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Sample records for intracellular glutathione levels

  1. Epalrestat increases intracellular glutathione levels in Schwann cells through transcription regulation

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    Keisuke Sato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS, approved in Japan, is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Here we report that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH, which is important for protection against oxidative injury, through transcription regulation. Treatment of Schwann cells with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. EPS increased the mRNA levels of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS, the enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that plays a central role in regulating the expression of γ-GCS. ELISA revealed that EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels. Knockdown of Nrf2 by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced GSH biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment with EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2, tert-butylhydroperoxide, 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride, and menadione, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting against oxidative stress. This is the first study to show that EPS induces GSH biosynthesis via the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has new beneficial properties that may prevent the development and progression of disorders caused by oxidative stress.

  2. Neurotoxicity of a polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture (DE-71) in mouse neurons and astrocytes is modulated by intracellular glutathione levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Gennaro; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have become widespread environmental contaminants. Body burden in the U.S. population has been shown to be higher than in other countries, and infants and toddlers have highest exposure through maternal breast milk and household dust. The primary concern for adverse health effects of PBDEs relates to their potential developmental neurotoxicity, which has been found in a number of animal studies. Information on the possible mechanisms of PBDE neurotoxicity is limited, though some studies have suggested that PBDEs may elicit oxidative stress. The present study examined the in vitro neurotoxicity of DE-71, a penta-BDE mixture, in primary neurons and astrocytes obtained from wild-type and Gclm knockout mice, which lack the modifier subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase and, as a consequence, have very low levels of glutathione (GSH). These experiments show that neurotoxicity of DE-71 in these cells is modulated by cellular GSH levels. Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) from Gclm (-/-) mice displayed a higher sensitivity to DE-71 toxicity compared to CGNs from wild-type animals. DE-71 neurotoxicity in CGNs from Gclm (+/+) mice was exacerbated by GSH depletion, and in CGNs from both genotypes it was antagonized by increasing GSH levels and by antioxidants. DE-71 caused an increase in reactive oxygen species and in lipid peroxidation in CGNs, that was more pronounced in Gclm (-/-) mice. Toxicity of DE-71 was mostly due to the induction of apoptotic cell death. An analysis of DE-71-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in neurons and astrocytes from different brain areas (cerebellum, hippocampus, cerebral cortex) in both mouse genotypes showed a significant correlation with intracellular GSH levels. As an example, DE-71 caused cytotoxicity in hippocampal neurons with IC50s of 2.2 and 0.3 μM, depending on genotype, and apoptosis with IC50s of 2.3 and 0.4 μM, respectively. These findings suggest that the developmental

  3. Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, O.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content of HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulphoximine or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single-strand DNA breaks (ssb) and double-strand DNA breaks (dsb) were used as criteria for radiation-induced damage after X- or γ-irradiation. In survival experiments, DEM gave a slightly larger sensitization although it gave a smaller reduction of the intracellular GSH. In general, sensitization was larger for dsb than for ssb, also the reduction of the o.e.r. was generally larger for dsb than for ssb. This may be due to the higher dose rate in case of dsb experiments resulting in a higher rate of radiochemical oxygen consumption. In general, no effect was found on post-irradiation repair of ssb and dsb. (author)

  4. Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, O.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.

    1986-05-01

    The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single strand DNA breaks (ssb) and double strand DNA breaks (dsb) were used as criteria for radiation induced damage after X- or γ irradiation. In survival experiments DEM gave a slightly larger sensitization although it gave a smaller reduction of the intracellular GSH. In general, sensitization was larger for dsb than for ssb, also the reduction of the OER was generally larger for dsb than for ssb. This may be due to the higher dose rate in case of dsb experiments resulting in a higher rate of radiochemical oxygen consumption. In general, no effect was found on post-irradiation repair of ssb and dsb. (Auth.)

  5. The effects of changes in glutathione levels through exogenous agents on intracellular cysteine content and protein adduct formation in chronic alcohol-treated VL17A cells.

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    Kumar, S Mathan; Haridoss, Madhumitha; Swaminathan, Kavitha; Gopal, Ramesh Kumar; Clemens, Dahn; Dey, Aparajita

    2017-02-01

    Alcohol-mediated liver injury is associated with changes in the level of the major cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). It is interesting to investigate if the changes in intracellular GSH level through exogenous agents affect the intracellular cysteine content and the protein adduct formation indicative of oxidative insult in chronic alcohol treated liver cells. In VL-17A cells treated with 2 mM N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or 0.1 mM ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) plus 100 mM ethanol, an increase in cysteine concentration which was accompanied by decreases in hydroxynonenal (HNE) and glutathionylated protein adducts were observed. Pretreatment of 100 mM ethanol treated VL-17A cells with 0.4 mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or 1 mM diethyl maleate (DEM) had opposite effects. Thus, altered GSH level through exogenous agents may either potentiate or ameliorate chronic alcohol-mediated protein adduct formation and change the cysteine level in chronic alcohol treated VL-17A cells. The gene expression of non-treated and ethanol-treated hepatocytes in 2 microarray datasets was also compared to locate differentially expressed genes involved in cysteine metabolism. The study demonstrates that increased protein adducts formation and changes in cysteine concentration occur under chronic alcohol condition in liver cells which may increase alcohol-mediated oxidative injury.

  6. Prodrug Approach for Increasing Cellular Glutathione Levels

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    Ivana Cacciatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced glutathione (GSH is the most abundant non-protein thiol in mammalian cells and the preferred substrate for several enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant defense. It plays an important role in many cellular processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. GSH deficiency has been observed in aging and in a wide range of pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders and cystic fibrosis (CF, as well as in several viral infections. Use of GSH as a therapeutic agent is limited because of its unfavorable biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. Several reports have provided evidence for the use of GSH prodrugs able to replenish intracellular GSH levels. This review discusses different strategies for increasing GSH levels by supplying reversible bioconjugates able to cross the cellular membrane more easily than GSH and to provide a source of thiols for GSH synthesis.

  7. Intracellular Glutathione Depletion by Oridonin Leads to Apoptosis in Hepatic Stellate Cells

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    Liang-Mou Kuo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs plays a key role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Induction of HSC apoptosis by natural products is considered an effective strategy for treating liver fibrosis. Herein, the apoptotic effects of 7,20-epoxy-ent-kaurane (oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia rubescens, and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in rat HSC cell line, HSC-T6. We found that oridonin inhibited cell viability of HSC-T6 in a concentration-dependent manner. Oridonin induced a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and increases in caspase 3 activation, subG1 phase, and DNA fragmentation. These apoptotic effects of oridonin were completely reversed by thiol antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and glutathione monoethyl ester. Moreover, oridonin increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which was also inhibited by NAC. Significantly, oridonin reduced intracellular glutathione (GSH level in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. Additionally, oridonin induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. NAC prevented the activation of MAPKs in oridonin-induced cells. However, selective inhibitors of MAPKs failed to alter oridonin-induced cell death. In summary, these results demonstrate that induction of apoptosis in HSC-T6 by oridonin is associated with a decrease in cellular GSH level and increase in ROS production.

  8. Role of oxidative stress and intracellular glutathione in the sensitivity to apoptosis induced by proteasome inhibitor in thyroid cancer cells

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    Guan Yifu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has shown impressive clinical activity alone and in combination with conventional and other novel agents for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM and some solid cancers. Although bortezomib is known to be a selective proteasome inhibitor, the downstream mechanisms of cytotoxicity and drug resistance are poorly understood. Methods Proteasome activity, intracellular glutathione (GSH and ROS levels, as well as activities of GSH synthesis enzymes were measured using spectrophotometric methods. Cell death was analyzed using flow cytometry and caspase activity assay. The expression level of GSH synthesis enzymes were measured using real-time RT-PCR. Results At concentrations that effectively inhibited proteasome activity, bortezomib induced apoptosis in FRO cells, but not in ARO cells. Bortezomib elevated the amount of glutathione (GSH and the treatment with bortezomib increased the level of mRNA for GCL, a rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, depletion of GSH increases apoptosis induced by bortezomib, in contrast, repletion of GSH decreases bortezomib-mediated cell death. Conclusion GSH protects cells from proteasome inhibition-induced oxidative stress and glutathione-dependent redox system might play an important role in the sensitivity to proteasome inhibition-induced apoptosis.

  9. Labor Augmentation with Oxytocin Decreases Glutathione Level

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    Naomi Schneid-Kofman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare oxidative stress following spontaneous vaginal delivery with that induced by Oxytocin augmented delivery. Methods. 98 women recruited prior to labor. 57 delivered spontaneously, while 41 received Oxytocin for augmentation of labor. Complicated deliveries and high-risk pregnancies were excluded. Informed consent was documented. Arterial cord blood gases, levels of Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, and Bilirubin were studied. Glutathione (GSH concentration was measured by a spectroscopic method. Plasma and red blood cell (RBC levels of Malondialdehyde indicated lipid peroxidation. RBC uptake of phenol red denoted cell penetrability. SPSS data analysis was used. Results. Cord blood GSH was significantly lower in the Oxytocin group (2.3±0.55 mM versus 2.55±0.55 mM, =.01. No differences were found in plasma or RBC levels of MDA or in uptake of Phenol red between the groups. Conclusion. Lower GSH levels following Oxytocin augmentation indicate an oxidative stress, though selected measures of oxidative stress demonstrate no cell damage.

  10. Glutathione.

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    Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores.

  11. Glutathione: an intracellular and extracellular protective agent in Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of glutathione, were measured in several aerobically grown strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. External accumulation of GSH was inhibited by 30 mM NaN 3 . Thus, GSH export may be energy dependent. Greater than 50% of the glutathione detected in the media was in the reduced form. Since the oxidized glutathione in the media could be accounted for by oxidation during aerobic incubation as well as in sample processing, the glutathione was predominantly exported in the reduced form. Extracellular glutathione was detected in log phase cultures of 2 out of 2 E. coli strains and 6 of 8 Salmonella strains tested. Two-dimensional paper chromatography of supernatants from cultures labelled with Na 2 35 SO 4 confirmed the presence of GSH and revealed five other sulfur-containing compounds in the media of Salmonella and E. coli cultures. Since media from cultures of an E. coli GSH - strain contained compounds with identical R/sub f/'s, the five unidentified compounds were not derivatives of GSH. The addition of 26 μM GSH to cultures of TA1534 partially protected the bacteria from the toxic effects of 54 μM N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). When MNNG was preincubated with equimolar GSH, the mutagenicity of the MNNG was neutralized. The addition of micromolar GSH to cultures and E. coli GSH - strain protected the cells from growth inhibition by micromolar concentrations of mercuric chloride, silver nitrate, cisplatin, cadmium chloride, and iodoacetamide. The data presented demonstrate that micromolar concentrations of external GSH can significantly shorten the recovery time of cells after exposure to toxic agents in the environment

  12. Intracellular glutathione production, but not protein glycation, underlies the protective effects of captopril against 2-deoxy-D-ribose-induced β-cell damage.

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    Koh, Gwanpyo; Yang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Ji Young; Hyun, Jonghoon; Yoo, Soyeon; Lee, Sang Ah

    2015-10-01

    Our previous study reported that both oxidative stress and protein glycation were the principal mechanisms underlying 2‑deoxy‑D‑ribose (dRib)‑induced pancreatic β‑cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of captopril on dRib‑induced damage in pancreatic β‑cells, as well as to determine the mechanisms underlying these effects. Treatment with dRib increased the levels of cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species in Syrian hamster insulinoma HIT‑T15 cells; however, pretreatment with captopril significantly inhibited the effects of dRib. The intracellular levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione were depleted following treatment with dRib; however, these levels were restored following HIT‑T15 cell treatment with captopril. In rat islets, dRib stimulation suppressed the mRNA expression levels of insulin, and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1, as well as insulin content; however, these effects were dose‑dependently reversed by treatment with captopril. Treatment with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of intracellular glutathione biosynthesis, inhibited the protective effects of captopril on dRib‑mediated glutathione depletion and cytotoxicity in HIT‑T15 cells. Following incubation with albumin, dRib increased the formation of dicarbonyl and advanced glycation end products. Treatment with captopril did not inhibit the dRib‑induced increase in production of dicarbonyl and advanced glycation end products. In conclusion, treatment with captopril reversed dRib‑induced oxidative damage and suppression of insulin expression in β‑cells. The mechanism underlying the protective effects of captopril may involve increased intracellular glutathione production, rather than protein glycation.

  13. Probenecid and N-Acetylcysteine Prevent Loss of Intracellular Glutathione and Inhibit Neuronal Death after Mechanical Stretch Injury In Vitro.

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    Du, Lina; Empey, Philip E; Ji, Jing; Chao, Honglu; Kochanek, Patrick M; Bayır, Hülya; Clark, Robert S B

    2016-10-15

    Probenecid and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) can preserve intracellular levels of the vital antioxidant glutathione (GSH) via two distinct biochemical pathways. Probenecid inhibits transporter-mediated GSH efflux and NAC serves as a cysteine donor for GSH synthesis. We hypothesized that probenecid and NAC alone would maintain intracellular GSH concentrations and inhibit neuronal death after traumatic stretch injury, and that the drugs in combination would produce additive effects. Sex-segregated rat primary cortical neurons were treated with probenecid (100 μM) and NAC (50 μM), alone and in combination (Pro-NAC), then subjected to mechanical stretch (10s -1 strain rate, 50% membrane deformation). At 24 h, both probenecid and NAC inhibited trauma-induced intracellular GSH depletion, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and propidium iodide (PI) uptake in both XY- and XX-neurons. Combined Pro-NAC treatment was superior to probenecid or NAC alone in maintenance of intracellular GSH and neuronal death assessed by PI uptake. Interestingly, caspase 3 activity 24 h after mechanical trauma was more prominent in XX-neurons, and treatment effects (probenecid, NAC, and Pro-NAC) were observed in XX- but not XY-neurons; however, XY-neurons were ultimately more vulnerable to mechanical stretch-induced injury than their XX counterparts, as was evidenced by more neuronal death detected by LDH release and PI uptake. In addition, after stretch injury in HT22 hippocampal cells, both NAC and probenecid were highly effective at reducing oxidative stress detected by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. These in vitro data support further testing of this drug combination in models of traumatic neuronal injury in vivo.

  14. Sulforaphane restores cellular glutathione levels and reduces chronic periodontitis neutrophil hyperactivity in vitro.

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    Irundika H K Dias

    Full Text Available The production of high levels of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils is associated with the local and systemic destructive phenotype found in the chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the ability of sulforaphane (SFN to restore cellular glutathione levels and reduce the hyperactivity of circulating neutrophils associated with chronic periodontitis. Using differentiated HL60 cells as a neutrophil model, here we show that generation of extracellular O2 (. - by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADPH oxidase complex is increased by intracellular glutathione depletion. This may be attributed to the upregulation of thiol regulated acid sphingomyelinase driven lipid raft formation. Intracellular glutathione was also lower in primary neutrophils from periodontitis patients and, consistent with our previous findings, patients neutrophils were hyper-reactive to stimuli. The activity of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, is impaired in circulating neutrophils from chronic periodontitis patients. Although patients' neutrophils exhibit a low reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidised glutathione (GSSG ratio and a higher total Nrf2 level, the DNA-binding activity of nuclear Nrf2 remained unchanged relative to healthy controls and had reduced expression of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic (GCLC, and modifier (GCLM subunit mRNAs, compared to periodontally healthy subjects neutrophils. Pre-treatment with SFN increased expression of GCLC and GCM, improved intracellular GSH/GSSG ratios and reduced agonist-activated extracellular O2 (. - production in both dHL60 and primary neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and controls. These findings suggest that a deficiency in Nrf2-dependent pathways may underpin susceptibility to hyper-reactivity in circulating primary neutrophils during chronic periodontitis.

  15. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

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    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. (Monodora myristica) on reduced glutathione, uric acid levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of the methanolic extract of. Aframomum sceptrum and Monodora myristica on the reduced glutathione (GSH) and uric acid levels in the plasma and liver of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced-diabetic rats. The possible hepatic damage resulting from the administration of the spices was also

  17. Comparison of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, hydroxyproline and selenium levels in patients with vitiligo and healthy controls

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    Ozturk I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology and pathophysiologic mechanism of vitiligo are still unclear. The relationship between increased oxidative stress due to the accumulation of radicals and reactive oxygen species and the associated changes in blood and epidermal component of vitiliginous skin have been reported many times. We investigated the possible changes of plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, selenium, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in patients with vitiligo in order to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and etiopathogenesis of vitiligo. Materials and Methods: Plasma malondialdehyde, glutathione, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels were measured by spectrophotometric methods, and HPLC was used for measurement of selenium concentrations. Results: Our results showed increased malondialdehyde, hydroxyproline and glutathione peroxidase activity levels in plasma of vitiligo group ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Support of antioxidant system via nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and antioxidant enzymes may be useful to prevent of melanocyte degeneration which occur due to oxidative damage in vitiligo.

  18. Intracellular glutathione content, developmental competence and expression of apoptosis-related genes associated with G6PDH-activity in goat oocyte.

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    Abazari-Kia, Amir Hossein; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Dehghani-Mohammadabadi, Maryam; Jamshidi-Adegani, Fatemeh; Veshkini, Arash; Zhandi, Mahdi; Cinar, Mehmet Ulas; Salehi, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    To associate glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in goat oocytes with intracellular glutathione (GSH) content, meiotic competence, developmental potential, and relative abundance of Bax and Bcl-2 genes transcripts. Goat oocytes were exposed to brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining test and categorized into BCB(+) (blue-cytoplasm), and BCB(-) (colorless-cytoplasm) groups. A group of oocytes were not exposed to BCB test and was considered as a control group. After maturation in vitro, a group of oocytes were used for determination of nuclear status and intracellular GSH content while another group was subjected to parthenogenetic activation followed by in vitro embryo culture. We found that BCB(+) oocytes not only yielded higher rate of maturation, but also showed an increased level of intracellular GSH content than BCB(-) and control oocytes. Furthermore, BCB(+) oocytes produced more blastocysts than BCB(-) and control oocytes. Our data revealed that the expression of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes were interacted with G6PDH-activity in mature oocyte, their surrounding cumulus cells, and blastocyst-stage embryos. The results of this study demonstrate that selection of goat oocytes based on G6PDH-activity through the BCB test improves their developmental competence, increases intracellular GSH content, and affects the expression of the apoptosis-related genes.

  19. The use of drugs which deplete intracellular glutathione in hypoxic cell radiosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bump, E.A.; Yu, N.Y.; Brown, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Diethylmaleate (DEM) is a thiol-biding reagent with specificity toward glutathione. Treatment of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in vitro with 2 x 10 -4 M DEM for one hour results in a decrease in glutathione content to less than 5% of control, without cytotoxicity. This treatment results in dose-modifying sensitization to radiation under hypoxic conditions, with no effect on the shoulder of the radiation survival curve. No effect on the radiation sensitivity of oxygenated cells was seen. DEM pretreatment enhances the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells by misonidazole, as well. Similar results were obtained in vivo with EMT6 tumors in BALB/c mice. Analysis of DNA damage by the alkaline elution assay indicates that DEM enhances radiation-induced single-strand breaks, but does not significantly affect repair, while diamide and N-ethylmaleimide inhibit repair, in addition to enhancing radiation-induced single-strand breaks

  20. Umbilical glutathione levels are higher after vaginal birth than after cesarean section.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, M.; Roes, E.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wildt, B. van der; Peters, W.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Glutathione plays an important role in quenching reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidation of glutathione, which in times of prolonged oxidative stress may be excreted from the erythrocyte. We investigated arterial and venous umbilical cord levels of glutathione in neonates born by vaginal

  1. Lymphocyte glutathione levels in children with cystic fibrosis.

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    Lands, L C; Grey, V; Smountas, A A; Kramer, V G; McKenna, D

    1999-07-01

    Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a neutrophilic inflammatory response. This can lead to the production of oxidants, and to oxidative stress in the lungs. Glutathione (GSH) represents the primary intracellular antioxidant, and provides an important defense in the epithelial lining fluid. Evidence suggests that lymphocyte GSH reflects lung GSH concentrations, and so could potentially serve as a peripheral marker of lung inflammation. We assessed peripheral blood lymphocyte GSH concentrations in 20 children (13 boys) with CF who were in stable condition at the time of evaluation. Values were compared with nutritional status and lung function parameters. Patients were 11.7+/-3.03 years old (mean +/- SD). Their percentage of ideal body weight was 101.8+/-17.92%; FEV1, 79.5+/-19.22% predicted; FEV1/FVC, 75.0+/-10.08%; and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC), 31.3+/-10.47%. For the group, the GSH concentration was 1.31+/-0.52 micromol/10(6) lymphocytes, which was not different from laboratory control values. GSH values were correlated with nutritional status (percentage of ideal body weight: r = 0.49, p 0.1). We interpret the inverse correlation between lymphocyte GSH concentration and lung function as a reflection of upregulation of GSH production by lung epithelial tissue in response to oxidative stress. We interpret the correlation between lymphocyte GSH concentration and nutritional status as a reflection of the role of cysteine in hepatic glutamine metabolism. Peripheral blood lymphocyte GSH concentration may potentially serve as a convenient marker of lung inflammation. Furthermore, the increased demand for GSH production in the face of ongoing inflammation suggests a potential role for supplementation with cysteine donors.

  2. The influence of oxygen on the induction of radiation damage in DNA in mammalian cells after sensitization by intracellular glutathione depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schans, G.P. van der; Vos, O.; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1986-05-01

    Treatment of mammalian cells with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM) results in a decrease in the intracellular GSH (glutathione) and NPSH (non-protein-bound SH) levels. The effect of depletion of GSH and NPSH on radiosensitivity was studied in relation to the concentration of oxygen during irradiation. Single- and double-strand DNA breaks (ssb and dsb) and cell killing were used as criteria for radiation damage. Under aerobic conditions, BSO and DEM treatment gave a small sensitization of 10-20% for the 3 types of radiation damage. Also under severely hypoxic conditions (0.01 μM oxygen in the medium) the sensitizing effect of both compounds on the induction of ssb and dsb and on cell killing was small (0-30%). At somewhat higher concentrations of oxygen (0.5-10 μM) however, the sensitization amounted to about 90% for the induction of ssb and dsb and about 50% for cell killing. These results strengthen the widely accepted idea that intracellular SH-compounds compete with oxygen and other electron-affinic radiosensitizers with respect to reaction with radiation-induced damage, thus preventing the fixation of DNA damages by oxygen. These results imply that the extent to which SH-compounds affect the radiosensitivity of cells in vivo depends strongly on the local concentration of oxygen. (Auth.)

  3. Cellular glutathione level does not predict ovarian cancer cells' resistance after initial or repeated exposure to cisplatin.

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    Nikounezhad, Nastaran; Nakhjavani, Maryam; Shirazi, Farshad H

    2017-05-01

    Cisplatin resistance development is a major obstacle in ovarian cancer treatment. One of the most important mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance is drug detoxification by glutathione. In the present study, the importance of initial or repeated exposure to cisplatin in glutathione dependent resistance was investigated. To this purpose, some cisplatin sensitive and resistant variants of human ovarian cancer cell lines providing an appropriate range of cisplatin sensitivity were selected. Clonogenic survival assay was performed to evaluate cisplatin resistance and intracellular contents of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione were analyzed using an HPLC method. Our results indicated that the intracellular GSH and GSSG concentrations were nearly equal in A2780 and A2780CP cells, while the A2780CP cells showed 14 times more resistance than the A2780 cells after initial exposure to cisplatin. A2780-R1 and A2780-R3 cells which have been repeatedly exposed to cisplatin also showed no significant difference in glutathione content, even though A2780-R3 was about two times more resistant than A2780-R1. Moreover, intracellular GSH/GSSG ratio decreased in the resistant cells, reflecting a shift towards a more oxidizing intracellular environment indicative of oxidative stress. As a conclusion, it seems that although the intracellular glutathione concentration increases after repeated exposure to cisplatin, there is no clear correlation between the intracellular GSH content in ovarian cancer cells and their resistance to cisplatin neither after initial nor after repeated exposure to this drug.

  4. Relationships between hair melanization, glutathione levels, and senescence in wild boars.

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    Galván, Ismael; Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Negro, Juan J

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of melanins, which are the most common animal pigments, is influenced by glutathione (GSH), a key intracellular antioxidant. At high GSH levels, pheomelanin (the lightest melanin form) is produced, whereas production of eumelanin (the darkest melanin form) does not require GSH. Oxidative damage typically increases with age, and age-related decreases in GSH have accordingly been found in diverse organisms. Therefore, there should be positive associations between the capacity to produce eumelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence, whereas there should be negative associations between the capacity to produce pheomelanic traits, GSH levels, and senescence. We explored this hypothesis in a free-ranging population of wild boars Sus scrofa of different ages. As expected from the fact that pheomelanogenesis consumes GSH, levels of this antioxidant in muscle tended to be negatively related to pheomelanization and positively related to eumelanization in pelage, and the degree of pelage pheomelanization was positively related to oxidative damage as reflected by levels of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which is consistent with the hypothesis that pheomelanin synthesis has physiological costs. In our cross-sectional sample, GSH levels did not show senescence effects, and we did not detect senescence effects in pelage melanization. Prime body condition and low TBARS levels were also associated with hair graying, which is attributable to a loss of melanin produced by oxidative stress, thus raising the possibility that hair graying constitutes a signal of resistance to oxidative stress in wild boars. Our results suggest that the degree of melanization is linked to GSH levels in wild boars and that their antioxidant damage shows senescence effects.

  5. Acute effects of nitroglycerin depend on both plasma and intracellular sulfhydryl compound levels in vivo. Effect of agents with different sulfhydryl-modulating properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, S; Poulsen, H E; Aldershvile, J

    1993-01-01

    in SH group concentrations (cysteine and glutathione [GSH]) affect the responsiveness to NTG in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: GSH and cysteine levels in plasma, vena cava, and aorta were measured after administration of N-acetylserine (placebo, n = 6), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, extracellular and intracellular...

  6. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and heme oxygenases

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number...

  7. Xenoestrogens alter estrogen receptor (ER α intracellular levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiorgio La Rosa

    Full Text Available 17β-estradiol (E2-dependent estrogen receptor (ER α intracellular concentration is a well recognized critical step in the pleiotropic effects elicited by E2 in several target tissues. Beside E2, a class of synthetic and plant-derived chemicals collectively named endocrine disruptors (EDs or xenoestrogens bind to and modify both nuclear and extra-nuclear ERα activities. However, at the present no information is available on the ability of EDs to hamper ERα intracellular concentration. Here, the effects of bisphenol A (BPA and naringenin (Nar, prototypes of synthetic and plant-derived ERα ligands, have been evaluated on ERα levels in MCF-7 cells. Both EDs mimic E2 in triggering ERα Ser118 phosphorylation and gene transcription. However, only E2 or BPA induce an increase of cell proliferation; whereas 24 hrs after Nar stimulation a dose-dependent decrease in cell number is reported. E2 or BPA treatment reduces ERα protein and mRNA levels after 24 hrs. Contrarily, Nar stimulation does not alter ERα content but reduces ERα mRNA levels like other ligands. Co-stimulation experiments indicate that 48 hrs of Nar treatment prevents the E2-induced ERα degradation and hijacks the physiological ability of E2:ERα complex to regulate gene transcription. Mechanistically, Nar induces ERα protein accumulation by preventing proteasomal receptor degradation via persistent activation of p38/MAPK pathway. As a whole these data demonstrate that ERα intracellular concentration is an important target through which EDs hamper the hormonal milieu of E2 target cells driving cells to different outcomes or mimicking E2 even in the absence of the hormone.

  8. Xenoestrogens alter estrogen receptor (ER) α intracellular levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Piergiorgio; Pellegrini, Marco; Totta, Pierangela; Acconcia, Filippo; Marino, Maria

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2)-dependent estrogen receptor (ER) α intracellular concentration is a well recognized critical step in the pleiotropic effects elicited by E2 in several target tissues. Beside E2, a class of synthetic and plant-derived chemicals collectively named endocrine disruptors (EDs) or xenoestrogens bind to and modify both nuclear and extra-nuclear ERα activities. However, at the present no information is available on the ability of EDs to hamper ERα intracellular concentration. Here, the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and naringenin (Nar), prototypes of synthetic and plant-derived ERα ligands, have been evaluated on ERα levels in MCF-7 cells. Both EDs mimic E2 in triggering ERα Ser118 phosphorylation and gene transcription. However, only E2 or BPA induce an increase of cell proliferation; whereas 24 hrs after Nar stimulation a dose-dependent decrease in cell number is reported. E2 or BPA treatment reduces ERα protein and mRNA levels after 24 hrs. Contrarily, Nar stimulation does not alter ERα content but reduces ERα mRNA levels like other ligands. Co-stimulation experiments indicate that 48 hrs of Nar treatment prevents the E2-induced ERα degradation and hijacks the physiological ability of E2:ERα complex to regulate gene transcription. Mechanistically, Nar induces ERα protein accumulation by preventing proteasomal receptor degradation via persistent activation of p38/MAPK pathway. As a whole these data demonstrate that ERα intracellular concentration is an important target through which EDs hamper the hormonal milieu of E2 target cells driving cells to different outcomes or mimicking E2 even in the absence of the hormone.

  9. Control of intracellular heme levels: Heme transporters and Heme oxygenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar A.; Quigley, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Heme serves as a co-factor in proteins involved in fundamental biological processes including oxidative metabolism, oxygen storage and transport, signal transduction and drug metabolism. In addition, heme is important for systemic iron homeostasis in mammals. Heme has important regulatory roles in cell biology, yet excessive levels of intracellular heme are toxic; thus, mechanisms have evolved to control the acquisition, synthesis, catabolism and expulsion of cellular heme. Recently, a number of transporters of heme and heme synthesis intermediates have been described. Here we review aspects of heme metabolism and discuss our current understanding of heme transporters, with emphasis on the function of the cell-surface heme exporter, FLVCR. Knockdown of Flvcr in mice leads to both defective erythropoiesis and disturbed systemic iron homeostasis, underscoring the critical role of heme transporters in mammalian physiology. PMID:21238504

  10. Nuclear glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Giménez, José Luis; Markovic, Jelena; Dasí, Francisco; Queval, Guillaume; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Foyer, Christine H; Pallardó, Federico V

    2013-05-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is a linchpin of cellular defences in plants and animals with physiologically-important roles in the protection of cells from biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, glutathione participates in numerous metabolic and cell signalling processes including protein synthesis and amino acid transport, DNA repair and the control of cell division and cell suicide programmes. While it is has long been appreciated that cellular glutathione homeostasis is regulated by factors such as synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover, relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of the intracellular partitioning on glutathione and its implications for the regulation of cell functions and signalling. We focus here on the functions of glutathione in the nucleus, particularly in relation to physiological processes such as the cell cycle and cell death. The sequestration of GSH in the nucleus of proliferating animal and plant cells suggests that common redox mechanisms exist for DNA regulation in G1 and mitosis in all eukaryotes. We propose that glutathione acts as "redox sensor" at the onset of DNA synthesis with roles in maintaining the nuclear architecture by providing the appropriate redox environment for the DNA replication and safeguarding DNA integrity. In addition, nuclear GSH may be involved in epigenetic phenomena and in the control of nuclear protein degradation by nuclear proteasome. Moreover, by increasing the nuclear GSH pool and reducing disulfide bonds on nuclear proteins at the onset of cell proliferation, an appropriate redox environment is generated for the stimulation of chromatin decompaction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Cellular functions of glutathione. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low levels of glutathione are sufficient for survival of keratinocytes after UV irradiation and for healing of mouse skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telorack, Michèle; Abplanalp, Jeannette; Werner, Sabine

    2016-08-01

    Reduced levels of the cellular antioxidant glutathione are associated with premature skin aging, cancer and impaired wound healing, but the in vivo functions of glutathione in the skin remain largely unknown. Therefore, we analyzed mice lacking the modifier subunit of the glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm), the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of glutathione biosynthesis. Glutathione levels in the skin of these mice were reduced by 70 %. However, neither skin development and homeostasis, nor UVA- or UVB-induced apoptosis in the epidermis were affected. Histomorphometric analysis of excisional wounds did not reveal wound healing abnormalities in young Gclm-deficient mice, while the area of hyperproliferative epithelium as well as keratinocyte proliferation were affected in aged mice. These findings suggest that low levels of glutathione are sufficient for wound repair in young mice, but become rate-limiting upon aging.

  12. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca 2+ on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery

  13. Tamarind seed coat extract restores reactive oxygen species through attenuation of glutathione level and antioxidant enzyme expression in human skin fibroblasts in response to oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakchat, Oranuch; Nalinratana, Nonthaneth; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Pongsamart, Sunanta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role and mechanism of tamarind seed coat extract (TSCE) on normal human skin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells under normal and oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Methods Tamarind seed coats were extracted with boiling water and then partitioned with ethyl acetate before the cell analysis. Effect of TSCE on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH) level, antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity including antioxidant protein expression was investigated. Results TSCE significantly attenuated intracellular ROS in the absence and presence of H2O2 by increasing GSH level. In the absence of H2O2, TSCE significantly enhanced SOD and catalase activity but did not affected on GPx. Meanwhile, TSCE significantly increased the protein expression of SOD and GPx in H2O2-treated cells. Conclusions TSCE exhibited antioxidant activities by scavenging ROS, attenuating GSH level that could protect human skin fibroblast cells from oxidative stress. Our results highlight the antioxidant mechanism of tamarind seed coat through an antioxidant enzyme system, the extract potentially benefits for health food and cosmeceutical application of tamarind seed coat. PMID:25182723

  14. Effect of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid and Serum Glutathione Peroxidase Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pradeep Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasma glutathione peroxidase (eGPx is an important selenium containing antioxidant in human defense against oxidative stress. While crevicular fluid (GCF eGPx levels and its association with periodontal disease is well documented, there is no data on correlation of GCF and serum eGPx levels in chronic periodontitis. Hence this study was undertaken to further probe into the role of oxidative stress in periodontal diseases and effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT by correlating GCF and serum levels of eGPx.

  15. Copper(II)-Graphitic Carbon Nitride Triggered Synergy: Improved ROS Generation and Reduced Glutathione Levels for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Enguo; Dong, Kai; Chen, Zhaowei; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Chaoqun; Huang, Yanyan; Wang, Zhenzhen; Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-12

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3 N4 ) has been used as photosensitizer to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) for photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, its therapeutic efficiency was far from satisfactory. One of the major obstacles was the overexpression of glutathione (GSH) in cancer cells, which could diminish the amount of generated ROS before their arrival at the target site. Herein, we report that the integration of Cu(2+) and g-C3 N4 nanosheets (Cu(2+) -g-C3 N4 ) led to enhanced light-triggered ROS generation as well as the depletion of intracellular GSH levels. Consequently, the ROS generated under light irradiation could be consumed less by reduced GSH, and efficiency was improved. Importantly, redox-active species Cu(+) -g-C3 N4 could catalyze the reduction of molecular oxygen to the superoxide anion or hydrogen peroxide to the hydroxyl radical, both of which facilitated the generation of ROS. This synergy of improved ROS generation and GSH depletion could enhance the efficiency of PDT for cancer therapy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Pyridine nucleotide cycling and control of intracellular redox state in relation to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity and nuclear localization of glutathione during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellny, Till K; Locato, Vittoria; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Markovic, Jelena; De Gara, Laura; Pallardó, Federico V; Foyer, Christine H

    2009-05-01

    Pyridine nucleotides, ascorbate and glutathione are major redox metabolites in plant cells, with specific roles in cellular redox homeostasis and the regulation of the cell cycle. However, the regulation of these metabolite pools during exponential growth and their precise functions in the cell cycle remain to be characterized. The present analysis of the abundance of ascorbate, glutathione, and pyridine nucleotides during exponential growth of Arabidopsis cells in culture provides evidence for the differential regulation of each of these redox pools. Ascorbate was most abundant early in the growth cycle, but glutathione was low at this point. The cellular ascorbate to dehydroascorbate and reduced glutathione (GSH) to glutathione disulphide ratios were high and constant but the pyridine nucleotide pools were largely oxidized over the period of exponential growth and only became more reduced once growth had ceased. The glutathione pool increased in parallel with poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities and with increases in the abundance of PARP1 and PARP2 mRNAs at a time of high cell cycle activity as indicated by transcriptome information. Marked changes in the intracellular partitioning of GSH between the cytoplasm and nucleus were observed. Extension of the exponential growth phase by dilution or changing the media led to increases in the glutathione and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, oxidized form (NAD)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) pools and to higher NAD/NADH ratios but the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, oxidized form (NADP)-plus-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH) pool sizes, and NAPD/NADPH ratios were much less affected. The ascorbate, glutathione, and pyridine nucleotide pools and PARP activity decreased before the exponential growth phase ended. We conclude that there are marked changes in intracellular redox state during the growth cycle but that redox homeostasis is

  17. Omega-3 supplementation can restore glutathione levels and prevent oxidative damage caused by prenatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Anna R; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2013-05-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes long-lasting deficits in brain structure and function. In this study, we have examined the effect of PNEE on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in the adult brain with particular focus on four brain regions known to be affected by ethanol: cerebellum, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (cornu ammonis and dentate gyrus subregions). We have utilized a liquid diet model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that is supplied to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. To examine the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, a subset of animals were provided with an omega-3-enriched diet from birth until adulthood to examine whether these fatty acids could ameliorate any deficits in antioxidant capacity that occurred due to PNEE. Our results showed that PNEE caused a long-lasting decrease in glutathione levels in all four brain regions analyzed that was accompanied by an increase in lipid peroxidation, a marker of oxidative damage. These results indicate that PNEE induces long-lasting changes in the antioxidant capacity of the brain, and this can lead to a state of oxidative stress. Postnatal omega-3 supplementation was able to increase glutathione levels and reduce lipid peroxidation in PNEE animals, partially reversing the effects of alcohol exposure, particularly in the dentate gyrus and the cerebellum. This is the first study where omega-3 supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect in PNEE, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi; Gillespie, Brenda; Werner, Robert; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 ± 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 ± 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5′), or both (SEPP1 3′UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: ► We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. ► Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. ► GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. ► Accumulation of Hg in hair following exposure from fish was modified by genotype. ► GSTP1, GSS

  19. Glutathione enzyme and selenoprotein polymorphisms associate with mercury biomarker levels in Michigan dental professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Wang, Yi [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gillespie, Brenda [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Werner, Robert [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Michigan, 325 E. Eisenhower Parkway Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (United States); Franzblau, Alfred [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 1415 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Mercury is a potent toxicant of concern to both the general public and occupationally exposed workers (e.g., dentists). Recent studies suggest that several genes mediating the toxicokinetics of mercury are polymorphic in humans and may influence inter-individual variability in mercury accumulation. This work hypothesizes that polymorphisms in key glutathione synthesizing enzyme, glutathione s-transferase, and selenoprotein genes underlie inter-individual differences in mercury body burden as assessed by analytical mercury measurement in urine and hair, biomarkers of elemental mercury and methylmercury, respectively. Urine and hair samples were collected from a population of dental professionals (n = 515), and total mercury content was measured. Average urine (1.06 {+-} 1.24 ug/L) and hair mercury levels (0.49 {+-} 0.63 ug/g) were similar to national U.S. population averages. Taqman assays were used to genotype DNA from buccal swab samples at 15 polymorphic sites in genes implicated in mercury metabolism. Linear regression modeling assessed the ability of polymorphisms to modify the relationship between mercury biomarker levels and exposure sources (e.g., amalgams, fish consumption). Five polymorphisms were significantly associated with urine mercury levels (GSTT1 deletion), hair mercury levels (GSTP1-105, GSTP1-114, GSS 5 Prime ), or both (SEPP1 3 Prime UTR). Overall, this study suggests that polymorphisms in selenoproteins and glutathione-related genes may influence elimination of mercury in the urine and hair or mercury retention following exposures to elemental mercury (via dental amalgams) and methylmercury (via fish consumption). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explore the influence of 15 polymorphisms on urine and hair Hg levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urine and hair Hg levels in dental professionals were similar to the US population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GSTT1 and SEPP1 polymorphisms associated with urine Hg levels. Black

  20. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  1. Sulfur mustard resistant keratinocytes obtained elevated glutathione levels and other changes in the antioxidative defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmiller, Simone; Schröder, Sarah; Strobelt, Romano; Wolf, Markus; Wang, Jin; Jiang, Xiqian; Worek, Franz; Steinritz, Dirk; Thiermann, Horst; Schmidt, Annette

    2017-11-26

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a potent blistering chemical warfare agent, which was first used in 1917. Despite the Chemical Weapons Convention, a use was recently reported in Syria in 2015. This emphasizes the importance to develop countermeasures against chemical warfare agents. Despite intensive research, there is still no antidote or prophylaxis available against SM. The newly developed SM-resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM was used to identify new target structures for drug development, particularly the adaptations in protective measures against oxidative stress. For this purpose, glutathione (GSH) and NAD(P)H levels, the effect of glutathione S-transferase (GST) inhibition as well as activation and expression of Nrf2, GST, glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and glutathione-disulfide reductase (GSR) as well as multi-drug resistance (MDR) proteins 1, 3 and 5 were investigated. The HaCaT/SM cells showed not only a better survival after treatment with SM or cytostatic drugs, but also hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). They exhibit more GSH even after SM treatment. Nrf2 levels were significantly lower. Inhibition of GST led to significantly decreased, activation to slightly higher IC 50 values after SM treatment and a lower expression of GST was observed. The cells also expressed less GCLC and GSR. Expression of MDR1, MDR3 and MDR5 was higher under control conditions, but less stimulated by SM treatment. An increased NADP + /NADPH ratio as well as higher NAD + levels were shown. In summary, an improved response of the resistant cell line to oxidative stress was observed. The underlying mechanisms are elevated GSH levels as well as lower expression of Nrf2 and its targets GCLC and GST as well as GSR and MDR1, MDR3 and MDR5. GST is an especially interesting target because its inhibition already induced a significant SM sensitivity. SM resistance also caused redox equivalent level differences. Taken together, these findings provide further insight into the mechanism of SM

  2. Decreased glutathione and elevated hair mercury levels are associated with nutritional deficiency-based autism in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Al-Farsi, Omar; Ali, Amanat; Ouhtit, Allal; Zang, Tianzhu; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny; Deth, Richard C

    2014-06-01

    Genetic, nutrition, and environmental factors have each been implicated as sources of risk for autism. Oxidative stress, including low plasma levels of the antioxidant glutathione, has been reported by numerous autism studies, which can disrupt methylation-dependent epigenetic regulation of gene expression with neurodevelopmental consequences. We investigated the status of redox and methylation metabolites, as well as the level of protein homocysteinylation and hair mercury levels, in autistic and neurotypical control Omani children, who were previously shown to exhibit significant nutritional deficiencies in serum folate and vitamin B₁₂. The serum level of glutathione in autistic subjects was significantly below control levels, while levels of homocysteine and S-adenosylhomocysteine were elevated, indicative of oxidative stress and decreased methionine synthase activity. Autistic males had lower glutathione and higher homocysteine levels than females, while homocysteinylation of serum proteins was increased in autistic males but not females. Mercury levels were markedly elevated in the hair of autistic subjects vs. control subjects, consistent with the importance of glutathione for its elimination. Thus, autism in Oman is associated with decreased antioxidant resources and decreased methylation capacity, in conjunction with elevated hair levels of mercury.

  3. In vitro Effects of Four Native Brazilian Medicinal Plants in CYP3A4 mRNA Gene Expression, Glutathione Levels, and P-Glycoprotein Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzari, Andre L. D. A.; Milton, Flora; Frangos, Samantha; Carvalho, Ana C. B.; Silveira, Dâmaris; de Assis Rocha Neves, Francisco; Prieto, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae), Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae), Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) are medicinal plant species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI). In this work, we assess non-toxic concentrations (100 μg/mL) of the plant infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR). Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (twofold decrease, p < 0.05), this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38 mg/mL). Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p < 0.001), Lippia sidoides (-12%, p < 0.05) and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p < 0.001). The latter plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p < 0.01). In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum. PMID:27594838

  4. In vitro effects of four native Brazilian medicinal plants in CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression, glutathione levels and P-glycoprotein activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Luis Dias Araujo Mazzari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina mulungu Benth. (Fabaceae, Cordia verbenacea A. DC. (Boraginaceae, Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae and Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae are medicinal plants species native to Brazil shortlisted by the Brazilian National Health System for future clinical use. However, nothing is known about their effects in metabolic and transporter proteins, which could potentially lead to herb-drug interactions (HDI. In this work we assess non-toxic concentrations (100μg/mL of their infusions for their in vitro ability to modulate CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression and intracellular glutathione levels in HepG2 cells, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp activity in vincristine-resistant Caco-2 cells (Caco-2 VCR. Their mechanisms of action were further studied by measuring the activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR in transiently co-transfected HeLa cells and the inhibition of γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT in HepG2 cells. Our results show that P-gp activity was not affected in any case and that only Solanum paniculatum was able to significantly change CYP3A4 mRNA gene expression (two-fold decrease, p<0.05, this being correlated with an antagonist effect upon hPXR (EC50 = 0.38mg/mL. Total intracellular glutathione levels were significantly depleted by exposure to Solanum paniculatum (-44%, p<0.001, Lippia sidoides (-12%, p<0.05 and Cordia verbenacea (-47%, p<0.001. The later plant extract was able to decrease GGT activity (-48%, p<0.01. In conclusion, this preclinical study shows that the administration of some of these herbal medicines may be able to cause disturbances to metabolic mechanisms in vitro. Although Erythrina mulungu appears safe in our tests, active pharmacovigilance is recommended for the other three species, especially in the case of Solanum paniculatum.

  5. Glutathione export by human lymphoid cells: depletion of glutathione by inhibition of its synthesis decreases export and increases sensitivity to irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethmers, J K; Meister, A

    1981-12-01

    Glutathione (in the form of GSH) is transported out of cultured human lymphoid cells at rates proportional to the intracellular glutathione levels. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine, a potent selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, leads to exponential decrease in intracellular glutathione, a large fraction of which appears extracellularly, indicating that glutathione turnover is associated with its export. Although cells with 0.09 mM glutathione (4% of controls) were 85% viable, further decrease was associated with marked loss of viability. Cells with 4-5% of control glutathione levels were much more sensitive than control cells to the effects of gamma radiation and of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate). Depletion of glutathione by use of buthionine sulfoximine has advantages over other reagents (such as diamide, other oxidizing agents, and diethylmaleate, which affect other cellular components and may increase glutathione disulfide levels) and therefore has potential usefulness in sensitizing cells to the effects of radiation and to therapeutic agents that are detoxified by reactions involving glutathione.

  6. Selective effects of whey protein concentrate on glutathione levels and apoptosis in rats with mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Hsuan; Tseng, Yang-Ming; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2017-09-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in antioxidant defense and regulation of apoptosis. GSH deficiency is related to many diseases, including cancer, and increased GSH levels in cancer cells are associated with chemotherapy resistance because of resistance to apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC), a precursor of GSH, in rats with mammary tumors induced by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). DMBA treatment results in cellular changes that mimic the initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis of breast tissue. We aimed to examine the possible preventive effects of diets containing whey protein on DMBA-induced mammary tumors in rats. The results indicate that WPC (0.334 g/kg) supplementation significantly increased the liver GSH levels by 92%, and were accompanied by low Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 5 to 3) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 2.4 to 1.2) in DMBA-treated rats. Furthermore, tumor GSH levels were decreased by 47% in WPC-supplemented rats, which resulted in increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (from 0.9 to 2) and cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3 ratio (from 1.1 to 2.7). In conclusion, supplementation with WPC could selectively deplete tumor GSH levels and, therefore, WPC supplementation might be a promising strategy to overcome treatment resistance in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Implications of Glutathione Levels in the Plasmodium berghei Response to Chloroquine and Artemisinin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Vega-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide. Plasmodium drug resistance remains a major challenge to malaria control and has led to the re-emergence of the disease. Chloroquine (CQ and artemisinin (ART are thought to exert their anti-malarial activity inducing cytotoxicity in the parasite by blocking heme degradation (for CQ and increasing oxidative stress. Besides the contribution of the CQ resistance transporter (PfCRT and the multidrug resistant gene (pfmdr, CQ resistance has also been associated with increased parasite glutathione (GSH levels. ART resistance was recently shown to be associated with mutations in the K13-propeller protein. To analyze the role of GSH levels in CQ and ART resistance, we generated transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites either deficient in or overexpressing the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase gene (pbggcs encoding the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These lines produce either lower (pbggcs-ko or higher (pbggcs-oe levels of GSH than wild type parasites. In addition, GSH levels were determined in P. berghei parasites resistant to CQ and mefloquine (MQ. Increased GSH levels were detected in both, CQ and MQ resistant parasites, when compared to the parental sensitive clone. Sensitivity to CQ and ART remained unaltered in both pgggcs-ko and pbggcs-oe parasites when tested in a 4 days drug suppressive assay. However, recrudescence assays after the parasites have been exposed to a sub-lethal dose of ART showed that parasites with low levels of GSH are more sensitive to ART treatment. These results suggest that GSH levels influence Plasmodium berghei response to ART treatment.

  8. Altered intracellular pH regulation in cells with high levels of P-glycoprotein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gregory; Reuss, Luis; Altenberg, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding-cassette transporter that pumps many structurally unrelated drugs out of cells through an ATP-dependent mechanism. As a result, multidrug-resistant cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein have reduced intracellular steady-state levels of a variety of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, increased cytosolic pH has been a frequent finding in multidrug-resistant cells that express P-glycoprotein, and it has been proposed that this consequence of P-glycoprotein expression may contribute to the lower intracellular levels of chemotherapeutic agents. In these studies, we measured intracellular pH and the rate of acid extrusion in response to an acid load in two cells with very different levels of P-glycoprotein expression: V79 parental cells and LZ-8 multidrug resistant cells. Compared to the wild-type V79 cells, LZ-8 cells have a lower intracellular pH and a slower recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load. The data also show that LZ-8 cells have reduced ability to extrude acid, probably due to a decrease in Na(+)/H(+) exchanger activity. The alterations in intracellular pH and acid extrusion in LZ-8 cells are reversed by 24-h exposure to the multidrug-resistance modulator verapamil. The lower intracellular pH in LZ-8 indicates that intracellular alkalinization is not necessary for multidrug resistance. The reversal by verapamil of the decreased acid-extrusion suggests that P-glycoprotein can affect other membrane transport mechanism.

  9. Influence of Periodontal Clinical Status on Salivary Levels of Glutathione Reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Correa, Yésica Alejandra; Isaza-Guzmán, Diana María; Tobón-Arroyave, Sergio Iván

    2016-06-01

    Inadequate antioxidant balance may play a role in the excessive tissue breakdown in periodontitis. Because aggressive periodontitis (AgP) not only differs from chronic periodontitis (CP) in terms of clinical manifestations, this study investigates whether the salivary levels of glutathione reductase (GR) may be linked with periodontal status. Saliva samples from patients with CP (n = 121), patients with AgP (n = 18), and healthy controls (n = 69) were collected. Periodontal status was assessed by criteria based on probing depth, clinical attachment level, and extent and severity of periodontal breakdown. GR salivary levels were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The association among GR concentration and CP or AgP was analyzed individually and adjusted for confounding using multivariate binary logistic regression models. GR levels not only differed significantly between the two periodontitis groups, being significantly greater in patients with AgP, but also were significantly greater than those observed in healthy controls. Synchronously, positive significant correlations between salivary GR concentration and clinical parameters were observed. After binary logistic regression analysis, both GR salivary levels ≥15.38 and ≥24.20 mU/mL were associated independently with CP and AgP, respectively. A significant interaction effect was also detected between increased GR salivary concentration and aging in the CP group. Increased GR salivary concentration may be a strong/independent prognostic indicator of the amount and extent of oxidative stress-induced periodontal damage in both CP and AgP. Likewise, saliva samples might reflect an interactive effect of GR levels associated with the aging-related cumulative characteristics of periodontal damage in CP.

  10. Comparative evaluation of serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Biju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment, and alveolar bone resorption. Under normal physiological conditions, a dynamic equilibrium is maintained between the reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidant defense capacity. Oxidative stress occurs when this equilibrium shifts in favor of ROS. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Aim: The present study was designed to estimate and compare the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the SOD and GSH levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum SOD and GSH in the healthy group compared to the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The post-treatment levels of SOD were statistically higher than the pre-treatment levels in periodontitis and gingivitis group.

  11. Keeping the intracellular vitamin C at a physiologically relevant level in endothelial cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2010-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the addition of vitamin C to cell culture medium improves cell growth. However, once added, the vitamin C concentration declines rapidly. This situation differs from the in vivo environment where the endothelium is constantly supplied with ascorbate from the blood....... With a focus on intracellular vitamin C, we simulated constant supply of ascorbate by the hourly addition of freshly prepared medium containing 75 lM ascorbate and subsequently compared it with more practical regimens using combinations of ascorbate and 2-phosphoascorbate. We found that a single supplement...... of ascorbate and 2-phosphoascorbate adequately maintains intracellular vitamin C at physiological levels for up to 72 h....

  12. Intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine increased levels are associated with DNA hypomethylation in HUVEC.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, R.; Rivera, I.; Martins, C.; Struys, E.A.; Jansen, E.E.; Clode, N.; Graca, L.M.; Blom, H.J.; Jakobs, C.; Tavares de Almeida, I.

    2005-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and vascular disease; however, the mechanism underlying this association remains poorly understood. Increased levels of intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), secondary to homocysteine-mediated reversal of the AdoHcy hydrolase

  13. Antioxidant Vitamin Levels and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity During Ischemia/Reperfusion in Myocardial Infarction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mužáková, V.; Kanďár, R.; Vojtíšek, P.; Skalický, J.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Čegan, A.; Červinková, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2001), s. 389-396 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Myocardial infarction * Oxidative stress * Glutathione peroxidase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  14. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  15. The effect of EGb 761 on retinal lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase level in experimental lens induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Aricioğlu, A; Bilgihan, K; Onol, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B; Türközkan, N

    1994-01-01

    An acute lens-induced necrotizing intraocular inflammation was produced in pigmented guinea pigs. Treatment of these animals by 100 mg/kg/day EGb 761 a free oxygen radical scavenger for 10 days, reduced retinal lipid peroxidation (p > 0.05) and increased the retinal glutathione peroxidase level (p > 0.05). Although not significantly, these findings suggest that EGb 761 could be combined with other antiinflammatory drugs and may be beneficial in the treatment of uveitis.

  16. In vitro effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on glutathione and sulfhydryl levels in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirèe Padilha Marchetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent evidence shows that oxidative stress seems to be related with the pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD, a neurodegenerative disorder. Methods: In the present study, the in vitro effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC on glutathione (GSH and sulfhydryl levels in X-ALD patients was evaluated. Results: A significant reduction of GSH and sulfhydryl content was observed in X-ALD patients compared to the control group. Furthermore, 5 mM of NAC, in vitro, led to an increase in GSH content and sulfhydryl groups in these patients. Conclusion: These data probably indicate that an adjuvant therapy with the antioxidant NAC could improve the oxidative imbalance in X-ALD patients. Keywords: X- linked adrenoleukodystrophy; N-acetyl-L-cysteine; glutathione; sulfhydryl

  17. Compensation for intracellular environment in expression levels of mammalian circadian clock genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Ritsuko; Okamoto, Akihiko; Node, Koichi; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-02-07

    The circadian clock is driven by transcriptional oscillation of clock genes in almost all body cells. To investigate the effect of cell type-specific intracellular environment on the circadian machinery, we examined gene expression profiles in five peripheral tissues. As expected, the phase relationship between expression rhythms of nine clock genes was similar in all tissues examined. We also compared relative expression levels of clock genes among tissues, and unexpectedly found that quantitative variation remained within an approximately three-fold range, which was substantially smaller than that of metabolic housekeeping genes. Interestingly, circadian gene expression was little affected even when fibroblasts were cultured with different concentrations of serum. Together, these findings support a hypothesis that expression levels of clock genes are quantitatively compensated for the intracellular environment, such as redox potential and metabolite composition. However, more comprehensive studies are required to reach definitive conclusions.

