed to numerous natural hazards, such as snow avalanches, rockfalls, landslides and debris flows. The Bagnes and Vollèges municipalities in Valais (Switzerland) lie between 600 m and 4200 m m.s.l. with an area of 300 km2. The anthropization is rapid because of the fast growing ski resort of Verbier. In such situation the municipalities needs to have global overview of the natural hazards for landplaning purpose and decision making. The susceptibility mapping at regional scale allows the detection of the areas that are exposed to natural hazards, without considering the intensity and the frequency of the phenomena. The aim of this study is to provide susceptibility maps at 1:25'000 for the following natural hazards: landslides, shallow landslides, rockfalls, debris flows, snow avalanches, flooding and river overflowing. The present method was first developed for the Canton of Vaud (2'800 km2). Because it is applied to a smaller area, more numerical models and field investigations were performed. In addition historical event were included in the study. 1. The landslide mapping identifies deep-seated slope gravitational deformations, landslides and shallow landslides. It is based on the observations of geomorphological criteria on High Resolution DEM, orthophotos and field work. Finally, the activity of each landslide is described by the knowledge of local guides. 2. The shallow landslide susceptibility mapping is realized thanks to the software SInMap, calculating Security Factor (FS) and Stability Index (SI) according to the land use, the topography and the climatic conditions. The model is calibrated on the basis of the 67 shallow landslides already identified for the first map. 3. The rockfall susceptibility mapping is a two steps process. First, the potential source areas of blocks are detected using a statistical analysis of the slope angle distribution, including external knowledge on the geology and land cover. Then the run

  19. Disease maps as context for community mapping: a methodological approach for linking confidential health information with local geographical knowledge for community health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Comstock, Sara; Seagren, Renea

    2010-12-01

    Health is increasingly understood as a product of multiple levels of influence, from individual biological and behavioral influences to community and societal level contextual influences. In understanding these contextual influences, community health researchers have increasingly employed both geographic methodologies, including Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and community participatory approaches. However, despite growing interest in the role for community participation and local knowledge in community health investigations, and the use of geographical methods and datasets in characterizing community environments, there exist few examples of research projects that incorporate both geographical and participatory approaches in addressing health questions. This is likely due in part to concerns and restrictions regarding community access to confidential health data. In order to overcome this barrier, we present a method for linking confidential, geocoded health information with community-generated experiential geographical information in a GIS environment. We use sophisticated disease mapping methodologies to create continuously defined maps of colorectal cancer in Iowa, then incorporate these layers in an open source GIS application as the context for a participatory community mapping exercise with participants from a rural Iowa town. Our method allows participants to interact directly with health information at a fine geographical scale, facilitating hypothesis generation regarding contextual influences on health, while simultaneously protecting data confidentiality. Participants are able to use their local, geographical knowledge to generate hypotheses about factors influencing colorectal cancer risk in the community and opportunities for risk reduction. This work opens the door for future efforts to integrate empirical epidemiological data with community generated experiential information to inform community health research and practice.

  20. 3D maps of the local ISM from inversion of individual color excess measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, Rosine; Valette, Bernard; Puspitarini, Lucky; Eyer, Laurent; Casagrande, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Galactic interstellar matter (ISM) are a potential tool of wide use, however accurate and detailed maps are still lacking. One of the ways to construct the maps is to invert individual distance-limited ISM measurements, a method we have here applied to measurements of stellar color excess in the optical. We have assembled color excess data together with the associated parallax or photometric distances to constitute a catalog of ~ 23,000 sightlines for stars within 2.5 kpc. The photometric data are taken from Stromgren catalogs, the Geneva photometric database, and the Geneva-Copenhagen survey. We also included extinctions derived towards open clusters. We applied, to this color excess dataset, an inversion method based on a regularized Bayesian approach, previously used for mapping at closer distances. We show the dust spatial distribution resulting from the inversion by means of planar cuts through the differential opacity 3D distribution, and by means of 2D maps of the int...

  1. Special geometry of Euclidean supersymmetry IV: the local c-map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortés, V. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Mathematical Physics, University of Hamburg,Bundesstraße 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Dempster, P. [School of Physics & Astronomy and Center for Theoretical Physics, Seoul National University,Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Mohaupt, T. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool,Peach Street, Liverpool L69 7ZL (United Kingdom); Vaughan, O. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Mathematical Physics, University of Hamburg,Bundesstraße 55, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-10-09

    We consider timelike and spacelike reductions of 4D, N=2 Minkowskian and Euclidean vector multiplets coupled to supergravity and the maps induced on the scalar geometry. In particular, we investigate (i) the (standard) spatial c-map, (ii) the temporal c-map, which corresponds to the reduction of the Minkowskian theory over time, and (iii) the Euclidean c-map, which corresponds to the reduction of the Euclidean theory over space. In the last two cases we prove that the target manifold is para-quaternionic Kähler. In cases (i) and (ii) we construct two integrable complex structures on the target manifold, one of which belongs to the quaternionic and para-quaternionic structure, respectively. In case (iii) we construct two integrable para-complex structures, one of which belongs to the para-quaternionic structure. In addition we provide a new global construction of the spatial, temporal and Euclidean c-maps, and separately consider a description of the target manifold as a fibre bundle over a projective special Kähler or para-Kähler base.

  2. Conductance maps of quantum rings due to a local potential perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, M. D.; Peeters, F. M.; Chaves, A.; Farias, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of the dynamics of a Gaussian shaped wavepacket inside a small sized quantum ring, smoothly connected to two leads and exposed to a perturbing potential of a biased atomic force microscope tip. Using the Landauer formalism, we calculated conductance maps of this system in the case of single and two subband transport. We explain the main features in the conductance maps as due to the AFM tip influence on the wavepacket phase and amplitude. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the tip modifies the ϕ0 periodic Aharonov-Bohm oscillation pattern into a ϕ0/2 periodic Al’tshuler-Aronov-Spivak oscillation pattern. Our results in the case of multiband transport suggest tip selectivity to higher subbands, making them more observable in the total conductance map.

  3. Telling Anthropocene Tales: Localizing the impacts of global change using data-driven story maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychajliw, A.; Hadly, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Navigating the Anthropocene requires innovative approaches for generating scientific knowledge and for its communication outside academia. The global, synergistic nature of the environmental challenges we face - climate change, human population growth, biodiversity loss, pollution, invasive species and diseases - highlight the need for public outreach strategies that incorporate multiple scales and perspectives in an easily understandable and rapidly accessible format. Data-driven story-telling maps are optimal in that they can display variable geographic scales and their intersections with the environmental challenges relevant to both scientists and non-scientists. Maps are a powerful way to present complex data to all stakeholders. We present an overview of best practices in community-engaged scientific story-telling and data translation for policy-makers by reviewing three Story Map projects that map the geographic impacts of global change across multiple spatial and policy scales: the entire United States, the state of California, and the town of Pescadero, California. We document a chain of translation from a primary scientific manscript to a policy document (Scientific Consensus Statement on Maintaining Humanity's Life Support Systems in the 21st Century) to a set of interactive ArcGIS Story Maps. We discuss the widening breadth of participants (students, community members) and audiences (White House, Governor's Office of California, California Congressional Offices, general public) involved. We highlight how scientists, through careful curation of popular news media articles and stakeholder interviews, can co-produce these communication modules with community partners such as non-governmental organizations and government agencies. The placement of scientific and citizen's everyday knowledge of global change into an appropriate geographic context allows for effective dissemination by political units such as congressional districts and agency management units

  4. Global similarity with local differences in linkage disequilibrium between the Dutch and HapMap-CEU populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Luba; Bochdanovits, Zoltán; de Geus, Eco; Hottenga, Jouke J; Sullivan, Patrick; Posthuma, Danielle; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Boomsma, Dorret; Heutink, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The HapMap project has facilitated the selection of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) under the assumption that linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the HapMap populations is similar to the populations under investigation. Earlier reports support this assumption, although in most of these studies only a few loci were evaluated. We compared pair-wise LD and LD block structure across autosomes between the Dutch population and the CEU-HapMap reference panel. The impact of sampling distribution on the estimation of LD blocks was studied by bootstrapping. A high Pearson correlation (genome-wide; 0.93) between pair-wise r(2) for the Dutch and the CEU populations was found, indicating that tagSNPs from the CEU-HapMap panel capture common variation in the Dutch population. However, some genomic regions exhibited, significantly lower correlation than the genome-wide estimate. This might decrease the validity of HapMap tagSNPs in these regions and the power of GWAS. The LD block structure differed considerably between the Dutch and CEU-HapMap populations. This was not explained by demographic differences between the CEU and Dutch samples, as testing for population stratification was not significant. We also found that sampling variation had a large effect on the estimation of LD blocks, as shown by the bootstrapping analysis. Thus, in small samples, most of the observed differences in LD blocks between populations are most likely the result of sampling variation. This poor concordance in LD block structure suggests that large samples are required for robust estimations of local LD block structure in populations.

  5. Cartographic (representations of local space: artistic maps adrift from School Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio Expedito Galdino Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the importance of teaching content related to the landscape that can be seen, we propose a reflection through the use of mental maps for the perception of landscape experienced by students. This claim will be defended through a case study in public schools in Barbalha in southern Ceará (Brazil. Based on the reflections of Deleuze and Guattari, we want to expose that the map is not an illustrative tracing in class, but multiple, singular, rhizomatic. Thus, we aim to unveil these geographies that are not visible in the textbook, personal geographies with their landscapes, impregnated by beliefs, ideologies and feelings that you have of the location.

  6. 3D mapping of cerebrospinal fluid local volume changes in patients with hydrocephalus treated by surgery: preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodel, Jerome [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Hopital Roger Salengro, Service de Neuroradiologie, Lille (France); Besson, Pierre; Pruvo, Jean-Pierre; Leclerc, Xavier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neuroradiology, Lille (France); Rahmouni, Alain; Grandjacques, Benedicte; Luciani, Alain [Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Radiology, Creteil (France); Petit, Eric; Lebret, Alain [Signals Images and Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Creteil (France); Outteryck, Olivier [Hopital Roger Salengro, Department of Neurology, Lille (France); Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine [Radiation Epidemiology Team, CESP, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health U1018, Villejuif (France); Maraval, Anne [Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neuroradiology, Creteil (France); Decq, Philippe [Hopital Henri Mondor, Department of Neurosurgery, Creteil (France)

    2014-01-15

    To develop automated deformation modelling for the assessment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) local volume changes in patients with hydrocephalus treated by surgery. Ventricular and subarachnoid CSF volume changes were mapped by calculating the Jacobian determinant of the deformation fields obtained after non-linear registration of pre- and postoperative images. A total of 31 consecutive patients, 15 with communicating hydrocephalus (CH) and 16 with non-communicating hydrocephalus (NCH), were investigated before and after surgery using a 3D SPACE (sampling perfection with application optimised contrast using different flip-angle evolution) sequence. Two readers assessed CSF volume changes using 3D colour-encoded maps. The Evans index and postoperative volume changes of the lateral ventricles and sylvian fissures were quantified and statistically compared. Before surgery, sylvian fissure and brain ventricle volume differed significantly between CH and NCH (P = 0.001 and P = 0.025, respectively). After surgery, 3D colour-encoded maps allowed for the visual recognition of the CSF volume changes in all patients. The amounts of ventricle volume loss of CH and NCH patients were not significantly different (P = 0.30), whereas readjustment of the sylvian fissure volume was conflicting in CH and NCH patients (P < 0.001). The Evans index correlated with ventricle volume in NCH patients. 3D mapping of CSF volume changes is feasible providing a quantitative follow-up of patients with hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  7. Intracellular fate mapping in a basal metazoan, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, reveals the origins of mesoderm and the existence of indeterminate cell lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, M Q; Henry, J Q

    1999-10-15

    Ctenophores are marine invertebrates that develop rapidly and directly into juvenile adults. They are likely to be the simplest metazoans possessing definitive muscle cells and are possibly the sister group to the Bilateria. All ctenophore embryos display a highly stereotyped, phylum-specific pattern of development in which every cell can be identified by its lineage history. We generated a cell lineage fate map for Mnemiopsis leidyi by injecting fluorescent lineage tracers into individual blastomeres up through the 60-cell stage. The adult ctenophore body plan is composed of four nearly identical quadrants organized along the oral-aboral axis. Each of the four quadrants is derived largely from one cell of the four-cell-stage embryo. At the eight-cell stage each quadrant contains a single E ("end") and M ("middle") blastomere. Subsequently, micromeres are formed first at the aboral pole and later at the oral pole. The ctene rows, apical organ, and tentacle apparatus are complex structures that are generated by both E and M blastomere lineages from all four quadrants. All muscle cells are derived from micromeres born at the oral pole of endomesodermal precursors (2M and 3E macromeres). While the development of the four quadrants is similar, diagonally opposed quadrants share more similarities than adjacent quadrants. Adult ctenophores possess two diagonally opposed endodermal anal canals that open at the base of the apical organ. These two structures are derived from the two diagonally opposed 2M/ macromeres. The two opposing 2M/ macromeres generated a unique set of circumpharyngeal muscle cells, but do not contribute to the anal canals. No other lineages displayed such diagonal asymmetries. Clones from each blastomere yielded regular, but not completely invariant patterns of descendents. Ectodermal descendents normally, but not always, remained within their corresponding quadrants. On the other hand, endodermal and mesodermal progeny dispersed throughout the body

  8. Spatial mapping of greenhouse gases using laser absorption spectrometers at local scales of interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobler, Jeremy

    2015-09-22

    This presentation provides and overview of the development off the GreenLITE system for spatial mapping of atmospheric CO2. The original system was developed for supporting MRV activities for ground carbon storage facilities and has since been expanded to cover larger areas and other applications.

  9. Local-scale flood mapping on vegetated floodplains from radiometrically calibrated airborne LiDAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinowski, Radoslaw; Höfle, Bernhard; König, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    that can be used for classification of water surfaces. Following the laser footprint analysis, three classifiers, namely AdaBoost with Decision Tree, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest, were utilised to classify laser points into flooded and non-flooded classes and to derive the map of flooding extent...

  10. Geomorphic/Geologic Mapping, Localization, and Traverse Planning at the Opportunity Landing Site, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Golombek, M. P.; Powell, M. W.

    2010-03-01

    Mapping of the Opportunity traverse, using the project’s planning tool, “maestro”, and GIS software. Experience gained by the science and engineering teams will be invaluable for planning and conducting future mobile explorer missions to Mars and other planetary bodies.

  11. Numerical methods for two-parameter local bifurcation analysis of maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, W.; Khoshsiar Ghaziani, R.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Meijer, H.G.E.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss new and improved algorithms for the bifurcation analysis of fixed points and periodic orbits (cycles) of maps and their implementation in matcont, a MATLAB toolbox for continuation and bifurcation analysis of dynamical systems. This includes the numerical continuation of fixed points of i

  12. On input/output maps for nonlinear systems via continuity in a locally convex topology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazumdar, Ravi R.; Kannurpatti, Raghavan; Bagchi, Arunabha

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we show that the output of a nonlinear system with inputs in () whose state satisfies a nonlinear differential equation with standard smoothness conditions can be written as the composition of a nonlinear map with a linear Hilbert-Schmidt operator acting on the input. The result also e

  13. Three-dimensional surface maps link local atrophy and fast ripples in human epileptic hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Jennifer A; Wilson, Charles L; Bragin, Anatol; Lin, Jack J; Salamon, Noriko; Dutton, Rebecca A; Luders, Eileen; Fields, Tony A; Fried, Itzhak; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    There is compelling evidence that pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), called fast ripples (FR, 150-500Hz), reflect abnormal synchronous neuronal discharges in areas responsible for seizure genesis in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). It is hypothesized that morphological changes associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA) contribute to the generation of FR, yet there is limited evidence that hippocampal FR-generating sites correspond with local areas of atrophy. Interictal HFOs were recorded from hippocampal microelectrodes in 10 patients with MTLE. Rates of FR and ripple discharge from each microelectrode were evaluated in relation to local measures of HA obtained using 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hippocampal modeling. Rates of FR discharge were 3 times higher in areas of significant local HA compared with rates in nonatrophic areas. Furthermore, FR occurrence correlated directly with the severity of damage in these local atrophic regions. In contrast, we found no difference in rates of ripple discharge between local atrophic and nonatrophic areas. The proximity between local HA and microelectrode-recorded FR suggests that morphological changes such as neuron loss and synaptic reorganization may contribute to the generation of FR. Pathological HFOs, such as FR, may provide a reliable surrogate marker of abnormal neuronal excitability in hippocampal areas responsible for the generation of spontaneous seizures in patients with MTLE. Based on these data, it is possible that MRI-based measures of local HA could identify FR-generating regions, and thus provide a noninvasive means to localize epileptogenic regions in hippocampus.

  14. Mapping the Context: Insights and Issues from Local Government Development of Music Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Ailbhe

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have revealed local government to be a fundamental stakeholder in the development of arts and music communities. This article provides a context for an exploration and study of the issues, themes and dilemmas that surround local government and music communities. In particular the article provides this examination from an Irish…

  15. Local signal time-series during rest used for areal boundary mapping in individual human brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hirose

    Full Text Available It is widely thought that resting state functional connectivity likely reflects functional interaction among brain areas and that different functional areas interact with different sets of brain areas. A method for mapping areal boundaries has been formulated based on the large-scale spatial characteristics of regional interaction revealed by resting state functional connectivity. In the present study, we present a novel analysis for areal boundary mapping that requires only the signal timecourses within a region of interest, without reference to the information from outside the region. The areal boundaries were generated by the novel analysis and were compared with those generated by the previously-established standard analysis. The boundaries were robust and reproducible across the two analyses, in two regions of interest tested. These results suggest that the information for areal boundaries is readily available inside the region of interest.

  16. Stability and Robustness Analysis Tools for Marine Robot Localization and Mapping Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    me to pester you on the topic of motion planning, you saved me many hours in the library with your insight. Josh Taylor, your quals anecdotes kept...initially setting the penalty on the state to the negative second power of the desired maximum value. After observing the system performance in...external power source, will encounter difficulties maneuvering around the field of features and sighting all features on the randomly-generated map at

  17. Stochastic Mapping for Chemical Plume Source Localization With Application to Autonomous Hydrothermal Vent Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    prescribed survey area; * robustness to low-value targets and false alarms; * compatibility with existing AUV operating paradigms ; 9 the demonstrated...by the sum E I HP., A•. Unfortunately, the utility of entropic measures of iiap quality are limited in the context of a low prior. Low priors imply a...109] offered another perspective on entropic measures in OG mapping. He investigated the rate of entropy change to evaluate the efficiency of sonar

  18. A quantitative method to track protein translocation between intracellular compartments in real-time in live cells using weighted local variance image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Calmettes

    Full Text Available The genetic expression of cloned fluorescent proteins coupled to time-lapse fluorescence microscopy has opened the door to the direct visualization of a wide range of molecular interactions in living cells. In particular, the dynamic translocation of proteins can now be explored in real time at the single-cell level. Here we propose a reliable, easy-to-implement, quantitative image processing method to assess protein translocation in living cells based on the computation of spatial variance maps of time-lapse images. The method is first illustrated and validated on simulated images of a fluorescently-labeled protein translocating from mitochondria to cytoplasm, and then applied to experimental data obtained with fluorescently-labeled hexokinase 2 in different cell types imaged by regular or confocal microscopy. The method was found to be robust with respect to cell morphology changes and mitochondrial dynamics (fusion, fission, movement during the time-lapse imaging. Its ease of implementation should facilitate its application to a broad spectrum of time-lapse imaging studies.

  19. Regionalization of local geomorphometric derivations for geological mapping in the sedimentary domain of central Amazônia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports procedures to prepare locally derived geomorphometric data for geological mapping at regional scale in central Amazônia. The size of the study area, approximately 1.5 million km2, and the prevailing flat topography of the targeted environment were the constraints motivating the aims, at spatial and numerical synthesis of the detailed geomorphometric information derived from SRTM DEM. The developed approach consisted in assigning single (average) values to terrain patches, to represent the regional distribution of pixel-based geomorphometric information (slope, profile curvature and relative relief). In analogy to the nature of sedimentary packs, patches were established as contiguous elevation strata, constructed through a procedure combining segmentation, filterings and range compressions. For slope only, pre-processing of locally derived data with median filtering effectively avoided the typical flattening of the regionalized results due to input distribution characteristics. Profile curvature was transformed into absolute values and thus a different meaning from the original (pixel) variable was considered in the interpretation, also avoiding the compensation of original values (positive and negative) tending to zero value when averaged through a regionally flat extension. Examinations near major river valleys showed patched elevation to depict alluvial terraces. In the interfluves and floodplains, contrasting patterns in the averaged variables among patches of similar elevations allowed the recognition of important relief features. In addition to the reduction of the distribution ranges, the correlation between regionalized geomorphometric variables was higher than observed in the originally local data, due to the thematic synthesis following regionalization. Depth of dissection, claimed to be related to the relative age of sedimentary units, was the main factor to explain the overall variations of the geomorphometric results. The developed

  20. Mobile Robot Localization: A Review of Probabilistic Map-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Manuel Malagon-Soldara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive review of current probabilistic developments used to calculate position by mobile robots in indoor environments. In this calculation, best known as localization, it is necessary to develop most of the tasks delegated to the mobile robot. It is then crucial that the methods used for position calculations be as precise as possible, and accurately represent the location of the robot within a given environment. The research community has devoted a considerable amount of time to provide solutions for the localization problem. Several methodologies have been proposed the most common of which are based in the Bayes rule. Other methodologies include the Kalman filter and the Monte Carlo localization filter wich will be addressed in next sections. The major contribution of this review rests in offering a wide array of techniques that researchers can choose. Therefore, method-sensor combinations and their main advantages are displayed.

  1. Lane Level Localization; Using Images and HD Maps to Mitigate the Lateral Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinyalamdary, S.; Peter, M.

    2017-05-01

    In urban canyon where the GNSS signals are blocked by buildings, the accuracy of measured position significantly deteriorates. GIS databases have been frequently utilized to improve the accuracy of measured position using map matching approaches. In map matching, the measured position is projected to the road links (centerlines) in this approach and the lateral error of measured position is reduced. By the advancement in data acquision approaches, high definition maps which contain extra information, such as road lanes are generated. These road lanes can be utilized to mitigate the positional error and improve the accuracy in position. In this paper, the image content of a camera mounted on the platform is utilized to detect the road boundaries in the image. We apply color masks to detect the road marks, apply the Hough transform to fit lines to the left and right road boundaries, find the corresponding road segment in GIS database, estimate the homography transformation between the global and image coordinates of the road boundaries, and estimate the camera pose with respect to the global coordinate system. The proposed approach is evaluated on a benchmark. The position is measured by a smartphone's GPS receiver, images are taken from smartphone's camera and the ground truth is provided by using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) technique. Results show the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of measured GPS position. The error in measured GPS position with average and standard deviation of 11.323 and 11.418 meters is reduced to the error in estimated postion with average and standard deviation of 6.725 and 5.899 meters.

  2. LANE LEVEL LOCALIZATION; USING IMAGES AND HD MAPS TO MITIGATE THE LATERAL ERROR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseinyalamdary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In urban canyon where the GNSS signals are blocked by buildings, the accuracy of measured position significantly deteriorates. GIS databases have been frequently utilized to improve the accuracy of measured position using map matching approaches. In map matching, the measured position is projected to the road links (centerlines in this approach and the lateral error of measured position is reduced. By the advancement in data acquision approaches, high definition maps which contain extra information, such as road lanes are generated. These road lanes can be utilized to mitigate the positional error and improve the accuracy in position. In this paper, the image content of a camera mounted on the platform is utilized to detect the road boundaries in the image. We apply color masks to detect the road marks, apply the Hough transform to fit lines to the left and right road boundaries, find the corresponding road segment in GIS database, estimate the homography transformation between the global and image coordinates of the road boundaries, and estimate the camera pose with respect to the global coordinate system. The proposed approach is evaluated on a benchmark. The position is measured by a smartphone’s GPS receiver, images are taken from smartphone’s camera and the ground truth is provided by using Real-Time Kinematic (RTK technique. Results show the proposed approach significantly improves the accuracy of measured GPS position. The error in measured GPS position with average and standard deviation of 11.323 and 11.418 meters is reduced to the error in estimated postion with average and standard deviation of 6.725 and 5.899 meters.

  3. Intracellular Bacteria in Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Brigge, Theo

    Intracellular bacteria in humans are typically detrimental, and such infections are regarded by the patients as accidental and abnormal. In protozoa it seems obvious that many bacteria have coevolved with their hosts and are well adapted to the intracellular way of life. Manifold interactions between hosts and intracellular bacteria are found, and examples of antibacterial resistance of unknown mechanisms are observed. The wide diversity of intracellular bacteria in protozoa has become particularly obvious since they have begun to be classified by molecular techniques. Some of the bacteria are closely related to pathogens; others are responsible for the production of toxins.

  4. Antibody mapping and tissue localization of globular and cysteine-rich regions of perlecan domain III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Ljubimov, A V; Sthanam, M;

    1995-01-01

    Perlecan is the best-characterized basement membrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan. It has a large (approximately 400 KD) core protein consisting of five distinct domains. Domain III, a centrally located domain, contains three globular domains separated by cysteine-rich epidermal growth factor (EGF...... blotting showed that six of the nine MAbs recognized Domain III of perlecan, three of them mapping to globular Subdomain IIIc, and the other three recognized epitopes within the cysteine-rich regions. All six MAbs stained every basement membrane of several mouse organs as well as some connective tissues...

