WorldWideScience

Sample records for intracellular calcium signaling

  1. Intracellular calcium homeostasis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Calì, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) is a universal carrier of biological information: it controls cell life from its origin at fertilization to its end in the process of programmed cell death. Ca(2+) is a conventional diffusible second messenger released inside cells by the interaction of first messengers with plasma membrane receptors. However, it can also penetrate directly into cells to deliver information without the intermediation of first or second messengers. Even more distinctively, Ca(2+) can act as a first messenger, by interacting with a plasma membrane receptor to set in motion intracellular signaling pathways that involve Ca(2+) itself. Perhaps the most distinctive property of the Ca(2+) signal is its ambivalence: while essential to the correct functioning of cells, Ca(2+) becomes an agent that mediates cell distress, or even (toxic) cell death, if its concentration and movements inside cells are not carefully tuned. Ca(2+) is controlled by reversible complexation to specific proteins, which could be pure Ca(2+) buffers, or which, in addition to buffering Ca(2+), also decode its signal to pass it on to targets. The most important actors in the buffering of cell Ca(2+) are proteins that transport it across the plasma membrane and the membrane of the organelles: some have high Ca(2+) affinity and low transport capacity (e.g., Ca(2+) pumps), others have opposite properties (e.g., the Ca(2+) uptake system of mitochondria). Between the initial event of fertilization, and the terminal event of programmed cell death, the Ca(2+) signal regulates the most important activities of the cell, from the expression of genes, to heart and muscle contraction and other motility processes, to diverse metabolic pathways involved in the generation of cell fuels.

  2. Stochastic models of intracellular calcium signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rüdiger, Sten, E-mail: sten.ruediger@physik.hu-berlin.de

    2014-01-10

    Cellular signaling operates in a noisy environment shaped by low molecular concentrations and cellular heterogeneity. For calcium release through intracellular channels–one of the most important cellular signaling mechanisms–feedback by liberated calcium endows fluctuations with critical functions in signal generation and formation. In this review it is first described, under which general conditions the environment makes stochasticity relevant, and which conditions allow approximating or deterministic equations. This analysis provides a framework, in which one can deduce an efficient hybrid description combining stochastic and deterministic evolution laws. Within the hybrid approach, Markov chains model gating of channels, while the concentrations of calcium and calcium binding molecules (buffers) are described by reaction–diffusion equations. The article further focuses on the spatial representation of subcellular calcium domains related to intracellular calcium channels. It presents analysis for single channels and clusters of channels and reviews the effects of buffers on the calcium release. For clustered channels, we discuss the application and validity of coarse-graining as well as approaches based on continuous gating variables (Fokker–Planck and chemical Langevin equations). Comparison with recent experiments substantiates the stochastic and spatial approach, identifies minimal requirements for a realistic modeling, and facilitates an understanding of collective channel behavior. At the end of the review, implications of stochastic and local modeling for the generation and properties of cell-wide release and the integration of calcium dynamics into cellular signaling models are discussed.

  3. Calcium, channels, intracellular signaling and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Jorge-Hernán; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cañas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca²⁺) is an important cation able to function as a second messenger in different cells of the immune system, particularly in B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and mastocytes, among others. Recent discoveries related to the entry of Ca²⁺ through the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has opened a new investigation area about the cell destiny regulated by Ca²⁺ especially in B and T lymphocytes. SOCE acts through calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The function of CRAC depends of two recently discovered regulators: the Ca²⁺ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum or stromal interaction molecule (STIM-1) and one subunit of CRAC channels called Orai1. This review focuses on the role of Ca²⁺ signals in B and T lymphocytes functions, the signalling pathways leading to Ca²⁺ influx, and the relationship between Ca²⁺ signals and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Expanding the neuron's calcium signaling repertoire: intracellular calcium release via voltage-induced PLC and IP3R activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ryglewski

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal calcium acts as a charge carrier during information processing and as a ubiquitous intracellular messenger. Calcium signals are fundamental to numerous aspects of neuronal development and plasticity. Specific and independent regulation of these vital cellular processes is achieved by a rich bouquet of different calcium signaling mechanisms within the neuron, which either can operate independently or may act in concert. This study demonstrates the existence of a novel calcium signaling mechanism by simultaneous patch clamping and calcium imaging from acutely isolated central neurons. These neurons possess a membrane voltage sensor that, independent of calcium influx, causes G-protein activation, which subsequently leads to calcium release from intracellular stores via phospholipase C and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor activation. This allows neurons to monitor activity by intracellular calcium release without relying on calcium as the input signal and opens up new insights into intracellular signaling, developmental regulation, and information processing in neuronal compartments lacking calcium channels.

  5. 14-3-3 Proteins Buffer Intracellular Calcium Sensing Receptors to Constrain Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Grant

    Full Text Available Calcium sensing receptors (CaSR interact with 14-3-3 binding proteins at a carboxyl terminal arginine-rich motif. Mutations identified in patients with familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, autosomal dominant hypocalcemia, pancreatitis or idiopathic epilepsy support the functional importance of this motif. We combined total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and biochemical approaches to determine the mechanism of 14-3-3 protein regulation of CaSR signaling. Loss of 14-3-3 binding caused increased basal CaSR signaling and plasma membrane levels, and a significantly larger signaling-evoked increase in plasma membrane receptors. Block of core glycosylation with tunicamycin demonstrated that changes in plasma membrane CaSR levels were due to differences in exocytic rate. Western blotting to quantify time-dependent changes in maturation of expressed wt CaSR and a 14-3-3 protein binding-defective mutant demonstrated that signaling increases synthesis to maintain constant levels of the immaturely and maturely glycosylated forms. CaSR thus operates by a feed-forward mechanism, whereby signaling not only induces anterograde trafficking of nascent receptors but also increases biosynthesis to maintain steady state levels of net cellular CaSR. Overall, these studies suggest that 14-3-3 binding at the carboxyl terminus provides an important buffering mechanism to increase the intracellular pool of CaSR available for signaling-evoked trafficking, but attenuates trafficking to control the dynamic range of responses to extracellular calcium.

  6. Intracellular calcium signals display an avalanche-like behavior over multiple lengthscales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía eLopez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Many natural phenomena display "self-organized criticality'' (SOC. This refers to spatially extended systems for which patterns of activity characterized by different lengthscales can occur with a probability density that follows a power law with pattern size. Differently from power laws at phase transitions, systems displaying SOC do not need the tuning of an external parameter. Here we analyze intracellular calcium Ca2+ signals, a key component of the signaling toolkit of almost any cell type. Ca2+ signals can either be spatially restricted (local or propagate throughout the cell (global. Different models have suggested that the transition from local to global signals is similar to that of directed percolation. Directed percolation has been associated, in turn, to the appearance of self-organized criticality. In this paper we discuss these issues within the framework of simple models of Ca2+ signal propagation. We also analyze the size distribution of local signals ("puffs'' observed in immature Xenopus Laevis oocytes. The puff amplitude distribution obtained from observed local signals is not Gaussian with a noticeable fraction of large size events. The experimental distribution of puff areas in the spatio-temporal record of the image has a long tail that is approximately log-normal. The distribution can also be fitted with a power law relationship albeit with a smaller goodness of fit. The power law behavior is encountered within a simple model that includes some coupling among individual signals for a wide range of parameter values. An analysis of the model shows that a global elevation of the Ca2+ concentration plays a major role in determining whether the puff size distribution is long-tailed or not. This suggests that Ca2+-clearing from the cytosol is key to determine whether IP3-mediated Ca2+ signals can display a SOC-like behavior or not.

  7. Mango Fruit Extracts Differentially Affect Proliferation and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Taing, Meng-Wong; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Shaw, Paul N.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Gidley, Michael J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of human cancer cell proliferation is a common approach in identifying plant extracts that have potential bioactive effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanolic extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars, Irwin (IW), Nam Doc Mai (NDM), and Kensington Pride (KP), differentially affect proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I) signalling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Man...

  8. Miro1 Regulates Activity-Driven Positioning of Mitochondria within Astrocytic Processes Apposed to Synapses to Regulate Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Terri-Leigh; Higgs, Nathalie F.; Sheehan, David F.; Al Awabdh, Sana; López-Doménech, Guillermo; Arancibia-Carcamo, I. Lorena

    2015-01-01

    It is fast emerging that maintaining mitochondrial function is important for regulating astrocyte function, although the specific mechanisms that govern astrocyte mitochondrial trafficking and positioning remain poorly understood. The mitochondrial Rho-GTPase 1 protein (Miro1) regulates mitochondrial trafficking and detachment from the microtubule transport network to control activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning in neurons. However, whether Miro proteins are important for regulating signaling-dependent mitochondrial dynamics in astrocytic processes remains unclear. Using live-cell confocal microscopy of rat organotypic hippocampal slices, we find that enhancing neuronal activity induces transient mitochondrial remodeling in astrocytes, with a concomitant, transient reduction in mitochondrial trafficking, mediated by elevations in intracellular Ca2+. Stimulating neuronal activity also induced mitochondrial confinement within astrocytic processes in close proximity to synapses. Furthermore, we show that the Ca2+-sensing EF-hand domains of Miro1 are important for regulating mitochondrial trafficking in astrocytes and required for activity-driven mitochondrial confinement near synapses. Additionally, activity-dependent mitochondrial positioning by Miro1 reciprocally regulates the levels of intracellular Ca2+ in astrocytic processes. Thus, the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, dependent on Miro1-mediated mitochondrial positioning, could have important consequences for astrocyte Ca2+ wave propagation, gliotransmission, and ultimately neuronal function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Mitochondria are key cellular organelles that play important roles in providing cellular energy and buffering intracellular calcium ions. The mechanisms that control mitochondrial distribution within the processes of glial cells called astrocytes and the impact this may have on calcium signaling remains unclear. We show that activation of glutamate receptors or increased neuronal

  9. Intracellular calcium promotes radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells through activating Akt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiling; He, Jiantao; Zhang, Shenghui; Yang, Qingbo

    2017-03-01

    Radiotherapy is a major therapeutic approach in non-small cell lung cancer but is restricted by radioresistance. Although Akt signaling promotes radioresistance in non-small cell lung cancer, it is not well understood how Akt signaling is activated. Since intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) could activate Akt in A549 cells, we investigated the relationship between intracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) and Akt signaling in radioresistant A549 cells by establishing radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. The radioresistant cell line A549 was generated by dose-gradient irradiation of the parental A549 cells. The cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis were, respectively, assessed using the cell counting kit-8, EdU labeling, and flow cytometry analysis. The phosphorylation of Akt was evaluated by Western blotting, and the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration was assessed by Fluo 4-AM. The radioresistant A549 cells displayed mesenchymal morphology. After additional irradiation, the radioresistant A549 cells showed decreased cell viability and proliferation but increased apoptosis. Moreover, the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration and the phosphorylation level on the Akt473 site in radioresistant A549 cells were higher than those in original cells, whereas the percentage of apoptosis in radioresistant A549 cells was less. All these results could be reversed by verapamil. In conclusion, our study found that intracellular Ca 2+ could promote radioresistance of non-small cell lung cancer cells through phosphorylating of Akt on the 473 site, which contributes to a better understanding on the non-small cell lung cancer radioresistance, and may provide a new target for radioresistance management.

  10. Enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Javier E; Potapenko, Evgeniy S

    2013-08-15

    An enhanced glutamate excitatory function within the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricluar nuclei is known to contribute to increased neurosecretory and presympathetic neuronal activity, and hence, neurohumoral activation, during heart failure (HF). Still, the precise mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamate-driven neuronal activity in HF remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed simultaneous electrophysiology and fast confocal Ca²⁺ imaging to determine whether altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ levels (NMDA-ΔCa²⁺) occurred in hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in HF rats. We found that activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a larger ΔCa²⁺ in MNCs from HF when compared with sham rats. The enhanced NMDA-ΔCa²⁺ was neither dependent on the magnitude of the NMDA-mediated current (voltage clamp) nor on the degree of membrane depolarization or firing activity evoked by NMDA (current clamp). Differently from NMDA receptor activation, firing activity evoked by direct membrane depolarization resulted in similar changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ in sham and HF rats. Taken together, our results support a relatively selective alteration of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and signaling following activation of NMDA receptors in MNCs during HF. The downstream functional consequences of such altered ΔCa²⁺ signaling during HF are discussed.

  11. Muscarinic signalling affects intracellular calcium concentration during the first cell cycle of sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P K; Falugi, C; Angelini, C; Whitaker, M J

    2002-06-01

    The existence of a response to acetylcholine (ACh) and cholinomimetic drugs in sea urchin eggs and zygotes was investigated in two sea urchin species: Paracentrotus lividus and Lytechinus pictus. The calcium sensitive fluorescent probe, Fura-2 dextran, was employed to investigate the regulation of cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by cholinomimetic drugs in unfertilised and fertilised eggs of both the sea urchin species. Exposure to cholinomimetic agonists/antagonists, either extracellularly or intracellularly, had no effect either on resting [Ca(2+)](i) levels in the unfertilised sea urchin egg, or on the transient [Ca(2+)](i) increase at fertilisation. However, following fertilisation, extracellular application of ACh receptors agonists, such as ACh and carbachol, predominantly muscarinic agonist, but not nicotine, induced a significant increase in [Ca(2+)](i), which was partially inhibited by atropine. As a consequence of exposure after fertilisation to the agonists of ACh receptors, chromatin structure was transiently affected. The hypothesis is proposed that muscarinic receptors may be involved in the (presumably Ca(2+)-dependent) modulation of the nuclear status during the first cell cycles.

  12. Use of multiple singular value decompositions to analyze complex intracellular calcium ion signals

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2009-12-01

    We compare calcium ion signaling (Ca(2+)) between two exposures; the data are present as movies, or, more prosaically, time series of images. This paper describes novel uses of singular value decompositions (SVD) and weighted versions of them (WSVD) to extract the signals from such movies, in a way that is semi-automatic and tuned closely to the actual data and their many complexities. These complexities include the following. First, the images themselves are of no interest: all interest focuses on the behavior of individual cells across time, and thus, the cells need to be segmented in an automated manner. Second, the cells themselves have 100+ pixels, so that they form 100+ curves measured over time, so that data compression is required to extract the features of these curves. Third, some of the pixels in some of the cells are subject to image saturation due to bit depth limits, and this saturation needs to be accounted for if one is to normalize the images in a reasonably un-biased manner. Finally, the Ca(2+) signals have oscillations or waves that vary with time and these signals need to be extracted. Thus, our aim is to show how to use multiple weighted and standard singular value decompositions to detect, extract and clarify the Ca(2+) signals. Our signal extraction methods then lead to simple although finely focused statistical methods to compare Ca(2+) signals across experimental conditions.