  18. The influence of single application of paracetamol and/or N-acetylcysteine on rats in subchronic exposition to trichloroethylene vapours. II. Effect on hepatic glutathione level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Plewka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Feature of modern existing hazards both environmental and occupational is cumulative exposure often leading to unexpected response of the organism resulting, among other things, in interactions with cytochrome P450 system involved in biotransformation of trichloroethylene and paracetamol. Hepatotoxity of paracetamol is closely connected with hepatic glutathione level. „In therapy of acute paracetamol poisoning application of N-acetylcysteine as a factor, which protects GSH level in cells, is recommended.” Materials and method: Tests were performed on rats which were treated with trichloroethylene, paracetamol and/or N-acetylcysteine. In rat liver total level of glutathione was determined i.e. reduced and oxidized form. Results: Paracetamol just after completion of the exposure affected the glutathione level. Trichloroethylene throughout the period of observation stimulated growth of glutathione level in liver. N-acetylcysteine didn’t have any influence on the level of investigated tripeptyde. Conclusions: N-acetylcysteine removes negative effect of paracetamol especially when it’s applied with 2-hour delay. After exposure for trichloethylene immediate application of N-acetylcysteine caused noticeable lowering of glutathione level. Cumulative exposure for three xenobiotics had positive influence for glutathione level in rat liver.

  19. ROS formation and glutathione levels in human oral fibroblasts exposed to TEGDMA and camphorquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, J; Volk, J; Leyhausen, G; Geurtsen, W

    2005-11-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is important for the self-protection of cells against oxidative stress and toxic xenobiotics, whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS) at elevated concentrations may cause detrimental alterations of cell membranes, DNA, and other cellular structures. The present investigation addressed the effects of triethylene-glycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) and camphorquinone (CQ) on glutathione metabolism and the formation of ROS in oral cells. Primary human pulp fibroblasts were exposed to various concentrations of TEGDMA and CQ (0.1-5 mM). Subsequently, GSH concentration and ROS formation were analyzed with the use of the monobromobimane assay (GSH) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) (ROS). The endogenous ROS hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used as a positive control (0.02-2 mM). TEGDMA significantly decreased GSH at concentrations between 0.5 and 5 mM (por=1 mM, but had only a moderate effect on GSH at the highest test concentration. Hydrogen peroxide increased ROS and simultaneously decreased GSH at concentrations of >or=0.2 mM. These data show that the investigated substances may cause cell damage due to various mechanisms, GSH decrease and/or ROS increase. As a consequence, TEGDMA and CQ released into an aqueous environment from resinous materials might interact, thus generating significant cytotoxic effects even at low concentrations. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Alternative oxidase impacts ganoderic acid biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Deng-Ke; Zhu, Jing; Sun, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Guang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Tian-Jun; Wang, Sheng-Li; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-10-01

    The alternative oxidase (AOX), which forms a branch of the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport pathway, functions to sustain electron flux and alleviate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this article, a homologous AOX gene was identified in Ganoderma lucidum. The coding sequence of the AOX gene in G. lucidum contains 1038 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 39.48 kDa. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to study the function of AOX in G. lucidum, and two silenced strains (AOXi6 and AOXi21) were obtained, showing significant decreases of approximately 60 and 50 %, respectively, in alternative pathway respiratory efficiency compared to WT. The content of ganoderic acid (GA) in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 showed significant increases of approximately 42 and 44 %, respectively, compared to WT. Elevated contents of intermediate metabolites in GA biosynthesis and elevated transcription levels of corresponding genes were also observed in the mutant strains AOXi6 and AOXi21. In addition, the intracellular ROS content in strains AOXi6 and AOXi21 was significantly increased, by approximately 1.75- and 1.93-fold, respectively, compared with WT. Furthermore, adding N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, significantly depressed the intracellular ROS content and GA accumulation in AOX-silenced strains. These results indicate that AOX affects GA biosynthesis by regulating intracellular ROS levels. Our research revealed the important role of AOX in the secondary metabolism of G. lucidum.

  1. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß levels in rat primary neuronal culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Emamghoreishi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available S100ß a neurotrophic factor mainly released by astrocytes, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Thus, lithium may exert its neuroprotective effects to some extent through S100ß. Furthermore, the possible effects of lithium on astrocytes as well as on interactions between neurons and astrocytes as a part of its mechanisms of actions are unknown. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of lithium on S100β in neurons, astrocytes and a mixture of neurons and astrocytes. Rat primary astrocyte, neuronal and mixed neuro-astroglia cultures were prepared from cortices of 18-day's embryos. Cell cultures were exposed to lithium (1mM or vehicle for 1day (acute or 7 days (chronic. RT-PCR and ELISA determined S100β mRNA and intra- and extracellular protein levels. Chronic lithium treatment significantly increased intracellular S100β in neuronal and neuro-astroglia cultures in comparison to control cultures (P<0.05. Acute and chronic lithium treatments exerted no significant effects on intracellular S100β protein levels in astrocytes, and extracellular S100β protein levels in three studied cultures as compared to control cultures. Acute and chronic lithium treatments did not significantly alter S100β mRNA levels in three studied cultures, compared to control cultures. Chronic lithium treatment increased intracellular S100ß protein levels in a cell-type specific manner which may favor its neuroprotective action. The findings of this study suggest that lithium may exert its neuroprotective action, at least partly, by increasing neuronal S100ß level, with no effect on astrocytes or interaction between neurons and astrocytes.

  2. 3-Methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Duchiron, C.; Deschaux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 μM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, α-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca 2+ ] i and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca 2+ ] i induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes

  3. Effect of altitude on brain intracellular pH and inorganic phosphate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xian-Feng; Carlson, Paul J; Kim, Tae-Suk; Sung, Young-Hoon; Hellem, Tracy L; Fiedler, Kristen K; Kim, Seong-Eun; Glaeser, Breanna; Wang, Kristina; Zuo, Chun S; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Renshaw, Perry F; Kondo, Douglas G

    2014-06-30

    Normal brain activity is associated with task-related pH changes. Although central nervous system syndromes associated with significant acidosis and alkalosis are well understood, the effects of less dramatic and chronic changes in brain pH are uncertain. One environmental factor known to alter brain pH is the extreme, acute change in altitude encountered by mountaineers. However, the effect of long-term exposure to moderate altitude has not been studied. The aim of this two-site study was to measure brain intracellular pH and phosphate-bearing metabolite levels at two altitudes in healthy volunteers, using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Increased brain pH and reduced inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels were found in healthy subjects who were long-term residents of Salt Lake City, UT (4720ft/1438m), compared with residents of Belmont, MA (20ft/6m). Brain intracellular pH at the altitude of 4720ft was more alkaline than that observed near sea level. In addition, the ratio of inorganic phosphate to total phosphate signal also shifted toward lower values in the Salt Lake City region compared with the Belmont area. These results suggest that long-term residence at moderate altitude is associated with brain chemical changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Import and metabolism of glutathione by Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, C; Fahey, R C

    1998-03-01

    Glutathione (gamma-GluCysGly, GSH) is not found in most gram-positive bacteria, but some appear to synthesize it and others, including Streptococcus mutans ATCC 33402, import it from their growth medium. Import of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by S. mutans 33402 in 7H9 medium was shown to require glucose and to occur with an apparent Km of 18+/-5 microM. GSSG, GSH, S-methylglutathione, and homocysteine-glutathione mixed disulfide (hCySSG) were imported at comparable rates (measured by depletion of substrate in the medium), as was the disulfide of gamma-GluCys. In contrast, the disulfide of CysGly was not taken up at a measurable rate, indicating that the gamma-Glu residue is important for efficient transport. During incubation with GSSG, little GSSG was detected in cells but GSH and gamma-GluCys accumulated during the first 30 min and then declined. No significant intracellular accumulation of Cys or sulfide was found. Transient intracellular accumulation of D/L-homocysteine, as well as GSH and gamma-GluCys, was observed during import of hCySSG. Although substantial levels of GSH were found in cells when S. mutans was grown on media containing glutathione, such GSH accumulation had no effect on the growth rate. However, the presence of cellular GSH did protect against growth inhibition by the thiol-oxidizing agent diamide. Import of glutathione by S. mutans ATCC 25175, which like strain 33402 does not synthesize glutathione, occurred at a rate comparable to that of strain 33402, but three species which appear to synthesize glutathione (S. agalactiae ATCC 12927, S. pyogenes ATCC 8668, and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212) imported glutathione at negligible or markedly lower rates.

  5. Glutathione synthesis is compromised in erythrocytes from individuals with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath eVenketaraman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that the levels of enzymes responsible for the synthesis of glutathione (GSH such as glutathione synthase (GSS, glutamate-cysteine ligase-catalytic subunit (GCLC and glutathione reductase (GSR were significantly reduced in the red blood cells (RBCs isolated from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and this reduction correlated with decreased levels of intracellular GSH. GSH content in RBCs can be used as a marker for increased overall oxidative stress and immune dysfunctions caused by HIV infection. Our data supports our hypothesis that compromised levels of GSH in HIV infected individuals’ is due to decreased levels of GSH-synthetic enzymes. The role of GSH in combating oxidative stress and improving the functions of immune cells in HIV patients’ indicates the benefit of an antioxidant supplement which can reduce the cellular damage and promote the functions of immune cells.

  6. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Moreno, Estefania; Hradsky, Johannes; Reddy, Pasham P; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-11-20

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that control its distinctive biochemical properties are still unknown. We demonstrate that different intracellular Ca2+ levels exert a differential modulation of A2AR-D2R heteromer-mediated adenylyl-cyclase and MAPK signaling in striatal cells. This depends on the ability of low and high Ca2+ levels to promote a selective interaction of the heteromer with the neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins NCS-1 and calneuron-1, respectively. These Ca2+-binding proteins differentially modulate allosteric interactions within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, which constitutes a unique cellular device that integrates extracellular (adenosine and dopamine) and intracellular (Ca+2) signals to produce a specific functional response.

  7. Elucidation of Plasma-induced Chemical Modifications on Glutathione and Glutathione Disulphide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkhammer, Christina; Verlackt, Christof; Śmiłowicz, Dariusz; Kogelheide, Friederike; Bogaerts, Annemie; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Stapelmann, Katharina; Havenith, Martina; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm

    2017-10-23

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas are gaining increased interest in the medical sector and clinical trials to treat skin diseases are underway. Plasmas are capable of producing several reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). However, there are open questions how plasma-generated RONS interact on a molecular level in a biological environment, e.g. cells or cell components. The redox pair glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) forms the most important redox buffer in organisms responsible for detoxification of intracellular reactive species. We apply Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and molecular dynamics simulations to identify the time-dependent chemical modifications on GSH and GSSG that are caused by dielectric barrier discharge under ambient conditions. We find GSSG, S-oxidised glutathione species, and S-nitrosoglutathione as oxidation products with the latter two being the final products, while glutathione sulphenic acid, glutathione sulphinic acid, and GSSG are rather reaction intermediates. Experiments using stabilized pH conditions revealed the same main oxidation products as were found in unbuffered solution, indicating that the dominant oxidative or nitrosative reactions are not influenced by acidic pH. For more complex systems these results indicate that too long treatment times can cause difficult-to-handle modifications to the cellular redox buffer which can impair proper cellular function.

  8. Glutathione Conjugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, R. H.; Frear, D. S.; Swanson, H. R.; Walsh, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The primary factor for atrazine selectivity in corn (Zea mays) is the activity of a soluble enzyme, glutathione S-transferase, which detoxifies atrazine by catalyzing the formation of an atrazine-glutathione conjugate (GS-atrazine). The nonenzymatic, benzoxazinone-catalyzed hydrolysis of atrazine to hydroxyatrazine contributed to the total resistance of corn to atrazine, but the nonenzymatic detoxication pathway does not seem to be essential for resistance. All corn lines investigated, except for susceptible GT112, rapidly detoxified atrazine by glutathione conjugation. Only GT112 had low glutathione S-transferase activity. Hydroxyatrazine was found in significant quantities only when atrazine was introduced initially into the roots. The amount of hydroxyatrazine formed was nearly equal for susceptible GT112 and most of the resistant corn lines investigated. This investigation indicates that some plants protect themselves against toxic organic halide compounds with a mechanism similar to that known to exist in animals. PMID:5543779

  9. Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and glutathione levels in human erythrocytes exposed to colloidal iron hydroxide in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira A.L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The free form of the iron ion is one of the strongest oxidizing agents in the cellular environment. The effect of iron at different concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 µM Fe3+ on the normal human red blood cell (RBC antioxidant system was evaluated in vitro by measuring total (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and reductase (GSH-Rd activities. Membrane lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. The RBC were incubated with colloidal iron hydroxide and phosphate-buffered saline, pH 7.45, at 37oC, for 60 min. For each assay, the results for the control group were: a GSH = 3.52 ± 0.27 µM/g Hb; b GSSG = 0.17 ± 0.03 µM/g Hb; c GSH-Px = 19.60 ± 1.96 IU/g Hb; d GSH-Rd = 3.13 ± 0.17 IU/g Hb; e catalase = 394.9 ± 22.8 IU/g Hb; f SOD = 5981 ± 375 IU/g Hb. The addition of 1 to 100 µM Fe3+ had no effect on the parameters analyzed. No change in TBARS levels was detected at any of the iron concentrations studied. Oxidative stress, measured by GSH kinetics over time, occurs when the RBC are incubated with colloidal iron hydroxide at concentrations higher than 10 µM of Fe3+. Overall, these results show that the intact human RBC is prone to oxidative stress when exposed to Fe3+ and that the RBC has a potent antioxidant system that can minimize the potential damage caused by acute exposure to a colloidal iron hydroxide in vitro.

  10. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevation of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Activity Induced by Amplified Insulin Response in Low Glutathione Levels in Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Taniguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weanling male Wistar rats were fed on a 10% soybean protein isolate (SPI diet for 3 weeks with or without supplementing 0.3% sulfur-containing amino acids (SAA; methionine or cystine to examine relationship between glutathione (GSH levels and activities of NADPH-producing enzymes, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and malic enzyme (ME, in the liver. Of rats on the 10% SPI diet, GSH levels were lower and the enzyme activities were higher than of those fed on an SAA-supplemented diet. Despite the lower GSH level, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS activity was higher in the 10% SPI group than other groups. Examination of mRNAs of G6PD and ME suggested that the GSH-suppressing effect on enzyme induction occurred prior to and/or at transcriptional levels. Gel electrophoresis of G6PD indicated that low GSH status caused a decrease in reduced form and an increase in oxidized form of the enzyme, suggesting an accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme. In primary cultured hepatocytes, insulin response to induce G6PD activity was augmented in low GSH levels manipulated in the presence of buthionine sulfoximine. These findings indicated that elevation of the G6PD activity in low GSH levels was caused by amplified insulin response for expression of the enzyme and accelerated turnover rate of the enzyme molecule.

  12. Glutathione content in sperm cells of infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Fafula

    2017-04-01

    . Redistribution between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione can be caused by depletion of intracellular stores of glutathione and intensification of lipid peroxidation processes. This leads to increased production of reactive oxygen species, further depletion of antioxidant pools and disturbances of structure and function of spermatozoa. Our results indicate that the evaluation of reduced glutathione level and GSH/GSSG ratio in sperm cells of infertile men can be helpful in fertility assessment.

  13. Butyrate influences intracellular levels of adenine and adenine derivatives in the fungus Penicillium restrictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutz, Christoph; Chiang, Yi Ming; Faehnrich, Bettina; Bacher, Markus; Hellinger, Roland; Kluger, Bernhard; Wagner, Martin; Strauss, Joseph; Rychli, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Butyrate, a small fatty acid, has an important role in the colon of ruminants and mammalians including the inhibition of inflammation and the regulation of cell proliferation. There is also growing evidence that butyrate is influencing the histone structure in mammalian cells by inhibition of histone deacetylation. Butyrate shows furthermore an antimicrobial activity against fungi, yeast and bacteria, which is linked to its toxicity at a high concentration. In fungi there are indications that butyrate induces the production of secondary metabolites potentially via inhibition of histone deacetylases. However, information about the influence of butyrate on growth, primary metabolite production and metabolism, besides lipid catabolism, in fungi is scarce. We have identified the filamentous fungus Penicillium (P.) restrictum as a susceptible target for butyrate treatment in an antimicrobial activity screen. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in the mycelium of the butyrate treated culture. We investigated the effect of butyrate ranging from low (0.001mM) to high (30mM), potentially toxic, concentrations on biomass and antimicrobial activity. Butyrate at high concentrations (3 and 30mM) significantly reduced the fungal biomass. In contrast P. restrictum treated with 0.03mM of butyrate showed the highest antimicrobial activity. We isolated three antimicrobial active compounds, active against Staphylococcus aureus, from P. restrictum cellular extracts treated with butyrate: adenine, its derivate hypoxanthine and the nucleoside derivate adenosine. Production of all three compounds was increased at low butyrate concentrations. Furthermore we found that butyrate influences the intracellular level of the adenine nucleoside derivate cAMP, an important signalling molecule in fungi and various organisms. In conclusion butyrate treatment increases the intracellular levels of adenine and its respective derivatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking tends to decrease glutathione and increase malondialdehyde levels in medical students

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    Safyudin Safyudin

    2016-08-01

    Smoking tends to decrease plasma GSH levels and increase plasma MDA levels in medical students. Smoking history could be evidence of oxidative stress and an impaired oxidant defense system. In particular, young smokers should quit promptly before health problems arise, so as to have the optimal benefits of cessation.

  15. Circadian Clock in a Mouse Colon Tumor Regulates Intracellular Iron Levels to Promote Tumor Progression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Matsunaga, Naoya; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Azuma, Hiroki; Hamamura, Kengo; Tsuruta, Akito; Tsurudome, Yuya; Ogino, Takashi; Hara, Yukinori; Suzuki, Takuya; Hyodo, Kenji; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; To, Hideto; Aramaki, Hironori; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Iron is an important biological catalyst and is critical for DNA synthesis during cell proliferation. Cellular iron uptake is enhanced in tumor cells to support increased DNA synthesis. Circadian variations in DNA synthesis and proliferation have been identified in tumor cells, but their relationship with intracellular iron levels is unclear. In this study, we identified a 24-h rhythm in iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) levels in colon-26 tumors implanted in mice. Our findings suggest that IRP2 regulates the 24-h rhythm of transferrin receptor 1 (Tfr1) mRNA expression post-transcriptionally, by binding to RNA stem-loop structures known as iron-response elements. We also found that Irp2 mRNA transcription is promoted by circadian clock genes, including brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (BMAL1) and the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK) heterodimer. Moreover, growth in colon-26(Δ19) tumors expressing the clock-mutant protein (CLOCKΔ19) was low compared with that in wild-type colon-26 tumor. The time-dependent variation of cellular iron levels, and the proliferation rate in wild-type colon-26 tumor was decreased by CLOCKΔ19 expression. Our findings suggest that circadian organization contributes to tumor cell proliferation by regulating iron metabolism in the tumor. PMID:26797126

  16. High Intracellular Seed Train BiP Levels Correlate with Poor Production Culture Performance in CHO Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Meg; Tang, Danming; Wang, Szu-Han; Zhan, Dejin; Kiplinger, Karen; Pan, Shu; Jing, Yifeng; Shen, Amy; Ahyow, Patrick; Snedecor, Brad; Gawlitzek, Martin; Misaghi, Shahram

    2018-04-10

    Consistent cell culture performance is a prerequisite to ensure product quality consistency and achieve productivity goals for the manufacture of recombinant protein therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies. Here we report a peculiar observation where high levels of intracellular BiP in seed train cultures are consistently predictive of poor cell culture performance in the subsequent inoculum and production cultures for a monoclonal antibody produced in CHO cells. Our investigations suggest that in this cell line the high intracellular BiP levels in the seed train are triggered by a slightly lower culture pH, which interferes with proper antibody folding and secretion. While the seed train culture does not display any obvious signs of the problem at slightly lower culture pH, inoculum trains and production cultures sourced from these low pH seed trains display significantly lower cell growth and cell size. High intracellular BiP levels may interfere with UPR signaling, thereby hampering a proper and timely UPR response in the production media. Studies of other problematic cell lines have shown a similar correlation between intracellular BiP accumulation and poor production performance. We believe intracellular BiP levels in seed train should hence be low in order to increase the success rate in production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Glutathione peroxidase level in patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tala, Z. Z.; Siregar, G. A.; Siregar, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with leads to oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa. GPX is one of human antioxidative defense system allows the elimination of excess ROS. A cross-sectional study was in 80 consecutive gastritis patients who came to the endoscopic unit of Adam Malik General Hospital and PermataBunda Hospital in Medan, Indonesia, from May–September 2017, to determine the difference of GPX serum level between positive and negative infected H. pylori. the diagnosis of gastritis used Histopathology. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determined circulating GPX. It used Univariate and bivariate analysis (Mann Whitney U test). There were 50 patients (62.5%) infected with H. pylori. GPX levels in patients with positive H. pylori gastritis were lower than those of negative H. pylori but did not differ significantly. In conclusion, there were no significant differences in GPX level between positive and negative infected H. pylori patients.

  18. Investigation into the Effects of Boron on Liver Tissue Protein Carbonyl, MDA, and Glutathione Levels in Endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanlı, Barbaros; Balaban, Tuba

    2015-10-01

    Endotoxin has been known to cause the formation and damage of free radical. The importance of boron for human life is increasing each passing day, and its consuming fields are continuing to expand due to the advances in science and technology. Therefore, in our study, we intended to investigate into the effects of boron on liver tissue oxidative events. Eighteen male Wistar albino rats were randomly separated into three equal groups in the experiments; control group, boron + endotoxin group, and endotoxin group. Dissolved in distilled water, boric acid (100 mg/kg) was administered to boron + endotoxin group via gavage procedure for 28 days. Only distilled water was administered to control and endotoxin groups via gavage procedure for 28 days. Then 4 mg/kg endotoxin (LPS; Escherichia coli 0111:B4) was intraperitoneally (ip) administered to boron + endotoxin and endotoxin groups on the 28th day. Sterile saline was injected into control group on the 28th day (ip). Malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the end product of lipid peroxidation in liver tissues, protein carbonyl compounds (PC), which are protein oxidization markers, and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. The results were compared with Mann-Whitney U test. When boron + endotoxin group is compared with endotoxin group, PC levels of endotoxin group showed a significant increase. When GSH levels are compared, GSH level in boron + endotoxin group decreased according to endotoxin group. Variations among all groups in MDA levels were found to be statistically insignificant. We are of the opinion that endotoxin affects the proteins by forming free radicals, and boron may also cause the structural and/or functional changes in proteins in order to protect proteins from oxidization.

  19. Heat and exercise acclimation increases intracellular levels of Hsp72 and inhibits exercise-induced increase in intracellular and plasma Hsp72 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Passos, Renata L Freitas; Fonseca, Michele Atalla; Oliveira, Kenya Paula Moreira; Lima, Milene Rodrigues Malheiros; Guimarães, Juliana Bohen; Ferreira-Júnior, João Batista; Martini, Angelo R P; Lima, Nilo R V; Soares, Danusa Dias; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Rodrigues, Luiz Oswaldo Carneiro

    2010-11-01

    In order to verify the effects of heat and exercise acclimation (HA) on resting and exercise-induced expression of plasma and leukocyte heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) in humans, nine healthy young male volunteers (25.0 ± 0.7 years; 80.5 ± 2.0 kg; 180 ± 2 cm, mean ± SE) exercised for 60 min in a hot, dry environment (40 ± 0°C and 45 ± 0% relative humidity) for 11 days. The protocol consisted of running on a treadmill using a controlled hyperthermia technique in which the work rate was adjusted to elevate the rectal temperature by 1°C in 30 min and maintain it elevated for another 30 min. Before and after the HA, the volunteers performed a heat stress test (HST) at 50% of their individual maximal power output for 90 min in the same environment. Blood was drawn before (REST), immediately after (POST) and 1 h after (1 h POST) HST, and plasma and leukocytes were separated and stored. Subjects showed expected adaptations to HA: reduced exercise rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate, and augmented sweat rate and exercise tolerance. In HST1, plasma Hsp72 increased from REST to POST and then returned to resting values 1 h POST (REST: 1.11 ± 0.07, POST: 1.48 ± 0.10, 1 h POST: 1.22 ± 0.11 ng mL(-1); p  0.05). HA increased resting levels of intracellular Hsp72 (HST1: 1 ± 0.02 and HST2: 4.2 ± 1.2 density units, p  0.05). Regression analysis showed that the lower the pre-exercise expression of intracellular Hsp72, the higher the exercise-induced increase (R = -0.85, p < 0.05). In conclusion, HA increased resting leukocyte Hsp72 levels and inhibited exercise-induced expression. This intracellular adaptation probably induces thermotolerance. In addition, the non-increase in plasma Hsp72 after HA may be related to lower stress at the cellular level in the acclimated individuals.

  20. Enzymatic Activity of Glutathione S-Transferase and Dental Fluorosis Among Children Receiving Two Different Levels of Naturally Fluoridated Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonola-Gallardo, Irvin; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Vera-Robles, Liliana; Campero, Antonio; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to measure the activity of the enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) in saliva and to compare the activity of this enzyme in children with and without dental fluorosis in communities with different concentrations of naturally fluoridated water. A total of 141 schoolchildren participated in this cross-sectional study. Children were selected from two communities: one with a low (0.4 ppm) and the other with a high (1.8 ppm) water fluoride concentration. Dental fluorosis was evaluated by applying the Thylstrup and Fejerskov Index (TFI) criteria. Stimulated saliva was obtained, and fluoride concentration and GST activity were measured. The GST activity was compared among children with different levels of dental fluorosis using multinomial logistic regression models and odds ratios (OR). The mean age of the children was 10.6 (±1.03) years. Approximately half of the children showed dental fluorosis (52.5 %). The average GST activity was 0.5678 (±0.1959) nmol/min/μg. A higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva was detected in children with a higher GST activity (p = 0.039). A multinomial logistic regression model used to evaluate the GST activity and the dental fluorosis score identified a strong association between TFI = 2-3 (OR = 15.44, p = 0.007) and TFI ≥ 4 (OR = 55.40, p = 0.026) and the GST activity level, compared with children showing TFI = 0-1, adjusted for age and sex. Schoolchildren with higher levels of dental fluorosis and a higher fluoride concentration in the saliva showed greater GST activity. The increased GST activity most likely was the result of the body's need to inactivate free radicals produced by exposure to fluoride.

  1. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    KAUST Repository

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami

    2016-07-07

    The actin-binding protein, gelsolin, is a well known regulator of cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanisms by which gelsolin promotes invasion are not well established. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to promote cancer cell invasion, we investigated on the hypothesis that gelsolin-induced changes in ROS levels may mediate the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells. Herein, we show that increased gelsolin enhances the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells, and this is mediated via gelsolin\\'s effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained elevation of intracellular O2 .-. Using microarray data of human colorectal cancer tissues from Gene Omnibus, we found that gelsolin gene expression positively correlates with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), an important matrix-degrading protease invovled in cancer invasion. Consistent with the in vivo evidence, we show that increased levels of O2 .- induced by gelsolin overexpression triggers the secretion of uPA. We further observed reduction in invasion and intracellular O2 .- levels in colon cancer cells, as a consequence of gelsolin knockdown using two different siRNAs. In these cells, concurrent repression of Cu/ ZnSOD restored intracellular O2 .- levels and rescued invasive capacity. Our study therefore identified gelsolin as a novel regulator of intracellular O2 .- in cancer cells via interacting with Cu/ZnSOD and inhibiting its enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings provide insight into a novel function of gelsolin in promoting tumor invasion by directly impacting the cellular redox milieu.

  2. Curcumin inhibits apoptosis by regulating intracellular calcium release, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial depolarization levels in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Öz, Ahmi; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are incurable progressive neurological disorders caused by the degeneration of neuronal cells and characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Curcumin, a turmeric product, is an anti-inflammatory agent and an effective reactive oxygen and nitrogen species scavenging molecule. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the main source of oxidative stress, which is claimed to be the major source of neurological disorders. Hence, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on Ca(2+) signaling, oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial depolarization levels and caspase-3 and -9 activities that are induced by the H2O2 model of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were divided into four groups namely, the control, curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups. The dose and duration of curcumin and H2O2 were determined from published data. The cells in the curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups were incubated for 24 h with 5 µM curcumin and 100 µM H2O2. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentrations were higher in the H2O2 group than in the control group; however, their levels were lower in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group alone. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were lower in the H2O2 group although they were higher in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group. Caspase-3 activity was lower in the curcumin group than in the H2O2 group. In conclusion, curcumin strongly induced modulator effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and the caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in SH-SY5Y cells.

  3. Effect of Brazil nut supplementation on the blood levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockler-Pinto, M B; Mafra, D; Farage, N E; Boaventura, G T; Cozzolino, S M F

    2010-01-01

    In patients who have undergone hemodialysis, large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and, at higher concentrations, ROS are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that selenium (Se) may exert an antiatherogenic influence by reducing oxidative stress. The richest known food source of selenium is the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, family Lecythidaceae), found in the Amazon region. We evaluated the effect of Brazil nut supplementation on blood levels of Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in patients on hemodialysis. A total of 81 patients on hemodialysis (52.0±15.2 y old, average time on dialysis 82.3±91.4 mo, body mass index 24.9±4.4 kg/m(2)) from the RenalCor and RenalVida Clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. All patients received one nut (around 5 g, averaging 58.1 μg Se/g) a day for 3 mo. The Se concentrations in the nuts and in plasma and erythrocytes were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation (Hitachi, Z-500). GSH-Px levels were measured using Randox commercial kits. Plasma Se (18.8±17.4 μg/L) and erythrocyte (72.4±37.9 μg/L) levels were below the normal range before nut supplementation. After supplementation, the plasma level increased to 104.0±65.0 μg/L and erythrocytes to 244.1±119.5 μg/L (P<0.0001). The activity of GSH-Px also increased after supplementation, from 46.6±14.9 to 55.9±23.6 U/g of hemoglobin (P<0.0001). Before supplementation, 11% of patients had GSH-Px activity below the normal range (27.5-73.6 U/g of hemoglobin). After supplementation, all patients showed GSH-Px activity within the normal range. The data revealed that the investigated patients presented Se deficiency and that the consumption of only one Brazil nut a day (5 g) during 3 mo was effective to increase the Se concentration and GSH-Px activity in these patients, thus improving their antioxidant status. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc

  4. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium level decreased about 1.5-fold in conditions favoring PP-V production. Moreover, P. purpurogenum was transferred to medium in which it commonly produces the related pigment PP-O after cultivating it in the presence or absence of glutamine to investigate whether this fungus biosynthesizes PP-V using surplus ammonium in cells. Only mycelia cultured in medium containing 10 mM glutamine produced the violet pigment, and simultaneously intracellular ammonium levels decreased under this condition. From comparisons of the amount of PP-V that was secreted with quantity of surplus intracellular ammonium, it is suggested that P. purpurogenum maintains ammonium homeostasis by excreting waste ammonium as PP-V.

  5. Increase of intracellular cisplatin levels and radiosensitization by ultrasound in combination with microbubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, Bart H A; Bos, Clemens; van der Wurff-Jacobs, Kim M.; Storm, G; Moonen, Chrit T.; Deckers, Roel

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to enhance drug delivery by using ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is extensively studied. So far, these studies have focused on the delivery and efficacy of a single drug, e.g. in chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the intracellular delivery of cisplatin

  6. Global metabolic profile identifies choline kinase alpha as a key regulator of glutathione-dependent antioxidant cell defense in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Anna; Nicoletti, Roberta; Perego, Paola; Iorio, Egidio; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Benigni, Fabio; Ricci, Alessandro; Podo, Franca; Bhujwalla, Zaver M; Canevari, Silvana; Bagnoli, Marina; Mezzanzanica, Delia

    2015-05-10

    Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) "cholinic phenotype", characterized by increased intracellular phosphocholine content sustained by over-expression/activity of choline kinase-alpha (ChoKα/CHKA), is a metabolic cellular reprogramming involved in chemoresistance with still unknown mechanisms.By stable CHKA silencing and global metabolic profiling here we demonstrate that CHKA knockdown hampers growth capability of EOC cell lines both in vitro and in xenotransplant in vivo models. It also affected antioxidant cellular defenses, decreasing glutathione and cysteine content while increasing intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, overall sensitizing EOC cells to current chemotherapeutic regimens. Natural recovering of ChoKα expression after its transient silencing rescued the wild-type phenotype, restoring intracellular glutathione content and drug resistance. Rescue and phenocopy of siCHKA-related effects were also obtained by artificial modulation of glutathione levels. The direct relationship among CHKA expression, glutathione intracellular content and drug sensitivity was overall demonstrated in six different EOC cell lines but notably, siCHKA did not affect growth capability, glutathione metabolism and/or drug sensitivity of non-tumoral immortalized ovarian cells. The "cholinic phenotype", by recapitulating EOC addiction to glutathione content for the maintenance of the antioxidant defense, can be therefore considered a unique feature of cancer cells and a suitable target to improve chemotherapeutics efficacy.

  7. Time-resolved luminescence imaging of intracellular oxygen levels based on long-lived phosphorescent iridium(III) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhang, Yangliu; Liang, Hua; Chen, Zejing; Liu, Ziyu; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-07-11

    Time-resolved luminescence imaging of intracellular oxygen levels has been demonstrated based on long-lived phosphorescent signal. A phosphorescent dinuclear iridium(III) complex Ir1 has been designed and synthesized, which exhibits excellent optical properties, such as high quantum yields, large Stokes shift, high photostability and long emission lifetime. The phosphorescent intensity and lifetime of complex are very sensitive to oxygen levels. Thus, the application of Ir1 for monitoring intracellular oxygen levels has been realized successfully. Especially, utilizing the advantageous long emission lifetime of Ir1, the background fluorescence interference could be eliminated effectively by using the photoluminescence lifetime imaging and time-gated luminescence imaging techniques, improving the signal-to-noise ratios in bioimaging.

  8. The depletion of nuclear glutathione impairs cell proliferation in 3t3 fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Markovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate.We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period of 5 days. Cells were treated with two well known depleting agents, diethyl maleate (DEM and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, and the cellular and nuclear glutathione levels were assessed by analytical and confocal microscopic techniques, respectively. Both agents decreased total cellular glutathione although depletion by BSO was more sustained. However, the nuclear glutathione pool resisted depletion by BSO but not with DEM. Interestingly, cell proliferation was impaired by DEM, but not by BSO. Treating the cells simultaneously with DEM and with glutathione ethyl ester to restore intracellular GSH levels completely prevented the effects of DEM on cell proliferation.Our results demonstrate the importance of nuclear glutathione in the control of cell proliferation in 3T3 fibroblasts and suggest that a reduced nuclear environment is necessary for cells to progress in the cell cycle.

  9. Evaluation of intracellular anion superoxide level, heat shock protein A2 and protamine positive spermatozoa percentages in teratoasthenozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sabeti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teratoasthenozoospermia (TA is a severe form of male infertility with no clear etiology. Objective: To compare the level of intracellular anion superoxide (O2–, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 and protamine deficiencies in ejaculated spermatozoa between teratoasthenozoospermic and normozoospermic men. Materials and Methods: In this case- control study, semen samples of 20 infertile men, with TA (with normal morphology lower than 4%_ and total motility lower than 40% as the case group and 20 normozoospermic fertile men as the control group were evaluated for intracellular O2 – and HSPA2 by flow cytometry and protamine deficiency by Chromomycin A3 (CMA3 test. Results: The rate of CMA3+ spermatozoa in the case group was higher than controls (p=0.001. The percentages of HSPA2+ spermatozoa in the cases were significantly lower than controls (p=0.001. Also, intracellular O2 – levels in the case group were significantly higher than controls (p=0.001 and had positive correlations with sperm apoptosis (r=0.79, p=0.01 and CMA3 positive sperm (r=0.76, p=0.01, but negative correlations with normal morphology (r=-0.81, p=0.01 and motility (r=-0.81, p=0.01. There was no significant correlation between intracellular O2 – and HSPA2 in the case group (r=0.041, p=0.79. Conclusion: We suggest that the increase in intracellular O2 –, decrease in spermatozoa HSPA2+, and high percentages of spermatozoa with immature chromatin might be considered as etiologies of infertility in TA patients

  10. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  11. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  12. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cabaña-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems.To determine whether heavy metals (in hair, antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings.55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years. Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27 with those with more than four (n = 15. As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  13. Effects on levels of glutathione and some related enzymes in tissues after an acute arsenic exposure in rats and their relationship to dietary protein deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, S. [University Grants Commission, New Delhi (India); Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Univ. (India); Chatterjee, A.K. [Dept. of Physiology, Calcutta Univ. (India)

    2001-11-01

    Arsenic is a potent toxin, carcinogen and modulator of antioxidant defense system. In this study, male rats of Wistar strain, maintained on either 18% or 6% protein (casein) diet, received an acute i.p. exposure to sodium arsenite (As{sup 3+}) at its LD{sub 50} dose (15.86 mg/kg body weight). One hour after the arsenic exposure, glutathione (GSH) concentration was significantly depleted and lipid peroxidation was increased. A relationship between any two of tissue arsenic concentrations, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation values was observed only for liver when the proportional changes of respective parameters in either of the dietary groups of animals were compared. This suggests that, in liver, arsenic metabolism appears dependant upon the GSH concentration. Acute arsenic exposure significantly increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in liver of both dietary groups and in kidney of only the 18% protein-fed group of animals. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity significantly decreased in liver of the 18% protein-fed animals while GST increased in kidney of both the 18% and the 6% protein-fed groups. No significant change in glutathione reductase (GR) or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was observed. In the present investigation, liver as a whole seems to be more affected in terms of GSH level and GST activity. The mode of responses of GPx and GR activities as well as the unaltered G6PDH activity might result in arsenic-induced GSH depletion and increase in lipid peroxidation. The animals of the 6% protein-fed group, appeared to be affected less in terms of tissue arsenic concentration, lipid peroxidation, GSH level and GST activity. (orig.)

  14. Cystatins - Extra- and intracellular cysteine protease inhibitors: High-level secretion and uptake of cystatin C in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallin, Hanna; Bjarnadottir, Maria; Vogel, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    signal peptides) for cellular export following translation. Results indicating existence of systems for significant internalisation of type 2 cystatins from the extracellular to intracellular compartments are reviewed. Data showing that human neuroblastoma cell lines generally secrete high levels...... staining was observed. The simplistic denotation of the type 2 cystatins as extracellular inhibitors is thus challenged, and possible biological functions of the internalised cystatins are discussed. To illustrate the special case of high cellular cystatin content seen in cells of patients with hereditary...

  15. The Effect of Melatonin on Maturation, Glutathione Level and Expression of H MGB1 Gene in Brilliant Cresyl Blue (BCB) Stained Immature Oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Maryam; Salehi, Mohammad; Masteri Farahani, Reza; Dehghani, Maryam; Abadi, Mohammad; Novin, Marefat Ghaffari; Nourozian, Mohsen; Hosseini, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Nutrients and antioxidants in the medium of immature oocyte have a profound effect on maturation, fertilization and development of resulting embryos. In this study the effects of melatonin as an antioxidant agent on maturation, glutathione level and expression of High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) gene were evaluated in immature oocytes of mice stained with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB). In this experimental study, immature oocytes were harvested from ovaries of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice. Oocytes were stained with 26 μM BCB for 90 minutes and transferred to in vitro maturation medium containing varying doses of melatonin (10-12, 10-9, 10-6, 10-3 M) and without melatonin, for 22-24 hours. Maturation was monitored using an inverted microscope. Glutathione was assessed by monochlorobimane (MCB) staining and HMGB1 expression in mature oocyte was analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Melatonin in the concentration of 10-6 M had the most effect on maturation and HMGB1 expression of BCB+ oocytes (pBCB- oocytes, compared to the control group, melatonin did not affect cytoplasm maturation (p>0.05). In vitro treatment with melatonin increases the maturation and HMGB1 expression in BCB+ immature oocytes and has no significant effect on glutathione levels.

  16. Ibuprofen administration attenuates serum TNF-α levels, hepatic glutathione depletion, hepatic apoptosis and mouse mortality after Fas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazanave, Sophie; Vadrot, Nathalie; Tinel, Marina; Berson, Alain; Letteron, Philippe; Larosche, Isabelle; Descatoire, Veronique; Feldmann, Gerard; Robin, Marie-Anne; Pessayre, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Fas stimulation recruits neutrophils and activates macrophages that secrete tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which aggravates Fas-mediated liver injury. To determine whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modify these processes, we challenged 24-hour-fasted mice with the agonistic Jo2 anti-Fas antibody (4 μg/mouse), and treated the animals 1 h later with saline or ibuprofen (250 mg/kg), a dual cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. Ibuprofen attenuated the Jo2-mediated recruitment/activation of myeloperoxidase-secreting neutrophils/macrophages in the liver, and attenuated the surge in serum TNF-α. Ibuprofen also minimized hepatic glutathione depletion, Bid truncation, caspase activation, outer mitochondrial membrane rupture, hepatocyte apoptosis and the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity 5 h after Jo2 administration, to finally decrease mouse mortality at later times. The concomitant administration of pentoxifylline (decreasing TNF-α secretion) and infliximab (trapping TNF-α) likewise attenuated the Jo2-mediated increase in TNF-α, the decrease in hepatic glutathione, and the increase in serum ALT activity 5 h after Jo2 administration. The concomitant administration of the COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) and the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (40 mg/kg) 1 h after Jo2 administration, also decreased liver injury 5 h after Jo2 administration. In contrast, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40 or 160 mg/kg) given alone had no significant protective effects. In conclusion, secondary TNF-α secretion plays an important role in Jo2-mediated glutathione depletion and liver injury. The combined inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 by ibuprofen attenuates TNF-α secretion, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial alterations, hepatic apoptosis and mortality in Jo2-treated fasted mice

  17. Weekly Treatment of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Improves Intracellular Cholesterol Levels in LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie M. A. Walenbergh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of lysosomes in the context of the metabolic syndrome has received increased attention. Increased lysosomal cholesterol storage and cholesterol crystallization inside macrophages have been linked to several metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Two-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-B-CD is able to redirect lysosomal cholesterol to the cytoplasm in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. We hypothesize that HP-B-CD ameliorates liver cholesterol and intracellular cholesterol levels inside Kupffer cells (KCs. Hyperlipidemic low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr−/− mice were given weekly, subcutaneous injections with HP-B-CD or control PBS. In contrast to control injections, hyperlipidemic mice treated with HP-B-CD demonstrated a shift in intracellular cholesterol distribution towards cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester (CE storage and a decrease in cholesterol crystallization inside KCs. Compared to untreated hyperlipidemic mice, the foamy KC appearance and liver cholesterol remained similar upon HP-B-CD administration, while hepatic campesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol levels were back increased. Thus, HP-B-CD could be a useful tool to improve intracellular cholesterol levels in the context of the metabolic syndrome, possibly through modulation of phyto- and oxysterols, and should be tested in the future. Additionally, these data underline the existence of a shared etiology between lysosomal storage diseases and NAFLD.

  18. Effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining heart rate variability, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Bonpei; Akima, Takashi; Satomura, Kimio; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Mastui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kurita, Akira

    2004-10-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with cardiovascular events. In addition, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV), plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium (Mg) are important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular events. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining the HRV, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels. Thirty (30) healthy male college students ranging in age from 20 to 24 years of age (average 22 +/- 1 years; mean +/- SD) with no coronary risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in the study. Over a 4-week period, the volunteers' plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and erythrocyte-Mg were measured. The study was made during the 4 weeks before and immediately after college finals exams. HRV, obtained from 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, included time and frequency domain indices. The HRV indices and erythrocyte-Mg decreased while norepinephrine increased during chronic sleep deprivation. It is concluded that chronic sleep deprivation causes an autonomic imbalance and decreases intracellular Mg, which could be associated with chronic sleep deprivation-induced cardiovascular events.

  19. Competitive reactions among glutathione, cisplatin and copper-phenanthroline complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Enzo; Valletta, Elisa; Caddeo, Graziano; Isaia, Francesco; Cabiddu, Maria Grazia; Vascellari, Sarah; Pivetta, Tiziana

    2017-08-01

    A large number of cancers are treated with cisplatin (CDDP). However, its use is limited by drug resistance, which is often related to intracellular levels of thiol-containing molecules such as glutathione (GSH). The role of GSH in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells is still unclear. GSH may form adducts with CDDP which results in the deactivation of the drug, and, actually, a high intracellular level of GSH was observed in some cisplatin-resistant cancers. To overcome drug resistance, CDDP is often administered in combination with one or more drugs to exploit a possible synergistic effect. In previous studies, we observed that the sensitivity to CDDP of leukemic and ovarian cisplatin-resistant cancer cells was restored in the presence of [Cu(phen) 2 (H 2 O)](ClO 4 ) 2 (C0) (phen is 1,10-phenathroline). In order to clarify the possible interactions between GSH and CDDP, the reactivity and competitive reactions among CDDP, C0 and GSH in binary and ternary mixtures were studied. The investigation was extended also to [Cu(phen)(H 2 O) 2 (ClO 4 ) 2 ] (C10) and GSSG, the oxidized form of GSH. It was observed that CDDP was able to react with the studied copper complexes and with GSH or GSSG. However, in mixtures containing CDDP, GSH or GSSG and C0 or C10, only copper-glutathione complexes were detected, while no platinum-glutathione adducts were found. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione in relation to the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italica cv. Bellstar) during storage and mechanical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raseetha, Siva; Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione content in broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. italica cv. Bellstar) during prolonged storage and subsequent mechanical processing. The initial content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli florets averaged at 5.18 ± 0.23 and 0.70 ± 0.03 μmol/g fresh weight, respectively. Results showed that the content of ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli degraded during storage at 23°C, for at least 4.5-fold after 6 days of storage. On each day of storage, broccoli florets were mechanically processed, but the content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione was not significantly affected. When the mechanically processed broccoli florets were further incubated for up to 6h, the amount of ascorbic acid was greatly reduced as compared to glutathione. To obtain an in-depth understanding on the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione, the activity of enzymes involved in plant antioxidative system via ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as a response towards oxidative stress that took place during storage was determined in this study. The content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli florets before and after mechanical processing were found to decrease concurrently with the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase and glutathione reductase over the experimental storage duration. Meanwhile, the effect of oxidative stress on the content of ascorbic acid and glutathione was apparent during the 6h of incubation after mechanical processing. This phenomenon was demonstrated by the level of oxidative stress biomarkers examined, in which the formation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and DNA oxidised products was positively associated with the degradation of total ascorbic acid and glutathione. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  2. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy

  3. Intracellular levels of glutamate in swollen astrocytes are preserved via neurotransmitter reuptake and de novo synthesis: implications for hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Alexandra L; Mongin, Alexander A

    2015-10-01

    Hyponatremia and several other CNS pathologies are associated with substantial astrocytic swelling. To counteract cell swelling, astrocytes lose intracellular osmolytes, including l-glutamate and taurine, through volume-regulated anion channel. In vitro, when swollen by exposure to hypo-osmotic medium, astrocytes lose endogenous taurine faster, paradoxically, than l-glutamate or l-aspartate. Here, we explored the mechanisms responsible for differences between the rates of osmolyte release in primary rat astrocyte cultures. In radiotracer assays, hypo-osmotic efflux of preloaded [(14) C]taurine was indistinguishable from d-[(3) H]aspartate and only 30-40% faster than l-[(3) H]glutamate. However, when we used HPLC to measure the endogenous intracellular amino acid content, hypo-osmotic loss of taurine was approximately fivefold greater than l-glutamate, and no loss of l-aspartate was detected. The dramatic difference between loss of endogenous taurine and glutamate was eliminated after inhibition of both glutamate reuptake [with 300 μM dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA)] and glutamate synthesis by aminotransferases [with 1 mM aminooxyacetic acid (AOA)]. Treatment with TBOA+AOA made reductions in the intracellular taurine and l-glutamate levels approximately equal. Taken together, these data suggest that swollen astrocytes actively conserve intracellular glutamate via reuptake and de novo synthesis. Our findings likely also explain why in animal models of acute hyponatremia, extracellular levels of taurine are dramatically elevated with minimal impact on extracellular l-glutamate. We identified mechanisms that allow astrocytes to conserve intracellular l-glutamate (Glu) upon exposure to hypo-osmotic environment. Cell swelling activates volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) and triggers loss of Glu, taurine (Tau), and other cytosolic amino acids. Glu is conserved via reuptake by Na(+) -dependent transporters and de novo synthesis in the reactions of

  4. Ultra-fast analysis of plasma and intracellular levels of HIV protease inhibitors in children: A clinical application of MALDI mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. van Kampen (Jeroen); M.L. Reedijk (Mariska); P.C. Burgers (Peter); L.J.M. Dekker (Lennard); N.G. Hartwig (Nico); I.E. van der Ende (Ineke); R. de Groot (Ronald); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D.M. Burger (David); T.M. Luider (Theo); R.A. Gruters (Rob)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractHIV protease inhibitors must penetrate into cells to exert their action. Differences in the intracellular pharmacokinetics of these drugs may explain why some patients fail on therapy or suffer from drug toxicity. Yet, there is no information available on the intracellular levels of HIV

  5. Characterization of Intracellular and Extracellular Saxitoxin Levels in Both Field and Cultured Alexandrium spp. Samples from Sequim Bay, Washington

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera L. Trainer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, harmful algal bloom studies have primarily focused on quantifying toxin levels contained within the phytoplankton cells of interest. In the case of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs, intracellular toxin levels and the effects of dietary consumption of toxic cells by planktivores have been well documented. However, little information is available regarding the levels of extracellular PSTs that may leak or be released into seawater from toxic cells during blooms. In order to fully evaluate the risks of harmful algal bloom toxins in the marine food web, it is necessary to understand all potential routes of exposure. In the present study, extracellular and intracellular PST levels were measured in field seawater samples (collected weekly from June to October 2004- 2007 and in Alexandrium spp. culture samples isolated from Sequim Bay, Washington. Measurable levels of intra- and extra-cellular toxins were detected in both field and culture samples via receptor binding assay (RBA and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Characterization of the PST toxin profile in the Sequim Bay isolates by preMar. column oxidation and HPLC-fluorescence detection revealed that gonyautoxin 1 and 4 made up 65 ± 9.7 % of the total PSTs present. Collectively, these data confirm that extracellular PSTs are present during blooms of Alexandrium spp. in the Sequim Bay region.

  6. [Association between intracellular zinc levels and nutritional status in HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez G, Erika María; Maldonado C, María Elena; Rojas L, Mauricio; Posada J, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition, growth retardation and opportunistic infections outlast the metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal disorders produced by HIV. Zinc deficiency has been associated with deteriorating nutritional status, growth failure, and risk of infection. The aim of this study is to determine the association between zinc levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the nutritional status of HIV-infected and uninfected children exposed to the virus. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 17 infected and 17 exposed children, aged 2-10 years. Anthropometric measurements, clinical and nutritional history, 24h recall, measurement of physical activity, and zinc in PBMC by flow cytometry analysis were recorded. Height according to age, energy consumption and adequacy of energy, protein and dietary zinc were significantly higher in children exposed to the virus compared to those infected with HIV (P CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes between the two study groups (P >.05). However, the median levels of zinc in monocytes of infected patients was higher (218.6) compared to the control group (217.0). No association was found between zinc intake and levels of intracellular zinc. The deterioration of nutritional status and growth retardation in children were associated with HIV, but not with the levels of intracellular zinc. The dietary intake of this nutrient was not associated with levels of zinc in monocytes or CD4 + and CD4- lymphocytes. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  7. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione--Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mons, Ute; Muscat, Joshua E; Modesto, Jennifer; Richie, John P; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoke contains high concentrations of free radical components that induce oxidative stress. Smoking-induced oxidative stress is thought to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and lung cancer through degenerative processes in the lung and other tissues. It is uncertain however whether smoking cessation lowers the burden of oxidative stress. We used data from a randomized controlled cessation trial of 434 current smokers for a post-hoc examination of the effects of smoking cessation on blood plasma levels of total glutathione (tGSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant in cells, and total cysteine (tCys), an amino acid and constituent of glutathione. Smoking status was validated based on serum cotinine levels. Multivariate linear mixed models were fitted to examine the association of smoking cessation and change in cigarette consumption with tGSH and tCys. After 12 months follow-up, quitters (n=55) had significantly increased levels of tGSH compared to subjects who continued to smoke (Psmoke but reduced their intensity of smoking. No significant effect of smoking cessation or reduction was observed on levels of tCys. These results suggest that smoking cessation but not smoking reduction reduces levels of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Yap1-regulated glutathione redox system curtails accumulation of formaldehyde and reactive oxygen species in methanol metabolism of Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Taisuke; Takigami, Emiko; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2009-04-01

    The glutathione redox system, including the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione regeneration reaction, has been found to play a critical role in the yeast Pichia pastoris during growth on methanol, and this regulation was at least partly executed by the transcription factor PpYap1. During adaptation to methanol medium, PpYap1 transiently localized to the nucleus and activated the expression of the glutathione redox system and upregulated glutathione reductase 1 (Glr1). Glr1 activates the regeneration of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH). Depletion of Glr1 caused a severe growth defect on methanol and hypersensitivity to formaldehyde (HCHO), which could be complemented by addition of GSH to the medium. Disruption of the genes for the HCHO-oxidizing enzymes PpFld1 and PpFgh1 caused a comparable phenotype, but disruption of the downstream gene PpFDH1 did not, demonstrating the importance of maintaining intracellular GSH levels. Absence of the peroxisomal glutathione peroxidase Pmp20 also triggered nuclear localization of PpYap1, and although cells were not sensitive to HCHO, growth on methanol was again severely impaired due to oxidative stress. Thus, the PpYap1-regulated glutathione redox system has two important roles, i.e., HCHO metabolism and detoxification of reactive oxygen species.

  9. Imaging of Intracellular and Extracellular ROS Levels in Atherosclerotic Mouse Aortas Ex Vivo: Effects of Lipid Lowering by Diet or Atorvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Matias; Gustafsson Trajkovska, Maria; Perman-Sundelin, Jeanna; Fogelstrand, Per; Adiels, Martin; Johansson, Martin; Mattsson-Hultén, Lillemor; Borén, Jan; Levin, Max

    2015-01-01

    The first objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mouse aorta increase before or after diet-induced lesion formation. The second objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS correlates to cell composition in atherosclerotic lesions. The third objective was to investigate if intracellular and extracellular ROS levels within established atherosclerotic lesions can be reduced by lipid lowering by diet or atorvastatin. To address our objectives, we established a new imaging technique to visualize and quantify intracellular and extracellular ROS levels within intact mouse aortas ex vivo. Using this technique, we found that intracellular, but not extracellular, ROS levels increased prior to lesion formation in mouse aortas. Both intracellular and extracellular ROS levels were increased in advanced lesions. Intracellular ROS correlated with lesion content of macrophages. Extracellular ROS correlated with lesion content of smooth muscle cells. The high levels of ROS in advanced lesions were reduced by 5 days high dose atorvastatin treatment but not by lipid lowering by diet. Atorvastatin treatment did not affect lesion inflammation (aortic arch mRNA levels of CXCL 1, ICAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, VCAM, IL-6, and IL-1β) or cellular composition (smooth muscle cell, macrophage, and T-cell content). Aortic levels of intracellular ROS increase prior to lesion formation and may be important in initiation of atherosclerosis. Our results suggest that within lesions, macrophages produce mainly intracellular ROS whereas smooth muscle cells produce extracellular ROS. Short term atorvastatin treatment, but not lipid lowering by diet, decreases ROS levels within established advanced lesions; this may help explain the lesion stabilizing and anti-inflammatory effects of long term statin treatment.

  10. Effect of Tetrodotoxin from Crude Puffer Fish (Tetraodon fluviatilis Liver Extract on Intracellular Calcium Level and Apoptosis of HeLa Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Untario

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and fourth leading cause of women death with 8% of total death caused by cancer in women in 2008. Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin found in inner organs puffer fish, with the specific mechanism of sodium channel blocking, and widely used for research purposes. Previous reports claimed that TTX has the capability of inhibiting the metastatic process of cancer and apoptotic effect. Studies also show that apoptosis is a process involving the increase of intracellular calcium level, yet the connection between TTX and increase of intracellular calcium level, therefore triggering apoptosis, has not been established. This is an experimental study with post test only control group design, carried out by exposing HeLa cell culture to a crude liver extract of a puffer fish species, Tetraodon fluviatilis. Crude puffer fish liver extract is administered into HeLa cell culture well in different concentrations 10-4, 10-2, and 10-1. Intracellular calcium level and apoptosis were then measured after 18 hours of incubation. Measurements of intracellular calcium level were done by using CLSM with Fura-2AM staining, and apoptosis by using flowcytometry with Annexin V/PI.  The result shows that there is a significant difference between samples both in intracellular calcium (p < 0.05 and apoptosis (p < 0,05. Both intracellular calcium and apoptosis levels are proportional to liver fish extract concentration. Pearson’s correlation test shows correlation between treatment and intracellular calcium levels (p = 0.000, between treatment and apoptosis (p = 0.002, but not between intracellular calcium and apoptosis (p = 0.05. These results suggest that TTX induces an increase in intracellular calcium level and apoptosis, but calcium pathway is not the sole cause of the apoptosis.