  5. Missense mutations in Desmocollin-2 N-terminus, associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, affect intracellular localization of desmocollin-2 in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basso Cristina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins have been reported to cause arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC, an autosomal dominant disease characterised by progressive myocardial atrophy with fibro-fatty replacement. We screened 54 ARVC probands for mutations in desmocollin-2 (DSC2, the only desmocollin isoform expressed in cardiac tissue. Methods Mutation screening was performed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. To evaluate the pathogenic potentials of the DSC2 mutations detected in patients affected with ARVC, full-length wild-type and mutated cDNAs were cloned in eukaryotic expression vectors to obtain a fusion protein with green fluorescence protein (GFP; constructs were transfected in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and in HL-1 cells. Results We identified two heterozygous mutations (c.304G>A (p.E102K and c.1034T>C (p.I345T in two probands and in four family members. The two mutations p.E102K and p.I345T map to the N-terminal region, relevant to adhesive interactions. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that, unlike wild-type DSC2, the two N-terminal mutants are predominantly localised in the cytoplasm. Conclusion The two missense mutations in the N-terminal domain affect the normal localisation of DSC2, thus suggesting the potential pathogenic effect of the reported mutations. Identification of additional DSC2 mutations associated with ARVC may result in increased diagnostic accuracy with implications for genetic counseling.

  6. Intracellular localization of GBF proteins and blue light-induced import of GBF2 fusion proteins into the nucleus of cultured Arabidopsis and soybean cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzaghi, W B; Bertekap, R L; Cashmore, A R

    1997-05-01

    The G-box is an important regulatory element found in the promoters of many different genes. Four members of an Arabidopsis gene family encoding basic leucine zipper proteins (GBFs) which bind the G-box have previously been cloned. To study GBFs, a polyclonal antibody was raised against GBF1 expressed in bacteria. This antibody also recognized GBF2 and GBF3. Immunoblot analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions from Arabidopsis and soybean (SB-M) cell cultures indicated that over 90% of proteins detected with anti-GBF1 were cytoplasmic. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that over 90% of G-box binding activity was cytoplasmic. DNA affinity chromatography demonstrated that each protein detected with anti-GBF1 specifically bound the G-box. To study individual GBFs, DNA constructs fusing GBF1, GBF2 and GBF4 to GUS were made and assayed by transient expression in SB-M protoplasts. Of GUS:GBF1 proteins, 50-62% were localized in the cytoplasm under all conditions tested, while 97% of GUS:GBF4 was localized in the nucleus. By contrast, whereas about 50% of GUS:GBF2 was found in the cytoplasm of dark-grown cells, over 80% of this protein was found in the nucleus in cells cultured under blue light. Deletion analysis of GBF1 identified a region between amino acids 112 and 164 apparently required for cytoplasmic retention. These results suggest the intriguing possibility that limitation of nuclear access may be an important control on GBF activity. In particular, GBF2 is apparently specifically imported into the nucleus in response to light.

  7. 3D Spectroscopy of Local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Kinematic Maps of a Sample of 22 Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Gallego, J; Castillo-Morales, A; Gallego, J; Castander, F J; Garland, C A; Gruel, N; Pisano, D J; Zamorano, J

    2011-01-01

    We use three dimensional optical spectroscopy observations of a sample of 22 local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) to create kinematic maps. By means of these, we classify the kinematics of these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disk (RD), perturbed rotation (PR), and complex kinematics (CK). We find 48% are RDs, 28% are PRs, and 24% are CKs. RDs show rotational velocities that range between $\\sim50$ and $\\sim200 km s^{-1}$, and dynamical masses that range between $\\sim1\\times10^{9}$ and $\\sim3\\times10^{10} M_{\\odot}$. We also address the following two fundamental questions through the study of the kinematic maps: \\emph{(i) What processes are triggering the current starbust in LCBGs?} We search our maps of the galaxy velocity fields for signatures of recent interactions and close companions that may be responsible for the enhanced star formation in our sample. We find 5% of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10% of a minor merger, and 45% of a companion. This argues in favor...

  8. Dual role for membrane localization in yeast MAP kinase cascade activation and its contribution to signaling fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, Rachel E; Takahashi, Satoe; Winters, Matthew J; Pryciak, Peter M

    2006-03-21

    Distinct MAP kinase pathways in yeast share several signaling components , including the PAK Ste20 and the MAPKKK Ste11, yet signaling is specific. Mating pheromones trigger an initial step in which Ste20 activates Ste11 , and this requires plasma membrane recruitment of the MAP kinase cascade scaffold protein, Ste5 . Here, we demonstrate an additional role for Ste5 membrane localization. Once Ste11 is activated, signaling through the mating pathway remains minimal but is substantially amplified when Ste5 is recruited to the membrane either by the Gbetagamma dimer or by direct membrane targeting, even to internal membranes. Ste11 signaling is also amplified by Ste5 oligomerization and by a hyperactivating mutation in the Ste7 binding region of Ste5. We suggest a model in which membrane recruitment of Ste5 concentrates its binding partners and thereby amplifies signaling through the kinase cascade. We find similar behavior in the osmotically responsive HOG pathway. Remarkably, while both pheromone and hyperosmotic stimuli amplify signaling from constitutively active Ste11, the resulting signaling output remains pathway specific. These findings suggest a common mode of regulation in which pathway stimuli both initiate and amplify MAP kinase cascade signaling. The regulation of rate-limiting steps that lie after a branchpoint from shared components helps ensure signaling specificity.

  9. Mapping local singularities using magnetic data to investigate the volcanic rocks of the Qikou depression, Dagang oilfield, eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial structural characteristics of geological anomaly, including singularity and self-similarity, can be analysed using fractal or multifractal modelling. Here we apply the multifractal methods to potential fields to demonstrate that singularities can characterise geological bodies, including rock density and magnetic susceptibility. In addition to enhancing weak gravity and magnetic anomalies with respect to either strong or weak background levels, the local singularity index (α ≈ 2 can be used to delineate the edges of geological bodies. Two models were established to evaluate the effectiveness of mapping singularities for extracting weak anomalies and delineating edges of buried geological bodies. The Qikou depression of the Dagang oilfield in eastern China has been chosen as a study area for demonstrating the extraction of weak anomalies of volcanic rocks, using the singularity mapping technique to analyse complex magnetic anomalies caused by complex geological background. The results have shown that the singularities of magnetic data mapped in the paper are associated with buried volcanic rocks, which have been verified by both drilling and seismic survey, and the S–N and E–W faults in the region. The targets delineated for deeply seated faults and volcanic rocks in the Qikou depression should be further investigated for the potential application in undiscovered oil and gas reservoirs exploration.

  10. Non-invasive localization of atrial ectopic beats by using simulated body surface P-wave integral maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Eduardo J.; Lozano, Miguel; Martínez-Mateu, Laura; Atienza, Felipe; Saiz, Javier; Sebastian, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive localization of continuous atrial ectopic beats remains a cornerstone for the treatment of atrial arrhythmias. The lack of accurate tools to guide electrophysiologists leads to an increase in the recurrence rate of ablation procedures. Existing approaches are based on the analysis of the P-waves main characteristics and the forward body surface potential maps (BSPMs) or on the inverse estimation of the electric activity of the heart from those BSPMs. These methods have not provided an efficient and systematic tool to localize ectopic triggers. In this work, we propose the use of machine learning techniques to spatially cluster and classify ectopic atrial foci into clearly differentiated atrial regions by using the body surface P-wave integral map (BSPiM) as a biomarker. Our simulated results show that ectopic foci with similar BSPiM naturally cluster into differentiated non-intersected atrial regions and that new patterns could be correctly classified with an accuracy of 97% when considering 2 clusters and 96% for 4 clusters. Our results also suggest that an increase in the number of clusters is feasible at the cost of decreasing accuracy. PMID:28704537

  11. A technique for visualization and mapping of local cartilage thickness changes in MR images of osteoarthritic knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Quanxu, E-mail: gequanxu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Cheng, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yzcheng@hitwh.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bi, Kesen, E-mail: whbks@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Weihai Municipal Hospital, Weihai City, Shandong Province, 164200 (China); Guo, Changyong, E-mail: hit_gcy@163.com [School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Bai, Jing, E-mail: deabj@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, China B209, Medical School Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Tamura, Shinichi, E-mail: tamuras@nblmt.jp [Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, D11, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to describe a technique for the visualization and mapping of focal, local cartilage thickness changes over time in magnetic resonance images of osteoarthritic knee. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 25 fresh frozen pig knee joints and 15 knees of patients with borderline to mild osteoarthritis (51.2 {+-} 6.3 years). Cartilage and corresponding bone structures were extracted by semi-automatic segmentation. Each point in the bone surface which was part of the bone-cartilage interface was assigned a cartilage thickness value. Cartilage thicknesses were computed for each point in the bone-cartilage interfaces and transferred to the bone surfaces. Moreover, we developed a three dimensional registration method for the identification of anatomically corresponding points of the bone surface to quantify local cartilage thickness changes. One of the main advantages of our method compared to other studies in the field of registration is a global optimization algorithm that does not require any initialization. Results and conclusion: The registration accuracy was 0.93 {+-} 0.05 mm (less than a voxel of magnetic resonance data). Local cartilage thickness changes were seen as having follow-up clinical study for detecting local changes in cartilage thickness. Experiment results suggest that our method was sufficiently accurate and effective for monitoring knee joint diseases.

  12. Alternative SERRS probes for the immunochemical localization of ovalbumin in paintings: an advanced mapping detection approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciutto, Giorgia; Litti, Lucio; Lofrumento, Cristiana; Prati, Silvia; Ricci, Marilena; Gobbo, Marina; Roda, Aldo; Castellucci, Emilio; Meneghetti, Moreno; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2013-08-21

    In the field of analytical chemistry, many scientific efforts have been devoted to develop experimental procedures for the characterization of organic substances present in heterogeneous artwork samples, due to their challenging identification. In particular, performances of immunochemical techniques have been recently investigated, optimizing ad hoc systems for the identification of proteins. Among all the different immunochemical approaches, the use of metal nanoparticles - for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection - remains one of the most powerful methods that has still not been explored enough for the analysis of artistic artefacts. For this reason, the present research work was aimed at proposing a new optimized and highly efficient indirect immunoassay for the detection of ovalbumin. In particular, the study proposed a new SERRS probe composed of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalised with Nile Blue A and produced with an excellent green and cheap alternative approach to the traditional chemical nanoparticles synthesis: the laser ablation synthesis in solution (LASiS). This procedure allows us to obtain stable nanoparticles which can be easily functionalized without any ligand exchange reaction or extensive purification procedures. Moreover, the present research work also focused on the development of a comprehensive analytical approach, based on the combination of potentialities of immunochemical methods and Raman analysis, for the simultaneous identification of the target protein and the different organic and inorganic substances present in the paint matrix. An advanced mapping detection system was proposed to achieve the exact spatial location of all the components through the creation of false colour chemical maps.

  13. A noncommutative anomaly through Seiberg-Witten map and non-locally regularized BV quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Everton M.C.; Nikoofard, Vahid [UFRuralRJ, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); UFJF, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: It is a well known fact that quantum field theory has its main basis in the principle of gauge symmetry. The gauge theory, constructed with the principle of gauge symmetry, encompassing the symmetries and their corresponding conservation laws, has underlying role in the description of the fundamental forces in nature. Nevertheless, we have also to consider that a specific conservation law that is true in a certain classical theory, can be broken when the theory is quantized. In this case we have what is known as an anomaly. Anomalies have their importance in physics where they are needed to describe certain experimental facts, for example. The anomaly cannot be considered just a perturbation effect, which results from the regularization of some divergent diagrams, it shows the deep laws of quantum physics. So, as we can see, it is important to find methods to compute the anomaly by the quantized the primary theory. A NC space can be visualized as a deformation of the usual spacetime with the *-product and can be constructed after the quantization of a given space with its symplectic structure. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map connects NC fields, transformations parameters and gauge potential to their commutative analogs. In this work we used the SW map to calculate the NC version of the anomaly of the BV quantized chiral Schwinger model with nonlocal regularization. (author)

  14. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comesana, D. Fernandez; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has exte...

  15. Mapping the Similarities of Spectra: Global and Locally-biased Approaches to SDSS Galaxy Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lawlor, David; Mahoney, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    We apply a novel spectral graph technique, that of locally-biased semi-supervised eigenvectors, to study the diversity of galaxies. This technique permits us to characterize empirically the natural variations in observed spectra data, and we illustrate how this approach can be used in an exploratory manner to highlight both large-scale global as well as small-scale local structure in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. We use this method in a way that simultaneously takes into account the measurements of spectral lines as well as the continuum shape. Unlike Principal Component Analysis, this method does not assume that the Euclidean distance between galaxy spectra is a good global measure of similarity between all spectra, but instead it only assumes that local difference information between similar spectra is reliable. Moreover, unlike other nonlinear dimensionality methods, this method can be used to characterize very finely both small-scale local as well as large-scale global properties of realistic nois...

  16. Mapping and measuring European local governments' priorities for a sustainable and low-carbon energy future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grafakos (Stelios); E.M. Enseñado (Elena Marie); A. Flamos (Alexandros); J. Rotmans (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this article is to assess the priorities of local governments (LGs) in Europe regarding climate change mitigation technologies evaluation in the electricity sector and to provide important insights for energy policy design. The study applies a hybrid weighting metho

  17. Two-photon mapping of localized field enhancements in thin nanostrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beermann, I.; Novikov, S.M.; Søndergaard, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering and local field enhancements by 11-nm-thin gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counter propagating slow surface plasmon polaritons is investigated. We characterize nanostrips of widths between 50-530 nm using both reflection spectroscopy and nonlinear...

  18. Modeling the kinematics of an autonomous underwater vehicle for range-bearing Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsebe, O

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available to the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) SLAM problem, it also describes the way-point guidance based on Line of Sight (LOS). In this paper, it has been shown through Matlab simulation that the vehicle is able to localize its position using features that it observes...

  19. Binaural cross-correlation predicts the responses of neurons in the owl's auditory space map under conditions simulating summing localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, C H; Takahashi, T T

    1996-07-01

    Summing localization describes the perceptions of human listeners to two identical sounds from different locations presented with delays of 0-1 msec. Usually a single source is perceived to be located between the two actual source locations, biased toward the earlier source. We studied neuronal responses within the space map of the barn owl to sounds presented with this same paradigm. The owl's primary cue for localization along the azimuth, interaural time difference (ITD), is based on a cross-correlation-like treatment of the signals arriving at each ear. The output of this cross-correlation is displayed as neural activity across the auditory space map in the external nucleus of the owl's inferior colliculus. Because the ear input signals reflect the physical summing of the signals generated by each speaker, we first recorded the sounds at each ear and computed their cross-correlations at various interstimulus delays. The resulting binaural cross-correlation surface strongly resembles the pattern of activity across the space map inferred from recordings of single space-specific neurons. Four peaks are observed in the cross-correlation surface for any nonzero delay. One peak occurs at the correlation delay equal to the ITD of each speaker. Two additional peaks reflect "phantom sources" occurring at correlation delays that match the signal of the left speaker in one ear with the signal of the right speaker in the other ear. At zero delay, the two phantom peaks coincide. The surface features are complicated further by the interactions of the various correlation peaks.

  20. Mapping Patterns of Local Recurrence After Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A New Approach to Adjuvant Radiation Field Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dholakia, Avani S.; Kumar, Rachit [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Raman, Siva P. [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Moore, Joseph A.; Ellsworth, Susannah; McNutt, Todd [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Laheru, Daniel A.; Jaffee, Elizabeth [Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cameron, John L. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hobbs, Robert F. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Wolfgang, Christopher L. [Department of Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To generate a map of local recurrences after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for patients with resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and to model an adjuvant radiation therapy planning treatment volume (PTV) that encompasses a majority of local recurrences. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with resectable PDA undergoing PD and 1 or more computed tomography (CT) scans more than 60 days after PD at our institution were reviewed. Patients were divided into 3 groups: no adjuvant treatment (NA), chemotherapy alone (CTA), or chemoradiation (CRT). Cross-sectional scans were centrally reviewed, and local recurrences were plotted to scale with respect to the celiac axis (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and renal veins on 1 CT scan of a template post-PD patient. An adjuvant clinical treatment volume comprising 90% of local failures based on standard expansions of the CA and SMA was created and simulated on 3 post-PD CT scans to assess the feasibility of this planning approach. Results: Of the 202 patients in the study, 40 (20%), 34 (17%), and 128 (63%) received NA, CTA, and CRT adjuvant therapy, respectively. The rate of margin-positive resections was greater in CRT patients than in CTA patients (28% vs 9%, P=.023). Local recurrence occurred in 90 of the 202 patients overall (45%) and in 19 (48%), 22 (65%), and 49 (38%) in the NA, CTA, and CRT groups, respectively. Ninety percent of recurrences were within a 3.0-cm right-lateral, 2.0-cm left-lateral, 1.5-cm anterior, 1.0-cm posterior, 1.0-cm superior, and 2.0-cm inferior expansion of the combined CA and SMA contours. Three simulated radiation treatment plans using these expansions with adjustments to avoid nearby structures were created to demonstrate the use of this treatment volume. Conclusions: Modified PTVs targeting high-risk areas may improve local control while minimizing toxicities, allowing dose escalation with intensity-modulated or stereotactic body radiation therapy.

  1. Fault Localization Method by Partitioning Memory Using Memory Map and the Stack for Automotive ECU Software Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwanhyo Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of the automotive Electronic Control Unit (ECU and its software in cars is increasing. Therefore, as the functional complexity of such software increases, so does the likelihood of software-related faults. Therefore, it is important to ensure the reliability of ECU software in order to ensure automobile safety. For this reason, systematic testing methods are required that can guarantee software quality. However, it is difficult to locate a fault during testing with the current ECU development system because a tester performs the black-box testing using a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL simulator. Consequently, developers consume a large amount of money and time for debugging because they perform debugging without any information about the location of the fault. In this paper, we propose a method for localizing the fault utilizing memory information during black-box testing. This is likely to be of use to developers who debug automotive software. In order to observe whether symbols stored in the memory have been updated, the memory is partitioned by a memory map and the stack, thus the fault candidate region is reduced. A memory map method has the advantage of being able to finely partition the memory, and the stack method can partition the memory without a memory map. We validated these methods by applying these to HiL testing of the ECU for a body control system. The preliminary results indicate that a memory map and the stack reduce the possible fault locations to 22% and 19% of the updated memory, respectively.

  2. Exclusion map of Salla disease: attempts to localize the disease gene using a computer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haataja, L; Schleutker, J; Renlund, M; Palotie, A; Peltonen, L; Aula, P

    1992-01-01

    Salla disease is a lysosomal storage disorder due to impaired transport of free sialic acid across the lysosomal membrane. The clinical presentation of this autosomal recessive trait is severe psychomotor retardation from early infancy on. In order to determine the gene locus for the disease we have initiated a genetic linkage study using polymorphic gene markers in representative family material comprising about 60% of all families known to be affected with Salla disease. Here we present an exclusion map based on combined linkage data from 64 informative loci on 19 autosomes. Theoretically, at least 55% of the genome has been excluded as a locus for the disease gene, while some chromosome areas, particularly the long arm of chromosome 2, are highlighted as possible sites for the gene locus.

  3. Pursuing enterprise risk management: a local road map for Canadian healthcare leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, James R; Church, John; Cockerill, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of organizational risk management in healthcare, and in particular the concepts of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM), has identified a 5-part model that can be used by Canadian healthcare leaders as an evidence-supported approach to successful organizational risk management. The Model for Organizational Risk Management, termed "the Model," has been developed as a basis for linking the components of an ERM Framework into a Canadian health organization to overcome the barriers that commonly disrupt strategic risk management. The Model addresses how an ERM Framework can fit within an existing health organization by building off and enhancing existing processes and resources to ensure familiarity, acceptance, and sustainability of the risk management program. By approaching the Model in a stepwise fashion (based on individual organizational context), healthcare leaders are provided with a road map from which to advance their own organizational risk management program.

  4. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED.

  5. Cathodic-controlled and near-infrared organic upconverter for local blood vessels mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Chien; Liu, Chun-Fu; Lin, Yun-Hsuan; Su, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Yu; Chen, Kuan-Ting; Li, Yan-De; Chang, Wen-Chang; Li, Ya-Ze; Su, Tsung-Hao; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Liu, Shun-Wei

    2016-08-31

    Organic materials are used in novel optoelectronic devices because of the ease and high compatibility of their fabrication processes. Here, we demonstrate a low-driving-voltage cathodic-controlled organic upconverter with a mapping application that converts near-infrared images to produce images of visible blood vessels. The proposed upconverter has a multilayer structure consisting of a photosensitive charge-generation layer (CGL) and a phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) for producing clear images with a high resolution of 600 dots per inch. In this study, temperature-dependent electrical characterization was performed to analyze the interfacial modification of the cathodic-controlled upconverter. The result shows that the upconverter demonstrated a high conversion efficiency of 3.46% because of reduction in the injection barrier height at the interface between the CGL and the OLED.

  6. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Tian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy.

  7. A Hybrid Indoor Localization and Navigation System with Map Matching for Pedestrians Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qinglin; Salcic, Zoran; Wang, Kevin I-Kai; Pan, Yun

    2015-12-05

    Pedestrian dead reckoning is a common technique applied in indoor inertial navigation systems that is able to provide accurate tracking performance within short distances. Sensor drift is the main bottleneck in extending the system to long-distance and long-term tracking. In this paper, a hybrid system integrating traditional pedestrian dead reckoning based on the use of inertial measurement units, short-range radio frequency systems and particle filter map matching is proposed. The system is a drift-free pedestrian navigation system where position error and sensor drift is regularly corrected and is able to provide long-term accurate and reliable tracking. Moreover, the whole system is implemented on a commercial off-the-shelf smartphone and achieves real-time positioning and tracking performance with satisfactory accuracy.

  8. Properties, intracellular localization, and stage-specific expression of membrane-bound beta-glucosidase, BglM1, from Physarum polycephalum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Masato; Maekawa, Akinori; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Minami, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum expresses a membrane-bound beta-glucosidase (BglM1) with a molecular mass of 130 kDa. The primary structure of BglM1 consists of a glycosyl hydrolase family 3 domain at an amino-terminal domain and a carboxyl-terminal region without homology to the sequence of known glycosidases. The latter region contains two calx-beta motifs known as Ca(2+)-binding sites; an RGD sequence, which is known to be a cell attachment sequence; and a transmembrane region. The molecular mass calculated from the amino acid sequence is 130 kDa, but that in the crude extract was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 230 kDa, and decreased to 130 kDa during purification. However, when BglM1 was purified in the presence of calcium ion, the molecular mass remained 230 kDa. The biochemical characteristics of the 130- and 230-kDa BglM1 forms were analyzed: differences were found in the kinetic data for some substrates specific for both these enzymes; however, no difference was found in their intrinsic characteristics such as optimum pH and temperature. In addition, the molecular mass of native BglM1 with a calcium ion was estimated to be 1,000 kDa or larger by gel filtration. These results suggest that the calcium ion influences the conformation of BglM1. The evidence that BglM1 localizes on the plasma membrane of plasmodia was confirmed using immunofluorescence microscopy. Although Physarum BglM1 was expressed in microplasmodia and plasmodia, little expression was detected in other stages. BglM1 may have some function only in multinuclear cells.

  9. Centimeter-Level Robust Gnss-Aided Inertial Post-Processing for Mobile Mapping Without Local Reference Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, J. J.; Gopaul, N.; Zhang, X.; Wang, J.; Menon, V.; Rieck, D.; Kipka, A.; Pastor, F.

    2016-06-01

    For almost two decades mobile mapping systems have done their georeferencing using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to measure position and inertial sensors to measure orientation. In order to achieve cm level position accuracy, a technique referred to as post-processed carrier phase differential GNSS (DGNSS) is used. For this technique to be effective the maximum distance to a single Reference Station should be no more than 20 km, and when using a network of Reference Stations the distance to the nearest station should no more than about 70 km. This need to set up local Reference Stations limits productivity and increases costs, especially when mapping large areas or long linear features such as roads or pipelines. An alternative technique to DGNSS for high-accuracy positioning from GNSS is the so-called Precise Point Positioning or PPP method. In this case instead of differencing the rover observables with the Reference Station observables to cancel out common errors, an advanced model for every aspect of the GNSS error chain is developed and parameterized to within an accuracy of a few cm. The Trimble Centerpoint RTX positioning solution combines the methodology of PPP with advanced ambiguity resolution technology to produce cm level accuracies without the need for local reference stations. It achieves this through a global deployment of highly redundant monitoring stations that are connected through the internet and are used to determine the precise satellite data with maximum accuracy, robustness, continuity and reliability, along with advance algorithms and receiver and antenna calibrations. This paper presents a new post-processed realization of the Trimble Centerpoint RTX technology integrated into the Applanix POSPac MMS GNSS-Aided Inertial software for mobile mapping. Real-world results from over 100 airborne flights evaluated against a DGNSS network reference are presented which show that the post-processed Centerpoint RTX solution agrees with

  10. APFiLoc: An Infrastructure-Free Indoor Localization Method Fusing Smartphone Inertial Sensors, Landmarks and Map Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianga Shang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The utility and adoption of indoor localization applications have been limited due to the complex nature of the physical environment combined with an increasing requirement for more robust localization performance. Existing solutions to this problem are either too expensive or too dependent on infrastructure such as Wi-Fi access points. To address this problem, we propose APFiLoc—a low cost, smartphone-based framework for indoor localization. The key idea behind this framework is to obtain landmarks within the environment and to use the augmented particle filter to fuse them with measurements from smartphone sensors and map information. A clustering method based on distance constraints is developed to detect organic landmarks in an unsupervised way, and the least square support vector machine is used to classify seed landmarks. A series of real-world experiments were conducted in complex environments including multiple floors and the results show APFiLoc can achieve 80% accuracy (phone in the hand and around 70% accuracy (phone in the pocket of the error less than 2 m error without the assistance of infrastructure like Wi-Fi access points.