  13. Honey bee dopamine and octopamine receptors linked to intracellular calcium signaling have a close phylogenetic and pharmacological relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle T Beggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Three dopamine receptor genes have been identified that are highly conserved among arthropod species. One of these genes, referred to in honey bees as Amdop2, shows a close phylogenetic relationship to the a-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor family. In this study we examined in parallel the functional and pharmacological properties of AmDOP2 and the honey bee octopamine receptor, AmOA1. For comparison, pharmacological properties of the honey bee dopamine receptors AmDOP1 and AmDOP3, and the tyramine receptor AmTYR1, were also examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using HEK293 cells heterologously expressing honey bee biogenic amine receptors, we found that activation of AmDOP2 receptors, like AmOA1 receptors, initiates a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels. We found no evidence of calcium signaling via AmDOP1, AmDOP3 or AmTYR1 receptors. AmDOP2- and AmOA1-mediated increases in intracellular calcium were inhibited by 10 µM edelfosine indicating a requirement for phospholipase C-β activity in this signaling pathway. Edelfosine treatment had no effect on AmDOP2- or AmOA1-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP. The synthetic compounds mianserin and epinastine, like cis-(Z-flupentixol and spiperone, were found to have significant antagonist activity on AmDOP2 receptors. All 4 compounds were effective antagonists also on AmOA1 receptors. Analysis of putative ligand binding sites offers a possible explanation for why epinastine acts as an antagonist at AmDOP2 receptors, but fails to block responses mediated via AmDOP1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that AmDOP2, like AmOA1, is coupled not only to cAMP, but also to calcium-signalling and moreover, that the two signalling pathways are independent upstream of phospholipase C-β activity. The striking similarity between the pharmacological properties of these 2 receptors suggests an underlying conservation of structural properties related to receptor

  14. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids and Intracellular Calcium Signaling: A Mini Review on Mechanisms and Physiological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicencio, J.M.; Estrada, M.; Galvis, D.; Bravo, R.; Contreras, A.E.; Rotter, D.; Szabadkai, G.; Hill, J.A.; Rothermel, B.A.; Jaimovich, E.; Lavandero, S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that nongenomic effects of testosterone and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) operate concertedly with genomic effects. Classically, these responses have been viewed as separate and independent processes, primarily because nongenomic responses are faster and appear to be mediated by membrane androgen receptors, whereas long-term genomic effects are mediated through cytosolic androgen receptors regulating transcriptional activity. Numerous studies have demonstrated increases in intracellular Ca2+ in response to AAS. These Ca2+ mediated responses have been seen in a diversity of cell types, including osteoblasts, platelets, skeletal muscle cells, cardiac myocytes and neurons. The versatility of Ca2+ as a second messenger provides these responses with a vast number of pathophysiological implications. In cardiac cells, testosterone elicits voltage-dependent Ca2+ oscillations and IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from internal stores, leading to activation of MAPK and mTOR signaling that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. In neurons, depending upon concentration, testosterone can provoke either physiological Ca2+ oscillations, essential for synaptic plasticity, or sustained, pathological Ca2+ transients that lead to neuronal apoptosis. We propose therefore, that Ca2+ acts as an important point of crosstalk between nongenomic and genomic AAS signaling, representing a central regulator that bridges these previously thought to be divergent responses. PMID:21443511

  15. Altered Mitochondrial Metabolism and Mechanosensation in the Failing Heart: Focus on Intracellular Calcium Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderville Cabassi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart consists of millions of cells, namely cardiomyocytes, which are highly organized in terms of structure and function, at both macroscale and microscale levels. Such meticulous organization is imperative for assuring the physiological pump-function of the heart. One of the key players for the electrical and mechanical synchronization and contraction is the calcium ion via the well-known calcium-induced calcium release process. In cardiovascular diseases, the structural organization is lost, resulting in morphological, electrical, and metabolic remodeling owing the imbalance of the calcium handling and promoting heart failure and arrhythmias. Recently, attention has been focused on the role of mitochondria, which seem to jeopardize these events by misbalancing the calcium processes. In this review, we highlight our recent findings, especially the role of mitochondria (dysfunction in failing cardiomyocytes with respect to the calcium machinery.

  16. Calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreses-Werringloer Ute

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is a key signaling ion involved in many different intracellular and extracellular processes ranging from synaptic activity to cell-cell communication and adhesion. The exact definition at the molecular level of the versatility of this ion has made overwhelming progress in the past several years and has been extensively reviewed. In the brain, calcium is fundamental in the control of synaptic activity and memory formation, a process that leads to the activation of specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and implicates key protein effectors, such as CaMKs, MAPK/ERKs, and CREB. Properly controlled homeostasis of calcium signaling not only supports normal brain physiology but also maintains neuronal integrity and long-term cell survival. Emerging knowledge indicates that calcium homeostasis is not only critical for cell physiology and health, but also, when deregulated, can lead to neurodegeneration via complex and diverse mechanisms involved in selective neuronal impairments and death. The identification of several modulators of calcium homeostasis, such as presenilins and CALHM1, as potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, provides strong support for a role of calcium in neurodegeneration. These observations represent an important step towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of calcium signaling disturbances observed in different brain diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases.

  17. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  18. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as ... [Nayak L and De R K 2007 Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway; J. Biosci. 32 1009–1017] http://www.ias.ac.in/ ..... cellular physiology of intracellular calcium stores; Physiol. Rev. 74 595–636. Bertram R ...

  19. Cadmium Induces Transcription Independently of Intracellular Calcium Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvermoes, Brooke E.; Bird, Gary S.; Freedman, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposure to cadmium is associated with human pathologies and altered gene expression. The molecular mechanisms by which cadmium affects transcription remain unclear. It has been proposed that cadmium activates transcription by altering intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and disrupting calcium-mediated intracellular signaling processes. This hypothesis is based on several studies that may be technically problematic; including the use of BAPTA chelators, BAPTA-based fluorescent sensors, and cytotoxic concentrations of metal. Methodology/Principal Finding In the present report, the effects of cadmium on [Ca2+]i under non-cytotoxic and cytotoxic conditions was monitored using the protein-based calcium sensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60), which was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. In HEK293 constitutively expressing YC3.60, this calcium sensor was found to be insensitive to cadmium. Exposing HEK293::YC3.60 cells to non-cytotoxic cadmium concentrations was sufficient to induce transcription of cadmium-responsive genes but did not affect [Ca2+]i mobilization or increase steady-state mRNA levels of calcium-responsive genes. In contrast, exposure to cytotoxic concentrations of cadmium significantly reduced intracellular calcium stores and altered calcium-responsive gene expression. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that at low levels, cadmium induces transcription independently of intracellular calcium mobilization. The results also support a model whereby cytotoxic levels of cadmium activate calcium-responsive transcription as a general response to metal-induced intracellular damage and not via a specific mechanism. Thus, the modulation of intracellular calcium may not be a primary mechanism by which cadmium regulates transcription. PMID:21694771

  20. A novel role of the L-type calcium channel α1D subunit as a gatekeeper for intracellular zinc signaling: zinc wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yamasaki

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that zinc ion (Zn can behave as an intracellular signaling molecule. We previously demonstrated that mast cells stimulated through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI rapidly release intracellular Zn from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, and we named this phenomenon the "Zn wave". However, the molecules responsible for releasing Zn and the roles of the Zn wave were elusive. Here we identified the pore-forming α(1 subunit of the Cav1.3 (α(1D L-type calcium channel (LTCC as the gatekeeper for the Zn wave. LTCC antagonists inhibited the Zn wave, and an agonist was sufficient to induce it. Notably, α(1D was mainly localized to the ER rather than the plasma membrane in mast cells, and the Zn wave was impaired by α(1D knockdown. We further found that the LTCC-mediated Zn wave positively controlled cytokine gene induction by enhancing the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. Consistent with this finding, LTCC antagonists inhibited the cytokine-mediated delayed-type allergic reaction in mice without affecting the immediate-type allergic reaction. These findings indicated that the LTCC α(1D subunit located on the ER membrane has a novel function as a gatekeeper for the Zn wave, which is involved in regulating NF-κB signaling and the delayed-type allergic reaction.

  1. Extra and intracellular calcium signaling pathway(s) differentially regulate histamine-induced myometrial contractions during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhishek; Nakade, Udayraj P; Choudhury, Soumen; Yadav, Rajkumar Singh; Garg, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the differential role of calcium signaling pathway(s) in histamine-induced uterotonic action during early and mid-pregnancy stages in buffaloes. Compared to mid pregnancy, tonic contraction, amplitude and mean-integral tension were significantly increased by histamine to produce myometrial contraction during early pregnancy with small effects on phasic contraction and frequency. Although uterotonic action of histamine during both stages of pregnancy is sensitive to nifedipine (a L-type Ca 2+ channels blocker) and NNC55-0396 (T-type Ca 2+ channels blocker), the role of extracellular calcium seems to be more significant during mid-pregnancy as in this stage histamine produced only 9.38±0.96% contraction in Ca 2+ free-RLS compared to 21.60±1.45% in uteri of early pregnancy stage. Intracellular calcium plays major role in histamine-induced myometrial contraction during early pregnancy as compared to mid pregnancy, as in the presence of cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) Ca 2+ -free RLS, histamine produced significantly higher contraction in myometrial strips of early-pregancy in comparison to mid-pregnancy (10.59±1.58% and 3.13±0.46%, respectively). In the presence of U-73122, the DRC of histamine was significantly shifted towards right with decrease in maximal effect (E max ) only in early pregnancy suggesting the predominant role of phospholipase-C (PL-C) in this stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  3. Calcium Signaling Is Required for Erythroid Enucleation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B Wölwer

    Full Text Available Although erythroid enucleation, the property of erythroblasts to expel their nucleus, has been known for 7ore than a century, surprisingly little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms governing this unique developmental process. Here we show that similar to cytokinesis, nuclear extrusion requires intracellular calcium signaling and signal transduction through the calmodulin (CaM pathway. However, in contrast to cytokinesis we found that orthochromatic erythroblasts require uptake of extracellular calcium to enucleate. Together these functional studies highlight a critical role for calcium signaling in the regulation of erythroid enucleation.

  4. Intracellular signal modulation by nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Salik; Garantziotis, Stavros; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Boland, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems and the resulting activation of signal transduction pathways is essential for the development of safe and consumer friendly nanotechnology. Here we present an overview of signaling pathways induced by nanomaterial exposures and describe the possible correlation of their physicochemical characteristics with biological outcomes. In addition to the hierarchical oxidative stress model and a review of the intrinsic and cell-mediated mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating capacities of nanomaterials, we also discuss other oxidative stress dependent and independent cellular signaling pathways. Induction of the inflammasome, calcium signaling, and endoplasmic reticulum stress are reviewed. Furthermore, the uptake mechanisms can be of crucial importance for the cytotoxicity of nanomaterials and membrane-dependent signaling pathways have also been shown to be responsible for cellular effects of nanomaterials. Epigenetic regulation by nanomaterials, effects of nanoparticle-protein interactions on cell signaling pathways, and the induction of various cell death modalities by nanomaterials are described. We describe the common trigger mechanisms shared by various nanomaterials to induce cell death pathways and describe the interplay of different modalities in orchestrating the final outcome after nanomaterial exposures. A better understanding of signal modulations induced by nanomaterials is not only essential for the synthesis and design of safer nanomaterials but will also help to discover potential nanomedical applications of these materials. Several biomedical applications based on the different signaling pathways induced by nanomaterials are already proposed and will certainly gain a great deal of attraction in the near future.

  5. Intracellular Signalling by C-Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire E. Hills

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available C-peptide, a cleavage product of the proinsulin molecule, has long been regarded as biologically inert, serving merely as a surrogate marker for insulin release. Recent findings demonstrate both a physiological and protective role of C-peptide when administered to individuals with type I diabetes. Data indicate that C-peptide appears to bind in nanomolar concentrations to a cell surface receptor which is most likely to be G-protein coupled. Binding of C-peptide initiates multiple cellular effects, evoking a rise in intracellular calcium, increased PI-3-kinase activity, stimulation of the Na+/K+ ATPase, increased eNOS transcription, and activation of the MAPK signalling pathway. These cell signalling effects have been studied in multiple cell types from multiple tissues. Overall these observations raise the possibility that C-peptide may serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment or prevention of long-term complications associated with diabetes.

  6. The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatiello, Roberto; Sello, Simone; Novero, Mara; Negro, Alessandro; Bonfante, Paola; Navazio, Lorella

    2014-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is an ecologically relevant symbiosis between most land plants and Glomeromycota fungi. The peculiar traits of AM fungi have so far limited traditional approaches such as genetic transformation. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the protein transduction domain of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) protein, previously shown to act as a potent nanocarrier for macromolecule delivery in both animal and plant cells, may translocate protein cargoes into AM fungi. We evaluated the internalization into germinated spores of Gigaspora margarita of two recombinant TAT fusion proteins consisting of either a fluorescent (GFP) or a luminescent (aequorin) reporter linked to the TAT peptide. Both TAT-fused proteins were found to enter AM fungal mycelia after a short incubation period (5-10 min). Ca2+ measurements in G. margarita mycelia pre-incubated with TAT-aequorin demonstrated the occurrence of changes in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration in response to relevant stimuli, such as touch, cold, salinity, and strigolactones, symbiosis-related plant signals. These data indicate that the cell-penetrating properties of the TAT peptide can be used as an effective strategy for intracellularly delivering proteins of interest and shed new light on Ca2+ homeostasis and signalling in AM fungi. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs), VacA intracellular trafficking and interference with calcium signalling in T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Beate; Jain, Utkarsh; Utsch, Ciara; Otto, Andreas; Busch, Benjamin; Jiménez-Soto, Luisa; Becher, Dörte; Haas, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes half of the global population. Residing at the stomach epithelium, it contributes to the development of diseases such as gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. A major factor is the secreted vacuolating toxin VacA, which forms anion-selective channels in the endosome membrane that cause the compartment to swell, but the composition and purpose of the resulting VacA-containing vacuoles (VCVs) are still unknown. VacA exerts influence on the host immune response in various ways, including inhibition of T-cell activation and proliferation and suppression of the host immune response. In this study, for the first time the composition of VCVs from T cells was comprehensively analysed to investigate VCV function. VCVs were successfully isolated via immunomagnetic separation, and the purified vacuoles were analysed by mass spectrometry. We detected a set of 122 VCV-specific proteins implicated among others in immune response, cell death and cellular signalling processes, all of which VacA is known to influence. One of the individual proteins studied further was stromal interaction molecule (STIM1), a calcium sensor residing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is important in store-operated calcium entry. Live cell imaging microscopy data demonstrated colocalization of VacA with STIM1 in the ER and indicated that VacA may interfere with the movement of STIM1 towards the plasma membrane-localized calcium release activated calcium channel protein ORAI1 in response to Ca(2+) store depletion. Furthermore, VacA inhibited the increase of cytosolic-free Ca(2+) in the Jurkat E6-1 T-cell line and human CD4(+) T cells. The presence of VacA in the ER and its trafficking to the Golgi apparatus was confirmed in HeLa cells, identifying these two cellular compartments as novel VacA target structures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Analysis of Intracellular and Intercellular Calcium Signaling in Human Anterior Lens Capsule Epithelial Cells with Regard to Different Types and Stages of the Cataract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Gosak