  11. Effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin in vivo and correlation between viability and intracellular ATP level after calcium electroporation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gehl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    was limited when investigated in a 3D in vitro spheroid model. We aimed to investigate the effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin, a drug that affects intracellular ATP level. We also aimed to study the relationship between the viability and intracellular ATP levels after calcium...... electroporation in vitro. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium electroporation with metformin on NMRI-Foxn1nu mice in vivo on tumor size, survival, and intracellular ATP. We further investigated viability and intracellular ATP level in vitro after calcium electroporation in two human...... electroporation significantly reduced the size and ATP level of bladder cancer tumors treated in vivo but no increased effect of metformin combined with calcium electroporation was shown on neither tumor size, survival, nor ATP level. Calcium electroporation in vitro significantly decreased viability compared...

  12. miR-92a enhances recombinant protein productivity in CHO cells by increasing intracellular cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Wan Ping; Yang, Yuansheng; Lam, Kong Peng

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising targets for engineering of CHO cell factories to enhance recombinant protein productivity. Manipulation of miRNA levels in CHO cells have been shown to improve product yield by increasing proliferation and specific productivity (qP), resisting apoptosis and enhancing oxidative metabolism. The authors previously demonstrated that over-expressing miR-92a results in increases in qP and titer of CHO-IgG cells. However, the mechanisms by which miR-92a enhances qP in CHO cells are still uninvestigated. Here, the authors report the identification of insig1, a regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, as a target of miR-92a using computational prediction. Both transient and stable over-expression of miR-92a decreased the expression levels of insig1. Insig1 was further validated as a target of miR-92a using 3' UTR reporter assay. Intracellular cholesterol concentration of two high-producing miR-92a clones were significantly increased by ≈30% compared to the blank-transfected pool. Relative Golgi surface area was also found to be 18-26% higher in these clones. Our findings suggest that miR-92a may affect cholesterol metabolism by repressing insig1, resulting in raised intracellular cholesterol levels and Golgi volume and hence enhanced protein secretion. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Influence of dietary cholesterol on 26-hydroxycholesterol and the effect of 26-hydroxycholesterol on the intracellular free calcium level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing serum level of 26-hydroxycholesterol after long-term consumption of cholesterol by animals. It is also to examine the effect of this sterol on intracellular free calcium level. Purified 26-hydroxycholesterol was synthesized from kryptogenin by the Clemmemsen and Wolff-Kishner reduction method. 26-Hydroxycholesterol was also used for fatty acid esters syntheses, and to study its influence on membranes. Tritiated 26-hydroxycholesterol which was synthesized by an enzymatic method, was used to monitor the 26-hydroxycholesterol loss during the procedure. The ester form of 26-hydroxycholesterol was also synthesized, and used to investigate its effects on membranes. The HPLC method that was developed for the analysis of 26-hydroxycholesterol levels in animal tissues was accurate, efficient, and reproducible for the determination of 26-hydroxycholesterol in plasma. However, it was not suitable for the analysis of other tissues, due to the overlapping of peaks making quantitation difficult

  14. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter Horn; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    polychromatic flow cytometry. We additionally measured production of reactive oxygen species in leukocyte subsets (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) by flow cytometry using intracellular 2',7'-dichlorofluoroscein. The measurements encompassed both basal levels of reactive oxygen species production...... to leukocyte-mediated oxidative stress. The study utilized a cross sectional design performed in 58 study participants from a larger cohort. Levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, defined as either late (CD34(+)KDR(+) cells) or early (CD34(+)CD133(+)KDR(+) cells) subsets were measured using...... and capacity for reactive oxygen species production for each leukocyte subset. We found that the late endothelial progenitor subset was negatively associated with levels of ultrafine particles measured within the participant residences and with reactive oxygen species production capacity in lymphocytes...

  15. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Javier; Mediero, Matías; Lozano, Graciela M; Bejarano, Ignacio; Ortiz, Águeda; García, Juan F; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest that spermatozoa from

  16. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  17. Glutathione depletion causes an uncoupling effect on retinal horizontal cells through oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Ohkawa, M; Muramoto, K; Homma, K; Mawatari, K; Devadas, M; Kato, S

    1999-01-01

    To investigate a physiological role of glutathione in the horizontal cells of carp retina, the gap junctional intercellular communication between horizontal cells was studied using the techniques of intracellular recording of light-induced responses and coupling of the fluorescence dye Lucifer Yellow. Intravitreal injection of 2.5 micromol L-buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, induced a dramatic reduction (20% of control) of retinal glutathione level two days after treatment. The low level of glutathione continued for a further four to five days, and thereafter gradually recovered to about 40% (20 days after injection) and 70% (50 days after injection) of the control level. The spatial properties of the photopic L-type horizontal cell response were examined by enlarging the diameter of the central spot and peripheral annulus over the recording point. In normal retinas, the response amplitude of horizontal cells was monotonically enhanced as the diameter of the spot increased (0.5-4.0 mm) and correspondingly the dye diffusion area was wide, as the injected Lucifer Yellow normally diffused to several neighboring cells. Treatment with L-buthionine sulfoximine significantly altered the spatial properties of horizontal cells by increasing the response amplitude to central spots and slightly decreasing that to peripheral annuli, which were observed by four days after injection. It also restricted intracellular Lucifer Yellow to one or two cells. Accompanying the recovery of the cellular level of glutathione, the spatial properties and dye coupling of horizontal cells were restored to normal. A time lag (two days) of initiation in retinal glutathione depletion and alteration of spatial or dye coupling properties of horizontal cells is discussed, together with reactive oxygen species accumulation.

  18. Homocysteine and red blood cell glutathione as indices for middle-aged untreated essential hypertension patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muda, Piibe; Kampus, Priit; Zilmer, Mihkel; Zilmer, Kersti; Kairane, Ceslava; Ristimäe, Tiina; Fischer, Krista; Teesalu, Rein

    2003-12-01

    Intracellular glutathione in its reduced state is a principal cellular biomolecule with antioxidant activity. Glutathione and homocysteine metabolism are closely associated. As both oxidative stress and hyperhomocystinemia are associated with hypertension, we assessed the relationships between these variables. An observation-based case-control study, performed at a university teaching hospital. Middle-aged male patients with untreated uncomplicated essential hypertension (mean +/- standard deviation age 53.0 +/- 7.2 years, n = 48) before any treatment and controls with similar age distributions (age 51.6 +/- 5.5 years, n = 28) were evaluated. In all subjects, the plasma levels of homocysteine, lipids, creatinine, protein, and glucose were measured. Reduced and oxidized glutathione and folic acid were measured from red blood cells (RBC). The hypertensive patients had decreased levels of red blood cell reduced glutathione (RBC-GSH) and increased levels of oxidized glutathione, which resulted in elevated ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione as compared to controls (P < 0.001). Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive patients versus the age-matched controls (P < 0.004). In the hypertensive patients, RBC-GSH correlated inversely with systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, protein and RBC folic acid. No correlation was detected between RBC-GSH and homocysteine. In the controls, RBC-GSH correlated inversely with homocysteine, RBC folic acid and creatinine. According to multiple regression, in the hypertensive patients RBC-GSH was related to systolic blood pressure, hemoglobin, plasma homocysteine, creatinine and protein. Such a relationship was not detected for the controls. In untreated hypertensive patients both homocysteine and systolic blood pressure are associated with intracellular oxidative stress as determined by RBC-GSH.

  19. The effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal glutathione peroxidase activities and aqueous humor selenium levels in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yis, Ozgür; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Bilgihan, Kamil; Yis, Nilgün Safak; Hasanreisoğlu, Berati

    2002-06-01

    The formation of free oxygen radicals has been demonstrated in the corneal tissue after 193 nm laser irradiation. Cornea has several defense mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage. One of them, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalyzes the destruction of hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxide. Selenium is a trace element which is incorporated into the selenoenzyme GPx. In the present study, the effect of excimer laser keratectomy on corneal GPx activities and aqueous humor selenium concentrations in rabbits was evaluated. Animals were divided into five groups, and all groups were compared: controls (group 1), after epithelial scraping (group 2), transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy(PRK; group 3), superficial traditional PRK (50 microm; group 4) and deep traditional PRK (100 microm; group 5). Corneal GPx activities were measured by a modification of the coupled assay procedure. Aqueous humor selenium concentrations were determined using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Corneal GPx activities were significantly lower only in group 5 ( P<0.05), and the selenium concentration in the aqueous humor did not change in any group. Deep corneal photoablation inhibits GPx enzyme activities in the cornea. Therefore, antioxidants may be useful in reducing free radical-mediated complications after excimer laser corneal photoablation.

  20. Metabolic and transcriptomic analysis of Huntington’s disease model reveal changes in intracellular glucose levels and related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gepoliano Chaves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s Disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an expansion in a CAG-tri-nucleotide repeat that introduces a poly-glutamine stretch into the huntingtin protein (mHTT. Mutant huntingtin (mHTT has been associated with several phenotypes including mood disorders and depression. Additionally, HD patients are known to be more susceptible to type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and HD mice model develops diabetes. However, the mechanism and pathways that link Huntington’s disease and diabetes have not been well established. Understanding the underlying mechanisms can reveal potential targets for drug development in HD. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of mHTT cell populations alongside intracellular glucose measurements using a functionalized nanopipette. Several genes related to glucose uptake and glucose homeostasis are affected. We observed changes in intracellular glucose concentrations and identified altered transcript levels of certain genes including Sorcs1, Hh-II and Vldlr. Our data suggest that these can be used as markers for HD progression. Sorcs1 may not only have a role in glucose metabolism and trafficking but also in glutamatergic pathways affecting trafficking of synaptic components.

  1. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  2. Variable Levels of Glutathione S-Transferases Are Responsible for the Differential Tolerance to Metolachlor between Maize (Zea mays) Shoots and Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Wang, Kai; Wang, Chengju

    2017-01-11

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in herbicide tolerance. However, studies on GST function in herbicide tolerance among plant tissues are still lacking. To explore the mechanism of metolachlor tolerance difference between maize shoots and roots, the effects of metolachlor on growth, GST activity, and the expression of the entire GST gene family were investigated. It was found that this differential tolerance to metolachlor was correlated with contrasting GST activity between the two tissues and can be eliminated by a GST inhibitor. An in vitro metolachlor-glutathione conjugation assay confirmed that the transformation of metolachlor is 2-fold faster in roots than in shoots. The expression analysis of the GST gene family revealed that most GST genes are expressed much higher in roots than shoots, both in control and in metolachlor-treated plants. Taken together, higher level expression of most GST genes, leading to higher GST activity and faster herbicide transformation, appears to be responsible for the higher tolerance to metolachlor of maize roots than shoots.

  3. Glutathione (GSH Production as Protective Adaptation Against Light Regime Radiation of Symbiodinium Natural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Muhaemin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH, as a wide range of low molecular weight, which found in marine microalgae and event bacteria, are essential to prevent photooxidation and productivity loss from these Radical Oxigen Species (ROS. Symbiodinium, endo-symbiont of corals, were exposed with different UV radiation combined with irradiance treatments to explore biomass specific initial response. Intracellular glutahione was observed as potential adaptive response of Symbiodinium population under environmental specific stress. The result showed that GSH production increased significantly with increasing irradiance and/or UV levels. GSH concentration was fluctuated among populations exposed by different irradiance treatments, but not effected by UV and irradiance exposure. GSH production as a response of UV exposure was higher than irradiance treatments. Both these high correlative fluctuation of intracellular GSH production and the presence of both treatments indicated protective specific adaptation of Symbiodinium under specific environmental stress, respectively.   Keywords: zooxanthellae, irradiance, glutathione (GSH, corals, Fungia

  4. Determination of serum neuron specific enolase and glutathion S transferases levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianyi; Lu Tianhe; Bao Yanmei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the variation of serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) and glutathion S transferases (GST) levels in patients with cerebral infarction and its clinical significance. Methods: The serum levels of NSE in cerebral infarction patients were determined with immunoradiometric assay (IRMA), and the serum level of GST were determined by enzyme immuno sandwich assay (ELISA). Results: Serum NSE levels linked in patients were significantly higher (p<0.01) and GST serum levels were significantly lower (p < 0.01) within 3 days after onset of disease than those at two weeks and those in the controls. There was a positive correlation between serum NSE levels and neurological deficit scores (p < 0.001) and a negative correlation with serum GST levels (p < 0.05). There was also a close relationship between the serum NSE levels and the volume of infarction (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a close relationship between the Serum levels of NSE, GST and clinical features of Patients in the early stage of cerebral infarction

  5. Interleukin-6, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid as biomarkers for endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Alaa; Nabiel, Yasmin; Khashaba, Eman

    2016-09-01

    To compare levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and glycodelin A in serum and peritoneal fluid of patients with and without endometriosis, and to correlate levels with disease stage. An observational study was undertaken at Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt, between March 2014 and June 2015. Patients aged 21-48 years laparoscopically diagnosed with endometriosis and those without endometriosis who underwent laparoscopy for tubal ligation were included. Levels of IL-6, ICAM-1, and glycodelin A were measured in samples of serum and peritoneal fluid. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Forty-eight women with endometriosis and 20 without the disorder were included. IL-6 and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid were higher in the endometriosis group than in the control group (Pperitoneal fluid markers were 85.4% and 89.0%, 60.4% and 50.0%, and 89.6% and 90.0%, respectively. IL-6 and glycodelin A levels in serum and peritoneal fluid increased with disease stage (Pendometriosis and are positively correlated with the disease stage. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-03-03

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  7. Acanthamoeba castellanii metabolites increase the intracellular calcium level and cause cytotoxicity in wish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, A; Bennardini, F; Usai, S; Fiori, P L; Franconi, F; Cappuccinelli, P

    1997-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that trophozoites of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii rapidly lyse a variety of cells in vitro. However, the role played by cytolitic molecules that may participate in Acanthamoebal cytopathogenicity has yet to be completely elucidated. The aim of this work was to study whether soluble molecules released by A. castellanii trophozoites could induce cytopathic effect in human epithelial cells in vitro. The results obtained indicate that A. castellanii trophozoites constitutively elaborate and release soluble factors that immediately elicit a cytosolic free-calcium increase in target cells. This phenomenon is induced by low molecular weight amoebic metabolites and depends on a transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium. Morphological changes, cytoskeletal damage, cell death and cytolysis followed the elevation of cytosolic free-calcium levels. Calcium ions are very important for cell homeostasis, in fact, they control the functions of a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our results suggest that the substained elevation of the cytosolic free-calcium in response to A. castellanii metabolites might play a fundamental role in target cell damage during Acanthamoeba infections.

  8. Importance of the assessment of intracellular Ca2+ level as diagnostic tool of dysfunctional sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardah Alasmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm functions are an important factor for fertility/pregnancy to be achieved. Sperm dysfunction is the most common cause of male infertility. The best option to help couples with such male factor to achieve a pregnancy, is using Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART, without defining the underlying cause of sperm dysfunction or male-factor infertility in general at the cellular and molecular levels. Thus, the limited success of ART in a proportion of male infertility cases is unsurprising. Ca2+ signalling plays a fundamental role in the regulation of sperm function. Interestingly, it appears that the potential exists to diagnose abnormalities in the Ca2+ channels that underlie sperm dysfunction. This raises the potential for future drug discovery to try to correct this defect by augmenting Ca2+ signalling such as Ca2+ store mobilisation or activating CatSper, as possible rational treatments for sperm dysfunction that may temporarily increase the capacity to interact with the egg. Such a pharmacological agent may provide a useful way of increasing the effectiveness of IUI or IVF over conventional IUI and IVF procedures.

  9. A glutathione redox effect on photosynthetic membrane expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Anke Berit; Henkel, Marius; Grammel, Hartmut

    2011-04-01

    The formation of intracytoplasmic photosynthetic membranes by facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria has become a prime example for exploring redox control of gene expression in response to oxygen and light. Although a number of redox-responsive sensor proteins and transcription factors have been characterized in several species during the last several years in some detail, the overall understanding of the metabolic events that determine the cellular redox environment and initiate redox signaling is still poor. In the present study we demonstrate that in Rhodospirillum rubrum, the amount of photosynthetic membranes can be drastically elevated by external supplementation of the growth medium with the low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione. Neither the widely used reductant dithiothreitol nor oxidized glutathione caused the same response, suggesting that the effect was specific for reduced glutathione. By determination of the extracellular and intracellular glutathione levels, we correlate the GSH/GSSG redox potential to the expression level of photosynthetic membranes. Possible regulatory interactions with periplasmic, membrane, and cytosolic proteins are discussed. Furthermore, we found that R. rubrum cultures excrete substantial amounts of glutathione to the environment.

  10. A Glutathione Redox Effect on Photosynthetic Membrane Expression in Rhodospirillum rubrum▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Anke Berit; Henkel, Marius; Grammel, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    The formation of intracytoplasmic photosynthetic membranes by facultative anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria has become a prime example for exploring redox control of gene expression in response to oxygen and light. Although a number of redox-responsive sensor proteins and transcription factors have been characterized in several species during the last several years in some detail, the overall understanding of the metabolic events that determine the cellular redox environment and initiate redox signaling is still poor. In the present study we demonstrate that in Rhodospirillum rubrum, the amount of photosynthetic membranes can be drastically elevated by external supplementation of the growth medium with the low-molecular-weight thiol glutathione. Neither the widely used reductant dithiothreitol nor oxidized glutathione caused the same response, suggesting that the effect was specific for reduced glutathione. By determination of the extracellular and intracellular glutathione levels, we correlate the GSH/GSSG redox potential to the expression level of photosynthetic membranes. Possible regulatory interactions with periplasmic, membrane, and cytosolic proteins are discussed. Furthermore, we found that R. rubrum cultures excrete substantial amounts of glutathione to the environment. PMID:21317329

  11. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  12. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Olsen, Yulia; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Loft, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to particles in the fine and ultrafine size range has been linked to induction of low-grade systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. Declining levels of endothelial progenitor cells within systemic circulation have likewise been linked to progression of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to determine if exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor and outdoor sources, assessed by personal and residential indoor monitoring, is associated with altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells, and whether such effects are related to leukocyte-mediated oxidative stress. The study utilized a cross sectional design performed in 58 study participants from a larger cohort. Levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, defined as either late (CD34(+)KDR(+) cells) or early (CD34(+)CD133(+)KDR(+) cells) subsets were measured using polychromatic flow cytometry. We additionally measured production of reactive oxygen species in leukocyte subsets (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) by flow cytometry using intracellular 2',7'-dichlorofluoroscein. The measurements encompassed both basal levels of reactive oxygen species production and capacity for reactive oxygen species production for each leukocyte subset. We found that the late endothelial progenitor subset was negatively associated with levels of ultrafine particles measured within the participant residences and with reactive oxygen species production capacity in lymphocytes. Additionally, the early endothelial progenitor cell levels were positively associated with a personalised measure of ultrafine particle exposure and negatively associated with both basal and capacity for reactive oxygen species production in lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively. Our results indicate that exposure to fine and ultrafine particles derived from indoor sources may have adverse effects on human vascular health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  13. Active biomonitoring of a subtropical river using glutathione-S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish the level of water quality impairment along a mine effluent receiving river, Pote River in Zimbabwe, using Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) as an indicator organism. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzyme and heat shock protein (HSP 70) expression in the stomach tissue of Nile ...

  14. Differential inhibitory response to telcagepant on αCGRP induced vasorelaxation and intracellular Ca(2+) levels in the perfused and non-perfused isolated rat middle cerebral artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdling, André; Sheykhzade, Majid; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and tension in rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by pressurized arteriography, FURA-2/wire myography and immunohistochemistry. METHODS: A pressurized arteriograph system was used to evaluate changes in MCA tension when subjected to CGRP and/or telcagepant. Intracellular calcium levels were evaluated using......, while abluminal telcagepant inhibited the relaxation (10(-6) M). Using the FURA-2 method in combination with wire myography we observed that αCGRP reduced intracellular calcium levels and in parallel the vascular tone. Telcagepant (10(-6) M) inhibited both vasorelaxation and drop in intracellular...... calcium levels. Both functional components of the CGRP receptor, CLR (calcitonin receptor-like receptor) and RAMP1 (receptor activity modifying peptide 1) were found in the smooth muscle cells but not in the endothelial cells of the cerebral vasculature. CONCLUSIONS: This study thus demonstrates...

  15. The influence of low dose irradiation on intracellular pH level, synthesizing activity and ATP level in cultured chinese fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomenko, I.M.; Perishvili, G.V.; Turovetskij, V.B.; Kudryashov, Yu.B.; Rubin, A.B.; Brovko, L.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    X-irradiation of Chinese fibroblasts with doses of 0.05-0.15 Gy was shown to cause intracellular pH (pH i ) changes: its diminishing during the first 40-60 min by 0.16-0.18 pH units, then the return to the control level 120 min after irradiation and, finally, the increase by 0.18-0.20 pH units. Simultaneously, the synthesizing activity of the cells changed in the same way. The ATP level changed in the opposite way: increased when pH fell and decreased when pH grew. It was shown that pH i changes were connected with the changes in Na + /H + -exchange system, and they seemed to be primary in the chain of the alterations observed

  16. UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts by increasing intracellular levels of ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ae Jeong; Bae, Yoe-Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sun Sik [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jeanho, E-mail: yunj@dau.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-05

    Akt/PKB plays a pivotal role in cell survival and proliferation. Previously, we reported that UV-irradiation induces extensive cell death in Akt2{sup -/-} mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) while Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs show cell cycle arrest. Here, we find that Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs exhibit phenotypic changes characteristics of senescence upon UV-irradiation. An enlarged and flattened morphology, a reduced cell proliferation and an increased senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase (SA {beta}-gal) staining indicate that Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs undergo premature senescence after UV-irradiation. Restoring Akt1 expression in Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs suppressed SA {beta}-gal activity, indicating that UV-induced senescence is due to the absence of Akt1 function. Notably, levels of ROS were rapidly increased upon UV-irradiation and the ROS scavenger NAC inhibits UV-induced senescence of Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs, suggesting that UV light induces premature senescence in Akt1{sup -/-} MEFs by modulating intracellular levels of ROS. In conjunction with our previous work, this indicates that different isoforms of Akt have distinct function in response to UV-irradiation.

  17. Quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various compounds in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary T Wehrmann

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 cholesterol transport proteins. NPC's hallmark symptoms include an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments, causing progressive neurodegeneration and death. Although the age of onset may vary in those affected, NPC most often manifests in juveniles, and is usually fatal before adolescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of various drugs, many of which modify the epigenetic control of NPC1/NPC2 gene expression, in lowering the otherwise harmful elevated intracellular cholesterol levels in NPC cells. Our studies utilized a previously described image analysis technique, which allowed us to make quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of these drugs in lowering cholesterol levels in a common NPC1 mutant model. Of the drugs analyzed, several that have been previously studied (vorinostat, panobinostat, and β-cyclodextrin significantly lowered the relative amount of unesterified cellular cholesterol, consistent with earlier observations. In addition, a novel potential treatment, rapamycin, likewise alleviated the NPC phenotype. We also studied combinations of effective compounds with β-cyclodextrin; the addition of β-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cholesterol-lowering activity of vorinostat and panobinostat, but had mixed effects with rapamycin. Collectively, these results may provide a basis for the eventual development of improved NPC therapies.

  18. Modulation of plasma antioxidant levels, glutathione S-transferase activity and DNA damage in smokers following a single portion of broccoli: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riso, Patrizia; Del Bo', Cristian; Vendrame, Stefano; Brusamolino, Antonella; Martini, Daniela; Bonacina, Gaia; Porrini, Marisa

    2014-02-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of bioactive compounds (i.e. glucosinolates, carotenoids, vitamin C and folate) that may exert an antioxidant effect and reduce oxidative damage. The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of broccoli consumption on carotenoids, vitamin C and folate absorption, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, and oxidatively induced DNA damage in male smokers. Ten healthy subjects consumed a single portion of steamed broccoli (250 g) with cooked pasta. Blood was drawn at baseline and at 3, 6 and 24 h from consumption. Broccoli significantly (P ≤ 0.01) increased plasma level of vitamin C and folate (+35% and 70%, respectively) at 3 h, and β-carotene (+8%) at 6 h. A modulation of GST activity occurred in plasma 6 h after broccoli consumption. A significant (P ≤ 0.01) reduction of the levels of H₂O₂-induced DNA damage (-18%) was observed in blood mononuclear cells 24 h after broccoli intake in GSTM1 positive, but not in GSTM1 null subjects. One portion of broccoli increased plasma antioxidant levels, modulated plasma GST activity and improved cell resistance against H₂O₂-induced DNA damage in healthy smokers. These results support the importance of consuming fruit and vegetable regularly. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Phg1/TM9 proteins control intracellular killing of bacteria by determining cellular levels of the Kil1 sulfotransferase in Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Le Coadic

    Full Text Available Dictyostelium discoideum has largely been used to study phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacteria. Previous studies have shown that Phg1A, Kil1 and Kil2 proteins are necessary for efficient intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. Here we show that in phg1a KO cells, cellular levels of lysosomal glycosidases and lysozyme are decreased, and lysosomal pH is increased. Surprisingly, overexpression of Kil1 restores efficient killing in phg1a KO cells without correcting these lysosomal anomalies. Conversely, kil1 KO cells are defective for killing, but their enzymatic content and lysosomal pH are indistinguishable from WT cells. The killing defect of phg1a KO cells can be accounted for by the observation that in these cells the stability and the cellular amount of Kil1 are markedly reduced. Since Kil1 is the only sulfotransferase characterized in Dictyostelium, an (unidentified sulfated factor, defective in both phg1a and kil1 KO cells, may play a key role in intracellular killing of Klebsiella bacteria. In addition, Phg1B plays a redundant role with Phg1A in controlling cellular amounts of Kil1 and intracellular killing. Finally, cellular levels of Kil1 are unaffected in kil2 KO cells, and Kil1 overexpression does not correct the killing defect of kil2 KO cells, suggesting that Kil2 plays a distinct role in intracellular killing.

  20. The small molecule triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP and increases resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Joo Lee

    Full Text Available The Ras-adenylyl cyclase-protein kinase A nutrient-sensing pathway controls metabolism, proliferation and resistance to stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genetic disruption of this pathway increases resistance to a variety of stresses. We show here that the pharmacological inhibition of this pathway by the drug triclabendazole increases resistance to oxidants, heat stress and extends the chronological life. Evidence is presented that triclabendazole decreases the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase and triggers the parallel rapid translocation of the stress-resistance transcription factor Msn2 from the cytosol into the nucleus, as deduced from experiments employing a strain in which MSN2 is replaced with MSN2-GFP (GFP, green fluorescent protein. Msn2 and Msn4 are responsible for activating the transcription of numerous genes that encode proteins that protect cells from stress. The results are consistent with triclabendazole either inhibiting the association of Ras with adenylyl cyclase or directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase, which in turn triggers Msn2/4 to enter the nucleus and activate stress-responsible element gene expression.

  1. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium...

  2. Study of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels in tobacco chewers and smokers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundru Venkata Naga Sirisha

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study gave us an insight about the relationship between antioxidant enzyme activity, oxidative stress and tobacco. The altered antioxidant enzyme levels observed in this study will act as a predictor for pre potentially malignant lesions. Therefore an early intervention of tobacco habit and its related oxidative stress would prevent the development of tobacco induced lesions.

  3. Effects of marijuana and diazepam on lipid peroxidation, Na+ , K+ ATPase, and levels of glutathione and 5-HTP in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, G D; Esquivel, Gabriela J; García, Ernestina H; Osnaya, Norma B; Juárez Olguín, H

    2010-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the effects of marijuana (Mar) and diazepam (Dz) on lipid peroxidation (TBARS), Na + , K + ATP ase activity, levels of glutathione (GSH) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Male Wistar rats were given a single dose per group: extract of Mar (100 microL/kg), Dz (5 mg/kg), Mar plus Dz, and NaCl for control. Sixty mins after treatment, animals were sacrificed, and their brains extracted and homogenised to measure GSH, TBARS and 5-HTP levels. Na + , K + ATP ase and total ATP ase activities. GSH and TBARS did not show differences respect to controls. Na + , K + ATP ase activity was similar as well. However, groups treated with Mar, total ATPase activity decreased significantly (p HTP decreased significantly (p = 0.0001) in rats treated either with Mar and or Dz. Mar and Dz induced biochemical effects on the serotonergic metabolism, which can alter the development and function in rat brain, because it has also been involved in scavenging free radicals present there.

  4. NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium and reduced glutathione mitigate ethephon-mediated leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation and senescence-associated gene expression in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsien-Jung; Huang, Chin-Shu; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chow, Te-Jin; Lin, Yaw-Huei

    2013-11-15

    Ethephon, an ethylene releasing compound, promoted leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation, and senescence-associated gene expression in sweet potato. It also affected the glutathione and ascorbate levels, which in turn perturbed H2O2 homeostasis. The decrease of reduced glutathione and the accumulation of dehydroascorbate correlated with leaf senescence and H2O2 elevation at 72h in ethephon-treated leaves. Exogenous application of reduced glutathione caused quicker and significant increase of its intracellular level and resulted in the attenuation of leaf senescence and H2O2 elevation. A small H2O2 peak produced within the first 4h after ethephon application was also eliminated by reduced glutathione. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, delayed leaf senescence and H2O2 elevation at 72h, and its influence was effective only within the first 4h after ethephon treatment. Ethephon-induced senescence-associated gene expression was repressed by DPI and reduced glutathione at 72h in pretreated leaves. Leaves treated with l-buthionine sulfoximine, an endogenous glutathione synthetase inhibitor, did enhance senescence-associated gene expression, and the activation was strongly repressed by reduced glutathione. In conclusion, ethephon-mediated leaf senescence, H2O2 elevation and senescence-associated gene expression are all alleviated by reduced glutathione and NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI. The speed and the amount of intracellular reduced glutathione accumulation influence its effectiveness of protection against ethephon-mediated effects. Reactive oxygen species generated from NADPH oxidase likely serves as an oxidative stress signal and participates in ethephon signaling. The possible roles of NADPH oxidase and reduced glutathione in the regulation of oxidative stress signal in ethephon are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. JM216-, JM118-, and cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in relation to platinum-DNA adduct formation, glutathione levels and p53 status in human tumour cell lines with different sensitivities to cisplatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, E; Groen, HJM; Helder, MN; de Vries, EGE; Meijer, C

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish anti-tumour potency of the new oral platinum drug JM216 and its metabolite JM118 in relation to the platinum (Pt)-DNA adduct formation, glutathione (GSH)-levels, and p53 status in human cancer cell lines with different sensitivities to cisplatin (CDDP). These

  6. Isoniazid acetylating phenotype in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis and its relationship with serum sulfadoxin levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Barraviera

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated the isoniazid acetylating phenotype and measured hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione reductase activities plus serum sulfadoxin levels in 39 patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (33 males and 6 females aged 17 to 58 years. Twenty one (53.84% of the patients presented a slow acetylatingphenotype and 18(46.16% a fast acetylating phenotype. Glucose-6-phosphate- dehydrogenase (G6PD acti vity was decreased in 5(23.80% slow acetylators and in 4(22.22% fast acetylators. Glutathione reductase activity was decreased in 14 (66.66% slow acetylators and in 12 (66.66% fast acetylators. Serum levels of free and total sulfadoxin Were higher in slow acetylator (p Os autores avaliaram o fenótipo acetilador da isoniazida, hematócrito, hemoglobina, atividade da glicose-6- fosfato desidrogenase, glutationa redutase e os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina de 39 doentes com paracoccidíoidomicose, senão 33 do sexo masculino e 6 do feminino, com idades compreendidas entre 17 e 58 anos. Vinte e um (53,84% doentes apresentaram fenótipo acetilador lento e 18 (46,16% rápido. A atividade da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase (G6PD esteve diminuída em 5 (23,80% acetiladores lentos e 4 (22,22% rápidos. A atividade da glutationa redutase esteve diminuída em 14 (66,66% acetiladores lentos e 12 (66,66% rápidos. Os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina livre e total foram maiores nos acetiladores lentos (p < 0,02. A análise dos resultados permite concluir que os níveis séricos de sulfadoxina relaciona-se com o fenótipo acetilador. Além disso, os níveis estiveram sempre acima de 50 µg/ml, níveis estes considerados terapêuticos. Por outro lado, a deficiência de glutationa redutase pode estar relacionada com a má absorção intestinal de nutrientes, entre eles riboflavina, vitamina precursora de FAD.

  7. Antioxidant action of glutathione and the ascorbic acid/glutathione pair in a model white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonni, Francesca; Clark, Andrew C; Prenzler, Paul D; Riponi, Claudio; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2011-04-27

    Glutathione was assessed individually, and in combination with ascorbic acid, for its ability to act as an antioxidant with respect to color development in an oxidizing model white wine system. Glutathione was utilized at concentrations normally found in wine (30 mg/L), as well as at concentrations 20-fold higher (860 mg/L), the latter to afford ascorbic acid (500 mg/L) to glutathione ratios of 1:1. The model wine systems were stored at 45 °C without sulfur dioxide and at saturated oxygen levels, thereby in conditions highly conducive to oxidation. Under these conditions the results demonstrated the higher concentration of glutathione could initially provide protection against oxidative coloration, but eventually induced color formation. In the period during which glutathione offered a protective effect, the production of xanthylium cation pigment precursors and o-quinone-derived phenolic compounds was limited. When glutathione induced coloration, polymeric pigments were formed, but these were different from those found in model wine solutions without glutathione. In the presence of ascorbic acid, high concentrations of glutathione were able to delay the decay in ascorbic acid and inhibit the reaction of ascorbic acid degradation products with the wine flavanol compound (+)-catechin. However, on depletion, the glutathione again induced the production of a range of different polymeric pigments. These results highlight new mechanisms through which glutathione can offer both protection and spoilage during the oxidative coloration of a model wine.

  8. Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and glutathione is associated with no significant changes in serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase or γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels during the treatment of neuroborreliosis with intravenous ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Basant K; Hakkarainen-Smith, Jaana S; Derham, Anne; Monro, Jean A

    2015-09-01

    While pharmacotherapy with intravenous ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is a potential treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis, there is concern that it can cause the formation of biliary sludge, leading to hepatobiliary complications such as biliary colic, jaundice and cholelithiasis, which are reflected in changes in serum levels of bilirubin and markers of cholestatic liver injury (alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase). It has been suggested that the naturally occurring substances α-lipoic acid and glutathione may be helpful in preventing hepatic disease. α-Lipoic acid exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities in the liver, while glutathione serves as a sulfhydryl buffer. The aim of this study was to determine whether co-administration of α-lipoic acid and glutathione is associated with significant changes in serum levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase during the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis with long-term intravenous ceftriaxone. Serum levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase were measured in 42 serologically positive Lyme neuroborreliosis patients before and after long-term treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone (2-4 g daily) with co-administration of oral/intravenous α-lipoic acid (600 mg daily) and glutathione (100 mg orally or 0.6-2.4 g intravenously daily). None of the patients developed biliary colic and there were no significant changes in serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase or γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels over the course of the intravenous ceftriaxone treatment (mean length 75.0 days). Co-administration of α-lipoic acid and glutathione is associated with no significant changes in serum bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase or γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels during the treatment of neuroborreliosis with intravenous ceftriaxone.

  9. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  10. Effect of Flavonoids on Glutathione Level, Lipid Peroxidation and Cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 Expression in Human Laryngeal Carcinoma Cell Lines

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    Lidija Vuković

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are phytochemicals exhibiting a wide range of biological activities, among which are antioxidant activity, the ability to modulate activity of several enzymes or cell receptors and possibility to interfere with essential biochemical pathways. Using human laryngeal carcinoma HEp2 cells and their drug-resistant CK2 subline, we examined the effect of five flavonoids, three structurally related flavons (quercetin, fisetin, and myricetin, one flavonol (luteolin and one glycosilated flavanone (naringin for: (i their ability to inhibit mitochondrial dehydrogenases as an indicator of cytotoxic effect, (ii their influence on glutathione level, (iii antioxidant/prooxidant effects and influence on cell membrane permeability, and (iv effect on expression of cytochrome CYP1A1. Cytotoxic action of the investigated flavonoids after 72 hours of treatment follows this order: luteolin>quercetin>fisetin>naringin>myricetin. Our results show that CK2 were more resistant to toxic concentrations of flavonoids as compared to parental cells. Quercetin increased the total GSH level in both cell lines. CK2 cells are less perceptible to lipid peroxidation and damage caused by free radicals. Quercetin showed prooxidant effect in both cell lines, luteolin only in HEp2 cells, whereas other tested flavonoids did not cause lipid peroxidation in the tested cell lines. These data suggest that the same compound, quercetin, can act as a prooxidant, but also, it may prevent damage in cells caused by free radicals, due to the induction of GSH, by forming less harmful complex. Quercetin treatment damaged cell membranes in both cell lines. Fisetin caused higher cell membrane permeability only in HEp2 cells. However, these two compounds did not enhance the damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. Quercetin, naringin, myricetin and fisetin increased the expression of CYP1A1 in both cell lines, while luteolin decreased basal level of CYP1A1 only in HEp2 cells. In conclusion, small

  11. Neurosteroids block the increase in intracellular calcium level induced by Alzheimer’s β-amyloid protein in long-term cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Kato-Negishi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Midori Kato-Negishi1, Masahiro Kawahara21Department of Developmental Morphology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, 2-6 Musashidai, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183- 8526, Japan; 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, 1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka-shi, Miyazaki 882-8508, JapanAbstract: The neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (AβP is implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously have demonstrated that AβP forms Ca2+-permeable pores on neuronal membranes, causes a marked increase in intracellular calcium level, and leads to neuronal death. Here, we investigated in detail the features of AβP-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ level in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons using a multisite Ca2+- imaging system with fura-2 as a fluorescent probe. Only a small fraction of short-term cultured hippocampal neurons (ca 1 week in vitro exhibited changes in intracellular Ca2+ level after AβP exposure. However, AβP caused an acute increase in intracellular Ca2+ level in long-term cultured neurons (ca 1 month in vitro. The responses to AβP were highly heterogeneous, and immunohistochemical analysis using an antibody to AβP revealed that AβP is deposited on some but not all neurons. Considering that the disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis is the primary event in AβP neurotoxicity, substances that protect neurons from an AβP-induced intracellular Ca2+ level increase may be candidates as therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer’s disease. In line with the search for such protective substances, we found that the preadministration of neurosteroids including dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and pregnenolone significantly inhibits the increase in intracellular calcium level induced by AβP. Our results suggest the possible significance of neurosteroids, whose levels are reduced in the elderly, in preventing AβP neurotoxicity

  12. Acrolein toxicity involves oxidative stress caused by glutathione depletion in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek-Mirek, M; Bednarska, S; Bartosz, G; Biliński, T

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of yeast cells to allyl alcohol results in intracellular production of acrolein. The toxicity of so formed acrolein involves oxidative stress, as (1) strains deficient in antioxidant defense are hypersensitive to allyl alcohol, (2) exposure to allyl alcohol increases the level of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances and decreases glutathione level in the cells, (3) hypoxic and anoxic atmosphere and antioxidants protect against allyl alcohol toxicity, and (4) allyl alcohol causes activation of Yap1p. No increased formation of reactive oxygen species was detected in cells exposed to allyl alcohol, so oxidative stress is due to depletion of cellular thiols and thus alteration in the redox state of yeast cells.

  13. Glutathione attenuates uranyl toxicity in Lactococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana; Solioz, M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in a large number of taxa plays a role in the protection against the toxicity of heavy metals. Anaerobically grown Lactococcus lactis containing an inducible GSH synthesis pathway was used as a model organism allowing the study of GSH-dependent uranyl detoxification without interference from additional reactive oxygen species. Microcalorimetric measurements of the metabolic heat showed that intracellular GSH attenuates the toxicity of uranium at a concentration in the range of 10-150 μM. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the endothermic binding of U(VI) to the carboxyl group(s) of GSH. The data indicate that the primary detoxifying mechanism is the intracellular sequestration of carboxyl-coordinated U(VI) into an insoluble complex with GSH.

  14. Glutathione attenuates uranyl toxicity in Lactococcus lactis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim; Oertel, Jana [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Obeid, M. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Solioz, M. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular glutathione (GSH), which in a large number of taxa plays a role in the protection against the toxicity of heavy metals. Anaerobically grown Lactococcus lactis containing an inducible GSH synthesis pathway was used as a model organism allowing the study of GSH-dependent uranyl detoxification without interference from additional reactive oxygen species. Microcalorimetric measurements of the metabolic heat showed that intracellular GSH attenuates the toxicity of uranium at a concentration in the range of 10-150 μM. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed the endothermic binding of U(VI) to the carboxyl group(s) of GSH. The data indicate that the primary detoxifying mechanism is the intracellular sequestration of carboxyl-coordinated U(VI) into an insoluble complex with GSH.

  15. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from 35 S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol

  16. Corneal endothelial glutathione after photodynamic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, D.S.; Riley, M.V.; Csukas, S.; Green, K.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit corneal endothelial cells perfused with 5 X 10(-6)M rose bengal and exposed to incandescent light demonstrated no alteration of either total of or percent oxidized glutathione after 1 hr. Addition of 5400 U/ml catalase to the perfusing solution had no effect on total glutathione levels but caused a marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione in corneas exposed to light as well as in those not exposed to light. Substitution of sucrose for glucose in the perfusing solution had no effect on total or percent oxidized glutathione. Perfusion of rabbit corneal endothelium with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light resulted in no change in total glutathione content. A marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione occurred, however, in corneas perfused with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine both in the presence and absence of UV light. It is concluded that photodynamically induced swelling of corneas is not the result of a failure of the glutathione redox system

  17. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaras, Michael D; Richie, John P; Calcagnotto, Ana; Beelman, Robert B

    2017-10-15

    While mushrooms are the highest dietary source for the unique sulfur-containing antioxidant ergothioneine, little is known regarding levels of the major biological antioxidant glutathione. Thus, our objectives were to determine and compare levels of glutathione, as well as ergothioneine, in different species of mushrooms. Glutathione levels varied >20-fold (0.11-2.41mg/gdw) with some varieties having higher levels than reported for other foods. Ergothioneine levels also varied widely (0.15-7.27mg/gdw) and were highly correlated with those of glutathione (r=0.62, Pmushrooms species. Agaricus bisporus harvested during the third cropping flush contained higher levels of ergothioneine and glutathione compared to the first flush, possibly as a response to increased oxidative stress. This study demonstrated that certain mushroom species are high in glutathione and ergothioneine and should be considered an excellent dietary source of these important antioxidants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of chronic stress and sleep deprivation on both flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery and the intracellular magnesium level in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Bonpei; Akima, Takashi; Uehata, Akimi; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Kurita, Akira

    2004-04-01

    Chronic mental and physical stress has been suggested to be a trigger for cardiovascular events. In addition, a reduction in levels of intracellular magnesium has been reported to cause vasoconstriction while enhancing platelet-dependent thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic stress affects endothelial function and intracellular magnesium levels in humans. Flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and sublingual nitroglycerin-induced dilation (0.3 mg, endothelium-independent vasodilation) were measured in the brachial artery in 30 healthy male college students, aged 22 +/- 1 years, using high-resolution ultrasound both before and immediately after a 4-week final term examination period. Erythrocyte magnesium concentration was measured simultaneously. All students had chronic sleep deprivation for 4 weeks, during which sleep lasted students were under great stress to pass the examination. This condition was considered to be chronic stress. Chronic stress decreased flow-mediated dilation and erythrocyte magnesium concentration (from 7.4 +/- 3.0 to 3.7 +/- 2.3%, p < 0.05; from 5.7 +/- 0.4 to 5.5 +/- 0.4 mg/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). The change in flow-mediated dilation correlated significantly with that of the erythrocyte magnesium concentration (r = 0.43, p < 0.05), but not with nitroglycerin-induced dilation. Chronic stress was found to attenuate endothelial function, which may also be associated with a reduction in the intracellular magnesium level in humans.

  19. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  20. A mathematical model of glutathione metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S Jill

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione (GSH plays an important role in anti-oxidant defense and detoxification reactions. It is primarily synthesized in the liver by the transsulfuration pathway and exported to provide precursors for in situ GSH synthesis by other tissues. Deficits in glutathione have been implicated in aging and a host of diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Down syndrome and autism. Approach We explore the properties of glutathione metabolism in the liver by experimenting with a mathematical model of one-carbon metabolism, the transsulfuration pathway, and glutathione synthesis, transport, and breakdown. The model is based on known properties of the enzymes and the regulation of those enzymes by oxidative stress. We explore the half-life of glutathione, the regulation of glutathione synthesis, and its sensitivity to fluctuations in amino acid input. We use the model to simulate the metabolic profiles previously observed in Down syndrome and autism and compare the model results to clinical data. Conclusion We show that the glutathione pools in hepatic cells and in the blood are quite insensitive to fluctuations in amino acid input and offer an explanation based on model predictions. In contrast, we show that hepatic glutathione pools are highly sensitive to the level of oxidative stress. The model shows that overexpression of genes on chromosome 21 and an increase in oxidative stress can explain the metabolic profile of Down syndrome. The model also correctly simulates the metabolic profile of autism when oxidative stress is substantially increased and the adenosine concentration is raised. Finally, we discuss how individual variation arises and its consequences for one-carbon and glutathione metabolism.

  1. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Yris Maria; Catini, Carolina Dias; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Nomizo, Auro; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2010-02-17

    Calendula officinalis flowers have long been employed time in folk therapy, and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the flowers. The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal inflammatory diseases of several origins. The recommended doses are a function both of the type and severity of the condition to be treated and the individual condition of each patient. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential use of Calendula officinalis extract to prevent UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress in skin. Firstly, the physico-chemical composition of marigold extract (ME) (hydroalcoholic extract) was assessed and the in vitro antioxidant efficacy was determined using different methodologies. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated in L929 and HepG2 cells with the MTT assay. Finally, the in vivo protective effect of ME against UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mice was evaluated by determining reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and monitoring the secretion/activity of metalloproteinases. The polyphenol, flavonoid, rutin and narcissin contents found in ME were 28.6 mg/g, 18.8 mg/g, 1.6 mg/g and 12.2mg/g, respectively and evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ME against different radicals. Cytoxicity experiments demonstrated that ME was not cytotoxic for L929 and HepG2 cells at concentrations less than or equal to of 15 mg/mL. However, concentrations greater than or equal to 30 mg/mL, toxic effects were observed. Finally, oral treatment of hairless mice with 150 and 300 mg/kg of ME maintained GSH levels close to non-irradiated control mice. In addition, this extract affects the activity/secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB irradiation. However, additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the protective effects of ME for skin

  2. The effect of aluminium-stress and exogenous spermidine on chlorophyll degradation, glutathione reductase activity and the photosystem II D1 protein gene (psbA) transcript level in lichen Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Gulseren; Eryilmaz, Isil Ezgi; Ozakca, Dilek

    2014-02-01

    In this study, the effects of short-term aluminium toxicity and the application of spermidine on the lichen Xanthoria parietina were investigated at the physiological and transcriptional levels. Our results suggest that aluminium stress leads to physiological processes in a dose-dependent manner through differences in lipid peroxidation rate, chlorophyll content and glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity in aluminium and spermidine treated samples. The expression of the photosystem II D1 protein (psbA) gene was quantified using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Increased glutathione reductase activity and psbA mRNA transcript levels were observed in the X. parietina thalli that were treated with spermidine before aluminium-stress. The results showed that the application of spermidine could mitigate aluminium-induced lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll degradation on lichen X. parietina thalli through an increase in psbA transcript levels and activity of glutathione reductase (GR) enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiosensitization of CHO cells by the combination of glutathione depletion and low concentrations of oxygen: The effect of different levels of GSH depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, E.P.; Epp, E.R.; Zachgo, E.A.; Biaglow, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, the authors have examined the effect of GSH depletion by BSO on CHO cells equilibrated with oxygen at various concentrations (0.05-4.0%) and irradiated with 50 kVp x-rays. This is of interest because of the uncertain radiosensitizing effect GSH depletion may have on cells equilibrated with low oxygen concentrations. GSH depletion (0.1 mM BSO/24 hrs reduced [GSH] ≅ 10% of control) enhanced the radiosensitizing action of moderate (0.4-4.0%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by ≅ 2-3 fold. However, GSH depletion was much more effective as a rediosensitizer when cells were equilibrated with low (<0.4%) concentrations of oxygen, i.e., GSH depletion reduced the [O/sub 2/] necessary to achieve an equivalent ER by 8-10 fold. Furthermore, while the addition of exogenous 5 mM GSH restored the ER to that observed when GSH was not depleted, the intracellular [GSH] was not increased. The results of these studies carried out at different levels of GSH depletion are presented

  4. Lung Lining Fluid Glutathione Attenuates IL-13–Induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Lowry, Matthew H.; McAllister, Brian P.; Jean, Jyh-Chang; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Hughey, Rebecca P.; Cruikshank, William W.; Amar, Sal; Lucey, Edgar C.; Braun, Kathleen; Johnson, Pamela; Wight, Thomas N.; Joyce-Brady, Martin

    2007-01-01

    GGTenu1 mice, deficient in γ-glutamyl transferase and unable to metabolize extracellular glutathione, develop intracellular glutathione deficiency and oxidant stress. We used intratracheal IL-13 to induce airway inflammation and asthma in wild-type (WT) and GGTenu1 mice to determine the effect of altered glutathione metabolism on bronchial asthma. WT and GGTenu1 mice developed similar degrees of lung inflammation. In contrast, IL-13 induced airway epithelial cell mucous cell hyperplasia, muci...

  5. Reexamination of the Physiological Role of PykA in Escherichia coli Revealed that It Negatively Regulates the Intracellular ATP Levels under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhua; Lin, Zhao; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2017-06-01

    Pyruvate kinase is one of the three rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes that catalyze the last step of glycolysis, conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) into pyruvate, which is associated with ATP generation. Two isozymes of pyruvate kinase, PykF and PykA, are identified in Escherichia coli PykF is considered important, whereas PykA has a less-defined role. Prior studies inactivated the pykA gene to increase the level of its substrate, PEP, and thereby increased the yield of end products derived from PEP. We were surprised when we found a pykA ::Tn 5 mutant in a screen for increased yield of an end product derived from pyruvate ( n -butanol), suggesting that the role of PykA needs to be reexamined. We show that the pykA mutant exhibited elevated intracellular ATP levels, biomass concentrations, glucose consumption, and n -butanol production. We also discovered that the pykA mutant expresses higher levels of a presumed pyruvate transporter, YhjX, permitting the mutant to recapture and metabolize excreted pyruvate. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the nucleotide diphosphate kinase activity of PykA leads to negative regulation of the intracellular ATP levels. Taking the data together, we propose that inactivation of pykA can be considered a general strategy to enhance the production of pyruvate-derived metabolites under anaerobic conditions. IMPORTANCE This study showed that knocking out pykA significantly increased the intracellular ATP level and thus significantly increased the levels of glucose consumption, biomass formation, and pyruvate-derived product formation under anaerobic conditions. pykA was considered to be encoding a dispensable pyruvate kinase; here we show that pykA negatively regulates the anaerobic glycolysis rate through regulating the energy distribution. Thus, knocking out pykA can be used as a general strategy to increase the level of pyruvate-derived fermentative products. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. A novel effect of bifemelane, a nootropic drug, on intracellular Ca2+ levels in rat cerebral astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Nakane, Akira; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Kudo, Yoshihisa

    2006-02-01

    We investigated the effects of bifemelane, a nootropic drug, on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in rat cerebral astrocytes using a Ca2+ imaging device. At concentrations of 10 - 30 microM, bifemelane induced a slow onset and small increase in the [Ca2+]i, while at higher concentrations (100 - 300 microM), it induced a rapid transient increase in the [Ca2+]i during administration and a second large increase was seen during drug washout. The first peak was observed in Ca2+-free medium, but its onset was significantly delayed, and no second peak was seen. Neither of these effects was seen in cells treated with thapsigargin, a specific inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, in Ca2+-free medium. When thapsigargin-treated astrocytes were returned to normal medium containing Ca2+ (1.8 mM), the [Ca2+]i increased significantly, and this effect was reversely inhibited by bifemelane. We conclude that bifemelane causes the first peak by stimulating release from intracellular Ca2+ stores and the second by capacitive entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels. Although the detail mechanisms of action of the drug are still unknown, bifemelane will be provided as a pharmacological tool for basic studies on astrocytes.

  7. A Synthetic Chalcone as a Potent Inducer of Glutathione Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachadourian, Remy; Day, Brian J.; Pugazhenti, Subbiah; Franklin, Christopher C.; Genoux-Bastide, Estelle; Mahaffey, Gregory; Gauthier, Charlotte; Di Pietro, Attilio; Boumendjel, Ahcène

    2014-01-01

    Chalcones continue to attract considerable interest due to their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. We recently reported the ability of 2′,5′-dihydroxychalcone (2′,5′-DHC) to induce both breast cancer resistance protein-mediated export of glutathione (GSH) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated increased intracellular GSH levels. Herein, we report a structure–activity relationship study of a series of 30 synthetic chalcone derivatives with hydroxyl, methoxyl, and halogen (F and Cl) substituents and their ability to increase intracellular GSH levels. This effect was drastically improved with one or two electrowithdrawing groups on phenyl ring B and up to three methoxyl and/or hydroxyl groups on phenyl ring A. The optimal structure, 2-chloro-4′,6′-dimethoxy-2′-hydroxychalcone, induced both a potent NF-E2-related factor 2-mediated transcriptional response and an increased formation of glutamate cysteine ligase holoenzyme, as shown using a human breast cancer cell line stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene driven by antioxidant response elements. PMID:22239485

  8. Acrolein produces nitric oxide through the elevation of intracellular calcium levels to induce apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: implications for smoke angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misonou, Yoshiko; Asahi, Michio; Yokoe, Shunichi; Miyoshi, Eiji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2006-03-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde, the levels of which are increased in the blood of smokers. To determine if acrolein is involved in the pathology of smoke angiopathy, the effect of acrolein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, determined using diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2 DA), an NO sensitive fluorescent dye, were found to be increased after treatment in HUVEC with 10 microM acrolein. The measurement of nitrite with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene and a Western blot analysis revealed that nitrite and S-nitroso-cysteine levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, confirming that NO production is increased by acrolein. The increase was not reduced by treatment with 10mM N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, but was reduced with 10 microM of the intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester. Acrolein-stimulated NO production was significantly reduced by pretreatment with 1mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor. The cytotoxicity of acrolein was reduced by pretreatment with 10 microM 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), an intracellular NO scavenger, or 1mM L-NAME, whereas it was not reduced by 10mM NAC, 20 microM Curcumin, another peroxide scavenger, or 100 microM Mn(III)TMPyP, a superoxide dismutase mimic. Nuclear staining and a Western blot analysis using an anti-cleaved caspase 3 antibody revealed that the reduced viability of HUVEC by acrolein was due to apoptosis, which was reversed after pretreatment with 0.1mM carboxy-PTIO or 1mM L-NAME. Thus, acrolein increases intracellular calcium production to induce intracellular NO production by a calcium-dependent NO synthase, possibly eNOS, and the excess and rapid increase in NO might lead to the apoptosis of HUVEC. These data suggest that acrolein might be

  9. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Gennaro; Afsharinejad, Zhara; Guizzetti, Marina; Vitalone, Annabella; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past several years evidence has been accumulating from in vivo animal studies, observations in humans, and in vitro studies, that organophosphorus (OP) insecticides may induce oxidative stress. Such effects may contribute to some of the toxic manifestations of OPs, particularly upon chronic or developmental exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the neurotoxicity of two commonly used OPs, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZ), their oxygen analogs (CPO and DZO), and their 'inactive' metabolites (TCP and IMP), in neuronal cells from a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Cerebellar granule neurons from wild type mice (Gclm +/+) and mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm -/-), the first and limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), were utilized. The latter display very low levels of GSH and are more susceptible to the toxicity of agents that increase oxidative stress. CPO and DZO were the most cytotoxic compounds, followed by CPF and DZ, while TCP and IMP displayed lower toxicity. Toxicity was significantly higher (10- to 25-fold) in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice, and was antagonized by various antioxidants. Depletion of GSH from Gclm (+/+) neurons significantly increased their sensitivity to OP toxicity. OPs increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and in both cases the effects were greater in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice. OPs did not alter intracellular levels of GSH, but significantly increased those of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Cytotoxicity was not antagonized by cholinergic antagonists, but was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. These studies indicate that cytotoxicity of OPs involves generation of reactive oxygen species and is modulated by intracellular GSH, and suggest that it may involve disturbances in intracellular homeostasis of calcium

  10. Mycobacterium Lysine ε-aminotransferase is a novel alarmone metabolism related persister gene via dysregulating the intracellular amino acid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiangke; Li, Yunsong; Du, Qinglin; Huang, Qinqin; Guo, Siyao; Xu, Mengmeng; Lin, Yanping; Liu, Zhidong; Xie, Jianping

    2016-01-25

    Bacterial persisters, usually slow-growing, non-replicating cells highly tolerant to antibiotics, play a crucial role contributing to the recalcitrance of chronic infections and treatment failure. Understanding the molecular mechanism of persister cells formation and maintenance would obviously inspire the discovery of new antibiotics. The significant upregulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3290c, a highly conserved mycobacterial lysine ε-aminotransferase (LAT) during hypoxia persistent model, suggested a role of LAT in persistence. To test this, a lat deleted Mycobacterium smegmatis was constructed. The expression of transcriptional regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (LrpA) and the amino acids abundance in M. smegmatis lat deletion mutants were lowered. Thus, the persistence capacity of the deletion mutant was impaired upon norfloxacin exposure under nutrient starvation. In summary, our study firstly reported the involvement of mycobacterium LAT in persister formation, and possibly through altering the intracellular amino acid metabolism balance.