  11. Localization of the site of origin of reentrant arrhythmia from body surface potential maps: a model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chenguang [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 BSBE, 312 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Li Guanglin [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 7-105 BSBE, 312 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-04-07

    We have developed a model-based imaging approach to estimate the site of origin of reentrant arrhythmia from body surface potential maps (BSPMs), with the aid of a cardiac arrhythmia model. The reentry was successfully simulated and maintained in the cardiac model, and the simulated ECG waveforms over the body surface corresponding to a maintained reentry have evident characteristics of ventricular tachycardia. The performance of the inverse imaging approach was evaluated by computer simulations. The present simulation results show that an averaged localization error of about 1.5 mm, when 5% Gaussian white noise was added to the BSPMs, was detected. The effects of the heart-torso geometry uncertainty on the localization were also initially assessed and the simulation results suggest that no significant influence was observed when 10% torso geometry uncertainty or 10 mm heart position shifting was considered. The present simulation study suggests the feasibility of localizing the site of origin of reentrant arrhythmia from non-invasive BSPMs, with the aid of a cardiac arrhythmia model.

  12. Three-dimensional mapping of local cerebral perfusion in alcoholic encephalopathy with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, T.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Imai, A.; Shinohara, T.; Velez, M.; Fann, W.E.; Kandula, P.; Sakai, F.

    1987-02-01

    Seventeen severe chronic alcoholic patients with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) were examined prospectively after being treated by withdrawal from alcohol. The WKS patients also received thiamine supplements. Three-dimensional measurements of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local partition coefficients (L lambda) were made utilizing xenon contrast computed tomography (Xe CT-CBF). Results were displayed as color-coded brain maps before and after treatment and these were correlated with neurological and cognitive examinations. Before treatment chronic alcoholics without WKS (n = 10) showed diffuse reductions of LCBF values throughout all gray matter including hypothalamus, vicinity of nucleus basalis of Meynert, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Similar, but more severe, reductions were seen in patients with WKS (n = 7), however, white matter perfusion was also reduced. In WKS, most prominent reductions of LCBF were also seen in hypothalamus and basal forebrain nuclei but thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic systems were severely reduced. After treatment, both groups with alcoholic encephalopathy showed marked clinical improvement and cerebral perfusion was restored toward normal. Chronic alcohol abuse, in the absence of thiamine deficiency, reduces CBF by direct neurotoxic effects. If thiamine deficiency is also present, more severe and localized hemodynamic reductions are superimposed.

  13. Advances in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping in Confined Underwater Environments Using Sonar and Optical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    curse of computer illiteracy. I’d say we’re on the right track. To Carrie, my partner throughout this whole ordeal: you had to put up with a lot, and ii... knowledge , Trevor, Rogers, and Christensen [164] were the first to use the factor graph model to perform 3D SLAM with planar primitives. In addition...reconstruct an untextured 3D mesh of the hull, however our method can also localize to a prior CAD-derived mesh, if available. To our knowledge , we

  14. HBLAST: Parallelised sequence similarity--A Hadoop MapReducable basic local alignment search tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Aisling; Belogrudov, Vladislav; Carroll, John; Kropp, Kai; Walsh, Paul; Ghazal, Peter; Sleator, Roy D

    2015-04-01

    The recent exponential growth of genomic databases has resulted in the common task of sequence alignment becoming one of the major bottlenecks in the field of computational biology. It is typical for these large datasets and complex computations to require cost prohibitive High Performance Computing (HPC) to function. As such, parallelised solutions have been proposed but many exhibit scalability limitations and are incapable of effectively processing "Big Data" - the name attributed to datasets that are extremely large, complex and require rapid processing. The Hadoop framework, comprised of distributed storage and a parallelised programming framework known as MapReduce, is specifically designed to work with such datasets but it is not trivial to efficiently redesign and implement bioinformatics algorithms according to this paradigm. The parallelisation strategy of "divide and conquer" for alignment algorithms can be applied to both data sets and input query sequences. However, scalability is still an issue due to memory constraints or large databases, with very large database segmentation leading to additional performance decline. Herein, we present Hadoop Blast (HBlast), a parallelised BLAST algorithm that proposes a flexible method to partition both databases and input query sequences using "virtual partitioning". HBlast presents improved scalability over existing solutions and well balanced computational work load while keeping database segmentation and recompilation to a minimum. Enhanced BLAST search performance on cheap memory constrained hardware has significant implications for in field clinical diagnostic testing; enabling faster and more accurate identification of pathogenic DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mapping the Hydropathy of Amino Acids Based on Their Local Solvation Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Bonella, S.

    2014-06-19

    In spite of its relevant biological role, no general consensus exists on the quantitative characterization of amino acid\\'s hydropathy. In particular, many hydrophobicity scales exist, often producing quite different rankings for the amino acids. To make progress toward a systematic classification, we analyze amino acids\\' hydropathy based on the orientation of water molecules at a given distance from them as computed from molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast with what is usually done, we argue that assigning a single number is not enough to characterize the properties of an amino acid, in particular when both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions are present in a residue. Instead we show that appropriately defined conditional probability densities can be used to map the hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups on the amino acids with greater detail than possible with other available methods. Three indicators are then defined based on the features of these probabilities to quantify the specific hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of each amino acid. The characterization that we propose can be used to understand some of the ambiguities in the ranking of amino acids in the current scales. The quantitative indicators can also be used in combination with standard bioinformatics tools to predict the location of transmembrane regions of proteins. The method is sensitive to the specific environment of the amino acids and can be applied to unnatural and modified amino acids, as well as to other small organic molecules. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Localizing Energy Sources and Sinks in Plates Using Power Flow Maps Computed From Laser Vibrometer Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.F. Arruda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method especially adapted for the computation of structural power flow using spatially dense vibration data measured with scanning laser Doppler vibrometers. In the proposed method, the operational deflection shapes measured over the surface of the structure are curve-fitted using a two-dimensional discrete Fourier series approximation that minimizes the effects of spatial leakage. From the wavenumber-frequency domain data thus obtained, the spatial derivatives that are necessary to determine the structural power flow are easily computed. Divergence plots are then obtained from the computed intensity fields. An example consisting of a rectangular aluminum plate supported by rubber mounts and excited by a point force is used to appraise the proposed method. The proposed method is compared with more traditional finite difference methods. The proposed method was the only to allow the localization of the energy source and sinks from the experimental divergence plots.

  17. More on the conformal mapping of quasi-local masses: The Hawking-Hayward case

    CERN Document Server

    Hammad, Fayçal

    2016-01-01

    The conformal transformation of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local mass is reexamined. It has been found recently that the conformal transformation of the latter exhibits the 'wrong' conformal factor compared to the way usual masses transform under conformal transformations of spacetime. We show, in analogy with what was found recently for the Misner-Sharp mass, that unlike the purely geometric definition of the Hawking-Hayward mass, the latter exhibits the 'right' conformal factor whenever expressed in terms of its material content via the field equations. The case of conformally invariant scalar-tensor theories of gravity is also examined. The equivalence between the Misner-Sharp mass and the Hawking-Hayward mass for spherically symmetric spacetimes manifests itself by giving identical peculiar behaviors under conformal transformations.

  18. More on the conformal mapping of quasi-local masses: the Hawking-Hayward case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Fayçal

    2016-12-01

    The conformal transformation of the Hawking-Hayward quasi-local mass is re-examined. It has been found recently that the conformal transformation of the latter exhibits the ‘wrong’ conformal factor compared to the way usual masses transform under conformal transformations of spacetime. We show, in analogy with what was found recently for the Misner-Sharp mass, that unlike the purely geometric definition of the Hawking-Hayward mass, the latter exhibits the ‘right’ conformal factor whenever expressed in terms of its material content via the field equations. The case of conformally invariant scalar-tensor theories of gravity is also examined. The equivalence between the Misner-Sharp mass and the Hawking-Hayward mass for spherically symmetric spacetimes manifests itself by giving identical peculiar behaviors under conformal transformations.

  19. Mapping Hydrogen in the Galaxy, Galactic Halo, and Local Group with ALFA: The GALFA-HI Survey Starting with TOGS

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, S J; Heiles, C; Korpela, E J; Peek, J E G; Putman, M E; Stanimirović, S

    2008-01-01

    Radio observations of gas in the Milky Way and Local Group are vital for understanding how galaxies function as systems. The unique sensitivity of Arecibo's 305m dish, coupled with the 7-beam Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFA), provides an unparalleled tool for investigating the full range of interstellar phenomena traced by the HI 21cm line. The GALFA (Galactic ALFA) HI Survey is mapping the entire Arecibo sky over a velocity range of -700 to +700 km/s with 0.2 km/s velocity channels and an angular resolution of 3.4 arcminutes. We present highlights from the TOGS (Turn on GALFA Survey) portion of GALFA-HI, which is covering thousands of square degrees in commensal drift scan observations with the ALFALFA and AGES extragalactic ALFA surveys. This work is supported in part by the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center, operated by Cornell University under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  20. A Temporal Locality-Aware Page-Mapped Flash Translation Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gupta, Aayush [IBM Corporation, Almaden Research Center; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan [Pennsylvania State University

    2013-01-01

    The poor performance of random writes has been a cause of major concern which needs to be addressed to better utilize the potential of flash in enterprise-scale environments. We examine one of the important causes of this poor performance: the design of the flash translation layer (FTL) which performs the virtual-to-physical address translations and hides the erase-before-write characteristics of flash. We propose a complete paradigm shift in the design of the core FTL engine from the existing techniques with our Demand-Based Flash Translation Layer (DFTL) which selectively caches page- level address mappings. Our experimental evaluation using FlashSim with realistic enterprise-scale workloads endorses the utility of DFTL in enterprise-scale storage systems by demonstrating: 1) improved performance, 2) reduced garbage collection overhead and 3) better overload behavior compared with hybrid FTL schemes which are the most popular implementation methods. For example, a predominantly random-write dominant I/O trace from an OLTP application running at a large financial institution shows a 78% improvement in average response time (due to a 3-fold reduction in operations of the garbage collector), compared with the hybrid FTL scheme. Even for the well-known read-dominant TPC-H benchmark, for which DFTL introduces additional overheads, we improve system response time by 56%. Moreover, interestingly, when write-back cache on DFTL-based SSD is enabled, DFTL even outperforms the page-based FTL scheme, improving their response time by 72% in Financial trace.

  1. T-MAPS, a PC-code for calculating average and local (``flash``) temperatures on sliding interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ashby, M.F. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

    1993-08-01

    When contacting solids slide, work is done against friction. Almost all the frictional work appears as heat, generated at or very close to the surface at which the two solids meet. The local increase in temperature influences both the friction and the rate of wear. In this paper, a user-friendly PC-code is described in which frictional heating is analyzed using a particularly simple framework. The code provides for a wide range of geometries for the two contacting solids, which may differ in their thermal and mechanical properties, and may not be in perfect contact with the heat sinks to which they are attached. The results of the code are presented as temperature maps which show the surface temperature of a sliding couple over a wide range of load and sliding velocity. The basic analysis underlying a previous version of the code was presented previously. We introduce here some significant changes, particularly with respect to the problem of asperity contact lifetime and show some excellent comparisons between various experimental results and predictions of the T-MAPS 4 software.

  2. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Through a Voronoi-diagram-based Map Representation%基于Voronoi地图表示方法的同步定位与地图创建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭帅; 马书根; 李斌; 王明辉; 王越超

    2011-01-01

    针对基于混合米制地图机器人同步定位与地图创建(Simultaneous localization and mapping,SLAM)中地图划分方法不完善的问题,提出了基于Voronoi地图表示方法的同步定位与地图创建算法VorSLAM.该算法在全局坐标系下创建特征地图,并根据此特征地图使用Voronoi图唯一地划分地图空间,在每一个划分内部创建一个相对于特征的局部稠密地图.特征地图与各个局部地图最终一起连续稠密地描述了环境.Voronoi地图表示方法解决了地图划分的唯一性问题,理论证明局部地图可以完整描述该划分所对应的环境轮廓.该地图表示方法一个基本特点是特征与局部地图一一对应,每个特征都关联一个定义在该特征上的局部地图.基于该特点,提出了一个基于形状匹配的数据关联算法,用以解决传统数据关联算法出现的多重关联问题.一个公寓弧形走廊的实验验证了VorSLAM算法和基于形状匹配的数据关联方法的有效性.%To solve the problem that the current map division methods in the hybrid metric map based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) are not complete, this paper proposes an algorithm "VorSLAM", which uses a new map representation based on Voronoi diagram. The VorSLAM builds a feature based map in the global reference frame firstly. By operating Voronoi diagram on the feature map, it then divides the whole environment space uniquely into a series of local regions, in which dense local maps are built. The feature map together with the local maps gives the environment a continuous and dense description. The map representation based on Voronoi diagram ensures that the map division is unique. In each region, the local environment coutour is proven to be described completely by the corresponding local map. A basic character of the proposed map representation is that each global feature associates with a local dense map, which is defined relative to this feature

  3. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  4. Ground truth delineation for medical image segmentation based on Local Consistency and Distribution Map analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Irene; Sun, Xinyao; Alsufyani, Noura; Xiong, Zhihui; Major, Paul; Basu, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems are being increasingly deployed for medical applications in recent years with the goal to speed up tedious tasks and improve precision. Among others, segmentation is an important component in CAD systems as a preprocessing step to help recognize patterns in medical images. In order to assess the accuracy of a CAD segmentation algorithm, comparison with ground truth data is necessary. To-date, ground truth delineation relies mainly on contours that are either manually defined by clinical experts or automatically generated by software. In this paper, we propose a systematic ground truth delineation method based on a Local Consistency Set Analysis approach, which can be used to establish an accurate ground truth representation, or if ground truth is available, to assess the accuracy of a CAD generated segmentation algorithm. We validate our computational model using medical data. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness of our approach. In contrast to current methods, our model also provides consistency information at distributed boundary pixel level, and thus is invariant to global compensation error.

  5. Mapping the motor and sensory cortices: a historical look and a current case study in sensorimotor localization and direct cortical motor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Justin

    2012-03-01

    The utilization of cortical mapping during craniotomies for epilepsy and brain tumor resection is extremely important. Cortical mapping can guide the surgical team intraoperatively with regards to the layout of important anatomical structures and their function to prevent post-operative deficits. Electroneurophysiological methods employed include sensorimotor localization recorded directly from the surface of the brain when stimulated from a peripheral nerve and direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of the motor cortex to elicit a distal muscle response. This paper presents a case, in which a paradigm of neurophysiological modalities is utilized to assist the surgeon in creating a topographic map of the motor cortex and with localizing the sensory and motor cortices, in addition to a historical review of functional localization.

  6. From local scenarios to national maps: a participatory framework for envisioning the future of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Capitani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tackling societal and environmental challenges requires new approaches that connect top-down global oversight with bottom-up subnational knowledge. We present a novel framework for participatory development of spatially explicit scenarios at national scale that model socioeconomic and environmental dynamics by reconciling local stakeholder perspectives and national spatial data. We illustrate results generated by this approach and evaluate its potential to contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between development pathways and sustainability. Using the lens of land use and land cover changes, and engaging 240 stakeholders representing subnational (seven forest management zones and the national level, we applied the framework to assess alternative development strategies in the Tanzania mainland to the year 2025, under either a business as usual or a green development scenario. In the business as usual scenario, no productivity gain is expected, cultivated land expands by ~ 2% per year (up to 88,808 km², with large impacts on woodlands and wetlands. Despite legal protection, encroachment of natural forest occurs along reserve borders. Additional wood demand leads to degradation, i.e., loss of tree cover and biomass, up to 80,426 km² of wooded land. The alternative green economy scenario envisages decreasing degradation and deforestation with increasing productivity (+10% and implementation of payment for ecosystem service schemes. In this scenario, cropland expands by 44,132 km² and the additional degradation is limited to 35,778 km². This scenario development framework captures perspectives and knowledge across a diverse range of stakeholders and regions. Although further effort is required to extend its applicability, improve users' equity, and reduce costs the resulting spatial outputs can be used to inform national level planning and policy implementation associated with sustainable development, especially the REDD

  7. Comparison of Transperineal Mapping Biopsy Results with Whole-Mount Radical Prostatectomy Pathology in Patients with Localized Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J. Katz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of transperineal mapping biopsy (TMB by comparing it to the pathology specimen of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP for localized prostate cancer. Methods. From March 2007 to September 2009, 78 men at a single center underwent TMB; 17 of 78 subsequently underwent RP. TMB cores were grouped into four quadrants and matched to data from RP whole-mount slides. Gleason score, tumor location and volume, cross-sectional area, and maximal diameter were measured; sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Results. For the 17 patients who underwent RP, TMB revealed 12 (71% had biopsy Gleason grades ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76% had bilateral disease. RP specimens showed 14 (82% had Gleason scores ≥ 3 + 4 and 13 (76% had bilateral disease. Sensitivity and specificity of TMB for prostate cancer detection were 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 72%–94% and 83% (95% CI 62%–95%, respectively. Four quadrants negative for cancer on TMB were positive on prostatectomy, and six positive on TMB were negative on prostatectomy. Conclusion. TMB is a highly invasive procedure that can accurately detect and localize prostate cancer. These findings help establish baseline performance characteristics for TMB and its utility for organ-sparing strategies.

  8. Construction of Global Acyl Lipid Metabolic Map by Comparative Genomics and Subcellular Localization Analysis in the Red Alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Natsumi; Moriyama, Takashi; Toyoshima, Masakazu; Sato, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Pathways of lipid metabolism have been established in land plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, but the information on exact pathways is still under study in microalgae. In contrast with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which is currently studied extensively, the pathway information in red algae is still in the state in which enzymes and pathways are estimated by analogy with the knowledge in plants. Here we attempt to construct the entire acyl lipid metabolic pathways in a model red alga, Cyanidioschyzon merolae, as an initial basis for future genetic and biochemical studies, by exploiting comparative genomics and localization analysis. First, the data of whole genome clustering by Gclust were used to identify 121 acyl lipid-related enzymes. Then, the localization of 113 of these enzymes was analyzed by GFP-based techniques. We found that most of the predictions on the subcellular localization by existing tools gave erroneous results, probably because these tools had been tuned for plants or green algae. The experimental data in the present study as well as the data reported before in our laboratory will constitute a good training set for tuning these tools. The lipid metabolic map thus constructed show that the lipid metabolic pathways in the red alga are essentially similar to those in A. thaliana, except that the number of enzymes catalyzing individual reactions is quite limited. The absence of fatty acid desaturation to produce oleic and linoleic acids within the plastid, however, highlights the central importance of desaturation and acyl editing in the endoplasmic reticulum, for the synthesis of plastid lipids as well as other cellular lipids. Additionally, some notable characteristics of lipid metabolism in C. merolae were found. For example, phosphatidylcholine is synthesized by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine as in yeasts. It is possible that a single 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase is involved in the condensation reactions of fatty acid

  9. Identification and fine mapping of nuclear and nucleolar localization signals within the human ribosomal protein S17.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Kenney

    Full Text Available Human ribosomal protein S17 (RPS17 is mutated in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA, a bone marrow disorder that fails to produce sufficient red blood cells leading to anemia. Recently, an RPS17 protein sequence was also found to be naturally inserted in the genome of hepatitis E virus (HEV from patients chronically-infected by HEV. The role of RPS17 in HEV replication and pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of knowledge about how RPS17 functions at a molecular level. Understanding the biological function of RPS17 is critical for elucidating its role in virus infection and DBA disease processes. In this study we probed the subcellular distribution of normal and mutant RPS17 proteins in a human liver cell line (Huh7. RPS17 was primarily detected within the nucleus, and more specifically within the nucleoli. Using a transient expression system in which RPS17 or truncations were expressed as fusions with enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP, we were able to identify and map, for the first time, two separate nuclear localization signals (NLSs, one to the first 13 amino acids of the amino-terminus of RPS17 and the other within amino acids 30-60. Additionally, we mapped amino acid sequences required for nucleolar accumulation of RPS17 to amino acids 60-70. Amino acids 60-70 possess a di-RG motif that may be necessary for nucleolar retention of RPS17. The results from this study enhance our knowledge of RSP17 and will facilitate future mechanistic studies about the roles of RSP17 in hepatitis E and DBA disease processes.

  10. Characterization of Leptin Intracellular Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Walum

    2009-12-01

    to engage a monensin and bafilomycin sensitive degradation process in lysosomes. Together, our results provide novel data concerning the uptake, intracellular localization and transport of leptin.

  11. 栅格地图中基于改进粒子滤波的SLAM%Simultaneous localization and map building based on improved particle filter in grid map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏丽颖; 王琨; 余跃庆

    2011-01-01

    针对移动机器人在未知环境中导航时由于机器人本身位置不确定、所处环境不可预知等问题,提出了一种在栅格地图中基于改进粒子滤波的SLAM定位算法.首先利用贝叶斯规则更新环境信息;然后利用改进粒子滤波对机器人进行定位,地图更新和机器人定位交替进行,直到将整个环境探测完毕.仿真结果表明:该算法在SLAM中增强了实时性,比较精确地估计出机器人的位姿,同时创建的栅格地图具有较高的精度,为机器人定位与地图构建的研究提供了一种可行性方案.%When a mobile robot navigates in unknown environment, the location of the robot is unknown and the environment information is also unpredictable. To solve these uncertain problems, the method of simultaneous localization and mapping based on improved particle filter in grid map was presented. Bayes' rules were applied to update environment information and the improved particle filter was applied to the mobile localization. When the robot detects the environment, it updates map information and localizes its position by turns. The simulation result shows the method enhances the real-time performance of the improved algorithm. With the method, the robot localizes itself accurately as well as building grid map with higher accuracy. The proposed algorithm is effective and reliable to realize simultaneous localization and mapping.

  12. Intracellular drug release nanosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Meng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elicit therapeutic effects, many drugs including small molecule anticancer drugs, proteins, siRNA, and DNA have to be delivered and released into the specific cellular compartments typically the cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells. Intracellular environment-responsive nanosystems that exhibit good extracellular stability while rapidly releasing drugs inside cancer cells have been actively pursued for effective cancer therapy. Here, we highlight novel designs of smart nanosystems that release drugs in response to an intracellular biological signal of cancer cells such as acidic pH in endo/lysosomal compartments, enzymes in lysosomes, and redox potential in cytoplasm and the cell nucleus.

  13. Mapping local structural perturbations in the native state of stefin B (cystatin B under amyloid forming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eParamore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unlike a number of amyloid-forming proteins, stefins, in particular stefin B (cystatin B form amyloids under conditions where the native state predominates. In order to trigger oligomerization processes, the stability of the protein needs to be compromised, favoring structural re-arrangement however, accelerating fibril formation is not a simple function of protein stability. We report here on how optimal conditions for amyloid formation lead to the destabilization of dimeric and tetrameric states of the protein in favor of the monomer. Small, highly localized structural changes can be mapped out that allow us to visualize directly areas of the protein which eventually become responsible for triggering amyloid formation. These regions of the protein overlap with the Cu (II-binding sites which we identify here for the first time. We hypothesize that in vivo modulators of amyloid formation may act similarly to painstakingly optimized solvent conditions developed in vitro. We discuss these data in the light of current structural models of stefin B amyloid fibrils based on H-exchange data, where the detachment of the helical part and the extension of loops were observed.

  14. Identifying Local Scale Climate Zones of Urban Heat Island from HJ-1B Satellite Data Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C. Z.; Blaschke, T.

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing acceleration of urbanization, the degeneration of the environment and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) has attracted more and more attention. Quantitative delineation of UHI has become crucial for a better understanding of the interregional interaction between urbanization processes and the urban environment system. First of all, our study used medium resolution Chinese satellite data-HJ-1B as the Earth Observation data source to derive parameters, including the percentage of Impervious Surface Areas, Land Surface Temperature, Land Surface Albedo, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, and object edge detector indicators (Mean of Inner Border, Mean of Outer border) in the city of Guangzhou, China. Secondly, in order to establish a model to delineate the local climate zones of UHI, we used the Principal Component Analysis to explore the correlations between all these parameters, and estimate their contributions to the principal components of UHI zones. Finally, depending on the results of the PCA, we chose the most suitable parameters to classify the urban climate zones based on a Self-Organization Map (SOM). The results show that all six parameters are closely correlated with each other and have a high percentage of cumulative (95%) in the first two principal components. Therefore, the SOM algorithm automatically categorized the city of Guangzhou into five classes of UHI zones using these six spectral, structural and climate parameters as inputs. UHI zones have distinguishable physical characteristics, and could potentially help to provide the basis and decision support for further sustainable urban planning.