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated how modifications of the Ca2+ homeostasis in anterior lens epithelial cells (LECs are associated with different types of cataract (cortical or nuclear and how the progression of the cataract (mild or moderate affects the Ca2+ signaling. We systematically analyzed different aspects of intra- and inter-cellular Ca2+ signaling in the human LECs, which are attached to surgically isolated lens capsule (LC, obtained during cataract surgery. We monitored the temporal and spatial changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after stimulation with acetylcholine by means of Fura-2 fluorescence captured with an inverted microscope. In our analysis we compared the features of Ca2+ signals in individual cells, synchronized activations, spatio-temporal grouping and the nature of intercellular communication between LECs. The latter was assessed by using the methodologies of the complex network theory. Our results point out that at the level of individual cells there are no significant differences when comparing the features of the signals with regard either to the type or the stage of the cataract. On the other hand, noticeable differences are observed at the multicellular level, despite inter-capsule variability. LCs associated with more developed cataracts were found to exhibit a slower collective response to stimulation, a less pronounced spatio-temporal clustering of LECs with similar signaling characteristics. The reconstructed intercellular networks were found to be sparser and more segregated than in LCs associated with mild cataracts. Moreover, we show that spontaneously active LECs often operate in localized groups with quite well aligned Ca2+ activity. The presence of spontaneous activity was also found to affect the stimulated Ca2+ responses of individual cells. Our findings indicate that the cataract progression entails the impairment of intercellular signaling thereby suggesting the functional importance of altered Ca2

  9. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  10. Calcium signalling during zebrafish embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S E; Miller, A L

    2000-02-01

    Calcium signals appear throughout the first 24 hours of zebrafish development. These begin at egg activation, then continue to be generated throughout the subsequent zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, and segmentation periods. They are thus associated with the major phases of pattern formation: cell proliferation, cell differentiation, axis determination, the generation of primary germ layers, the emergence of rudimentary organ systems, and therefore the establishment of the basic vertebrate body plan. When signals need to be transmitted across significant distances they take the form of waves, either intracellular waves when the cell size is large, or later in development when the cell size is reduced, intercellular waves. We will consider both types of calcium signals and their integration into signalling networks, and discuss their possible functions and developmental significance with regard to pattern formation. BioEssays 22:113-123, 2000. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. The effect of pulsed electric fields on the electrotactic migration of human neural progenitor cells through the involvement of intracellular calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisamitsu; Edin, Fredrik; Li, Hao; Liu, Wei; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are required for the physiological control of the central nervous system development. Application of the direct current EFs to neural stem cells has been studied for the possibility of stem cell transplantation as one of the therapies for brain injury. EFs generated within the nervous system are often associated with action potentials and synaptic activity, apparently resulting in a pulsed current in nature. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pulsed EF, which can reduce the cytotoxicity, on the migration of human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). We applied the mono-directional pulsed EF with a strength of 250mV/mm to hNPCs for 6h. The migration distance of the hNPCs exposed to pulsed EF was significantly greater compared with the control not exposed to the EF. Pulsed EFs, however, had less of an effect on the migration of the differentiated hNPCs. There was no significant change in the survival of hNPCs after exposure to the pulsed EF. To investigate the role of Ca 2+ signaling in electrotactic migration of hNPCs, pharmacological inhibition of Ca 2+ channels in the EF-exposed cells revealed that the electrotactic migration of hNPCs exposed to Ca 2+ channel blockers was significantly lower compared to the control group. The findings suggest that the pulsed EF induced migration of hNPCs is partly influenced by intracellular Ca 2+ signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    was inhibited by buffering of intracellular calcium with BAPTA, by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and by uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation from respiration with CCCP. These results indicate that Cd generate a prompt initiation of ROS production from mitochondria due to an increase......Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... dynamics in living cells in response to hormonal signal events in the A6 cell culture. A6 cells have a divalent cation-sensing receptor (the extracellular calcium receptor) that can be stimulated with cadmium (Cd) and thereby induce a fast and transient liberation of calcium from intracellular stores, due...

  13. Selenium potentiates the anticancer effect of cisplatin against oxidative stress and calcium ion signaling-induced intracellular toxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: involvement of the TRPV1 channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallı Çetin, Esin; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çiğ, Bilal; Övey, İshak Suat; Aslan Koşar, Pınar

    2017-02-01

    In breast cancers, calcium signaling is a main cause of proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Although previous studies have implicated the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel, the synergistic inhibition effects of selenium (Se) and cisplatin in cancer and the suppression of ongoing apoptosis have not yet been investigated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. This study investigates the anticancer properties of Se through TRPV1 channel activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line cultures when given alone or in combination with cisplatin. The MCF-7 cells were divided into four groups: the control group, the Se-treated group (200 nM), the cisplatin-treated group (40 μM) and the Se + cisplatin-treated group. The intracellular free calcium ion concentration and current densities increased with TRPV1 channel activator capsaicin (0.01 mM), but they decreased with the TRPV1 blocker capsazepine (0.1 mM), Se, cisplatin, and Se + cisplatin incubations. However, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, apoptosis, and the caspase 3, and caspase 9 values increased in the Se-treated group and the cisplatin-treated group, although Western blot (procaspase 3 and 9) results and the cell viability levels decreased with the Se and Se + cisplatin treatments. Apoptosis and caspase-3 were further increased with the Se + cisplatin treatment. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production increased with the cisplatin treatment, but not with the Se treatment. This study's results report, for the first time, that at a cellular level, Se and cisplatin interact on the same intracellular toxic cascade, and the combination of these two drugs can result in a remarkable anticancer effect through modulation of the TRPV1.

  14. Intracellular calcium levels can regulate Importin-dependent nuclear import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Ly-Huynh, Jennifer D.; Jans, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import. • The effect of Ca 2+ on nuclear import does not relate to changes in the nuclear pore. • High intracellular calcium can result in mislocalisation of Impβ1, Ran and RCC1. - Abstract: We previously showed that increased intracellular calcium can modulate Importin (Imp)β1-dependent nuclear import of SRY-related chromatin remodeling proteins. Here we extend this work to show for the first time that high intracellular calcium inhibits Impα/β1- or Impβ1-dependent nuclear protein import generally. The basis of this relates to the mislocalisation of the transport factors Impβ1 and Ran, which show significantly higher nuclear localization in contrast to various other factors, and RCC1, which shows altered subnuclear localisation. The results here establish for the first time that intracellular calcium modulates conventional nuclear import through direct effects on the nuclear transport machinery

  15. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... [Ganguli P, Chowdhury S, Bhowmick R and Sarkar RR 2015 Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling cascade during T-cell activation: A ... cells and tissues by studying different signalling pathways, such as Hedgehog ...... Murray JD 2003 On the mechanochemical theory of biological.

  16. Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Response to Ion Channel Regulators via a Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Petrou, Terry; Olsen, Herv?r L.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Masters, John R.; Ashmore, Jonathan F.; Ahmed, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), in addition to being an important second messenger, is a key regulator of many cellular processes including the cell membrane potential, proliferation and apoptosis. In many cases, the mobilization of [Ca2+]i is controlled by intracellular store activation and calcium influx. We have investigated the effect of several ion channel modulators, which have been used to treat a range of human diseases, on [Ca2+]i release, by ratiometric calcium imaging. We sho...

  17. The calcium feedback loop and T cell activation: how cytoskeleton networks control intracellular calcium flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Noah; Reicher, Barak; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2014-02-01

    During T cell activation, the engagement of a T cell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) results in rapid cytoskeletal rearrangements and a dramatic increase of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration, downstream to T cell antigen receptor (TCR) ligation. These events facilitate the organization of an immunological synapse (IS), which supports the redistribution of receptors, signaling molecules and organelles towards the T cell-APC interface to induce downstream signaling events, ultimately supporting T cell effector functions. Thus, Ca(2+) signaling and cytoskeleton rearrangements are essential for T cell activation and T cell-dependent immune response. Rapid release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, e.g. the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggers the opening of Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels, residing in the plasma membrane. These channels facilitate a sustained influx of extracellular Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane in a process termed store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). Because CRAC channels are themselves inhibited by Ca(2+) ions, additional factors are suggested to enable the sustained Ca(2+) influx required for T cell function. Among these factors, we focus here on the contribution of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. The TCR-mediated increase in intracellular Ca(2+) evokes a rapid cytoskeleton-dependent polarization, which involves actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) reorientation. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of Ca(2+) flux and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and further describe the way by which the cytoskeletal networks feedback to Ca(2+) signaling by controlling the spatial and temporal distribution of Ca(2+) sources and sinks, modulating TCR-dependent Ca(2+) signals, which are required for an appropriate T cell response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters

  18. Targeting calcium signaling in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaochu Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular calcium ions (Ca2+ act as second messenger to regulate gene transcription, cell proliferation, migration and death. Accumulating evidences have demonstrated that intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is altered in cancer cells and the alteration is involved in tumor initiation, angiogenesis, progression and metastasis. Targeting derailed Ca2+ signaling for cancer therapy has become an emerging research area. This review summarizes some important Ca2+ channels, transporters and Ca2+-ATPases, which have been reported to be altered in human cancer patients. It discusses the current research effort toward evaluation of the blockers, inhibitors or regulators for Ca2+ channels/transporters or Ca2+-ATPase pumps as anti-cancer drugs. This review is also aimed to stimulate interest in, and support for research into the understanding of cellular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Ca2+ signaling in different cancer cells, and to search for novel therapies to cure these malignancies by targeting Ca2+ channels or transporters.

  19. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Javier; Mediero, Matías; Lozano, Graciela M; Bejarano, Ignacio; Ortiz, Águeda; García, Juan F; Pariente, José A; Rodríguez, Ana B

    2009-01-01

    Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest that spermatozoa from

  20. FLIPR assays of intracellular calcium in GPCR drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Bø; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescent dyes sensitive to changes in intracellular calcium have become increasingly popular in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) drug discovery for several reasons. First of all, the assays using the dyes are easy to perform and are of low cost compared to other assays. Second, most non...

  1. Diffusive spatio-temporal noise in a first-passage time model for intracellular calcium release

    KAUST Repository

    Flegg, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by ion channels. The resulting calcium signals exhibit a rich spatio-temporal signature, which originates at least partly from microscopic fluctuations. While stochasticity in the gating transition of ion channels has been incorporated into many models, the distribution of calcium is usually described by deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Here we test the validity of the latter modeling approach by using two different models to calculate the frequency of localized calcium signals (calcium puffs) from clustered IP3 receptor channels. The complexity of the full calcium system is here limited to the basic opening mechanism of the ion channels and, in the mathematical reduction simplifies to the calculation of a first passage time. Two models are then studied: (i) a hybrid model, where channel gating is treated stochastically, while calcium concentration is deterministic and (ii) a fully stochastic model with noisy channel gating and Brownian calcium ion motion. The second model utilises the recently developed two-regime method [M. B. Flegg, S. J. Chapman, and R. Erban, "The two-regime method for optimizing stochastic reaction-diffusion simulations," J. R. Soc., Interface 9, 859-868 (2012)] in order to simulate a large domain with precision required only near the Ca2+ absorbing channels. The expected time for a first channel opening that results in a calcium puff event is calculated. It is found that for a large diffusion constant, predictions of the interpuff time are significantly overestimated using the model (i) with a deterministic non-spatial calcium variable. It is thus demonstrated that the presence of diffusive noise in local concentrations of intracellular Ca2+ ions can substantially influence the occurrence of calcium signals. The presented approach and results may also be relevant for other cell-physiological first-passage time problems with small ligand concentration

  2. Resveratrol Interferes with Fura-2 Intracellular Calcium Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Richard F; Leech, Colin A; Roe, Michael W

    2014-03-01

    Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol found in some fruits and especially in grapes, has been reported to provide diverse health benefits. Resveratrol's mechanism of action is the subject of many investigations, and some studies using the ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2 suggest that it modulates cellular calcium responses. In the current study, contradictory cellular calcium responses to resveratrol applied at concentrations exceeding 10 μM were observed during in vitro imaging studies depending on the calcium indicator used, with Fura-2 indicating an increase in intracellular calcium while Fluo-4 and the calcium biosensor YC3.60 indicated no response. When cells loaded with Fura-2 were treated with 100 μM resveratrol, excitation at 340 nm resulted in a large intensity increase at 510 nm, but the expected concurrent decline with 380 nm excitation was not observed. Pre-treatment of cells with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM did not prevent a rise in the 340/380 ratio when resveratrol was present, but it did prevent an increase in 340/380 when ATP was applied, suggesting that the resveratrol response was an artifact. Cautious data interpretation is recommended from imaging experiments using Fura-2 concurrently with resveratrol in calcium imaging experiments.

  3. Human β-Cell Proliferation and Intracellular Signaling: Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mehboob A.; García-Ocaña, Adolfo; Vasavada, Rupangi C.; Bhushan, Anil; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    This is the third in a series of Perspectives on intracellular signaling pathways coupled to proliferation in pancreatic β-cells. We contrast the large knowledge base in rodent β-cells with the more limited human database. With the increasing incidence of type 1 diabetes and the recognition that type 2 diabetes is also due in part to a deficiency of functioning β-cells, there is great urgency to identify therapeutic approaches to expand human β-cell numbers. Therapeutic approaches might include stem cell differentiation, transdifferentiation, or expansion of cadaver islets or residual endogenous β-cells. In these Perspectives, we focus on β-cell proliferation. Past Perspectives reviewed fundamental cell cycle regulation and its upstream regulation by insulin/IGF signaling via phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, glucose, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and liver kinase B1, protein kinase Cζ, calcium-calcineurin–nuclear factor of activated T cells, epidermal growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor family members, Wnt/β-catenin, leptin, and estrogen and progesterone. Here, we emphasize Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, Ras/Raf/extracellular signal–related kinase, cadherins and integrins, G-protein–coupled receptors, and transforming growth factor β signaling. We hope these three Perspectives will serve to introduce these pathways to new researchers and will encourage additional investigators to focus on understanding how to harness key intracellular signaling pathways for therapeutic human β-cell regeneration for diabetes. PMID:25999530

  4. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Intracellular signaling mechanisms in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Terán, Paul; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Luna-Ceballos, Rosa Isela; Erazo Valle-Solís, Aura

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, the papillary variant accounts for 80-90% of all diagnosed cases. In the development of papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF and RAS genes are mainly affected, resulting in a modification of the system of intracellular signaling proteins known as «protein kinase mitogen-activated» (MAPK) which consist of «modules» of internal signaling proteins (Receptor/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) from the cell membrane to the nucleus. In thyroid cancer, these signanling proteins regulate diverse cellular processes such as differentiation, growth, development and apoptosis. MAPK play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer as they are used as molecular biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and as possible therapeutic molecular targets. Mutations in BRAF gene have been correlated with poor response to treatment with traditional chemotherapy and as an indicator of poor prognosis. To review the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular signaling of BRAF and RAS genes in thyroid cancer. Molecular therapy research is in progress for this type of cancer as new molecules have been developed in order to inhibit any of the components of the signaling pathway (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK; with special emphasis on the (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf section, which is a major effector of ERK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-range intercellular calcium signaling in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2005-01-01

    different mechanisms for this propagation. One mechanism involves the secretion of a nucleotide, possibly ATP, acting in an autocrine action to purinergic P2Y2 receptors on the neighboring cells, leading to intracellular IP3 generation and subsequent release of calcium from intracellular stores. The other...... to osteoclasts as well. We demonstrated that paracrine action of ATP was responsible for the wave propagation, but now the purinergic P2X7 receptor was involved. Thus, the studies demonstrate that calcium signals can be propagated not only among osteoblasts, but also between osteoblasts and osteoclasts...