  11. Application of "FLUOR-P" device for analysis of the space flight effects on the intracellular level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorieva, Olga; Rudimov, Evgeny; Buravkova, Ludmila; Galchuk, Sergey

    The mechanisms of cellular gravisensitivity still remain unclear despite the intensive research in the hypogravity effects on cellular function. In most cell culture experiments on unmanned vehicles "Bion" and "Photon", as well as on the ISS only allow post-flight analysis of biological material, including fixed cells is provided. The dynamic evaluation cellular parameters over a prolonged period of time is not possible. Thus, a promising direction is the development of equipment for onboard autonomous experiments. For this purpose, the SSC RF IBMP RAS has developed "FLUOR-P" device for measurement and recording of the dynamic differential fluorescent signal from nano- and microsized objects of organic and inorganic nature (human and animal cells, unicellular algae, bacteria, cellular organelles suspension) in hermetically sealed cuvettes. Besides, the device allows to record the main physical factors affecting the analyzed object (temperature and gravity loads: position in space, any vector acceleration, shock) in sync with the main measurements. The device is designed to perform long-term programmable autonomous experiments in space flight on biological satellites. The device software of allows to carry out complex experiments using cell. Permanent registration of data on built-in flash will give the opportunity to analyze the dynamics of the estimated parameters. FLUOR-P is designed as a monobloc (5.5 kg weight), 8 functional blocks are located in the inner space of the device. Each registration unit of the FLUOR-P has two channels of fluorescence intensity and excitation light source with the wavelength range from 300 nm to 700 nm. During biosatellite "Photon" flight is supposed to conduct a full analysis of the most important intracellular parameters (mitochondria activity and intracellular pH) dynamics under space flight factors and to assess the possible contribution of temperature on the effects of microgravity. Work is supported by Roskosmos and the

  12. Mechanism of action of benzoic acid on Zygosaccharomyces bailii: effects on glycolytic metabolite levels, energy production, and intracellular pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, A D

    1991-01-01

    The effects of benzoic acid in the preservative-resistant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii were studied. At concentrations of benzoic acid up to 4 mM, fermentation was stimulated and only low levels of benzoate were accumulated. Near the MIC (10 mM), fermentation was inhibited, ATP levels declined, and benzoate was accumulated to relatively higher levels. Intracellular pH was reduced but not greatly. Changes in the levels of metabolites at different external benzoic acid levels showed that glycolysis was limited at pyruvate kinase and glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase-phosphoglycerate kinase steps. Inhibition of phosphofructokinase and several other glycolytic enzymes was not responsible for the inhibition of fermentation. Instead, the results suggest that the primary action of benzoic acid in Z. bailii is to cause a general energy loss, i.e., ATP depletion. PMID:1785916

  13. with glutathione reduced (GSH)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    try involving 4f–4f transitions on Nd(III) and glutathione reduced (GSH) in the absence and presence of. Zn(II) have been carried out in aquated ... transition spectra of Pr(III) with lysozyme by using energy interaction parameters to ... DMF and dioxane of A/R grade from Qualigens. The absorption spectra were recorded on a ...

  14. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Alvaro; Eljack, Nasma D; Sani, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... structural mechanism of how the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase could be regulated by glutathione....

  15. High-level intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus choshinensis SP3 under the control of a xylose inducible promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Urzo Nunzia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In past years research has focused on the development of alternative Gram positive bacterial expression systems to produce industrially relevant proteins. Brevibacillus choshinensis is an easy to handle non-sporulating bacterium, lacking extracellular proteases, that has been already shown to provide a high level of recombinant protein expression. One major drawback, limiting the applicability of the Brevibacillus expression system, is the absence of expression vectors based on inducible promoters. Here we used the PxylA inducible promoter, commonly employed in other Bacillae expression systems, in Brevibacillus. Results Using GFP, α-amylase and TcdA-GT as model proteins, high level of intracellular protein expression (up to 250 mg/L for the GFP was achieved in Brevibacillus, using the pHis1522 vector carrying the B. megaterium xylose-inducible promoter (PxylA. The GFP expression yields were more than 25 fold higher than those reported for B. megaterium carrying the same vector. All the tested proteins show significant increment in their expression levels (2-10 folds than those obtained using the available plasmids based on the P2 constitutive promoter. Conclusion Combining the components of two different commercially available Gram positive expression systems, such as Brevibacillus (from Takara Bio and B. megaterium (from Mobitec, we demonstrate that vectors based on the B. megaterium PxylA xylose inducible promoter can be successfully used to induce high level of intracellular expression of heterologous proteins in Brevibacillus.

  16. Cystatins--Extra- and intracellular cysteine protease inhibitors: High-level secretion and uptake of cystatin C in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Hanna; Bjarnadottir, Maria; Vogel, Lotte K; Wassélius, Johan; Ekström, Ulf; Abrahamson, Magnus

    2010-11-01

    Cystatins are present in mammals, birds, fish, insects, plants, fungi and protozoa and constitute a large protein family, with most members sharing a cysteine protease inhibitory function. In humans 12 functional cystatins exist, forming three groups based on molecular organisation and distribution in the organism. The type 1 cystatins (A and B) are known as intracellular, type 2 cystatins (C, D, E/M, F, G, S, SN and SA) extracellular and type 3 cystatins (L- and H-kininogen) intravascular proteins. The present paper is focused on the human cystatins and especially those of type 2, which are directed (with signal peptides) for cellular export following translation. Results indicating existence of systems for significant internalisation of type 2 cystatins from the extracellular to intracellular compartments are reviewed. Data showing that human neuroblastoma cell lines generally secrete high levels, but also contain high amounts of cystatin C are presented. Culturing of these cells in medium containing cystatin C at concentrations found in body fluids resulted in increased intracellular cystatin C, as a result of an uptake process. At immunofluorescence cytochemistry a pronounced vesicular cystatin C staining was observed. The simplistic denotation of the type 2 cystatins as extracellular inhibitors is thus challenged, and possible biological functions of the internalised cystatins are discussed. To illustrate the special case of high cellular cystatin content seen in cells of patients with hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy, expression vectors for wild-type and L68Q mutated cystatin C were used to transfect SK-N-BE(2) cells. Clones overexpressing the two variants showed increased secreted levels of cystatin C. Within the cells the L68Q variant appeared to mainly localise to the endoplasmic reticulum rather than to acidic vesicular organelles, indicating limitations in the transport out from the cell rather than increased uptake as explanation for the

  17. Influences of dietary protein sources and crude protein levels on intracellular free amino acid profile in the longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chunfu; Huang, Ping; Qiu, Kai; Sun, Wenjuan; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Xin; Yin, Jingdong

    2015-01-01

    The current study was carried out to determine effects of dietary protein source and crude protein (CP) level on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and muscle amino acid (AA) profile in finishing gilts. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two sources of dietary proteins (cottonseed meal, CSM vs. soybean meal, SBM) and two levels of CP (12 % vs. 14 %, as-fed basis). Seventy-two crossbred gilts (89.5 ± 0.9 kg) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design for a period of 28 d. All diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and similar concentrations of standardized ileal digestible essential AA covering the nutrient requirements of pigs. Growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality were not affected by dietary protein source nor crude protein level (P > 0.10) except that average daily feed intake was increased by CSM diets (P = 0.03). Gilts offered reduced protein diets had lower muscle pH45min (P gilts offered CSM diets, while muscle intracellular free valine concentration was increased (P = 0.03). The gilts offered reduced protein diets had greater intracellular concentrations of free methionine, lysine, and total AA in muscle (P < 0.05). These results suggest that CSM could replace SBM as a primary protein source in finishing pig diets in terms of performance, N efficiency, carcass characteristics, and meat quality, but decrease the concentrations of muscle specific AA. Furthermore, the reduced protein diet played an important role in increasing muscle intracellular concentrations of specific free amino acids (FAA), and in reducing the relative ratios of specific FAA to lysine in longissimus dorsi muscle of pig, whose biological meaning needs further studies.

  18. Nanotoxicity of pure silica mediated through oxidant generation rather than glutathione depletion in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Kumar, Sudhir; Siddiqui, Huma; Patil, Govil; Ashquin, Mohd; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-10-09

    Though, oxidative stress has been implicated in silica nanoparticles induced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo, but no similarities exist regarding dose-response relationship. This discrepancy may, partly, be due to associated impurities of trace metals that may present in varying amounts. Here, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress parameters of two sizes (10 nm and 80 nm) of pure silica nanoparticles was determined in human lung epithelial cells (A549 cells). Both sizes of silica nanoparticles induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity as measured by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Silica nanoparticles were also found to induce oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner indicated by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO). However, both sizes of silica nanoparticles had little effect on intracellular glutathione (GSH) level and the activities of glutathione metabolizing enzymes; glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) plus silica nanoparticles did not result in significant GSH depletion than that caused by BSO alone nor N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) afforded significant protection from ROS and LPO induced by silica nanoparticles. The rather unaltered level of GSH is also supported by finding no appreciable alteration in the level of GR and GPx. Our data suggest that the silica nanoparticles exert toxicity in A549 cells through the oxidant generation (ROS and LPO) rather than the depletion of GSH. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. (kale and several materials of Pieris brassicae L., a common pest of Brassica cultures using a cellular model with hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells under quiescent conditions and subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and glutathione was determined by the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-oxidized glutathione (GSSG reductase recycling assay. The phenolic composition of the extracts was also established by HPLC-DAD. They presented acylated and non acylated flavonoid glycosides, some of them sulfated, and hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides. All extracts were cytotoxic by themselves at high concentrations and failed to protect V79 cells against H2O2 acute toxicity. No relationship between phenolic composition and cytotoxicity of the extracts was found. Rather, a significant increase in glutathione was observed in cells exposed to kale extract, which contained the highest amount and variety of flavonoids. It can be concluded that although flavonoids-rich extracts have the ability to increase cellular antioxidant defenses, the use of extracts of kale and P. brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed.

  20. Glutathione as an antioxidant in inorganic mercury induced nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A T Jan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal toxicity represents an uncommon but clinically significant medical condition, which if unrecognized or inappropriately treated results in significant morbidity and mortality. Among heavy metals, mercury is recognized as a potent and widely distributed toxicant having the ability to accumulate at various levels of food chain besides possessing ability to cross placental and blood-brain barrier. Symptom picture of mercury (Hg 2+ toxicity is characterized mainly by a series of renal disorders. Mechanism of inorganic mercury toxicity includes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS capable of damaging lipids in membrane, proteins or enzymes in tissues, and DNA to induce oxidative stress as balance between generation, and elimination of ROS is essential for maintaining the functional integrity of a cell. Mitigation of endogenous mercury depends as a part on the presence of antioxidants such as glutathione - most abundant intracellular non-protein thiol that plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular redox status by quenching free radicals generated during oxidative stress. Ability of a cell to survive the threat posed by endogenous mercury represents a biological adaptation fundamental to survival. This review describes the current understanding and the mechanisms involved by different forms of mercury in eliciting their toxicity in kidney along with the knowledge of major intracellular reductant that plays important role in the mitigation of mercury toxicity for the maintenance of homeostasis within the body of living organisms.

  1. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Michael A. [Oxiage Cosmeceutical Research Institute, Virginia (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD{sub 50}) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative

  2. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Glutathione Precursor on Antioxidant Enzyme and Cell Survival in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinkyu; Roh, Changhyun; Ryu, Taeho; Park, Jiyoung; Nili, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Cells react to such an induced oxidative stress through scavenging the generated reactive oxygen species to reduce oxidative damage. Antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase are immediately triggered for reactive oxygen species. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, is one of the antioxidants. The effect of NAC as an antioxidant and/or a cell rescue agent was investigated in the present study. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular thiol, which involves in antioxidant defense via direct interaction with ROS or via activities of detoxication enzymes like glutathione peroxidases (GPx). NAC flowed in the cell is converted to cysteine by deacetylation, that is supplied to the depleted GSH by oxidative stress. NAC prevents the depletion of GSH by radiation, increases the production of GSH, and improves enzymes activity such as GPx and alkaline phosphatase. Cell growth and survivorship and transcriptional level of glutathione gene are analyzed in two yeast strains exposed to combined treatment of NAC with gamma-rays. The effect of NAC on cell growth was measured during 72 hours. The cell growth was hampered by higher concentrations of NAC at stationary phase. NAC, however, didn't affect the cell division at the exponential phase. The survival of the cells decreased with radiation dose. The cell viability of the strain W303-1A was reduced significantly at the low dose (10 and 30 Gy). By comparison, the strain W303-1A was more sensitive to radiation with having a half lethal dose (LD 50 ) of about 20 Gy. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional expression of antioxidant enzyme gene GPX1 increased after irradiation while the expression of the gene decreased by the combined treatment of NAC with 100 Gy radiation. The present study shows that NAC can directly scavenge ROS against oxidative stress in vivo. In conclusion, NAC can prevent radiation-induced oxidative stress by

  3. Suppression of the increasing level of acetylcholine-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ in guinea pig airway smooth muscle cells by mabuterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xirui; Zhao, Chao; Dai, Cailing; Ren, Yanxin; An, Nan; Wen, Huimin; Pan, L I; Cheng, Maosheng; Zhang, Yuyang

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to establish an effective method for the in vitro culture of guinea pig airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, and also investigate the suppressive effect of mabuterol hydrochloride (Mab) on the increased level of intracellular Ca 2+ in ASM cells induced with acetylcholine (Ach). Two different methods, i.e. with or without collagenase to pretreat tracheal tissues, were applied to the manufacture of ASM cells. Cell viability was determined with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthinazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence were used for the identification of ASM cells. Different concentration levels (10 -3 , 10 -4 , 10 -5 , 10 -6 and 10 -7 mmol/l) of Mab were administered 5 min before Ach (10 -4 M) treatment, respectively. The Ca 2+ fluorescent probe, Fura-2/AM or Fluo-3/AM were applied to the inspection of Ca 2+ fluorescent intensity with Varioskan Flash, immunocytometry systems and an inverted system microscope, respectively. The results showed that the fresh method, in which isolated tracheal tissues were previously treated with collagenase for 20 min, was more advantageous for the preparation of guinea pig ASM cells compared to when the enzyme was not used. The time for the ASM cells to initially migrate out of the 'tissue blocks' and the culture having to be generated due to the thick cell density was significantly less. On identification with immunocytochemistry or immunofluorescent staining, >95% of the cells were ASM cells. Mab (10 -3 -10 -7 mmol/l) significantly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ induced by Ach in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory rates of intracellular Ca 2+ by different concentrations of Mab, from low to high, were 14.93, 24.73, 40.06, 48.54 and 57.13%, respectively, when Varioskan Flash was used for determination. In conclusion, this novel method has a shorter harvesting period for ASM cells. Mab can suppress the increasing level of intracellular Ca 2

  4. Subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, Bernd; Tomasić, Ana; Horvat, Lucija; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

    2010-10-01

    Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine, glutamate, and glycine. Cysteine is the limiting factor for glutathione biosynthesis which can be especially crucial for cyanobacteria, which rely on both the sufficient sulfur supply from the growth media and on the protection of glutathione against ROS that are produced during photosynthesis. In this study, we report a method that allows detection and visualization of the subcellular distribution of glutathione in Synechocystis sp. This method is based on immunogold cytochemistry with glutathione and cysteine antisera and computer-supported transmission electron microscopy. Labeling of glutathione and cysteine was restricted to the cytosol and interthylakoidal spaces. Glutathione and cysteine could not be detected in carboxysomes, cyanophycin granules, cell walls, intrathylakoidal spaces, periplasm, and vacuoles. The accuracy of the glutathione and cysteine labeling is supported by two observations. First, preadsorption of the antiglutathione and anticysteine antisera with glutathione and cysteine, respectively, reduced the density of the gold particles to background levels. Second, labeling of glutathione and cysteine was strongly decreased by 98.5% and 100%, respectively, in Synechocystis sp. cells grown on media without sulfur. This study indicates a strong similarity of the subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria and plastids of plants and provides a deeper insight into glutathione metabolism in bacteria.

  5. Intracellular cholesterol level regulates sensitivity of glioblastoma cells against temozolomide-induced cell death by modulation of caspase-8 activation via death receptor 5-accumulation and activation in the plasma membrane lipid raft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yutaro; Tomiyama, Arata; Sasaki, Nobuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideki; Shirakihara, Takuya; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Kumagai, Kosuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Toyooka, Terushige; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Narita, Yoshitaka; Ichimura, Koichi; Sakai, Ryuichi; Namba, Hiroki; Mori, Kentaro

    2018-01-01

    Development of resistance against temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM) after continuous treatment with TMZ is one of the critical problems in clinical GBM therapy. Intracellular cholesterol regulates cancer cell biology, but whether intracellular cholesterol is involved in TMZ resistance of GBM cells remains unclear. The involvement of intracellular cholesterol in acquired resistance against TMZ in GBM cells was investigated. Intracellular cholesterol levels were measured in human U251 MG cells with acquired TMZ resistance (U251-R cells) and TMZ-sensitive control U251 MG cells (U251-Con cells), and found that the intracellular cholesterol level was significantly lower in U251-R cells than in U251-Con cells. In addition, treatment by intracellular cholesterol remover, methyl-beta cyclodextrin (MβCD), or intracellular cholesterol inducer, soluble cholesterol (Chol), regulated TMZ-induced U251-Con cell death in line with changes in intracellular cholesterol level. Involvement of death receptor 5 (DR5), a death receptor localized in the plasma membrane, was evaluated. TMZ without or with MβCD and/or Chol caused accumulation of DR5 into the plasma membrane lipid raft and formed a complex with caspase-8, an extrinsic caspase cascade inducer, reflected in the induction of cell death. In addition, treatment with caspase-8 inhibitor or knockdown of DR5 dramatically suppressed U251-Con cell death induced by combination treatment with TMZ, MβCD, and Chol. Combined treatment of Chol with TMZ reversed the TMZ resistance of U251-R cells and another GBM cell model with acquired TMZ resistance, whereas clinical antihypercholesterolemia agents at physiological concentrations suppressed TMZ-induced cell death of U251-Con cells. These findings suggest that intracellular cholesterol level affects TMZ treatment of GBM mediated via a DR5-caspase-8 mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Response of Listeria monocytogenes to disinfection stress at the single-cell and population levels as monitored by intracellular pH measurements and viable-cell counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    of the bacterium. In situ analyses of Listeria monocytogenes single cells were performed during exposure to different concentrations of the disinfectant Incimaxx DES to study a possible population subdivision. Bacterial survival was quantified with plate counting and disinfection stress at the single-cell level...... by measuring intracellular pH (pHi) over time by fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy. pHi values were initially 7 to 7.5 and decreased in both attached and planktonic L. monocytogenes cells during exposure to sublethal and lethal concentrations of Incimaxx DES. The response of the bacterial population...... that a population of L. monocytogenes cells, whether planktonic or attached, is homogenous with respect to sensitivity to an acidic disinfectant studied on the single-cell level. Hence a major subpopulation more tolerant to disinfectants, and hence more persistent, does not appear to be present....

  7. VCP Is an integral component of a novel feedback mechanism that controls intracellular localization of catalase and H2O2 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Katsuhiro; Ichinohe, Yuzuru; Koike, Masaaki; Sasaoka, Norio; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Kakizuka, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Catalase is a key antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water and oxygen, and it appears to shuttle between the cytoplasm and peroxisome via unknown mechanisms. Valosin-containing protein (VCP) belongs to the AAA class of ATPases and is involved in diverse cellular functions, e.g. cell cycle and protein degradation, etc. Here we show that VCP and PEX19, a protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis, interact with each other. Knockdown of either VCP or PEX19 resulted in a predominantly cytoplasmic redistribution of catalase, and loss of VCP ATPase activity also increased its cytoplasmic redistribution. Moreover, VCP knockdown decreased intracellular ROS levels in normal and H2O2-treated cells, and an oxidation-resistant VCP impaired the ROS-induced cytoplasmic redistribution of catalase. These observations reveal a novel feedback mechanism, in which VCP can sense H2O2 levels, and regulates them by controlling the localization of catalase.

  8. Glutathione Redox System in β-Thalassemia/Hb E Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchaneekorn W. Kalpravidh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available β-thalassemia/Hb E is known to cause oxidative stress induced by iron overload. The glutathione system is the major endogenous antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative damage. This study aimed to determine the effect of disease state and splenectomy on redox status expressed by whole blood glutathione (GSH/glutathione disulfide (GSSG and also to evaluate glutathione-related responses to oxidation in β-thalassemia/Hb E patients. Twenty-seven normal subjects and 25 β-thalassemia/Hb E patients were recruited and blood was collected. The GSH/GSSG ratio, activities of glutathione-related enzymes, hematological parameters, and serum ferritin levels were determined in individuals. Patients had high iron-induced oxidative stress, shown as significantly increased serum ferritin, a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio, and increased activities of glutathione-related enzymes. Splenectomy increased serum ferritin levels and decreased GSH levels concomitant with unchanged glutathione-related enzyme activities. The redox ratio had a positive correlation with hemoglobin levels and negative correlation with levels of serum ferritin. The glutathione system may be the body’s first-line defense used against oxidative stress and to maintain redox homeostasis in thalassemic patients based on the significant correlations between the GSH/GSSH ratio and degree of anemia or body iron stores.

  9. Beta-amyloidolysis and glutathione in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasierra-Cirujeda J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available J Lasierra-Cirujeda,1 P Coronel,2 MJ Aza,3 M Gimeno2 1CM Hematológico SC, Logroño, La Rioja, Spain; 2Tedec-Meiji Farma, SA, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain; 3Pharmaceutical Act, Ministry of Health, Regional Government, La Rioja, Spain Abstract: In this review, we hypothesized the importance of the interaction between the brain glutathione (GSH system, the proteolytic tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA/plasminogen/plasmin system, regulated by plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1, and neuroserpin in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The histopathological characteristic hallmark that gives personality to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of neurofibroid tangles located intracellularly in the brain, such as the protein tau and extracellular senile plaques made primarily of amyloidal substance. These formations of complex etiology are intimately related to GSH, brain protective antioxidants, and the proteolytic system, in which t-PA plays a key role. There is scientific evidence that suggests a relationship between aging, a number of neurodegenerative disorders, and the excessive production of reactive oxygen species and accompanying decreased brain proteolysis. The plasminogen system in the brain is an essential proteolytic mechanism that effectively degrades amyloid peptides ("beta-amyloidolysis" through action of the plasmin, and this physiologic process may be considered to be a means of prevention of neurodegenerative disorders. In parallel to the decrease in GSH levels seen in aging, there is also a decrease in plasmin brain activity and a progressive decrease of t-PA activity, caused by a decrease in the expression of the t-PA together with an increase of the PAI-1 levels, which rise to an increment in the production of amyloid peptides and a lesser clearance of them. Better knowledge of the GSH mechanism and cerebral proteolysis will allow us to hypothesize about therapeutic practices. Keywords: glutathione

  10. Hexabromocyclododecane inhibits depolarization-induced increase in intracellular calcium levels and neurotransmitter release in PC12 cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, M.M.L.; Heusinkveld, H.J.; de Groot, A.; Bergman, A.; van den Berg, M.; Westerink, R.H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental levels of the brominated flame retardant (BFR) hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) have been increasing. HBCD has been shown to cause adverse effects on learning and behavior in mice, as well as on dopamine uptake in rat synaptosomes and synaptic vesicles. For other BFRs, alterations in the

  11. Nesfatin-1 induces the phosphorylation levels of cAMP response element-binding protein for intracellular signaling in a neural cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Ishida

    Full Text Available Nesfatin-1 is a novel anorexic peptide that reduces the food intake of rodents when administered either intraventricularly or intraperitoneally. However, the molecular mechanism of intracellular signaling via Nesfatin-1 is yet to be resolved. In the current study, we investigated the ability of different neuronal cell lines to respond to Nesfatin-1 and further elucidated the signal transduction pathway of Nesfatin-1. To achieve this, we transfected several cell lines with various combinations of reporter vectors containing different kinds of response elements and performed reporter assays with Nesfatin-1, its active midsegment encoding 30 amino acid residues (M30 and M30-derived mutants. Notably, we found that both Nesfatin-1 as well as M30, significantly increased cAMP response element (CRE reporter activity in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, NB41A3. An antagonist of Melanocortin 3/4 receptor, SHU9119, aborted the promoter activity, and a mutant M30, which exerts no anorexic effect in vivo did not induce the CRE reporter activity in NB41A3 cells. Western blotting analyses revealed that Nesfatin-1 and M30 significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of CRE-binding protein (CREB, without altering the intracellular cAMP levels. Further, our study showed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK kinase inhibitor and an L-type Calcium (Ca(2+ channel blocker abolished the M30-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, the radio-receptor assay revealed that (125I-Nesfatin-1 binds in a saturable fashion to the membrane fractions of the mouse hypothalamus and NB41A3 cells, with Kd values of 0.79 nM and 0.17 nM, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate the presence of a Nesfatin-1-specific receptor on the cell surface of NB41A3 cells and mouse hypothalamus. Our study highlights that Nesfatin-1, via its receptor, induces the phosphorylation of CREB, thus activating the intracellular signaling cascade in neurons.

  12. Taking control over intracellular fatty acid levels is essential for the analysis of thermogenic function in cultured primary brown and brite/beige adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongguo; Fromme, Tobias; Schweizer, Sabine; Schöttl, Theresa; Klingenspor, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipocytes, conferred by mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), is receiving great attention because metabolically active brown adipose tissue may protect humans from metabolic diseases. In particular, the thermogenic function of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue, known as brite (or beige) adipocytes, is currently of prime interest. A valid procedure to quantify the specific contribution of UCP1 to thermogenesis is thus of vital importance. Adrenergic stimulation of lipolysis is a common way to activate UCP1. We here report, however, that in this frequently applied setup, taking control over intracellular fatty acid levels is essential for the analysis of thermogenic function in cultured brown and brite adipocytes. By the application of these findings, we demonstrate that UCP1 is functionally thermogenic in intact brite adipocytes and adrenergic UCP1 activation is largely dependent on adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) rather than hormone sensitive lipase (HSL). © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Lovastatin-induced decrease of intracellular cholesterol level attenuates fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition in bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Marta; Soczek, Ewelina; Kosińska, Milena; Rak, Monika; Wójcik, Katarzyna Anna; Lasota, Sławomir; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Czyż, Jarosław; Madeja, Zbigniew

    2013-03-15

    Chronic inflammation of the airways and structural changes in the bronchial wall are basic hallmarks of asthma. Human bronchial fibroblasts derived from patients with diagnosed asthma display in vitro predestination towards TGF-β-induced fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition (FMT), a key event in the bronchial wall remodelling. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a key enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and are widely used as antilipidemic drugs. The pleiotropic anti-inflammatory effects of statins, independent of their cholesterol-lowering capacity, are also well established. Since commonly used anti-asthmatic drugs do not reverse the structural remodelling of the airways and statins have tentative anti-asthmatic activity, we have studied the effect of lovastatin on FMT in populations of human bronchial fibroblasts derived from asthmatic patients. We demonstrate that the intensity of FMT induced by TGF-β1 was strongly and dose-dependently attenuated by lovastatin. Furthermore, we show that neither the suppression of prenylation of signalling proteins nor the effect on reactive oxygen species formation are important for lovastatin-induced inhibition of myofibroblast differentiation. On the other hand, we show that a squalene synthase inhibitor, zaragozic acid A, reduced the TGF-β1-induced FMT to an extent comparable to lovastatin effect. Additionally we demonstrate that in bronchial fibroblast populations, both inhibitors (lovastatin and zaragozic acid A) attenuate the TGF-β1-induced Smad2 nuclear translocation in a manner dependent on intracellular cholesterol level. Our data suggest that statins can directly, by decrease of intracellular cholesterol level, affect basic cell signalling events crucial for asthmatic processes and potentially prevent perilous bronchial wall remodelling associated with intensive myofibroblast formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise Training under Exposure to Low Levels of Fine Particulate Matter: Effects on Heart Oxidative Stress and Extra-to-Intracellular HSP70 Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sfalcin Mai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 promotes heart oxidative stress (OS and evokes anti-inflammatory responses observed by increased intracellular 70 kDa heat shock proteins (iHSP70. Furthermore, PM2.5 increases the levels of these proteins in extracellular fluids (eHSP70, which have proinflammatory roles. We investigated whether moderate and high intensity training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 modifies heart OS and the eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index, a biomarker of inflammatory status. Male mice (n=32, 30 days old, were divided into six groups for 12 weeks: control (CON, moderate (MIT and high intensity training (HIT, exposure to 5 μg of PM2.5 daily (PM2.5, and moderate and high intensity training exposed to PM2.5 (MIT + PM2.5 and HIT + PM2.5 groups. The CON and PM2.5 groups remained sedentary. The MIT + PM2.5 group showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels than the MIT and PM2.5 groups. HIT and HIT + PM2.5 showed higher heart lipid peroxidation levels and lower eHSP70 and H-index levels compared to sedentary animals. No alterations were found in heart antioxidant enzyme activity or iHSP70 levels. Moderate exercise training under exposure to low levels of PM2.5 induces heart OS but does not modify eHSP70 to iHSP70 ratio (H-index. High intensity exercise training promotes anti-inflammatory profile despite exposure to low levels of PM2.5.

  15. Role and Regulation of Glutathione Metabolism in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylke Müller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in humans is caused by one of five species of obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. P. falciparum causes the most severe disease and is responsible for 600,000 deaths annually, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa. It has long been suggested that during their development, malaria parasites are exposed to environmental and metabolic stresses. One strategy to drug discovery was to increase these stresses by interfering with the parasites’ antioxidant and redox systems, which may be a valuable approach to disease intervention. Plasmodium possesses two redox systems—the thioredoxin and the glutathione system—with overlapping but also distinct functions. Glutathione is the most abundant low molecular weight redox active thiol in the parasites existing primarily in its reduced form representing an excellent thiol redox buffer. This allows for an efficient maintenance of the intracellular reducing environment of the parasite cytoplasm and its organelles. This review will highlight the mechanisms that are responsible for sustaining an adequate concentration of glutathione and maintaining its redox state in Plasmodium. It will provide a summary of the functions of the tripeptide and will discuss the potential of glutathione metabolism for drug discovery against human malaria parasites.

  16. Skeletal muscle intracellular pH and levels of high energy phosphates during hypercapnia in intact lizards by 31P NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.C.; Hitzig, B.M.; Elmden, K.; McFarland, E.; Koutcher, J.; Kazemi, H.

    1986-01-01

    Lizards have been shown to reduce ventilation during CO 2 breathing. This is thought to be detrimental to the maintenance of intracellular pH (pHi) and levels of high energy phosphates. The authors subjected chameleons (n=4) to 5% CO 2 breathing and made serial measurements of tail (skeletal) muscle pHi, levels of phosphocreatine (PCr), and ATP utilizing high resolution 31 P NMR. pHi was unchanged from controls (7.27 +/- 0.06 units) (mean +/- SE) during 30 minutes of hypercapnia (7.19 +/- 0.09 units) (p>.2) demonstrating effective regulation of skeletal muscle pHi; however, there were significant decreases in the PCr/ATP ratios to 65% +/- 5% (p 2 availability because there were no increases in the levels of glycolytic intermediates and inorganic phosphate which would indicate tissue hypoxia. It is possible that an active process requiring ATP is required for the maintenance of pHi in the presence of hypercapnia and that the reduction of PCr/ATP ratio is a reflection of an increased utilization of ATP

  17. Skeletal muscle intracellular pH and levels of high energy phosphates during hypercapnia in intact lizards by /sup 31/P NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.C.; Hitzig, B.M.; Elmden, K.; McFarland, E.; Koutcher, J.; Kazemi, H.

    1986-03-05

    Lizards have been shown to reduce ventilation during CO/sub 2/ breathing. This is thought to be detrimental to the maintenance of intracellular pH (pHi) and levels of high energy phosphates. The authors subjected chameleons (n=4) to 5% CO/sub 2/ breathing and made serial measurements of tail (skeletal) muscle pHi, levels of phosphocreatine (PCr), and ATP utilizing high resolution /sup 31/P NMR. pHi was unchanged from controls (7.27 +/- 0.06 units) (mean +/- SE) during 30 minutes of hypercapnia (7.19 +/- 0.09 units) (p>.2) demonstrating effective regulation of skeletal muscle pHi; however, there were significant decreases in the PCr/ATP ratios to 65% +/- 5% (p<.05) of control. The reduced PCr/ATP ratio does not appear due to decreased O/sub 2/ availability because there were no increases in the levels of glycolytic intermediates and inorganic phosphate which would indicate tissue hypoxia. It is possible that an active process requiring ATP is required for the maintenance of pHi in the presence of hypercapnia and that the reduction of PCr/ATP ratio is a reflection of an increased utilization of ATP.

  18. Taurine, glutathione and bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry textbook presentations of bioenergetics and mitochondrial function normally focus on the chemiosmotic theory with introduction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain, the proton and electrical gradients and subsequent oxidative phosphorylation and ATP-production by ATP synthase. The compound glutathione (GSH) is often mentioned in relation to mitochondrial function, primarily for a role as redox scavenger. Here we argue that its role as redox pair with oxidised glutathione (GSSG) is pivotal with regard to controlling the electrical or redox gradient across the mitochondrial inner-membrane. The very high concentration of taurine in oxidative tissue has recently led to discussions on the role of taurine in the mitochondria, e.g. with taurine acting as a pH buffer in the mitochondrial matrix. A very important consequence of the slightly alkaline pH is the fact that the NADH/NAD(+) redox pair can be brought in redox equilibrium with the GSH redox pair GSH/GSSG.An additional consequence of having GSH as redox buffer is the fact that from the pH dependence of its redox potential, it becomes possible to explain that the mitochondrial membrane potential has been observed to be independent of the matrix pH. Finally a simplified model for mitochondrial oxidation is presented with introduction of GSH as redox buffer to stabilise the electrical gradient, and taurine as pH buffer stabilising the pH gradient, but simultaneously establishing the equilibrium between the NADH/NAD(+) redox pair and the redox buffer pair GSH/GSSG.

  19. Stabilization of anthocyanins in blackberry juice by glutathione fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Nathan B; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L; Brownmiller, Cindi; Mauromoustakos, Andy

    2017-10-18

    Blackberry anthocyanins provide attractive color and antioxidant activity. However, anthocyanins degrade during juice processing and storage, so maintaining high anthocyanin concentrations in berry juices may lead to greater antioxidant and health benefits for the consumer. This study evaluated potential additives to stabilize anthocyanins during blackberry juice storage. The anthocyanin stabilizing agents used were: glutathione, galacturonic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and tannic acid, which were added at a level of 500 mg L -1 . Juice anthocyanin, flavonol, and ellagitannin content and percent polymeric color were measured over five weeks of accelerated storage at 30 °C. Glutathione had the greatest protective effect on total anthocyanins and polymeric color. Therefore a second study was performed with glutathione in combination with lipoic and ascorbic acids in an effort to use antioxidant recycling to achieve a synergistic effect. However, the antioxidant recycling system had no protective effect relative to glutathione alone. Glutathione appears to be a promising blackberry juice additive to protect against anthocyanin degradation during storage.

  20. Induction of Apoptosis and Reduction of Endogenous Glutathione Level by the Ethyl-Acetate Soluble Fraction of the Methanol Extract of the Roots of Potentilla fulgens in Cancer Cells.

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    Debabrata Tripathy

    Full Text Available Potentilla fulgens root traditionally used as a folk remedy in Meghalaya, India. However, systematic evaluation of its anticancer efficacy was limited. We investigated the anticancer potentials of the various extracts prepared by partitioning of the methanol extract of the root with the aim to discover major contributing factors from the most effective fractions. Methanol extract of P. fulgens roots (PRE was prepared by maceration which was subsequently fractionated into hexane, ethyl-acetate (EA and n-butanol soluble fractions. Various assays (clonogenic assay, Flow cytometry analysis, western blot, semiquantitative RT-PCR and the level of endogenous glutathione were used to evaluate different parameters, such as Cell survivability, PARP-1 proteolysis, expression pattern of anti-apoptotic and γ-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase heavy subunit (GCSC genes in both MCF-7 and U87 cancer cell lines. Since the EA-fraction showed most efficient growth inhibitory effect, it was further purified and a total of nine compounds and some monomeric and dimeric flavan-3-ols were identified and characterized. Three compounds viz., epicatechin (EC, gallic acid (GA and ursolic acid (UA were taken on the basis of their higher yield and 10 μg/ml of each was mixed together. The concentration used in this study for PRE, EA- and Hex-fraction was 100 μg/ml, which was higher than the IC50 value. Apoptotic cell death in the PRE, EA-fraction and EC+GA+UA treated cancer cell cultures was significantly greater than in normal cells due to suppression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 following treatment. Depletion of glutathione by downregulating GCSC was also observed. Induction of apoptosis and lowering the level of glutathione are considered to be positive activity for an anticancer agent. Therefore, modulation of GSH concentration in tumor cells by PRE and its EA-fraction opened up the possibility of a new therapeutic approach because these plant products are not harmful to

  1. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Tomás [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kornblihtt, Laura [Servicio de Hematología, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Elida M. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, Guillermo A., E-mail: gblanco@ffyb.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-02-01

    Increased oxygen species production has often been cited as a mechanism determining synergism on cell death and growth inhibition effects of arsenic-combined drugs. However the net effect of drug combination may not be easily anticipated solely from available knowledge of drug-induced death mechanisms. We evaluated the combined effect of sodium arsenite with the proteasome inhibitor MG132, and the anti-leukaemic agent CAPE, on growth-inhibition and cell death effect in acute myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and Burkitt's lymphoma-derived Raji cells, by the Chou–Talalay method. In addition we explored the association of cytotoxic effect of drugs with changes in intracellular superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup −}) levels. Our results showed that combined arsenite + MG132 produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h after exposure and were synergic on cell death induction in U937 cells over the whole dose range, although the combination was antagonistic on growth inhibition effect. Exposure to a constant non-cytotoxic dose of 80 μM hydrogen peroxide together with arsenite + MG132 changed synergism on cell death to antagonism at all effect levels while increasing O{sub 2}{sup −} levels. Arsenite + hydrogen peroxide also resulted in antagonism with increased O{sub 2}{sup −} levels in U937 cells. In Raji cells, arsenite + MG132 also produced low levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} at 6 h and 24 h but resulted in antagonism on cell death and growth inhibition. By contrast, the combination arsenite + CAPE showed high levels of O{sub 2}{sup −} production at 6 h and 24 h post exposure but resulted in antagonism over cell death and growth inhibition effects in U937 and Raji cells. We conclude that synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 cells is negatively associated to O{sub 2}{sup −} levels at early time points after exposure. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic combined cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects by Chou–Talalay method. ► Cytotoxic effect

  2. Extracellular ATP, as an energy and phosphorylating molecule, induces different types of drug resistances in cancer cells through ATP internalization and intracellular ATP level increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Li, Yunsheng; Qian, Yanrong; Cao, Yanyang; Shriwas, Pratik; Zhang, Haiyun; Chen, Xiaozhuo

    2017-10-20

    Cancer cells are able to uptake extracellular ATP (eATP) via macropinocytosis to elevate intracellular ATP (iATP) levels, enhancing their survival in drug treatment. However, the involved drug resistance mechanisms are unknown. Here we investigated the roles of eATP as either an energy or a phosphorylating molecule in general drug resistance mediated by ATP internalization and iATP elevation. We report that eATP increased iATP levels and promoted drug resistance to various tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and chemo-drugs in human cancer cell lines of five cancer types. In A549 lung cancer cells, the resistance was downregulated by macropinocytosis inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PAK1, an essential macropinocytosis enzyme. The elevated iATP upregulated the efflux activity of ABC transporters in A549 and SK-Hep-1 cells as well as phosphorylation of PDGFRα and proteins in the PDGFR-mediated Akt-mTOR and Raf-MEK signaling pathways in A549 cells. Similar phosphorylation upregulations were found in A549 tumors. These results demonstrate that eATP induces different types of drug resistance by eATP internalization and iATP elevation, implicating the ATP-rich tumor microenvironment in cancer drug resistance, expanding our understanding of the roles of eATP in the Warburg effect and offering new anticancer drug resistance targets.

  3. Antioxidant role of glutathione S-transferases: 4-Hydroxynonenal, a key molecule in stress-mediated signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, Sharad S.; Singh, Sharda P.; Singhal, Preeti; Horne, David; Singhal, Jyotsana; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    determinants of the intracellular concentration of 4HNE. • Higher concentrations of 4HNE promote apoptosis whereas lower promote proliferation. • Stress-mediated signaling can be modulated by the α-class glutathione S-transferase. • Genotoxic effect of 4HNE may be ameliorated by modulating the cellular GSH levels. • RLIP76 (RalBP1) mediates ATP-dependent transport of GSH-conjugate of 4HNE (GSHNE).

  4. Effect of Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine on oxidative stress and the glutathione system in beta cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle M.P.H.J. Boesten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications is the formation of excessive levels of advanced glycation end (AGE products. Nɛ-carboxymethyllysine (CML is one of the best-characterized AGEs. Because little is known about the effects of AGEs on pancreatic beta cells, we investigated the effect of CML on human pancreatic cells and determined the activity and gene expression of glutathione system components. CML at a concentration of 0.5 mM induced cell death in human pancreatic beta cells, which was accompanied by increased intracellular oxidative stress. No changes in the gene expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE were found, although an increase in the level of a target cytokine of RAGE after CML exposure was observed. Additionally we found that CML lowered the levels of GSH and affected the activity and expression of other components of the glutathione system. These changes indicate that the cells are even more vulnerable for oxidative stress after exposure to CML. Since beta cells are low in antioxidant enzymes and repair for oxidized DNA, CML, but most likely also other AGEs, accelerates beta cell dysfunction and increases beta cell death during chronic hyperglycemia.

  5. Cytometric evaluation of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-4 levels in thyroid follicular cells from patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases

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    Bossowski Artur

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent few years is underlined that altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of AITD. The aim of this study was to estimate intracellular INF-γ and IL-4 levels in thyroid-infiltrating lymphocytes and thyrocytes isolated from thyroid tissues in 54 adolescent patients aged 8-21 years, with Graves' disease (GD; n = 18, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT; n = 18 and non-toxic multinodular goiter (NTMG; n = 18. Methods Fresh thyroid tissues were taken on culture medium RPMI -1640, it was mechanically prepared. In next step were added cell activators -12- myristate 13- the acetate (PMA and Ionomycin as well as the inhibitor of transportation of proteins - Breferdin A. They were cultured 24 hours in 50 ml flasks at 37°C in a 5-95% CO2-air water-saturated atmosphere. After that, thyrocytes were identified by mouse mAb directed against human TPO epitope 64 conjugated with rabbit anti-mouse antibodies IgG (Fab'2 labeled by FITC. After incubation at room temperature to each of samples added reagent A fixative the cellular membrane. In next step into the cell suspensions were added reagent B to permeabilization of cellular membrane and specific anti-IL-4-PE or anti-IFN-γ-PE mAbs. Identification of intracellular cytokines in T lymphocytes was performed in the same procedure with application of anti-CD4-PerCP and anti-CD8-PerCP mAbs specific for T lymphocytes. The cells were analyzed in a flow cytometry (Coulter EPICS XL. Results In examined group of patients with GD we observed statistically significant higher mean percentage of cells with phenotype CD4+IL-4 (p Conclusions We conclude that human thyrocytes in autoimmune thyroid disorders could be a source of cytokine production and that their activation influences local interaction with T lymphocytes inflowing to the thyroid gland.

  6. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Johnson, Mark S.; Harding, Gordon P.; Zuccarelli, Anthony J.; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Taylor, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    We identified a protein, Aer, as a signal transducer that senses intracellular energy levels rather than the external environment and that transduces signals for aerotaxis (taxis to oxygen) and other energy-dependent behavioral responses in Escherichia coli. Domains in Aer are similar to the signaling domain in chemotaxis receptors and the putative oxygen-sensing domain of some transcriptional activators. A putative FAD-binding site in the N-terminal domain of Aer shares a consensus sequence with the NifL, Bat, and Wc-1 signal-transducing proteins that regulate gene expression in response to redox changes, oxygen, and blue light, respectively. A double mutant deficient in aer and tsr, which codes for the serine chemoreceptor, was negative for aerotaxis, redox taxis, and glycerol taxis, each of which requires the proton motive force and/or electron transport system for signaling. We propose that Aer and Tsr sense the proton motive force or cellular redox state and thereby integrate diverse signals that guide E. coli to environments where maximal energy is available for growth. PMID:9380671

  7. Glutathione imbalance in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Sara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Pastore, Anna; Tozzi, Giulia; Aiello, Chiara; Pujol, Aurora; Cappa, Marco; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Background X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder of X-linked inheritance caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene which determines an accumulation of long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Recent evidence shows that oxidative stress may be a hallmark in the pathogenesis of X-ALD and glutathione plays an important role in the defense against free radicals. In this study we have analyzed glutathione homeostasis in lymphocytes of 14 patients with X-ALD and evaluated the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, in order to define the role of this crucial redox marker in this condition. Methods Lymphocytes, plasma and erythrocytes were obtained from the whole blood of 14 subjects with X-ALD and in 30 healthy subjects. Total, reduced and protein-bound glutathione levels were measured in lymphocytes by HPLC analysis. Erythrocyte free glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma thiols and carbonyl content were determined by spectrophotometric assays. Results A significant decrease of total and reduced glutathione was found in lymphocytes of patients, associated to high levels of all oxidized glutathione forms. A decline of free glutathione was particularly significant in erythrocytes. The increased oxidative stress in X-ALD was additionally confirmed by the decrease of plasma thiols and the high level of carbonyls. Conclusion Our results strongly support a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of X-ALD and strengthen the importance of the balance among glutathione forms as a hallmark and a potential biomarker of the disease. PMID:23768953

  8. Glutathione imbalance in patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Sara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Pastore, Anna; Tozzi, Giulia; Aiello, Chiara; Pujol, Aurora; Cappa, Marco; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a genetic disorder of X-linked inheritance caused by a mutation in the ABCD1 gene which determines an accumulation of long-chain fatty acids in plasma and tissues. Recent evidence shows that oxidative stress may be a hallmark in the pathogenesis of X-ALD and glutathione plays an important role in the defense against free radicals. In this study we have analyzed glutathione homeostasis in lymphocytes of 14 patients with X-ALD and evaluated the balance between oxidized and reduced forms of glutathione, in order to define the role of this crucial redox marker in this condition. Lymphocytes, plasma and erythrocytes were obtained from the whole blood of 14 subjects with X-ALD and in 30 healthy subjects. Total, reduced and protein-bound glutathione levels were measured in lymphocytes by HPLC analysis. Erythrocyte free glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities, plasma thiols and carbonyl content were determined by spectrophotometric assays. A significant decrease of total and reduced glutathione was found in lymphocytes of patients, associated to high levels of all oxidized glutathione forms. A decline of free glutathione was particularly significant in erythrocytes. The increased oxidative stress in X-ALD was additionally confirmed by the decrease of plasma thiols and the high level of carbonyls. Our results strongly support a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of X-ALD and strengthen the importance of the balance among glutathione forms as a hallmark and a potential biomarker of the disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Computational analysis of the oscillatory behavior at the translation level induced by mRNA levels oscillations due to finite intracellular resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Yoram; Tuller, Tamir

    2018-04-03

    Recent studies have demonstrated how the competition for the finite pool of available gene expression factors has important effect on fundamental gene expression aspects. In this study, based on a whole-cell model simulation of translation in S. cerevisiae, we evaluate for the first time the expected effect of mRNA levels fluctuations on translation due to the finite pool of ribosomes. We show that fluctuations of a single gene or a group of genes mRNA levels induce periodic behavior in all S. cerevisiae translation factors and aspects: the ribosomal densities and the translation rates of all S. cerevisiae mRNAs oscillate. We numerically measure the oscillation amplitudes demonstrating that fluctuations of endogenous and heterologous genes can cause a significant fluctuation of up to 50% in the steady-state translation rates of the rest of the genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate by synonymous mutations that oscillating the levels of mRNAs that experience high ribosomal occupancy (e.g. ribosomal "traffic jam") induces the largest impact on the translation of the S. cerevisiae genome. The results reported here should provide novel insights and principles related to the design of synthetic gene expression circuits and related to the evolutionary constraints shaping gene expression of endogenous genes.

  10. Combined radiation-protective and radiation-sensitizing agents. III. Radiosensitization by misonidazole as a function of concentrations of endogenous glutathione or exogenous thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, C.J.; Stobbe, C.C.; Baer, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Radiosensitization of V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts by 0.5 mM misonidazole is a smooth function of endogenous glutathione (GSH) levels as modulated upwards by pre-incubation in medium containing cysteamine, or downwards by pre-incubation in medium containing buthionine sulfoximine. The enhancement ratio (radiation sensitivity in nitrogen/radiation sensitivity in nitrogen +/- sensitizer or thiol) varies from 1.3 at 12 mM to 2.25 at less than 0.1 mM endogenous GSH. The enhanced radiosensitivity of thiol-depleted hypoxic cells is reversed when exogenous thiols are added, and for equivalent ER, the exogenous thiol concentrations are much lower than the endogenous GSH concentrations. Measurement of intracellular drug concentrations amplified rather than diminished the above discrepancy, since intracellular concentrations of cysteamine were lower and glutathione much lower than the extracellular concentrations. Three possible explanations are addressed: an external membrane component of damage is involved, long-range protection to DNA target radicals is possible from outside the cell (e.g., donation of electrons), and (c) endogenous glutathione is not in a free or exchangeable state (e.g., bound)

  11. Impact of glutathione metabolism on zinc homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Matthias G; Patzschke, Anett; Holz, Caterina; Lang, Christine; Causon, Tim; Hann, Stephan; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Zinc is a crucial mineral for all organisms as it is an essential cofactor for the proper function of a plethora of proteins and depletion of zinc causes oxidative stress. Glutathione is the major redox buffering agent in the cell and therefore important for mitigation of the adverse effects of oxidative stress. In mammalian cells, zinc deficiency is accompanied by a glutathione depletion. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the opposite effect is observed: under low zinc conditions, an elevated glutathione concentration is found. The main regulator to overcome zinc deficiency is Zap1p. However, we show that Zap1p is not involved in this glutathione accumulation phenotype. Furthermore, we found that in glutathione-accumulating strains also the metal ion-binding phytochelatin-2, which is an oligomer of glutathione, is accumulated. This increased phytochelatin concentration correlates with a lower free zinc level in the vacuole. These results suggest that phytochelatin is important for zinc buffering in S. cerevisiae and thus explains how zinc homeostasis is connected with glutathione metabolism. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of cigarette smoke condensate on proliferation and wound closure of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro: role of glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe Klaus F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased airway epithelial proliferation is frequently observed in smokers. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms leading to these epithelial changes, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on cell proliferation, wound closure and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. We also studied whether modulation of intracellular glutathione/thiol levels could attenuate CSC-induced cell proliferation. Methods Cells of the bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and subcultures of primary bronchial epithelial cells were used for the present study. The effect of CSC on epithelial proliferation was assessed using 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation. Modulation of epithelial wound repair was studied by analysis of closure of 3 mm circular scrape wounds during 72 hours of culture. Wound closure was calculated from digital images obtained at 24 h intervals. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases was assessed by Western blotting using phospho-specific antibodies. Results At low concentrations CSC increased proliferation of NCI-H292 cells, whereas high concentrations were inhibitory as a result of cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of CSC also increased epithelial wound closure of both NCI-H292 and PBEC, whereas at high concentrations closure was inhibited. At low, mitogenic concentrations, CSC caused persistent activation of ERK1/2, a MAPK involved in cell proliferation. Inhibition of cell proliferation by high concentrations of CSC was associated with activation of the pro-apoptotic MAP kinases p38 and JNK. Modulation of intracellular glutathione (GSH/thiol levels using N-acetyl-L-cysteine, GSH or buthionine sulphoximine (BSO, demonstrated that both the stimulatory and the inhibitory effects of CSC were regulated in part by intracellular GSH levels. Conclusion These results indicate that CSC may increase cell proliferation and wound closure dependent on the local concentration of cigarette smoke

  13. Glutathione S-transferase P influences redox and migration pathways in bone marrow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available To interrogate why redox homeostasis and glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP are important in regulating bone marrow cell proliferation and migration, we isolated crude bone marrow, lineage negative and bone marrow derived-dendritic cells (BMDDCs from both wild type (WT and knockout (Gstp1/p2(-/- mice. Comparison of the two strains showed distinct thiol expression patterns. WT had higher baseline and reactive oxygen species-induced levels of S-glutathionylated proteins, some of which (sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+-ATPase regulate Ca(2+ fluxes and subsequently influence proliferation and migration. Redox status is also a crucial determinant in the regulation of the chemokine system. CXCL12 chemotactic response was stronger in WT cells, with commensurate alterations in plasma membrane polarization/permeability and intracellular calcium fluxes; activities of the downstream kinases, ERK and Akt were also higher in WT. In addition, expression levels of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its associated phosphatase, SHP-2, were higher in WT. Inhibition of CXCR4 or SHP2 decreased the extent of CXCL12-induced migration in WT BMDDCs. The differential surface densities of CXCR4, SHP-2 and inositol trisphosphate receptor in WT and Gstp1/p2(-/- cells correlated with the differential CXCR4 functional activities, as measured by the extent of chemokine-induced directional migration and differences in intracellular signaling. These observed differences contribute to our understanding of how genetic ablation of GSTP causes different levels of myeloproliferation and migration [corrected

  14. Esterase and glutathione S-transferase levels associated with synthetic pyrethroid resistance in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks from Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Abhijit; Jyoti; Singh, Harkirat; Singh, Nirbhay Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Larval packet test was used for assessment of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin in Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus microplus from various districts of Punjab (India). Among the various field isolates of H. anatolicum susceptible status was recorded against cypermethrin in all isolates, whereas against deltamethrin resistance status (level I-III) was recorded. In R. microplus lower resistance levels (I-II) were recorded against cypermethrin in comparison to deltamethrin (level I-IV). Quantitative analysis of general esterase activity revealed a range of 4.21 ± 0.46 to 6.05 ± 0.55 and 2.23 ± 0.23 to 2.66 ± 0.24 µmol/min/mg protein for α- and β-esterase activity, respectively, in different field isolates of H. anatolicum and the increase in comparison to susceptible was not significant (P > 0.05). In contrast to H. anatolicum, the α- and β-esterase activity in all field isolates (except Jalandhar) of R. microplus was higher (range of 3.89 ± 0.26 to 10.85 ± 0.47 and 1.75 ± 0.08 to 5.87 ± 0.29 µmol/min/mg protein, respectively) (P GST) activity in field isolates of H. anatolicum and R. microplus was in the range of 0.01 ± 0.001 to 0.03 ± 0.001 and 0.02 ± 0.0003 to 0.03 ± 0.001 mM/mg/min. The enzyme ratios (α-and β-esterase and GST) and RR95 against deltamethrin of H. anatolicum isolates were correlated (P < 0.05), whereas in R. microplus only α-and β-esterase and RR50 against deltamethrin were correlated (P < 0.05).