  15. An augmented parametric response map with consideration of image registration error: towards guidance of locally adaptive radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Anthony; Chen, Jeff; Ward, Aaron D.; Gaede, Stewart; Lee, Ting-Yim; Wong, Eugene

    2014-11-01

    Parametric response map (PRM) analysis is a voxel-wise technique for predicting overall treatment outcome, which shows promise as a tool for guiding personalized locally adaptive radiotherapy (RT). However, image registration error (IRE) introduces uncertainty into this analysis which may limit its use for guiding RT. Here we extend the PRM method to include an IRE-related PRM analysis confidence interval and also incorporate multiple graded classification thresholds to facilitate visualization. A Gaussian IRE model was used to compute an expected value and confidence interval for PRM analysis. The augmented PRM (A-PRM) was evaluated using CT-perfusion functional image data from patients treated with RT for glioma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Known rigid IREs were simulated by applying one thousand different rigid transformations to each image set. PRM and A-PRM analyses of the transformed images were then compared to analyses of the original images (ground truth) in order to investigate the two methods in the presence of controlled IRE. The A-PRM was shown to help visualize and quantify IRE-related analysis uncertainty. The use of multiple graded classification thresholds also provided additional contextual information which could be useful for visually identifying adaptive RT targets (e.g. sub-volume boosts). The A-PRM should facilitate reliable PRM guided adaptive RT by allowing the user to identify if a patient’s unique IRE-related PRM analysis uncertainty has the potential to influence target delineation.

  16. Global similarity with local differences in linkage disequilibrium between the Dutch and HapMap-CEU populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardo, Luba; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; de Geus, Eco; Hottenga, Jouke J.; Sullivan, Patrick; Posthuma, Danielle; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Boomsma, Dorret; Heutink, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The HapMap project has facilitated the selection of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) under the assumption that linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the HapMap populations is similar to the populations under investigation. Earlier reports support

  17. 基于Flex与Google Maps的地方特产Web GIS构建%Local Specialties Web GIS Based on Flex and Google Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何辉; 龚成莹

    2011-01-01

    基于Google Maps API,利用开源Flash框架Flex,PHP及开源数据库MySQL,构建基于Web的地方特产WebGIS展示系统,以电子地图方式灵活地实现了特产分类查询、特产查询展示、行车路线查询等功能.介绍了系统设计思路,主要功能及其实现方法.%Using of open source Flash framework for Flex, PHP and open source database MySQL, This article builds local specialties Web GIS display system based on Google Maps API, achieves the specialty category queries,query specialty show, driving directions inquiry Function with flexible electronic maps, describes the design of system, the main function and its implementation.

  18. Google Maps: You Are Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Librarians use online mapping services such as Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, and others to check traffic conditions, find local businesses, and provide directions. However, few libraries are using one of Google Maps most outstanding applications, My Maps, for the creation of enhanced and interactive multimedia maps. My Maps is a simple and…

  19. Short-term forecasting of high resolution local DNI maps with multiple fish-eye cameras in stereoscopic mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Philippe; Massip, Pierre; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tzoumanikas, Panagiotis; Kuhn, Pascal; Wilbert, Stefan; Schüler, David; Prahl, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Nowcasting of high resolution maps of direct normal irradiance (DNI) is of interest to efficiently operate Concentrated Solar Power plants. The paper presents a state-of-the-art and innovative methodology, developed in the framework of the FP7 DNICast project, to derive nowcasting of DNI maps from fish-eye cameras in stereoscopic mode. This methodology has been applied at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria: fish-eye cameras at distances from each other between 500 m and 900 m have been used in stereoscopic mode to produce nowcasted 1-min time series of decametric DNI maps.

  20. Detection of intracellular phosphatidylserine in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Frances; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2008-03-01

    To demonstrate the intracellular phosphatidylserine (PS) distribution in neuronal cells, neuroblastoma cells and hippocampal neurons expressing green fluorescence protein (GFP)-AnnexinV were stimulated with a calcium ionophore and localization of GFP-AnnexinV was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Initially, GFP-AnnexinV distributed evenly in the cytosol and nucleus. Raising the intracellular calcium level with ionomycin-induced translocation of cytoplasmic GFP-AnnexinV to the plasma membrane but not to the nuclear membrane, indicating that PS distributes in the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. Nuclear GFP-AnnexinV subsequently translocated to the nuclear membrane, indicating PS localization in the nuclear envelope. GFP-AnnexinV also localized in a juxtanuclear organelle that was identified as the recycling endosome. However, minimal fluorescence was detected in any other subcellular organelles including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, and lysosomes, strongly suggesting that PS distribution in the cytoplasmic face in these organelles is negligible. Similarly, in hippocampal primary neurons PS distributed in the inner leaflet of plasma membranes of cell body and dendrites, and in the nuclear envelope. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of intracellular PS localization in living cells, providing an insight for specific sites of PS interaction with soluble proteins involved in signaling processes.

  1. New perspective in the assessment of total intracellular magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Sargenti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg is essential for biological processes, but its cellular homeostasis has not been thoroughly elucidated, mainly because of the inadequacy of the available techniques to map intracellular Mg distribution. Recently, particular interest has been raised by a new family of fluorescent probes, diaza-18-crown-hydroxyquinoline (DCHQ, that shows remarkably high affinity and specificity for Mg, thus permitting the detection of the total intracellular Mg. The data obtained by fluori- metric and cytofluorimetric assays performed with DCHQ5 are in good agreement with atomic absorption spectroscopy, confirming that DCHQ5 probe allows both qualitative and quantitative determination of total intracellular Mg.

  2. Histamine activates p38 MAP kinase and alters local lamellipodia dynamics, reducing endothelial barrier integrity and eliciting central movement of actin fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adderley, Shaquria P; Lawrence, Curtis; Madonia, Eyong; Olubadewo, Joseph O; Breslin, Jerome W

    2015-07-01

    The role of the actin cytoskeleton in endothelial barrier function has been debated for nearly four decades. Our previous investigation revealed spontaneous local lamellipodia in confluent endothelial monolayers that appear to increase overlap at intercellular junctions. We tested the hypothesis that the barrier-disrupting agent histamine would reduce local lamellipodia protrusions and investigated the potential involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and actin stress fiber formation. Confluent monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) expressing green fluorescent protein-actin were studied using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. The protrusion and withdrawal characteristics of local lamellipodia were assessed before and after addition of histamine. Changes in barrier function were determined using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing. Histamine initially decreased barrier function, lamellipodia protrusion frequency, and lamellipodia protrusion distance. A longer time for lamellipodia withdrawal and reduced withdrawal distance and velocity accompanied barrier recovery. After barrier recovery, a significant number of cortical fibers migrated centrally, eventually resembling actin stress fibers. The p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 attenuated the histamine-induced decreases in barrier function and lamellipodia protrusion frequency. SB203580 also inhibited the histamine-induced decreases in withdrawal distance and velocity, and the subsequent actin fiber migration. These data suggest that histamine can reduce local lamellipodia protrusion activity through activation of p38 MAP kinase. The findings also suggest that local lamellipodia have a role in maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Furthermore, we provide evidence that actin stress fiber formation may be a reaction to, rather than a cause of, reduced endothelial barrier integrity.

  3. Evolution of intracellular compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Yoan; Pereira-Leal, José B

    2013-01-15

    Cells compartmentalize their biochemical functions in a variety of ways, notably by creating physical barriers that separate a compartment via membranes or proteins. Eukaryotes have a wide diversity of membrane-based compartments, many that are lineage- or tissue-specific. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that membrane-based compartmentalization of the cytosolic space is observed in multiple prokaryotic lineages, giving rise to several types of distinct prokaryotic organelles. Endosymbionts, previously believed to be a hallmark of eukaryotes, have been described in several bacteria. Protein-based compartments, frequent in bacteria, are also found in eukaryotes. In the present review, we focus on selected intracellular compartments from each of these three categories, membrane-based, endosymbiotic and protein-based, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. We review their diversity and the current theories and controversies regarding the evolutionary origins. Furthermore, we discuss the evolutionary processes acting on the genetic basis of intracellular compartments and how those differ across the domains of life. We conclude that the distinction between eukaryotes and prokaryotes no longer lies in the existence of a compartmentalized cell plan, but rather in its complexity.

  4. Precise localization of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and pseudoachondroplasia mutations by genetic and physical mapping of chromosome 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, R.G.; Cekleniak, J.A. [Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cohn, D.H. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (EDM1), a dominantly inherited chondrodysplasia resulting in peripheral joint deformities and premature osteoarthritis, and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH), a more severe disorder associated with short-limbed dwarfism, have recently been mapped to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19. Chondrocytes from some PSACH patients accumulate lamellar deposits in the endoplasmic reticulum that are immunologically cross-reactive with aggrecan. However, neither aggrecan nor any known candidate gene maps to the EDM1/PSACH region of chromosome 19. Genetic linkage mapping in two lage families had placed the disease locus between D19S215 (19p12) and D19S212 (19p13.1), an interval of about 3.5 Mb. With at least five potentially informative cross-overs within this interval, recombination mapping at greater resolution was undertaken. From cosmids assigned to the region by fluorescence in situ hybridization and contig assembly, dinucleotide repeat tracts were identified for use as polymorphic genetic markers. Linkage data from three new dinucleotide repeat markers from cosmids mapped between D19S212 and D19S215 limit the EDM1/PSACH locus to an interval spanning approximately 2 Mb.

  5. Construction of a genetic map and localization of QTLs for yield traits in tomato by SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; CHEN Huoying; WEI Yutang; ZHUANG Tianming

    2005-01-01

    Using an F2 population derived from the hybrid of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. 'XF 98-7' × Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium LA2184, a SSR genetic linkage map of tomato is constructed. The map contains 112 markers and spans 808.4 cM with an average distance of 7.22 cM between loci. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for first flower node on chromosomes 5 and 11, two QTLs for number of flowers per truss on chromosomes 2 and 5, and five QTLs for fruit weight on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 9 and 12 are identified.

  6. Imaging and controlling intracellular reactions: Lysosome transport as a function of diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells are the ultimate complex environment with intracellular chemical reactions regulated by the local cellular environment. For example, reactants are sequestered into specific organelles to control local concentration and pH, motor proteins transport reactants within the cell, and intracellular vesicles undergo fusion to bring reactants together. Current research in the Payne Lab in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech is aimed at understanding and utilizing this complex environment to control intracellular chemical reactions. This will be illustrated using two examples, intracellular transport as a function of organelle diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers. Using single particle tracking fluorescence microscopy, we measured the intracellular transport of lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles, as a function of diameter as they underwent transport in living cells. Both ATP-dependent active transport and diffusion were examined. As expected, diffusion scales with the diameter of the lysosome. However, active transport is unaffected suggesting that motor proteins are insensitive to cytosolic drag. In a second example, we utilize intracellular complexity, specifically the distinct micro-environments of different organelles, to carry out chemical reactions. We show that catalase, found in the peroxisomes of cells, can be used to catalyze the polymerization of the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. More importantly, we have found that a range of iron-containing biomolecules are suitable catalysts with different iron-containing biomolecules leading to different polymer properties. These experiments illustrate the advantage of intracellular complexity for the synthesis of novel materials.

  7. Localized excitations with and without propagating properties in (2+1)-dimensions obtained by a mapping approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Chun-Long; Fang Jian-Ping; Chen Li-Qun

    2005-01-01

    By means of an extended mapping approach, a new type of variable-separation excitation is derived with two arbitrary functions in a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave system. Based on the derived variable-separation excitation, abundant nonpropagating and propagating solitons such as dromions, rings, peakons and compactons are revealed by selecting appropriate functions in this paper.

  8. Enlightening intracellular complexity of living cells with quantitative phase microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Torres, C.; Laperrousaz, B.; Berguiga, L.; Boyer Provera, E.; Elezgaray, J.; Nicolini, F. E.; Maguer-Satta, V.; Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F.

    2016-03-01

    The internal distribution of refractive indices (RIs) of a living cell is much more complex than usually admitted in multi-shell models. The reconstruction of RI maps from single phase images has rarely been achieved for several reasons: (i) we still have very little knowledge of the impact of internal macromolecular complexes on the local RI and (ii) phase changes produced by light propagation through the sample are mixed with diffraction effects by internal cell bodies. We propose the implementation a 2D wavelet-based contour chain detection method to distinguish internal boundaries thanks to their greatest optical path difference gradients. These contour chains correspond to the highest image phase contrast and follow the local RI inhomogeneities linked to the intracellular structural intricacy. Their statistics and spatial distribution are morphological indicators for distinguishing cells of different origins and to follow their transformation in pathologic situations. We use this method to compare non adherent blood cells from primary and laboratory culture origins, in healthy and pathological situations (chronic myelogenous leukaemia). In a second part of this presentation, we concentrate on the temporal dynamics of the phase contour chains and we discuss the spectral decomposition of their dynamics in both health and disease.

  9. Monocyte intracellular cytokine production during human endotoxaemia with or without a second in vitro LPS challenge : effect of RWJ-67657, a p38 MAP-kinase inhibitor, on LPS-hyporesponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; Fijen, JW; Kobold, ACM; Tulleken, JE; Zijlstra, JG

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of RWJ-67657, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, upon in vivo LPS-induced monocyte cytokine production and upon monocyte LPS-hyporesponsiveness. Thirty minutes before a single injection of LPS (4 ng/kg BW), healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose

  10. Monocyte intracellular cytokine production during human endotoxaemia with or without a second in vitro LPS challenge : effect of RWJ-67657, a p38 MAP-kinase inhibitor, on LPS-hyporesponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Moes, H; Fijen, JW; Kobold, ACM; Tulleken, JE; Zijlstra, JG

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of RWJ-67657, a p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, upon in vivo LPS-induced monocyte cytokine production and upon monocyte LPS-hyporesponsiveness. Thirty minutes before a single injection of LPS (4 ng/kg BW), healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose

  11. 基于Google Maps的甘肃旅游景点Web GIS构建%Gansu local attractions Web GIS build based on Google Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勋; 王娟; 何辉

    2013-01-01

    基于Google Maps API,利用开源Flash框架Flex、PHP及开源数据库MySQL,构建基于Web的地方景点Web GIS展示系统,以电子地图方式灵活地实现了景点分类查询、景点查询展示、行车路线查询等功能。介绍了系统设计思路、主要功能及其实现方法。%Based on Google Maps API , using open source Flash framework Flex , PHP and open source database MySQL , this article builds local attractions Web GIS system , achieve the classification query , query and display attractions , the route query and other functions .The paper introduced the sys-tem design idea , the main function and its implementation method .

  12. Early life exposure to noise alters the representation of auditory localization cues in the auditory space map of the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Adi; Gutfreund, Yoram

    2011-05-01

    The auditory space map in the optic tectum (OT) (also known as superior colliculus in mammals) relies on the tuning of neurons to auditory localization cues that correspond to specific sound source locations. This study investigates the effects of early auditory experiences on the neural representation of binaural auditory localization cues. Young barn owls were raised in continuous omnidirectional broadband noise from before hearing onset to the age of ∼ 65 days. Data from these birds were compared with data from age-matched control owls and from normal adult owls (>200 days). In noise-reared owls, the tuning of tectal neurons for interaural level differences and interaural time differences was broader than in control owls. Moreover, in neurons from noise-reared owls, the interaural level differences tuning was biased towards sounds louder in the contralateral ear. A similar bias appeared, but to a much lesser extent, in age-matched control owls and was absent in adult owls. To follow the recovery process from noise exposure, we continued to survey the neural representations in the OT for an extended period of up to several months after removal of the noise. We report that all the noise-rearing effects tended to recover gradually following exposure to a normal acoustic environment. The results suggest that deprivation from experiencing normal acoustic localization cues disrupts the maturation of the auditory space map in the OT.

  13. Preoperative functional MRI localization of language areas in Chinese patients with brain tumors Validation with intraoperative electrocortical mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hechun Xia; Wei Huang; Liang Wu; Hui Ma; Xiaodong Wang; Xuexin Chen; Shengyu Sun; Xiaoxiong Jia

    2012-01-01

    Ten Chinese patients with brain tumors involving language regions were selected. Preoperative functional MRI was performed to locate Broca's or Wernicke's area, and the cortex that was essential for language function was determined by electrocortical mapping. A site-by-site comparison between functional MRI and electrocortical mapping was performed with the aid of a neuronavigation device. Results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative functional MRI were 80.0% and 85.0% in Broca's area and 66.6% and 85.2% in Wernicke's area, respectively. These experimental findings indicate that functional MRI is an accurate, reliable technique with which to identify the location of Wernicke's area or Broca's area in patients with brain tumors.

  14. Mapping in vitro local material properties of intact and disrupted virions at high resolution using multi-harmonic atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Alexander; Hernando-Pérez, Mercedes; Carrascosa, José L.; de Pablo, Pedro J.; Raman, Arvind

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between viral material properties (stiffness, strength, charge density, adhesion, hydration, viscosity, etc.), structure (protein sub-units, genome, surface receptors, appendages), and functions (self-assembly, stability, disassembly, infection) is of significant importance in physical virology and nanomedicine. Conventional Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) methods have measured a single physical property such as the stiffness of the entire virus from nano-indentation at a few points which severely limits the study of structure-property-function relationships. We present an in vitro dynamic AFM technique operating in the intermittent contact regime which synthesizes anharmonic Lorentz-force excited AFM cantilevers to map quantitatively at nanometer resolution the local electro-mechanical force gradient, adhesion, and hydration layer viscosity within individual φ29 virions. Furthermore, the changes in material properties over the entire φ29 virion provoked by the local disruption of its shell are studied, providing evidence of bacteriophage depressurization. The technique significantly generalizes recent multi-harmonic theory (A. Raman, et al., Nat. Nanotechnol., 2011, 6, 809-814) and enables high-resolution in vitro quantitative mapping of multiple material properties within weakly bonded viruses and nanoparticles with complex structure that otherwise cannot be observed using standard AFM techniques.Understanding the relationships between viral material properties (stiffness, strength, charge density, adhesion, hydration, viscosity, etc.), structure (protein sub-units, genome, surface receptors, appendages), and functions (self-assembly, stability, disassembly, infection) is of significant importance in physical virology and nanomedicine. Conventional Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) methods have measured a single physical property such as the stiffness of the entire virus from nano-indentation at a few points which severely limits the

  15. Rapid and inexpensive whole-genome genotyping-by-sequencing for crossover localization and fine-scale genetic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Beth A; Patel, Vipul; Weigel, Detlef; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2015-01-13

    The reshuffling of existing genetic variation during meiosis is important both during evolution and in breeding. The reassortment of genetic variants relies on the formation of crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes. The pattern of genome-wide CO distributions can be rapidly and precisely established by the short-read sequencing of individuals from F2 populations, which in turn are useful for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Although sequencing costs have decreased precipitously in recent years, the costs of library preparation for hundreds of individuals have remained high. To enable rapid and inexpensive CO detection and QTL mapping using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of large mapping populations, we have developed a new method for library preparation along with Trained Individual GenomE Reconstruction, a probabilistic method for genotype and CO predictions for recombinant individuals. In an example case with hundreds of F2 individuals from two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we resolved most CO breakpoints to within 2 kb and reduced a major flowering time QTL to a 9-kb interval. In addition, an extended region of unusually low recombination revealed a 1.8-Mb inversion polymorphism on the long arm of chromosome 4. We observed no significant differences in the frequency and distribution of COs between F2 individuals with and without a functional copy of the DNA helicase gene RECQ4A. In summary, we present a new, cost-efficient method for large-scale, high-precision genotyping-by-sequencing.

  16. Sensor Fusion of Monocular Cameras and Laser Rangefinders for Line-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM Tasks in Autonomous Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sensor fusion strategy applied for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM in dynamic environments. The designed approach consists of two features: (i the first one is a fusion module which synthesizes line segments obtained from laser rangefinder and line features extracted from monocular camera. This policy eliminates any pseudo segments that appear from any momentary pause of dynamic objects in laser data. (ii The second characteristic is a modified multi-sensor point estimation fusion SLAM (MPEF-SLAM that incorporates two individual Extended Kalman Filter (EKF based SLAM algorithms: monocular and laser SLAM. The error of the localization in fused SLAM is reduced compared with those of individual SLAM. Additionally, a new data association technique based on the homography transformation matrix is developed for monocular SLAM. This data association method relaxes the pleonastic computation. The experimental results validate the performance of the proposed sensor fusion and data association method.

  17. Sensor fusion of monocular cameras and laser rangefinders for line-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) tasks in autonomous mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Rad, Ahmad B; Wong, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a sensor fusion strategy applied for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) in dynamic environments. The designed approach consists of two features: (i) the first one is a fusion module which synthesizes line segments obtained from laser rangefinder and line features extracted from monocular camera. This policy eliminates any pseudo segments that appear from any momentary pause of dynamic objects in laser data. (ii) The second characteristic is a modified multi-sensor point estimation fusion SLAM (MPEF-SLAM) that incorporates two individual Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based SLAM algorithms: monocular and laser SLAM. The error of the localization in fused SLAM is reduced compared with those of individual SLAM. Additionally, a new data association technique based on the homography transformation matrix is developed for monocular SLAM. This data association method relaxes the pleonastic computation. The experimental results validate the performance of the proposed sensor fusion and data association method.

  18. Motor area localization using fMRI-constrained cortical current density reconstruction of movement-related cortical potentials, a comparison with fMRI and TMS mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inuggi, Alberto; Filippi, Massimo; Chieffo, Raffaella; Agosta, Federica; Rocca, Maria A; González-Rosa, Javier J; Cursi, Marco; Comi, Giancarlo; Leocani, Letizia

    2010-01-13

    The localization of human hand primary motor area (M1) has been the object of several studies during the last decades. EEG source analysis, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are non-invasive methods for localizing M1 with good accuracy compared to direct electrocorticography (ECoG) results. EEG sources were reconstructed with Cortical Current Density (CCD) method, allowing to evaluate simultaneous and distributed patterns of activation and to increase accuracy by constraining on information derived from fMRI (fMRI-CCD). The aim of this study was to compare the M1 contribution of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) with TMS and fMRI results and to test the effect of constraints strength, algorithm norm and localization methods over CCD reconstruction. Seven right-handed healthy subjects underwent 64-channel EEG recording of MRCP to right thumb movement, focal TMS mapping of the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle and fMRI during right hand movement. We found fMRI activations, EEG sources and TMS mapping corresponding to the anatomical landmark of the hand area in all subjects with fMRI and TMS center-of-gravity and in almost all subjects using fMRI-CCD with moderate constraint. A significant improvement was found using fMRI-CCD compared to CCD alone. This study confirms the usefulness of multimodal integration of fMRI, EEG and TMS in localizing M1 and the possibility to increase EEG spatial resolution using fMRI information.

  19. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  20. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2015-08-01

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  1. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taekjun; Lee, Donghwa; Kim, Hyungjin; Myung, Hyun

    2015-07-03

    Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach.

  2. From complex B(1) mapping to local SAR estimation for human brain MR imaging using multi-channel transceiver coil at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Schmitter, Sebastian; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Liu, Jiaen; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    Elevated specific absorption rate (SAR) associated with increased main magnetic field strength remains a major safety concern in ultra-high-field (UHF) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. The calculation of local SAR requires the knowledge of the electric field induced by radio-frequency (RF) excitation, and the local electrical properties of tissues. Since electric field distribution cannot be directly mapped in conventional MR measurements, SAR estimation is usually performed using numerical model-based electromagnetic simulations which, however, are highly time consuming and cannot account for the specific anatomy and tissue properties of the subject undergoing a scan. In the present study, starting from the measurable RF magnetic fields (B1) in MRI, we conducted a series of mathematical deduction to estimate the local, voxel-wise and subject-specific SAR for each single coil element using a multi-channel transceiver array coil. We first evaluated the feasibility of this approach in numerical simulations including two different human head models. We further conducted experimental study in a physical phantom and in two human subjects at 7T using a multi-channel transceiver head coil. Accuracy of the results is discussed in the context of predicting local SAR in the human brain at UHF MRI using multi-channel RF transmission.

  3. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Taekjun; Lee, Donghwa; Kim, Hyungjin; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach. PMID:26151203

  4. Graph Structure-Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Using a Hybrid Method of 2D Laser Scan and Monocular Camera Image in Environments with Laser Scan Ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taekjun Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Localization is an essential issue for robot navigation, allowing the robot to perform tasks autonomously. However, in environments with laser scan ambiguity, such as long corridors, the conventional SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping algorithms exploiting a laser scanner may not estimate the robot pose robustly. To resolve this problem, we propose a novel localization approach based on a hybrid method incorporating a 2D laser scanner and a monocular camera in the framework of a graph structure-based SLAM. 3D coordinates of image feature points are acquired through the hybrid method, with the assumption that the wall is normal to the ground and vertically flat. However, this assumption can be relieved, because the subsequent feature matching process rejects the outliers on an inclined or non-flat wall. Through graph optimization with constraints generated by the hybrid method, the final robot pose is estimated. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, real experiments were conducted in an indoor environment with a long corridor. The experimental results were compared with those of the conventional GMappingapproach. The results demonstrate that it is possible to localize the robot in environments with laser scan ambiguity in real time, and the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of the conventional approach.