  7. Membrane mechanisms and intracellular signalling in cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Dunham, Philip B.

    1995-01-01

    Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation.......Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation....

  8. The mechanical environment modulates intracellular calcium oscillation activities of myofibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Godbout

    Full Text Available Myofibroblast contraction is fundamental in the excessive tissue remodeling that is characteristic of fibrotic tissue contractures. Tissue remodeling during development of fibrosis leads to gradually increasing stiffness of the extracellular matrix. We propose that this increased stiffness positively feeds back on the contractile activities of myofibroblasts. We have previously shown that cycles of contraction directly correlate with periodic intracellular calcium oscillations in cultured myofibroblasts. We analyze cytosolic calcium dynamics using fluorescent calcium indicators to evaluate the possible impact of mechanical stress on myofibroblast contractile activity. To modulate extracellular mechanics, we seeded primary rat subcutaneous myofibroblasts on silicone substrates and into collagen gels of different elastic modulus. We modulated cell stress by cell growth on differently adhesive culture substrates, by restricting cell spreading area on micro-printed adhesive islands, and depolymerizing actin with Cytochalasin D. In general, calcium oscillation frequencies in myofibroblasts increased with increasing mechanical challenge. These results provide new insight on how changing mechanical conditions for myofibroblasts are encoded in calcium oscillations and possibly explain how reparative cells adapt their contractile behavior to the stresses occurring in normal and pathological tissue repair.

  9. Impaired mitochondria and intracellular calcium transients in the salivary glands of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittichaicharoen, Jitjiroj; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Tanajak, Pongpan; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) causes not only obese-insulin resistance, but is also associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in several organs. However, the effect of obese-insulin resistance on salivary glands has not been investigated. We hypothesized that obese-insulin resistance induced by HFD impaired salivary gland function by reducing salivation, increasing inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as impairing mitochondrial function and calcium transient signaling. Male Wistar rats (200-220 g) were fed either a ND or an HFD (n = 8/group) for 16 weeks. At the end of week 16, salivary flow rates, metabolic parameters, and plasma oxidative stress were determined. Rats were then sacrificed and submandibular glands were removed to determine inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, mitochondrial function and dynamics, and intracellular calcium transient signaling. Long-term consumption of an HFD caused obese-insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the salivary glands. In addition, impaired mitochondrial function, as indicated by increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and mitochondrial swelling in salivary glands and impaired intracellular calcium regulation, as indicated by a reduced intracellular calcium transient rising rate, decay rates, and amplitude of salivary acinar cells, were observed in HFD-fed rats. However, salivary flow rate and level of aquaporin 5 protein were not different between both groups. Although HFD consumption did not affect salivation, it caused obese-insulin resistance, leading to pathophysiological alteration of salivary glands, including impaired intracellular calcium transients, increased oxidative stress and inflammation, and salivary mitochondrial dysfunction.

  10. Calcium Signaling and Meiotic Exit at Fertilization in Xenopus Egg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A.; Stefanov, Vasily E.; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is a universal messenger that mediates egg activation at fertilization in all sexually reproducing species studied. However, signaling pathways leading to calcium generation and the mechanisms of calcium-induced exit from meiotic arrest vary substantially among species. Here, we review the pathways of calcium signaling and the mechanisms of meiotic exit at fertilization in the eggs of the established developmental model, African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. We also discuss calcium involvement in the early fertilization-induced events in Xenopus egg, such as membrane depolarization, the increase in intracellular pH, cortical granule exocytosis, cortical contraction, contraction wave, cortical rotation, reformation of the nuclear envelope, sperm chromatin decondensation and sister chromatid segregation. PMID:25322156

  11. Short-range intercellular calcium signaling in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of bone turnover is a complex and finely tuned process. Many factors regulate bone remodeling, including hormones, growth factors, cytokines etc. However, little is known about the signals coupling bone formation to bone resorption, and how mechanical forces are translated...... into biological effects in bone. Intercellular calcium waves are increases in intracellular calcium concentration in single cells, subsequently propagating to adjacent cells, and can be a possible mechanism for the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption. The aim of the present studies was to investigate...... whether bone cells are capable of communicating via intercellular calcium signals, and determine by which mechanisms the cells propagate the signals. First, we found that osteoblastic cells can propagate intercellular calcium transients upon mechanical stimulation, and that there are two principally...

  12. Role of intracellular calcium in cellular volume regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Chase, H.S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the role of intracellular calcium in epithelial cell volume regulation using cells isolated from the toad urinary bladder. A suspension of cells was prepared by treatment of the bladder with collagenase followed by ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid. The cells retained their ion-transporting capabilities: ouabain (1 mM) and amiloride (10 microM) inhibited cellular uptake of 86 Rb and 22 Na, respectively. Using a Coulter counter to measure cellular volume, we found that we could swell cells either by reducing the extracellular osmolality or by adding the permeant solute urea (45 mM) isosmotically. Under both conditions, cells first swelled and then returned to their base-line volume, in spite of the continued presence of the stimulus to swell. Volume regulation was inhibited when cells were swelled at low extracellular [Ca] (100 nM) and was retarded in cells preloaded with the calcium buffer quin 2. Swelling increased the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca]i), as measured by quin 2 fluorescence: [Ca]i increased 35 +/- 9 nM (n = 6) after hypotonic swelling and 42 +/- 3 nM (n = 3) after urea swelling. Reducing extracellular [Ca] to less than 100 nM prevented the swelling-induced increase in [Ca]i, suggesting that the source of the increase in [Ca]i was extracellular. This result was confirmed in measurements of cellular uptake of 45Ca: the rate of uptake was significantly higher in swollen cells compared with control (1.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 fmol . cell-1 X 5 min-1). Our experiments provide the first demonstration that cellular swelling increases [Ca]i. This increase is likely to play a critical role in cellular volume regulation

  13. Calcium Signals from the Vacuole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schönknecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The vacuole is by far the largest intracellular Ca2+ store in most plant cells. Here, the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of vacuolar Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake is summarized, and how different vacuolar Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ pumps may contribute to Ca2+ signaling in plant cells is discussed. To provide a phylogenetic perspective, the distribution of potential vacuolar Ca2+ transporters is compared for different clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. There are several candidates for vacuolar Ca2+ channels that could elicit cytosolic [Ca2+] transients. Typical second messengers, such as InsP3 and cADPR, seem to trigger vacuolar Ca2+ release, but the molecular mechanism of this Ca2+ release still awaits elucidation. Some vacuolar Ca2+ channels have been identified on a molecular level, the voltage-dependent SV/TPC1 channel, and recently two cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channels. However, their function in Ca2+ signaling still has to be demonstrated. Ca2+ pumps in addition to establishing long-term Ca2+ homeostasis can shape cytosolic [Ca2+] transients by limiting their amplitude and duration, and may thus affect Ca2+ signaling.

  14. Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Response to Ion Channel Regulators via a Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Terry; Olsen, Hervør L; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Masters, John R; Ashmore, Jonathan F; Ahmed, Aamir

    2017-02-01

    Free intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ] i ), in addition to being an important second messenger, is a key regulator of many cellular processes including cell membrane potential, proliferation, and apoptosis. In many cases, the mobilization of [Ca 2+ ] i is controlled by intracellular store activation and calcium influx. We have investigated the effect of several ion channel modulators, which have been used to treat a range of human diseases, on [Ca 2+ ] i release, by ratiometric calcium imaging. We show that six such modulators [amiodarone (Ami), dofetilide, furosemide (Fur), minoxidil (Min), loxapine (Lox), and Nicorandil] initiate release of [Ca 2+ ] i in prostate and breast cancer cell lines, PC3 and MCF7, respectively. Whole-cell currents in PC3 cells were inhibited by the compounds tested in patch-clamp experiments in a concentration-dependent manner. In all cases [Ca 2+ ] i was increased by modulator concentrations comparable to those used clinically. The increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in response to Ami, Fur, Lox, and Min was reduced significantly (P calcium was reduced to nM concentration by chelation with EGTA. The data suggest that many ion channel regulators mobilize [Ca 2+ ] i We suggest a mechanism whereby calcium-induced calcium release is implicated; such a mechanism may be important for understanding the action of these compounds. Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s).

  15. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  16. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter. Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively, such as elemental carbon (EC90, commercial carbon (Printex 90, diesel particulate matter (DEP and urban dust (UD, were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only.

  17. Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F M; Azimi, I; Faville, R A; Peters, A A; Jalink, K; Putney, J W; Goodhill, G J; Thompson, E W; Roberts-Thomson, S J; Monteith, G R

    2014-05-01

    Signals from the tumor microenvironment trigger cancer cells to adopt an invasive phenotype through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Relatively little is known regarding key signal transduction pathways that serve as cytosolic bridges between cell surface receptors and nuclear transcription factors to induce EMT. A better understanding of these early EMT events may identify potential targets for the control of metastasis. One rapid intracellular signaling pathway that has not yet been explored during EMT induction is calcium. Here we show that stimuli used to induce EMT produce a transient increase in cytosolic calcium levels in human breast cancer cells. Attenuation of the calcium signal by intracellular calcium chelation significantly reduced epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and hypoxia-induced EMT. Intracellular calcium chelation also inhibited EGF-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), while preserving other signal transduction pathways such as Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. To identify calcium-permeable channels that may regulate EMT induction in breast cancer cells, we performed a targeted siRNA-based screen. We found that transient receptor potential-melastatin-like 7 (TRPM7) channel expression regulated EGF-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and expression of the EMT marker vimentin. Although intracellular calcium chelation almost completely blocked the induction of many EMT markers, including vimentin, Twist and N-cadherin, the effect of TRPM7 silencing was specific for vimentin protein expression and STAT3 phosphorylation. These results indicate that TRPM7 is a partial regulator of EMT in breast cancer cells, and that other calcium-permeable ion channels are also involved in calcium-dependent EMT induction. In summary, this work establishes an important role for the intracellular calcium signal in the induction of EMT in human breast cancer cells. Manipulation of

  18. Calcium Signalling in Plant Biotic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Aldon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca2+ is a universal second messenger involved in various cellular processes, leading to plant development and to biotic and abiotic stress responses. Intracellular variation in free Ca2+ concentration is among the earliest events following the plant perception of environmental change. These Ca2+ variations differ in their spatio-temporal properties according to the nature, strength and duration of the stimulus. However, their conversion into biological responses requires Ca2+ sensors for decoding and relaying. The occurrence in plants of calmodulin (CaM but also of other sets of plant-specific Ca2+ sensors such as calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs, Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs and calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs indicate that plants possess specific tools and machineries to convert Ca2+ signals into appropriate responses. Here, we focus on recent progress made in monitoring the generation of Ca2+ signals at the whole plant or cell level and their long distance propagation during biotic interactions. The contribution of CaM/CMLs and CDPKs in plant immune responses mounted against bacteria, fungi, viruses and insects are also presented.

  19. Abortive and propagating intracellular calcium waves: analysis from a hybrid model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Guisoni

    Full Text Available The functional properties of inositol(1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 receptors allow a variety of intracellular Ca(2+ phenomena. In this way, global phenomena, such as propagating and abortive Ca(2+ waves, as well as local events such as puffs, have been observed. Several experimental studies suggest that many features of global phenomena (e.g., frequency, amplitude, speed wave depend on the interplay of biophysical processes such as diffusion, buffering, efflux and influx rates, which in turn depend on parameters such as buffer concentration, Ca(2+ pump density, cytosolic IP3 level, and intercluster distance. Besides, it is known that cells are able to modify some of these parameters in order to regulate the Ca(2+ signaling. By using a hybrid model, we analyzed different features of the hierarchy of calcium events as a function of two relevant parameters for the calcium signaling, the intercluster distance and the pump strength or intensity. In the space spanned by these two parameters, we found two modes of calcium dynamics, one dominated by abortive calcium waves and the other by propagating waves. Smaller distances between the release sites promote propagating calcium waves, while the increase of the efflux rate makes the transition from propagating to abortive waves occur at lower values of intercluster distance. We determined the frontier between these two modes, in the parameter space defined by the intercluster distance and the pump strength. Furthermore, we found that the velocity of simulated calcium waves accomplishes Luther's law, and that an effective rate constant for autocatalytic calcium production decays linearly with both the intercluster distance and the pump strength.

  20. PeakCaller: an automated graphical interface for the quantification of intracellular calcium obtained by high-content screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artimovich, Elena; Jackson, Russell K; Kilander, Michaela B C; Lin, Yu-Chih; Nestor, Michael W

    2017-10-16

    Intracellular calcium is an important ion involved in the regulation and modulation of many neuronal functions. From regulating cell cycle and proliferation to initiating signaling cascades and regulating presynaptic neurotransmitter release, the concentration and timing of calcium activity governs the function and fate of neurons. Changes in calcium transients can be used in high-throughput screening applications as a basic measure of neuronal maturity, especially in developing or immature neuronal cultures derived from stem cells. Using human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neurons and dissociated mouse cortical neurons combined with the calcium indicator Fluo-4, we demonstrate that PeakCaller reduces type I and type II error in automated peak calling when compared to the oft-used PeakFinder algorithm under both basal and pharmacologically induced conditions. Here we describe PeakCaller, a novel MATLAB script and graphical user interface for the quantification of intracellular calcium transients in neuronal cultures. PeakCaller allows the user to set peak parameters and smoothing algorithms to best fit their data set. This new analysis script will allow for automation of calcium measurements and is a powerful software tool for researchers interested in high-throughput measurements of intracellular calcium.