  15. Yeast flavohemoglobin, a nitric oxide oxidoreductase, is located in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix: effects of respiration, anoxia, and the mitochondrial genome on its intracellular level and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassanova, Nina; O'Brien, Kristin M; Stahl, Brett T; McClure, Travis; Poyton, Robert O

    2005-03-04

    Yeast flavohemoglobin, YHb, encoded by the nuclear gene YHB1, has been implicated in both the oxidative and nitrosative stress responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous studies have shown that the expression of YHB1 is optimal under normoxic or hyperoxic conditions, yet respiring yeast cells have low levels of reduced YHb pigment as detected by carbon monoxide (CO) photolysis difference spectroscopy of glucose-reduced cells. Here, we have addressed this apparent discrepancy by determining the intracellular location of the YHb protein and analyzing the relationships between respiration, YHb level, and intracellular location. We have found that although intact respiration-proficient cells lack a YHb CO spectral signature, cell extracts from these cells have both a YHb CO spectral signature and nitric oxide (NO) consuming activity. This suggests either that YHb cannot be reduced in vivo or that YHb heme is maintained in an oxidized state in respiring cells. By using an anti-YHb antibody and CO difference spectroscopy and by measuring NO consumption, we have found that YHb localizes to two distinct intracellular compartments in respiring cells, the mitochondrial matrix and the cytosol. Moreover, we have found that the distribution of YHb between these two compartments is affected by the presence or absence of oxygen and by the mitochondrial genome. The findings suggest that YHb functions in oxidative stress indirectly by consuming NO, which inhibits mitochondrial respiration and leads to enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, and that cells can regulate intracellular distribution of YHb in accordance with this function.

  16. Estrogen-induced disruption of intracellular iron metabolism leads to oxidative stress, membrane damage, and cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajbouj, Khuloud; Shafarin, Jasmin; Abdalla, Maher Y; Ahmad, Iman M; Hamad, Mawieh

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that several forms of cancer associate with significant iron overload. Recent studies have suggested that estrogen (E2) disrupts intracellular iron homeostasis by reducing hepcidin synthesis and maintaining ferroportin integrity. Here, the ability of E2 to alter intracellular iron status and cell growth potential was investigated in MCF-7 cells treated with increasing concentrations of E2. Treated cells were assessed for intracellular iron status, the expression of key proteins involved in iron metabolism, oxidative stress, cell survival, growth, and apoptosis. E2 treatment resulted in a significant reduction in hepcidin expression and a significant increase in hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, ferroportin, transferrin receptor, and ferritin expression; a transient decrease in labile iron pool; and a significant increase in total intracellular iron content mainly at 20 nM/48 h E2 dose. Treated cells also showed increased total glutathione and oxidized glutathione levels, increased superoxide dismutase activity, and increased hemoxygenase 1 expression. Treatment with E2 at 20 nM for 48 h resulted in a significant reduction in cell growth (0.35/1 migration rate) and decreased cell survival (iron metabolism and precipitates adverse effects concerning cell viability, membrane integrity, and growth potential.

  17. Glutathione-mediated release of Bodipy® from PEG cofunctionalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Meenan, Brian J; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles synthesized via sodium citrate reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) were functionalized with either various concentrations of thiol-terminated Bodipy® FL L-cystine (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 μg/mL) or Bodipy-poly(ethylene glycol) at concentrations of 0.5–18.75, 1.0–12.50, and 1.5–6.25 μg/mL to form a mixed monolayer of BODIPY-PEG. Thiol-terminated Bodipy, a fluorescing molecule, was used as the model drug, while PEG is widely used in drug-delivery applications to shield nanoparticles from unwanted immune responses. Understanding the influence of PEG-capping on payload release is critical because it is the most widely used type of nanoparticle functionalization in drug delivery studies. It has been previously reported that glutathione can trigger release of thiol-bound payloads from gold nanoparticles. Bodipy release from Bodipy capped and from Bodipy-PEG functionalized gold nanoparticles was studied at typical intracellular glutathione levels. It was observed that the addition of PEG capping inhibits the initial burst release observed in gold nanoparticles functionalized only with Bodipy and inhibits nanoparticle aggregation. Efficient and controlled payload release was observed in gold nanoparticles cofunctionalized with only a limited amount of PEG, thus enabling the coattachment of large amounts of drug, targeting groups or other payloads. PMID:22915847

  18. Glutathione synthesis rates after amino acid administration directly after birth in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Braake, Frans W. J.; Schierbeek, Henk; de Groof, Karien; Vermes, Andras; Longini, Mariangela; Buonocore, Giuseppe; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of glutathione, the main intracellular antioxidant, is compromised in preterm neonates. A possible explanation is the low availability of substrate for synthesis, because many neonatologists are reluctant to administer amino acids in the direct postnatal period for fear of

  19. MR imaging of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janick, P.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Asakura, T.

    1989-01-01

    MR imaging was performed on varying concentrations of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin as well as varying proportions of deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in vitro at 1.5T with use of standard spin-echo and gradient-refocused spin sequences. This study indicates that susceptibility-induced T2 shortening occurs over a broad range of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin concentrations (maximal at hematocrits between 20% and 45%), reflecting diffusional effects at the cellular level. T2* gradient-echo imaging enhances the observed hypointensity in images of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin. The characteristic MR appearance of acute hemotomas can be modeled by the behavior of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin

  20. Oxidative stress in early cystic fibrosis lung disease is exacerbated by airway glutathione deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerhof, Nina; Pearson, John F; Hoskin, Teagan S; Berry, Luke J; Turner, Rufus; Sly, Peter D; Kettle, Anthony J

    2017-12-01

    Neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO) is recognized as a major source of oxidative stress at the airway surface of a cystic fibrosis (CF) lung where, despite limited evidence, the antioxidant glutathione is widely considered to be low. The aims of this study were to establish whether oxidative stress or glutathione status are associated with bronchiectasis and whether glutathione deficiency is inherently linked to CF or a consequence of oxidative stress. MPO was measured by ELISA in 577 bronchoalveolar lavage samples from 205 clinically-phenotyped infants and children with CF and 58 children without CF (ages 0.2-6.92 years). Reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione species (GSSG; glutathione attached to proteins, GSSP; glutathione sulfonamide, GSA) and allantoin, an oxidation product of uric acid, were measured by mass spectrometry. The odds of having bronchiectasis were associated with MPO and GSSP. GSH was low in children with CF irrespective of oxidation. Oxidized glutathione species were significantly elevated in CF children with pulmonary infections compared to uninfected CF children. In non-CF children, infections had no effect on glutathione levels. An inadequate antioxidant response to neutrophil-mediated oxidative stress during infections exists in CF due to an inherent glutathione deficiency. Effective delivery of glutathione and inhibition of MPO may slow the development of bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Response of Glutathione and Glutathione S-transferase in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-hua ZHANG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic culture experiment was done to investigate the effect of Cd stress on glutathione content (GSH and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 activity in rice seedlings. The rice growth was severely inhibited when Cd level in the solution was higher than 10 mg/L. In rice shoots, GSH content and GST activity increased with the increasing Cd level, while in roots, GST was obviously inhibited by Cd treatments. Compared with shoots, the rice roots had higher GSH content and GST activity, indicating the ability of Cd detoxification was much higher in roots than in shoots. There was a significant correlation between Cd level and GSH content or GST activity, suggesting that both parameters may be used as biomarkers of Cd stress in rice.

  2. Induction of glutathione synthesis in human hepatocytes by acute and chronic arsenic exposure: Differential roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Huihui; Xu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic exposure increased intracellular levels of glutathione. • Mitogen-activated protein kinases were involved in glutathione homeostasis. • ERK contributed to glutathione synthesis during acute arsenic exposure. • Glutathione synthesis was regulated by p38 at least in part independent of NRF2 during chronic arsenic exposure. - Abstract: Glutathione (GSH) is a vital component of antioxidant defense which protects cells from toxic insults. Previously we found intracellular GSH was involved in cell resistance against arsenic-induced cytotoxicity. However, molecular mechanisms of GSH homeostasis during arsenic exposure are largely undefined. Here, we investigated roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in GSH synthesis pathway with two arsenic exposure strategies by using Chang human hepatocytes. In one strategy, acute arsenic exposure (20 μM, 24 h) was applied, as MAPK signaling is generally considered to be transient. In the other one, chronic arsenic exposure (500 nM, 20 weeks) was applied, which mimicked the general human exposure to arsenic. We found that acute arsenic exposure activated extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 kinases (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in parallel with increased transcription and nuclear translocation of factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and enhanced expression of γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC), resulting in elevated intracellular GSH levels. Specific ERK inhibitor abolished arsenic-induced NRF2 nuclear translocation and GSH synthesis. During chronic arsenic exposure which induced a malignant cellular phenotype, continuous p38 activation and NRF2 nuclear translocation were observed with enhanced GSH synthesis. Specific p38 inhibitor attenuated arsenic-enhanced GSH synthesis without changing NRF2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, our results indicate MAPK pathways play an important role in cellular GSH homeostasis in response to arsenic. However, the

  3. Efficacy of free glutathione and niosomal glutathione in the treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acetaminophen (APAP) administration results in hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity in cats. The response to three different treatments against APAP poisoning was evaluated. Free glutathione (GSH) (200mg/kg), niosomal GSH (14 mg/kg) and free amino acids (180 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine and 280 mg/kg of methionine) ...

  4. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  5. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  6. Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debolina; LeVault, Kelsey R; Brewer, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether glutathione (GSH) loss or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) are more important to neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we stressed or boosted GSH levels in neurons isolated from aging 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those from age-matched nontransgenic (non-Tg) neurons. Here, using titrating with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCL), we observed that GSH depletion increased neuronal death of 3xTg-AD cultured neurons at increasing rates across the age span, whereas non-Tg neurons were resistant to GSH depletion until old age. Remarkably, the rate of neuron loss with ROS did not increase in old age and was the same for both genotypes, which indicates that cognitive deficits in the AD model were not caused by ROS. Therefore, we targeted for neuroprotection activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor, nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) by 18 alpha glycyrrhetinic acid to stimulate GSH synthesis through GCL. This balanced stimulation of a number of redox enzymes restored the lower levels of Nrf2 and GCL seen in 3xTg-AD neurons compared with those of non-Tg neurons and promoted translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus. By combining the Nrf2 activator together with the NADH precursor, nicotinamide, we increased neuron survival against amyloid beta stress in an additive manner. These stress tests and neuroprotective treatments suggest that the redox environment is more important for neuron survival than ROS. The dual neuroprotective treatment with nicotinamide and an Nrf2 inducer indicates that these age-related and AD-related changes are reversible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From glutathione transferase to pore in a CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Cromer, B A; Morton, C J; Parker, M W; 10.1007/s00249-002-0219-1

    2002-01-01

    Many plasma membrane chloride channels have been cloned and characterized in great detail. In contrast, very little is known about intracellular chloride channels. Members of a novel class of such channels, called the CLICs (chloride intracellular channels), have been identified over the last few years. A striking feature of the CLIC family of ion channels is that they can exist in a water- soluble state as well as a membrane-bound state. A major step forward in understanding the functioning of these channels has been the recent crystal structure determination of one family member, CLIC1. The structure confirms that CLICs are members of the glutathione S- transferase superfamily and provides clues as to how CLICs can insert into membranes to form chloride channels. (69 refs).

  8. Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asim

    2012-01-26

    GSH) present in tissues. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of gallium nitrate and glutathione as biomarker of glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in whole blood components (plasma and ...

  9. Reactions of benzene oxide with thiols including glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Alistair P; Barnes, Martine L; Bleasdale, Christine; Cameron, Richard; Clegg, William; Heath, Sarah L; Lindstrom, Andrew B; Rappaport, Stephen M; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Watson, William P; Golding, Bernard T

    2005-02-01

    S-Phenylmercapturic acid is a minor metabolite of benzene used as a biomarker for human benzene exposures. The reaction of intracellular glutathione with benzene oxide-oxepin, the initial metabolite of benzene, is presumed to give 1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-dien-2-ol, which undergoes dehydration to S-phenylglutathione, the precursor of S-phenylmercapturic acid. To validate the proposed route to S-phenylglutathione, reactions of benzene oxide-oxepin with glutathione and other sulfur nucleophiles have been studied. The reaction of benzene oxide with an excess of aqueous sodium sulfide, followed by acetylation, gave bis-(6-trans-5-acetoxycyclohexa-1,3-dienyl)sulfide, the structure of which was proved by X-ray crystallography. Reactions of benzene oxide-oxepin in a 95:5 (v/v) mixture of phosphate buffer in D2O with (CD3)2SO were monitored by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In the absence of glutathione, the half-life of benzene oxide-oxepin was ca. 34 min at 25 degrees C and pD 7.0. The half-life was not affected in the range of 2-15 mM glutathione in the presence and absence of a commercial sample of human glutathione S-transferase (at pH 7.0, 8.0, 8.5, or 10.0). The adduct 1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-diene-2-ol was identified in these reaction mixtures, especially at higher pH, by mass spectrometry and by its acid-catalyzed decomposition to S-phenylglutathione. Incubation of benzene oxide with N-acetyl-L-cysteine at 37 degrees C and pH 10.0 and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the mixture showed formation of pre-S-phenylmercapturic acid and the dehydration product, S-phenylmercapturic acid. The data validate the premise that benzene oxide-oxepin can be captured by glutathione to give (1R,2R)- and/or (1S,2S)-1-(S-glutathionyl)-cyclohexa-3,5-dien-2-ol, which dehydrate to S-phenylglutathione. The capture is a relatively inefficient process at pH 7 that is accelerated at higher pH. These studies account for the observation that the metabolism of benzene is

  10. Glutathione Preservation during Storage of Rat Lenses in Optisol-GS and Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. ....... The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations....

  11. Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asim

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of gallium nitrate and glutathione as biomarker of glutathione ... Key words: Gallium nitrate, reduced glutathione (GSH), whole blood, plasma, cytosolic fraction (CF), oxidized ..... DMSA effect on gallium arsenide induced pathological liver injury in rats.

  12. Co-operative effect of glutathione depletion and selenium induced oxidative stress on API and NFkB expression in testicular cells in vitro: insights to regulation of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SONIA SHALINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that transcription factors, API and NFkB exert important roles in the process by which selenium regulates spermatogenesis. Glutathione, an intracellular thiol, acts as a source of reducing power and aids in maintenance of the cellular redox status. The activities of selenium are closely related to the availability of glutathione. Presently, mouse testicular cells were cultured in the presence of BSO, a known glutathione depletor, to generate oxidative stress. Selenium (Se was added as sodium selenite to these cells at concentrations of 0.5 µM and 1.5 µM. It was observed that at 1.5 µM, Se acted as a pro-oxidant and significantly decreased the redox ratio. RT PCR analysis revealed that cjun, cfos expression increased in testicular cells cultured with Se compared to control. However, the major outcome was that the combined effect of Se supplementation and GSH depletion resulted in reduced expression of cjun and cfos while p65 expression increased. This suggests that selenium affects both these transcription factors differently. Our study indicates that though low levels of oxidative stress generated by moderate doses of selenium augments the expression of cjun and cfos, a robust increase in the ROS generation caused by the dual effect high levels of selenium and glutathione depletion leads to decrease in the expression of these genes. The present work substantiates our in vivo experiments and indicates the detrimental effect of excess selenium supplementation on male fertility

  13. Structure and vibrations of glutathione studied by vibrational spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Dogra, Sukh Dev; Kaur, Sarvpreet; Tripathi, S K; Prakash, Satya; Rai, Bimal; Saini, G S S

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational properties of glutathione have been investigated by infrared absorption and Raman spectroscopic techniques, and density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Assignments of all the experimentally observed vibrational bands have been done with the help of simulated vibrational spectra and potential energy distribution calculations of glutathione water cluster, which includes the effect of hydrogen bonding. Optimized molecular parameters of energy minimized structure have been compared with the available experimental values. Calculated molecular parameters of glutathione-water cluster match well with the experimental values. Some of the calculated molecular parameters and vibrational frequencies of vapor phase glutathione-water cluster suggest participation of some atoms of glutathione in hydrogen bonding. Experimentally observed UV-Visible absorption spectrum of glutathione has also been reported. Observed band at 203 nm has been assigned to electronic transitions calculated with time dependent density functional theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Histochemical localization of glutathione dependent NBT-reductase in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Y

    2001-09-01

    Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. The fresh frozen tissue sections (8 m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  15. Evidence for formation of an S-[2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione adduct in glutathione-mediated binding of the carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane to DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, N; Guengerich, F P

    1983-01-01

    The carcinogen 1,2-dibromoethane and reduced glutathione (GSH) were irreversibly bound to calf thymus DNA in equimolar amounts when in vitro incubations were carried out in the presence of GSH S-transferase. In studies carried out with isolated hepatocytes, equimolar amounts of 1,2-dibromoethane and endogenous GSH were also bound to intracellular DNA and RNA and extracellular DNA. These findings support the hypothesis that the major interaction of 1,2-dibromoethane with DNA involves covalent ...

  16. Epalrestat increases glutathione, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 by stimulating Nrf2 pathway in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epalrestat (EPS is the only aldose reductase inhibitor that is currently available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Recently, we found that EPS at near-plasma concentration increases the intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH in rat Schwann cells. GSH plays a crucial role in protecting endothelial cells from oxidative stress, thereby preventing vascular diseases. Here we show that EPS increases GSH levels in not only Schwann cells but also endothelial cells. Treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs, an in vitro model of the vascular endothelium, with EPS caused a dramatic increase in intracellular GSH levels. This was concomitant with the up-regulation of glutamate cysteine ligase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in de novo GSH synthesis. Moreover, EPS stimulated the expression of thioredoxin and heme oxygenase-1, which have important redox regulatory functions in endothelial cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of antioxidant genes. EPS increased nuclear Nrf2 levels in BAECs. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA suppressed the EPS-induced glutamate cysteine ligase, thioredoxin-1, and heme oxygenase-1 expression. Interestingly, LY294002, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, abolished the EPS-stimulated GSH synthesis, suggesting that the kinase is associated with Nrf2 activation induced by EPS. Furthermore, EPS reduced the cytotoxicity induced by H2O2 and tert-butylhydroperoxide, indicating that EPS plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Taken together, the results provide evidence that EPS exerts new beneficial effects on endothelial cells by increasing GSH, thioredoxin, and heme oxygenase-1 levels through the activation of Nrf2. We suggest that EPS has the potential to prevent several vascular diseases caused by oxidative stress.

  17. Decreased oxidized glutathione with aerosolized cyclosporine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, A; Coran, A G; Oldham, K T; Guice, K S

    1993-06-01

    Cyclosporine immunosuppression remains vital for successful lung transplantation. Cyclosporine also functions as a membrane active biological response modifier and has been noted to have a variable effect on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various tissues. Glutathione plays an important role in the endogenous antioxidant defense system; plasma oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels are useful as a sensitive indicator of in vivo oxidant stress and I/R injury. Lung transplantation results in ischemia, followed by a period of reperfusion, potentially producing functional injury. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cyclosporine on oxygen radical generation in a model of single-lung transplantation. Single-lung transplantation was performed in 12 mongrel puppies, with animals assigned to receive either intravenous or aerosolized cyclosporine. Arterial blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were obtained to determine GSSG levels via a spectrophotometric technique. Samples were obtained both prior to and following the revascularization of the transplanted lung. Whole blood and tissue cyclosporine levels were determined via an high-performance liquid chromatography technique 3 hr following the completion of the transplant. Aerosolized cyclosporine administration resulted in greatly decreased arterial plasma and BALF GSSG levels, whole blood cyclosporine levels, and equivalent tissue cyclosporine levels when compared to intravenous cyclosporine delivery. These findings support the hypothesis that the transplanted lung is a source of GSSG production and release into plasma. Additionally, these findings suggest that cyclosporine may have a direct antioxidant effect on pulmonary tissue, with this activity occurring at the epithelial surface, an area susceptible to oxidant injury.

  18. Using a redox-sensitive phosphorescent probe for optical evaluation of an intracellular redox environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujuan; Zhou, Na; Chen, Zejing; Wei, Huanjie; Zhu, Yana; Guo, Song; Zhao, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    A reducing intracellular environment is necessary for living cells. Here a redox-sensitive phosphorescent probe Ir-NO has been developed for evaluating the redox environment in living cells. Upon addition of reducing molecules, such as glutathione and ascorbic acid, the phosphorescent intensity of the probe is turned on, and the emission lifetime is elongated evidently. Furthermore, this probe has been used for optical imaging of the intracellular reducing environment by utilizing confocal laser scanning microscopy and phosphorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.

  19. Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Han, Yi; Neukermans, Jenny; Marquez-Garcia, Belen; Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-02-01

    Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues. The reasons why this small molecule is indispensable are not fully understood, but it can be inferred that glutathione has functions in plant development that cannot be performed by other thiols or antioxidants. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis. Glutathione can interact in multiple ways with proteins through thiol-disulphide exchange and related processes. Its strategic position between oxidants such as reactive oxygen species and cellular reductants makes the glutathione system perfectly configured for signalling functions. Recent years have witnessed considerable progress in understanding glutathione synthesis, degradation and transport, particularly in relation to cellular redox homeostasis and related signalling under optimal and stress conditions. Here we outline the key recent advances and discuss how alterations in glutathione status, such as those observed during stress, may participate in signal transduction cascades. The discussion highlights some of the issues surrounding the regulation of glutathione contents, the control of glutathione redox potential, and how the functions of glutathione and other thiols are integrated to fine-tune photorespiratory and respiratory metabolism and to modulate phytohormone signalling pathways through appropriate modification of sensitive protein cysteine residues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Auranofin induces apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells via oxidative stress and glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Bo Ra; Shin, Hye Rim; Han, Bo Ram; Kim, Suhn Hee; Park, Woo Hyun

    2015-02-01

    Auranofin (Au), an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase, is a known anti‑cancer drug. In the present study, the anti‑growth effect of Au on HeLa cervical cancer cells was examined in association with levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH). Au inhibited the growth of HeLa cells with an IC50 of ~2 µM at 24 h. This agent induced apoptosis and necrosis, accompanied by the cleavage of poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. The pan‑caspase inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl‑Val‑Ala‑Asp‑fluoromethylketone, prevented apoptotic cell death and each of the assessed caspase inhibitors inhibited necrotic cell death induced by Au. With respect to the levels of ROS and GSH, Au increased intracellular O2•- in the HeLa cells and induced GSH depletion. The pan‑caspase inhibitor reduced the levels of O2•- and GSH depletion in Au‑treated HeLa cells. The antioxidant, N‑acetyl cysteine, not only attenuated apoptosis and necrosis in the Au‑treated HeLa cells, but also decreased the levels of O2•- and GSH depletion in the cells. By contrast, L‑buthionine sulfoximine, a GSH synthesis inhibitor, intensified cell death O2•- and GSH depletion in the Au‑treated HeLa cells. In conclusion, Au induced apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells via the induction of oxidative stress and the depletion of GSH.

  1. DOES GLUTATHIONE PLAY A ROLE IN FREEZING TOLERANCE OF PLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, C.E.E.; De Kok, Luit J.; Kuiper, P.J.C.

    1992-01-01

    During low temperature hardening enhanced levels of glutathione (GSH) are generally observed in plant shoots and are often related to the development of freezing tolerance. The present communication shows that there is no direct relation between an increased GSH content and freezing tolerance of

  2. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  3. MicroRNA 128a increases intracellular ROS level by targeting Bmi-1 and inhibits medulloblastoma cancer cell growth by promoting senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Venkataraman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of short non-coding RNAs that regulate cell homeostasis by inhibiting translation or degrading mRNA of target genes, and thereby can act as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. The role of microRNAs in medulloblastoma has only recently been addressed. We hypothesized that microRNAs differentially expressed during normal CNS development might be abnormally regulated in medulloblastoma and are functionally important for medulloblastoma cell growth. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the expression of microRNAs in medulloblastoma and then investigated the functional role of one specific one, miR-128a, in regulating medulloblastoma cell growth. We found that many microRNAs associated with normal neuronal differentiation are significantly down regulated in medulloblastoma. One of these, miR-128a, inhibits growth of medulloblastoma cells by targeting the Bmi-1 oncogene. In addition, miR-128a alters the intracellular redox state of the tumor cells and promotes cellular senescence. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report the novel regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS by microRNA 128a via the specific inhibition of the Bmi-1 oncogene. We demonstrate that miR-128a has growth suppressive activity in medulloblastoma and that this activity is partially mediated by targeting Bmi-1. This data has implications for the modulation of redox states in cancer stem cells, which are thought to be resistant to therapy due to their low ROS states.

  4. Pummelo Protects Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Cell Death by Reducing Oxidative Stress, Modifying Glutathione Transferase Expression, and Preventing Cellular Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chularojmontri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus flavonoids have been shown to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD risks prominently due to their antioxidant effects. Here we investigated the protective effect of pummelo (Citrus maxima, CM fruit juice in rat cardiac H9c2 cells against doxorubicin (DOX- induced cytotoxicity. Four antioxidant compositions (ascorbic acid, hesperidin, naringin, and gallic acid were determined by HPLC. CM significantly increased cardiac cell survival from DOX toxicity as evaluated by MTT assay. Reduction of cellular oxidative stress was monitored by the formation of DCF fluorescent product and total glutathione (GSH levels. The changes in glutathione-S-transferase (GST activity and expression were determined by enzyme activity assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. Influence of CM on senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity (SA-β-gal was also determined. The mechanisms of cytoprotection involved reduction of intracellular oxidative stress, maintaining GSH availability, and enhanced GST enzyme activity and expression. DOX-induced cellular senescence was also attenuated by long-term CM treatment. Thus, CM fruit juice can be promoted as functional fruit to protect cells from oxidative cell death, enhance the phase II GSTP enzyme activity, and decrease senescence phenotype population induced by cardiotoxic agent such as DOX.

  5. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  6. Evidence for CB2 receptor involvement in LPS-induced reduction of cAMP intracellular levels in uterine explants from pregnant mice: pathophysiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana Inés; Carozzo, Alejandro; Correa, Fernando; Davio, Carlos; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-07-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects on uterine explants from 7-day pregnant mice in a murine model of endotoxin-induced miscarriage? We found evidence for cannabinoid receptor type2 (CB2) involvement in LPS-induced increased prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) synthesis and diminished cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) intracellular content in uterine explants from early pregnant mice. Genital tract infections by Gram-negative bacteria are a common complication of human pregnancy that results in an increased risk of pregnancy loss. LPS, the main component of the Gram-negative bacterial wall, elicits a strong maternal inflammatory response that results in embryotoxicity and embryo resorption in a murine model endotoxin-induced early pregnancy loss. We have previously shown that the eCS mediates the embryotoxic effects of LPS, mainly via CB1 receptor activation. An in vitro study of mice uterine explants was performed to investigate the eCS in mediating the effects of LPS on PGF2α production and cAMP intracellular content. Eight to 12-week-old virgin female BALB/c or CD1 (wild-type [WT] or CB1-knockout [CB1-KO]) mice were paired with 8- to 12-week-old BALB/c or CD1 (WT or CB1-KO) males, respectively. On day 7 of pregnancy, BALB/c, CD1 WT or CD1 CB1-KO mice were euthanized, the uteri were excised, implantation sites were removed and the uterine tissues were separated from decidual and embryo tissues. Uterine explants were cultured and exposed for an appropriate amount of time to different pharmacological treatments. The tissues were then collected for cAMP assay and PGF2α content determination by radioimmunoassay. In vitro treatment of uteri explants from 7-day pregnant BALB/c or CD1 (WT or CB1-KO) mice with LPS induced an increased production of PGF2α (P LPS-induced effects (P LPS-induced deleterious effects on reproductive tissues. Since our experimental design involves in vitro experiments of uterine explants

  7. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-09-26

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway.

  8. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in endotoxemic rat hepatocytes is dependent on the cellular glutathione status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, TA; van Goor, H; Tuyt, L; de Jager-Krikken, A; Leuvenink, R; Kuipers, F; Jansen, PLM; Moshage, H

    The inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter contains nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) binding sites. NF-kappa B activation is determined, in part, by the intracellular redox status, The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the cellular glutathione status in relation to

  9. DIP and DIP + 2 as glutathione oxidants and radiation sensitizers in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.W.; Power, J.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Kosower, E.M.

    1975-01-01

    Two diamide analogues, diazene dicarboxylic acid bis (N'-methyl-piperazide) or DIP, and its bis-N'-methyl iodide salt, or DIP + 2, were tested for their ability to penetrate cultured Chinese hamster cells and oxidize intracellular glutathione. DIP penetrated the cells at a reasonable rate at 18 0 C, 160 nmoles being required to oxidize the endogenous glutathione of 2 x 10 6 cells, but it penetrated very slowly at 0 0 C. DIP + 2 did not effectively oxidize glutathione in Chinese hamster cells, possibly because it did not enter the cels. DIP became toxic after about 10 min of exposure, but its toxicity could be moderated by using anoxic conditions. DIP, but not DIP + 2, sensitized anoxic Chinese hamster cells to X-radiation by a factor of 1.5, an effect that was due entirely to removal of the shoulder from the survival curve. (author)

  10. Peran Glutathion pada Kegagalan Terapi Klorokuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Puspa Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaria adalah penyakit tropik mematikan dan mengancam 200-300 juta jiwa di dunia. WHO menyatakan, terdapat lebih dari 2 juta kematian akibat malaria setiap tahunnya. Walaupun insiden malaria cenderung menetap sejak akhir tahun 1990, resistensi obat antimalaria akibat penggunaanberlebihan menjadi masalah global. Penelitian terakhir menyatakan bahwa mekanisme resistensi antimalaria dipengaruhi peningkatan glutation intra-eritrosit di eritrosit yang terinfeksi. Peran glutathion pada Plasmodium terhadap resistensi klorokuin penting diketahui, terutama untuk dijadikan sebagai prospek target obat dalam eradikasi malaria. Pengetahuan akan karakteristik dan peran glutathion diharapkan dapat menjelaskan informasi penting mengenai fungsi dan hubungan antara glutathion dengan parasit malaria. Kata kunci: malaria, Plasmodium, resistensi, glutathion

  11. Sodium nitroprusside induces autophagic cell death in glutathione-depleted osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Min Jeong; Lee, Seong-Beom; Byun, Yu Jeong; Lee, Hwa Ok; Kim, Ho-Shik; Kwon, Oh-Joo; Jeong, Seong-Whan

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies reported that high levels of nitric oxide (NO) induce apoptotic cell death in osteoblasts. We examined molecular mechanisms of cytotoxic injury induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, in both glutathione (GSH)-depleted and control U2-OS osteoblasts. Cell viability was reduced by much lower effective concentrations of SNP in GSH-depleted cells compared to normal cells. The data suggest that the level of intracellular GSH is critical in SNP-induced cell death processes of osteoblasts. The level of oxidative stress due to SNP treatments doubled in GSH-depleted cells when measured with fluorochrome H2DCFDA. Pretreatment with the NO scavenger PTIO preserved the viability of cells treated with SNP. Viability of cells treated with SNP was recovered by pretreatment with Wortmannin, an autophagy inhibitor, but not by pretreatment with zVAD-fmk, a pan-specific caspase inhibitor. Large increases of LC3-II were shown by immunoblot analysis of the SNP-treated cells, and the increase was blocked by pretreatment with PTIO or Wortmannin; this implies that under GSH-depleted conditions SNP induces different molecular signaling that lead to autophagic cell death. The ultrastructural morphology of SNP-treated cells in transmission electron microscopy showed numerous autophagic vacuoles. These data suggest NO produces oxidative stress and cellular damage that culminate in autophagic cell death of GSH-depleted osteoblasts. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Electrochemical monitoring of intracellular enzyme activity of single living mammalian cells by using a double-mediator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumae, Yoshiharu; Takahashi, Yasufumi; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells were evaluated by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). - Highlights: • NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity of single cells were evaluated with SECM. • Fe(CN) 6 3− /menadione concentrations were optimized for long-term SECM monitoring. • Menadione affect the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and GSH. • At 100 μM menadione, the Fe(CN) 6 3− generation rate decreased rapidly within 30 min. - Abstract: We evaluated the intracellular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double-mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The double-mediator system was used to amplify the current response from the intracellular NQO activity and to reduce menadione-induced cell damage. The electron shuttle between the electrode and menadione was mediated by the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple. Generation of ferrocyanide was observed immediately after the addition of a lower concentration (10 μM) of menadione. The ferrocyanide generation rate was constant for 120 min. At a higher menadione concentration (100 μM), the ferrocyanide generation rate decreased within 30 min because of the cytotoxic effect of menadione. We also investigated the relationship between intracellular reactive oxygen species or glutathione levels and exposure to different menadione concentrations to determine the optimal condition for SECM with minimal invasiveness. The present study clearly demonstrates that SECM is useful for the analysis of intracellular enzymatic activities in single cells with a double-mediator system

  13. Electrochemical monitoring of intracellular enzyme activity of single living mammalian cells by using a double-mediator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumae, Yoshiharu [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, Yasufumi [Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ino, Kosuke [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shiku, Hitoshi, E-mail: shiku@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Matsue, Tomokazu, E-mail: matsue@bioinfo.che.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aramaki 6-6-11-605, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-09-09

    Graphical abstract: NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells were evaluated by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). - Highlights: • NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity of single cells were evaluated with SECM. • Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−}/menadione concentrations were optimized for long-term SECM monitoring. • Menadione affect the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and GSH. • At 100 μM menadione, the Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3−} generation rate decreased rapidly within 30 min. - Abstract: We evaluated the intracellular NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activity of single HeLa cells by using the menadione–ferrocyanide double-mediator system combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The double-mediator system was used to amplify the current response from the intracellular NQO activity and to reduce menadione-induced cell damage. The electron shuttle between the electrode and menadione was mediated by the ferrocyanide/ferricyanide redox couple. Generation of ferrocyanide was observed immediately after the addition of a lower concentration (10 μM) of menadione. The ferrocyanide generation rate was constant for 120 min. At a higher menadione concentration (100 μM), the ferrocyanide generation rate decreased within 30 min because of the cytotoxic effect of menadione. We also investigated the relationship between intracellular reactive oxygen species or glutathione levels and exposure to different menadione concentrations to determine the optimal condition for SECM with minimal invasiveness. The present study clearly demonstrates that SECM is useful for the analysis of intracellular enzymatic activities in single cells with a double-mediator system.

  14. Glutathione as a skin whitening agent: Facts, myths, evidence and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Sonthalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is a low molecular weight thiol-tripeptide that plays a prominent role in maintaining intracellular redox balance. In addition to its remarkable antioxidant properties, the discovery of its antimelanogenic properties has led to its promotion as a skin-lightening agent. It is widely used for this indication in some ethnic populations. However, there is a dichotomy between evidence to support its efficacy and safety. The hype around its depigmentary properties may be a marketing gimmick of pharma-cosmeceutical companies. This review focuses on the various aspects of glutathione: its metabolism, mechanism of action and the scientific evidence to evaluate its efficacy as a systemic skin-lightening agent. Glutathione is present intracellularly in its reduced form and plays an important role in various physiological functions. Its skin-lightening effects result from direct as well as indirect inhibition of the tyrosinase enzyme and switching from eumelanin to phaeomelanin production. It is available in oral, parenteral and topical forms. Although the use of intravenous glutathione injections is popular, there is no evidence to prove its efficacy. In fact, the adverse effects caused by intravenous glutathione have led the Food and Drug Administration of Philippines to issue a public warning condemning its use for off-label indications such as skin lightening. Currently, there are three randomized controlled trials that support the skin-lightening effect and good safety profile of topical and oral glutathione. However, key questions such as the duration of treatment, longevity of skin-lightening effect and maintenance protocols remain unanswered. More randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with larger sample size, long-term follow-up and well-defined efficacy outcomes are warranted to establish the relevance of this molecule in disorders of hyperpigmentation and skin lightening.

  15. Augmentation of glutathione in the fluid lining the epithelium of the lower respiratory tract by directly administering glutathione aerosol.

    OpenAIRE

    Buhl, R; Vogelmeier, C; Critenden, M; Hubbard, R C; Hoyt, R F; Wilson, E M; Cantin, A M; Crystal, R G

    1990-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide, functions as an antioxidant, provides cells with cysteine, and is required for optimal function of the immune system. Because the epithelial-lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract normally contains high GSH levels and lung ELF GSH deficiency states can exist, we evaluated the feasibility of augmenting lung ELF GSH levels by (i) administering GSH to sheep i.v. and by direct aerosolization and then (ii) measuring the GSH levels in ...

  16. Hepatic and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity in liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, R; Ortiz, A; Hernández, R; López, V; Gómez, M M; Mena, P

    1996-09-01

    Hepatic and erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity, together with malondialdehyde levels, were determined as indicators of peroxidation in 83 patients from whom liver biopsies had been taken for diagnostic purposes. On histological study, the patients were classified into groups as minimal changes (including normal liver), steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, light to moderately active chronic hepatitis, and severe chronic active hepatitis. The glutathione peroxidase activity in erythrocytes showed no significant changes in any liver disease group. In the hepatic study, an increased activity was observed in steatosis with respect to the minimal changes group, this increased activity induced by the toxic agent in the initial stages of the alcoholic hepatic disease declining as the hepatic damage progressed. There was a negative correlation between the levels of hepatic malondialdehyde and hepatic glutathione peroxidase in subjects with minimal changes. This suggested the existence of an oxidative equilibrium in this group. This equilibrium is broken in the liver disease groups as was manifest in a positive correlation between malondialdehyde and glutathione peroxidase activity.

  17. High Resolution Imaging of Temporal and Spatial Changes of Subcellular Ascorbate, Glutathione and H2O2 Distribution during Botrytis cinerea Infection in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Uwe K.; Polanschütz, Lisa M.; Koffler, Barbara E.; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the mechanisms behind the infection process of the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, the subcellular distribution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was monitored over a time frame of 96 h post inoculation (hpi) in Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 leaves at the inoculation site (IS) and the area around the IS which was defined as area adjacent to the inoculation site (AIS). H2O2 accumulation was correlated with changes in the compartment-specific distribution of ascorbate and glutathione and chloroplast fine structure. This study revealed that the severe breakdown of the antioxidative system, indicated by a drop in ascorbate and glutathione contents at the IS at later stages of infection correlated with an accumulation of H2O2 in chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell walls, nuclei and the cytosol which resulted in the development of chlorosis and cell death, eventually visible as tissue necrosis. A steady increase of glutathione contents in most cell compartments within infected tissues (up to 600% in chloroplasts at 96 hpi) correlated with an accumulation of H2O2 in chloroplasts, mitochondria and cell walls at the AIS indicating that high glutathione levels could not prevent the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which resulted in chlorosis. Summing up, this study reveals the intracellular sequence of events during Botrytis cinerea infection and shows that the breakdown of the antioxidative system correlated with the accumulation of H2O2 in the host cells. This resulted in the degeneration of the leaf indicated by severe changes in the number and ultrastructure of chloroplasts (e.g. decrease of chloroplast number, decrease of starch and thylakoid contents, increase of plastoglobuli size), chlorosis and necrosis of the leaves. PMID:23755284

  18. Quantitative real-time imaging of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glutathione plays many important roles in biological processes; however, the dynamic changes of glutathione concentrations in living cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report a reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe—designated as RealThiol (RT)—that can quantitatively monitor the real-time ...

  19. Glutathione, cell proliferation and differentiation | Ashtiani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All organisms require an equivalent source for living. Reduced glutathione is the most abundant thiol containing protein in mammalian cells and organs. Glutathione was discovered by Hopkins in 1924 who published his findings in JBC. It is a three peptide containing glutamic acid, cystein and glycin and is found in reduced ...

  20. ENDURANCE TRAINING AND GLUTATHIONE-DEPENDENT ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE MECHANISM IN HEART OF THE DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Atalay

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise beneficially influences cardiac antioxidant defenses in normal rats. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training can strengthen glutathione-dependent antioxidant defense mechanism and decrease lipid peroxidation in heart of the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Redox status of glutathione in blood of diabetic rats in response to training and acute exercise was also examined. Eight weeks of treadmill training increased the endurance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. It did not affect glutathione level in heart tissue at rest and also after exercise. On the other hand, endurance training decreased glutathione peroxidase activity in heart, while glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities were not affected either by acute exhaustive exercise or endurance training. Reduced and oxidized glutathione levels in blood were not affected by either training or acute exercise. Conjugated dienes levels in heart tissue were increased by acute exhaustive exercise and also 8 weeks treadmill training. Longer duration of exhaustion in trained group may have contributed to the increased conjugated dienes levels in heart after acute exercise. Our results suggest that endurance type exercise may make heart more susceptible to oxidative stress. Therefore it may be wise to combine aerobic exercise with insulin treatment to prevent its adverse effects on antioxidant defense in heart in patients with diabetes mellitus

  1. The diverse roles of glutathione-associated cell resistance against hypericin photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodossis A. Theodossiou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The diverse responses of different cancers to treatments such as photodynamic therapy of cancer (PDT have fueled a growing need for reliable predictive markers for treatment outcome. In the present work we have studied the differential response of two phenotypically and genotypically different breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231, to hypericin PDT (HYP-PDT. MDA-MB-231 cells were 70% more sensitive to HYP PDT than MCF7 cells at LD50. MCF7 were found to express a substantially higher level of glutathione peroxidase (GPX4 than MDA-MB-231, while MDA-MB-231 differentially expressed glutathione-S-transferase (GSTP1, mainly used for xenobiotic detoxification. Eighty % reduction of intracellular glutathione (GSH by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, largely enhanced the sensitivity of the GSTP1 expressing MDA-MB-231 cells to HYP-PDT, but not in MCF7 cells. Further inhibition of the GSH reduction however by carmustine (BCNU resulted in an enhanced sensitivity of MCF7 to HYP-PDT. HYP loading studies suggested that HYP can be a substrate of GSTP for GSH conjugation as BSO enhanced the cellular HYP accumulation by 20% in MDA-MB-231 cells, but not in MCF7 cells. Studies in solutions showed that L-cysteine can bind the GSTP substrate CDNB in the absence of GSTP. This means that the GSTP-lacking MCF7 may use L-cysteine for xenobiotic detoxification, especially during GSH synthesis inhibition, which leads to L-cysteine build-up. This was confirmed by the lowered accumulation of HYP in both cell lines in the presence of BSO and the L-cysteine source NAC. NAC reduced the sensitivity of MCF7, but not MDA-MB-231, cells to HYP PDT which is in accordance with the antioxidant effects of L-cysteine and its potential as a GSTP substrate. As a conclusion we have herein shown that the different GSH based cell defense mechanisms can be utilized as predictive markers for the outcome of PDT and as a guide for selecting optimal combination strategies.

  2. Lung Lining Fluid Glutathione Attenuates IL-13–Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Matthew H.; McAllister, Brian P.; Jean, Jyh-Chang; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Hughey, Rebecca P.; Cruikshank, William W.; Amar, Sal; Lucey, Edgar C.; Braun, Kathleen; Johnson, Pamela; Wight, Thomas N.; Joyce-Brady, Martin

    2008-01-01

    GGTenu1 mice, deficient in γ-glutamyl transferase and unable to metabolize extracellular glutathione, develop intracellular glutathione deficiency and oxidant stress. We used intratracheal IL-13 to induce airway inflammation and asthma in wild-type (WT) and GGTenu1 mice to determine the effect of altered glutathione metabolism on bronchial asthma. WT and GGTenu1 mice developed similar degrees of lung inflammation. In contrast, IL-13 induced airway epithelial cell mucous cell hyperplasia, mucin and mucin-related gene expression, epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA, and epidermal growth factor receptor activation along with airway hyperreactivity in WT mice but not in GGTenu1 mice. Lung lining fluid (extracellular) glutathione was 10-fold greater in GGTenu1 than in WT lungs, providing increased buffering of inflammation-associated reactive oxygen species. Pharmacologic inhibition of GGT in WT mice produced similar effects, suggesting that the lung lining fluid glutathione protects against epithelial cell induction of asthma. Inhibiting GGT activity in lung lining fluid may represent a novel therapeutic approach for preventing and treating asthma. PMID:18063838

  3. A regulatory review for products containing glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayah Abd Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is a potent antioxidant as well as has important role for DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation. Besides this, Glutathione products are now mainly selling as whitening agent which are mainly marketing through social media (Facebook and different websites. Information is not available whether glutathione product are following the regulatory guidelines of National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau of Malaysia (NPCB for selling, advertisement and promotion. This review was carried out by extracting information about glutathione from scientific database using PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Analysis of the available information, case example of glutathione products showed that a brand of glutathione (Glutacaps HQ did not show the product's registration number from NPCB, and also did not show the name, address, contact number of the advertiser, and even not found the name of the manufacture. Without providing the above mentioned information, the product is selling and promoting through social media (fb which is not allowed by the NPCB guidelines part 4.14. So far, only two clinical trials were conducted on glutathione supplementation for 4 weeks duration. There was no serious or systematic adverse effects reported in clinical trials. As the two clinic trials resulted contradictory outcomes, further studies needed for conformation of the clinic benefits of glutathione. Otherwise, random use of glutathione may be risk for the health of the people. Besides, the marketer mainly promoting glutathione as the skin whitening beauty product instead of using as health supplement, it may cause additional and serious risk to the users as the manufacturer not providing sufficient information about the product, its registration number, manufacturing company, etc.

  4. A Rare Cause of Neonatal Hemolytic Anemia: Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Ustkoyuncu, Pembe; Mutlu, Fatma Türkan; Kiraz, Aslihan; Tag Balkis, Zuhal; Yel, Sibel

    2018-01-01

    Isolated hemolysis or hemolytic anemia and 5-oxoprolinuria are 2 distinct medical conditions in the clinical spectrum associated with glutathione synthetase deficiency. A 1-day-old female baby presented with anemia and respiratory distress. Her hemoglobin level was 9.5 g/dL and the total serum bilirubin level was 5.6 mg/dL. Metabolic acidosis was detected in her blood gas analysis. Metabolic acidosis recurred despite treatment and further investigation was required. Her 5-oxoproline level was 3815 mmol/mol creatinine in urine organic acid analysis, and a homozygous mutation [p.R125H (c.374G>A)] was found in the glutathione synthetase gene. GSD has been observed in very few patients and is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of hemolytic anemia in newborns.

  5. Reduced glutathione prevents camphorquinone-induced apoptosis in human oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Joachim; Leyhausen, Gabriele; Wessels, Miriam; Geurtsen, Werner

    2014-02-01

    Camphorquinone (CQ) is a widely used photoinitiator in dental visible light (VL)-cured resinous materials. However, little is known about the toxicity of CQ in human cells. This study was designed to investigate CQ induced oxidative strain and apoptosis in cultured human oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT 2). Furthermore, the effects of visible-light (VL)-irradiation and the reducing agent N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT) were investigated. In addition, the preventive potential of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) against CQ induced toxicity was analyzed as well. The fluorescent DNA-staining dye Hoechst 33342 was used to quantify total cell numbers. Intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Apoptosis was determined by FACS analysis (Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide), by measuring caspase-3/7 activity (ELISA) and by DNA laddering. Our data show that CQ was dose-dependent cytotoxic and caused oxidative stress by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the outer layer of the plasma membrane, induction of caspase-3 enzyme activity and DNA fragmentation were also observed in CQ exposed cells. Interestingly, CQ-induced ROS generation enhanced by VL irradiation or a simultaneous treatment with DMT showed no quantitative effect on apoptosis. However, co-exposure of cells with GSH significantly reduced the intracellular ROS generation as well as apoptosis caused by CQ. This is the first report showing that ROS-induced apoptosis, which is caused by CQ, is prevented by GSH. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human gastric signet ring carcinoma (KATO-III) cell apoptosis induced by Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract through intracellular oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kunio; Akaike, Takenori; Imai, Masahiko; Toyoda, Hiroo; Hirobe, Chieko; Bessho, Toshio

    2005-07-01

    We have previously reported that an ethanol extract of the dried ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) displays cytotoxic activity against certain kinds of human cancer cell line resulting in the induction of apoptosis. In this paper, we investigate the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by Vitex using a human gastric signet ring carcinoma cell line, KATO-III. DNA fragmentation was observed in Vitex-treated KATO-III cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. DNA fragmentation was accompanied by the following phenomena: elevation in the level of hemeoxygenase-1 protein and thioredoxin reductase mRNA; repression of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase mRNAs; release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol; activation of caspases-8, -9 and -3; decrease in the level of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bid protein; increase in the level of Bad protein. The intracellular oxidized state, measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, increased after Vitex treatment. While the amount of intracellular GSH decreased significantly after treatment with Vitex, the level of GSSG was unaffected. Furthermore, no significant perturbation in the amount of proteins/mRNAs related to glutathione metabolism could be detected. These apoptotic alterations induced by exposure to Vitex were blocked by the presence of an anti-oxidative reagent, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, or the addition of exogenous GSH. Our results demonstrate that intracellular oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane damage is responsible for Vitex-induced apoptosis, which may be mediated by a diminution of reduced type glutathione within the cell.

  7. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO, is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials.

  8. Vasoinhibins Prevent Bradykinin-Stimulated Endothelial Cell Proliferation by Inactivating eNOS via Reduction of both Intracellular Ca2+ Levels and eNOS Phosphorylation at Ser1179

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Clapp

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins, a family of antiangiogenic peptides derived from prolactin proteolysis, inhibit the vascular effects of several proangiogenic factors, including bradykinin (BK. Here, we report that vasoinhibins block the BK-induced proliferation of bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells. This effect is mediated by the inactivation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as the NO donor DETA-NONOate reverted vasoinhibin action. It is an experimentally proven fact that the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i upon BK stimulation activates eNOS, and vasoinhibins blocked the BK-mediated activation of phospholipase C and the formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate leading to a reduced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. The [Ca2+]i rise evoked by BK also involves the influx of extracellular Ca2+ via canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels. Vasoinhibins likely interfere with TRPC-mediated Ca2+ entry since La3+, which is an enhancer of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channel activity, prevented vasoinhibins from blocking the stimulation by BK of endothelial cell NO production and proliferation, and vasoinhibins reduced the BK-induced increase of TRPC5 mRNA expression. Finally, vasoinhibins prevented the BK-induced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1179, a post-translational modification that facilitates Ca2+-calmodulin activation of eNOS. Together, our data show that vasoinhibins, by lowering NO production through the inhibition of both [Ca2+]i mobilization and eNOS phosphorylation, prevent the BK-induced stimulation of endothelial cell proliferation. Thus, vasoinhibins help to regulate BK effects on angiogenesis and vascular homeostasis.

  9. Glutathione--linking cell proliferation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; de Simone, Ambra; Kiddle, Guy; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-12-01

    The multifaceted functions of reduced glutathione (gamma-glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) continue to fascinate plants and animal scientists, not least because of the dynamic relationships between GSH and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underpin reduction/oxidation (redox) regulation and signalling. Here we consider the respective roles of ROS and GSH in the regulation of plant growth, with a particular focus on regulation of the plant cell cycle. Glutathione is discussed not only as a crucial low molecular weight redox buffer that shields nuclear processes against oxidative challenge but also a flexible regulator of genetic and epigenetic functions. The intracellular compartmentalization of GSH during the cell cycle is remarkably consistent in plants and animals. Moreover, measurements of in vivo glutathione redox potentials reveal that the cellular environment is much more reducing than predicted from GSH/GSSG ratios measured in tissue extracts. The redox potential of the cytosol and nuclei of non-dividing plant cells is about -300 mV. This relatively low redox potential maintained even in cells experiencing oxidative stress by a number of mechanisms including vacuolar sequestration of GSSG. We propose that regulated ROS production linked to glutathione-mediated signalling events are the hallmark of viable cells within a changing and challenging environment. The concept that the cell cycle in animals is subject to redox controls is well established but little is known about how ROS and GSH regulate this process in plants. However, it is increasingly likely that redox controls exist in plants, although possibly through different pathways. Moreover, redox-regulated proteins that function in cell cycle checkpoints remain to be identified in plants. While GSH-responsive genes have now been identified, the mechanisms that mediate and regulate protein glutathionylation in plants remain poorly defined. The nuclear GSH pool provides an appropriate redox environment

  10. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis

  13. Measurement of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a sensitive and highly specific assay for the presence of mixed disulfides between protein thiol groups and endogenous thiols has been undertaken. Previous investigations on the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and protein glutathione mixed disulfides (ProSSG) have been of limited usefulness because of the poor specificity of the assays used. Our assay for these forms of glutathione is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and is an extension of an earlier method. After perchloric acid precipitation, the protein sample is washed with an organic solvent to fully denature the protein. Up to a 10-fold increase in GSH released from fetal bovine serum (FBS) protein has been found when the protein precipitate is washed with ethanol rather than ether, as earlier suggested. Similar effects have been observed with an as yet unidentified thiol which elutes in the chromatography system with a retention volume similar to cysteine

  14. Glutathione Metabolism and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smeyne, Michelle; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition when the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone, or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism and functional interactions of glutathione, and discuss how...

  15. Enhanced production of intracellular dextran dextrinase from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced production of intracellular dextran dextrinase from Gluconobacter oxydans using statistical experimental methods. ... the Plackett-Burman screening. A four-factor five-level central composite design (CCD) was chosen to explain the combined effects of the four medium constituents. The optimum medium consisted ...

  16. Glutathione oxidation correlates with one-lung ventilation time and PO2/FiO2 ratio during pulmonary lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-Del-Olmo, Eva; Galan, Genaro; Guijarro, Ricardo; Martí, Francisco; Badenes, Rafael; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Duca, Alejandro; Delgado, Carlos; Carbonell, Jose; Belda, Javier

    2016-09-01

    During lung lobectomy, the operated lung completely collapses with simultaneous hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, followed by expansion and reperfusion. Here, we investigated glutathione oxidation and lipoperoxidation in patients undergoing lung lobectomy, during one-lung ventilation (OLV) and after resuming two-lung ventilation (TLV), and examined the relationship with OLV duration. We performed a single-centre, observational, prospective study in 32 patients undergoing lung lobectomy. Blood samples were collected at five time-points: T0, pre-operatively; T1, during OLV, 5 minutes before resuming TLV; and T2, T3, and T4, respectively, 5, 60, and 180 minutes after resuming TLV. Samples were tested for reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione redox potential, and malondialdehyde (MDA). GSSG and MDA blood levels increased at T1, and increased further at T2. OLV duration directly correlated with marker levels at T1 and T2. Blood levels of GSH and glutathione redox potential decreased at T1-T3. GSSG, oxidized glutathione/total glutathione ratio, and MDA levels were inversely correlated with arterial blood PO2/FiO2 at T1 and T2. During lung lobectomy and OLV, glutathione oxidation, and lipoperoxidation marker blood levels increase, with further increases after resuming TLV. Oxidative stress degree was directly correlated with OLV duration, and inversely correlated with arterial blood PO2/FiO2.