  5. Medium-range restriction maps of five chromosomes of Leishmania infantum and localization of size-variable regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravel, C.; Wincker, P.; Blaineau, C. [Faculte de Medecine, Montpellier (France)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the localization of the gene coding for human deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) to human chromosome 19p13.11-p13.12 using fluorescence in situ hybridization and somatic cell hybridization analysis. DHPS plays a vital role in the modification of hypusine. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  6. A Novel Edge-Map Creation Approach for Highly Accurate Pupil Localization in Unconstrained Infrared Iris Images

    OpenAIRE

    Vineet Kumar; Abhijit Asati; Anu Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Iris segmentation in the iris recognition systems is a challenging task under noncooperative environments. The iris segmentation is a process of detecting the pupil, iris’s outer boundary, and eyelids in the iris image. In this paper, we propose a pupil localization method for locating the pupils in the non-close-up and frontal-view iris images that are captured under near-infrared (NIR) illuminations and contain the noise, such as specular and lighting reflection spots, eyeglasses, nonunifor...

  7. MR temperature mapping for local drug applications and thermotherapy; MR-Temperaturmapping bei lokaler Medikamentenapplikation und Thermotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moonen, C.T.W. [Victor-Segalen-Univ., Bordeaux (France). Resonance Magnetique des Systemes Biologiques

    2001-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of studies on the effects of local hyperthermia. These studies were performed using Philips' 1.5 T MR system Gyroscan NT with an integrated focussed ultrasound system (FUS). [German] In diesem Artikel berichten wir ueber die Ergebnisse einiger Untersuchungen zu den Auswirkungen einer lokalen Hyperthermie. Diese Untersuchungen wurden mit Hilfe des MR-Systems Gyroscan NT 1,5 T von Philips mit integriertem fokussierten Ultraschallsystem (FUS) durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  8. Localizing F(ST) outliers on a QTL map reveals evidence for large genomic regions of reduced gene exchange during speciation-with-gene-flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Sara; Conte, Gina; Mason-Foley, Casey; Mills, Kelly

    2012-11-01

    Populations that maintain phenotypic divergence in sympatry typically show a mosaic pattern of genomic divergence, requiring a corresponding mosaic of genomic isolation (reduced gene flow). However, mechanisms that could produce the genomic isolation required for divergence-with-gene-flow have barely been explored, apart from the traditional localized effects of selection and reduced recombination near centromeres or inversions. By localizing F(ST) outliers from a genome scan of wild pea aphid host races on a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) map of key traits, we test the hypothesis that between-population recombination and gene exchange are reduced over large 'divergence hitchhiking' (DH) regions. As expected under divergence hitchhiking, our map confirms that QTL and divergent markers cluster together in multiple large genomic regions. Under divergence hitchhiking, the nonoutlier markers within these regions should show signs of reduced gene exchange relative to nonoutlier markers in genomic regions where ongoing gene flow is expected. We use this predicted difference among nonoutliers to perform a critical test of divergence hitchhiking. Results show that nonoutlier markers within clusters of F(ST) outliers and QTL resolve the genetic population structure of the two host races nearly as well as the outliers themselves, while nonoutliers outside DH regions reveal no population structure, as expected if they experience more gene flow. These results provide clear evidence for divergence hitchhiking, a mechanism that may dramatically facilitate the process of speciation-with-gene-flow. They also show the power of integrating genome scans with genetic analyses of the phenotypic traits involved in local adaptation and population divergence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Experiment of Flow Regime Map and Local Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficients Inside Three Dimensional Inner Microfin Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangDu; MingDaoXin

    1999-01-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube,The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper,The flow patterns for the hirizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions.The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically caried out ,The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out.As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes,those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region,38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75%,for the intermittent flow,respectively.The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1\\8-6\\9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  10. Pyridine Nucleotide Cycling and Control of Intracellular Redox State in Relation to Poly (ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Activity and Nuclear Localization of Glutathione during Exponential Growth of Arabidopsis Cells in Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Till K.Pellny; Vittoria Locato; Pedro Diaz Vivancos; Jelena Markovic; Laura De Gara; Federico V.Pallardó; Christine H.Foyer

    2009-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotides,ascorbate and glutathione are major redox metabolites in plant cells,with specific roles in cellular redox homeostasis and the regulation of the cell cycle.However,the regulation of these metabolite pools during exponential growth and their precise functions in the cell cycle remain to be characterized.The present analysis of the abundance of ascorbate,glutathione,and pyridine nucleotides during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture provides evidence for the differential regulation of each of these redox pools.Ascorbate was most abundant early in the growth cycle,but glutathione was low at this point.The cellular ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and reduced glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulphide ratios were high and constant but the pyridine nucleotide pools were largely oxidized over the period of exponential growth and only became more reduced once growth had ceased.The glutathione pool increased in parallel with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities and with increases in the abundance of PARP1 and PARP2 mRNAs at a time of high cell cycle activity as indicated by transcriptome information.Marked changes in the intracellular partitioning of GSH between the cytoplasm and nucleus were observed.Extension of the exponential growth phase by dilution or changing the media led to increases in the glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide,ox-idized form (NAD)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide,reduced form (NADH) pools and to higher NAD/NADH ratios but the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate,oxidized form (NADP)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate,reduced form (NADPH) pool sizes,and NAPD/NADPH ratios were much less affected.The ascorbate,glutathi-one,and pyridine nucleotide pools and PARP activity decreased before the exponential growth phase ended.We concludethat there are marked changes in intracellular redox state during the growth cycle but that redox homeostasis is main-rained by interplay

  11. Pyridine nucleotide cycling and control of intracellular redox state in relation to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and nuclear localization of glutathione during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellny, Till K; Locato, Vittoria; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Markovic, Jelena; De Gara, Laura; Pallardó, Federico V; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-05-01

    Pyridine nucleotides, ascorbate and glutathione are major redox metabolites in plant cells, with specific roles in cellular redox homeostasis and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, the regulation of these metabolite pools during exponential growth and their precise functions in the cell cycle remain to be characterized. The present analysis of the abundance of ascorbate, glutathione, and pyridine nucleotides during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture provides evidence for the differential regulation of each of these redox pools. Ascorbate was most abundant early in the growth cycle, but glutathione was low at this point. The cellular ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and reduced glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulphide ratios were high and constant but the pyridine nucleotide pools were largely oxidized over the period of exponential growth and only became more reduced once growth had ceased. The glutathione pool increased in parallel with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities and with increases in the abundance of PARP1 and PARP2 mRNAs at a time of high cell cycle activity as indicated by transcriptome information. Marked changes in the intracellular partitioning of GSH between the cytoplasm and nucleus were observed. Extension of the exponential growth phase by dilution or changing the media led to increases in the glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form (NAD)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) pools and to higher NAD/NADH ratios but the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, oxidized form (NADP)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) pool sizes, and NAPD/NADPH ratios were much less affected. The ascorbate, glutathione, and pyridine nucleotide pools and PARP activity decreased before the exponential growth phase ended. We conclude that there are marked changes in intracellular redox state during the growth cycle but that redox homeostasis is

  12. Localizing epileptogenic regions in partial epilepsy using three-dimensional statistical parametric maps of background EEG source spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Kenneth; Raghavan, Manoj; Isenhart, Robert; Howard, Bryant; Doyle, Werner; John, Roy; Prichep, Leslie

    2008-02-01

    This preliminary study sought to localize epileptogenic regions in patients with partial epilepsy by analysis of interictal EEG activity utilizing variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA), a three-dimensional quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) frequency-domain distributed source modeling technique. The very narrow band (VNB) spectra spanned the frequency range 0.39 Hz to 19.1 Hz, in 0.39 Hz steps. These VNB spectra were compared to normative data and transformed to provide Z-scores for every scalp derivation, and the spatial distributions of the probable EEG generators of the most abnormal values were displayed on slices from a probabilistic MRI atlas. Each voxel was color-coded to represent the significance of the deviation relative to age appropriate normative values. We compared the resulting three-dimensional images to the localization of epileptogenic regions based on invasive intracranial EEG recordings of seizure onsets. The VARETA image indicated abnormal interictal spectral power values in regions of seizure onset identified by invasive monitoring, mainly in delta and theta range (1.5 to 8.0 Hz). The VARETA localization of the most abnormal voxel was congruent with the epileptogenic regions identified by intracranial recordings with regard to hemisphere in all 6 cases, and with regard to lobe in 5 cases. In contrast, abnormal findings with routine EEG agreed with invasive monitoring with regard to hemisphere in 3 cases and with regard to lobe in 2 cases. These results suggest that analysis of background interictal EEG utilizing distributed source models should be investigated further in clinical epilepsy.

  13. Complete genome sequence and integrated protein localization and interaction map for alfalfa dwarf virus, which combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejerman, Nicolás, E-mail: n.bejerman@uq.edu.au [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Giolitti, Fabián; Breuil, Soledad de; Trucco, Verónica; Nome, Claudia; Lenardon, Sergio [Instituto de Patología Vegetal (IPAVE), Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (CIAP), Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria INTA, Camino a 60 Cuadras k 5,5, Córdoba X5020ICA (Argentina); Dietzgen, Ralf G. [Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Summary: We have determined the full-length 14,491-nucleotide genome sequence of a new plant rhabdovirus, alfalfa dwarf virus (ADV). Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in the antigenomic orientation of the negative-sense, single-stranded viral RNA, in the order 3′-N-P-P3-M-G-P6-L-5′. The ORFs are separated by conserved intergenic regions and the genome coding region is flanked by complementary 3′ leader and 5′ trailer sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein amino acid sequence indicated that this alfalfa-infecting rhabdovirus is related to viruses in the genus Cytorhabdovirus. When transiently expressed as GFP fusions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, most ADV proteins accumulated in the cell periphery, but unexpectedly P protein was localized exclusively in the nucleus. ADV P protein was shown to have a homotypic, and heterotypic nuclear interactions with N, P3 and M proteins by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. ADV appears unique in that it combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses. - Highlights: • The complete genome of alfalfa dwarf virus is obtained. • An integrated localization and interaction map for ADV is determined. • ADV has a genome sequence similarity and evolutionary links with cytorhabdoviruses. • ADV protein localization and interaction data show an association with the nucleus. • ADV combines properties of both cytoplasmic and nuclear plant rhabdoviruses.

  14. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  15. Functional genomics of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barsy, Marie; Greub, Gilbert

    2013-07-01

    During the genomic era, a large amount of whole-genome sequences accumulated, which identified many hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Rapidly, functional genomics, which is the research domain that assign a function to a given gene product, has thus been developed. Functional genomics of intracellular pathogenic bacteria exhibit specific peculiarities due to the fastidious growth of most of these intracellular micro-organisms, due to the close interaction with the host cell, due to the risk of contamination of experiments with host cell proteins and, for some strict intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydia, due to the absence of simple genetic system to manipulate the bacterial genome. To identify virulence factors of intracellular pathogenic bacteria, functional genomics often rely on bioinformatic analyses compared with model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The use of heterologous expression is another common approach. Given the intracellular lifestyle and the many effectors that are used by the intracellular bacteria to corrupt host cell functions, functional genomics is also often targeting the identification of new effectors such as those of the T4SS of Brucella and Legionella.

  16. Mapping of the nuclear localization signals in open reading frame 2 protein from porcine circovirus type 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangbing Shuai; Wei Wei; Lingli Jiang; Xiaoliang Li; Ning Chen; Weihuan Fang

    2008-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) contains two major open reading frames encoding the replication-associated proteins and the major structural capsid (Cap) protein.PCV1 Cap has an N-terminus carrying several potential monopartite or bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLS).The contribution of these partially overlapping motifs to nuclear importing was identified by expression of mutated PCV1 Cap versions fused to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).The Cterminus truncated PCV1 Cap-EGFP was localized in nuclei of PK-15 cells similar to the wild-type PCV1 Cap-EGFP,whereas truncation of the N-terminus rendered the fusion protein distributed into cytoplasm,indicating that the nuclear import of PCV1 Cap was efficiently mediated by its N-terminal region.Substitutions of basic residues in stretches 9RRRR12 or the right part of 25RRPYLAHPAFRNRYRWRRK43 resulted in a diffused distribution of the fusion protein in both nuclei and cytoplasm,indicating that the two NLSs were responsible for restricted nuclear targeting of PCV1 Cap.

  17. About Non-Line-Of-Sight Satellite Detection and Exclusion in a 3D Map-Aided Localization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Peyret

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable GPS positioning in city environment is a key issue: actually, signals are prone to multipath, with poor satellite geometry in many streets. Using a 3D urban model to forecast satellite visibility in urban contexts in order to improve GPS localization is the main topic of the present article. A virtual image processing that detects and eliminates possible faulty measurements is the core of this method. This image is generated using the position estimated a priori by the navigation process itself, under road constraints. This position is then updated by measurements to line-of-sight satellites only. This closed-loop real-time processing has shown very first promising full-scale test results.

  18. Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, L P; Holz, D E; Farr, W M; Price, L R; Raymond, V; Cenko, S B; Gehrels, N; Cannizzo, J; Kasliwal, M M; Nissanke, S; Coughlin, M; Farr, B; Urban, Alex L; Vitale, S; Veitch, J; Graff, P; Berry, C P L; Mohapatra, S; Mandel, I

    2016-01-01

    Advanced LIGO discovered gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger in September 2015 and may soon observe gravitational waves from neutron-star binary mergers. There is considerable interest in searching for their electromagnetic counterparts, though they are expected to be faint and fade rapidly and gravitational wave position uncertainties are as coarse as hundreds of square degrees. Since LIGO's sensitivity to binary neutron stars is limited to the local Universe, the area on the sky that must be searched could be reduced by weighting positions by mass, luminosity, or star formation in nearby galaxies. Since gravitational-wave observations provide information about luminosity distance, combining the reconstructed volume with sky positions and redshifts of galaxies could even more dramatically reduce the area to search. A key missing ingredient has been a rapid gravitational-wave parameter estimation algorithm that reconstructs the full distribution of sky location and distance. We demonstrate the...

  19. Local Environment Recognition System Using Modified SURF-Based 3D Panoramic Environment Map for Obstacle Avoidance of a Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Koo Kang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a local environment recognition system for obstacle avoidance. In vision systems, obstacles that are located beyond the Field of View (FOV cannot be detected precisely. To deal with the FOV problem, we propose a 3D Panoramic Environment Map (PEM using a Modified SURF algorithm (MSURF. Moreover, in order to decide the avoidance direction and motion automatically, we also propose a Complexity Measure (CM and Fuzzy-Logic-based Avoidance Motion Selector (FL-AMS. The CM is utilized to decide an avoidance direction for obstacles. The avoidance motion is determined using FL-AMS, which considers environmental conditions such as the size of obstacles and available space. The proposed system is applied to a humanoid robot built by the authors. The results of the experiment show that the proposed method can be effectively applied to a practical environment.

  20. The Progress of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Mobile Robot%移动机器人同时定位与地图创建研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗荣华; 洪炳镕

    2004-01-01

    对移动机器人的同时定位与地图创建(Simultaneous Localization and Mapping) 的最新研究进行了综述.指出SLAM面临的问题,介绍了SLAM的基本实现方法.通过对各种改进的SLAM实现方法的性能对比,详尽地分析了如何降低SLAM的复杂度、提高SLAM的鲁棒性等关键技术问题,同时对多机器人协作的SLAM也进行了论述.探讨了SLAM的研究与发展方向.

  1. Supplement: Going the Distance: Mapping Host Galaxies of LIGO and Virgo Sources in Three Dimensions Using Local Cosmography and Targeted Follow-up

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, L P; Holz, D E; Farr, W M; Price, L R; Raymond, V; Cenko, S B; Gehrels, N; Cannizzo, J; Kasliwal, M M; Nissanke, S; Coughlin, M; Farr, B; Urban, Alex L; Vitale, S; Veitch, J; Graff, P; Berry, C P L; Mohapatra, S; Mandel, I

    2016-01-01

    This is an online supplement to https://arxiv.org/abs/1603.07333 . In the main Letter, we demonstrated a rapid algorithm for obtaining joint three-dimensional estimates of sky location and luminosity distance from observations of binary neutron star mergers with Advanced LIGO and Virgo. We argued that combining the reconstructed volumes with positions and redshifts of possible host galaxies can provide large-aperture but small field of view instruments with a manageable list of targets to search for optical or infrared emission. In this Supplement, we document the new HEALPix-based file format for 3D localizations of gravitational wave transients. We include Python sample code to show the reader how to perform simple manipulations of the 3D sky maps and extract ranked lists of likely host galaxies. Finally, we include mathematical details of the rapid volume reconstruction algorithm.

  2. 单目视觉同步定位与地图创建方法综述%A survey of monocular simultaneous localization and mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾照鹏; 刘宏

    2015-01-01

    随着计算机视觉技术的发展,基于单目视觉的同步定位与地图创建( monocular SLAM)逐渐成为计算机视觉领域的热点问题之一。介绍了单目视觉SLAM方法的分类,从视觉特征检测与匹配、数据关联的优化、特征点深度的获取、地图的尺度控制几个方面阐述了单目视觉SLAM研究的发展现状。最后,介绍了常见的单目视觉与其他传感器结合的SLAM方法,并探讨了单目视觉SLAM未来的研究方向。%With the development of computer vision technology, monocular simultaneous localization and mapping ( monocular SLAM) has gradually become one of the hot issues in the field of computer vision.This paper intro-duces the monocular vision SLAM classification that relates to the present status of research in monocular SLAM methods from several aspects, including visual feature detection and matching, optimization of data association, depth acquisition of feature points, and map scale control.Monocular SLAM methods combining with other sensors are reviewed and significant issues needing further study are discussed.

  3. Effects of non-local diffusion on structural MRI preprocessing and default network mapping: statistical comparisons with isotropic/anisotropic diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Nian Zuo

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging community usually employs spatial smoothing to denoise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data, e.g., Gaussian smoothing kernels. Such an isotropic diffusion (ISD based smoothing is widely adopted for denoising purpose due to its easy implementation and efficient computation. Beyond these advantages, Gaussian smoothing kernels tend to blur the edges, curvature and texture of images. Researchers have proposed anisotropic diffusion (ASD and non-local diffusion (NLD kernels. We recently demonstrated the effect of these new filtering paradigms on preprocessing real degraded MRI images from three individual subjects. Here, to further systematically investigate the effects at a group level, we collected both structural and functional MRI data from 23 participants. We first evaluated the three smoothing strategies' impact on brain extraction, segmentation and registration. Finally, we investigated how they affect subsequent mapping of default network based on resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI data. Our findings suggest that NLD-based spatial smoothing maybe more effective and reliable at improving the quality of both MRI data preprocessing and default network mapping. We thus recommend NLD may become a promising method of smoothing structural MRI images of R-fMRI pipeline.

  4. 基于局部子图匹配的SLAM方法%A New Solution to SLAM Problem Based on Local Map Matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁帅华; 陈雄; 韩建达

    2009-01-01

    针对现有的SLAM解决方法在机器人被"绑架"时失效的问题,提出了基于局部子图匹配的方法.该方法对现有的SLAM解决构架进行了改进,提出交点最优匹配的特征相关算法,并且将奇异值分解方法引入机器人定位.最后,在结构化环境下将本方法和基于扩展卡尔曼滤波器的方法进行比较,讨论了基于局部了图匹配的方法在结构化环境中解决机器人"绑架"问题的有效性和可行性.%For the kidnapped robot problem in which most current SLAM (simultaneous localization and map building) approaches are invalid, a new solution based on the matching of local sub-graphs is proposed. The presented approach improves the architecture of current SLAM problems, provides a new feature association algorithm based on optimized vertex matching, and introduces a singular value decomposition method into robot localization. In the end, the presented approach and the EKF (extended Kalman filtering) approach are compared in structured environment, and the discussion are made in the term of the feasibility and the effectiveness of this approach based on local sub-graph matching method for the kidnapped robot problem in structured environment.

  5. A State-of-the-Art Review on Mapping and Localization of Mobile Robots Using Omnidirectional Vision Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Payá

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the field of mobile robotics is experiencing a quick evolution, and a variety of autonomous vehicles is available to solve different tasks. The advances in computer vision have led to a substantial increase in the use of cameras as the main sensors in mobile robots. They can be used as the only source of information or in combination with other sensors such as odometry or laser. Among vision systems, omnidirectional sensors stand out due to the richness of the information they provide the robot with, and an increasing number of works about them have been published over the last few years, leading to a wide variety of frameworks. In this review, some of the most important works are analysed. One of the key problems the scientific community is addressing currently is the improvement of the autonomy of mobile robots. To this end, building robust models of the environment and solving the localization and navigation problems are three important abilities that any mobile robot must have. Taking it into account, the review concentrates on these problems; how researchers have addressed them by means of omnidirectional vision; the main frameworks they have proposed; and how they have evolved in recent years.

  6. Nuclear Localization Signal and p53 Binding Site in MAP/ERK Kinase Kinase 1 (MEKK1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipps, Elizabeth; Protzman, April; Muhi, M. Zubayed; Ando, Shoko; Calvet, James P.; Islam, M. Rafiq

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that Mekk1 translocates to the nucleus, interacts with tumor suppressor protein p53 and co-represses PKD1 transcription via an atypical p53 binding site on the minimal PKD1 promoter (JBC 285:38818-38831, 2010). In this study, we report the mechanisms of Mekk1 nuclear transport and p53 binding. Using GFP-linked constitutively active-Mekk1 (CA-Mekk1) and a deletion strategy, we identified a nuclear localization signal (HRDVK) located at amino acid (aa) residues 1349–1353 in the C-terminal Mekk1 catalytic domain. Deletion of this sequence in CA-Mekk1 and full-length Mekk1 significantly reduced their nuclear translocation in both HEK293T and COS-1 cells. Using co-immunoprecipitation we identified an adjacent sequence (GANLID, aa 1354–1360) in Mekk1 responsible for p53 binding. Deletion of this sequence markedly reduced the interaction of Mekk1 with p53. Mekk1 does not appear to affect phosphorylation of Ser15, located in the Mdm2 interaction site, or other Ser residues in p53. However, Mekk1 mediates p53 protein stability in the presence of Mdm2 and reduces p53 ubiquitination, suggesting an interference with Mdm2-mediated degradation of p53 by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. PMID:26018553

  7. Nano-Localized Thermal Analysis and Mapping of Surface and Sub-Surface Thermal Properties Using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria J; Amaral, Joao S; Silva, Nuno J O; Amaral, Vitor S

    2016-12-01

    Determining and acting on thermo-physical properties at the nanoscale is essential for understanding/managing heat distribution in micro/nanostructured materials and miniaturized devices. Adequate thermal nano-characterization techniques are required to address thermal issues compromising device performance. Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is a probing and acting technique based on atomic force microscopy using a nano-probe designed to act as a thermometer and resistive heater, achieving high spatial resolution. Enabling direct observation and mapping of thermal properties such as thermal conductivity, SThM is becoming a powerful tool with a critical role in several fields, from material science to device thermal management. We present an overview of the different thermal probes, followed by the contribution of SThM in three currently significant research topics. First, in thermal conductivity contrast studies of graphene monolayers deposited on different substrates, SThM proves itself a reliable technique to clarify the intriguing thermal properties of graphene, which is considered an important contributor to improve the performance of downscaled devices and materials. Second, SThM's ability to perform sub-surface imaging is highlighted by thermal conductivity contrast analysis of polymeric composites. Finally, an approach to induce and study local structural transitions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga thin films using localized nano-thermal analysis is presented.

  8. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  9. Metallochaperones regulate intracellular copper levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Lee Pang

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu is an important enzyme co-factor that is also extremely toxic at high intracellular concentrations, making active efflux mechanisms essential for preventing Cu accumulation. Here, we have investigated the mechanistic role of metallochaperones in regulating Cu efflux. We have constructed a computational model of Cu trafficking and efflux based on systems analysis of the Cu stress response of Halobacterium salinarum. We have validated several model predictions via assays of transcriptional dynamics and intracellular Cu levels, discovering a completely novel function for metallochaperones. We demonstrate that in addition to trafficking Cu ions, metallochaperones also function as buffers to modulate the transcriptional responsiveness and efficacy of Cu efflux. This buffering function of metallochaperones ultimately sets the upper limit for intracellular Cu levels and provides a mechanistic explanation for previously observed Cu metallochaperone mutation phenotypes.

  10. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2016 by Education and Age Obesity ...

  11. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora) in Ethiopia’s Afar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luizza, Matthew; Wakie, Tewodros; Evangelista, Paul; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine) in Ethiopia’s Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80) and the final model (test AUC = 0.96). Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local ecological

  12. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  13. Intra-cellular Staphylococcus aureus alone causes infection in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hamza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic and recurrent bone infections occur frequently but have not been explained. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus is often found among chronic and recurrent infections and may be responsible for such infections. One possible reason is that S. aureus can internalize and survive within host cells and by doing so, S. aureus can evade both host defense mechanisms and most conventional antibiotic treatments. In this study, we hypothesized that intra-cellular S. aureus could induce infections in vivo. Osteoblasts were infected with S. aureus and, after eliminating extra-cellular S. aureus, inoculated into an open fracture rat model. Bacterial cultures and radiographic observations at post-operative day 21 confirmed local bone infections in animals inoculated with intra-cellular S. aureus within osteoblasts alone. We present direct in vivo evidence that intra-cellular S. aureus could be sufficient to induce bone infection in animals; we found that intra-cellular S. aureus inoculation of as low as 102 colony forming units could induce severe bone infections. Our data may suggest that intra-cellular S. aureus can “hide” in host cells during symptom-free periods and, under certain conditions, they may escape and lead to infection recurrence. Intra-cellular S. aureus therefore could play an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, especially those chronic and recurrent infections in which disease episodes may be separated by weeks, months, or even years.