  1. Intracellular calcium movements of boar spermatozoa during 'in vitro' capacitation and subsequent acrosome exocytosis follow a multiple-storage place, extracellular calcium-dependent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeste, M; Fernández-Novell, J M; Ramió-Lluch, L; Estrada, E; Rocha, L G; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Muiño-Blanco, T; Concha, I I; Ramírez, A; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

    2015-07-01

    This work analysed intracellular calcium stores of boar spermatozoa subjected to 'in vitro' capacitation (IVC) and subsequent progesterone-induced acrosome exocytosis (IVAE). Intracellular calcium was analysed through two calcium markers with different physico-chemical properties, Fluo-3 and Rhod-5N. Indicative parameters of IVC and IVAE were also evaluated. Fluo-3 was located at both the midpiece and the whole head. Rhod-5N was present at the sperm head. This distribution did not change in any of the assayed conditions. Induction of IVC was concomitant with an increase in both head and midpiece Ca(2+) signals. Additionally, while IVC induction was concurrent with a significant (p spermatozoa in the absence of calcium showed a loss of both Ca(2+) labellings concomitantly with the sperm's inability to achieve IVC. The absence of extracellular calcium also induced a severe decrease in the percentage of spermatozoa exhibiting high mitochondrial membrane potential (hMMP). The IVAE was accompanied by a fast increase in both Ca(2+) signalling in control spermatozoa. These peaks were either not detected or much lessened in the absence of calcium. Remarkably, Fluo-3 marking at the midpiece increased after progesterone addition to sperm cells incubated in a medium without Ca(2+) . The simultaneous addition of progesterone with the calcium chelant EGTA inhibited IVAE, and this was accompanied by a significant (p spermatozoa present different calcium deposits with a dynamic equilibrium among them and with the extracellular environment. Additionally, the modulation role of the intracellular calcium in spermatozoa function seems to rely on its precise localization in boar spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. p53 increases intra-cellular calcium release by transcriptional regulation of calcium channel TRPC6 in GaQ3-treated cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esha Madan

    Full Text Available p53 and calcium signaling are inter-dependent and are known to show both synergistic and antagonistic effects on each other in the cellular environment. However, no molecular mechanism or cellular pathway is known which shows direct regulation between these important cellular signaling molecules. Here we have shown that in cancer cells treated with anti-neoplastic drug GaQ3, p53, there is an increase in intracellular calcium levels by transcriptional regulation of a novel calcium channel gene TRPC6. p53 directly binds to a 22 bp response element in the TRPC6 gene promoter and increase its mRNA and protein expression. Over-expression of TRPC6 results in calcium-dependent apoptotic death and activation of apoptotic genes in a variety of cancer cells. This research work shows that p53 and its transcriptional activity is critical in regulation of calcium signaling and an increase in the intracellular calcium level might be one of the anti-cancer strategies to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

  3. p53 increases intra-cellular calcium release by transcriptional regulation of calcium channel TRPC6 in GaQ3-treated cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Esha; Gogna, Rajan; Keppler, Bernhard; Pati, Uttam

    2013-01-01

    p53 and calcium signaling are inter-dependent and are known to show both synergistic and antagonistic effects on each other in the cellular environment. However, no molecular mechanism or cellular pathway is known which shows direct regulation between these important cellular signaling molecules. Here we have shown that in cancer cells treated with anti-neoplastic drug GaQ3, p53, there is an increase in intracellular calcium levels by transcriptional regulation of a novel calcium channel gene TRPC6. p53 directly binds to a 22 bp response element in the TRPC6 gene promoter and increase its mRNA and protein expression. Over-expression of TRPC6 results in calcium-dependent apoptotic death and activation of apoptotic genes in a variety of cancer cells. This research work shows that p53 and its transcriptional activity is critical in regulation of calcium signaling and an increase in the intracellular calcium level might be one of the anti-cancer strategies to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

  4. BDNF-Induced Potentiation of Spontaneous Twitching in Innervated Myocytes Requires Calcium Release From Intracellular Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLEIMAN, ROBIN J.; TIAN, NING; KRIZAJ, DAVID; HWANG, THOMAS N.; COPENHAGEN, DAVID R.; REICHARDT, LOUIS F.

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can potentiate synaptic release at newly developed frog neuromuscular junctions. Although this potentiation depends on extracellular Ca2+ and reflects changes in acetylcholine release, little is known about the intracellular transduction or calcium signaling pathways. We have developed a video assay for neurotrophin-induced potentiation of myocyte twitching as a measure of potentiation of synaptic activity. We use this assay to show that BDNF-induced synaptic potentiation is not blocked by cadmium, indicating that Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is not required. TrkB autophosphorylation is not blocked in Ca2+-free conditions, indicating that TrkB activity is not Ca2+ dependent. Additionally, an inhibitor of phospholipase C interferes with BDNF-induced potentiation. These results suggest that activation of the TrkB receptor activates phospholipase C to initiate intracellular Ca2+ release from stores which subsequently potentiates transmitter release. PMID:10899220

  5. Allopregnanolone-induced rise in intracellular calcium in embryonic hippocampal neurons parallels their proliferative potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinton Roberta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors that regulate intracellular calcium concentration are known to play a critical role in brain function and neural development, including neural plasticity and neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated that the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (APα; 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one promotes neural progenitor proliferation in vitro in cultures of rodent hippocampal and human cortical neural progenitors, and in vivo in triple transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice dentate gyrus. We also found that APα-induced proliferation of neural progenitors is abolished by a calcium channel blocker, nifedipine, indicating a calcium dependent mechanism for the proliferation. Methods In the present study, we investigated the effect of APα on the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration in E18 rat hippocampal neurons using ratiometric Fura2-AM imaging. Results Results indicate that APα rapidly increased intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent and developmentally regulated manner, with an EC50 of 110 ± 15 nM and a maximal response occurring at three days in vitro. The stereoisomers 3β-hydroxy-5α-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, and 3β-hydroxy-5β-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one, as well as progesterone, were without significant effect. APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration increase was not observed in calcium depleted medium and was blocked in the presence of the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker La3+, or the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine. Furthermore, the GABAA receptor blockers bicuculline and picrotoxin abolished APα-induced intracellular calcium concentration rise. Conclusion Collectively, these data indicate that APα promotes a rapid, dose-dependent, stereo-specific, and developmentally regulated increase of intracellular calcium concentration in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons via a mechanism that requires both the GABAA receptor and L-type calcium channel. These data suggest that AP

  6. [Progress of Researches on Protective Effect of Acupuncture and Moxibustion in Relieving Intracellular Calcium Overload of Cradiomyocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Gu, Yi-Huang; Chen, Hao

    2016-06-25

    Myocardial contraction and relaxation are regulated by increases and decreases of the intracellular cytoplasmic calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. Intracellular calcium ion is also a ubiquitous second messenger, and its related signal transduction pathways involve a variety of physiological activities and pathological changes. It has been well documented that intracellular calcium overload is involved in myocardial cellular injury. In the present paper, the authors make a review about experimental researches on the underlying mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion in the prevention and treatment of ischemic myocardial injury from reducing calcium overload in recent 10 years. Results of recent studies indicate that acupuncture and moxibustion interventions have a cardioprotective effect by raising Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and nitric oxide content, lowering L-type voltage depen-dent calcium channel activity, and ameliorating calcium overload in ischemic cardiomyocytes mainly through cytomembrane, sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane and mitochondrial membrane pathways. However, the current studies on the mechanisms of acupuncture in the improvement of the ischemic myocardial injury are far unclear up to now and do not closely combine the clinical application.

  7. Vitamin D is positively associated with sperm motility and increases intracellular calcium in human spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Bjerrum, Poul J; Jessen, Torben E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human spermatozoa, and VDR-knockout mice and vitamin D (VD) deficiency in rodents results in impaired fertility, low sperm counts and a low number of motile spermatozoa. We investigated the role of activated VD (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) in human...... spermatozoa and whether VD serum levels are associated with semen quality. METHODS Cross-sectional association study of semen quality and VD serum level in 300 men from the general population, and in vitro studies on spermatozoa from 40 men to investigate the effects of VD on intracellular calcium, sperm......M). 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium concentration in human spermatozoa through VDR-mediated calcium release from an intracellular calcium storage, increased sperm motility and induced the acrosome reaction in vitro. CONCLUSIONS 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) increased intracellular calcium...

  8. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Various T-cell co-receptor molecules and calcium channel CRAC play a pivotal role in the maintenance of cell's functional responses by regulating the production of effector molecules (mostly cytokines) that aids in immune clearance and also maintaining the cell in a functionally active state. Any defect in ...

  9. Axotomy depletes intracellular calcium stores in primary sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Marcel; Gemes, Geza; Weyker, Paul D; Cruikshank, James M; Kawano, Takashi; Wu, Hsiang-En; Hogan, Quinn H

    2009-08-01

    The cellular mechanisms of neuropathic pain are inadequately understood. Previous investigations have revealed disrupted Ca signaling in primary sensory neurons after injury. The authors examined the effect of injury on intracellular Ca stores of the endoplasmic reticulum, which critically regulate the Ca signal and neuronal function. Intracellular Ca levels were measured with Fura-2 or mag-Fura-2 microfluorometry in axotomized fifth lumbar (L5) dorsal root ganglion neurons and adjacent L4 neurons isolated from hyperalgesic rats after L5 spinal nerve ligation, compared to neurons from control animals. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca stores released by the ryanodine-receptor agonist caffeine decreased by 46% in axotomized small neurons. This effect persisted in Ca-free bath solution, which removes the contribution of store-operated membrane Ca channels, and after blockade of the mitochondrial, sarco-endoplasmic Ca-ATPase and the plasma membrane Ca ATPase pathways. Ca released by the sarco-endoplasmic Ca-ATPase blocker thapsigargin and by the Ca-ionophore ionomycin was also diminished by 25% and 41%, respectively. In contrast to control neurons, Ca stores in axotomized neurons were not expanded by neuronal activation by K depolarization, and the proportionate rate of refilling by sarco-endoplasmic Ca-ATPase was normal. Luminal Ca concentration was also reduced by 38% in axotomized neurons in permeabilized neurons. The adjacent neurons of the L4 dorsal root ganglia showed modest and inconsistent changes after L5 spinal nerve ligation. Painful nerve injury leads to diminished releasable endoplasmic reticulum Ca stores and a reduced luminal Ca concentration. Depletion of Ca stores may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain.

  10. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    affected burst firing in mossy fibres; this paired-pulse depression was reduced by GABA B antagonists. While our results indicated that a presynaptic rosette electrophysiologically functioned as a unit, topical GABA application showed that calcium signals in the branches of complex rosettes could......Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX......)-sensitive fast Na(+) spike faithfully followed repetitive depolarizing pulses with little change in spike duration or amplitude, while a strong outward rectification dominated responses to long-lasting depolarizations. High-threshold calcium spikes were uncovered following addition of potassium channel blockers...

  11. Estradiol coupling to human monocyte nitric oxide release is dependent on intracellular calcium transients: evidence for an estrogen surface receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, G B; Prevot, V; Beauvillain, J C; Fimiani, C; Welters, I; Cadet, P; Breton, C; Pestel, J; Salzet, M; Bilfinger, T V

    1999-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that estrogen acutely stimulates constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) activity in human peripheral monocytes by acting on an estrogen surface receptor. NO release was measured in real time with an amperometric probe. 17beta-estradiol exposure to monocytes stimulated NO release within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 17alpha-estradiol had no effect. 17beta-estradiol conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) also stimulated NO release, suggesting mediation by a membrane surface receptor. Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor inhibitor, antagonized the action of both 17beta-estradiol and E2-BSA, whereas ICI 182,780, a selective inhibitor of the nuclear estrogen receptor, had no effect. We further showed, using a dual emission microfluorometry in a calcium-free medium, that the 17beta-estradiol-stimulated release of monocyte NO was dependent on the initial stimulation of intracellular calcium transients in a tamoxifen-sensitive process. Leeching out the intracellular calcium stores abolished the effect of 17beta-estradiol on NO release. RT-PCR analysis of RNA obtained from the cells revealed a strong estrogen receptor-alpha amplification signal and a weak beta signal. Taken together, a physiological dose of estrogen acutely stimulates NO release from human monocytes via the activation of an estrogen surface receptor that is coupled to increases in intracellular calcium.

  12. Temporal protein expression pattern in intracellular signalling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    searched using PUBMED and. Google Scholar). The protein-protein interaction data obtain- ed were knitted together to reconstruct the entire signalling cascade. The diagram of the reconstructed pathway was drawn using ...

  13. Azelnidipine prevents cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-diabetic rats by reducing intracellular calcium accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kain Vasundhara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous evidences suggest that diabetic heart is characterized by compromised ventricular contraction and prolonged relaxation attributable to multiple causative factors including calcium accumulation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Therapeutic interventions to prevent calcium accumulation and oxidative stress could be therefore helpful in improving the cardiac function under diabetic condition. Methods This study was designed to examine the effect of long-acting calcium channel blocker (CCB, Azelnidipine (AZL on contractile dysfunction, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ cycling proteins, stress-activated signaling molecules and apoptosis on cardiomyocytes in diabetes. Adult male Wistar rats were made diabetic by a single intraperitoneal (IP injection of streptozotocin (STZ. Contractile functions were traced from live diabetic rats to isolated individual cardiomyocytes including peak shortening (PS, time-to-PS (TPS, time-to-relengthening (TR90, maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening (± dL/dt and intracellular Ca2+ fluorescence. Results Diabetic heart showed significantly depressed PS, ± dL/dt, prolonged TPS, TR90 and intracellular Ca2+ clearing and showed an elevated resting intracellular Ca2+. AZL itself exhibited little effect on myocyte mechanics but it significantly alleviated STZ-induced myocyte contractile dysfunction. Diabetes increased the levels of superoxide, enhanced expression of the cardiac damage markers like troponin I, p67phox NADPH oxidase subunit, restored the levels of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, calcium regulatory proteins RyR2 and SERCA2a, and suppressed the levels of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. All of these STZ-induced alterations were reconciled by AZL treatment. Conclusion Collectively, the data suggest beneficial effect of AZL in diabetic cardiomyopathy via altering intracellular Ca2+ handling proteins and preventing apoptosis by its antioxidant property.

  14. Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Henning F.

    to G-protein stimulation of phospholipase C and release of inositol -3 phosphate. Cd (0.4 mM) treatment of A6 cells enhanced the ROS production after one minutes incubation. The production rate was constant for at least 10 to 20 min. Experiments showed that the Cd induced increase in ROS production......Release of intracellular Calcium increase production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in renal distal epithelial cells. Henning F. Bjerregaard, Roskilde University, Department of Science, Systems and Models , 4000 Roskilde, Denmark. HFB@ RUC.DK Reactive oxygen species (ROS) like, hydrogen...... peroxide (H2O2) has traditionally been regarded as toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism. However, recent findings indicate that H2O2 act as a signalling molecule. The aim of the present study was to monitor, in real time, the rates of ROS generation in order to directly determine their production...

  15. Transport phenomena in intracellular calcium dynamics driven by non-Gaussian noises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Duan, Wei-Long

    2018-02-01

    The role of non-Gaussian noises on transport characteristic of Ca2+ in intracellular calcium oscillation system driven by non-Gaussian noises is studied by means of second-order stochastic Runge-Kutta type algorithm. The statistical properties of velocity of cytosolic and calcium store's Ca2+ concentration are simulated. The results exhibit, as parameter p(which is used to control the degree of the departure from the non-Gaussian noise and Gaussian noise.)increases, calcium in cytosol shows positive, zero, and negative transport, but in calcium store always hold positive value. As non-Gaussian noises increase, calcium in cytosol appears negative and zero transport, and in calcium store appears positive transport. As correlation time of non-Gaussian noises varies, calcium in both cytosol and calcium store occur negative, zero, and positive transport.

  16. The effect of intracellular calcium oscillations on fluid secretion in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, N J; Tawhai, M H; Crampin, E J

    2010-08-07

    Airway epithelium has been shown to elicit fluid secretion after a rise in intracellular calcium. This rise in intracellular calcium has been shown to display complex oscillations in many species after the binding of particular agonists to extracellular receptors. Fluid secreted by the airway epithelium is used to maintain the depth of the periciliary liquid (PCL) above the apical membrane of the epithelial cells lining the bronchial airways. Previous mathematical models have been published which separately consider the electrophysiology involved in regulating periciliary liquid depth, and the transmission of intracellular calcium waves in airway epithelial tissue. In this paper we present a mathematical model that combines these previous models and allows the effect of oscillations in intracellular calcium on fluid secretion by airway epithelial cells to be investigated. We show that an oscillatory calcium response produces different fluid secretion properties to that elicited by a tonic rise in intracellular calcium. These differences are shown to be due to saturation of the Ca(2+) activated ion channels. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of time delay on intracellular calcium dynamics driven by non-Gaussian noises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wei-Long; Zeng, Chunhua

    2016-04-28

    Effect of time delay (τ) on intracellular calcium dynamics with non-Gaussian noises in transmission processes of intracellular Ca(2+) is studied by means of second-order stochastic Runge-Kutta type algorithm. By simulating and analyzing time series, normalized autocorrelation function, and characteristic correlation time of cytosolic and calcium store's Ca(2+) concentration, the results exhibit: (i) intracellular calcium dynamics's time coherence disappears and stability strengthens as τ → 0.1s; (ii) for the case of τ short, but they trend to a level line as τ → 0.1s, and for the case of τ > 0.1s, they show different variation as τ increases, the former changes from underdamped motion to a level line, but the latter changes from damped motion to underdamped motion; and (iii) at the moderate value of time delay, reverse resonance occurs both in cytosol and calcium store.