  17. Plaque formation reduction with glutathione monoester in mice fed on atherogenic diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehboobali, N.; Pervez, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the role of glutathione monoester on reducing the development of plaque formation in an animal model. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were divided into 3 equal groups. First group was fed on atherogenic diet alone, while the second group received atherogenic diet plus twice weekly injections of glutathione monoester. The third group was fed on normal diet for mice. After one year, the animals were sacrificed. Blood was analyzed for lipid levels, while liver, kidney, spleen, heart and aorta were removed to study morphological changes. Results: In the groups of mice receiving atherogenic diet (with and without glutathione monoesters), there was significant increase in levels of total cholesterol (p=0.011) and LDL cholesterol (p=0.001) compared to levels of these lipids in mice on normal diet. However, a significant decrease in levels of triglycerides (p=0.01) was observed in the group receiving atherogenic diet along with glutathione monoester. Supplementation with glutathione monoester had the most pronounced effect only on triglyceride levels. Atherosclerotic plaques were seen in heart and/or aorta of mice receiving atherogenic diet. However, such plaques were either totally absent or if seen in an animal, were extremely small and diffuse in the group receiving glutathione monoester along with atherogenic diet. Mice on normal diet had no evidence of any plaque formation. Cholesterol granuloma was seen in liver of mice on atherogenic diet alone. In mice receiving atherogenic diet plus glutathione monoester, no cholesterol granuloma was found in liver. There were no remarkable morphological changes in spleen and kidney in the three groups of mice. Glutathione monoester appears to inhibit or reduce the development of plaque formation in mice. (author)

  18. Glutathione and multidrug resistance protein transporter mediate a self-propelled disposal of bismuth in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yifan; Lai, Yau-Tsz; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung; Sun, Hongzhe

    2015-03-17

    Glutathione and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) play an important role on the metabolism of a variety of drugs. Bismuth drugs have been used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and Helicobacter pylori infection for decades without exerting acute toxicity. They were found to interact with a wide variety of biomolecules, but the major metabolic pathway remains unknown. For the first time (to our knowledge), we systematically and quantitatively studied the metabolism of bismuth in human cells. Our data demonstrated that over 90% of bismuth was passively absorbed, conjugated to glutathione, and transported into vesicles by MRP transporter. Mathematical modeling of the system reveals an interesting phenomenon. Passively absorbed bismuth consumes intracellular glutathione, which therefore activates de novo biosynthesis of glutathione. Reciprocally, sequestration by glutathione facilitates the passive uptake of bismuth and thus completes a self-sustaining positive feedback circle. This mechanism robustly removes bismuth from both intra- and extracellular space, protecting critical systems of human body from acute toxicity. It elucidates the selectivity of bismuth drugs between human and pathogens that lack of glutathione, such as Helicobacter pylori, opening new horizons for further drug development.

  19. Long-term cysteine fortification impacts cysteine/glutathione homeostasis and food intake in ageing rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Karine; Breuille, Denis; Serrant, Patrick; Denis, Philippe; Glomot, Francoise; Bechereau, Fabienne; Papet, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Healthy ageing is associated with higher levels of glutathione. The study aimed to determine whether long-term dietary fortification with cysteine increases cysteine and glutathione pools, thus alleviating age-associated low-grade inflammation and resulting in global physiological benefits. The effect of a 14-week dietary fortification with cysteine was studied in non-inflamed (NI, healthy at baseline) and in spontaneously age-related low-grade inflamed (LGI, prefrail at baseline) 21-month-ol...

  20. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  1. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  2. Modeling HIV-1 intracellular replication: two simulation approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarrabi, N.; Mancini, E.; Tay, J.; Shahand, S.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematical and computational models have been developed to investigate the complexity of HIV dynamics, immune response and drug therapy. However, there are not many models which consider the dynamics of virus intracellular replication at a single level. We propose a model of HIV intracellular

  3. Loss of Selenium-Binding Protein 1 Decreases Sensitivity to Clastogens and Intracellular Selenium Content in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changhui; Zeng, Huawei; Wu, Ryan T Y; Cheng, Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1) is not a selenoprotein but structurally binds selenium. Loss of SBP1 during carcinogenesis usually predicts poor prognosis. Because genome instability is a hallmark of cancer, we hypothesize that SBP1 sequesters cellular selenium and sensitizes cancer cells to DNA-damaging agents. To test this hypothesis, we knocked down SBP1 expression in HeLa cervical cancer cells by employing a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) approach. Reduced sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, paraquat and camptothecin, reactive oxygen species content, and intracellular retention of selenium after selenomethionine treatment were observed in SBP1 shRNA HeLa cells. Results from Western analyses showed that treatment of HeLa cells with selenomethionine resulted in increased SBP1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of SBP1 rendered HeLa cells increased expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 but not glutathione peroxidase-4 protein levels and accelerated migration from a wound. Altogether, SBP1 retains supplemental selenium and sensitizes HeLa cancer cells to clastogens, suggesting a new cancer treatment strategy by sequestering selenium through SBP1.

  4. Enhanced depletion of glutathione and increased liver oxidative damage in aflatoxin-fed mice infected with Plasmodium berghei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankrah, N A; Sittie, A; Addo, P G

    1995-01-01

    The effect of dietary aflatoxins B1 and G1 and Plasmodium berghei infection on glutathione (GSH) levels and liver status in mice was investigated. Three days after intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 x 10(6) parasitized red blood cells into the mice, there was a significant fall in blood glutathione...... levels accompanied by a significant increase in serum cholinesterase and liver malonic dialdehyde levels in the mice fed aflatoxin compared with those in the control group. The results suggested that malaria parasites can enhance depletion of host glutathione and oxidative damage of the liver in mice fed...... low levels of aflatoxins....

  5. Aqueous extract of tamarind seeds selectively increases glucose transporter-2, glucose transporter-4, and islets' intracellular calcium levels and stimulates β-cell proliferation resulting in improved glucose homeostasis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Sushant Shivdas; Srinivasan, B P

    2012-08-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. has been in use for a long time in Asian food and traditional medicine for different diseases including diabetes and obesity. However, the molecular mechanisms of these effects have not been fully understood. In view of the multidimensional activity of tamarind seeds due to their having high levels of polyphenols and flavonoids, we hypothesized that the insulin mimetic effect of aqueous tamarind seed extract (TSE) might increase glucose uptake through improvement in the expression of genes of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) 1c messenger RNA (mRNA) in the liver. Daily oral administration of TSE to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (90 mg/kg intraperitoneally) type 2 diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (120 and 240 mg/kg body weight) for 4 weeks showed positive correlation with intracellular calcium and insulin release in isolated islets of Langerhans. Tamarind seed extract supplementation significantly improved the GLUT-2 protein and SREBP-1c mRNA expression in the liver and GLUT-4 protein and mRNA expression in the skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. The elevated levels of serum nitric oxide (NO), glycosylated hemoglobin level (hemoglobin (A1c)) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) decreased after TSE administration. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that TSE abrogated STZ-induced apoptosis and increased β-cell neogenesis, indicating its effect on islets and β-cell mass. In conclusion, it was found that the antidiabetic effect of TSE on STZ-induced diabetes resulted from complex mechanisms of β-cell neogenesis, calcium handling, GLUT-2, GLUT-4, and SREBP-1c. These findings show the scope for formulating a new herbal drug for diabetes therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles combining Au particles as glutathione and pH dual-sensitive nanocarriers for doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuang; Li, Yan; Chen, Zhenjie; Hou, Cuilan; Chen, Tong; Xu, Zhigang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Haixia

    2016-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) combining gold particles (MSNs–Au) were synthesized as nanocarriers for glutathione (GSH) and pH dual-sensitive intracellular controlled release of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). The MSNs were used as an adsorbent for DOX, and the ultra-small gold nanospheres (Au NPs) partly operated as gatekeepers to control the release of DOX from the pores of MSNs and as the driver of drug release in the presence of GSH due to the association between GSH and Au particles. Under different pH conditions, DOX release changed due to different levels of dissociation between the –SH group on the MSNs and the Au particles. The composition, morphology, and properties of the as-prepared composites were characterized by elemental analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, thermal gravimetric and UV–visible spectroscopy. The in vitro release experiments showed that these smart nanocarriers effectively avoided drug leakage in the neutral media. Cytotoxicity and imaging studies also indicated that DOX-loaded Au-MSNs (DOX@MSNs–Au) had a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Tca8113 cells and sustained the release rate of DOX - Highlights: • Dual-sensitive nanocarrier based on pH and glutathione was fabricated. • Ultra small Au NPs acting as gatekeepers to achieve the controlled release • The drug delivery system exhibited less premature release. • The drug delivery system enabled the high growth inhibition toward Tca8113 cells.

  7. Binding of glutathione to enterovirus capsids is essential for virion morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Hendrik Jan; van der Linden, Lonneke; Jiang, Ping; Thys, Bert; Canela, María-Dolores; Aguado, Leire; Rombaut, Bart; Wimmer, Eckard; Paul, Aniko; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Neyts, Johan

    2014-04-01

    Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae) cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH), thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis.

  8. Post-fermentative production of glutathione by baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) in compressed and dried forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatti, Alida; Manzoni, Matilde; Rollini, Manuela

    2013-01-25

    The study was aimed at investigating the best biotransformation conditions to increase intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in samples of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) employing either the commercially available compressed and dried forms. Glucose, GSH precursors amino acids, as well as other cofactors, were dissolved in a biotransformation solution and yeast cells were added (5%dcw). Two response surface central composite designs (RSCCDs) were performed in sequence: in the first step the influence of amino acid composition (cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and serine) on GSH accumulation was investigated; once their formulation was set up, the influence of other components was studied. Initial GSH content was found 0.53 and 0.47%dcw for compressed and dried forms. GSH accumulation ability of baker's yeast in compressed form was higher at the beginning of shelf life, that is, in the first week, and a maximum of 2.04%dcw was obtained. Performance of yeast in dried form was not found satisfactory, as the maximum GSH level was 1.18%dcw. When cysteine lacks from the reaction solution, yeast cells do not accumulate GSH. With dried yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine was set at 3 g/L, glycine and glutamic acid at least at 4 g/L, without serine. Employing compressed yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine and glutamic acid were set at 2-3 g/L, while glycine and serine higher than 2 g/L. Results allowed to set up an optimal and feasible procedure to obtain GSH-enriched yeast biomass, with up to threefold increase with respect to initial content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Binding of glutathione to enterovirus capsids is essential for virion morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Jan Thibaut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (family of the Picornaviridae cover a large group of medically important human pathogens for which no antiviral treatment is approved. Although these viruses have been extensively studied, some aspects of the viral life cycle, in particular morphogenesis, are yet poorly understood. We report the discovery of TP219 as a novel inhibitor of the replication of several enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus and poliovirus. We show that TP219 binds directly glutathione (GSH, thereby rapidly depleting intracellular GSH levels and that this interferes with virus morphogenesis without affecting viral RNA replication. The inhibitory effect on assembly was shown not to depend on an altered reducing environment. Using TP219, we show that GSH is an essential stabilizing cofactor during the transition of protomeric particles into pentameric particles. Sequential passaging of coxsackievirus B3 in the presence of low GSH-levels selected for GSH-independent mutants that harbored a surface-exposed methionine in VP1 at the interface between two protomers. In line with this observation, enteroviruses that already contained this surface-exposed methionine, such as EV71, did not rely on GSH for virus morphogenesis. Biochemical and microscopical analysis provided strong evidence for a direct interaction between GSH and wildtype VP1 and a role for this interaction in localizing assembly intermediates to replication sites. Consistently, the interaction between GSH and mutant VP1 was abolished resulting in a relocalization of the assembly intermediates to replication sites independent from GSH. This study thus reveals GSH as a novel stabilizing host factor essential for the production of infectious enterovirus progeny and provides new insights into the poorly understood process of morphogenesis.

  10. Glutathione metabolism in Candida albicans resistant strains to fluconazole and micafungin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Maras

    Full Text Available Currently available therapies for candidiasis are based on antifungal drugs belonging to azole and echinocandin families that interfere with different aspects of fungal metabolism. These drugs, beyond their specific effects, elicit also a cellular stress including an unbalance of redox state that is counteracted not only utilizing antioxidant species but also increasing the outcome export by transporters to detoxify the internal environment. These cellular actions are both based on the cytosolic concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH. In this paper we investigated the effects of two antifungal drugs fluconazole and micafungin on the redox state of the cell in C. albicans to understand if the resistance to these drugs is accompanied by variation of glutathione metabolism. Analyses of resistant strains showed a marked difference in glutathione contents in strains resistant to fluconazole (CO23RFLC or micafungin (CO23RFK. In CO23RFLC, the total amount of glutathione was more than doubled with respect to CO23RFK thanks to the increased activity of γ-glutamilcysteine synthetase, the key enzyme involved in GSH synthesis. We demonstrated that the GSH increase in CO23RFLC conferred to this strain a clear advantage in counteracting oxidative toxic agents while assignment of other roles, such as a more efficient elimination of the drug from the cell, should be considered more speculative. As far as MCFG resistance is concerned, from our data a role of glutathione metabolism in supporting this condition is not evident. Overall our data indicate that glutathione metabolism is differently affected in the two resistant strains and that glutathione system may play an important role in the global organization of C.albicans cells for resistance to fluconazole. Such scenario may pave the way to hypothesize the use of oxidant drugs or inhibitors able to deplete reduced glutathione level as a novel approach, for counteracting the resistance to this specific

  11. The Role of the Glutathione System in Oxidative Modification of Proteins and Dysregulation of Apoptosis in Jurkat Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosareva, O L; Stepovaya, E A; Ryazantseva, N V; Shakhristova, E V; Egorova, M Yu; Novitsky, V V

    2017-12-01

    We compared changes in the redox status and intensity of oxidative modification of proteins in intact Jurkat tumor cells and cells cultured with buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of the key enzyme of glutathione synthesis γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. The glutathione system components play a role in modulation of the content of protein-bound glutathione, protein carbonyl derivatives, bityrosine, and oxidized tryptophan, and in dysregulation of apoptosis in Jurkat tumor cells. Inhibition of de novo synthesis of glutathione in Jurkat tumor cells was followed by accumulation of hydroxyl radical, a reduction in the level of protein-bound glutathione and oxidized tryptophan, and a rise in the concentration of protein carbonyl derivatives. These changes were accompanied by activation of programmed cell death.

  12. Erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphism determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    This research is aimed at determining the erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphisms and also to identify the relationship among the various blood parameters in Saanen x Malta crossbred goat raised in Turkey. The allele gene frequencies of KH and KL associated with the potassium concentration.

  13. Erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphism determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is aimed at determining the erythrocyte potassium and glutathione polymorphisms and also to identify the relationship among the various blood parameters in Saanen x Malta crossbred goat raised in Turkey. The allele gene frequencies of KH and KL associated with the potassium concentration were ...

  14. Glutathione S-transferases in earthworms (Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenersen, J; Guthenberg, C; Mannervik, B

    1979-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase activity (EC 2.5.1.18) was demonstrated in six species of earthworms of the family Lumbricidae: Eisenia foetida, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus rebellus, Allolobophora longa, Allolobophora caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica. Considerable activity was obtained with 1-chlorl-2,4-dinitrobenzene and low activity with 3,4-dichloro-1-nitrobenzene, but no enzymic reaction was detectable with sulphobromophthalein 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane of trans-4-phenylbut-3-en-2-one as substrates. Enzyme prepartations from L. rubellus and A. longa were the most active, whereas A. chlorotica gave the lowest activity. The ratio of the activities obtained with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 3,4-cichloro-1-nitrobenzene was very different in the various species, but no phylogenetic pattern was evident. Isoelectric focusing gave rise to various activity peaks as measured with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as a substrate, and the activity profiles of the species examined appeared to follow a taxonomic pattern. The activity of Allolobophora had the highest peak in the alkaline region, whereas that of Lumbricus had the highest peak in the acid region. Eisenia showed a very complex activity profile, with the highest peak ne pH 7. As determined by an enzymic assay, all the species contained glutathione, on an average about 0.5 mumol/g wet wt. Conjugation with glutathione catalysed by glutathione S-transferases may consequently be an important detoxification mechanism in earthworms. PMID:486159

  15. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which...... knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes....

  16. The intracellular pharmacokinetics of terminally capped peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttekolk, I.R.R.; Witsenburg, J.J.; Glauner, H.B.; Bovee-Geurts, P.H.M.; Ferro, E.S.; Verdurmen, W.P.R.; Brock, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    With significant progress in delivery technologies, peptides and peptidomimetics are receiving increasing attention as potential therapeutics also for intracellular applications. However, analyses of the intracellular behavior of peptides are a challenge; therefore, knowledge on the intracellular

  17. An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-10-01

    Restricted dietary intakes of protein or essential amino acids tend to slow aging and boost lifespan in rodents, presumably because they downregulate IGF-I/Akt/mTORC1 signaling that acts as a pacesetter for aging and promotes cancer induction. A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort has revealed that relatively low protein intakes in mid-life (under 10 % of calories) are indeed associated with decreased subsequent risk for mortality. However, in those over 65 at baseline, such low protein intakes were associated with increased risk for mortality. This finding accords well with other epidemiology correlating relatively high protein intakes with lower risk for loss of lean mass and bone density in the elderly. Increased efficiency of protein translation reflecting increased leucine intake and consequent greater mTORC1 activity may play a role in this effect; however, at present there is little solid evidence that leucine supplementation provides important long-term benefits to the elderly. Aside from its potential pro-anabolic impact, higher dietary protein intakes may protect the elderly in another way-by providing increased amino acid substrate for synthesis of key protective factors. There is growing evidence, in both rodents and humans, that glutathione synthesis declines with increasing age, likely reflecting diminished function of Nrf2-dependent inductive mechanisms that boost expression of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), rate-limiting for glutathione synthesis. Intracellular glutathione blunts the negative impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on cell health and functions both by acting as an oxidant scavenger and by opposing the pro-inflammatory influence of hydrogen peroxide on cell signaling. Fortunately, since GCL's K m for cysteine is close to intracellular cysteine levels, increased intakes of cysteine-achieved from whole proteins or via supplementation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC)-can achieve a

  18. Functional genomics of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barsy, Marie; Greub, Gilbert

    2013-07-01

    During the genomic era, a large amount of whole-genome sequences accumulated, which identified many hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Rapidly, functional genomics, which is the research domain that assign a function to a given gene product, has thus been developed. Functional genomics of intracellular pathogenic bacteria exhibit specific peculiarities due to the fastidious growth of most of these intracellular micro-organisms, due to the close interaction with the host cell, due to the risk of contamination of experiments with host cell proteins and, for some strict intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydia, due to the absence of simple genetic system to manipulate the bacterial genome. To identify virulence factors of intracellular pathogenic bacteria, functional genomics often rely on bioinformatic analyses compared with model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The use of heterologous expression is another common approach. Given the intracellular lifestyle and the many effectors that are used by the intracellular bacteria to corrupt host cell functions, functional genomics is also often targeting the identification of new effectors such as those of the T4SS of Brucella and Legionella.

  19. Role of glutathione biosynthesis in endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Espinosa-Díez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH biosynthesis is essential for cellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense. The rate-limiting step requires glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, which is composed of the catalytic (GCLc and the modulatory (GCLm subunits. To evaluate the contribution of GCLc to endothelial function we generated an endothelial-specific Gclc haplo-insufficient mouse model (Gclc e/+ mice. In murine lung endothelial cells (MLEC derived from these mice we observed a 50% reduction in GCLc levels compared to lung fibroblasts from the same mice. MLEC obtained from haplo-insufficient mice showed significant reduction in GSH levels as well as increased basal and stimulated ROS levels, reduced phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser 1177 and increased eNOS S-glutathionylation, compared to MLEC from wild type (WT mice. Studies in mesenteric arteries demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Gclc(e/+ male mice, which was corrected by pre-incubation with GSH-ethyl-ester and BH4. To study the contribution of endothelial GSH synthesis to renal fibrosis we employed the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in WT and Gclc(e/+ mice. We observed that obstructed kidneys from Gclc(e/+ mice exhibited increased deposition of fibrotic markers and reduced Nrf2 levels. We conclude that the preservation of endothelial GSH biosynthesis is not only critical for endothelial function but also in anti-fibrotic responses. Keywords: Glutamate-cysteine ligase, ROS, Glutathione, Endothelial dysfunction, Kidney Fibrosis

  20. Is Glutathione the Major Cellular Target of Cisplatin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasherman, Yonit; Stürup, Stefan; gibson, dan

    2009-01-01

    Cisplatin is an anticancer drug whose efficacy is limited because tumors develop resistance to the drug. Resistant cells often have elevated levels of cellular glutathione (GSH), believed to be the major cellular target of cisplatin that inactivates the drug by binding to it irreversibly, forming...... [Pt(SG)2] adducts. We show by [1H,15N] HSQC that the half-life of 15N labeled cisplatin in whole cell extracts is 75 min, but no Pt-GSH adducts were observed. When the low molecular mass fraction (cisplatin, binding to GSH was observed probably due to removal...

  1. Antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione and its synergism on antibiotics sensitize carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbe, Roaa; Almansour, Ayidh; Kwon, Dong H

    2017-10-01

    A major clinical impact of A. baumannii is hospital-acquired infections including ventilator-associated pneumonia. The treatment of this pathogen is often difficult due to its innate and acquired resistance to almost all commercially available antibiotics. Infections with carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant A. baumannii is the most problematic. Glutathione is a tripeptide thiol-antioxidant and antibacterial activity of exogenous glutathione was reported in some bacteria. However, clinical relevance and molecular details of the antibacterial activity of glutathione are currently unclear. Seventy clinical isolates of A. baumannii including 63 carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates and a type strain A. baumannii ATCC 19606 were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) and time-killing activity with meropenem and/or glutathione were also determined in the carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates. In addition, the roles of exogenous glutathione in multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were examined. Levels of MIC and MBC were ranged from 10 to 15mM of exogenous glutathione. All tested carbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were sensitized by all tested antibiotics in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of glutathione. FIC levels of glutathione with carbapenem (meropenem) were allcarbapenem-associated multidrug resistant isolates were killed by subinhibitory concentrations of both glutathione and meropenem at>2log10 within 12h, suggesting glutathione synergistically interacts with meropenem. The roles of multidrug efflux pumps and β-lactamase production were excluded for the glutathione-mediated antibiotic susceptibility. Overall results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of glutathione is clinically relevant and its synergism on antibiotics sensitizes clinical isolates of A. baumannii regardless

  2. Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity | Ahmad | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GSH) present in tissues. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of gallium nitrate and glutathione as biomarker of glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in whole blood components (plasma and cytosolic fraction).

  3. Intracellular chromium localization and cell physiological response in the unicellular alga Micrasterias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volland, Stefanie; Lütz, Cornelius; Michalke, Bernhard; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Various contaminants like metals and heavy metals are constantly released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent. Chromium can cause harm to cell metabolism and development, when it is taken up by plants instead of necessary micronutrients such as for example iron. The uptake of Cr VI into plant cells has been reported to be an active process via carriers of essential anions, while the cation Cr III seems to be taken up inactively. Micrasterias denticulata, an unicellular green alga of the family Desmidiaceae is a well-studied cell biological model organism. Cr III and VI had inhibiting effects on its cell development, while cell division rates were only impaired by Cr VI. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolization, condensed cytoplasm and dark precipitations in the cell wall after 3 weeks of Cr VI treatment. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) were applied to measure intracellular chromium distribution. Chromium was only detected after 3 weeks of 10 μM Cr VI treatment in electron dense precipitations found in bag-like structures along the inner side of the cell walls together with iron and elevated levels of oxygen, pointing toward an accumulation respectively extrusion of chromium in form of an iron–oxygen compound. Atomic emission spectroscopy (EMS) revealed that Micrasterias cells are able to accumulate considerable amounts of chromium and iron. During chromium treatment the Cr:Fe ratio shifted in favor of chromium, which implied that chromium may be taken up instead of iron. Significant and rapid increase of ROS production within the first 5 min of treatment confirms an active Cr VI uptake. SOD and CAT activity after Cr VI treatment did not show a response, while the glutathione pool determined by immuno-TEM decreased

  4. Intracellular chromium localization and cell physiological response in the unicellular alga Micrasterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volland, Stefanie; Lütz, Cornelius; Michalke, Bernhard; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Various contaminants like metals and heavy metals are constantly released into the environment by anthropogenic activities. The heavy metal chromium has a wide industrial use and exists in two stable oxidation states: trivalent and hexavalent. Chromium can cause harm to cell metabolism and development, when it is taken up by plants instead of necessary micronutrients such as for example iron. The uptake of Cr VI into plant cells has been reported to be an active process via carriers of essential anions, while the cation Cr III seems to be taken up inactively. Micrasterias denticulata, an unicellular green alga of the family Desmidiaceae is a well-studied cell biological model organism. Cr III and VI had inhibiting effects on its cell development, while cell division rates were only impaired by Cr VI. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed ultrastructural changes such as increased vacuolization, condensed cytoplasm and dark precipitations in the cell wall after 3 weeks of Cr VI treatment. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) were applied to measure intracellular chromium distribution. Chromium was only detected after 3 weeks of 10 μM Cr VI treatment in electron dense precipitations found in bag-like structures along the inner side of the cell walls together with iron and elevated levels of oxygen, pointing toward an accumulation respectively extrusion of chromium in form of an iron–oxygen compound. Atomic emission spectroscopy (EMS) revealed that Micrasterias cells are able to accumulate considerable amounts of chromium and iron. During chromium treatment the Cr:Fe ratio shifted in favor of chromium, which implied that chromium may be taken up instead of iron. Significant and rapid increase of ROS production within the first 5 min of treatment confirms an active Cr VI uptake. SOD and CAT activity after Cr VI treatment did not show a response, while the glutathione pool determined by immuno-TEM decreased

  5. Glutathione Decrement Drives Thermogenic Program In Adipose Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettieri Barbato, Daniele; Tatulli, Giuseppe; Maria Cannata, Stefano; Bernardini, Sergio; Aquilano, Katia; Ciriolo, Maria R

    2015-08-11

    Adipose tissue metabolically adapts to external stimuli. We demonstrate that the induction of the thermogenic program in white adipocytes, through cold exposure in mice or in vitro adrenergic stimulation, is accompanied by a decrease in the intracellular content of glutathione (GSH). Moreover, the treatment with a GSH depleting agent, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), recapitulates the effect of cold exposure resulting in the induction of thermogenic program. In particular, BSO treatment leads to enhanced uncoupling respiration as demonstrated by increased expression of thermogenic genes (e.g. Ucp1, Ppargc1a), augmented oxygen consumption and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Buffering GSH decrement by pre-treatment with GSH ester prevents the up-regulation of typical markers of uncoupling respiration. We demonstrate that FoxO1 activation is responsible for the conversion of white adipocytes into a brown phenotype as the "browning" effects of BSO are completely abrogated in cells down-regulating FoxO1. In mice, the BSO-mediated up-regulation of uncoupling genes results in weight loss that is at least in part ascribed to adipose tissue mass reduction. The induction of thermogenic program has been largely proposed to counteract obesity-related diseases. Based on these findings, we propose GSH as a novel therapeutic target to increase energy expenditure in adipocytes.

  6. Role of glutathione transport processes in kidney function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, Lawrence H.

    2005-01-01

    The kidneys are highly dependent on an adequate supply of glutathione (GSH) to maintain normal function. This is due, in part, to high rates of aerobic metabolism, particularly in the proximal tubules. Additionally, the kidneys are potentially exposed to high concentrations of oxidants and reactive electrophiles. Renal cellular concentrations of GSH are maintained by both intracellular synthesis and transport from outside the cell. Although function of specific carriers has not been definitively demonstrated, it is likely that multiple carriers are responsible for plasma membrane transport of GSH. Data suggest that the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 and the sodium-dicarboxylate 2 exchanger (SDCT2 or NaDC3) mediate uptake across the basolateral plasma membrane (BLM) and that the organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP1 and at least one of the multidrug resistance proteins mediate efflux across the brush-border plasma membrane (BBM). BLM transport may be used pharmacologically to provide renal proximal tubular cells with exogenous GSH to protect against oxidative stress whereas BBM transport functions physiologically in turnover of cellular GSH. The mitochondrial GSH pool is derived from cytoplasmic GSH by transport into the mitochondrial matrix and is mediated by the dicarboxylate and 2-oxoglutarate exchangers. Maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool is critical for cellular and mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important in determining susceptibility to chemically induced apoptosis. Hence, membrane transport processes are critical to regulation of renal cellular and subcellular GSH pools and are determinants of susceptibility to cytotoxicity induced by oxidants and electrophiles

  7. Glutathione system in Wolfram syndrome 1‑deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porosk, Rando; Kilk, Kalle; Mahlapuu, Riina; Terasmaa, Anton; Soomets, Ursel

    2017-11-01

    Wolfram syndrome 1 (WS) is a rare neurodegenerative disease that is caused by mutations in the Wolfram syndrome 1 (WFS1) gene, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycoprotein wolframin. The pathophysiology of WS is ER stress, which is generally considered to induce oxidative stress. As WS has a well‑defined monogenetic origin and a model for chronic ER stress, the present study aimed to characterize how glutathione (GSH), a major intracellular antioxidant, was related to the disease and its progression. The concentration of GSH and the activities of reduction/oxidation system enzymes GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase were measured in Wfs1‑deficient mice. The GSH content was lower in most of the studied tissues, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes varied between the heart, kidneys and liver tissues. The results indicated that GSH may be needed for ER stress control; however, chronic ER stress from the genetic syndrome eventually depletes the cellular GSH pool and leads to increased oxidative stress.

  8. Genotoxic properties of cyclopentenone prostaglandins and the onset of glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Gergely Morten; Groh, Isabel Anna Maria; Kajzar, Julia; Haushofer, Carolin; Scherhag, Anne; Schrenk, Dieter; Esselen, Melanie

    2013-02-18

    Prostaglandins are endogenous mediators formed from arachidonic acid by cyclooxygenases and prostaglandin synthases during inflammatory processes. The five-membered ring can be dehydrated, and α,β-unsaturated cyclopentenone PGs (cyPGs) are generated. Recent studies have been focused on their potential pharmacological use against inflammation and cancer. However, little is known so far about possible adverse health effects of cyPGs. We addressed the question whether selected cyPGs at a concentration range of 0.1-10 μM exhibit mutagenic and genotoxic properties in the hamster lung fibroblast V79 cell line and whether these effects are accompanied by a depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH). The cyPGs 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) and prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) significantly induced DNA damage in V79 cells after 1 h of incubation. Furthermore, a more pronounced increase in formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites, indicative of oxidative DNA-damage, was observed. The findings on DNA-damaging properties were supported by our results that 15dPGJ(2) acts as an aneugenic agent which induces the amount of kinetochore positive micronuclei associated with an increase of apoptosis. The strong potency of cyPGs to rapidly bind GSH measured in a chemical assay and to significantly reduce the GSH level after only 1 h of incubation may contribute to the observed oxidative DNA strand breaks, whereas directly induced oxidative stress via reactive oxygen species could be excluded. However, after an extended incubation time of 24 h no genotoxicity could be measured, this may contribute to the lack of mutagenicity in the hypoxanthine phosphorybosyltransferase (HPRT) assay. In conclusion, potential in vitro genotoxicity of cyPG and a strong impact on GSH homeostasis have been demonstrated, which may be involved in carcinogenesis mediated by chronic inflammation.

  9. Nanotoxicity of cobalt induced by oxidant generation and glutathione depletion in MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Ahamed, Maqusood; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alshamsan, Aws

    2017-04-01

    There are very few studies regarding the biological activity of cobalt-based nanoparticles (NPs) and, therefore, the possible mechanism behind the biological response of cobalt NPs has not been fully explored. The present study was designed to explore the potential mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of cobalt NPs in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells. The shape and size of cobalt NPs were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The crystallinity of NPs was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The dissolution of NPs was measured in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and culture media by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Cytotoxicity parameters, such as [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] (MTT), neutral red uptake (NRU), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release suggested that cobalt NPs were toxic to MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner (50-200μg/ml). Cobalt NPs also significantly induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), mitochondrial outer membrane potential loss (MOMP), and activity of caspase-3 enzymes in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, cobalt NPs decreased intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH) molecules. The exogenous supply of antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine in cobalt NP-treated cells restored the cellular GSH level and prevented cytotoxicity that was also confirmed by microscopy. Similarly, the addition of buthionine-[S, R]-sulfoximine, which interferes with GSH biosynthesis, potentiated cobalt NP-mediated toxicity. Our data suggested that low solubility cobalt NPs could exert toxicity in MCF-7 cells mainly through cobalt NP dissolution to Co 2+ . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Vitamin C on Glutathione Peroxidase Activities in Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione peroxidase is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes in humans. We studied the relationship between serum glutathione peroxidase activity and vitamin C ingestion during normal pregnancy in women attending antenatal clinic in the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin. Glutathione peroxidase ...

  11. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  12. The role of glutathione in lymphocyte activation and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messina, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The object of this work was to establish the requirement for GSH and cystine during the activation and proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the author's initial experiments the intracellular GSH content of PBMC was altered by continuous culture or pretreatment with BSO, a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis. His results demonstrate that, continuous culture of mitogen stimulated PBMC in the presence of BSO inhibited entry into S-phase of the cell cycle and produced a simultaneous decrease in intracellular GSH. The influence of BSO on early activation events were determined by BSO pretreatment. Extensive depletion (>90%) of the intracellular GSH level prior to mitogenic stimulation did not impair the ability of these cells to produce IL-2 and express IL-2R, indicating that GSH may not be involved in the generation and response to early activation signals. Furthermore, the removal of BSO from these cultures rapidly reversed its inhibitory effects on DNA and GSH synthesis. Cystine transport activities and metabolism by PBMC were characterized in order to examine its contributions to intracellular GSH and early activation proteins. In spite of the ability of cystine to sustain the proliferative response of PBMC, differences in the kinetics of cystine and cysteine uptake indicated that separate transport systems may be operational. Treatment with 2ME enhanced cystine uptake, but lowered the proliferative responses of these cells. Metabolic studies with [ 35 S] cystine demonstrated that mitogen stimulation of PBMC enhance cystine uptake

  13. In Vitro Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid-CoA Thioesters with Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Skonberg, Christian; Olsen, Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    was to investigate whether a correlation could be found between the structure of acyl-CoA thioesters and their reactivities toward the tripeptide, glutathione (ç- Glu-Cys-Gly).  The  acyl-CoA  thioesters  of  eight  carboxylic  acids  (ibuprofen,  clofibric  acid, indomethacin,  fenbufen,  tolmetin,  salicylic  acid......The chemical reactivity of acyl-CoA thioesters toward nucleophiles has been demonstrated in several recent studies. Thus, intracellularly formed acyl-CoAs of xenobiotic carboxylic acids may react covalently with endogenous proteins and potentially lead to adverse effects. The purpose of this study......,  2-phenoxypropionic  acid,  and  (4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy)acetic  acid  (MCPA))  were  synthesized,  and  each  acyl-CoA  (0.5  mM)  was incubated with glutathione (5.0 mM) in 0.1 M potassium phosphate (pH 7.4, 37 °C). All of the acyl-CoAs reacted with glutathione to form the respective acyl...

  14. Effect of (-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl) cyclohexanol (CP55,940) on intracellular Ca2+ levels in human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yih-Chau; Su, Warren; Jiann, Bang-Ping; Chang, Hong-Tai; Huang, Jong-Khing; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2002-09-30

    The study was undertaken to explore the effect of CP55,940 ((-)-cis-3-[2-hydroxy-4-(1,1-dimethylheptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-(3-hydroxypropyl)cyclohexanol), a drug commonly used as a CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, on intracellular free Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i) in MG63 human osteoblast-like epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i was measured in suspended cells by using the fluorescent dye fura-2 as an indicator. At concentrations between 2-20 microM, CP55,940 increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 8 microM. The [Ca2+] signal comprised an initial rise, a slow decay, and a sustained phase. CP55940 (10 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i signal was not altered by 5 microM of two cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM-251, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole3-carboxamide; AM-281, 1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide). Extracellular Ca2+ removal decreased the maximum value of the Ca2+ signals by 50%. CP55,940 induced quench of fura-2 fluorescence by Mn2+ (50 microM), suggesting the presence of Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. CP55,940 (10 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i increase in Ca(2+)-free medium was inhibited by 84% by pretreatment with 1 microM thapsigargin, an endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump inhibitor. Conversely, pretreatment with 10 microM CP55,940 in Ca(2+)-free medium abolished thapsigargin-induced [Ca2+]i increase. At 1 microM, nifedipine, verapamil, and diltiazem did not alter CP55, 940 (10 microM)-induced [Ca2+]i increase. CP55,940 (20 microM)-induced Ca2+ release was not affected when phospholipase C was inhibited by 2 microM U73122 (1-(6-((17beta-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl)amino) hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione). CP55,940 (20 microM) did not induce acute cell death after incubation for 30 min as assayed by trypan blue exclusion. Collectively, CP55,940 induced significant [Ca2+]i increases in osteoblasts by releasing store Ca2+ from thapsigargin

  15. The Roles of Glutathione Peroxidases during Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufer, Christoph; Wang, Chi Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Embryo development relies on the complex interplay of the basic cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptotic cell death. Precise regulation of these events is the basis for the establishment of embryonic structures and the organ development. Beginning with fertilization of the oocyte until delivery the developing embryo encounters changing environmental conditions such as varying levels of oxygen, which can give rise to reactive oxygen species (ROS). These challenges are met by the embryo with metabolic adaptations and by an array of anti-oxidative mechanisms. ROS can be deleterious by modifying biological molecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids and may induce abnormal development or even embryonic lethality. On the other hand ROS are vital players of various signaling cascades that affect the balance between cell growth, differentiation, and death. An imbalance or dysregulation of these biological processes may generate cells with abnormal growth and is therefore potentially teratogenic and tumorigenic. Thus, a precise balance between processes generating ROS and those decomposing ROS is critical for normal embryo development. One tier of the cellular protective system against ROS constitutes the family of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases (GPx). These enzymes reduce hydroperoxides to the corresponding alcohols at the expense of reduced glutathione. Of special interest within this protein family is the moonlighting enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4). This enzyme is a scavenger of lipophilic hydroperoxides on one hand, but on the other hand can be transformed into an enzymatically inactive cellular structural component. GPx4 deficiency – in contrast to all other GPx family members – leads to abnormal embryo development and finally produces a lethal phenotype in mice. This review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge on GPx isoforms during embryo development and tumor development with an emphasis

  16. L-cysteine supplementation upregulates glutathione (GSH) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) in hepatocytes cultured in high glucose and in vivo in liver, and increases blood levels of GSH, VDBP, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sushil K; Kanikarla-Marie, Preeti; Warden, Cassandra; Micinski, David

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) status has an effect on and can potentially improve the status of 25(OH) vitamin D and increase the metabolic actions of 25(OH) vitamin D under physiological and pathological conditions. Diabetes is associated with lower levels of glutathione (GSH) and 25(OH) vitamin D. This study examined the hypothesis that upregulation of GSH will also upregulate blood levels of VDBP and 25(OH) vitamin D in type 2 diabetic rats. L-cysteine (LC) supplementation was used to upregulate GSH status in a FL83B hepatocyte cell culture model and in vivo using Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Results show that LC supplementation upregulates both protein and mRNA expression of VDBP and vitamin D receptor (VDR) and GSH status in hepatocytes exposed to high glucose, and that GSH deficiency, induced by glutamate cysteine ligase knockdown, resulted in the downregulation of GSH, VDBP, and VDR and an increase in oxidative stress levels in hepatocytes. In vivo, LC supplementation increased GSH and protein and mRNA expression of VDBP and vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1) in the liver, and simultaneously resulted in elevated blood levels of LC and GSH, as well as increases in VDBP and 25(OH) vitamin D levels, and decreased inflammatory biomarkers in ZDF rats compared with those in placebo-supplemented ZDF rats consuming a similar diet. LC supplementation may provide a novel approach by which to raise blood levels of VDBP and 25(OH) vitamin D in type 2 diabetes. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Glutathione transferase-mediated benzimidazole-resistance in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastos, A; Labrou, N E; Flouri, F; Malandrakis, A

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium graminearum laboratory mutants moderately (MR) and highly (HR) benzimidazole-resistant, carrying or not target-site mutations at the β 2 -tubulin gene were utilized in an attempt to elucidate the biochemical mechanism(s) underlying the unique BZM-resistance paradigm of this fungal plant pathogen. Relative expression analysis in the presence or absence of carbendazim (methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate) using a quantitative Real Time qPCR (RT-qPCR) revealed differences between resistant and the wild-type parental strain although no differences in expression levels of either β 1 - or β 2 -tubulin homologue genes were able to fully account for two of the highly resistant phenotypes. Glutathione transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification was shown to be -at least partly- responsible for the elevated resistance levels of a HR isolate bearing the β 2 -tubulin Phe200Tyr resistance mutation compared with another MR isolate carrying the same mutation. This benzimidazole-resistance mechanism is reported for the first time in F. graminearum. No indications of detoxification involved in benzimidazole resistance were found for the rest of the isolates as revealed by GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and bioassays using monoxygenase and hydrolase detoxification enzyme inhibiting synergists. Interestingly, besides the Phe200Tyr mutation-carrying HR isolate, the remaining highly-carbendazim resistant phenotypes could not be associated with any of the target site modification/overproduction, detoxification or reduced uptake-increased efflux mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutathione-binding site of a bombyx mori theta-class glutathione transferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Tofazzal Hossain

    Full Text Available The glutathione transferase (GST superfamily plays key roles in the detoxification of various xenobiotics. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a silkworm protein belonging to a previously reported theta-class GST family. The enzyme (bmGSTT catalyzes the reaction of glutathione with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy-propane, and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Mutagenesis of highly conserved residues in the catalytic site revealed that Glu66 and Ser67 are important for enzymatic function. These results provide insights into the catalysis of glutathione conjugation in silkworm by bmGSTT and into the metabolism of exogenous chemical agents.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under glutathione reveals high demand for thiamin transport and antioxidant protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Ma

    Full Text Available Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4-6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM. To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare.

  20. Transcriptional activation of glutathione pathways and role of glucose homeostasis during copper imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Natalia; Rivas, Nicole; del Pozo, Talía; Burkhead, Jason; Suazo, Miriam; González, Mauricio; Latorre, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient for organism health. Dietary changes or pathologies linked to this metal induce changes in intracellular glutathione concentrations. Here, we studied the transcriptional activation of glutathione pathways in Jurkat cell lines, analyzing the effect of change in glucose homeostasis during a physiological and supra-physiological copper exposure. An immortalized line of human T lymphocyte cell line (Jurkat) was exposed to different copper and glucose conditions to mimic concentrations present in human blood. We applied treatments for 6 (acute) and 24 h (sustained) to 2 µM (physiological) or 20 µM (supra-physiological, Wilson disease scenario) of CuSO4 in combination with 25 mg/dL (hypoglycemia), 100 mg/dL (normal) and 200 mg/dL (hyperglycemia, diabetes scenario) of glucose. The results indicate that a physiological concentration of copper exposure does not induce transcriptional changes in the glutathione synthesis pathway after 6 or 24 h. The G6PDH gene (regeneration pathway), however, is induced during a supra-physiological copper condition. This data was correlated with the viability assays, where fluctuation in both glucose conditions (hypo and hyperglycemia scenario) affected Jurkat proliferation when 20 µM of CuSO4 was added to the culture media. Under a copper overload condition, the transcription of a component of glutathione regeneration pathway (G6PDH gene) is activated in cells chronically exposed to a hyperglycemia scenario, indicating that fluctuations in glucose concentration impact the resistance against the metal. Our findings illustrate the importance of glucose homeostasis during copper excess.

  1. Radiosensitization of mouse skin by oxygen and depletion of glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, Graham; Joiner, Michael; Joiner, Barbara; Johns, Helen; Denekamp, Juliana

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and shape of the oxygen sensitization curve of mouse foot skin, the extent to which glutathione (GSH) depletion radiosensitized skin, and the dependence of such sensitization on the ambient oxygen tension. Methods and Materials: The feet of WHT mice were irradiated with single doses of 240 kVp x-rays while mice were exposed to carbogen or gases with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures containing 8-100% O 2 . The anoxic response was obtained by occluding the blood supply to the leg of anesthetized mice with a tourniquet, surrounding the foot with nitrogen, and allowing the mice to breathe 10% O 2 . Further experiments were performed to assess the efficacy of this method to obtain an anoxic response. Radiosensitivity of skin was assessed using the acute skin-reaction assay. Glutathione levels were modified using two schedules of dl-buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) and diethylmaleate (DEM), which were considered to produce extensive and intermediate levels of GSH depletion in the skin of the foot during irradiation. Results: Carbogen caused the greatest radiosensitization of skin, with a reproducible enhancement of 2.2 relative to the anoxic response. The OER of 2.2 is lower than other reports for mouse skin. This may indicate that the extremes of oxygenation were not produced, although there was no direct evidence for this. When skin radiosensitivity was plotted against the logarithm of the oxygen tension in the ambient gas, a sigmoid curve with a K value of 17-21% O 2 in the ambient gas was obtained. Depletion of GSH caused minimal radiosensitization when skin was irradiated under anoxic or well-oxygenated conditions. Radiosensitization by GSH depletion was maximal at intermediate oxygen tensions of 10-21% O 2 in the ambient gas. Increasing the extent of GSH depletion led to increasing radiosensitization, with sensitization enhancement ratios of 1.2 and 1.1, respectively, for extensive and intermediate levels of GSH

  2. A glutathione s-transferase confers herbicide tolerance in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhang Hu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs have been a focus of attention due to their role in herbicide detoxification. OsGSTL2 is a glutathione S-transferase, lambda class gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.. Transgenic rice plants over-expressing OsGSTL2 were generated from rice calli by the use of an Agrobacterium transformation system, and were screened by a combination of hygromycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot analysis. In the vegetative tissues of transgenic rice plants, the over-expression of OsGSTL2 not only increased levels of OsGSTL2 transcripts, but also GST and GPX expression, while reduced superoxide. Transgenic rice plants also showed higher tolerance to glyphosate and chlorsulfuron, which often contaminate agricultural fields. The findings demonstrate the detoxification role of OsGSTL2 in the growth and development of rice plants. It should be possible to apply the present results to crops for developing herbicide tolerance and for limiting herbicide contamination in the food chain.

  3. Reversible Reaction-Based Fluorescent Probe for Real-Time Imaging of Glutathione Dynamics in Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Jiang, Xiqian; Zhang, Chengwei; MacKenzie, Kevin R; Stossi, Fabio; Palzkill, Timothy; Wang, Meng C; Wang, Jin

    2017-09-22

    We report a mitochondria-specific glutathione (GSH) probe-designated as Mito-RealThiol (MitoRT)-that can monitor in vivo real-time mitochondrial glutathione dynamics, and apply this probe to follow mitochondrial GSH dynamic changes in living cells for the first time. MitoRT can be utilized in confocal microscopy, super-resolution fluorescence imaging, and flow cytometry systems. Using MitoRT, we demonstrate that cells have a high priority to maintain the GSH level in mitochondria compared to the cytosol not only under normal growing conditions but also upon oxidative stress.

  4. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. The role of nuclear factor E2-Related factor 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in glutathione metabolism: Evidence from an in vivo gene knockout study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yanyan [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Xu, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyxu@cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Zheng, Hongzhi [The First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Fu, Jingqi; Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Huihui [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Qiang [Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yamamoto, Masayuki [Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Pi, Jingbo, E-mail: jbpi@cmu.edu.cn [School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2016-09-09

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are indicated to protect from oxidative stress. They also play roles in the homeostasis of glutathione. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we found Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis and reduced expression of various genes involved in GSH biosynthesis, regeneration, utilization and transport in the liver. Ucp2-knockout (Ucp2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis in the liver, spleen and blood, as well as increased transcript of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the liver, a protein capable of mediating glutathione efflux. Nrf2-Ucp2-double knockout (DKO) mice showed characteristics of both Nrf2-KO and Ucp2-KO mice. But no significant difference was observed in DKO mice when compared with Nrf2-KO or Ucp2-KO mice, except in blood glutathione levels. These data suggest that ablation of Nrf2 and Ucp2 leads to disrupted GSH balance, which could result from altered expression of genes involved in GSH metabolism. DKO may not evoke more severe oxidative stress than the single gene knockout. - Highlights: • Nrf2/Ucp2 deficiency leads to alteration of glutathione homeostasis. • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes in glutathione generation and utilization. • Ucp2 affects glutathione metabolism by regulating hepatic efflux of glutathione. • Nrf2 deficiency may not aggravate oxidative stress in Ucp2-deficient mice.

  6. The role of nuclear factor E2-Related factor 2 and uncoupling protein 2 in glutathione metabolism: Evidence from an in vivo gene knockout study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanyan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Hongzhi; Fu, Jingqi; Hou, Yongyong; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Qiang; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Pi, Jingbo

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) are indicated to protect from oxidative stress. They also play roles in the homeostasis of glutathione. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we found Nrf2-knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis and reduced expression of various genes involved in GSH biosynthesis, regeneration, utilization and transport in the liver. Ucp2-knockout (Ucp2-KO) mice exhibited altered glutathione homeostasis in the liver, spleen and blood, as well as increased transcript of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the liver, a protein capable of mediating glutathione efflux. Nrf2-Ucp2-double knockout (DKO) mice showed characteristics of both Nrf2-KO and Ucp2-KO mice. But no significant difference was observed in DKO mice when compared with Nrf2-KO or Ucp2-KO mice, except in blood glutathione levels. These data suggest that ablation of Nrf2 and Ucp2 leads to disrupted GSH balance, which could result from altered expression of genes involved in GSH metabolism. DKO may not evoke more severe oxidative stress than the single gene knockout. - Highlights: • Nrf2/Ucp2 deficiency leads to alteration of glutathione homeostasis. • Nrf2 regulates expression of genes in glutathione generation and utilization. • Ucp2 affects glutathione metabolism by regulating hepatic efflux of glutathione. • Nrf2 deficiency may not aggravate oxidative stress in Ucp2-deficient mice.

  7. The crucial protective role of glutathione against tienilic acid hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiya, Takayoshi; Mori, Kazuhiko; Hattori, Chiharu; Kai, Kiyonori; Kataoka, Hiroko; Masubuchi, Noriko; Jindo, Toshimasa; Manabe, Sunao

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the hepatotoxic potential of tienilic acid in vivo, we administered a single oral dose of tienilic acid to Sprague-Dawley rats and performed general clinicopathological examinations and hepatic gene expression analysis using Affymetrix microarrays. No change in the serum transaminases was noted at up to 1000 mg/kg, although slight elevation of the serum bile acid and bilirubin, and very mild hepatotoxic changes in morphology were observed. In contrast to the marginal clinicopathological changes, marked upregulation of the genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis [glutathione synthetase and glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gcl)], oxidative stress response [heme oxygenase-1 and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1] and phase II drug metabolism (glutathione S-transferase and UDP glycosyltransferase 1A6) were noted after 3 or 6 h post-dosing. The hepatic reduced glutathione level decreased at 3-6 h, and then increased at 24 or 48 h, indicating that the upregulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated gene and the late increase in hepatic glutathione are protective responses against the oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses caused by tienilic acid. In a subsequent experiment, tienilic acid in combination with L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of Gcl caused marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with extensive centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis, whereas BSO alone showed no hepatotoxicity. The elevation of ALT by this combination was observed at the same dose levels of tienilic acid as the upregulation of the Nrf2-regulated genes by tienilic acid alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that the impairment of glutathione biosynthesis may play a critical role in the development of tienilic acid hepatotoxicity through extensive oxidative and/or electrophilic stresses

  8. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L.; Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Hanafin, William P.; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Rex Gaskins, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition

  9. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L., E-mail: viadimer@illinois.edu [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beaudoin, Jessica N. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hanafin, William P. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); DiLiberto, Stephen J. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kenis, Paul J.A. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rex Gaskins, H. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  10. Effect of rosella ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L ) extract on glutathione-S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) extract on glutathione-S-trasferase (GST) activity and its hepatoprotective effect. Methods: A total of 25 rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (5 rats per group). Group I served as the baseline, group II was the negative control group, while groups III, IV and ...

  11. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.D.; Gilligan, D.; Beckett, G.J. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Chapman, B.J. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1983-10-31

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements.

  12. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione and ascorbic acid in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder, which causes an acute or chronic thrombocytopenia, and may result in potentially lifethreatening haemorrhage. Oxidative damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Antibodies to bind to membrane lipids and ...

  13. Superoxide radical (O2-) reactivity with respect to glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekaki, A.; Gardes-Albert, M.; Ferradini, C.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of superoxide radicals formed during gamma irradiation of glutathione in aerated aqueous solutions is examined. Solutions are buffered at pH7 and contain sodium formate for capture of H and OH radicals which are transformed in COO - radicals and then O 2 - radicals. G value of glutathione disparition vs glutathione concentration are given with and without enzyme or catalase. Reaction mechanism are interpreted [fr

  14. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  15. Withanolide A prevents neurodegeneration by modulating hippocampal glutathione biosynthesis during hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswar Baitharu

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone

  16. Withanolide A prevents neurodegeneration by modulating hippocampal glutathione biosynthesis during hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitharu, Iswar; Jain, Vishal; Deep, Satya Narayan; Shroff, Sabita; Sahu, Jayanta Kumar; Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2014-01-01

    Withania somnifera root extract has been used traditionally in ayurvedic system of medicine as a memory enhancer. Present study explores the ameliorative effect of withanolide A, a major component of withania root extract and its molecular mechanism against hypoxia induced memory impairment. Withanolide A was administered to male Sprague Dawley rats before a period of 21 days pre-exposure and during 07 days of exposure to a simulated altitude of 25,000 ft. Glutathione level and glutathione dependent free radicals scavenging enzyme system, ATP, NADPH level, γ-glutamylcysteinyl ligase (GCLC) activity and oxidative stress markers were assessed in the hippocampus. Expression of apoptotic marker caspase 3 in hippocampus was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Transcriptional alteration and expression of GCLC and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated by real time PCR and immunoblotting respectively. Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) level and impaired reduced gluatathione dependent free radical scavenging system in hippocampus resulting in elevated oxidative stress. Supplementation of withanolide A during hypoxic exposure increased GSH level, augmented GSH dependent free radicals scavenging system and decreased the number of caspase and hoescht positive cells in hippocampus. While withanolide A reversed hypoxia mediated neurodegeneration, administration of buthionine sulfoximine along with withanolide A blunted its neuroprotective effects. Exogenous administration of corticosterone suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expression whereas inhibition of corticosterone synthesis upregulated Nrf2 as well as GCLC. Thus present study infers that withanolide A reduces neurodegeneration by restoring hypoxia induced glutathione depletion in hippocampus. Further, Withanolide A increases glutathione biosynthesis in neuronal cells by upregulating GCLC level through Nrf2 pathway in a corticosterone dependenet manner.

  17. The photochemical thiol-ene reaction as a versatile method for the synthesis of glutathioneS-conjugates targeting the bacterial potassium efflux system Kef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Jess; Rasmussen, Tim; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R; Conway, Stuart J

    2016-04-29

    The thiol-ene coupling reaction is emerging as an important conjugation reaction that is suitable for use in a biological setting. Here, we explore the utility of this reaction for the synthesis of glutathione- S -conjugates (GSX) and present a general, operationally simple, protocol with a wide substrate scope. The GSX afforded are an important class of compounds and provide invaluable molecular tools to study glutathione-binding proteins. In this study we apply the diverse library of GSX synthesised to further our understanding of the structural requirements for binding to the glutathione-binding protein, Kef, a bacterial K + efflux system, found in many bacterial pathogens. This system is vital to the survival of bacteria upon exposure to electrophiles, and plays an essential role in the maintenance of intracellular pH and K + homeostasis. Consequently, Kef is an appealing target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs.

  18. Hyperoxia and glutathione depletion in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, K E; Grinnell, C D; Keeney, S E; Noworyta, K; Rassin, D K

    1997-12-01

    Hepatic stores of glutathione may be depleted by hyperoxic exposure or poor nutritional status. We studied the effects of hyperoxia or hepatic glutathione depletion on bile flow rates, and on biliary concentrations of glutathione and amino acids. Glutathione depletion was induced in vivo by 1) hyperoxic exposure (O2) for 48 hours, 2) inhibition of glutathione synthesis by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), 3) a combination of BSO + O2, or 4) inhibition of cysteine synthesis by propargyglycine (PPG). Livers were then isolated and perfused. Glutathione concentrations in bile, liver, and perfusate were significantly decreased by all treatments. Bile flow was significantly decreased in groups treated with BSO or O2 + BSO, and perfusate LDH was increased by O2 + BSO or PPG. Significant changes in biliary amino acid concentrations included decreased sulfur-containing amino acids and increased branched-chain amino acids in groups treated with BSO, PPG, or O2; and increased essential amino acids in groups treated with O2 or PPG. Oxygen exposure or inhibition of glutathione synthesis results in significant decreases in hepatic, perfusate and biliary glutathione concentrations, and increases in biliary amino acids. A decrease in bile flow rate was associated only with the most severe glutathione depletion.