  14. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M

    2013-06-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities.

  15. Cluster analysis of social and environment inequalities of infant mortality. A spatial study in small areas revealed by local disease mapping in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Cindy M.; Deguen, Severine; Lalloue, Benoit; Blanchard, Olivier; Beaugard, Charles; Troude, Florence; Navier, Denis Zmirou; Vieira, Verónica M.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping spatial distributions of disease occurrence can serve as a useful tool for identifying exposures of public health concern. Infant mortality is an important indicator of the health status of a population. Recent literature suggests that neighborhood deprivation status can modify the effect of air pollution on preterm delivery, a known risk factor for infant mortality. We investigated the effect of neighborhood social deprivation on the association between exposure to ambient air NO2 and infant mortality in the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas, north and center of France, respectively, between 2002 and 2009. We conducted an ecological study using a neighborhood deprivation index estimated at the French census block from the 2006 census data. Infant mortality data were collected from local councils and geocoded using the address of residence. We generated maps using generalized additive models, smoothing on longitude and latitude while adjusting for covariates. We used permutation tests to examine the overall importance of location in the model and identify areas of increased and decreased risk. The average death rate was 4.2‰ and 4.6‰ live births for the Lille and Lyon metropolitan areas during the period. We found evidence of statistically significant precise clusters of elevated infant mortality for Lille and an east-west gradient of infant mortality risk for Lyon. Exposure to NO2 did not explain the spatial relationship. The Lille MA, socioeconomic deprivation index explained the spatial variation observed. These techniques provide evidence of clusters of significantly elevated infant mortality risk in relation with the neighborhood socioeconomic status. This method could be used for public policy management to determine priority areas for interventions. Moreover, taking into account the relationship between social and environmental exposure may help identify areas with cumulative inequalities. PMID:23563257

  16. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling as a possible solution to increase access to drinking water in Africa through integration of systematized GIS data and local knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussi, Fabio; Alvino, Roberta; Caruba, Massimo; Galimberti, Luca; Marzan, Ignacio; Tarrason y Cerda', David; Sabatini, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    In several African countries water supply is still largely a huge problem. In order to achieve MDG for water supply, UNICEF is promoting manual drilling in Africa. Manual drilling refers to those techniques of drilling boreholes for groundwater exploitation using human or animal power (not mechanized equipment). These techniques are well known in countries with large alluvial deposits (India, Nepal, Bangladesh, etc). They are cheaper than mechanized boreholes, easy to implement as the equipment is locally done, able to provide clean water if correctly applied. But manual drilling is feasible only where suitable hydrogeological conditions are met: - the shallow geological layers are not too hard (soft sediments or rocks having limited resistance) and have good permeability; - the depth where it is possible to find exploitable water is limited (in this study we assumed no deeper than 25 m). For this reason mapping of suitable zone for manual drilling has been the first step in UNICEF program already completed in 15 countries. this paper explains the general methodology for the identification of suitable zones at country level The methodology is based in the integration of different information (maps, reports, database) already existing in each country, together with interview of local technicians with direct experience in various regions and limited direct field data collection. General suitability for manual drilling (although adapted to specific condition in each country) is based on the combination of three main parameters: the geological suitability, the suitability according to water depth and the morphological suitability: - Geological suitability is related to the hardness and permeability of the shallow layers of rock formations. It has been obtained through a GIS procedure of simplification and reclassification of geological maps, estimating hardness and permeability of main rock and overlaying weathered layer on the basis of stratigraphic borehole logs

  17. Direct Interaction With Syntaxin 1A Defines The Intracellular Localization of Munc18a%Syntaxin 1A与Munc18a在细胞内的相互作用和定位研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐平勇; 白丽; 田伟; 徐涛

    2005-01-01

    Syntaxin 1A(Syn1A)和Munc18a蛋白在囊泡转运和分泌中起着至关重要的作用,然而它们在细胞中分选和转运的分子机制目前尚不清楚.我们用绿色荧光蛋白(EGFP)和红色荧光蛋白(TDimer2)分别标记Syn1A和Munc18a,并用荧光显微技术观察它们在BHK-21和HEK293细胞中的转运和定位.实验结果表明Syn1A主要定位在细胞质膜上,而Munc18a主要分布在胞浆中,但是与Syn1A共表达时能定位到细胞质膜上.删除胞浆部分的Syn1A蛋白不能上膜,提示其胞浆结构域在分选和定位过程中起着重要的作用.%Syntaxin 1A (Syn1 A) and Munc 18a play essential roles in vesicular trafficking and exocytosis. The molecular mechanism underlying the sorting of these two proteins to their physiological sites of action remains poorly understood.Here the localization of syntaxin1A (Syn1A) and Munc18a was analyzed in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. The rat Syn1A gene was fused to the gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Munc18a was labeled with the red fluorescence protein (TDimer2) at its C terminal. The proteins were expressed by transient transfection in either BHK-21 or HEK293 cells. Under fluorescence microscopy, it was shown that Syn1A was shown to be transported to the plasma membrane. While Munc18a exhibited mainly cytosolic distribution when expressed alone. However, upon coexpression with Syn1A, Munc18a is translocated to the plasma membrane. In addition, a N-terminal truncated mutant Syn1A failed to localize at the plasma membrane, suggesting that the cytoplasmic domain of Syn 1A is important for its sorting and localization.

  18. PLSCR1真核表达载体的构建及细胞内定位分析%Construction of the eukaryotic expression vector of PLSCR1 and analysis of its intracellular localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远; 陈英; 张学清; 陈忠民; 田喜凤; 陈晶

    2015-01-01

    分别构建带有myc标签和GFP荧光蛋白的磷脂爬行酶1(PLSCR1)真核表达载体,获得两个融合表达载体,并转入HEK293细胞观察表达情况及细胞内定位,为研究PLSCR1的定位与功能的关系奠定基础。以本实验室保存的Hela cDNA文库为模板,采用PCR技术扩增PLSCR1编码序列,将其分别插入pCMV-Myc-N和pEGFP-C1载体, Western blotting检测其在HEK293中的表达,采用激光共聚焦观察pEGFP-C1融合表达载体在HEK293细胞中定位。通过DNA序列分析,证实了成功构建了PLSCR1真核表达载体,并能在HEK293细胞中实现基因的过表达。成功构建PLSCR1真核表达载体,为进一步研究其功能奠定了基础。%Two eukaryotic expression vectors of phospholipid scramblase 1(PLSCR1)with myc-tag or Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), were constructed to obtain two fusion expression vectors, which were transfected to HEK293 cell, to observe the expression and cellular localization. The results would lay a foundation for the study of PLSCR1 gene localization and functional relationships. Hela cDNA library preserved in our laboratory was used as template, the PLSCR1 coding sequence was amplified by PCR and respectively inserted into the vector pCMV-Myc-N and pEGFP-C1. The epression was detected in HEK293 by Western blotting and localization of pEGFP-C1 fusion expression vector in HEK293 cells by laser scanning confocal microscopy. As results, the eukaryotic expression vector of PLSCR1 was successfully constructed by the DNA sequence analysis, and over expressed genes in HEK293 cells. It makes good foundation for further study of functions by successfully constructing eukaryotic expression vector of PLSCR1.

  19. From local spectral measurements to maps of vegetation cover and biomass on the Qinghai-Tibet-Plateau: Do we need hyperspectral information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hanna; Lehnert, Lukas W.; Wang, Yun; Reudenbach, Christoph; Nauss, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg

    2017-03-01

    Though the relevance of pasture degradation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is widely postulated, its extent is still unknown. Due to the enormous spatial extent, remote sensing provides the only possibility to investigate pasture degradation via frequently used proxies such as vegetation cover and aboveground biomass (AGB). However, unified remote sensing approaches are still lacking. This study tests the applicability of hyper- and multispectral in situ measurements to map vegetation cover and AGB on regional scales. Using machine learning techniques, it is tested whether the full hyperspectral information is needed or if multispectral information is sufficient to accurately estimate pasture degradation proxies. To regionalize pasture degradation proxies, the transferability of the locally derived ML-models to high resolution multispectral satellite data is assessed. 1183 hyperspectral measurements and vegetation records were performed at 18 locations on the QTP. Random Forests models with recursive feature selection were trained to estimate vegetation cover and AGB using narrow-band indices (NBI) as predictors. Separate models were calculated using NBI from hyperspectral data as well as from the same data resampled to WorldView-2, QuickBird and RapidEye channels. The hyperspectral results were compared to the multispectral results. Finally, the models were applied to satellite data to map vegetation cover and AGB on a regional scale. Vegetation cover was accurately predicted by Random Forest if hyperspectral measurements were used (cross validated R2 = 0.89). In contrast, errors in AGB estimations were considerably higher (cross validated R2 = 0.32). Only small differences in accuracy were observed between the models based on hyperspectral compared to multispectral data. The application of the models to satellite images generally resulted in an increase of the estimation error. Though this reflects the challenge of applying in situ measurements to satellite

  20. Intracellular calcium release modulates polycystin-2 trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyakawa Ayako

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystin-2 (PC2, encoded by the gene that is mutated in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, functions as a calcium (Ca2+ permeable ion channel. Considerable controversy remains regarding the subcellular localization and signaling function of PC2 in kidney cells. Methods We investigated the subcellular PC2 localization by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy in primary cultures of human and rat proximal tubule cells after stimulating cytosolic Ca2+ signaling. Plasma membrane (PM Ca2+ permeability was evaluated by Fura-2 manganese quenching using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. Results We demonstrated that PC2 exhibits a dynamic subcellular localization pattern. In unstimulated human or rat proximal tubule cells, PC2 exhibited a cytosolic/reticular distribution. Treatments with agents that in various ways affect the Ca2+ signaling machinery, those being ATP, bradykinin, ionomycin, CPA or thapsigargin, resulted in increased PC2 immunostaining in the PM. Exposing cells to the steroid hormone ouabain, known to trigger Ca2+ oscillations in kidney cells, caused increased PC2 in the PM and increased PM Ca2+ permeability. Intracellular Ca2+ buffering with BAPTA, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R inhibition with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB or Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibition with KN-93 completely abolished ouabain-stimulated PC2 translocation to the PM. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate intracellular Ca2+-dependent PC2 trafficking in human and rat kidney cells, which may provide new insight into cyst formations in ADPKD.

  1. Simultaneous localization and mapping based on iterated square root cubature Kalman filter%基于迭代平方根CKF的SLAM算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高伟; 张亚; 孙骞; 关劲

    2014-01-01

    In large⁃scale conditions, the large nonlinear error of simultaneous localization and mapping ( SLAM) based on square root cubature Kalman filter ( SRCKF ) is a serious constraint to high positional accuracy. To solve this problem, an improved SLAM algorithm based on iterated square root cubature Kalman filter ( ISRCKF) is proposed. Utilizing the iteration theory, the newest observation information is in full use. Thus the estimation errors of the new algorithm will be decreased noticeably, an accurate environment map will be established and high⁃precision localization will be obtained as well. The simulation results show that the location errors of x axis and y axis are both less than 1�5 m by the new algorithm. The estimating accuracy of the new algorithm is higher than that of SRCKF⁃SLAM, CKF⁃SLAM and EKF⁃SLAM algorithms. Adding different environmental noises, the position errors of ISRCKF are the smallest.%在大尺度环境中,平方根容积卡尔曼同步定位与地图构建算法的非线性误差严重制约了算法的定位精度,为解决这一问题,提出了一种基于迭代平方根容积卡尔曼滤波的改进算法,该算法结合迭代理论,对平方根容积卡尔曼滤波的量测更新过程进行迭代更新,充分利用最新的观测信息,降低滤波的估计误差,从而构建精确的地图并获得高精度的定位信息。仿真实验结果表明,采用本算法后, x轴和y轴方向上的位置误差均在1�5 m以内,估计结果明显优于SRCKF-SLAM、CKF-SLAM和EKF-SLAM算法;添加不同的环境噪声后进行仿真实验,该算法所取得的位置误差相比仍是最小的。利用该算法可以有效地减小非线性误差造成的影响,提高SLAM的定位精度。

  2. 基于SRCKF的移动机器人同步定位与地图构建%SRCKF Based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping of Mobile Robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏健; 傅桂霞; 边信黔; 李娟

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the large computing cost and numerical instabilities of simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), a square root cubature Kalman filter (SRCKF) based SLAM algorithm (SRCKF-SLAM) for mobile robots is designed according to cubature Kalman filter (CKF) principle. The SRCKF-SLAM algorithm accomplishes prediction and observation through motion model and observation model, and it is updated iteratively by propagating square root factors of the mean and covariance of the state variable, which guarantees the symmetry and positive semi-definiteness of the covari-ance matrix and therefore improves numerical accuracy and stability. The simulation experiments show that, compared with the CKF-SLAM algorithm, the root-mean square error of the SRCKF-SLAM algorithm decreases 14%, and the percentage of points in consistency area increases 36%, therefore the SRCKF-SLAM algorithm effectively satisfies the requirement of SLAM navigation of mobile robots.%针对移动机器人同步定位与地图构建(simultaneous localization and mapping,SLAM)存在的计算量大、数值不稳定等问题,结合容积卡尔曼滤波(cubature Kalman filter,CKF)原理,设计了一种基于平方根CKF (square root cubature Kalman filter,SRCKF)的SLAM算法(SRCKF-SLAM).SRCKF-SLAM算法通过移动机器人运动模型和观测模型进行预测和观测,并以目标状态均值和协方差的平方根进行迭代更新,确保了协方差矩阵的对称性和半正定性,改进了数值精度和稳定性.仿真实验结果表明,相比CKF-SLAM算法,SRCKF-SLAM算法的均方根误差降低了14%,一致性区域内点数的百分比提高了36%,SRCKF-SLAM算法有效地满足了移动机器人SLAM导航需求.

  3. Mapping of Cbln1-like immunoreactivity in adult and developing mouse brain and its localization to the endolysosomal compartment of neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Smeyne, Richard J; Bao, Dashi; Parris, Jennifer; Morgan, James I

    2007-11-01

    Cbln1 is a secreted glycoprotein essential for synapse structure and function in cerebellum that is also expressed in extracerebellar structures where its function is unknown. Furthermore, Cbln1 assembles into homomeric complexes and heteromeric complexes with three family members (Cbln2-Cbln4), thereby influencing each other's degradation and secretion. Therefore, to understand its function, it is essential to establish the location of Cbln1 relative to other family members. The localization of Cbln1 in brain was determined using immunohistochemistry and cbln1-lacZ transgenic mice. Cbln1-like immunoreactivity (CLI) was always punctate and localized to the cytoplasm of neurons. The punctate CLI colocalized with cathepsin D, a lysosomal marker, but not with markers of endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi, indicating that Cbln1 is present in neuronal endosomes/lysosomes. This may represent the cellular mechanism underlying the regulated degradation of Cbln1 observed in vivo. Outside the cerebellum, CLI mapped to multiple brain regions that were frequently synaptically interconnected, warranting their analysis in cbln1-null mice. Furthermore, whereas CLI increased dramatically in the cerebellum of cbln3-null mice it was unchanged in extracerebellar neurons. This opens the possibility that other family members that are coexpressed in these areas control Cbln1 levels, potentially by modulating processing in the endolysosomal pathway. During development of cbln1-lacZ mice, beta-galactosidase staining was first observed in proliferating granule cell precursors prior to synaptogenesis and thereafter in maturing and adult granule cells. As cbln3 is only expressed in post-mitotic, post-migratory granule cells, Cbln1 homomeric complexes in precursors and Cbln1-Cbln3 heteromeric complexes in mature granule cells may have distinct functions and turnover.

  4. Expression Analysis and Nuclear Import Study of Full-length Isoforms Importin α as 6x Histidin-tagged Fusion Protein on the Intracellular Localization of Recombinant HBV Core Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Haryanto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Isoform importin α molecules play a central role in the classical nuclear import pathway, that occurs throughthe nuclear pore complex (NPC and typically requires a specific nuclear localization signal (NLS. In this study,it was investigated the role of isoforms importin α in the nuclear import of wild type recombinant hepatitis B viruscore protein (WT rHBc, phosphorylated recombinant HBV core (rHBc and recombinant HBV core without NLSby co-immunoprecipitation. Four recombinant full-length isoforms importin α as 6x histidin-tagged fusion proteinwere expressed and analysed from expression plasmid vectors Rch1, pHM 1969, pHM 1967 and pHM 1965. Theresults indicated that importin α-1, importin α-3, importin α-4 and importin α-5 can be expressed and isolatedfrom E. coli transformed recombinant DNA plasmid as protein in size around 58-60 kDa. By the nuclear transportstudy shown that isoforms importin α are involved in the nuclear import of WT rHBc, phosphorylated rHBc andrHBc without NLS. It also indicated that they have an important role for nuclear transport of from cytoplasm intothe nucleus.Keywords: NPC, NLS, importin α, importin β, isoforms importin α as 6x histidin-tagged fusion protein, WTrHBc, SV40 Tag, co-immunoprecipitation, westernblotting.

  5. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  6. Curriculum Mapping. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This "Focus On" discusses curriculum mapping, a process that allows educators to align the curriculum both within and across grades and to ensure that the curriculum is in line with school, local, and state standards. It outlines the steps of the curriculum mapping process from planning the mapping initiative to creating and editing curriculum…

  7. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Mobile Robots%移动机器人同步定位与地图构建研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恒; 樊晓平; 刘艳丽

    2005-01-01

    同步定位与地图构建(Simultaneous localization and mapping, SLAM)作为能使移动机器人实现全自主导航的工具近来倍受关注.本文对该领域的最新进展进行综述,特别侧重于一些旨在降低计算复杂度的简化算法的分析上,同时对它们进行分类,并指出其优点和不足.本文首先建立了SLAM问题的一般模型,指出了解决SLAM问题的难点;然后详细分析了基于EKF的一些简化算法和基于其他估计思想的方法;最后,对于多机器人SLAM和主动SLAM等前沿课题进行了讨论,并指出了今后的研究方向.

  8. Quantitative mapping of intracellular cations in the human amniotic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Ph.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Razafindrabe, L.; Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.

    1993-05-01

    The effect of magnesium and taurine on the permeability of cell membranes to monovalent cations has been investigated using the Bordeaux nuclear microprobe. PIXE and RBS techniques have been used to provide quantitative measurements and ion distributions in the isolated amniotic membrane. This physiological model for cellular exchanges allowed us to reveal the distribution of most elements involved in cellular pathways and the modifications under different experimental conditions of incubation in physiological fluids. The PIXE microanalysis provided an original viewpoint on these mechanisms. Following this first study, the amnion compact lamina was found to play a role which was not, up to now, taken into account in the interpretation of electrophysiological experimentations. The release of some ionic species, such as K +, from the epithelial cells, during immersion in isotonic fluids, could have been hitherto underestimated.

  9. Cytoskeletal network morphology regulates intracellular transport dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, David; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular transport is essential for maintaining proper cellular function in most eukaryotic cells, with perturbations in active transport resulting in several types of disease. Efficient delivery of critical cargos to specific locations is accomplished through a combination of passive diffusion and active transport by molecular motors that ballistically move along a network of cytoskeletal filaments. Although motor-based transport is known to be necessary to overcome cytoplasmic crowding and the limited range of diffusion within reasonable time scales, the topological features of the cytoskeletal network that regulate transport efficiency and robustness have not been established. Using a continuum diffusion model, we observed that the time required for cellular transport was minimized when the network was localized near the nucleus. In simulations that explicitly incorporated network spatial architectures, total filament mass was the primary driver of network transit times. However, filament traps that r...

  10. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  11. Localization algorithm for wireless sensor networks based on MDS-MAP and nonlinear filtering%基于MDS-MAP和非线性滤波的WSN定位算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岁生; 卢建刚; 楼晓春

    2012-01-01

    New localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks which combine multidimensional scal-ing-map (MDS-MAP) and nonlinear filtering were studied to improve the localization accuracy of sensor nodes. According to the nonlinear relationship between the sensor node distances and the node localized coordinates, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were applied to refine the localized coordinates obtained by the MDS-MAP algorithm. The localization accuracies of these three different localization algorithms, MDS-MAP, MDS-EKF (combination of MDS-MAP and EKF) and MDS-UKF (combination of MDS-MAP and UKF), were compared. Experimental results show that the implementation of nonlinear filtering algorithms (EKF and UKF) can improve the localization accuracy. Under the same conditions, the MDS-UKF localization algorithm achieves the best accuracy and its generated network topology is the closest to the actual network topology.%为提高传感器网络节点的定位精度,对MDS-MAP结合非线性滤波方法的多种传感器网络定位算法进行研究.根据传感器节点间距离与节点定位坐标之间存在的非线性关系,在MDS-MAP定位算法的基础上,引入扩展卡尔曼滤波(EKF)求精算法和不敏卡尔曼滤波(UKF)求精算法,对MDS- MAP求得的节点坐标进行求精.对MDS-MAP定位算法、MDS-MAP和EKF相结合的定位算法(MDS-EKF)、MDS-MAP和UKF相结合的定位算法(MDS-UKF)的定位精度进行比较.实验结果表明:EKF和UKF等非线性滤波方法的应用可以提高定位精度,在相同条件下MDS-UKF定位算法的定位精度更高并且其生成的网络拓扑图最接近于实际网络拓扑图.

  12. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular targeting signals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JIBIN SADASIVAN; MANMEET SINGH; JAYASRI DAS SARMA

    2017-06-01

    Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is localized in the ER or ERGIC compartment and OC43 spike protein is predominantly localized in thelysosome. Differential localization can be explained by signal sequence. The sequence alignment using Clustal Wshows that the signal sequence present at the cytoplasmic tail plays an important role in spike protein localization. Aunique GYQEL motif is identified at the cytoplasmic terminal of OC43 spike protein which helps in localization in thelysosome, and a novel KLHYT motif is identified in the cytoplasmic tail of SARS spike protein which helps in ER orERGIC localization. This study sheds some light on the role of cytoplasmic tail of spike protein in cell-to-cell fusion,coronavirus host cell fusion and subsequent pathogenicity.

  13. 局部颜色映射的彩色夜视算法%Color night vision algorithm based on local color mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱小燕; 张天慈; 王帮峰; 黄圣国

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we put forward a simple and efficient color mapping method to improve the sufficiency of nearly color night vision schemes based on global statistics. First, multi-band images are fused into the three components of an RGB image in terms of a simple linear fusion strategy based on the opponent property of ON-center OFF-surround reception in biological vision. Then a color clustering method is applied to produce color fields in the fused image. The corresponding fields in the reference image are obtained by locating the pixels in the fused image and finding the corresponding pixels in the reference image. Finally, the local mapping in the simplified Lab color space optimizes the match between the night vision and the reference images. Experiments have shown that the proposed scheme can yield a night vision image with a natural daytime color appearance while also improving the speed.%针对现有基于全局统计信息的彩色夜视算法不能较好保持图像目标色彩恒常性的不足,提出一种简单有效的局部自然彩色夜视算法.首先依据人类视觉系统的中心-环绕对抗结构生成伪彩色融合图像;按照不同颜色特征对伪彩色融合图像进行聚类,分割成不同颜色域,参考自然彩色图像中对应域为与融合图像对应位置像素集合;最后在简化Lab空间实现对应域间的局部颜色映射,将参考图像颜色特征传输至融合图像.实验结果表明,本文方法使得夜视图像获得如白天参考图像般自然、真实的效果,有利于提高场景辨识能力;方法执行速度快,便于实时处理.

  14. 基于优化 RBPF 的同时定位与地图构建%Simultaneous localization and mapping implementation based on optimized RBPF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗元; 苏琴; 张毅; 郑潇峰

    2016-01-01

    Based on the optimized Rao‐Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) ,simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM ) for indoor mobile robot was realized .Combining the mobile robot′s motion model and observations model ,a RBPF algorithm based on the optimized hybrid proposal distribution where the annealing parameter was utilized to adjust the proportion was proposed ,making the im‐proved proposal closer to the true state distribution . An adaptive partial rank‐based resampling (APRR) algorithm was designed to conquer the impoverishment of particles after resampling .The im‐proved approach ,based on the robot operation system (ROS) ,ran on the Pioneer3‐DX robot equipped with a URG laser range finder .Experimental results show the improved algorithm can reduce required number of particles ,maintain the diversity of particles ,lower the computational complexity ,and cre‐ate high‐precision 2‐D grid‐map online in different environments .%以优化的Rao‐Blackwellized粒子滤波器(RBPF)为基础,实现了室内移动机器人同时定位与地图构建(SLAM )。结合移动机器人的运动模型和观测模型,设计一种基于退火参数优化混合提议分布的 RBPF 算法,以退火参数调控两者在混合提议分布中的比例,使改进的提议分布更加接近真实状态;针对重采样后粒子退化效应,提出一种基于等级的自适应局部重采样(APRR)算法。在机器人操作系统(ROS)平台上,使用配有URG激光器的Pioneer3‐DX 机器人对改进算法进行实验验证,结果表明:改进算法能减少所需粒子数,保持粒子多样性,降低计算复杂度,在不同环境下在线创建高精度的2‐D栅格地图。

  15. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  16. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A., E-mail: David.Jans@monash.edu

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+} on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery.