  18. Voltage-dependent mobilization of intracellular calcium in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M F

    1986-01-01

    In skeletal muscle calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), an internal organelle, in response to changes in the voltage across the transverse tubule (T-tubule) membrane, an external membrane system that is distinct from the SR but in close proximity to it. For T-tubule voltage changes within the physiological range, calcium release can be turned on or off on a time scale of milliseconds. The control of calcium release from the SR appears to involve at least three functional components: a voltage sensor in the T-tubule membrane, a calcium channel in the SR, and a mechanism for coupling the voltage sensor to the channel. Movement of charged or dipolar molecules within the T-tubule membrane is thought to serve as the voltage sensor. Such intramembrane charge movement (Q) can be monitored electrically and can be compared with the rate of calcium release from the SR. Calcium release is calculated from cytosolic calcium transients measured with a metallochromic indicator. Comparison of Q and the rate of release in the same isolated muscle fibre indicates that this rate is directly proportional to the amount of charge displaced in excess of a 'threshold' amount. The nature of the coupling mechanism between T-tubules and SR remains to be established but present observations impose some restrictions on possible mechanisms.

  19. An anaphase calcium signal controls chromosome disjunction in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groigno, L; Whitaker, M

    1998-01-23

    A transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i occurs throughout the cell as sea urchin embryos enter anaphase of the first cell cycle. The transient just precedes chromatid disjunction and spindle elongation. Microinjection of calcium chelators or heparin, an InsP3 receptor antagonist, blocks chromosome separation. Photorelease of calcium or InsP3 can reverse the block. Nuclear reformation is merely delayed by calcium antagonists at concentrations that block chromatid separation. Thus, the calcium signal triggers the separation of chromatids, while calcium-independent pathways can bring about the alterations in microtubule dynamics and nuclear events associated with anaphase progression. That calcium triggers chromosome disjunction alone is unexpected. It helps explain previous conflicting results and allows the prediction that calcium plays a similar role at anaphase in other cell types.

  20. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sze, Heven

    2008-01-01

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular (Ca2+) during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  1. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heven Sze

    2008-06-22

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits intracellular calcium release in beta-cells by a plasma membrane-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongmin; Ren, Min; Bing, Xinyu; Stotts, Corey; Deorah, Sundeep; Love-Homan, Laurie; Dillon, Joseph S

    2006-08-01

    Both dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) affect glucose stimulated insulin secretion, though their cellular mechanisms of action are not well characterized. We tested the hypothesis that human physiological concentrations of DHEA alter insulin secretion by an action initiated at the plasma membrane of beta-cells. DHEA alone had no effect on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in a rat beta-cell line (INS-1). However, it caused an immediate and dose-dependent inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, with a 25% inhibition at zero. One nanometer DHEA. DHEA also inhibited the Ca(2+) mobilizing effect of bombesin (29% decrease), but did not inhibit the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) evoked by glyburide (100 microM) or glucose (15 mM). The steroids (androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone, and DHEAS) had no inhibitory effect on carbachol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release. The action of DHEA depended on a signal initiated at the plasma membrane, since membrane impermeant DHEA-BSA complexes also inhibited the carbachol effect on [Ca(2+)](i) (39% decrease). The inhibition of carbachol-induced Ca(2+) release by DHEA was blocked by pertussis toxin (PTX). DHEA also inhibited the carbachol induction of phosphoinositide generation, with a maximal inhibition at 0.1 nM DHEA. Furthermore, DHEA inhibited insulin secretion induced by carbachol in INS-1 cells by 25%, and in human pancreatic islets by 53%. Taken together, this is the first report showing that human physiological concentrations of DHEA decrease agonist-induced Ca(2+) release by a rapid, non-genomic mechanism in INS-1 cells. Furthermore, these data provide evidence consistent with the existence of a specific plasma membrane DHEA receptor, mediating this signal transduction pathway by pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins.

  3. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Modularization is a process by which we can break a network into small units for better analysis of the original network. The idea is used here to break human calcium signalling pathway into simple entities known as modules. Since there is no single definition of a module, we have followed certain criteria to create them.

  4. Calcium signaling in synapse-to-nucleus communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenston, Anna M; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-11-01

    Changes in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions in neurons are involved in neurite growth, development, and remodeling, regulation of neuronal excitability, increases and decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, and the activation of survival and programmed cell death pathways. An important aspect of the signals that trigger these processes is that they are frequently initiated in the form of glutamatergic neurotransmission within dendritic trees, while their completion involves specific changes in the patterns of genes expressed within neuronal nuclei. Accordingly, two prominent aims of research concerned with calcium signaling in neurons are determination of the mechanisms governing information conveyance between synapse and nucleus, and discovery of the rules dictating translation of specific patterns of inputs into appropriate and specific transcriptional responses. In this article, we present an overview of the avenues by which glutamatergic excitation of dendrites may be communicated to the neuronal nucleus and the primary calcium-dependent signaling pathways by which synaptic activity can invoke changes in neuronal gene expression programs.

  5. Resveratrol and Calcium Signaling: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey E. McCalley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound contributing to cellular defense mechanisms in plants. Its use as a nutritional component and/or supplement in a number of diseases, disorders, and syndromes such as chronic diseases of the central nervous system, cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has prompted great interest in the underlying molecular mechanisms of action. The present review focuses on resveratrol, specifically its isomer trans-resveratrol, and its effects on intracellular calcium signaling mechanisms. As resveratrol’s mechanisms of action are likely pleiotropic, its effects and interactions with key signaling proteins controlling cellular calcium homeostasis are reviewed and discussed. The clinical relevance of resveratrol’s actions on excitable cells, transformed or cancer cells, immune cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells are contrasted with a review of the molecular mechanisms affecting calcium signaling proteins on the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. The present review emphasizes the correlation between molecular mechanisms of action that have recently been identified for resveratrol and their clinical implications.

  6. Evaluation of a novel method for measurement of intracellular calcium ion concentration in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Satoh, Ryosuke; Kita, Ayako; Sugiura, Reiko; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of metal and metalloid species in each of the cell compartments is termed as "metallome". It is important to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial or toxic effects exerted by a given metal or metalloid on human health. Therefore, we developed a method to measure intracellular metal ion concentration (particularly, intracellular calcium ion) in fission yeast. We evaluated the effects of nitric acid (HNO 3 ), zymolyase, and westase treatment on cytolysis in fission yeast. Moreover, we evaluated the changes in the intracellular calcium ion concentration in fission yeast in response to treatment with/without micafungin. The fission yeast undergoes lysis when treated with 60% HNO 3 , which is simpler and cheaper compared to the other treatments. Additionally, the intracellular calcium ion concentration in 60% HNO 3 -treated fission yeast was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. This study yields significant information pertaining to measurement of the intracellular calcium ion concentration in fission yeast, which is useful for elucidating the physiological or pathological functions of calcium ion in the biological systems. This study is the first step to obtain perspective view on the effect of the metallome in biological systems.

  7. Detection and Measurement of the Intracellular Calcium Variation in Follicular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Herrera-Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method for measuring the variation of intracellular calcium in follicular cells. The proposal consists in two stages: (i the detection of the cell’s nuclei and (ii the analysis of the fluorescence variations. The first stage is performed via watershed modified transformation, where the process of labeling is controlled. The detection process uses the contours of the cells as descriptors, where they are enhanced with a morphological filter that homogenizes the luminance variation of the image. In the second stage, the fluorescence variations are modeled as an exponential decreasing function, where the fluorescence variations are highly correlated with the changes of intracellular free Ca2+. Additionally, it is introduced a new morphological called medium reconstruction process, which helps to enhance the data for the modeling process. This filter exploits the undermodeling and overmodeling properties of reconstruction operators, such that it preserves the structure of the original signal. Finally, an experimental process shows evidence of the capabilities of the proposal.

  8. Association of serine protease with the rise of intracellular calcium in cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, G C; Luk, Y; Talento, A; Wu, J; Sirotina, A; Fischer, P A; Blake, J T; Nguyen, M P; Parsons, W; Poe, M

    1996-12-15

    The precise role of the granular enzyme A (granzyme A), a serine protease, in the lytic process of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) is not clear. We have recently constructed a CTL line transfected with the antisense gene of granzyme A (a-GrA). These a-GrA CTL had lower GrA activity as well as decreased lytic activities, as measured by 51Cr and by DNA degradation assays. Furthermore, at low effector:target ratio (1:8) in prolonged lytic assays, they could not lyse targets as rapidly as the control CTL. When we examined their ability to exocytose BLT (CBZ-L-lys-thiobenzyl)-esterase in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody, the a-GrA CTL exocytosed poorly compared to the parental CTL or control transfectant with a CAT gene. Most strikingly, a-GrA cells could not release intracellular stores of Ca2+ in response to anti-CD3 induction, although the Ca2+ flux was normal when they were stimulated with ionomycin. When the parental CTL was treated with a specific benzyllactam inhibitor of BLT-esterase or N-tosyl-L-phenylalanylchloromethyl ketone, the Ca2+ flux induced by anti-CD3 was also suppressed. We propose that granzyme A is involved in the signal transduction pathway that causes the rise of the intracellular calcium.

  9. Evaluation of Intracellular Signaling Downstream Chimeric Antigen Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Karlsson

    Full Text Available CD19-targeting CAR T cells have shown potency in clinical trials targeting B cell leukemia. Although mainly second generation (2G CARs carrying CD28 or 4-1BB have been investigated in patients, preclinical studies suggest that third generation (3G CARs with both CD28 and 4-1BB have enhanced capacity. However, little is known about the intracellular signaling pathways downstream of CARs. In the present work, we have analyzed the signaling capacity post antigen stimulation in both 2G and 3G CARs. 3G CAR T cells expanded better than 2G CAR T cells upon repeated stimulation with IL-2 and autologous B cells. An antigen-driven accumulation of CAR+ cells was evident post antigen stimulation. The cytotoxicity of both 2G and 3G CAR T cells was maintained by repeated stimulation. The phosphorylation status of intracellular signaling proteins post antigen stimulation showed that 3G CAR T cells had a higher activation status than 2G. Several proteins involved in signaling downstream the TCR were activated, as were proteins involved in the cell cycle, cell adhesion and exocytosis. In conclusion, 3G CAR T cells had a higher degree of intracellular signaling activity than 2G CARs which may explain the increased proliferative capacity seen in 3G CAR T cells. The study also indicates that there may be other signaling pathways to consider when designing or evaluating new generations of CARs.

  10. Divergent calcium signaling in RBCs from Tropidurus torquatus (Squamata – Tropiduridae strengthen classification in lizard evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Célia RS

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs such as Ameiva ameiva and Tupinambis merianae controls intracellular calcium levels by displaying multiple mechanisms. In these cells, calcium stores could be discharged not only by: thapsigargin, but also by the Na+/H+ ionophore monensin, K+/H+ ionophore nigericin and the H+ pump inhibitor bafilomycin as well as ionomycin. Moreover, these lizards possess a P2Y-type purinoceptors that mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores upon ATP addition. Results Here we report, that RBCs from the tropidurid lizard Tropidurus torquatus store Ca2+ in endoplasmic reticulum (ER pool but unlike in the referred Teiidae, these cells do not store calcium in monensin-nigericin sensitive pools. Moreover, mitochondria from T. torquatus RBCs accumulate Ca2+. Addition of ATP to a calcium-free medium does not increase the [Ca2+]c levels, however in a calcium medium we observe an increase in cytosolic calcium. This is an indication that purinergic receptors in these cells are P2X-like. Conclusion T. torquatus RBCs present different mechanisms from Teiid lizard red blood cells (RBCs, for controlling its intracellular calcium levels. At T. torquatus the ion is only stored at endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Moreover activation of purinergic receptor, P2X type, was able to induce an influx of calcium from extracelullar medium. These studies contribute to the understanding of the evolution of calcium homeostasis and signaling in nucleated RBCs.

  11. Requirement for nuclear calcium signaling in Drosophila long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weislogel, Jan-Marek; Bengtson, C Peter; Müller, Michaela K; Hörtzsch, Jan N; Bujard, Martina; Schuster, Christoph M; Bading, Hilmar

    2013-05-07

    Calcium is used throughout evolution as an intracellular signal transducer. In the mammalian central nervous system, calcium mediates the dialogue between the synapse and the nucleus that is required for transcription-dependent persistent neuronal adaptations. A role for nuclear calcium signaling in similar processes in the invertebrate brain has yet to be investigated. Here, we show by in vivo calcium imaging of adult brain neurons of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, that electrical foot shocks used in olfactory avoidance conditioning evoked transient increases in cytosolic and nuclear calcium concentrations in neurons. These calcium signals were detected in Kenyon cells of the flies' mushroom bodies, which are sites of learning and memory related to smell. Acute blockade of nuclear calcium signaling during conditioning selectively and reversibly abolished the formation of long-term olfactory avoidance memory, whereas short-term, middle-term, or anesthesia-resistant olfactory memory remained unaffected. Thus, nuclear calcium signaling is required in flies for the progression of memories from labile to transcription-dependent long-lasting forms. These results identify nuclear calcium as an evolutionarily conserved signal needed in both invertebrate and vertebrate brains for transcription-dependent memory consolidation.

  12. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by reinforcing intracellular calcium transients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jie; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Bin; Fan, Yun; Ma, Xingfeng; Yu, Liyin; Zhang, Jianbao

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can be used to treat bone-related diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the process by which PEMFs initiate biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of PEMF on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using the model of calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium. Our results showed that PEMF can increase both the percentage of responding cells and amplitude of intracellular calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium stimulation. Compared with corresponding extracellular calcium levels, PEMF stimulation increased proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and related gene expressions, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OCN), which can be completely abolished by BAPTA-AM. Moreover, PEMF did not affect proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts if no intracellular calcium transient was present in osteoblasts during PEMF exposure. Our results revealed that PEMF affects osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through enhanced intracellular calcium transients, which provided a cue to treat bone-related diseases with PEMF. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:541-549, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, F; Blumenthal, N C; Posner, A S; Becker, G L; Lehninger, A L

    1975-06-01

    The radial distribution function calculated from x-ray diffraction of mineralized cytoplasmic structures isolated from the hepatopancreas of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is very similar to that previously found for synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. Both types of mineral apparently have only short-range atomic order, represented as a neutral ion cluster of about 10 A in longest dimension, whose probable composition is expressed by the formula Ca9(PO4)6. The minor differences observed are attributed to the presence in the biological mineral of significant amounts of Mg-2+ and ATP. Synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate in contact with a solution containing an amount of ATP equivalent to that of the biological mineral failed to undergo conversion to the thermodynamically more stable hydroxyapatite. The amorphous calcium phosphate of the cytoplasmic mineral granules is similarly stable, and does not undergo conversion to hydroxyapatite, presumably owing to the presence of ATP and Mg-2+, known in inhibitors of the conversion process. The physiological implications of mineral deposits consisting of stabilized calcium phosphate ion clusters are discussed.