  19. Effect of supplementation with methionine and different fat sources on the glutathione redox system of growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Katalin; Mézes, M; Gaál, T; Bartos, A; Balogh, K; Husvéth, F

    2004-01-01

    The effect of supplementary methionine and fats of different saturation levels on the glutathione redox system of growing broiler cockerels was studied. The diet of three groups of chicks was supplemented with corn germ oil, beef tallow and fish oil at the levels of 30 g/kg and 50 g/kg of feed, respectively. The diet of further three groups was supplemented with methionine (5 g/kg of feed) in addition to the different fat sources. Control chicks were fed with a compound feed without methionine and fat supplementation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) content as well as glutathione peroxidase activity in the liver were determined and GSH/GSSG ratio was calculated at day old and then at one and three weeks of age. Our results indicate that supplementary methionine stimulates both the synthesis of the glutathione redox system and glutathione peroxidase activity in growing chickens in the first period of postnatal life, when the risk of lipid peroxidation is high due to feeding unsaturated fats in the diet.

  20. Analysis of initial melanogenesis including tyrosinase transfer and melanosome differentiation through interrupted melanization by glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imokawa, G

    1989-07-01

    Because glycosylation-dependent melanization inhibition induced in cultured B-16 melanoma cells by glucosamine is reversible, producing synchronized initiation of melanogenesis after its removal, we have analyzed the possible dynamics of initial melanogenesis through their interruption by glutathione. The addition of glutathione at 0.2% concentration to the theophylline-stimulated recovery process completely interrupts the initiation of melanization for at least 72 h. At the electron microscopic level, theophylline-treated cells have many vacuolar melanosomes with distinct pigmentation which contain some vesicles (64% of total premelanosomes) or amorphous, filamentous, or granular materials within the interior which are suggestive of pheomelanotic melanosomes. The addition of glutathione induces a complete absence of melanization in the premelanosomes, within which a filamentous interior with periodicity is generally re-formed with almost complete disappearance of internal vesicles, providing dramatic changes to the size and shape characteristic of eumelanotic melanosome. Electron microscopic dopa reaction of glutathione-treated cells shows a predominant localization of tyrosinase activity in the Golgi-associated endoplasmic reticulum-lysosome and coated vesicles, but not in premelanosomes, in contrast to their dispersed distribution in all melanogenic organelles in the theophylline-treated control, suggesting a lack of tyrosinase translocation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of tyrosinase in the large granule fraction shows that in analogy with electron microscopic observations, glutathione blocks the reappearance of membrane-bound T3 tyrosinase which occurs in the theophylline-treated control during the recovery process, whereas the dynamics of T1 tyrosinase is almost the same as that of the control. These findings suggest that glutathione provides a new situation of interrupted melanogenesis in which melanization cannot proceed despite

  1. [Glutathione redox system, immune status, antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides in hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapbergenov, S O; Sovetov, B S; Bekbosynova, R B; Bolysbekova, S M

    2015-01-01

    The immune status, components of the glutathione redox system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and metabolism of purine nucleotides have been investigated in animals with experimental hypothyroidism. On day 8 after an increase in the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T-helpers and T-suppressors as well as increased number of B-lymphocytes was found in blood of thyroidectomized rats. This was accompanied by decreased activity of adenosine deaminase (AD), AMP-deaminase (AMPD), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) in blood, but the ratio of enzyme activity AD/AMPD increased. These changes in the activity of enzymes, involved in purine catabolism can be regarded as increased functional relationships between T and B lymphocytes in hypothyroidism. The functional changes of immune system cells were accompanied by increased activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), a decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) and the ratio GH/GPx. Thyroidectomized rats had increased amounts of total, oxidized (GSSG) and reduced glutathione (GSH), but the ratio GSH/GSSG decerased as compared with control animals. In the liver, hypothyroidism resulted in activation of SOD, GPx, decreased activity of GR and decreased ratio GR/GPx. At the same time, the levels of total, oxidized, and reduced glutathione increased, but the ratio GSH/GSSG as well as activities of enzymes involved in purine nucleotide metabolism ratio (and their ratio 5'N/AD + AMPD) decreased. All these data suggest a functional relationship of the glutathione redox system not only with antioxidant enzymes, but also activity of enzymes involved purine nucleotide metabolism and immune status.

  2. Immune regulation of Rab proteins expression and intracellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Gang; Bronietzki, Marc; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel

    2012-07-01

    Compartmentalization in cells of the immune system, the focus of this review, facilitates the spatiotemporal organization of cellular responses essential for specialized immune functions. In this process of compartment maintenance, Rab proteins are central regulators of protein-mediated transport and fusion of intracellular structures. It is widely believed that the intracellular concentration of proteins that regulate intracellular transport, including Rab proteins, is constitutively mantained. However, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that transcriptional rates of Rab proteins can be modified. This process is especially evident during immune activation and argues that after activation, these cells require higher levels of Rab proteins. The aim of this review is to discuss evidence showing the increasing links between Rab protein expression and intracellular transport, particularly in monocytes and macrophages. We highlight here biological processes in which the expression of Rab GTPases is selectively regulated, leading to the activation of specific intracellular routes. Further, we focus on the immune regulation of intracellular transport after cytokine activation and microbial infection, with an emphasis in mycobacterial infection.

  3. Modulation by glutathione of DNA strand breaks induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and its aldehyde metabolites in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, K; Castonguay, A

    1992-08-01

    Activation of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) produced methylating species and two aldehydes: formaldehyde and 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (OPB). We investigated the modulation by glutathione of single-strand breaks (SSB) generated by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and the two aldehydes. Hepatocytes were simultaneously exposed to 0.2 mM MNU and to 0-2.00 mM formaldehyde or OPB for 4 h. Both aldehydes induced SSB in a dose-dependent manner. Formaldehyde and OPB exerted a synergistic effect on the formation of DNA SSB by MNU. It is postulated that both aldehydes interfere with DNA repair processes and thus increase the genotoxic effect of DNA methylating species. We investigated whether glutathione (GSH) could protect DNA from NNK-derived intermediates. Formaldehyde (2 mM) and OPB (2 mM) decreased intracellular GSH contents to 60 and 86% of control respectively. DL-Buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) treatment reduced the GSH contents of hepatocytes to 19% of control but did not reduce the content of cytochrome P450 nor the metabolism of NNK. The frequency of DNA SSB induced by NNK, formaldehyde or OPB was significantly higher in GSH-depleted hepatocytes. GSH repletion with GSH monoethyl ester returned NNK-induced SSB to its initial frequency. OPB but not NNK nor formaldehyde induced double-strand breaks. We conclude that OPB and formaldehyde inhibit the repair of DNA damage induced by methylating species and that GSH reduces the level of DNA damage induced by NNK-derived reactive metabolites.

  4. Erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase: Its relationship to plasma selenium in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, G.; Cellerino, R.; Guidi, G.C.; Moschini, G.; Stievano, B.M.; Tregnaghi, C.

    1977-01-01

    Erythrocytic glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and plasma selenium concentrations were measured in 14 patients: 7 with iron deficiency and 7 with raised serum iron levels. The decreased enzymatic activity in iron deficiency was confirmed. Plasma selenium was significantly lower in patients with lower serum iron; furthermore there is a significant correlation between serum iron and plasma selenium concentrations. Another correlation even more significant was found between plasma selenium and enzyme activity in all the cases we studied. These data suggests that the importance of iron for GSH-Px activity may be merely due to its relationship with selenium and that plasma selenium concentration may be of critical importance for enzyme activity. (author)

  5. Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Urban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1 mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10–100 µM increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100 µM DEM, but not 1 mM DEM, whereas only 1 mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1 expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly

  6. Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Nadine; Tsitsipatis, Dimitrios; Hausig, Franziska; Kreuzer, Katrin; Erler, Katrin; Stein, Vanessa; Ristow, Michael; Steinbrenner, Holger; Klotz, Lars-Oliver

    2017-04-01

    The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH) representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM), an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10-100µM) increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100µM DEM, but not 1mM DEM, whereas only 1mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1) expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly hatched and developing worms

  7. Mathematical modeling of the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Sean D; Yun, Jina; Gamble, Mary V; Hall, Megan N; Reed, Michael C; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2014-05-16

    Arsenic is a major environmental toxin that is detoxified in the liver by biochemical mechanisms that are still under study. In the traditional metabolic pathway, arsenic undergoes two methylation reactions, each followed by a reduction, after which it is exported and released in the urine. Recent experiments show that glutathione plays an important role in arsenic detoxification and an alternative biochemical pathway has been proposed in which arsenic is first conjugated by glutathione after which the conjugates are methylated. In addition, in rats arsenic-glutathione conjugates can be exported into the plasma and removed by the liver in the bile. We have developed a mathematical model for arsenic biochemistry that includes three mechanisms by which glutathione affects arsenic methylation: glutathione increases the speed of the reduction steps; glutathione affects the activity of arsenic methyltranferase; glutathione sequesters inorganic arsenic and its methylated downstream products. The model is based as much as possible on the known biochemistry of arsenic methylation derived from cellular and experimental studies. We show that the model predicts and helps explain recent experimental data on the effects of glutathione on arsenic methylation. We explain why the experimental data imply that monomethyl arsonic acid inhibits the second methylation step. The model predicts time course data from recent experimental studies. We explain why increasing glutathione when it is low increases arsenic methylation and that at very high concentrations increasing glutathione decreases methylation. We explain why the possible temporal variation of the glutathione concentration affects the interpretation of experimental studies that last hours. The mathematical model aids in the interpretation of data from recent experimental studies and shows that the Challenger pathway of arsenic methylation, supplemented by the glutathione effects described above, is sufficient to understand

  8. Transport of glutathione into the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The tripeptide thiol glutathione (GSH) is present in the nucleus of plant and animal cells. However, the functions of GSH in the nucleus remain poorly characterised. GSH appears to become sequestered in the nucleus at the early stages of the cell cycle. As part of our search for proteins that may be involved in GSH transport into the nucleus, we studied the functions of the nucleoporin called Alacrima Achalasia aDrenal Insufficiency Neurologic disorder (ALADIN). ALADIN is encoded by the Achalasia-Addisonianism-Alacrimia (AAAS) gene in mammalian cells. Defects in ALADIN promote adrenal disorders and lead to the triple A syndrome in humans. The ALADIN protein localizes to the nuclear envelope in Arabidopsis thaliana and interacts with other components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We characterised the functions of the ALADIN protein in an Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA insertion knockout mutant, which shows slow growth compared to the wild type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Intracellular ion channels and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLeanza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Several types of channels play a role in the maintenance of ion homeostasis in subcellular organelles including endoplasmatic reticulum, nucleus, lysosome, endosome and mitochondria. Here we give a brief overview of the contribution of various mitochondrial and other organellar channels to cancer cell proliferation or death. Much attention is focused on channels involved in intracellular calcium signaling and on ion fluxes in the ATP-producing organelle mitochondria. Mitochondrial K+ channels (Ca2+-dependent BKCa and IKCa, ATP-dependent KATP, Kv1.3, two-pore TWIK-related Acid-Sensitive K+ channel-3 (TASK-3, Ca2+ uniporter MCU, Mg2+-permeable Mrs2, anion channels (voltage-dependent chloride channel VDAC, intracellular chloride channel CLIC and the Permeability Transition Pore (MPTP contribute importantly to the regulation of function in this organelle. Since mitochondria play a central role in apoptosis, modulation of their ion channels by pharmacological means may lead to death of cancer cells. The nuclear potassium channel Kv10.1 and the nuclear chloride channel CLIC4 as well as the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER-located inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, the ER-located Ca2+ depletion sensor STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1, a component of the store-operated Ca2+ channel and the ER-resident TRPM8 are also mentioned. Furthermore, pharmacological tools affecting organellar channels and modulating cancer cell survival are discussed. The channels described in this review are summarized on Figure 1. Overall, the view is emerging that intracellular ion channels may represent a promising target for cancer treatment.

  10. In-house preparation of hydrogels for batch affinity purification of glutathione S-transferase tagged recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhrman Jason S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many branches of biomedical research find use for pure recombinant proteins for direct application or to study other molecules and pathways. Glutathione affinity purification is commonly used to isolate and purify glutathione S-transferase (GST-tagged fusion proteins from total cellular proteins in lysates. Although GST affinity materials are commercially available as glutathione immobilized on beaded agarose resins, few simple options for in-house production of those systems exist. Herein, we describe a novel method for the purification of GST-tagged recombinant proteins. Results Glutathione was conjugated to low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA via thiol-ene “click” chemistry. With our in-house prepared PEGDA:glutathione (PEGDA:GSH homogenates, we were able to purify a glutathione S-transferase (GST green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion protein (GST-GFP from the soluble fraction of E. coli lysate. Further, microspheres were formed from the PEGDA:GSH hydrogels and improved protein binding to a level comparable to purchased GSH-agarose beads. Conclusions GSH containing polymers might find use as in-house methods of protein purification. They exhibited similar ability to purify GST tagged proteins as purchased GSH agarose beads.

  11. Effects of inactivity on human muscle glutathione synthesis by a double-tracer and single-biopsy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Francesco; Dalla Libera, Luciano; Rittweger, Jörn; Mazzucco, Sara; Jurdana, Mihaela; Mekjavic, Igor B; Pisot, Rado; Gorza, Luisa; Narici, Marco; Biolo, Gianni

    2010-12-15

    Oxidative stress is often associated to inactivity-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy. Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant systems stimulated, both at muscular and systemic level, by activation of oxidative processes. We measured changes in glutathione availability, oxidative stress induction and the extent of atrophy mediated by 35 days of experimental bed rest in vastus lateralis muscle of healthy human volunteers. To assess muscle glutathione synthesis, we applied a novel single-biopsy and double-tracer ([(2)H(2)]glycine and [(15)N]glycine) approach based on evaluation of steady-state precursor incorporation in product. The correlations between the traditional (multiple-samples, one-tracer) and new (one-sample, double-tracer infusion) methods were analysed in erythrocytes by Passing-Bablok and Altman-Bland tests. Muscle glutathione absolute synthesis rate increased following bed rest from 5.5 ± 1.1 to 11.0 ± 1.5 mmol (kg wet tissue)(-1) day(-1) (mean ± S.E.M.; n = 9; P = 0.02) while glutathione concentration failed to change significantly. Bed rest induced vastus lateralis muscle atrophy, as assessed by pennation angle changes measured by ultrasonography (from 18.6 ± 1.0 to 15.3 ± 0.9 deg; P = 0.01) and thickness changes (from 2.3 ± 0.2 to 1.9 ± 0.1 cm; P well as to compensatory activation of the glutathione system.

  12. Drosophila VAMP7 regulates Wingless intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; He, Fang; Lin, Xinhua; Wu, Yihui

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila Wingless (Wg) is a morphogen that determines cell fate during development. Previous studies have shown that endocytic pathways regulate Wg trafficking and signaling. Here, we showed that loss of vamp7, a gene required for vesicle fusion, dramatically increased Wg levels and decreased Wg signaling. Interestingly, we found that levels of Dally-like (Dlp), a glypican that can interact with Wg to suppress Wg signaling at the dorsoventral boundary of the Drosophila wing, were also increased in vamp7 mutant cells. Moreover, Wg puncta in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes were Dlp positive. We hypothesize that VAMP7 is required for Wg intracellular trafficking and the accumulation of Wg in Rab4-dependent recycling endosomes might affect Wg signaling.

  13. Effects Of Alcohol And Paracetamol On Hepatic Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of paracetamol on hepatic glutathione concentration in rats after chronic alcohol and given intoxication was investigated using biochemical indices. Male albino rats were grouped into five and the different dosage regimens of paracetamol (300 mg/kg) and 12% alcohol. Hepatic glutathione concentration and the ...

  14. Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... Msanda F, El Aboudi A, Peltier JP (2005). Biodiversity and biogeography of Moroccan argan tree communities. Cah. Agric. 4:357-364. Nagalakshmi N, Prasad MNV (2001). Responses of glutathione cycle enzymes and glutathione metabolism to copper stress in. Scenedesmus bijugatus. Plant Sci.

  15. Molecular characterization of zeta class glutathione S-transferases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013 Exogenous salicylic acid enhances wheat drought tolerance by influence on the expression of genes related to ascorbate–glutathione cycle. Biol. Plant 57, 718–724. McGonigle B., Keeler S. J., Lau S. M, Koeppe M. K and O'Keefe. D. P. 2000 A genomic approach to the comprehensive analysis of the glutathione ...

  16. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  17. Kinetic analysis of glutathione transferase from rats exposed to sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lethal and sublethal doses of lead acetate on the induction and kinetic characteristics of glutathione transferase (GST) isozymes in rat liver and kidney were investigated. GST isozymes induction was monitored by the ability of the induced enzyme to conjugate glutathione (GSH) with model GST substrates.

  18. Intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, S; Chevalier, J; Cremieux, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin in mycobacteria, two methods were used with Mycobacterium smegmatis. A radiometric method (K. V. Cundy, C. E. Fasching, K. E. Willard, and L. R. Peterson, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:491-497, 1991) was used without great modification, but the fluorometric method (P. G. S. Mortimer and L. J. V. Piddock, J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 28:639-653, 1991) was changed considerably. Indeed, adsorption of the quinolone to the bacterial surface was characterized by measuring the level of accumulation of 0 degree C. Taking into account the adsorption, the pH of the washing buffer was increased from 7.0 to 9.0 to improve the desorption of norfloxacin from the cell surface. Both the fluorometric method, with the technical improvement, and the radiometric method could be used to estimate the intracellular accumulation of norfloxacin, which resulted from the difference between the whole uptake measured at 37 degrees C and the adsorption measured at 0 degrees C. A total of 35 ng of norfloxacin per mg of cells (dry weight) penetrated into the M. smegmatis cell, and the steady state was achieved in 5 min. Use of inhibitors of the proton motive force revealed that transport of norfloxacin was energy independent. Thus, the same mechanisms of quinolone accumulation that occur in eubacteria seem to occur in mycobacteria, at least in M. smegmatis. PMID:8585727

  19. Correlation between endogenous glutathione content and sensitivity of cultured human skin cells to radiation at defined wavelengths in the solar ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pidoux, M.

    1988-01-01

    Glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts by treatment with buthionine-S.R.-sulfoximine (BSO) sensitises them to solar UV radiation. We now show that there is a close quantitative correlation between cellular glutathione content and sensitivity to radiation at 365 nm. A weaker correlation is observed when cells are depleted of glutathione using diethylmaleimide. Both fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes derived from the same foreskin biopsy are sensitised to radiation at 313 nm by glutathione depletion. At low to intermediate fluence levels, 10 mM cysteamine present during irradiation at 302 nm is able to almost completely reverse the sensitising effects of glutathione depletion suggesting that the endogenous thiol protects against radiation at this wavelength by a free radical scavenging mechanism. At 313 nm, the sensitisation is not reversed by cysteamine suggesting that glutathione plays a more specific role in protection against radiation at longer wavelengths. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts (excision deficient) are also sensitised to radiation at 313 and 365 nm by depletion of glutathione. The results provide further evidence that endogenous glutathione is involved in protecting human skin cells against a wide range of solar radiation damage. (author)

  20. Glutathione in Cellular Redox Homeostasis: Association with the Excitatory Amino Acid Carrier 1 (EAAC1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Aoyama

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are by-products of the cellular metabolism of oxygen consumption, produced mainly in the mitochondria. ROS are known to be highly reactive ions or free radicals containing oxygen that impair redox homeostasis and cellular functions, leading to cell death. Under physiological conditions, a variety of antioxidant systems scavenge ROS to maintain the intracellular redox homeostasis and normal cellular functions. This review focuses on the antioxidant system’s roles in maintaining redox homeostasis. Especially, glutathione (GSH is the most important thiol-containing molecule, as it functions as a redox buffer, antioxidant, and enzyme cofactor against oxidative stress. In the brain, dysfunction of GSH synthesis leading to GSH depletion exacerbates oxidative stress, which is linked to a pathogenesis of aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Excitatory amino acid carrier 1 (EAAC1 plays a pivotal role in neuronal GSH synthesis. The regulatory mechanism of EAAC1 is also discussed.

  1. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usta, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Vervoort, J.; Boersma, M.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, P.J. van; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound, reacts with glutathione, leading to the formation of two monoglutathionyl curcumin conjugates. In the present study, the structures of both glutathione conjugates of curcumin were identified by LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional 1H NMR analysis, and

  2. Human glutathione S-transferase-mediated glutathione conjugation of curcumin and efflux of these conjugates in Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Usta, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Cnubben, N.H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Curcumin, an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compound, reacts with glutathione, leading to the formation of two monoglutathionyl curcumin conjugates. In the present study, the structures of both glutathione conjugates of curcumin were identified by LC-MS and one- and two-dimensional H-1 NMR

  3. Catalysis of Silver catfish Major Hepatic Glutathione Transferase proceeds via rapid equilibrium sequential random Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish hepatic glutathione transferases are connected with the elimination of intracellular pollutants and detoxification of organic micro-pollutants in their aquatic ecosystem. The two-substrate steady state kinetic mechanism of Silver catfish (Synodontis eupterus major hepatic glutathione transferases purified to apparent homogeneity was explored. The enzyme was dimeric enzyme with a monomeric size of 25.6 kDa. Initial-velocity studies and Product inhibition patterns by methyl glutathione and chloride with respect to GSH-CDNB; GSH-ρ-nitrophenylacetate; and GSH-Ethacrynic acid all conforms to a rapid equilibrium sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism rather than steady state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic. α was 2.96 ± 0.35 for the model. The pH profile of Vmax/KM (with saturating 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and variable GSH concentrations showed apparent pKa value of 6.88 and 9.86. Inhibition studies as a function of inhibitor concentration show that the enzyme is a homodimer and near neutral GST. The enzyme poorly conjugates 4-hydroxylnonenal and cumene hydroperoxide and may not be involved in oxidative stress protection. The seGST is unique and overwhelmingly shows characteristics similar to those of homodimeric class Pi GSTs, as was indicated by its kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and inhibition studies. The rate- limiting step, probably the product release, of the reaction is viscosity-dependent and is consequential if macro-viscosogen or micro-viscosogen.

  4. Ethanol induced attenuation of oxidative stress is unable to alter mRNA expression pattern of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S- transferase (GST1A), and superoxide dismutase (SOD3) enzymes in Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghui; Shariat-Madar, Bahbak; Haron, Mona H.; Wu, Mengmeng; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Dasmahapatra, Asok K.

    2010-01-01

    Although the mechanism of ethanol toxicity during embryogenesis is unknown, our earlier studies on Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos indicated that the effects might be mediated through oxidative stress. In this study we have determined the oxidative stress and the mRNA content of four antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and superoxide dismutase) during Japanese rice fish embryogenesis (from 0 day post-fertilization to hatching) and after exposing the embryos to ethanol (100 and 300 mM) for 48 h at three stages (0–2, 1–3 and 4–6 day post fertilization, dpf) of organogenesis. We observed that oxidative stress was minimal in blastula, gastrula or neurula stages, increased gradually with the advancement of morphogenesis and reached its maximum level in hatchlings. The antioxidant enzyme mRNAs were constitutively expressed throughout development; however, the expression pattern was not identical among the enzymes. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNAs were minimal in the fertilized eggs, but increased significantly in 1 dpf and then either sharply dropped (SOD) or maintained a steady-state (catalase). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) was very high in fertilized eggs and sharply dropped 1 dpf and then gradually increased thereafter. Glutathione reductase (GR) maintained a steady-state throughout the development. Ethanol was able to attenuate oxidative stress in embryos exposed only to 300 mM 1–3 dpf; no significant difference with controls was observed in other ethanol-treated groups. The antioxidant enzyme mRNAs also remained unaltered after ethanol treatment. From these data we conclude that the attenuation of oxidative stress by ethanol is probably due to the inhibition of normal growth of the embryos rather than by inhibiting catalase, GST, GR or SOD- dependent activities. PMID:20965276

  5. Interactions of [alpha,beta]-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with the glutathione-related biotransformation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.L.P.S.

    1998-01-01

    Introduction
    Modulation of glutathione-related biotransformation steps may play a role in important phenomena as anticarcinogenicity and multidrug resistance. Glutathione-related biotransformation comprises three main aspects i.e. glutathione, the

  6. Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating JNK and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Khz is a compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia that inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The results of the present study show that Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz induced apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i and activating JNK to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was demonstrated by the translocation of regulatory subunits p47(phox and p67(phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz. Khz triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca(2+](i, which activated JNK. JNK plays a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47(phox and p67(phox subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca(2+](i, JNK activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria.

  7. Cadmium Induces Transcription Independently of Intracellular Calcium Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvermoes, Brooke E.; Bird, Gary S.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca2+]i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60), which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca2+]i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription. PMID:21694771

  8. Effects of Combined Low Glutathione with Mild Oxidative and Low Phosphorus Stress on the Metabolism of Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Atsushi Fukushima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants possess highly sensitive mechanisms that monitor environmental stress levels for a dose-dependent fine-tuning of their growth and development. Differences in plant responses to severe and mild abiotic stresses have been recognized. Although many studies have revealed that glutathione can contribute to plant tolerance to various environmental stresses, little is known about the relationship between glutathione and mild abiotic stress, especially the effect of stress-induced altered glutathione levels on the metabolism. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to identify key pathways involved in the gene-to-metabolite networks perturbed by low glutathione content under mild abiotic stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. We used glutathione synthesis mutants (cad2-1 and pad2-1 and plants overexpressing the gene encoding γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, the first enzyme of the glutathione biosynthetic pathway. The plants were exposed to two mild stress conditions—oxidative stress elicited by methyl viologen and stress induced by the limited availability of phosphate. We observed that the mutants and transgenic plants showed similar shoot growth as that of the wild-type plants under mild abiotic stress. We then selected the synthesis mutants and performed multi-platform metabolomics and microarray experiments to evaluate the possible effects on the overall metabolome and the transcriptome. As a common oxidative stress response, several flavonoids that we assessed showed overaccumulation, whereas the mild phosphate stress resulted in increased levels of specific kaempferol- and quercetin-glycosides. Remarkably, in addition to a significant increased level of sugar, osmolytes, and lipids as mild oxidative stress-responsive metabolites, short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates over-accumulated in the mutants, whereas the level of long-chain aliphatic glucosinolates and specific lipids decreased. Coordinated gene expressions related to glucosinolate and

  9. Expression of glutathione transferases in corneal cell lines, corneal tissues and a human cornea construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölln, Christian; Reichl, Stephan

    2016-06-15

    Glutathione transferase (GST) expression and activity were examined in a three-dimensional human cornea construct and were compared to those of excised animal corneas. The objective of this study was to characterize phase II enzyme expression in the cornea construct with respect to its utility as an alternative to animal cornea models. The expression of the GSTO1-1 and GSTP1-1 enzymes was investigated using immunofluorescence staining and western blotting. The level of total glutathione transferase activity was determined using 1-chloro-2,4- dinitrobenzene as the substrate. Furthermore, the levels of GSTO1-1 and GSTP1-1 activity were examined using S-(4-nitrophenacyl)glutathione and ethacrynic acid, respectively, as the specific substrates. The expression and activity levels of these enzymes were examined in the epithelium, stroma and endothelium, the three main cellular layers of the cornea. In summary, the investigated enzymes were detected at both the protein and functional levels in the cornea construct and the excised animal corneas. However, the enzymatic activity levels of the human cornea construct were lower than those of the animal corneas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying intracellular hydrogen peroxide perturbations in terms of concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Beijing K.; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular level, mechanistic understanding of the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a variety of pathological conditions is hindered by the difficulties associated with determining the concentration of various ROS species. Here, we present an approach that converts fold-change in the signal from an intracellular sensor of hydrogen peroxide into changes in absolute concentration. The method uses extracellular additions of peroxide and an improved biochemical measurement of the gradient between extracellular and intracellular peroxide concentrations to calibrate the intracellular sensor. By measuring peroxiredoxin activity, we found that this gradient is 650-fold rather than the 7–10-fold that is widely cited. The resulting calibration is important for understanding the mass-action kinetics of complex networks of redox reactions, and it enables meaningful characterization and comparison of outputs from endogenous peroxide generating tools and therapeutics across studies. PMID:25460730

  11. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  12. Augmentation of glutathione in the fluid lining the epithelium of the lower respiratory tract by directly administering glutathione aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, R; Vogelmeier, C; Critenden, M; Hubbard, R C; Hoyt, R F; Wilson, E M; Cantin, A M; Crystal, R G

    1990-06-01

    Glutathione (GSH), a cysteine-containing tripeptide, functions as an antioxidant, provides cells with cysteine, and is required for optimal function of the immune system. Because the epithelial-lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract normally contains high GSH levels and lung ELF GSH deficiency states can exist, we evaluated the feasibility of augmenting lung ELF GSH levels by (i) administering GSH to sheep i.v. and by direct aerosolization and then (ii) measuring the GSH levels in lung ELF, lung lymph, venous plasma, and urine. When GSH (600 mg) was administered i.v. (n = 11), GSH levels in venous plasma, lung lymph, and ELF rose, but only transiently, suggesting the i.v. route would not deliver adequate GSH to the alveolar epithelial surface. For directly administering GSH to the lung by the aerosol route, in vitro studies were first conducted to show that greater than 50% of a GSH solution could be converted to droplets less than 3 microns in aerodynamic diameter without oxidizing the GSH. To target functional GSH to the lower respiratory tract, an aerosolized solution of GSH (600 mg) was administered to sheep (n = 12). Significantly, the GSH level in ELF increased 7-fold at 30 min (preaerosol, 45.7 +/- 10 microM; 30-min postaerosol, 337 +/- 64 microM; P less than 0.001). The ELF GSH levels remained above baseline at 1 hr (P less than 0.01), returning toward baseline over a 2-hr period. In contrast, GSH levels in lung lymph, venous plasma, and urine were not significantly increased during the period--i.e., aerosol therapy selectively augmented the GSH levels only at the lung epithelial surface. Thus, functional GSH can be delivered by aerosol to directly augment the ELF GSH levels of the lower respiratory tract. Such an approach may prove useful in treating a variety of lung disorders.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of intracellular ions in perfused from heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, D.; Fossel, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular sodium, potassium, and lithium were observed in a perfused frog heart by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A perfusate buffer containing the shift reagent, dysprosium tripolyphosphate, was used in combination with mathematical filtering or presaturation of the extracellular resonance to separate the intra- and extracellular sodium NMR signals. Addition of 10 μM ouabain to the perfusate, perfusion with a zero potassium, low-calcium buffer, and replacement of 66% of the perfusate sodium with lithium resulted in changes in the intracellular sodium levels. An increase of 45% in the intracellular sodium was observed when changing the pacing rate from 0 to 60 beats/min (with proportional changes for intermediate pacing rates). The ratio of intracellular potassium to sodium concentration was determined to be 2.3 by NMR, indicating that a substantial amount of the intracellular potassium is undetectable with these NMR method. In addition, intracellular lithium was observed during perfusion with a lithium-containing perfusate

  14. The Genetic Architecture of Murine Glutathione Transferases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    Full Text Available Glutathione S-transferase (GST genes play a protective role against oxidative stress and may influence disease risk and drug pharmacokinetics. In this study, massive multiscalar trait profiling across a large population of mice derived from a cross between C57BL/6J (B6 and DBA2/J (D2--the BXD family--was combined with linkage and bioinformatic analyses to characterize mechanisms controlling GST expression and to identify downstream consequences of this variation. Similar to humans, mice show a wide range in expression of GST family members. Variation in the expression of Gsta4, Gstt2, Gstz1, Gsto1, and Mgst3 is modulated by local expression QTLs (eQTLs in several tissues. Higher expression of Gsto1 in brain and liver of BXD strains is strongly associated (P < 0.01 with inheritance of the B6 parental allele whereas higher expression of Gsta4 and Mgst3 in brain and liver, and Gstt2 and Gstz1 in brain is strongly associated with inheritance of the D2 parental allele. Allele-specific assays confirmed that expression of Gsto1, Gsta4, and Mgst3 are modulated by sequence variants within or near each gene locus. We exploited this endogenous variation to identify coexpression networks and downstream targets in mouse and human. Through a combined systems genetics approach, we provide new insight into the biological role of naturally occurring variants in GST genes.

  15. Glutathione may have implications in the design of 3-bromopyruvate treatment protocols for both fungal and algal infections as well as multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecka, Katarzyna; Dyląg, Mariusz; Augustyniak, Daria; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grażyna; Cal-Bąkowska, Magdalena; Ko, Young H; Pedersen, Peter L; Goffeau, Andre; Ułaszewski, Stanisław

    2016-10-04

    In different fungal and algal species, the intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) correlates closely with their susceptibility to killing by the small molecule alkylating agent 3-bromopyruvate (3BP). Additionally, in the case of Cryptococcus neoformans cells 3BP exhibits a synergistic effect with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a known GSH depletion agent. This effect was observed when 3BP and BSO were used together at concentrations respectively of 4-5 and almost 8 times lower than their Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Finally, at different concentrations of 3BP (equal to the half-MIC, MIC and double-MIC in a case of fungi, 1 mM and 2.5 mM for microalgae and 25, 50, 100 μM for human multiple myeloma (MM) cells), a significant decrease in GSH concentration is observed inside microorganisms as well as tumor cells. In contrast to the GSH concentration decrease, the presence of 3BP at concentrations corresponding to sub-MIC values or half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) clearly results in increasing the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of GSH in Cryptococcus neoformans and MM cells. Moreover, as shown for the first time in the MM cell model, the drastic decrease in the ATP level and GSH concentration and the increase in the amount of ROS caused by 3BP ultimately results in cell death.

  16. MAPK inhibitors, particularly the JNK inhibitor, increase cell death effects in H2O2-treated lung cancer cells via increased superoxide anion and glutathione depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induce apoptosis in cancer cells by regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The present study investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on cell growth and death as well as changes in ROS and glutathione (GSH) levels in H2O2-treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells. H2O2 inhibited growth and induced death of Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells. All MAPK inhibitors appeared to enhance growth inhibition in H2O2-treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells and increased the percentage of Annexin V-FITC-positive cells in these cancer cells. Among the MAPK inhibitors, a JNK inhibitor significantly augmented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP; ΔΨm) in H2O2-treated Calu-6 and A549 lung cancer cells. Intracellular ROS levels were significantly increased in the H2O2-treated cells at 1 and 24 h. Only the JNK inhibitor increased ROS levels in the H2O2-treated cells at 1 h and all MAPK inhibitors raised superoxide anion levels in these cells at 24 h. In addition, H2O2 induced GSH depletion in Calu-6 and A549 cells and the JNK inhibitor significantly enhanced GSH depletion in H2O2‑treated cells. Each of the MAPK inhibitors altered ROS and GSH levels differently in the Calu-6 and A549 control cells. In conclusion, H2O2 induced growth inhibition and death in lung cancer cells through oxidative stress and depletion of GSH. The enhanced effect of MAPK inhibitors, especially the JNK inhibitor, on cell death in H2O2-treated lung cancer cells was correlated with increased O2•- levels and GSH depletion.

  17. Optimization of Reduced Glutathione Production by a Lactobacillus plantarum Isolate Using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa A; Khedr, Eman G; Ali, Safaa M

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we aim to optimize the production of reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesized intracellularly by a food-grade microorganism through a statistical approach. Using a colorimetric method, 25 Lactobacillus plantarum isolates were screened in an attempt to find a GSH-producing strain. It was found that 36% of the tested isolates showed positive result. Isolate (L 7 ) was found to produce 152.61 μM glutathione per gram which was the highest amount produced intracellularly. Accordingly, the later isolate was selected for the optimization process using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs. Temperature, amino acids, and urea were found to be the most significant independent variables. Following data analysis, the composition of the optimized medium was De Man-Sharp-Rogosa broth as a basal medium supplemented with NaCl (5%), H 2 O 2 (0.05%), sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.05%), amino acids (0.0281%), and urea (0.192%). The pH of the medium was adjusted to 8 and incubated for 24 h at 40°C. The GSH amount was increased by 10-fold (851%) using the optimized medium. Hence, our optimization design estimated the biotechnological potential of L. plantarum (L 7 ) for the production of GSH in the industry.

  18. Optimization of Reduced Glutathione Production by a Lactobacillus plantarum Isolate Using Plackett–Burman and Box–Behnken Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Madboly, Lamiaa A.; Khedr, Eman G.; Ali, Safaa M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we aim to optimize the production of reduced glutathione (GSH) synthesized intracellularly by a food-grade microorganism through a statistical approach. Using a colorimetric method, 25 Lactobacillus plantarum isolates were screened in an attempt to find a GSH-producing strain. It was found that 36% of the tested isolates showed positive result. Isolate (L7) was found to produce 152.61 μM glutathione per gram which was the highest amount produced intracellularly. Accordingly, the later isolate was selected for the optimization process using Plackett–Burman and Box–Behnken designs. Temperature, amino acids, and urea were found to be the most significant independent variables. Following data analysis, the composition of the optimized medium was De Man-Sharp-Rogosa broth as a basal medium supplemented with NaCl (5%), H2O2 (0.05%), sodium dodecyl sulfate (0.05%), amino acids (0.0281%), and urea (0.192%). The pH of the medium was adjusted to 8 and incubated for 24 h at 40°C. The GSH amount was increased by 10-fold (851%) using the optimized medium. Hence, our optimization design estimated the biotechnological potential of L. plantarum (L7) for the production of GSH in the industry. PMID:28536556

  19. Bioreducible Lipid-like Nanoparticles for Intracellular Protein Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Carlos Luis

    Protein-based therapy is one of the most direct ways to manipulate cell function and treat human disease. Although protein therapeutics has made its way to clinical practice, with five of the top fifteen global pharmaceuticals being peptide or protein-based drugs, one common limitation is that the effects of protein therapy are only achieved through the targeting of cell surface receptors and intracellular domains. Due to the impermeability of the cell membrane to most foreign materials, entire classes of potentially therapeutic proteins cannot thoroughly be studied without a safe and efficient method of transporting proteins into the cytosol. We report the use of a combinatorially-designed bioreducible lipid-like material (termed "lipidoid") - based protein delivery platform for the transfection of human cancer cell lines. Lipidoid nanoparticles are synthesized through a thin film dispersion method. The degradation of the bioreducible nanoparticles was observed when exposed to glutathione, a highly reductive compound present in the cytosol. We demonstrate that the nanoparticles are capable of transfecting a dose-dependent concentration of our model protein, beta-galactosidase into HeLa cells. Furthermore, formulations of the lipidoid containing the cytotoxic proteins saporin and RNase-A are both capable of inhibiting tumor cell proliferation as observed in in vitro treatment of different human cancer cell lines. There was no observed loss in protein activity after lyophilization and long--term storage, indicating the potential of pre-clinical applications. Overall, we demonstrate an effective approach to protein formulation and intracellular delivery. We believe that our formulations will lead to the study of a whole class of previously untapped therapeutics that may generate new solutions for previously untreatable diseases.

  20. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Chung

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE, GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders.

  1. Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) to delineate estradiol, glutathione and homocysteine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Iyyapu Krishna; Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Jacob, Rachel; Sushma Chander, Nooguri; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Radha Rama Devi, Akella; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad

    2017-08-01

    The rationale of the current study was to elucidate the contributing factors for the gender-based differences in total plasma homocysteine levels. A total of 413 subjects comprising of 293 men and 120 women were enrolled for the study. Chemiluminescence technology for vitamin B 12 , folate and total plasma homocysteine; ELISA for estradiol and 8-oxo-2-deoxyguanosine; Ellman's method for total glutathione; and PCR-RFLP analysis for the detection of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism were employed. No statistically significant differences were observed between the men and women in the distribution of age (p = 0.82), vitamin B 12 (p = 0.23), folate (p = 0.36) and MTHFR C677T polymorphism (p = 0.35). However, the total plasma homocysteine levels were higher in men compared to women (28.4 ± 17.9 vs. 20.6 ± 13.6 μmol/L, p neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) were developed to understand trivariate interactions among estradiol, glutathione and homocysteine. In the presence of adequate estradiol levels, inverse association was observed between glutathione and homocysteine. This association is lost when estradiol levels were inadequate. Estradiol was found to quench homocysteine mediated oxidative DNA damage. Irrespective of gender, combined deficiency of vitamin B 12 and folate showed positive association with hyperhomocysteinemia and vice versa. Homocysteine reduction in response to vitamin status varied according to gender with men responding to folate and women responding to B 12 . To conclude, gender-differences in homocysteine are attributable estradiol mediated lowering of homocysteine that prevents inactivation of glutathione mediated oxidative defense in women. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of glutathione in immunity and inflammation in the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Ghezzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pietro GhezziBrighton and Sussex Medical School, Trafford Centre, Falmer, Brighton, UKAbstract: Reactive oxygen species and thiol antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, regulate innate immunity at various levels. This review outlines the redox-sensitive steps of the cellular mechanisms implicated in inflammation and host defense against infection, and describes how GSH is not only important as an antioxidant but also as a signaling molecule. There is an extensive literature of the role of GSH in immunity. Most reviews are biased by an oversimplified picture where “bad” free radicals cause all sorts of diseases and “good” antioxidants protect from them and prevent oxidative stress. While this may be the case in certain fields (eg, toxicology, the role of thiols (the topic of this review in immunity certainly requires wearing scientist’s goggles and being prepared to accept a more complex picture. This review aims at describing the role of GSH in the lung in the context of immunity and inflammation. The first part summarizes the history and basic concepts of this picture. The second part focuses on GSH metabolism/levels in pathology, the third on the role of GSH in innate immunity and inflammation, and the fourth gives 4 examples describing the importance of GSH in the response to infections.Keywords: antioxidants, oxidative stress, sepsis, infection, cysteine

  3. The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Buschbacher, Ralph M.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    The low molecular weight thiol composition of a variety of phototropic microorganisms is examined in order to ascertain how evolution of glutathione (GSH) production is related to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols (RSH) to fluorescent derivatives (RSmB) which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Significant levels of GSH were not found in green sulfur bacteria. Substantial levels were present in purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and eukaryotic algae. Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide. Many of the organisms also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability which was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5 prime-bisdithio - (2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of reactive disulfides. The distribution of GSH in phototropic eubacteria indicates that GSH synthesis evolved at or around the time that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved.

  4. Hemoglobin-catalyzed fluorometric method for the determination of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Lin; Li, Hua; Wang, Yi; Gou, Rong; Guo, Yuanyuan; Fang, Yudong; Chen, Fengmei

    2016-01-01

    A new spectrofluorometric method for the determination of glutathione based on the reaction catalyzed by hemoglobin was reported. The reaction product gave a highly fluorescent intensity with the excitation and emission wavelengths of 320.0 nm and 413.0 nm, respectively. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated. Results showed that low concentration glutathione enhanced the fluorescence intensity significantly. The line ranges were 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 of glutathione and 6.0 × 10-10 mol L-1-1.0 × 10-8 mol L-1, respectively. The detection limit was calculated to be 1.1 × 10-11 mol L-1. The recovery test by the standard addition method gave values in the range of 90.78%-102.20%. This method was used for the determination of glutathione in synthetic and real samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Thiol-Disulfide Exchange between Glutaredoxin and Glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rasmus; Andersen, Peter Anders; Jensen, Kristine Steen

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxins are ubiquitous thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases which catalyze the reduction of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides. Belonging to the thioredoxin family, they contain a conserved active site CXXC motif. The N-proximal active site cysteine can form a mixed disulfide with glutathione ...... has been replaced with serine. The exchange reaction between the reduced protein and oxidized glutathione leading to formation of the mixed disulfide could readily be monitored by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) due to the enthalpic contributions from the noncovalent interactions...... and the protonation of glutathione thiolate. An algorithm for the analysis of this type of reaction by ITC was developed and showed that the interaction is enthalpy driven with a large entropy penalty. The applicability of the method was verified by a mass spectrometry-based approach, which gave a standard reduction...

  6. Purification and biochemical characterization of a novel glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    dinitrobenzene as a substrate. ..... purification of GST enzyme from other insect species, which were from 3 to 26% in Hyphantria .... Glutathione S-transferases from the larval gut of the silkworm. Bombyx mori: cDNA cloning, gene ...

  7. Subcellular distribution of glutathione and cysteine in cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Zechmann, Bernd; Tomašić, Ana; Horvat, Lucija; Fulgosi, Hrvoje

    2010-01-01

    Glutathione plays numerous important functions in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Whereas it can be found in virtually all eukaryotic cells, its production in prokaryotes is restricted to cyanobacteria and proteobacteria and a few strains of gram-positive bacteria. In bacteria, it is involved in the protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS), osmotic shock, acidic conditions, toxic chemicals, and heavy metals. Glutathione synthesis in bacteria takes place in two steps out of cysteine,...

  8. Nanofiltration concentration of extracellular glutathione produced by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kengo; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize extracellular glutathione production by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain and to concentrate the extracellular glutathione by membrane separation processes, including ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF). Synthetic defined (SD) medium containing 20 g L(-1) glucose was fermented for 48 h; the fermentation liquid was passed through an UF membrane to remove macromolecules. Glutathione in this permeate was concentrated for 48 h to 545.1 ± 33.6 mg L(-1) using the NF membrane; this was a significantly higher concentration than that obtained with yeast extract peptone dextrose (YPD) medium following 96 h NF concentration (217.9 ± 57.4 mg L(-1)). This higher glutathione concentration results from lower cellular growth in SD medium (final OD600 = 6.9 ± 0.1) than in YPD medium (final OD600 = 11.0 ± 0.6) and thus higher production of extracellular glutathione (16.0 ± 1.3 compared to 9.2 ± 2.1 mg L(-1) in YPD medium, respectively). Similar fermentation and membrane processing of sweet sorghum juice containing 20 g L(-1) total sugars provided 240.3 ± 60.6 mg L(-1) glutathione. Increased extracellular production of glutathione by this engineered strain in SD medium and subsequent UF permeation and NF concentration in shortend time may help realize industrial recovery of extracellular glutathione. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluorescence detection of glutathione and oxidized glutathione in blood with a NIR-excitable cyanine probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Hui; Qi, Feng-Pei; Wen, Fu-Bin; Long, Li-Ping; Liu, Ai-Juan; Yang, Rong-Hua

    2018-01-19

    Cyanine has been widely utilized as a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore for detection of glutathione (GSH). However, the excitation of most of the reported cyanine-based probes was less than 800 nm, which inevitably induce biological background absorption and lower the sensitivity, limiting their use for detection of GSH in blood samples. To address this issue, here, a heptamethine cyanine probe (DNIR), with a NIR excitation wavelength at 804 nm and a NIR emission wavelength at 832 nm, is employed for the detection of GSH and its oxidized form (GSSG) in blood. The probe displays excellent selectivity for GSH over GSSG and other amino acids, and rapid response to GSH, in particular a good property for indirect detection of GSSG in the presence of enzyme glutathione reductase and the reducing agent nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide phosphate, without further separation prior to fluorescent measurement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to explore NIR fluorescent approach for the simultaneous assay of GSH and GSSG in blood. As such, we expect that our fluorescence sensors with both NIR excitation and NIR emission make this strategy suitable for the application in complex physiological systems.

  10. Fluorescence detection of glutathione and oxidized glutathione in blood with a NIR-excitable cyanine probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-hui; Qi, Feng-pei; Wen, Fu-bin; Long, Li-ping; Liu, Ai-juan; Yang, Rong-hua

    2018-04-01

    Cyanine has been widely utilized as a near infrared (NIR) fluorophore for detection of glutathione (GSH). However, the excitation of most of the reported cyanine-based probes was less than 800 nm, which inevitably induce biological background absorption and lower the sensitivity, limiting their use for detection of GSH in blood samples. To address this issue, here, a heptamethine cyanine probe (DNIR), with a NIR excitation wavelength at 804 nm and a NIR emission wavelength at 832 nm, is employed for the detection of GSH and its oxidized form (GSSG) in blood. The probe displays excellent selectivity for GSH over GSSG and other amino acids, and rapid response to GSH, in particular a good property for indirect detection of GSSG in the presence of enzyme glutathione reductase and the reducing agent nicotinamideadenine dinucleotide phosphate, without further separation prior to fluorescent measurement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to explore NIR fluorescent approach for the simultaneous assay of GSH and GSSG in blood. As such, we expect that our fluorescence sensors with both NIR excitation and NIR emission make this strategy suitable for the application in complex physiological systems.

  11. Intracellular Polyamines Enhance Astrocytic Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedikt, Jan; Inyushin, Mikhail; Kucheryavykh, Yuriy V.; Rivera, Yomarie; Kucheryavykh, Lilia Y.; Nichols, Colin G.; Eaton, Misty J.; Skatchkov, Serguei N.

    2013-01-01

    Spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), endogenous polyamines (PA) with the ability to modulate various ion channels and receptors in the brain, exert neuroprotective, antidepressant, antioxidant and other effects in vivo such as increasing longevity. These PA are preferably accumulated in astrocytes, and we hypothesized that SPM increases glial intercellular communication by interacting with glial gap junctions. Results obtained in situ, using Lucifer yellow propagation in the astrocytic syncitium of 21–25 day old rat CA1 hippocampal slices, showed reduced coupling when astrocytes were dialyzed with standard intracellular solutions (ICS) without SPM. However, there was a robust increase in the spreading of Lucifer yellow via gap junctions to neighboring astrocytes when the cells were patched with ICS containing 1 mM SPM; a physiological concentration in glia. Lucifer yellow propagation was inhibited by gap junction blockers. Our findings show that the glial syncitium propagates SPM via gap junctions and further suggest a new role of polyamines in the regulation of the astroglial network in both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:23076119

  12. Ethnic diversity in a critical gene responsible for glutathione synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Alecia S; Freeman, Michael L; Summar, Samantha R; Barr, Frederick E; Williams, Scott M; Dawson, Elliott; Summar, Marshall L

    2003-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is an important biomolecule that acts as a scavenger of free radicals and plays a role in a number of other cellular processes. A number of diseases, including Parkinson's disease, cancer, sickle cell anemia, and HIV infection, are thought to involve oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione. The heterodimeric enzyme glutamate cysteine ligase catalyzes the first, rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of glutathione. Functional polymorphisms within the gene encoding the subunits of glutamate cysteine ligase have the potential to affect the body's capacity to synthesize glutathione and thus, may affect those diseases in which oxidative stress and glutathione have roles. We undertook systematic screening for polymorphisms within the exons and intronic flanking sequences of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLC). We identified 11 polymorphisms in GCLC and established allele frequencies for those polymorphisms in a population fitting the demographics of the middle Tennessee area. The nonsynonymous polymorphism C1384T was found only in individuals of African descent. In addition, allele frequencies for three other polymorphisms differ between Caucasians and African-Americans. Understanding these polymorphisms may lead to better understanding of diseases where glutathione is important so that better treatments may be developed.

  13. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Ramachandran, V; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-21

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and in limiting Cd availability

  14. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachy Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. RESULTS: Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for

  15. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  16. Lung glutathione adaptive responses to cigarette smoke exposure

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    Gauthier Steve

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking tobacco is a leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but although the majority of COPD cases can be directly related to smoking, only a quarter of smokers actually develop the disease. A potential reason for the disparity between smoking and COPD may involve an individual's ability to mount a protective adaptive response to cigarette smoke (CS. Glutathione (GSH is highly concentrated in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF and protects against many inhaled oxidants. The changes in GSH that occur with CS are not well investigated; therefore the GSH adaptive response that occurs with a commonly utilized CS exposure was examined in mice. Methods Mice were exposed to CS for 5 h after which they were rested in filtered air for up to 16 h. GSH levels were measured in the ELF, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, plasma, and tissues. GSH synthesis was assessed by measuring γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL activity in lung and liver tissue. Results GSH levels in the ELF, plasma, and liver were decreased by as much as 50% during the 5 h CS exposure period whereas the lung GSH levels were unchanged. Next, the time course of rebound in GSH levels after the CS exposure was examined. CS exposure initially decreased ELF GSH levels by 50% but within 2 h GSH levels rebound to about 3 times basal levels and peaked at 16 h with a 6-fold increase and over repeat exposures were maintained at a 3-fold elevation for up to 2 months. Similar changes were observed in tissue GCL activity which is the rate limiting step in GSH synthesis. Furthermore, elevation in ELF GSH levels was not arbitrary since the CS induced GSH adaptive response after a 3d exposure period prevented GSH levels from dropping below basal levels. Conclusions CS exposures evoke a powerful GSH adaptive response in the lung and systemically. These data suggests there may be a sensor that sets the ELF GSH adaptive response to prevent GSH levels from dipping

  17. Tetracycline and Glutathione Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity: An In Vitro Study Using Culture Supernatants of L929 and Dalton Lymphoma Cell Lines

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    Gajanan Kendre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetracycline and glutathione inhibited the protease activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed by mouse fibrosarcoma cells (L929 and Dalton lymphoma cells, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the tetracycline may be due to its ability to chelate metal ions such as calcium and zinc. Gelatin-zymography technique was used to demonstrate the inhibitory activity of both tetracycline and glutathione. The intensity of the bands corresponding to metalloproteinase activity in zymography gel was reduced in the presence of 50–100 μg/mL of tetracycline. The presence of 10–100 μg/mL of tetracycline in the medium increased the adherence of L929 cancer cells. These results clearly indicate the antimetastatic property of tetracycline. Reduced glutathione, a compound which is produced endogenously by the cells to maintain the redox status, was shown to inhibit the matrix metalloproteinase activity (in vitro. Therefore, it is assumed that decreased glutathione levels in synovial fluids or plasma might increase the activity of MMP. Reduced glutathione at 100 μg/mL inhibited the metalloproteinase activity in gelatin-zymographic gel. As both tetracycline and glutathione exhibited an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase activity, it was of great interest to check their clinical effects on various MMP associated pathological conditions such as cancer metastasis and arthritis. Here we report that tetracycline and reduced glutathione inhibited the activity of MMP2 completely and activity of MMP9 partly.

  18. Contribution of Fdh3 and Glr1 to Glutathione Redox State, Stress Adaptation and Virulence in Candida albicans.

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    Anna T Tillmann

    Full Text Available The major fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is exposed to reactive nitrogen and oxygen species following phagocytosis by host immune cells. In response to these toxins, this fungus activates potent anti-stress responses that include scavenging of reactive nitrosative and oxidative species via the glutathione system. Here we examine the differential roles of two glutathione recycling enzymes in redox homeostasis, stress adaptation and virulence in C. albicans: glutathione reductase (Glr1 and the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR, Fdh3. We show that the NADPH-dependent Glr1 recycles GSSG to GSH, is induced in response to oxidative stress and is required for resistance to macrophage killing. GLR1 deletion increases the sensitivity of C. albicans cells to H2O2, but not to formaldehyde or NO. In contrast, Fdh3 detoxifies GSNO to GSSG and NH3, and FDH3 inactivation delays NO adaptation and increases NO sensitivity. C. albicans fdh3⎔ cells are also sensitive to formaldehyde, suggesting that Fdh3 also contributes to formaldehyde detoxification. FDH3 is induced in response to nitrosative, oxidative and formaldehyde stress, and fdh3Δ cells are more sensitive to killing by macrophages. Both Glr1 and Fdh3 contribute to virulence in the Galleria mellonella and mouse models of systemic infection. We conclude that Glr1 and Fdh3 play differential roles during the adaptation of C. albicans cells to oxidative, nitrosative and formaldehyde stress, and hence during the colonisation of the host. Our findings emphasise the importance of the glutathione system and the maintenance of intracellular redox homeostasis in this major pathogen.

  19. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-α induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-α dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-α concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-α (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-α-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-α. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-κB attenuates TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-α induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-κB in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-α. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-α was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression

  20. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Hercules R.; Ferraz, Gabriel; Ferreira, Gustavo C.; Ribeiro-Resende, Victor T.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; do Nascimento, José Luiz M.; Matos Oliveira, Karen Renata H.; Pereira, Tiago de Lima; Ferreira, Leonardo G. B.; Kubrusly, Regina C.; Faria, Robson X.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1–10mM) showed that 5–10mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells), while neurons responded to 50mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells). BBG 100nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70μM and MK-801 20μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at 5mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s) protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit. PMID:27078878

  1. Glutathione-Induced Calcium Shifts in Chick Retinal Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Hercules R; Ferraz, Gabriel; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Ribeiro-Resende, Victor T; Chiarini, Luciana B; do Nascimento, José Luiz M; Matos Oliveira, Karen Renata H; Pereira, Tiago de Lima; Ferreira, Leonardo G B; Kubrusly, Regina C; Faria, Robson X; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Reis, Ricardo A de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglia interactions are essential for the nervous system and in the retina Müller cells interact with most of the neurons in a symbiotic manner. Glutathione (GSH) is a low-molecular weight compound that undertakes major antioxidant roles in neurons and glia, however, whether this compound could act as a signaling molecule in neurons and/or glia is currently unknown. Here we used embryonic avian retina to obtain mixed retinal cells or purified Müller glia cells in culture to evaluate calcium shifts induced by GSH. A dose response curve (0.1-10 mM) showed that 5-10 mM GSH, induced calcium shifts exclusively in glial cells (later labeled and identified as 2M6 positive cells), while neurons responded to 50 mM KCl (labeled as βIII tubulin positive cells). BBG 100 nM, a P2X7 blocker, inhibited the effects of GSH on Müller glia. However, addition of DNQX 70 μM and MK-801 20 μM, non-NMDA and NMDA blockers, had no effect on GSH calcium induced shift. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at 5 mM failed to induce calcium mobilization in glia cells, indicating that the antioxidant and/or structural features of GSH are essential to promote elevations in cytoplasmic calcium levels. Indeed, a short GSH pulse (60s) protects Müller glia from oxidative damage after 30 min of incubation with 0.1% H2O2. Finally, GSH induced GABA release from chick embryonic retina, mixed neuron-glia or from Müller cell cultures, which were inhibited by BBG or in the absence of sodium. GSH also induced propidium iodide uptake in Müller cells in culture in a P2X7 receptor dependent manner. Our data suggest that GSH, in addition to antioxidant effects, could act signaling calcium shifts at the millimolar range particularly in Müller glia, and could regulate the release of GABA, with additional protective effects on retinal neuron-glial circuit.