  17. Gold nanodome-patterned microchips for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytens, Pieter C; Subramanian, Ananth Z; De Vos, Winnok H; Skirtach, Andre G; Baets, Roel

    2015-12-21

    While top-down substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) offer outstanding control and reproducibility of the gold nanopatterns and their related localized surface plasmon resonance, intracellular SERS experiments heavily rely on gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles often result in varying and uncontrollable enhancement factors. Here we demonstrate the use of top-down gold-nanostructured microchips for intracellular sensing. We develop a tunable and reproducible fabrication scheme for these microchips. Furthermore we observe the intracellular uptake of these structures, and find no immediate influence on cell viability. Finally, we perform a proof-of-concept intracellular SERS experiment by the label-free detection of extraneous molecules. By bringing top-down SERS substrates to the intracellular world, we set an important step towards time-dependent and quantitative intracellular SERS.

  18. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  19. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps, to...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  20. GPS/DR integrated navigation aided by simultaneous localization and mapping%同时定位与制图辅助的GPS/DR组合导航

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程见童; 张为华; 江振宇

    2014-01-01

    Considering the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS)/Dead Reckoning (DR)integrated system degrading dramatically when GPS signal is outage or blocked,a Compressed Extend Kalman Filter (CEKF)-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM)aided GPS/DR integrated navigation method was addressed.The error of DR system was restrained with SLAM correction when the GPS solutions were unavailable.Accordingly,the GPS location corrected the error and improves the uncertainty of SLAM mapping when GPS positioning was accessible.A filter of CEKF-based SLAM/GPS integrated was designed to realize the real time implement of SLAM/GPS in a large scale environment.Compared with the SLAM locating using the real experiment dataset,the SLAM aided GPS/DR integrated method enhanced the system performance of positioning as well as the accuracy of SLAM mapping raised approximate 10m.%针对全球定位系统在信号失锁条件下与航位推算组合导航的系统误差快速累积问题,提出一种基于压缩扩展卡尔曼滤波的同时定位与制图的辅助的全球定位系统/航位推算组合导航方法。该方法利用同时定位与辅助实现运动平台在全球定位系统信号无效时连续稳定导航,抑制航位推算定位误差的累积,并利用全球定位系统定位结果校正同时定位与辅助制图误差,减小地图的不确定性。设计基于压缩扩展卡尔曼滤波的同时定位与辅助/全球定位系统组合滤波器,实现大尺度环境下同时定位与辅助/全球定位系统的实时解算。真实实验数据计算结果分析表明,相对于同时定位与辅助定位结果,同时定位与辅助的全球定位系统/航位推算组合导航可有效提高系统定位性能,使得制图精度提高10m。

  1. Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Aida Dahalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2 is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites’ developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial.

  2. Phosphorylated and Nonphosphorylated PfMAP2 Are Localized in the Nucleus, Dependent on the Stage of Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahalan, Farah Aida; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd; Murtey, Mogana Das; Embi, Mohammed Noor; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Fei Tieng, Lim; Zakaria, Nurul Aiezzah

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, a family of enzymes central to signal transduction processes including inflammatory responses, are a promising target for antimalarial drug development. Our study shows for the first time that the P. falciparum specific MAP kinase 2 (PfMAP2) is colocalized in the nucleus of all of the asexual erythrocytic stages of P. falciparum and is particularly elevated in its phosphorylated form. It was also discovered that PfMAP2 is expressed in its highest quantity during the early trophozoite (ring form) stage and significantly reduced in the mature trophozoite and schizont stages. Although the phosphorylated form of the kinase is always more prevalent, its ratio relative to the nonphosphorylated form remained constant irrespective of the parasites' developmental stage. We have also shown that the TSH motif specifically renders PfMAP2 genetically divergent from the other plasmodial MAP kinase activation sites using Neighbour Joining analysis. Furthermore, TSH motif-specific designed antibody is crucial in determining the location of the expression of the PfMAP2 protein. However, by using immunoelectron microscopy, PPfMAP2 were detected ubiquitously in the parasitized erythrocytes. In summary, PfMAP2 may play a far more important role than previously thought and is a worthy candidate for research as an antimalarial. PMID:27525262

  3. Mapping the mechanome of live stem cells using a novel method to measure local strain fields in situ at the fluid-cell interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Song

    Full Text Available During mesenchymal condensation, the initial step of skeletogenesis, transduction of minute mechanical forces to the nucleus is associated with up or down-regulation of genes, ultimately resulting in formation of the skeletal template and appropriate cell lineage commitment. The summation of these biophysical cues affects the cell's shape and fate. Here, we predict and measure surface strain, in live stem cells, in response to controlled delivery of stresses, providing a platform to direct short-term structure--function relationships and long-term fate decisions. We measure local strains on stem cell surfaces using fluorescent microbeads coated with Concanavalin A. During delivery of controlled mechanical stresses, 4-Dimensional (x,y,z,t displacements of the bound beads are measured as surface strains using confocal microscopy and image reconstruction. Similarly, micro-particle image velocimetry (μ-piv is used to track flow fields with fluorescent microspheres. The measured flow velocity gradient is used to calculate stress imparted by fluid drag at the surface of the cell. We compare strain measured on cell surfaces with those predicted computationally using parametric estimates of the cell's elastic and shear modulus. Finally, cross-correlating stress--strain data to measures of gene transcription marking lineage commitment enables us to create stress--strain--fate maps, for live stem cells in situ. The studies show significant correlations between live stem cell stress--strain relationships and lineage commitment. The method presented here provides a novel means to probe the live stem cell's mechanome, enabling mechanistic studies of the role of mechanics in lineage commitment as it unfolds.

  4. Planar Shape Interpolation Based on Local Injective Mapping%基于局部单射的平面形状插值形变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐飞; 陈中贵

    2016-01-01

    在只给出用简单多边形表示的两输入形状的情况下,实现一种简单易用、自然高效的形状插值方法。首先利用基于形状感知的特征匹配算法生成源形状和目标形状之间的匹配;之后在源形状上构造三角剖分,并通过求解映射到目标形状上的尽量刚体的局部单射得到同构三角剖分;最后利用扭曲有界的插值方法得到中间序列。实验结果表明,该方法构造的形变结果能较好地体现源形状和目标形状的特征对应信息,形变过程自然,扭曲较小。%This paper presents an efficient and easy-to-use planar shape interpolation method, given two input shapes represented by simple polygons. We firstly used a perception-based feature matching algorithm to match the feature points in the source shape with the target shape, then built compatible triangulations by constructing a locally injective mapping between the source and target shapes. Finally, an interpolation method with bounded distortion was adopted to get intermediate frames. Experimental results show that the interpolation results by our method can well reflect the feature correspondences between the source and the target shapes, and the resultant deformation is visually pleasing with less distortion.

  5. [Mapping of road traffic accidents with pedestrians in the territory of a Local Health Unit of Rome through integration of administrative and health data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D; Paone, M; Salvatori, R; Ciaramella, I

    2010-01-01

    The study analyzes the distribution of traffic accidents with injuries that involved pedestrians and occurred in the territory of the Local Health Unit (LHU) Rome B, to identify areas at higher risk and to implement preventive measures. The road traffic injuries (RTI) reports issued by the Municipal police (2003) were examined. Data were linked with those collected by the Regional Emergency Information System (EIS) and processed using the programs ArcGIS, Access and Excel in order to obtain descriptive maps. During the period under review 423 pedestrians were involved in 392 accidents (11.2% of total accidents); 34% suffered serious injuries and 4% died. Of these, 73% were the elderly (> or = 65 years). The hours between 18:00 and 20:00 are the most critical, with an accident rate 3.7 times higher than the average, 6.4-fold in young (Accidents happen, especially on straight roads (66%) or at intersections (22%); failure to comply with traffic lights causes 5% of the events. Municipality V concentrates the highest percentage of accidents (30%). In this municipality, Tiburtina road, in the part closest to the center of the city, is the road at highest risk with a rate of about 7.6 accidents/km (average of municipalities: 0.23/km and value for the entire LHU: 0.19/km). The neighborhoods closer to the center of the city show a higher risk for pedestrians: 1 event per km takes place in the Tuscolano Neighborhood, 0.7/km in Prenestino-Centocelle and 0.5/km in Pietralata-Collatino, all neighborhoods close to roads with high flow and high risk. The survey highlighted some black points of roads on which it will be appropriate to act with specific preventive measures.

  6. What and Where in auditory sensory processing: A high-density electrical mapping study of distinct neural processes underlying sound object recognition and sound localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Leavitt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functionally distinct dorsal and ventral auditory pathways for sound localization (where and sound object recognition (what have been described in non-human primates. A handful of studies have explored differential processing within these streams in humans, with highly inconsistent findings. Stimuli employed have included simple tones, noise bursts and speech sounds, with simulated left-right spatial manipulations, and in some cases participants were not required to actively discriminate the stimuli. Our contention is that these paradigms were not well suited to dissociating processing within the two streams. Our aim here was to determine how early in processing we could find evidence for dissociable pathways using better titrated what and where task conditions. The use of more compelling tasks should allow us to amplify differential processing within the dorsal and ventral pathways. We employed high-density electrical mapping using a relatively large and environmentally realistic stimulus set (seven animal calls delivered from seven free-field spatial locations; with stimulus configuration identical across the where and what tasks. Topographic analysis revealed distinct dorsal and ventral auditory processing networks during the where and what tasks with the earliest point of divergence seen during the N1 component of the auditory evoked response, beginning at approximately 100 ms. While this difference occurred during the N1 timeframe, it was not a simple modulation of N1 amplitude as it displayed a wholly different topographic distribution to that of the N1. Global dissimilarity measures using topographic modulation analysis confirmed that this difference between tasks was driven by a shift in the underlying generator configuration. Minimum norm source reconstruction revealed distinct activations that corresponded well with activity within putative dorsal and ventral auditory structures.

  7. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  8. Origin of the Dutch coastal landscape. Long-term landscape evolution of the Netherlands during the Holocene, described and visualized in national, regional and local palaeogeographical map series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the Origin of the Dutch coastal landscapes during the Holocene. The landscape evolution is visualized in a series of palaeogeographical maps, and the driving mechanisms behind the environmental changes are discussed. The practice to make palaeogeographical map reconstruct

  9. Bullous pemphigoid antigen localization suggests an intracellular association with hemidesmosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westgate, G E; Weaver, A C; Couchman, J R

    1985-01-01

    immunoelectron microscopy using both peroxidase and colloidal gold labeling techniques with patients' sera or IgG, revealed that BPA is associated with hemidesmosomes--putative adhesion structures at the BMZ, based on their similarity in ultrastructure to desmosomes. More specifically BPA was immunolocalized...

  10. Intracellular spatial localization regulated by the microtubule network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available The commonly recognized mechanisms for spatial regulation inside the cell are membrane-bounded compartmentalization and biochemical association with subcellular organelles. We use computational modeling to investigate another spatial regulation mechanism mediated by the microtubule network in the cell. Our results demonstrate that the mitotic spindle can impose strong sequestration and concentration effects on molecules with binding affinity for microtubules, especially dynein-directed cargoes. The model can recapitulate the essence of three experimental observations on distinct microtubule network morphologies: the sequestration of germ plasm components by the mitotic spindles in the Drosophila syncytial embryo, the asymmetric cell division initiated by the time delay in centrosome maturation in the Drosophila neuroblast, and the diffusional block between neighboring energids in the Drosophila syncytial embryo. Our model thus suggests that the cell cycle-dependent changes in the microtubule network are critical for achieving different spatial regulation effects. The microtubule network provides a spatially extensive docking platform for molecules and gives rise to a "structured cytoplasm", in contrast to a free and fluid environment.

  11. Palladium-mediated intracellular chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Rahimi M.; Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Johansson, Emma M. V.; Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M.; Bradley, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Many important intracellular biochemical reactions are modulated by transition metals, typically in the form of metalloproteins. The ability to carry out selective transformations inside a cell would allow researchers to manipulate or interrogate innumerable biological processes. Here, we show that palladium nanoparticles trapped within polystyrene microspheres can enter cells and mediate a variety of Pd0-catalysed reactions, such as allylcarbamate cleavage and Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling. The work provides the basis for the customization of heterogeneous unnatural catalysts as tools to carry out artificial chemistries within cells. Such in cellulo synthesis has potential for a plethora of applications ranging from cellular labelling to synthesis of modulators or inhibitors of cell function.

  12. Invariants for Parallel Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yajun; WU Jiye; FAN Qinshan; HUANG Kezhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric quantities that remain unchanged during parallel mapping (i.e., mapping from a reference curved surface to a parallel surface with identical normal direction). The second gradient operator, the second class of integral theorems, the Gauss-curvature-based integral theorems, and the core property of parallel mapping are used to derive a series of parallel mapping invadants or geometri-cally conserved quantities. These include not only local mapping invadants but also global mapping invari-ants found to exist both in a curved surface and along curves on the curved surface. The parallel mapping invadants are used to identify important transformations between the reference surface and parallel surfaces. These mapping invadants and transformations have potential applications in geometry, physics, biome-chanics, and mechanics in which various dynamic processes occur along or between parallel surfaces.

  13. 基于混合模型的移动机器人同时定位与环境建模%Mixed-model based simultaneous localization and mapping approach for mobile robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房芳; 马旭东; 戴先中

    2009-01-01

    提出一种基于混合地图模型的融合声纳传感器观测信息与里程计信息的同时定位与环境建模(SLAM)方法.该方法用混合模型即栅格地图模型和直线特征地图模型表示环境地图.首先,采用三区域声纳模型以及贝叶斯法则构建栅格地图,并通过在空间和时间上融合不同时刻多个声纳传感器的信息提高地图精度.然后,引入霍夫变换提取直线特征,创建直线特征地图,并通过比较地图中直线段的方向相似性、共线性与交叠性,确定全局与局部地图是否匹配.最后,利用直线特征以及扩展卡尔曼滤波器(EKF),通过状态预测、观测预测、位姿更新3个阶段估计出机器人更新的位姿信息,校正构建的地图模型,从而实现机器人的同时定位与环境地图构建.仿真实验和真实环境实验验证了该算法的可行性与有效性.%A new simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) approach based on a mixed map model using sonar data and odometry information is presented. The mixed model composed of occupancy grids and line maps is utilized to represent the environment map. Firstly, three region models and Bayes' rules are used to construct an occupancy grid map. The map precision is enhanced through fusing the information of several sonar sensors at different times. Then, the Hough transform is introduced to extract line features and the line feature maps are created. The local map and the global map are matched by comparing orientation, collinearity and overlap of the straight-line segment in the maps. Finally, the simultaneous localization and mapping are accomplished with the line features and extended Kalman filter through state prediction, observation prediction and estimation phase, which can estimate the robot pose and correct the map model. The simulation results and the real experimental results indicate the feasibility and validity of this approach.

  14. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distinguishing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  15. Mapping Planetary Volcanic Deposits: Identifying Vents and Distingushing between Effects of Eruption Conditions and Local Lava Storage and Release on Flow Field Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Eppler, D. B.; Skinner, J. A.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J. E.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Whitson, P.; Janoiko, B.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial geologic mapping techniques are regularly used for "photogeologic" mapping of other planets, but these approaches are complicated by the diverse type, areal coverage, and spatial resolution of available data sets. When available, spatially-limited in-situ human and/or robotic surface observations can sometimes introduce a level of detail that is difficult to integrate with regional or global interpretations. To assess best practices for utilizing observations acquired from orbit and on the surface, our team conducted a comparative study of geologic mapping and interpretation techniques. We compared maps generated for the same area in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) in northern Arizona using 1) data collected for reconnaissance before and during the 2010 Desert Research And Technology Studies campaign, and 2) during a traditional, terrestrial field geology study. The operations, related results, and direct mapping comparisons are discussed in companion LPSC abstracts [1-3]. Here we present new geologic interpretations for a volcanic cone and related lava flows as derived from all approaches involved in this study. Mapping results indicate a need for caution when interpreting past eruption conditions on other planetary surfaces from orbital data alone.

  16. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  17. Intracellular pH measurements using perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Michael J; Janjic, Jelena M; Teng, Haibing; O'Hear, Meredith R; Brown, Cortlyn W; Stokum, Jesse A; Schmidt, Brigitte F; Ahrens, Eric T; Waggoner, Alan S

    2013-12-11

    We report the synthesis and formulation of unique perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanoemulsions enabling intracellular pH measurements in living cells via fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. These nanoemulsions are formulated to readily enter cells upon coincubation and contain two cyanine-based fluorescent reporters covalently bound to the PFC molecules, specifically Cy3-PFC and CypHer5-PFC conjugates. The spectral and pH-sensing properties of the nanoemulsions were characterized in vitro and showed the unaltered spectral behavior of dyes after formulation. In rat 9L glioma cells loaded with nanoemulsion, the local pH of nanoemulsions was longitudinally quantified using optical microscopy and flow cytometry and displayed a steady decrease in pH to a level of 5.5 over 3 h, indicating rapid uptake of nanoemulsion to acidic compartments. Overall, these reagents enable real-time optical detection of intracellular pH in living cells in response to pharmacological manipulations. Moreover, recent approaches for in vivo cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) employ intracellular PFC nanoemulsion probes to track cells using (19)F MRI. However, the intracellular fate of these imaging probes is poorly understood. The pH-sensing nanoemulsions allow the study of the fate of the PFC tracer inside the labeled cell, which is important for understanding the PFC cell loading dynamics, nanoemulsion stability and cell viability over time.

  18. Intracellular peptides: From discovery to function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer S. Ferro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptidomics techniques have identified hundreds of peptides that are derived from proteins present mainly in the cytosol, mitochondria, and/or nucleus; these are termed intracellular peptides to distinguish them from secretory pathway peptides that function primarily outside of the cell. The proteasome and thimet oligopeptidase participate in the production and metabolism of intracellular peptides. Many of the intracellular peptides are common among mouse tissues and human cell lines analyzed and likely to perform a variety of functions within cells. Demonstrated functions include the modulation of signal transduction, mitochondrial stress, and development; additional functions will likely be found for intracellular peptides.

  19. Construction of a genetic map with SRAP markers and localization of the gene responsible for the first-flower-node trait in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Junsong; WANG Gang; LI Xiaozun; HE Huanle; WU Aizhong; CAI Run

    2005-01-01

    With an F2 population from the cross of two cucumber inbred lines, S06 and S52, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) was used to construct a genetic linkage map in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ). Sixty-four SRAP primer combinations generated 108 polymorphic bands in the F2 population analysis. The average of polymorphic bands produced by one primer pair was 1.5,and the maximum was 5. Using Mapmaker 3.0, a linkage map was constructed, which consisted of 77 SRAP markers distributed in nine linkage groups (LOD≥3.0) and spanned 1114.2 cM with an average interval of 14.5 cM between markers. The gene for the first-flowernode trait, termed ffn, was mapped to linkage group IX, flanked by DC1EM5 and ME7EM2A at 10.3 cM and 12.1 cM distance, respectively.

  20. Hydrophilic fluorescent nanogel thermometer for intracellular thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, Chie; Okabe, Kohki; Funatsu, Takashi; Harada, Yoshie; Uchiyama, Seiichi

    2009-03-01

    The first methodology to measure intracellular temperature is described. A highly hydrophilic fluorescent nanogel thermometer developed for this purpose stays in the cytoplasm and emits stronger fluorescence at a higher temperature. Thus, intracellular temperature variations associated with biological processes can be monitored by this novel thermometer with a temperature resolution of better than 0.5 degrees C.

  1. Prediction of intracellular exposure bridges the gap between target- and cell-based drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Laurie J.; Wayne, Gareth J.; Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Treyer, Andrea; Lundbäck, Thomas; West, Andy; Hann, Michael M.; Artursson, Per

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate target exposure is a major cause of high attrition in drug discovery. Here, we show that a label-free method for quantifying the intracellular bioavailability (Fic) of drug molecules predicts drug access to intracellular targets and hence, pharmacological effect. We determined Fic in multiple cellular assays and cell types representing different targets from a number of therapeutic areas, including cancer, inflammation, and dementia. Both cytosolic targets and targets localized in subcellular compartments were investigated. Fic gives insights on membrane-permeable compounds in terms of cellular potency and intracellular target engagement, compared with biochemical potency measurements alone. Knowledge of the amount of drug that is locally available to bind intracellular targets provides a powerful tool for compound selection in early drug discovery. PMID:28701380

  2. High-density physical mapping of a 3-Mb region in Xp22.3 and refined localization of the gene for X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, I.; Levilliers, J.; Petit, C. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-03-20

    The study of patients with chromosomal rearrangements has led to the mapping of the gene responsible for X-linked recessive chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX1; MIM 302950) to the distal part of the Xp22.3 region, between the loci PABX and DXS31. To refine this mapping, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig map spanning this region has been constructed. Together with the YAC contig of the pseudo-autosomal region that we previously established, this map covers the terminal 6 Mb of Xp, with an average density of 1 probe every 100 kb. Newly isolated probes that detect segmental X-Y homologies on Yp and Yq suggest multiple complex rearrangements of the ancestral pseudoautosomal region during evolution. Compilation of the data obtained from the study of individuals carrying various Xp22.3 deletions led us to conclude that the CDPX disease displays incomplete penetrance and, consequently, to refine the localization of CDPX1 to a 600-kb interval immediately adjacent to the pseudoautosomal boundary. This interval, in which 12 probes are ordered, provides the starting point for the isolation of CDPX1. 67 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Entropy Rate Maps of Complex Excitable Dynamics in Cardiac Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Schlemmer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of spatiotemporal complexity remains a challenging task. This holds in particular for the analysis of data from fluorescence imaging (optical mapping, which allows for the measurement of membrane potential and intracellular calcium at high spatial and temporal resolutions and, therefore, allows for an investigation of cardiac dynamics. Dominant frequency maps and the analysis of phase singularities are frequently used for this type of excitable media. These methods address some important aspects of cardiac dynamics; however, they only consider very specific properties of excitable media. To extend the scope of the analysis, we present a measure based on entropy rates for determining spatiotemporal complexity patterns of excitable media. Simulated data generated by the Aliev–Panfilov model and the cubic Barkley model are used to validate this method. Then, we apply it to optical mapping data from monolayers of cardiac cells from chicken embryos and compare our findings with dominant frequency maps and the analysis of phase singularities. The studies indicate that entropy rate maps provide additional information about local complexity, the origins of wave breakup and the development of patterns governing unstable wave propagation.

  4. The role of autophagy in the intracellular survival of Campylobacter concisus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Burgos-Portugal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter concisus is an emerging pathogen that has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases. Given the importance of autophagy for the elimination of intracellular bacteria and the subversion of this process by pathogenic bacteria, we investigated the role of autophagy in C. concisus intracellular survival. Gentamicin protection assays were employed to assess intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, following autophagy induction and inhibition. To assess the interaction between C. concisus and autophagosomes, confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were employed. Expression levels of 84 genes involved in the autophagy process were measured using qPCR. Autophagy inhibition resulted in two- to four-fold increases in intracellular levels of C. concisus within Caco-2 cells, while autophagy induction resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular levels or bacterial clearance. C. concisus strains with low intracellular survival levels showed a dramatic increase in these levels upon autophagy inhibition. Confocal microscopy showed co-localization of the bacterium with autophagosomes, while transmission electron microscopy identified intracellular bacteria persisting within autophagic vesicles. Further, qPCR showed that following infection, 13 genes involved in the autophagy process were significantly regulated, and a further five showed borderline results, with an overall indication towards a dampening effect exerted by the bacterium on this process. Our data collectively indicates that while autophagy is important for the clearance of C. concisus, some strains may manipulate this process to benefit their intracellular survival.

  5. Intracellular expression of toll-like receptor 4 in neuroblastoma cells and their unresponsiveness to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori Isamu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it has been reported that, toll-like receptors (TLRs are expressed on a series of tumor cells, such as colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma and lung cancer. Although some cancer cells like melanoma cells are known to respond to lipopolysaccharide (LPS via TLR4, not all cancer cells are positive for TLR4. There is little information on the expression and function of TLR4 in neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we investigated the expression of TLR4 in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cell line. Methods Expression and localization of TLR4 were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. Activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB by LPS was detected by degradation of IκB-α and NF-κB luciferase assay. Activation and expression of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 was detected by immunoblot analysis. Results Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells expressed intracellular form of TLR4, but not the cell surface form. Further, NB-1 cells express CD14, MD2 and MyD88, which are required for LPS response. However, LPS did not significantly induce NF-κB activation in NB-1 cells although it slightly degraded IκB-α. NB-1 cells expressed no IRF-3, which plays a pivotal role on the MyD88-independent pathway of LPS signaling. Collectively, NB-1 cells are capable to avoid their response to LPS. Conclusion Although human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells possessed all the molecules required for LPS response, they did not respond to LPS. It might be responsible for intracellular expression of TLR4 or lack of IRF-3.

  6. Intracellular structure and nucleocytoplasmic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S

    1995-01-01

    Intracellular movement of any solute or particle accords with one of two general schemes: either it takes place predominantly in the solution phase or it occurs by dynamic interactions with solid-state structures. If nucleocytoplasmic exchanges of macromolecules and complexes are predominantly solution-phase processes, i.e., if the former ("diffusionist") perspective applies, then the only significant structures in nucleocytoplasmic transport are the pore complexes. However, if such exchanges accord with the latter ("solid-state") perspective, then the roles of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton in nucleocytoplasmic transport are potentially, at least, as important as that of the pore complexes. The role of the nucleoskeleton in mRNA transport is more difficult to evaluate than that of the cytoskeleton because it is less well characterized, and current evidence does not exclude either perspective. However, the balance of evidence favors a solid-state scheme. It is argued that ribosomal subunits are also more likely to migrate by a solid-state rather than a diffusionist mechanism, though the opposite is true of proteins and tRNAs. Moreover, recent data on the effects of viral proteins on intranuclear RNA processing and migration accord with the solid-state perspective. In view of this balance of evidence, three possible solid-state mechanisms for nucleocytoplasmic mRNA transport are described and evaluated. The explanatory advantage of solid-state models is contrasted with the heuristic advantage of diffusion theory, but it is argued that diffusion theory itself, even aided by modern computational techniques and numerical and graphical approaches, cannot account for data describing the movements of materials within the cell. Therefore, the mechanisms envisaged in a diffusionist perspective cannot be confined to diffusion alone, but must include other processes such as bulk fluid flow.