  14. Extracellular Ca2+ is a danger signal activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossol, Manuela; Pierer, Matthias; Raulien, Nora

    2012-01-01

    calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors. Activation is mediated by signalling through the calcium-sensing receptor and GPRC6A via the phosphatidyl inositol/Ca(2+) pathway. The resulting increase in the intracellular calcium concentration......, and this effect was inhibited in GPRC6A(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that G-protein-coupled receptors can activate the inflammasome, and indicate that increased extracellular calcium has a role as a danger signal and amplifier of inflammation....

  15. 3-Methylcholanthrene inhibits lymphocyte proliferation and increases intracellular calcium levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Duchiron, C.; Deschaux, P.

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important class of environmental pollutants that are known to be carcinogenic and immunotoxic. Many authors have focused on macrophage activities in fish exposed to PAHs. However, fewer studies have reported decrease in specific immunity in such fish. We investigated the intracellular mechanisms by which the 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) decreased lymphocyte proliferation in carp. T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation induced by Concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were inhibited by 3-MC (0.5-50 μM). 3-MC also produced a rapid and a sustained increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) (2 h minimum). However, the cytochrome P450 1A and Ah receptor inhibitor, α-naphtoflavone (a-NF), also inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and did not reverse the effects of 3-MC. Moreover, since a-NF and 3-MC increased [Ca 2+ ] i and inhibited lymphocyte proliferation it was possible that calcium release played a role in 3-MC-inhibited lymphocyte proliferation. The rise in [Ca 2+ ] i induced by 3-MC was potentiated by the inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, thapsigargin. Treating cells with 3-MC decreased calcium mobilization caused by thapsigargin. These results suggest that 3-MC acts on the endoplasmic reticulum, perhaps directly on calcium ATPases, to increase intracellular calcium levels in carp leucocytes

  16. Astroglial calcium signaling displays short-term plasticity and adjusts synaptic efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremie eSibille

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are dynamic signaling brain elements able to sense neuronal inputs and to respond by complex calcium signals, which are thought to represent their excitability. Such signaling has been proposed to modulate, or not, neuronal activities ranging from basal synaptic transmission to epileptiform discharges. However, whether calcium signaling in astrocytes exhibits activity-dependent changes and acutely modulates short-term synaptic plasticity is currently unclear. We here show, using dual recordings of astroglial calcium signals and synaptic transmission, that calcium signaling in astrocytes displays, concomitantly to excitatory synapses, short-term plasticity in response to prolonged repetitive and tetanic stimulations of Schaffer collaterals. We also found that acute inhibition of calcium signaling in astrocytes by intracellular calcium chelation rapidly potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity of Shaffer collateral CA1 synapses, i.e. paired-pulse facilitation and responses to tetanic and prolonged repetitive stimulation. These data reveal that calcium signaling of astrocytes is plastic and down-regulates basal transmission and short-term plasticity of hippocampal CA1 glutamatergic synapses.

  17. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus: basis for morphology modulation of nuclear calcium signaling and gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Gillian; Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons.

  18. Decoding calcium signaling across the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Guimarães, Erika S; Andrade, Lídia M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Fatima Leite, M

    2014-09-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an important multifaceted second messenger that regulates a wide range of cellular events. A Ca(2+)-signaling toolkit has been shown to exist in the nucleus and to be capable of generating and modulating nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) transients. Within the nucleus, Ca(2+) controls cellular events that are different from those modulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). This review focuses on nuclear Ca(2+) signals and their role in regulating physiological and pathological processes. ©2014 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  19. Advances and current challenges in calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudla, Jörg; Becker, Dirk; Grill, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer; Hippler, Michael; Kummer, Ursula; Parniske, Martin; Romeis, Tina; Schumacher, Karin

    2018-04-01

    Content Summary 414 I. Introduction 415 II. Ca 2+ importer and exporter in plants 415 III. The Ca 2+ decoding toolkit in plants 415 IV. Mechanisms of Ca 2+ signal decoding 417 V. Immediate Ca 2+ signaling in the regulation of ion transport 418 VI. Ca 2+ signal integration into long-term ABA responses 419 VII Integration of Ca 2+ and hormone signaling through dynamic complex modulation of the CCaMK/CYCLOPS complex 420 VIII Ca 2+ signaling in mitochondria and chloroplasts 422 IX A view beyond recent advances in Ca 2+ imaging 423 X Modeling approaches in Ca 2+ signaling 424 XI Conclusions: Ca 2+ signaling a still young blooming field of plant research 424 Acknowledgements 425 ORCID 425 References 425 SUMMARY: Temporally and spatially defined changes in Ca 2+ concentration in distinct compartments of cells represent a universal information code in plants. Recently, it has become evident that Ca 2+ signals not only govern intracellular regulation but also appear to contribute to long distance or even organismic signal propagation and physiological response regulation. Ca 2+ signals are shaped by an intimate interplay of channels and transporters, and during past years important contributing individual components have been identified and characterized. Ca 2+ signals are translated by an elaborate toolkit of Ca 2+ -binding proteins, many of which function as Ca 2+ sensors, into defined downstream responses. Intriguing progress has been achieved in identifying specific modules that interconnect Ca 2+ decoding proteins and protein kinases with downstream target effectors, and in characterizing molecular details of these processes. In this review, we reflect on recent major advances in our understanding of Ca 2+ signaling and cover emerging concepts and existing open questions that should be informative also for scientists that are currently entering this field of ever-increasing breath and impact. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. The cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 increases intracellular calcium via CB1 receptor coupling to Gq/11 G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Jane E; Hille, Bertil; Mackie, Ken

    2005-12-27

    Central nervous system responses to cannabis are primarily mediated by CB(1) receptors, which couple preferentially to G(i/o) G proteins. Here, we used calcium photometry to monitor the effect of CB(1) activation on intracellular calcium concentration. Perfusion with 5 microM CB(1) aminoalkylindole agonist, WIN55,212-2 (WIN), increased intracellular calcium by several hundred nanomolar in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing CB(1) and in cultured hippocampal neurons. The increase was blocked by coincubation with the CB(1) antagonist, SR141716A, and was absent in nontransfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The calcium rise was WIN-specific, being essentially absent in cells treated with other classes of cannabinoid agonists, including Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, HU-210, CP55,940, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, methanandamide, and cannabidiol. The increase in calcium elicited by WIN was independent of G(i/o), because it was present in pertussis toxin-treated cells. Indeed, pertussis toxin pretreatment enhanced the potency and efficacy of WIN to increase intracellular calcium. The calcium increases appeared to be mediated by G(q) G proteins and phospholipase C, because they were markedly attenuated in cells expressing dominant-negative G(q) or treated with the phospholipase C inhibitors U73122 and ET-18-OCH(3) and were accompanied by an increase in inositol phosphates. The calcium increase was blocked by the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin, the inositol trisphosphate receptor inhibitor xestospongin D, and the ryanodine receptor inhibitors dantrolene and 1,1'-diheptyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dibromide, but not by removal of extracellular calcium, showing that WIN releases calcium from intracellular stores. In summary, these results suggest that WIN stabilizes CB(1) receptors in a conformation that enables G(q) signaling, thus shifting the G protein specificity of the receptor.

  1. Effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin in vivo and correlation between viability and intracellular ATP level after calcium electroporation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gehl, Julie

    2017-01-01

    was limited when investigated in a 3D in vitro spheroid model. We aimed to investigate the effect of calcium electroporation in combination with metformin, a drug that affects intracellular ATP level. We also aimed to study the relationship between the viability and intracellular ATP levels after calcium...... electroporation in vitro. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of calcium electroporation with metformin on NMRI-Foxn1nu mice in vivo on tumor size, survival, and intracellular ATP. We further investigated viability and intracellular ATP level in vitro after calcium electroporation in two human...... electroporation significantly reduced the size and ATP level of bladder cancer tumors treated in vivo but no increased effect of metformin combined with calcium electroporation was shown on neither tumor size, survival, nor ATP level. Calcium electroporation in vitro significantly decreased viability compared...

  2. DMPD: Calcium signaling in lymphocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18515054 Calcium signaling in lymphocytes. Oh-hora M, Rao A. Curr Opin Immunol. 200...8 Jun;20(3):250-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Calcium signaling in lymphocytes. PubmedID 18515054 Title Calcium sign

  3. Intracellular free calcium rise triggers nuclear envelope breakdown in the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, R A; Alderton, J

    1988-03-24

    Cytosolic free calcium has recently been implicated in the regulation of mitosis in plant and animal cells. We have previously found correlations between increases in the levels of intracellular free calcium [Ca2+]i and visible transitions of structure at nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and the onset of anaphase during mitosis in sea urchin embryos and tissue culture cells. To go beyond correlations it is necessary to manipulate [Ca2+]i, and in sea urchin embryos this requires the injection of calcium-chelator buffer solutions as the changes in free calcium in the cell cycle are dependent on intracellular stores. We report here that blocking the increase in [Ca2+]i which just precedes NEBD prevents this from taking place and halts mitosis. Subsequent injections which momentarily increase [Ca2+]i, or a natural recovery of the higher calcium levels, result in NEBD and the successful continuation of mitosis. Similarly, artificially increasing calcium by early injections results in early NEBD. We conclude that the increase in [Ca2+]i preceding NEBD is an essential regulatory step required for entry into mitosis.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium signaling in nerve cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXEI VERKHRATSKY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an important organelle involved in various types of signaling in nerve cells. The ER serves as a dynamic Ca2+ pool being thus involved in rapid signaling events associated with cell stimulation by either electrical (action potential or chemical (neurotransmitters signals. This function is supported by Ca2+ release channels (InsP3 and ryanodine receptors and SERCA Ca2+ pumps residing in the endomembrane. In addition the ER provides a specific environment for the posttranslational protein processing and transport of various molecules towards their final destination. In parallel, the ER acts as a "calcium tunnel," which facilitates Ca2+ movements within the cell by avoiding cytoplasmic routes. Finally the ER appears as a source of numerous signals aimed at the nucleus and involved in long-lasting adaptive cellular responses. All these important functions are controlled by intra-ER free Ca2+ which integrates various signaling events and establishes a link between fast signaling, associated with ER Ca2+ release/uptake, and long-lasting adaptive responses relying primarily on the regulation of protein synthesis. Disruption of ER Ca2+ homeostasis triggers several forms of cellular stress response and is intimately involved in neurodegeneration and neuronal cell death

  5. Roles of Intracellular Cyclic AMP Signal Transduction in the Capacitation and Subsequent Hyperactivation of Mouse and Boar Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARAYAMA, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    It is not until accomplishment of a variety of molecular changes during the transit through the female reproductive tract that mammalian spermatozoa are capable of exhibiting highly activated motility with asymmetric whiplash beating of the flagella (hyperactivation) and undergoing acrosomal exocytosis in the head (acrosome reaction). These molecular changes of the spermatozoa are collectively termed capacitation and promoted by bicarbonate, calcium and cholesterol acceptors. Such capacitation-promoting factors can stimulate intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signal transduction in the spermatozoa. Meanwhile, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction are essential to sperm fertilization with oocytes and are apparently triggered by a sufficient increase of intracellular Ca2+ in the sperm flagellum and head, respectively. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the relationship between cAMP signal transduction and calcium signaling cascades in the spermatozoa for the purpose of understanding the molecular basis of capacitation. In this review, I cover updated insights regarding intracellular cAMP signal transduction, the acrosome reaction and flagellar motility in mammalian spermatozoa and then account for possible roles of intracellular cAMP signal transduction in the capacitation and subsequent hyperactivation of mouse and boar spermatozoa. PMID:24162806

  6. Collective Calcium Signaling of Defective Multicellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-01

    A communicating multicellular network processes environmental cues into collective cellular dynamics. We have previously demonstrated that, when excited by extracellular ATP, fibroblast monolayers generate correlated calcium dynamics modulated by both the stimuli and gap junction communication between the cells. However, just as a well-connected neural network may be compromised by abnormal neurons, a tissue monolayer can also be defective with cancer cells, which typically have down regulated gap junctions. To understand the collective cellular dynamics in a defective multicellular network we have studied the calcium signaling of co-cultured breast cancer cells and fibroblast cells in various concentrations of ATP delivered through microfluidic devices. Our results demonstrate that cancer cells respond faster, generate singular spikes, and are more synchronous across all stimuli concentrations. Additionally, fibroblast cells exhibit persistent calcium oscillations that increase in regularity with greater stimuli. To interpret these results we quantitatively analyzed the immunostaining of purigenic receptors and gap junction channels. The results confirm our hypothesis that collective dynamics are mainly determined by the availability of gap junction communications.

  7. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus-hemolysin A on calcium signalling in immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichstaedt, Stefanie; Gäbler, Karoline; Below, Sabine; Müller, Christian; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Hildebrandt, Petra; Völker, Uwe; Hecker, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Part of the innate defence of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is secretion of salt and water which generally depends on coordinated actions of receptor-mediated cAMP- and calcium signalling. The hypothesis that Staphylococcus aureus-virulence factors interfere with endogenous signals in host cells was tested by measuring agonist-mediated changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in S9 cells upon pre-incubation with bacterial secretory products. S9 cells responded to mAChR-activation with calcium release from intracellular stores and capacitative calcium influx. Treatment of cells with culture supernatants of S. aureus (COL) or with recombinant alpha-hemolysin (Hla) resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in [Ca(2+)](i). High concentrations of Hla (2000 ng/ml) resulted in elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by accelerated calcium influx. A general Hla-mediated permeabilization of S9 cell membranes to small molecules, however, did not occur. Lower concentrations of Hla (200 ng/ml) induced a reduction in [Ca(2+)](i)-levels during the sustained plateau phase of receptor-mediated calcium signalling which was abolished by pre-incubation of cells with carboxyeosin, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase. This indicates that low concentrations of Hla change calcium signalling by accelerating pump-driven extrusion of Ca(2+) ions. In vivo, such a mechanism may result in attenuation of calcium-mediated cellular defence functions and facilitation of bacterial adherence to the bronchial epithelium.