  2. Reduced glutathione as a persistence indicator of alien plants of the Amelancheir family

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    L. G. Dolgova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that glutathione is an important indicator of the vegetation condition and persistence. According to the amount of glutathione the studied mespilus species are adapted to the environmental conditions. Increase of the glutathione amount is caused by some abiotic factors, e.g. temperature. Some differences of the glutathione content may be explained by the plants species patterns.

  3. [Stress-responsive expression analysis of glutathione-S-transferase gene of Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xun; He, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Yi-Zheng

    2009-08-01

    A prokaryotic expression plasmid pET-IbGST, which contains the full encoding region of a glutathione-S- transferase (GST) gene of sweet potato, was constructed. The recombinant IBGSTU1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and found in the soluble fraction, as well as in insoluble inclusion bodies of lysed cells. Its enzymatic activity was detected using UV spectrophotometer. The protein was purified and used to prepare antibody. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses demonstrated that IBGSTU1 gene was not expressed under normal conditions. When subjected to some environ-mental stresses such as cold-stress or heavy-medal stress, the organism switches on the expression of IBGSTU1 at both mRNA and protein levels, and its expression has tissue specificity.

  4. Antioxidant activity of melatonin and glutathione interacting with hydroxyl- and superoxide anion radicals

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    T. Y. Kuznetsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of the results obtained by quantum chemical modeling of interaction between reduced glutathione (GSH and melatonin (MLT molecules with oxygen radicals (•OH and • OOˉ it was found that this interaction occured following the acid-base mechanism, where MLT and GSH acted as a base in respect of •OH, and as acid in respect of •OOˉ. We have carried out the correlation of the results of quantum chemical calculations (density redistribution, energetic characteristics under the interaction of MLT and GSH molecules with •OH and •OOˉ in changing macroscopic properties of the process of electroreduction of free oxygen radicals in the presence of antioxidants (potential and maximal current wave reduction waves. This was a direct experimental macroscale evidence of the results of theoretical modeling at the nanoscale level that pointed to a marked antioxidant activity of glutathione compared with melatonin.

  5. Glutathione content in erythrocytes and bone marrow of animals in mexidol use under the conditions of acute stress

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    N. O. Vlasenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute immobilization stress and its pharmacological correction with mexidol (2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxypyridine succinate were modeled in albino male rats. The drug was administered to animals in dose 100 mg/kg before stress exposure with following investigation of content of glutathione and its fractions (GSH, GSSG in different terms of post-stress period. It is shown that mexidol enhances the level of reduced glutathione (GSH in erythrocytes as well as in myeloid tissue in terms from 3 hrs to 5 days after the stress. It also regularly increases common glutathione concentration in erythrocytes in alarm stage of stress-syndrome (3-24 hrs. Such effect of mexidol, probably, is the consequence of its direct antioxidant action which lowers the load on physiological antioxidant system and promotes the maintenance of normal functional activity of erythron’s central and peripheral parts in stress.

  6. Intracellular calcium homeostasis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Calì, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) is a universal carrier of biological information: it controls cell life from its origin at fertilization to its end in the process of programmed cell death. Ca(2+) is a conventional diffusible second messenger released inside cells by the interaction of first messengers with plasma membrane receptors. However, it can also penetrate directly into cells to deliver information without the intermediation of first or second messengers. Even more distinctively, Ca(2+) can act as a first messenger, by interacting with a plasma membrane receptor to set in motion intracellular signaling pathways that involve Ca(2+) itself. Perhaps the most distinctive property of the Ca(2+) signal is its ambivalence: while essential to the correct functioning of cells, Ca(2+) becomes an agent that mediates cell distress, or even (toxic) cell death, if its concentration and movements inside cells are not carefully tuned. Ca(2+) is controlled by reversible complexation to specific proteins, which could be pure Ca(2+) buffers, or which, in addition to buffering Ca(2+), also decode its signal to pass it on to targets. The most important actors in the buffering of cell Ca(2+) are proteins that transport it across the plasma membrane and the membrane of the organelles: some have high Ca(2+) affinity and low transport capacity (e.g., Ca(2+) pumps), others have opposite properties (e.g., the Ca(2+) uptake system of mitochondria). Between the initial event of fertilization, and the terminal event of programmed cell death, the Ca(2+) signal regulates the most important activities of the cell, from the expression of genes, to heart and muscle contraction and other motility processes, to diverse metabolic pathways involved in the generation of cell fuels.

  7. Regional modulation of the response to glutathione in Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Paola

    2015-07-01

    In the presence of prey, or upon exposure to reduced glutathione (GSH), Hydra polyps open a mouth to ingest the captured prey and close it after feeding; at rest the mouth is not evident. In previous papers we have shown that GABA, glycine and NMDA modulate the mechanisms of mouth closure through ligand-gated-ion-channel receptors that are similar to their mammalian analogues in terms of biochemical and pharmacological properties. In order to study the regional distribution of these receptors, we have applied the GSH assay to polyps amputated at different levels of the body column. The response to 1-10 µmol l(-1) GSH of polyps lacking either peduncle and foot or the entire body columns (heads) was not different from control, whole animals. In the presence of GABA or muscimol, duration of the response was significantly decreased in heads; the decrease was suppressed by the GABA antagonists gabazine and bicuculline. By contrast, in animals lacking peduncle and foot, duration of the response did not vary upon GABA administration. Conversely, in the presence of glycine, duration of the response in heads preparations was similar to control, whereas in footless polyps, it was significantly reduced. The decrease was mimicked by the glycine agonists taurine and β-alanine, and counteracted by strychnine. These results suggest a regional distribution of receptors to GABA and glycine in the neuromuscular circuitry modulating the feeding behaviour. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. DL-methionine supplementation of rice-and-bean diets affects gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and glutathione content in livers of growing rats

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    De-Oliveira I.M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT-EC 2.3.2.2 activity and glutathione (GSH content were measured in livers of female weanling Wistar rats (N = 5-18, submitted to rice-and-bean diets (13 and 6% w/w protein, both supplemented or not with DL-methionine (0.5 and 0.23 g/100 g dry diet, respectively. After 28 days, the rats on the rice-and-bean diets showed significantly higher levels (four times higher of liver GGT activity and a concomitant 50% lower concentration of liver GSH in comparison with control groups feeding on casein. The addition of DL-methionine to rice-and-bean diets significantly increased the liver GSH content, which reached levels 50% higher than those found in animals on casein diets. The increase in GSH was accompanied by a decrease in liver GGT activity, which did not reach levels as low as those observed in the control groups. No significant correlation could be established between GGT and GSH changes under the present experimental conditions. Linear correlation analysis only revealed that in animals submitted to unsupplemented rice-and-bean diets GSH concentration was positively associated (P<0.05 with weight gain, food intake and food efficiency. GGT, however, was negatively correlated (P<0.05 with food intake only, and exclusively for supplemented rice-and-bean diets. The high levels of GGT activity observed in the present study for rats receiving a rice-and-bean mixture could be a result of the poor quality of these diets associated with their deficiency in sulfur amino acids. The results also suggest that diet supplementation with methionine could be important in the reduction of the deleterious effects of GSH depletion by restoring the intracellular concentration of this tripeptide.

  9. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  10. Regional differences in glutathione accumulation pathways in the rat cornea: Mapping of amino acid transporters involved in glutathione synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandarajah, Vithushiya; Li, Bo; Umapathy, Ankita; Donaldson, Paul J; Lim, Julie C

    2017-08-01

    In this study we have sought to complete the identification and localisation of uptake pathways involved in accumulating precursor amino acids involved in GSH synthesis in the rat cornea. To do this, we performed reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) to identify the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAAT 1-5) responsible for glutamate uptake, and glycine transporters (GLYT 1-2) at the transcript level. Western blotting was used to verify protein expression, while immunolabelling of sagittal sections was used to localise transporters to the different layers of the cornea. Immunolabelling of en face sections was used to examine the subcellular distribution of proteins in the corneal endothelium. Our findings revealed EAAT 1-5 and GLYT 1-2 to be expressed at the transcript and protein level in the rat cornea. Immunohistochemistry revealed all amino acid transporters to be localised to the epithelium. In the majority of cases, labelling was restricted to the epithelium, and labelling absent from the stroma or endothelium. However, EAAT 4 and GLYT 2 labelling was detected in the stroma with EAAT 4 labelling also present in the endothelium. Overall, the identification of amino acid transporters strongly supports the existence of an intracellular GSH synthesis pathway in the rat corneal epithelium. This suggests that regional differences in GSH accumulation pathways exist, with direct uptake of GSH and intracellular synthesis of GSH restricted to the endothelial and epithelial cell layers, respectively. This information is important in the design of targeted strategies to enhance GSH levels in specific layers of the cornea to prevent against oxidative damage, corneal swelling and loss of corneal transparency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of cholesterol feeding on tissue lipid perioxidation, glutathione peroxidase activity and liver microsomal functions in rats and guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TSAI, A. C.; THIE, G. M.; Lin, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of cholesterol feeding on liver and aortic nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activities, and on liver microsomal NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, codeine hydroxylation and cytochrome P-450 levels was examined in rats and guinea pigs. One percent cholesterol was

  12. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    We have recently demonstrated that the hepatobiliary transport of arsenic is glutathione-dependent and is associated with a profound increase in biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH), hepatic GSH depletion and diminished GSH conjugation (Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 41: 937-944 and Gyurasics A, Varga F and Gregus Z, Biochem Pharmacol 42: 465-468, 1991). The present studies in rats aimed to determine whether antimony and bismuth, other metalloids in group Va of the periodic table, also possess similar properties. Antimony potassium tartrate (25-100 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth ammonium citrate (50-200 mumol/kg, i.v.) increased up to 50- and 4-fold, respectively, the biliary excretion of non-protein thiols (NPSH). This resulted mainly from increased hepatobiliary transport of GSH as suggested by a close parallelism in the biliary excretion of NPSH and GSH after antimony or bismuth administration. Within 2 hr, rats excreted into bile 55 and 3% of the dose of antimony (50 mumol/kg, i.v.) and bismuth (150 mumol/kg, i.v.), respectively. The time courses of the biliary excretion of these metalloids and NPSH or GSH were strikingly similar suggesting co-ordinate hepatobiliary transport of the metalloids and GSH. However, at the peak of their excretion, each molecule of antimony or bismuth resulted in a co-transport of approximately three molecules of GSH. Diethyl maleate, indocyanine green and sulfobromophthalein (BSP), which decreased biliary excretion of GSH, significantly diminished excretion of antimony and bismuth into bile indicating that hepatobiliary transport of these metalloids is GSH-dependent. Administration of antimony, but not bismuth, decreased hepatic GSH level by 30% and reduced the GSH conjugation and biliary excretion of BSP. These studies demonstrate that the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent antimony and bismuth is GSH-dependent similarly to the hepatobiliary transport of trivalent arsenic. Proportionally to their biliary

  13. Modulating cancer cell survival by targeting intracellular cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, Omer F; Gowda, Raghavendra; Noory, Mohammad A; Robertson, Gavin P

    2017-08-08

    Demand for cholesterol is high in certain cancers making them potentially sensitive to therapeutic strategies targeting cellular cholesterol homoeostasis. A potential approach involves disruption of intracellular cholesterol transport, which occurs in Niemann-Pick disease as a result of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) deficiency. Hence, a class of lysosomotropic compounds that were identified as functional ASM inhibitors (FIASMAs) might exhibit chemotherapeutic activity by disrupting cancer cell cholesterol homoeostasis. Here, the chemotherapeutic utility of ASM inhibition was investigated. The effect of FIASMAs on intracellular cholesterol levels, cholesterol homoeostasis, cellular endocytosis and signalling cascades were investigated. The in vivo efficacy of ASM inhibition was demonstrated using melanoma xenografts and a nanoparticle formulation was developed to overcome dose-limiting CNS-associated side effects of certain FIASMAs. Functional ASM inhibitors inhibited intracellular cholesterol transport leading to disruption of autophagic flux, cellular endocytosis and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Consequently, major oncogenic signalling cascades on which cancer cells were reliant for survival were inhibited. Two tested ASM inhibitors, perphenazine and fluphenazine that are also clinically used as antipsychotics, were effective in inhibiting xenografted tumour growth. Nanoliposomal encapsulation of the perphenazine enhanced its chemotherapeutic efficacy while decreasing CNS-associated side effects. This study suggests that disruption of intracellular cholesterol transport by targeting ASM could be utilised as a potential chemotherapeutic approach for treating cancer.

  14. An ethnic-specific polymorphism in the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase impairs the production of glutathione intermediates in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Truc M; Willis, Alecia S; Barr, Frederick E; Cunningham, Gary R; Canter, Jeffrey A; Owens, Sarah E; Apple, Rachel K; Ayodo, George; Reich, David; Summar, Marshall L

    2010-09-01

    Glutathione plays a crucial role in free radical scavenging, oxidative injury, and cellular homeostasis. Previously, we identified a non-synonymous polymorphism (P462S) in the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), the rate-limiting enzyme in glutathione biosynthesis. This polymorphism is present only in individuals of African descent. Presently, we report that this ethnic-specific polymorphism (462S) encodes an enzyme with significantly decreased in vitro activity when expressed by either a bacterial or mammalian cell expression system. In addition, overexpression of the 462P wild-type GCLC enzyme results in higher intracellular glutathione concentrations than overexpression of the 462S isoform. We also demonstrate that apoptotically stimulated mammalian cells overexpressing the 462S enzyme have increased caspase activation and increased DNA laddering compared to cells overexpressing the wild-type 462P enzyme. Finally, we genotyped several African and African-descent populations and demonstrate that the 462S polymorphism is in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, with no individuals homozygous for the 462S polymorphism identified. These findings describe a glutathione production pathway polymorphism present in individuals of African descent with significantly decreased in vitro activity.

  15. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors. PMID:22524510

  16. The potential role of the antioxidant and detoxification properties of glutathione in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Main Penelope AE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutathione has a wide range of functions; it is an endogenous anti-oxidant and plays a key role in the maintenance of intracellular redox balance and detoxification of xenobiotics. Several studies have indicated that children with autism spectrum disorders may have altered glutathione metabolism which could play a key role in the condition. Methods A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted of studies examining metabolites, interventions and/or genes of the glutathione metabolism pathways i.e. the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autism spectrum disorders. Results Thirty nine studies were included in the review comprising an in vitro study, thirty two metabolite and/or co-factor studies, six intervention studies and six studies with genetic data as well as eight studies examining enzyme activity. Conclusions The review found evidence for the involvement of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway in autistic disorder is sufficiently consistent, particularly with respect to the glutathione redox ratio, to warrant further investigation to determine the significance in relation to clinical outcomes. Large, well designed intervention studies that link metabolites, cofactors and genes of the γ-glutamyl cycle and trans-sulphuration pathway with objective behavioural outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders are required. Future risk factor analysis should include consideration of multiple nutritional status and metabolite biomarkers of pathways linked with the γ-glutamyl cycle and the interaction of genotype in relation to these factors.

  17. The glutathione antioxidant system as a biomarker suite for the assessment of heavy metal exposure and effect in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caregnato, Fernanda F; Koller, Claudia E; MacFarlane, Geoff R; Moreira, José C F

    2008-06-01

    Alterations in the glutathione antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in Avicennia marina were studied under laboratory and field conditions. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was found to respond to Zn exposure, and a significant positive relationship between leaf Zn concentration and GPx activity was observed after 96 h and 8 weeks. Lipid hydroperoxides increased proportionally with increasing leaf Zn concentration after 2 and 8 weeks, while no changes in total glutathione were observed. Induction of GPx at 96 h predicted effects at the individual level at a later time interval (reduced biomass at 8 weeks). Results from the field revealed that increasing leaf metal concentration (Zn, Cu or Pb) produced a proportional increase in GPx activity whereas lipid hydroperoxides and total glutathione were not affected. The utility of GPx as an early warning biomarker is suggested, since GPx activity increases in a dose-dependant fashion in response to accumulated leaf metals, and is predictive of later effects on growth.

  18. Physiological roles of glutathione s-transferases in soybean root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, David A; Boniface, Chris; Turner, Zachary; Lindahl, Amy; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Jelinek, Laura; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Finger, Richard E; Taylor, Christopher G

    2009-05-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of toxic xenobiotics and oxidatively produced compounds to reduced glutathione, which facilitates their metabolism, sequestration, or removal. We report here that soybean (Glycine max) root nodules contain at least 14 forms of GST, with GST9 being most prevalent, as measured by both real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and identification of peptides in glutathione-affinity purified extracts. GST8 was prevalent in stems and uninfected roots, whereas GST2/10 prevailed in leaves. Purified, recombinant GSTs were shown to have wide-ranging kinetic properties, suggesting that the suite of GSTs could provide physiological flexibility to deal with numerous stresses. Levels of GST9 increased with aging, suggesting a role related to senescence. RNA interference studies of nodules on composite plants showed that a down-regulation of GST9 led to a decrease in nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity and an increase in oxidatively damaged proteins. These findings indicate that GSTs are abundant in nodules and likely function to provide antioxidant defenses that are critical to support nitrogen fixation.

  19. Manipulation of Glutathione and Amino Acid Biosynthesis in the Chloroplast1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Arisi, Ana-Carolina M.; Jouanin, Lise; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Poplars (Populus tremula × Populus alba) were transformed to overexpress Escherichia coli γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) or glutathione synthetase in the chloroplast. Five independent lines of each transformant strongly expressed the introduced gene and possessed markedly enhanced activity of the gene product. Glutathione (GSH) contents were unaffected by high chloroplastic glutathione synthetase activity. Enhanced chloroplastic γ-ECS activity markedly increased γ-glutamylcysteine and GSH levels. These effects are similar to those previously observed in poplars overexpressing these enzymes in the cytosol. Similar to cytosolic γ-ECS overexpression, chloroplastic overexpression did not deplete foliar cysteine or methionine pools and did not lead to morphological changes. Light was required for maximal accumulation of GSH in poplars overexpressing γ-ECS in the chloroplast. High chloroplastic, but not cytosolic, γ-ECS activities were accompanied by increases in amino acids synthesized in the chloroplast. We conclude that (a) GSH synthesis can occur in the chloroplast and the cytosol and may be up-regulated in both compartments by increased γ-ECS activity, (b) interactions between GSH synthesis and the pathways supplying the necessary substrates are similar in both compartments, and (c) chloroplastic up-regulation of GSH synthesis is associated with an activating effect on the synthesis of specific amino acids formed in the chloroplast. PMID:9765532

  20. Glutathione S-conjugates as prodrugs to target drug-resistant tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Ramsay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are continuously exposed to xenobiotics. The major phase of enzymatic detoxification in many species is the conjugation of activated xenobiotics to reduced glutathione (GSH catalyzed by the glutathione-S-transferase (GST. It has been reported that some compounds, once transformed into glutathione S-conjugates, enter the mercapturic acid pathway whose end products are highly reactive and toxic for the cell responsible for their production. The cytotoxicity of these GSH conjugates depends essentially on GST and γ-glutamyl transferases (γGT, the enzymes which initiate the mercapturic acid synthesis pathway. Numerous studies support the view that the expression of GST and γGT in cancer cells represents an important factor in the appearance of a more aggressive and resistant phenotype. High levels of tumor GST and γGT expression were employed to selectively target tumor with GST- or γGT-activated drugs. This strategy, explored over the last two decades, has recently been successful using GST-activated nitrogen mustard (TLK286 and γGT-activated arsenic-based (GSAO and Darinaparsin prodrugs confirming the potential of GSH-conjugates as anticancer drugs.

  1. Methane alleviates alfalfa cadmium toxicity via decreasing cadmium accumulation and reestablishing glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Quan; Chen, Ziping; Cui, Weiti; Zhang, Yihua; Hu, Huali; Yu, Xiuli; Wang, Qingya; Shen, Wenbiao

    2018-01-01

    Although methane (CH 4 ) generation triggered by some environmental stimuli, displays the protective response against oxidative stress in plants, whether and how CH 4 regulates plant tolerance against cadmium stress is largely unknown. Here, we discovered that cadmium (Cd) stimulated the production of CH 4 in alfalfa root tissues. The pretreatment with exogenous CH 4 could alleviate seedling growth inhibition. Less amounts of Cd accumulation was also observed. Consistently, in comparison with Cd stress alone, miR159 transcript was down-regulated by CH 4 , and expression levels of its target gene ABC transporter was increased. By contrast, miR167 transcript was up-regulated, showing a relatively negative correlation with its target gene Nramp6. Meanwhile, Cd-triggered redox imbalance was improved by CH 4 , evidenced by the reduced lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation, as well as the induction of representative antioxidant genes. Further results showed that Cd-triggered decrease of the ratio of reduced/oxidized (homo)glutathione was rescued by CH 4 . Additionally, CH 4 -triggered alleviation of seedling growth was sensitive to a selective inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis. Overall, above results revealed that CH 4 -alleviated Cd accumulation at least partially, required the modulation of heavy metal transporters via miR159 and miR167. Finally, the role of glutathione homeostasis elicited by CH 4 was preliminarily suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress, improves glutathione metabolism and modifies antioxidant defense systems in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperczyk, Sławomir, E-mail: kaslav@mp.pl [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Dobrakowski, Michał [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Kasperczyk, Janusz [Dept. of Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland); Ostałowska, Alina; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta; Birkner, Ewa [Dept. of Biochemistry, School of Medicine with the Division of Dentistry, Medical University of Silesia, ul. Jordana 19, 41-808 Zabrze (Poland)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether beta-carotene administration reduces oxidative stress and influences antioxidant, mainly glutathione-related, defense systems in workers chronically exposed to lead. The population consisted of two randomly divided groups of healthy male volunteers exposed to lead. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not administered any antioxidants, while workers in the second group (CAR group) were treated orally with 10 mg of beta-carotene once a day for 12 weeks. Biochemical analysis included measuring markers of lead-exposure and oxidative stress in addition to the levels and activities of selected antioxidants. After treatment, levels of malondialdehyde, lipid hydroperoxides and lipofuscin significantly decreased compared with the reference group. However, the level of glutathione significantly increased compared with the baseline. Treatment with beta-carotene also resulted in significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity compared with the reference group, while the activities of other glutathione-related enzymes and of superoxide dismutase were not significantly changed. However, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase, as well as the level of alpha-tocopherol, were significantly higher after treatment compared with the baseline. Despite controversy over the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene in vivo, our findings showed reduced oxidative stress after beta-carotene supplementation in chronic lead poisoning. - Highlights: • Beta-carotene reduces oxidative stress in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene elevates glutathione level in lead-exposed workers. • Beta-carotene administration could be beneficial in lead poisoning.

  3. Investigating Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Simon R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    for signal transduction. One of the major mechanisms for GPCR regulation involves their endocytic trafficking, which serves to internalize the receptors from the plasma membrane and thereby attenuate G protein-dependent signaling. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that GPCRs can signal...... independently of G proteins, as well as from intracellular compartments including endosomes. It is in this context that receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking have attracted renewed interest within the GPCR field. In this chapter, we will review the current understanding and methodologies...... that have been used to investigate internalization and intracellular signaling of GPCRs, with a particular focus on emerging real-time techniques. These recent developments have improved our understanding of the complexities of GPCR internalization and intracellular signaling and suggest that the broader...

  4. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S O; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  5. The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, R. C.; Buschbacher, R. M.; Newton, G. L.

    1987-01-01

    Of the many roles ascribed to glutathione (GSH) the one most clearly established is its role in the protection of higher eucaryotes against oxygen toxicity through destruction of thiol-reactive oxygen byproducts. If this is the primary function of GSH then GSH metabolism should have evolved during or after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. That many bacteria do not produce GSH is consistent with this view. In the present study we have examined the low-molecular-weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms to ascertain how evolution of GSH production is related to evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols to fluorescent derivatives, which were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Significant levels of GSH were not found in the green bacteria (Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus). Substantial levels of GSH were present in the purple bacteria (Chromatium vinosum, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Rhodocyclus gelatinosa), the cyanobacteria [Anacystis nidulans, Microcoleus chthonoplastes S.G., Nostoc muscorum, Oscillatoria amphigranulata, Oscillatoria limnetica, Oscillatoria sp. (Stinky Spring, Utah), Oscillatoria terebriformis, Plectonema boryanum, and Synechococcus lividus], and eucaryotic algae (Chlorella pyrenoidsa, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide; several unidentified thiols were also detected. Many of the organisms examined also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability that was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5'-bisdithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of

  6. Relations between metals (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu) and glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes in spiders from a heavy metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, Grazyna; Babczynska, Agnieszka; Augustyniak, Maria; Migula, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relations between glutathione-dependent detoxifying enzymes and heavy metal burdens in the web-building spider Agelena labyrinthica (Agelenidae) and the wolf spider Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae) from five meadow sites along a heavy metal pollution gradient. We assayed the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidases (GPOX, GSTPx), and glutathione (GSH) levels in both sexes. Except for GSH vs Pb content, we found significant correlations between GPOX and GSTPx activity and metal concentrations in females of A. labyrinthica. The highest activity of these enzymes measured in the web-building spiders was found in the individuals from the most polluted sites. In P. lugubris males significant correlations were found between GST and Pb and Zn concentrations, and between GPOX and GSTPx and the concentration of Cu. GST activity was higher in males collected from less polluted areas. Thus, detoxifying strategies against pollutants seemed to be sex-dependent. Actively hunting spiders had higher metal concentrations, maintaining lower activity of detoxifying enzymes and a lower glutathione level. - Capsule: Glutathione-linked enzyme activity in spiders from polluted areas depends on hunting strategy and sex

  7. Glutathione-responsive core cross-linked micelles for controlled cabazitaxel delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoxiong; Gong, Feirong; Sun, Jing; Li, Yueqi; Liu, XiaoFei; Chen, Dan; Liu, Jianwen; Shen, Yaling

    2018-02-01

    Stimulus-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) have recently received attention due to the controlled delivery of drug or gene for application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this work, novel glutathione-responsive PMs were prepared to encapsulate hydrophobic antineoplastic drug, cabazitaxel (CTX), to improve its solubility and toxicity. These CTX-loaded micelles core cross-linked by disulfide bonds (DCL-CTX micelles) were prepared by a novel copolymer, lipoic acid grafted mPEG-PLA. These micelles had regular spherical shape, homogeneous diameter of 18.97 ± 0.23 nm, and a narrow size distribution. The DCL-CTX micelles showed high encapsulation efficiency of 98.65 ± 1.77%, and the aqueous solubility of CTX was improved by a factor of 1:1200. In vitro release investigation showed that DCL-CTX micelles were stable in the medium without glutathione (GSH), whereas the micelles had burst CTX release in the medium with 10 mM GSH. Cell uptake results implied that DCL-CTX micelles were internalized into MCF-7 cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and released cargo more effectively than Jevtana (commercially available CTX) owing to GSH-stimulated degradation. In MTT assay against MCF-7 cells, these micelles inhibited tumor cell proliferation more effectively than Jevtana due to their GSH-responsive CTX release. All results revealed the potency of GSH-responsive DCL-CTX micelles for stable delivery in blood circulation and for intracellular GSH-trigged release of CTX. Therefore, DCL-CTX micelles show potential as safe and effective CTX delivery carriers and as a cancer chemotherapy formulation.

  8. Albumin-gold-glutathione is a probable auranofin metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.F. III; Coffer, M.; Isab, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The newly licensed gold drug, auranofin ((2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-1-D-gluco-pyranosato-S-)triethylphoshine-gold(I)) crosses cell membranes and enters cells which are inaccessible to parenteral gold drugs. In vivo, the triethylphosphine ligand and gold of auranofin, but not the thio-sugar moiety, accumulate in and subsequently efflux from red blood cells (RBCs). Extracellular albumin increases in the extent of gold efflux and acts as a gold binding site. The rate of efflux is first-order in RBC gold concentration. Studies using RBCs in which labelled [ 14 C]-glutathione is generated in situ incorporation of [ 14 C]- glycine demonstrate that glutathione also effluxes from the RBCs and forms a gold-glutathione-albumin complex. This may be the immunopharmacologically active complex

  9. Supramolecular interactions of oxidative stress biomarker glutathione with fluorone black

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepel, Maria; Stobiecka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    Oxidative stress biomarkers, including glutathione (GSH) and related compounds, are involved in a variety of interactions enabling redox potential maintenance in living cells and protection against radicals. Since the oxidative stress is promoting and, in many cases, inducing serious illnesses, monitoring of GSH levels can aid in diagnostics and disease prevention. Herein, we report on the discovery of the formation of a supramolecular ensemble of GSH with fluorone black (9-phenyl fluorone, FB) which is optically active and enables sensitive determination of GSH by resonance elastic light scattering (RELS). We have found that supramolecular interactions of GSH with FB can be probed with spectroscopic, RELS, and electrochemical methods. Our investigations show that RELS intensity for FB solutions increases with GSH concentration while fluorescence emission of FB is not affected, as quenching begins only above 0.8 mM GSH. The UV-Vis difference spectra show a positive peak at 383 nm and a negative peak at 458 nm, indicating a higher-energy absorbing complex in comparison to the non-bonded FB host. Supramolecular interactions of FB with GSH have also been corroborated by electrochemical measurements involving two configurations of FB-GSH ensembles on electrodes: (i) an inverted orientation on Au-coated quartz crystal piezoelectrode (Au@SG-FB), with strong thiolate bonding to gold, and (ii) a non-inverted orientation on glassy carbon electrode (GCE@FB-GS), with weak π-π stacking attachment and efficient charge mediation through the ensemble. The formation of a supramolecular ensemble with hydrogen bonding has also been confirmed by quantum mechanical calculations. The discovery of supramolecular FB-GSH ensemble formation enables elucidating the mechanisms of strong RELS responses, changes in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the electrochemical reactivity. Also, it provides new insights to the understanding of the efficient charge-transfer in redox potential homeostasis

  10. In Vivo EPR Assessment of pH, pO2, Redox Status, and Concentrations of Phosphate and Glutathione in the Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobko, Andrey A; Eubank, Timothy D; Driesschaert, Benoit; Khramtsov, Valery V

    2018-03-16

    This protocol demonstrates the capability of low-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based techniques in combination with functional paramagnetic probes to provide quantitative information on the chemical tumor microenvironment (TME), including pO2, pH, redox status, concentrations of interstitial inorganic phosphate (Pi), and intracellular glutathione (GSH). In particular, an application of a recently developed soluble multifunctional trityl probe provides unsurpassed opportunity for in vivo concurrent measurements of pH, pO2 and Pi in Extracellular space (HOPE probe). The measurements of three parameters using a single probe allow for their correlation analyses independent of probe distribution and time of the measurements.

  11. Effect of acrolein and glutathione depleting agents on thioredoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xianmei; Wu Xuli; Choi, Young Eun; Kern, Julie C.; Kehrer, James P.

    2004-01-01

    Acrolein is a widespread environmental pollutant that reacts rapidly with nucleophiles, especially cellular thiols. In addition to glutathione (GSH), thioredoxin (Trx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) contain thiol groups and may react with electrophiles. In the present study, A549 cells treated with 5-25 μM acrolein for 30 min lost cellular Trx activity in a dose-dependent fashion. Over 90% of Trx activity was lost at concentrations of 25 μM or greater. In contrast, Trx protein content, as assessed by western blotting, was not altered immediately after the 30 min acrolein treatment. Both Trx activity and protein levels increased 4 h after the acrolein treatment. However, Trx activity remained below control levels at 24 h. A similar dose-response relationship was seen with TR in A549 cells exposed to acrolein. There was, however, a rapid recovery of TR activity such that it attained normal levels by 4 h after doses ≤75 μM acrolein. Diethyl maleate (DEM), a common but not highly specific, agent used to deplete GSH, also inactivated Trx. A 2 h exposure of A549 cells to 1 mM DEM depleted cellular GSH by ∼50% and diminished Trx activity by over 67%. Lower DEM doses (0.125 mM and 0.25 mM) for 1 h had no significant effect on GSH but significantly decreased Trx activity 12 and 23%, respectively. Similar to immediately after acrolein exposure, DEM did not affect Trx protein levels. A Trx-1-GFP fusion protein was transfected into A549 cells. While the fusion protein was expressed, the Trx component was inactive by the insulin reducing assay. In summary, Trx and TR are inactivated by acrolein. In addition, the GSH depleting agent DEM inactivates Trx somewhat more effectively than it depletes GSH. The Trx-1-GFP fusion protein, while readily expressed, appears to have little or no activity, perhaps because the small size of Trx-1 (12 kDa) is affected by the larger GFP

  12. Intracellular imaging of nanoparticles: Is it an elemental mistake to believe what you see?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to understand how nanoparticles (NPs J774.A1 murine macrophage-like cells were exposed to NH2 polyethylene (PEG QDs and elemental co-localization analysis of two elements present in the QDs (sulfur and cadmium was performed on putative intracellular QDs with electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI. Both elements were shown on a single particle level and QDs were confirmed to be located inside intracellular vesicles. Nevertheless, ESI analysis showed that not all nano-sized structures, initially identified as QDs, were confirmed. This observation emphasizes the necessity to perform elemental analysis when investigating intracellular NP localization using TEM.

  13. Mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion-related hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weihua; Mizukawa, Yumiko; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Minowa, Yosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    Chemical-induced glutathione depletion is thought to be caused by two types of toxicological mechanisms: PHO-type glutathione depletion [glutathione conjugated with chemicals such as phorone (PHO) or diethyl maleate (DEM)], and BSO-type glutathione depletion [i.e., glutathione synthesis inhibited by chemicals such as L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO)]. In order to identify mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion in rat liver, male SD rats were treated with various chemicals including PHO (40, 120 and 400 mg/kg), DEM (80, 240 and 800 mg/kg), BSO (150, 450 and 1500 mg/kg), and bromobenzene (BBZ, 10, 100 and 300 mg/kg). Liver samples were taken 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after administration and examined for hepatic glutathione content, physiological and pathological changes, and gene expression changes using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. To identify differentially expressed probe sets in response to glutathione depletion, we focused on the following two courses of events for the two types of mechanisms of glutathione depletion: a) gene expression changes occurring simultaneously in response to glutathione depletion, and b) gene expression changes after glutathione was depleted. The gene expression profiles of the identified probe sets for the two types of glutathione depletion differed markedly at times during and after glutathione depletion, whereas Srxn1 was markedly increased for both types as glutathione was depleted, suggesting that Srxn1 is a key molecule in oxidative stress related to glutathione. The extracted probe sets were refined and verified using various compounds including 13 additional positive or negative compounds, and they established two useful marker sets. One contained three probe sets (Akr7a3, Trib3 and Gstp1) that could detect conjugation-type glutathione depletors any time within 24 h after dosing, and the other contained 14 probe sets that could detect glutathione depletors by any mechanism. These two sets, with appropriate scoring

  14. 21 CFR 862.1365 - Glutathione test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione test system. 862.1365 Section 862.1365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862...

  15. Metabolic modulation of glutathione in whole blood components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... Key words: Lead acetate, glutathione (GSH), dithiobisdinitrobenzoic acid (DTNB), plasma and cytosolic ... fraction. Control containing 1 ml of venous blood and 1 ml of 0.9%. NaCl solution was also centrifuged for isolation of plasma. The packed cells were .... altered fatty acid composition of membranes?

  16. 21 CFR 864.7375 - Glutathione reductase assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glutathione reductase assay. 864.7375 Section 864.7375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... reductase deficiency, or riboflavin deficiency. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). [45 FR...

  17. State of the glutathione system at different periods after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushok, N.; Trebukhina, R.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the 3-fold irradiation on the glutatione system was studied. Activation of these system was shown to take place at early terms (1 hour) after irradiation, then it was exhausted that resulted in accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in blood. This phase changes in glutathione system could be correspond to certain stages of stress-syndrome. (author)

  18. Comparative study of biological activity of glutathione, sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutathione (GSH) and sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are important pharmacological agents. They provide protection to cells against cytotoxic agents and thus reduce their cytotoxicity. It was of interest to study the biological activity of these two pharmacological active agents. Different strains of bacteria were used and the ...

  19. Cloning and expression of a tomato glutathione S- transferase (GST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... study, a putative glutathione S-transferase gene (ShGSTU1) from a wild-type tomato, Solanum ... Purification and enzymatic activity analysis were ..... Anthocyanin accumulation and related gene expression in red orange fruit induced by low temperature storage. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 9083-9088.

  20. Metabolic modulation of glutathione in whole blood components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lead has been found to have the ability to interfere in the metabolism and biological activities of many proteins. It has also been found that metalloelements have strong affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biological molecules including glutathione (GSH) in tissues. Because of these facts, it was of interest to investigate ...

  1. Metabolic modulation of glutathione in whole blood components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... proteins. It has also been found that metalloelements have strong affinity for sulfhydryl (-SH) groups in biological molecules including glutathione (GSH) in tissues. Because of these facts, it was of interest to investigate further the interaction of lead acetate [Pb (CH3COO)2] with GSH as a biomarker of toxicity.

  2. Role of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle during senescence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Programmed cell death is an integral part of normal plant development including leaf senescence. This study investigated the response of some component of ascorbate-glutathione cycle, chlorophylls.a & b, protein content, and membrane leakage during the developmental stages of Phaseolus cotyledons from imbibition till ...

  3. Glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. A. Bhat

    2017-11-28

    Nov 28, 2017 ... products of oxidative stress) with glutathione, and, by doing so mitigate oxidative stress and prevent cell injury. (Liet al.2000; Hayeset al.2005). Increased vulnerability to oxidative stress can, therefore, result from decreased GST activity and ... ily history of CAD or any other disease participated voluntarily ...

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Glutathione S-Transferase P1 Gene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-03-13

    Mar 13, 2017 ... endogeneously-produced products of oxidative stress) with glutathione, and in this manner mitigate ... oxidative stress can therefore result from decreased GST activity and increase susceptibility to ... age-, sex-and ethnicity-matched controls with no present or past family history of CAD or any other disease ...

  5. Glutathione S-Transferase Isoenzymes from Streptomyces griseus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Kajari; Dhar, Alok; Rosazza, John P. N.

    2003-01-01

    An inducible, cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) was purified from Streptomyces griseus. GST isoenzymes with pI values of 6.8 and 7.9 used standard GST substrates including 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. GST had subunit and native Mrs of 24 and 48, respectively, and the N-terminal sequence SMILXYWDIIRGLPAH. PMID:12514067

  6. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-15

    as purpura ), and other organs especially in patients and animrals Idying of 1P. f (i )a rumll (Spitz, 194 6). There iiay b’o several ca usos for e...rumn infection and Burkitt ’s lymph-orna in A frican child ren by StUdying irmrnunoglobulin levels. There are a few studies of platelets during...lesions. In 31 kidney b~iopsic:s from- child ren, 23 corresponded to a type of prolife rative glome rulonephro- I pathy and the rest wcre only

  7. Development of nanosensors for studying intracellular phosphate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Hong

    either involve tissue extraction or have a low resolution in space and time. Recently, design of genetically encoded fluorescent indicator proteins (FLIPs) allowed to assess the cytosolic concentration of sugars, amino acids and inorganic ions in living mammalian and yeast cells. FLIPs consist...... based on FLIPs. As a nanosensor, polymer-based nanoparticles were synthesized with a diameter of 50 nm. Inside the polymer matrix, which was made of polyacrylamide, a pH sensitive indicator dye and a pH insensitive reference dye were placed. The polymer matrix acts as a porous shield and allows...

  8. Development of nanosensors for studying intracellular phosphate levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Hong

    Abstract Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is an essential macronutrient that plays a central role in metabolism and signal transduction in plants. Uptake, compartmentation and transport are important players of cellular Pi homeostasis; however, methods to determine the cellular phosphate concentration...

  9. Intracellular transport: from physics to ... biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Aurélien; Cuvelier, Damien; Bassereau, Patricia; Goud, Bruno

    2008-03-01

    Considerable effort over the past three decades has allowed the identification of the protein families that control the cellular machinery responsible for intracellular transport within eukaryotic cells. These proteins are estimated to represent about 10-20% of the human "proteome." The complexity of intracellular transport makes useful the development of model membranes. We describe here experimental systems based on lipid giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), which are attached to kinesin molecules. These systems give rise to thin membrane tubes and to complex tubular networks when incubated in vitro with microtubules and ATP. This type of assay, which mimics key events occurring during intracellular transport, allows physicists and biologists to understand how the unique mechanical properties of lipid membranes could be involved in the budding process, the sorting of cargo proteins and lipids, and the separation of the buds from a donor membrane.

  10. Micro- and nanotechnologies for intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lee, Chun-Sing; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-11-01

    The majority of drugs and biomolecules need to be delivered into cells to be effective. However, the cell membranes, a biological barrier, strictly resist drugs or biomolecules entering cells, resulting in significantly reduced intracellular delivery efficiency. To overcome this barrier, a variety of intracellular delivery approaches including chemical and physical ways have been developed in recent years. In this review, the focus is on summarizing the nanomaterial routes involved in making use of a collection of receptors for the targeted delivery of drugs and biomolecules and the physical ways of applying micro- and nanotechnologies for high-throughput intracellular delivery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Fluorescent nanothermometers for intracellular thermal sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque, Daniel; Rosal, Blanca Del; Rodríguez, Emma Martín; Maestro, Laura Martínez; Haro-González, Patricia; Solé, José García

    2014-05-01

    The importance of high-resolution intracellular thermal sensing and imaging in the field of modern biomedicine has boosted the development of novel nanosized fluorescent systems (fluorescent nanothermometers) as the next generation of probes for intracellular thermal sensing and imaging. This thermal mapping requires fluorescent nanothermometers with good biocompatibility and high thermal sensitivity in order to obtain submicrometric and subdegree spatial and thermal resolutions, respectively. This review describes the different nanosized systems used up to now for intracellular thermal sensing and imaging. We also include the later advances in molecular systems based on fluorescent proteins for thermal mapping. A critical overview of the state of the art and the future perspective is also included.

  12. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Bjerrum, Poul J; Jessen, Torben E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human spermatozoa, and VDR-knockout mice and vitamin D (VD) deficiency in rodents results in impaired fertility, low sperm counts and a low number of motile spermatozoa. We investigated the role of activated VD (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in human...... spermatozoa and whether VD serum levels are associated with semen quality. METHODS Cross-sectional association study of semen quality and VD serum level in 300 men from the general population, and in vitro studies on spermatozoa from 40 men to investigate the effects of VD on intracellular calcium, sperm......M). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium concentration in human spermatozoa through VDR-mediated calcium release from an intracellular calcium storage, increased sperm motility and induced the acrosome reaction in vitro. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium...

  13. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  14. A glutathione-responsive sulfur dioxide polymer prodrug as a nanocarrier for combating drug-resistance in cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Liu, Wanguo; Yang, Huailin; Zhang, Peng; Xiao, Chunsheng; Chen, Xuesi

    2018-02-03

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer remains a significant challenge for curing cancer by chemotherapy. In this work, a kind of glutathione (GSH)-responsive polymer prodrug of SO 2 was designed and synthesized, which presented synergistic effect with doxorubicin (DOX) for combating MCF-7 ADR human breast cancer cell. Firstly, a small molecular prodrug of SO 2 , N-(3-azidopropyl)-2,4-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (AP-DNs), was chemically conjugated onto the side chain of methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-block-poly (γ-propargyl-l-glutamate) (mPEG-PPLG) block copolymer to generate an amphiphilic polymer prodrug of SO 2 , mPEG-PLG (DNs). The obtained mPEG-PLG (DNs) prodrug could self-assemble into micelles in aqueous media and release SO 2 rapidly in response to thiol compounds. Then, DOX was loaded into mPEG-PLG (DNs) nanoparticles with ultrahigh drug-loading efficiency (97.3%). In vitro drug release tests indicated that the DOX-loaded nanoparticles could simultaneously release SO 2 and DOX by GSH triggering. Moreover, the effective cellular uptake of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles and subsequent intracellular release of SO 2 and DOX were verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry (FCM) analyses. The released SO 2 could promote the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in tumor cells, which thereby resulted in oxidative damages of cancer cells, together with restoration of MCF-7 ADR cells sensitivity to DOX. As a result, the released DOX and SO 2 showed synergistic therapeutic effect against MCF-7 ADR cells. In vivo antitumor evaluation further indicated that, compared with free DOX, the DOX-loaded nanoparticles exhibited better antitumor effect in a MCF-7 ADR-xenografted nude mice model while had lower system toxicity. Overall, we demonstrated, for the first time, that a SO 2 polymer prodrug, acting as a stimuli-responsive nanocarrier to codeliver DOX, can efficiently inhibit the proliferation of MDR tumor cells, which may offer a new weapon

  15. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-03-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. © 2015 The Authors

  16. Macrophage defense mechanisms against intracellular bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Günter; Schaible, Ulrich E

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils play a decisive role in host responses to intracellular bacteria including the agent of tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis as they represent the forefront of innate immune defense against bacterial invaders. At the same time, these phagocytes are also primary targets of intracellular bacteria to be abused as host cells. Their efficacy to contain and eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis decides whether a patient initially becomes infected or not. However, when the infection becomes chronic or even latent (as in the case of TB) despite development of specific immune activation, phagocytes have also important effector functions. Macrophages have evolved a myriad of defense strategies to combat infection with intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. These include induction of toxic anti-microbial effectors such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen intermediates, the stimulation of microbe intoxication mechanisms via acidification or metal accumulation in the phagolysosome, the restriction of the microbe's access to essential nutrients such as iron, fatty acids, or amino acids, the production of anti-microbial peptides and cytokines, along with induction of autophagy and efferocytosis to eliminate the pathogen. On the other hand, M. tuberculosis, as a prime example of a well-adapted facultative intracellular bacterium, has learned during evolution to counter-balance the host's immune defense strategies to secure survival or multiplication within this otherwise hostile environment. This review provides an overview of innate immune defense of macrophages directed against intracellular bacteria with a focus on M. tuberculosis. Gaining more insights and knowledge into this complex network of host-pathogen interaction will identify novel target sites of intervention to successfully clear infection at a time of rapidly emerging multi-resistance of M. tuberculosis against conventional antibiotics. PMID:25703560

  17. The influence of the technogenic pollution on the system of glutathione of the animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the state of the glutathione system in blood of sheep in the area of technogenic pollution revealed the significant changes in the concentration of common glutathione and its fractions (reduced and oxidized.

  18. Chronic aspartame intake causes changes in the trans-sulphuration pathway, glutathione depletion and liver damage in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Finamor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No-caloric sweeteners, such as aspartame, are widely used in various food and beverages to prevent the increasing rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus, acting as tools in helping control caloric intake. Aspartame is metabolized to phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. Our aim was to study the effect of chronic administration of aspartame on glutathione redox status and on the trans-sulphuration pathway in mouse liver. Mice were divided into three groups: control; treated daily with aspartame for 90 days; and treated with aspartame plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC. Chronic administration of aspartame increased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase activities and caused liver injury as well as marked decreased hepatic levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, γ-glutamylcysteine ​​(γ-GC, and most metabolites of the trans-sulphuration pathway, such as cysteine, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, and S-adenosylhomocysteine ​​(SAH. Aspartame also triggered a decrease in mRNA and protein levels of the catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLc and cystathionine γ-lyase, and in protein levels of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A and 2A. N-acetylcysteine prevented the aspartame-induced liver injury and the increase in plasma ALT activity as well as the decrease in GSH, γ-GC, cysteine, SAM and SAH levels and GCLc protein levels. In conclusion, chronic administration of aspartame caused marked hepatic GSH depletion, which should be ascribed to GCLc down-regulation and decreased cysteine levels. Aspartame triggered blockade of the trans-sulphuration pathway at two steps, cystathionine γ-lyase and methionine adenosyltransferases. NAC restored glutathione levels as well as the impairment of the trans-sulphuration pathway.

  19. Enzymatic and acidic degradation effect on intracellular polysaccharide of Flammulina velutipes SF-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhao; Zhang, Chen; Gao, Xia; Cui, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianjun; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-02-01

    The intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from Flammulina velutipes SF-08 mycelia was isolated and degraded by enzyme and acid. IPS and its derivative were purified by DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography, and five fractions were obtained. The structural features and antioxidant activities in vitro of the isolated fractions were evaluated. On the basis of chemical composition and antioxidant ability analyses, rhamnose as the main monosaccharide might contribute to the strongest antioxidant capacity. The in vivo results showed that IPS significantly enhanced the activities of anti-aging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and reduced the content of lipid peroxidantion (LPO). These results suggested that IPS should be a potent natural polymer and can be developed to be novel functional food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbon black nanoparticles promote endothelial activation and lipid accumulation in macrophages independently of intracellular ROS production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Danielsen, Pernille Høgh

    2014-01-01

    black (CB) exposure in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), THP-1 (monocytes) and THP-1 derived macrophages (THP-1a). The proliferation of HUVECs or co-cultures of HUVECs and THP-1 cells were unaffected by CB exposure, whereas there was increased cytotoxicity, assessed by the LDH...... and WST-1 assays, especially in THP-1 and THP-1a cells. The CB exposure decreased the glutathione (GSH) content in THP-1 and THP-1a cells, whereas GSH was increased in HUVECs. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was increased in all cell types after CB exposure. A reduction of the intracellular...... GSH concentration by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) pre-treatment further increased the CB-induced ROS production in THP-1 cells and HUVECs. The expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but not adhesion of THP-1 to HUVECs or culture dishes, was elevated by CB exposure, whereas these effects...

  1. Role of intracellular infections in premature childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurabishvili, S; Mamamtavrishvili, I; Apridonidze, K; Shanidze, L

    2005-09-01

    Vaginal Smear taken by sterile Folkman spoon from 15 women with premature birth was studied. The study was performed by the direct immune fluorescence method with the luminescence microscope. We aimed to study the effect of intracellular infections: ureaplasma urealitikum, mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus of I and II type and cytomegalovirus. Intracellular infections were detected in at about 82% of cases, which included mono infections with cytomegalovirus and in 9 cases in the form of bi-component associations. The obtained results may be interesting from the etiologic point of view of premature births in Georgian population.

  2. Activation of the microsomal glutathione-S-transferase and reduction of the glutathione dependent protection against lipid peroxidation by acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, G R; Vermeulen, N P; Tai Tin Tsoi, J N; Ragetli, H M; Timmerman, H; Blast, A

    1988-01-01

    Allyl alcohol is hepatotoxic. It is generally believed that acrolein, generated out of allyl alcohol by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, is responsible for this toxicity. The effect of acrolein in vitro and in vivo on the glutathione (GSH) dependent protection of liver microsomes against lipid

  3. Co-Induction of a Glutathione-S-transferase, a Glutathione Transporter and an ABC Transporter in Maize by Xenobiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqian; Song, Xiaoyu; Li, Xuefeng; Wang, Chengju

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione conjugation reactions are one of the principal mechanisms that plants utilize to detoxify xenobiotics. The induction by four herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, metolachlor and primisulfuron) and a herbicide safener (dichlormid) on the expression of three genes, ZmGST27, ZmGT1 and ZmMRP1, encoding respectively a glutathione-S-transferase, a glutathione transporter and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter was studied in maize. The results demonstrate that the inducing effect on gene expression varies with both chemicals and genes. The expression of ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 was up-regulated by all five compounds, whereas that of ZmGT1 was increased by atrazine, metolachlor, primisulfuron and dichlormid, but not by 2,4-D. For all chemicals, the inducing effect was first detected on ZmGST27. The finding that ZmGT1 is activated alongside ZmGST27 and ZmMRP1 suggests that glutathione transporters are an important component in the xenobiotic detoxification system of plants. PMID:22792398

  4. Glutathione and riboflavin status in supplemented patients undergoing home nocturnal hemodialysis versus standard hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannampuzha, Jovil; Donnelly, Sandra M; McFarlane, Philip A; Chan, Christopher T; House, James D; Pencharz, Paul B; Darling, Pauline B

    2010-05-01

    Patients on conventional hemodialysis (HD) have elevated markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, which may contribute to a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Glutathione (GSH), an important intracellular antioxidant, requires cysteine as a rate-limiting amino acid for its synthesis and riboflavin for its regeneration. We aimed to examine whether erythrocyte GSH (eGSH) concentrations and riboflavin status are influenced by the increased dialysis dose provided to vitamin-supplemented patients receiving home nocturnal hemodialysis (HNHD) (6-8 hours/session, 5-7 nights/week) compared with patients on standard hemodialysis (SHD) (4 hours/session, 3 days/week). This was a cross-sectional comparative study involving 30 patients undergoing SHD or HNHD regimens and a group of 15 healthy control subjects (HC). We measured eGSH concentration by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, riboflavin status by eGSH reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC) as well as plasma total cysteine (Cys) and total homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin C by high-performance liquid chromatography, and C-reactive protein (CRP) by standard method. Estimated dietary protein and energy intakes were determined by 3-day food records, and nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA). There were no significant differences among groups in eGSH concentration, EGRAC, dietary protein intake, and SGA score. SHD patients had significantly higher plasma Cys (P patients.

  5. The glutathione synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine synergistically enhanced melphalan activity against preclinical models of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagde, A; Singh, H; Kang, M H; Reynolds, C P

    2014-01-01

    Melphalan (L-PAM) has been an integral part of multiple myeloma (MM) treatment as a conditioning regimen before stem cell transplant (SCT). After initial response, most treated patients experience relapse with an aggressive phenotype. Increased glutathione (GSH) in MM may mediate resistance to L-PAM. We demonstrated that the GSH synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) synergistically enhanced L-PAM activity (inducing 2–4 logs of cell kill) against nine MM cell lines (also in the presence of marrow stroma or cytokines) and in seven primary MM samples (combination indices <1.0). In MM cell lines, BSO significantly (P<0.05) depleted GSH, increased L-PAM-induced single-strand DNA breaks, mitochondrial depolarization, caspase cleavage and apoptosis. L-PAM depleted GSH, but GSH rapidly recovered in a L-PAM-resistant MM cell line unless also treated with BSO. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine antagonized BSO+L-PAM cytotoxicity without increasing GSH. In human MM xenografted into beige-nude-xid mice, BSO significantly depleted MM intracellular GSH and significantly increased apoptosis compared with L-PAM alone. BSO+L-PAM achieved complete responses (CRs) in three MM xenograft models including maintained CRs >100 days, and significantly increased the median event-free survival relative to L-PAM alone. Combining BSO with L-PAM warrants clinical testing in advanced MM

  6. A nuclear glutathione cycle within the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Vivancos, Pedro; Wolff, Tonja; Markovic, Jelena; Pallardó, Federico V; Foyer, Christine H

    2010-10-15

    The complex antioxidant network of plant and animal cells has the thiol tripeptide GSH at its centre to buffer ROS (reactive oxygen species) and facilitate cellular redox signalling which controls growth, development and defence. GSH is found in nearly every compartment of the cell, including the nucleus. Transport between the different intracellular compartments is pivotal to the regulation of cell proliferation. GSH co-localizes with nuclear DNA at the early stages of proliferation in plant and animal cells. Moreover, GSH recruitment and sequestration in the nucleus during the G1- and S-phases of the cell cycle has a profound impact on cellular redox homoeostasis and on gene expression. For example, the abundance of transcripts encoding stress and defence proteins is decreased when GSH is sequestered in the nucleus. The functions of GSHn (nuclear GSH) are considered in the present review in the context of whole-cell redox homoeostasis and signalling, as well as p