  7. Localization of the human RNA polymerase I transcription factor gene (UBTF) to the D17S183 locus on chromosome 17q21 and construction of a long-range restriction map of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.A.; Black, D.M.; Griffiths, B.L.; Solomon, E. [Somatic Cell Genetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    Human upstream binding factor (hUBF) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that is essential for the activation of human 18s and 28s rRNA gene transcription. We have isolated and localized the gene (UBTF) encoding hUBF to the D17S183 locus on chromosome 17q21 by analyzing a cosmid from the region and carrying out Southern analysis on a previously constructed chromosome 17 somatic cell hybrid mapping panel using a probe from the hUBF cDNA. Confirmation of its location at this region was obtained from the results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of genomic DNA using the hUBF cDNA and other probes from the region. These data also enabled the construction of a long-range restriction map of the region. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Zhang; Chen Dong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  9. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongliangZhang; ChenDong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):20-27.

  10. Geologic and Fossil Locality Maps of the West-Central Part of the Howard Pass Quadrangle and Part of the Adjacent Misheguk Mountain Quadrangle, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Tailleur, Irvin L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The map depicts the field distribution and contact relations between stratigraphic units, the tectonic relations between major stratigraphic sequences, and the detailed internal structure of these sequences. The stratigraphic sequences formed in a variety of continental margin depositional environments, and subsequently underwent a complexde formational history of imbricate thrust faulting and folding. A compilation of micro and macro fossil identifications is included in this data set.

  11. Localization of genes for lateral branch and female sex expression and construction of a molecular linkage map in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) with RAPD markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaozun; PAN Junsong; WANG Gang; TIAN Libo; SI Longting; WU Aizhong; CAI Run

    2005-01-01

    A cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) molecular linkage map, including 79 random-amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD)and two genes , lb for lateral branch and f for female sex expression, is constructed from a cross between a line, S52, with weak lateral growing ability and staminate from Dabieshan Mountains area in China and another line, S06, with strong lateral growing ability and gynoecious from Europe. The map contains nine linkage groups and spans 1110.0 cM with an average distance of 13.7 cM between loci. The lb locus is located in a longer linkage group LG-2 and flanked by two markers, OP-Q5-1 and OP-M-2-2, at 9.3 cM and 15.9 cM, respectively. In the meantime, the RAPD loci, OP-Q5-2 and BC151, in a short linkage group were found to flank f at 13.7 cM and 13.4 cM,respectively. The construction of RAPD map has paved a way for further study of the genes for lateral branch, female sex expression and other agronomic traits in cucumber.

  12. Quantitative prediction of radio frequency induced local heating derived from measured magnetic field maps in magnetic resonance imaging: A phantom validation at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaotong; Liu, Jiaen [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois; Schmitter, Sebastian [Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); He, Bin, E-mail: binhe@umn.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Institute for Engineering in Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Electrical Properties Tomography (EPT) technique utilizes measurable radio frequency (RF) coil induced magnetic fields (B1 fields) in a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) system to quantitatively reconstruct the local electrical properties (EP) of biological tissues. Information derived from the same data set, e.g., complex numbers of B1 distribution towards electric field calculation, can be used to estimate, on a subject-specific basis, local Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). SAR plays a significant role in RF pulse design for high-field MRI applications, where maximum local tissue heating remains one of the most constraining limits. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the feasibility of such B1-based local SAR estimation, expanding on previously proposed EPT approaches. To this end, B1 calibration was obtained in a gelatin phantom at 7 T with a multi-channel transmit coil, under a particular multi-channel B1-shim setting (B1-shim I). Using this unique set of B1 calibration, local SAR distribution was subsequently predicted for B1-shim I, as well as for another B1-shim setting (B1-shim II), considering a specific set of parameter for a heating MRI protocol consisting of RF pulses plaid at 1% duty cycle. Local SAR results, which could not be directly measured with MRI, were subsequently converted into temperature change which in turn were validated against temperature changes measured by MRI Thermometry based on the proton chemical shift.

  13. Stochastic resonance in an intracellular genetic perceptron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Russell; Blyuss, Oleg; Zaikin, Alexey

    2014-03-01

    Intracellular genetic networks are more intelligent than was first assumed due to their ability to learn. One of the manifestations of this intelligence is the ability to learn associations of two stimuli within gene-regulating circuitry: Hebbian-type learning within the cellular life. However, gene expression is an intrinsically noisy process; hence, we investigate the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic noise on this kind of intracellular intelligence. We report a stochastic resonance in an intracellular associative genetic perceptron, a noise-induced phenomenon, which manifests itself in noise-induced increase of response in efficiency after the learning event under the conditions of optimal stochasticity.

  14. Evidence for the absence of intron H of the histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) gene: Genetic mapping and in situ localization of HRG to chromosome 3q28-q29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennis, B.C.; Poort, E.W. van der; Kluft, C.; Frants, R.R.; Bakker, E.; Vossen, R.H.A.M.; Blonden, L.A.; Khan, P.M. (Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)); Cox, S.; Spurr, N.K. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) belongs to the cystatin superfamily and appears to be a potential risk factor for thrombosis. An increased prevalence of elevated HRG plasma levels in patients with venous thrombosis and families with thrombophilia has been reported. It is interesting to note that the genes of four different members of the cystatin superfamily are located on the distal section of the long arm of chromosome 3: Stefin A (STF1) on 3q21, Kininogen (KNG) on 3q26-qter, [alpha]-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG) on 3q27-q28, and HRG on 3q21-qter. To further investigate the evolutionary relationship between HRG and members of the cystatin superfamily, the authors isolated a cosmid that was used to refine the chromosomal localization of HRG by in situ hybridization. In addition, they used a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism to localize HRG on the linkage map of chromosome 3q. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Synthesis and analysis of separation networks for the recovery of intracellular chemicals generated from microbial-based conversions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirti M Yenkie; Wenzhao Wu; Christos T Maravelias

    2017-01-01

    Background Bioseparations can contribute to more than 70% in the total production cost of a bio-based chemical, and if the desired chemical is localized intracellularly, there can be additional challenges associated with its recovery...

  16. A genetic linkage map of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and localization of genes for specific resistance to six races of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Pañeda, Astrid; Ferreira, Juan José; Giraldez, Ramón

    2007-02-01

    A genetic map of common bean was constructed using 197 markers including 152 RAPDs, 32 RFLPs, 12 SCARs, and 1 morphological marker. The map was established by using a F(2) population of 85 individuals from the cross between a line derived from the Spanish landrace Andecha (Andean origin) and the Mesoamerican genotype A252. The resulting map covers about 1,401.9 cM, with an average marker distance of 7.1 cM and includes molecular markers linked to disease resistance genes for anthracnose, bean common mosaic virus, bean golden yellow mosaic virus, common bacterial blight, and rust. Resistance to races 6, 31, 38, 39, 65, and 357 of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (anthracnose) was evaluated in F(3) families derived from the corresponding F(2) individuals. The intermediate resistance to race 65 proceeding from Andecha can be explained by a single dominant gene located on linkage group B1, corresponding to the Co-1 gene. The recombination between the resistance specificities proceeding from A252 agrees with the assumption that total resistance to races 6, 31, 38, 39, 65, and 357, is organized in two clusters. One cluster, located on B4 linkage group, includes individual genes for specific resistance to races 6, 38, 39, and 357. The second cluster is located on linkage group B11 and includes individual genes for specific resistance to races 6, 31, 38, 39, and 65. These two clusters correspond to genes Co-3/Co-9 and Co-2, respectively. It is concluded that most anthracnose resistance Co- genes, previously described as single major genes conferring resistance to several races, could be organized as clusters of different genes conferring race-specific resistance.

  17. Modelling and mapping the local distribution of representative species on the Le Danois Bank, El Cachucho Marine Protected Area (Cantabrian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alegre, Ana; Sánchez, Francisco; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Hinz, Hilmar; Serrano, Alberto; Parra, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    The management and protection of potentially vulnerable species and habitats require the availability of detailed spatial data. However, such data are often not readily available in particular areas that are challenging for sampling by traditional sampling techniques, for example seamounts. Within this study habitat modelling techniques were used to create predictive maps of six species of conservation concern for the Le Danois Bank (El Cachucho Marine Protected Area in the South of the Bay of Biscay). The study used data from ECOMARG multidisciplinary surveys that aimed to create a representative picture of the physical and biological composition of the area. Classical fishing gear (otter trawl and beam trawl) was used to sample benthic communities that inhabit sedimentary areas, and non-destructive visual sampling techniques (ROV and photogrammetric sled) were used to determine the presence of epibenthic macrofauna in complex and vulnerable habitats. Multibeam echosounder data, high-resolution seismic profiles (TOPAS system) and geological data from box-corer were used to characterize the benthic terrain. ArcGIS software was used to produce high-resolution maps (75×75 m2) of such variables in the entire area. The Maximum Entropy (MAXENT) technique was used to process these data and create Habitat Suitability maps for six species of special conservation interest. The model used seven environmental variables (depth, rugosity, aspect, slope, Bathymetric Position Index (BPI) in fine and broad scale and morphosedimentary characteristics) to identify the most suitable habitats for such species and indicates which environmental factors determine their distribution. The six species models performed highly significantly better than random (p<0.0001; Mann-Whitney test) when Area Under the Curve (AUC) values were tested. This indicates that the environmental variables chosen are relevant to distinguish the distribution of these species. The Jackknife test estimated depth

  18. A framework map from grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') x rootstock cultivar 'Börner' (Vitis riparia x Vitis cinerea) to localize genetic determinants of phylloxera root resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junke; Hausmann, Ludger; Eibach, Rudolf; Welter, Leocir J; Töpfer, Reinhard; Zyprian, Eva M

    2009-10-01

    Grapevine rootstock cultivar 'Börner' is a hybrid of Vitis riparia and Vitis cinerea Arnold that shows high resistance to phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch). To localize the determinants of phylloxera root resistance, the susceptible grapevine V3125 (Vitis vinifera 'Schiava grossa' x 'Riesling') was crossed to 'Börner'. Genetic framework maps were built from the progeny. 235 microsatellite markers were placed on the integrated parental map. They cover 1,155.98 cM on 19 linkage groups with an average marker distance of 4.8 cM. Phylloxera resistance was scored by counting nodosities after inoculation of the root system. Progeny plants were triplicated and experimentally infected in 2 years. A scan of the genetic maps indicated a quantitative trait locus on linkage group 13. This region was targeted by six microsatellite-type markers newly developed from the V. vinifera model genome sequence. Two of these appear closely linked to the trait, and can be useful for marker-assisted breeding.

  19. Localization and physical mapping of a plasmid-borne 23-kb nif gene cluster from Enterobacter agglomerans showing homology to the entire nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Kreutzer, R; Acker, G; Klingmüller, W

    1988-01-01

    A physical and genetical map of the plasmid pEA3 indigenous to Enterobacter agglomerans is presented. pEA3 is a 111-kb large plasmid containing a 23-kb large cluster of nif genes which shows extensive homology (Southern hybridization and heteroduplex analysis) to the entire nif gene cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) M5a1. All the nif genes on pEA3 are organized in the same manner as in K. pneumoniae, except nifJ, which is located on the left end of pEA3 nif gene cluster (near nifQB). A BamHI restriction map of pEA3 and a detailed restriction map of the 23-kb nif region on pEA3 is also presented. The nif genes of pEA3 showed a low level of acetylene reduction in Escherichia coli, demonstrating that these genes are functional and contain the whole genetic information required to fix nitrogen. The origin of vegetative replication (OriV) of pEA3 was localized about 5.5 kb from the right end of the nif gene cluster. In addition to pEA3, large plasmids from four other strains of E. agglomerans showed homology to all the Kp nif genes tested, indicating that in diazotrophic strains of E. agglomerans nif genes are usually located on plasmids. In contrast, in most of the free-living, nitrogen-fixing bacteria the nif genes are on chromosome.

  20. Spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging of Nile red for measurements of intracellular polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, James A.; Chung, Pei-Hua; Suhling, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging have been used to measure the polarity of lipid-rich regions in living HeLa cells stained with Nile red. The emission peak from the solvatochromic dye in lipid droplets is at a shorter wavelength than other, more polar, stained internal membranes, and this is indicative of a low polarity environment. We estimate that the dielectric constant, ɛ, is around 5 in lipid droplets and 25<ɛ<40 in other lipid-rich regions. Our spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data show that intracellular Nile red exhibits complex, multiexponential fluorescence decays due to emission from a short lifetime locally excited state and a longer lifetime intramolecular charge transfer state. We measure an increase in the average fluorescence lifetime of the dye with increasing emission wavelength, as shown using phasor plots of the FLIM data. We also show using these phasor plots that the shortest lifetime decay components arise from lipid droplets. Thus, fluorescence lifetime is a viable contrast parameter for distinguishing lipid droplets from other stained lipid-rich regions. Finally, we discuss the FLIM of Nile red as a method for simultaneously mapping both polarity and relative viscosity based on fluorescence lifetime measurements.

  1. Effects of intracellular acidosis on endothelial function: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, Ettore; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Infante, Teresa; Scolletta, Sabino; Crudele, Valeria; Napoli, Claudio

    2012-04-01

    The endothelium represents the largest functional organ in the human body playing an active role in vasoregulation, coagulation, inflammation, and microvascular permeability. Endothelium contributes to maintain vascular integrity, intravascular volume, and tissue oxygenation promoting inflammatory network response for local defense and repair. Acid-basis homeostasis is an important physiologic parameter that controls cell function, and changes in pH can influence vascular tone by regulating endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells. This review presents a current perspective of the effects of intracellular acidosis on the function and the basic regulatory mechanisms of endothelial cells.

  2. Intracellular Biopotentials During Static Extracellular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Maurice

    1973-01-01

    Two properties of the intracellular potentials and electric fields resulting from static extracellular stimulation are obtained for arbitrarily shaped cells. First, the values of intracellular potential are shown to be bounded by the maximum and minimum values of extracellular potential on the surface of the cell. Second, the volume average of the magnitude of intracellular electric field is shown to have an upper bound given by the ratio of the magnitude of the largest extracellular potential difference on the surface of the cell to a generalized length constant λ = [σintraVcell/(σmemb Acell)]1/2, where Vcell and Acell are the volume and surface area of the cell, σintra is the intracellular conductivity (reciprocal ohms per centimeter), and σmemb is the membrane conductivity (reciprocal ohms per square centimeter). The use of the upper bound on the volume average of the magnitude of intracellular electric field as an estimate for intracellular isopotentiality is discussed and the use of the generalized length constant for electrically describing arbitrary cells is illustrated for cylindrical- and spheroidal-shaped cells. PMID:4726882

  3. A Solution to Simultaneous Localization, Calibration and Mapping of Ubiquitous Robot System%一种普适机器人系统同时定位、标定与建图方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴培良; 孔令富; 孔亮

    2012-01-01

    机器人定位、传感器网络标定与环境建图是普适机器人系统中三个相互耦合的基本问题,其有效解决是普适机器人系统提供高效智能服务的前提.本文提出了普适机器人系统同时机器人定位、传感器网络标定与环境建图的概念,通过分析三者之间的耦合关系,给出同时定位、标定与建图问题的联合条件概率表示,基于贝叶斯公式和马尔科夫特性将其分解为若干可解项,并借鉴Rao-Blackwellized粒子滤波的思想分别求解.首先,联合传感器网络对机器人的观测、机器人对已定位环境特征的观测以及机器人自身控制量,设计了位姿粒子的采样提议分布和权值更新公式;其次,联合传感器网络对机器人运动轨迹及己定位环境特征的观测,设计了传感器网络标定的递推公式;然后,联合传感器网络和机器人对(已定位或新发现)环境特征的观测,设计了环境建图的递推公式.给出了完整的同时定位、标定与建图算法,并通过仿真实验验证了该算法的有效性.%In ubiquitous robot system, robot localization, sensor network calibration, and environment mapping are three basic issues which are coupled with each other, and solutions to these three issues are prerequisites for efficient and intelligent service of ubiquitous robot system. In this paper, the concept of simultaneous localization, calibration and mapping of ubiquitous robot system is proposed. The joint conditional probability distribution is designed to describe the coupled question, and then is decomposed into several analytic terms according to Bayesian and Markov properties. The Rao-Blackwellized particle filtering is used to solve the analytic terms. Firstly, sensor network observation of robot, robot observations of mapped environments, and robot controls are combined to deduce the proposal distribution of robot pose and formula for updating particle weight. Secondly, sensor network

  4. Localization of Refsum disease with increased pipecolic acidaemia to chromosome 10p by homozygosity mapping and carrier testing in a single nuclear family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, N; Rolland, M O; Tranchant, C; Reutenauer, L; Gyapay, G; Warter, J M; Mandel, J L; Koenig, M

    1995-10-01

    Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder associated with the accumulation in blood and tissues of phytanic acid, a natural compound of exogenous origin whose catabolism is impaired in patients. We present here genome wide linkage analysis of an atypical Refsum disease family where L-pipecolic acid level in blood was also increased, suggesting that the patients suffer from a new peroxisomal disorder intermediate between ARD and Infantile Refsum Disease (IRD, a peroxisomal deficiency disease). We were able to demonstrate significant linkage (lod score = 3.6) between Refsum Disease with increased Pipecolic Acidaemia (RDPA) and the interval defined by D10S249 and D10S466 on 10p in this single consanguineous family by combining lod score values obtained from analysis of the multiple affected sibs, haplotype homozygosity and from discrimination between healthy carriers and non carriers based on phytanate oxidase measurements. This illustrates the power of homozygosity mapping with a dense map of microsatellite markers. A similar strategy will allow testing for homogeneity/heterogeneity between RDPA and ARD or the rare complementation groups of IRD.

  5. Localization of the gene for thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome, on the long arm of chromosome 1, by homozygosity mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, E J; Mandel, H; Raz, T; Szargel, R; Yandava, C N; Stagg, A; Fauré, S; Barrett, T; Buist, N; Cohen, N

    1997-01-01

    Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia, also known as "TRMA" or "Rogers syndrome," is an early-onset autosomal recessive disorder defined by the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia, diabetes mellitus, and sensorineural deafness, responding in varying degrees to thiamine treatment. On the basis of a linkage analysis of affected families of Alaskan and of Italian origin, we found, using homozygosity mapping, that the TRMA-syndrome gene maps to a region on chromosome 1q23.2-23.3 (maximum LOD score of 3.7 for D1S1679). By use of additional consanguineous kindreds of Israeli-Arab origin, the putative disease-gene interval also has been confirmed and narrowed, suggesting genetic homogeneity. Linkage analysis generated the highest combined LOD-score value, 8.1 at a recombination fraction of 0, with marker D1S2799. Haplotype analysis and recombination events narrowed the TRMA locus to a 16-cM region between markers D1S194 and D1S2786. Several heterozygote parents had diabetes mellitus, deafness, or megaloblastic anemia, which raised the possibility that mutations at this locus predispose carriers in general to these manifestations. Characterization of the metabolic defect of TRMA may shed light on the role of thiamine deficiency in such common diseases. PMID:9399900

  6. Mapping Ecology of Literacies in Educational Setting: The Case of Local Mother Tongues Vis-a-Vis Urdu and English Languages in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, Syed Abdul; David, Maya Khemlani

    2014-01-01

    This study critically examines the literacy levels of undergraduate students in Pakistan to compare and contrast the proficiency levels, particularly reading and writing of their mother tongues versus Urdu and English, and to study real and perceived vitality of local/regional mother tongues vis-à-vis Urdu and English. The research investigated…

  7. Recycling of phosphorus by precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate from local anaerobic sludge; Phosphorrecycling durch MAP-Faellung im kommunalen Faulschlamm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Daniel [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe Verfahrenstechnik

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus is essential for organisms. Thus, the recycling of phosphorus is of great importance. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the recycling of phosphorus by precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate from local anaerobic sludge. For this, the author presents different approaches of procedure due to a literature search.

  8. The Francisella intracellular life cycle: towards molecular mechanisms of intracellular survival and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eChong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The tularemia-causing bacterium Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular organism with a complex intracellular lifecycle that ensures its survival and proliferation in a variety of mammalian cell types, including professional phagocytes. Because this cycle is essential to Francisella pathogenesis and virulence, much research has focused on deciphering the mechanisms of its intracellular survival and replication and characterizing both bacterial and host determinants of the bacterium’s intracellular cycle. Studies of various strains and host cell models have led to the consensual paradigm of Francisella as a cytosolic pathogen, but also to some controversy about its intracellular cycle. In this review, we will detail major findings that have advanced our knowledge of Francisella intracellular survival strategies and also attempt to reconcile discrepancies that exist in our molecular understanding of the Francisella-phagocyte interaction.

  9. Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates survive intracellularly without replication within acidic vacuoles of Acanthamoeba polyphaga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Julie; Thyssen, Sandra; Valvano, Miguel A

    2004-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that isolates of the Burkholderia cepacia complex can survive intracellularly in murine macrophages and in free-living Acanthamoeba. In this work, we show that the clinical isolates B. vietnamiensis strain CEP040 and B. cenocepacia H111 survived but did not replicate within vacuoles of A. polyphaga. B. cepacia-containing vacuoles accumulated the fluid phase marker Lysosensor Blue and displayed strong blue fluorescence, indicating that they had low pH. In contrast, the majority of intracellular bacteria within amoebae treated with the V-ATPse inhibitor bafilomycin A1 localized in vacuoles that did not fluoresce with Lysosensor Blue. Experiments using bacteria fluorescently labelled with chloromethylfluorescein diacetate demonstrated that intracellular bacteria remained viable for at least 24 h. In contrast, Escherichia coli did not survive within amoebae after 2 h post infection. Furthermore, intracellular B. vietnamiensis CEP040 retained green fluorescent protein within the bacterial cytoplasm, while this protein rapidly escaped from the cytosol of phagocytized heat-killed bacteria into the vacuolar lumen. Transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed that intracellular Burkholderia cells were structurally intact. In addition, both Legionella pneumophila- and B. vietnamiensis-containing vacuoles did not accumulate cationized ferritin, a compound that localizes within the lysosome. Thus, our observations support the notion that B. cepacia complex isolates can use amoebae as a reservoir in the environment by surviving without intracellular replication within an acidic vacuole that is distinct from the lysosomal compartment.

  10. Intracellular messengers in the generation and degeneration of hippocampal neuroarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, M P; Guthrie, P B; Kater, S B

    1988-01-01

    The actions and interactions of the neurotransmitter glutamate and the intracellular messengers calcium, cyclic AMP, and protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and cell survival were examined in hippocampal pyramidal-like neurons in isolated cell culture. Low, subtoxic levels of glutamate (10-100 microM) caused the regression of dendrites but not axons; millimolar levels caused cell death. Calcium ionophore A23187 (50-100 nM) and the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA; 10-50 nM) caused the regression of both axons and dendrites, whereas the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin enhanced outgrowth rates in both axons and dendrites. The effects of glutamate, A23187, PMA, and forskolin on outgrowth were mediated locally at the growth cones; dendrites were more sensitive than axons to each of these agents. High levels of A23187 (1 microM) or PMA (100 nM) significantly reduced cell survival. Co2+ and trifluoperazine each significantly reduced glutamate-induced dendritic regression and neurotoxicity suggesting that calcium influx and/or PKC activation mediated glutamate's actions. Fura-2 measurements showed that glutamate caused a rapid rise in intracellular calcium levels; this rise was prevented by Co2+. PMA and forskolin did not alter intracellular calcium levels, nor did these agents affect glutamate-induced calcium rises. Taken together, the results indicate that parallel intracellular messenger pathways that influence neurite outgrowth and cell survival are operative in hippocampal neurons; these messengers may play roles in the formation and modification of neuronal circuitry.

  11. Stimulation of primary osteoblasts with ATP induces transient vinculin clustering at sites of high intracellular traction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Toh Weng; Pfau, Bastian; Jones, David; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), released in response to mechanical and inflammatory stimuli, induces the dynamic and asynchronous protrusion and subsequent retraction of local membrane structures in osteoblasts. The molecular mechanisms involved in the ligand-stimulated herniation of the plasma membrane are largely unknown, which prompted us to investigate whether the focal-adhesion protein vinculin is engaged in the cytoskeletal alterations that underlie the ATP-induced membrane blebbing. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of primary bovine osteoblast-like cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged vinculin, we found that stimulation of cells with 100 μM ATP resulted in the transient and rapid clustering of recombinant vinculin in the cell periphery, starting approximately 100 s after addition of the nucleotide. The ephemeral nature of the vinculin clusters was made evident by the brevity of their mean assembly and disassembly times (66.7 ± 13.3 s and 99.0 ± 6.6 s, respectively). Traction force vector maps demonstrated that the vinculin-rich clusters were localized predominantly at sites of high t