  8. The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lauren; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Berridge, Michael J; Conway, Stuart J; Bootman, Martin D

    2004-12-15

    We examined the regulation of calcium signalling in atrial cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling, and how changes in the distribution of calcium impacts on contractility. Under control conditions, calcium transients originated in subsarcolemmal locations and showed local regeneration through activation of calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine receptors. Despite functional ryanodine receptors being expressed at regular (approximately 2 microm) intervals throughout atrial myocytes, the subsarcolemmal calcium signal did not spread in a fully regenerative manner through the interior of a cell. Rather, there was a diminishing centripetal propagation of calcium. The lack of regeneration was due to mitochondria and SERCA pumps preventing the inward movement of calcium. Inhibiting these calcium buffering mechanisms allowed the globalisation of action potential-evoked responses. In addition, physiological positive inotropic agents, such as endothelin-1 and beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as enhanced calcium current, calcium store loading and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate infusion also led to regenerative global responses. The consequence of globalising calcium signals was a significant increase in cellular contraction. These data indicate how calcium signals and their consequences are determined by the interplay of multiple subcellular calcium management systems.

  9. Intracellular Mono-ADP-Ribosylation in Signaling and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütepage, Mareike; Eckei, Laura; Verheugd, Patricia; Lüscher, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    A key process in the regulation of protein activities and thus cellular signaling pathways is the modification of proteins by post-translational mechanisms. Knowledge about the enzymes (writers and erasers) that attach and remove post-translational modifications, the targets that are modified and the functional consequences elicited by specific modifications, is crucial for understanding cell biological processes. Moreover detailed knowledge about these mechanisms and pathways helps to elucidate the molecular causes of various diseases and in defining potential targets for therapeutic approaches. Intracellular adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation refers to the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent modification of proteins with ADP-ribose and is catalyzed by enzymes of the ARTD (ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin like, also known as PARP) family as well as some members of the Sirtuin family. Poly-ADP-ribosylation is relatively well understood with inhibitors being used as anti-cancer agents. However, the majority of ARTD enzymes and the ADP-ribosylating Sirtuins are restricted to catalyzing mono-ADP-ribosylation. Although writers, readers and erasers of intracellular mono-ADP-ribosylation have been identified only recently, it is becoming more and more evident that this reversible post-translational modification is capable of modulating key intracellular processes and signaling pathways. These include signal transduction mechanisms, stress pathways associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and stress granules, and chromatin-associated processes such as transcription and DNA repair. We hypothesize that mono-ADP-ribosylation controls, through these different pathways, the development of cancer and infectious diseases. PMID:26426055

  10. Calcium signaling during reproduction and biotrophic fungal interactions in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyi; Gutjahr, Caroline; Bleckmann, Andrea; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Many recent studies have indicated that cellular communications during plant reproduction, fungal invasion, and defense involve identical or similar molecular players and mechanisms. Indeed, pollen tube invasion and sperm release shares many common features with infection of plant tissue by fungi and oomycetes, as a tip-growing intruder needs to communicate with the receptive cells to gain access into a cell and tissue. Depending on the compatibility between cells, interactions may result in defense, invasion, growth support, or cell death. Plant cells stimulated by both pollen tubes and fungal hyphae secrete, for example, small cysteine-rich proteins and receptor-like kinases are activated leading to intracellular signaling events such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the generation of calcium (Ca(2+)) transients. The ubiquitous and versatile second messenger Ca(2+) thereafter plays a central and crucial role in modulating numerous downstream signaling processes. In stimulated cells, it elicits both fast and slow cellular responses depending on the shape, frequency, amplitude, and duration of the Ca(2+) transients. The various Ca(2+) signatures are transduced into cellular information via a battery of Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In this review, we focus on Ca(2+) signaling and discuss its occurrence during plant reproduction and interactions of plant cells with biotrophic filamentous microbes. The participation of Ca(2+) in ROS signaling pathways is also discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dysregulation of intracellular calcium transporters in animal models of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, Ion A; Edgecomb, Jessica; LaBarge, Kara; Colucci, Wilson S

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) develops as the result of myocardial calcium (Ca) dysregulation. Here we reviewed all published studies that quantified the dysfunction of intracellular Ca transporters and the myofilaments in animal models of SIC. Cardiomyocytes isolated from septic animals showed, invariably, a decreased twitch amplitude, which is frequently caused by a decrease in the amplitude of cellular Ca transients (ΔCai) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca load (CaSR). Underlying these deficits, the L-type Ca channel is downregulated, through mechanisms that may involve adrenomedullin-mediated redox signaling. The SR Ca pump is also inhibited, through oxidative modifications (sulfonylation) of one reactive thiol group (on Cys) and/or modulation of phospholamban. Diastolic Ca leak of ryanodine receptors is frequently increased. In contrast, Na/Ca exchange inhibition may play a partially compensatory role by increasing CaSR and ΔCai. The action potential is usually shortened. Myofilaments show a bidirectional regulation, with decreased Ca sensitivity in milder forms of disease (due to troponin I hyperphosphorylation) and an increase (redox mediated) in more severe forms. Most deficits occurred similarly in two different disease models, induced by either intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, substantial cumulative evidence implicates various Ca transporters and the myofilaments in SIC pathology. What is less clear, however, are the identity and interplay of the signaling pathways that are responsible for Ca transporters dysfunction. With few exceptions, all studies we found used solely male animals. Identifying sex differences in Ca dysregulation in SIC becomes, therefore, another priority.

  12. Dysregulation of intracellular calcium transporters in animal models of sepsis induced cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, Ion A.; Edgecomb, Jessica; LaBarge, Kara; Colucci, Wilson S.

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) develops as the result of myocardial calcium (Ca2+) dysregulation. Here we reviewed all published studies that quantified the dysfunction of intracellular Ca2+ transporters and the myofilaments in animal models of SIC. Cardiomyocytes isolated from septic animals showed, invariably, a decreased twitch amplitude, which is frequently caused by a decrease in the amplitude of cellular Ca2+ transients (ΔCai) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load (CaSR). Underlying these deficits, the L-type Ca2+ channel is downregulated, through mechanisms that may involve adrenomedullin-mediated redox signaling. SR Ca2+ pump (SERCA) is also inhibited, through oxidative modifications (sulphonylation) of one reactive thiol group (on Cys674), and/or modulation of phospholamban. Diastolic Ca2+ leak of ryanodine receptors is frequently increased. In contrast, Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibition may play a partially compensatory role by increasing CaSR and ΔCai. The action potential is usually shortened. Myofilaments show a bidirectional regulation, with decreased Ca2+ sensitivity in milder forms of disease (due to troponin I hyperphosphorylation) and a (redox mediated) increase in more severe forms. Most deficits occurred similarly in two different disease models, induced by either intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In conclusion, substantial cumulative evidence implicates various Ca2+ transporters and the myofilaments in SIC pathology. What is less clear, however, is the identity and interplay of the signaling pathways that are responsible for Ca2+ transporters dysfunction. With few exceptions, all studies we found used solely male animals. Identifying sex differences in Ca2+ dysregulation in SIC becomes, therefore, another priority. PMID:25186837

  13. Intracellular calcium stores in beta-escin skinned rat and guinea-pig bladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugba Durlu-Kandilci, N; Brading, Alison F

    2007-07-02

    Intracellular Ca2+ stores in rat and guinea-pig bladders and taenia caecum were studied in beta-escin skinned smooth muscle strips. 30 min of skinning with 40 microM and 80 microM beta-escin were the best parameters found to obtain good calcium response curves (10(-7)-10(-4) M) in rat and guinea pig, respectively. Calmodulin (1 microM) increased the calcium contractions significantly. pCa 6 was used to load intracellular stores and application of carbachol (50 microM) in all tissues then only contracted the tissues in the presence of guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP; 100 microM). Inositol triphosphate (IP3; 50 microM), applied after pCa 6, contracted all tissues. Carbachol added after IP3 or heparin (1 mg/ml) no longer caused a contraction in any of them. In bladders, caffeine (30 mM) but not ryanodine (5 microM) prevented the subsequent carbachol contraction. A slowly rising contraction with carbachol was elicited after caffeine (30 mM) or ryanodine (5 microM) in the taenia and after ryanodine in the bladders. Caffeine (30 mM) suppressed the calcium response curves in all tissues. Procaine (30 mM) blocked the carbachol (50 microM) contractions in bladders but not in taenia. These results suggest that calcium induced calcium release (CICR) and IP3 induced calcium release (IICR) release calcium from a common store in bladder but two different compartments in taenia.

  14. Effects of arachnotoxin on intracellular pH and calcium in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fernando; Cunha, Maria Adelaide; Sanchez, Raul; Ferreira, Alice Teixeira; Schor, Nestor; Oshiro, Maria Etsuko Miyamoto

    2007-06-01

    To determine the effect of arachnotoxin (ATx), a venom extracted from the Chilean spider Latrodectus mactans, on intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and pH (pH(i)) in capacitated human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were collected from fertile adult men (n = 8). Mobile spermatozoa were collected by the "swim up" technique and stimulated with the crude extract of ATx and with progesterone (P). Hospital of the Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. [Ca(2+)](i) was measured in fura2-AM-loaded spermatozoa, and pH(i) was measured in spermatozoa loaded with the pH-sensitive dye [(2',7')-bis (carboxymethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein]-AM (BCECF). The ATx and P induced a biphasic change in [Ca(2+)](i) consisting of a peak followed by a small but sustained elevation. The response to ATx was greatly reduced by pretreatment with P. The ATx caused intracellular acidification, whereas P induced alkalinization. Blockade of the NA(+)/H(+) exchanger with ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA) sharply increased ATx-induced acidification. Arachnotoxin increased [Ca(2+)](i) through the opening of calcium channels and release of calcium from intracellular stores. The ATx reduced pH(i) in human sperm, possibly by inhibiting the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger.

  15. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, Filip; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-03-03

    Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability for water and small organic compounds through their stimulatory effect on plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent modulation of intracellular calcium levels and ion homeostasis. The action of silver ions at the plant plasma membrane is largely connected with the inhibition of ethylene signalling thanks to the ability of silver ion to replace the copper cofactor in the ethylene receptor. A link coupling the action of silver ions and cellular auxin efflux has been suggested earlier by their possible direct interaction with auxin efflux carriers or by influencing plasma membrane permeability. Using tobacco BY-2 cells, we demonstrate here that besides a dramatic increase of efflux of synthetic auxins 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), treatment with AgNO 3 resulted in enhanced efflux of the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ) as well as the auxin structural analogues tryptophan (Trp) and benzoic acid (BA). The application of AgNO 3 was accompanied by gradual water loss and plasmolysis. The observed effects were dependent on the availability of extracellular calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) as shown by comparison of transport assays in Ca 2+ -rich and Ca 2+ -free buffers and upon treatment with inhibitors of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -permeable channels Al 3+ and ruthenium red, both abolishing the effect of AgNO 3 . Confocal microscopy of Ca 2+ -sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluo-4FF, acetoxymethyl (AM) ester suggested that the extracellular Ca 2+ availability is necessary to trigger the response to silver ions and that the intracellular Ca 2+ pool alone is not sufficient for this effect. Altogether, our data suggest that in plant cells the effects of silver ions originate from the primal modification of the internal calcium levels, possibly by their interaction with Ca 2+ -permeable channels at the plasma membrane.

  16. Intracellular Ca2+ Regulation in Calcium Sensitive Phenotype of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERMANSYAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular cytosolic Ca2+ concentration accumulation plays an essential information in Saccharomyces cerevisiae i.e. to explain cellular mechanism of Ca2+ sensitive phenotype. Disruption both S. cerevisiae PPase PTP2 and MSG5 genes showed an inhibited growth in the presence of Ca2+. On the other hand, by using Luminocounter with apoaequorin system, a method based upon luminescent photoprotein aequorin, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was accumulated as a consequence of calcium sensitive phenotype of S. cerevisiae. This fact indicated that PPase ptp2Δ and msg5Δ were involved in intracellular Ca2+ transport in addition their already known pathways i.e Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase cell wall integrity pathway, high osmolarity glycerol (HOG pathway, and pheromone response FUS3 pathway.

  17. Antagonists of the TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel modulate airway smooth muscle tone and intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Jennifer; Perez-Zoghbi, Jose; Bernstein, Kyra; Barajas, Matthew B; Zhang, Yi; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Pawan K; Gallos, George; Emala, Charles W

    2015-09-01

    Perioperative bronchospasm refractory to β agonists continues to challenge anesthesiologists and intensivists. The TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel modulates airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. The authors hypothesized that TMEM16A antagonists would relax ASM contraction by modulating membrane potential and calcium flux. Human ASM, guinea pig tracheal rings, or mouse peripheral airways were contracted with acetylcholine or leukotriene D4 and then treated with the TMEM16A antagonists: benzbromarone, T16Ainh-A01, N-((4-methoxy)-2-naphthyl)-5-nitroanthranilic acid, or B25. In separate studies, guinea pig tracheal rings were contracted with acetylcholine and then exposed to increasing concentrations of isoproterenol (0.01 nM to 10 μM) ± benzbromarone. Plasma membrane potential and intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in human ASM cells. Benzbromarone was the most potent TMEM16A antagonist tested for relaxing an acetylcholine -induced contraction in guinea pig tracheal rings (n = 6). Further studies were carried out to investigate the clinical utility of benzbromarone. In human ASM, benzbromarone relaxed either an acetylcholine- or a leukotriene D4-induced contraction (n = 8). Benzbromarone was also effective in relaxing peripheral airways (n = 9) and potentiating relaxation by β agonists (n = 5 to 10). In cellular mechanistic studies, benzbromarone hyperpolarized human ASM cells (n = 9 to 12) and attenuated intracellular calcium flux from both the plasma membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (n = 6 to 12). TMEM16A antagonists work synergistically with β agonists and through a novel pathway of interrupting ion flux at both the plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum to acutely relax human ASM.

  18. Calcium signals driven by single channel noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Skupin

    Full Text Available Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are sequences of random spikes despite the involvement of many molecules in spike generation. This randomness arises from the stochastic state transitions of individual Ca2+ release channels and does not average out due to the existence of steep concentration gradients. The system is hierarchical due to the structural levels channel--channel cluster--cell and a corresponding strength of coupling. Concentration gradients introduce microdomains which couple channels of a cluster strongly. But they couple clusters only weakly; too weak to establish deterministic behavior on cell level. Here, we present a multi-scale modelling concept for stochastic hierarchical systems. It simulates active molecules individually as Markov chains and their coupling by deterministic diffusion. Thus, we are able to follow the consequences of random single molecule state changes up to the signal on cell level. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simulate a variety of experiments. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data of spontaneous oscillations in astrocytes emphasize the role of spatial concentration gradients in Ca2+ signalling. Analysis of extensive simulations indicates that frequency encoding described by the relation between average and standard deviation of interspike intervals is surprisingly robust. This robustness is a property of the random spiking mechanism and not a result of control.

  19. Calcium signals driven by single channel noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupin, Alexander; Kettenmann, Helmut; Falcke, Martin

    2010-08-05

    Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are sequences of random spikes despite the involvement of many molecules in spike generation. This randomness arises from the stochastic state transitions of individual Ca2+ release channels and does not average out due to the existence of steep concentration gradients. The system is hierarchical due to the structural levels channel--channel cluster--cell and a corresponding strength of coupling. Concentration gradients introduce microdomains which couple channels of a cluster strongly. But they couple clusters only weakly; too weak to establish deterministic behavior on cell level. Here, we present a multi-scale modelling concept for stochastic hierarchical systems. It simulates active molecules individually as Markov chains and their coupling by deterministic diffusion. Thus, we are able to follow the consequences of random single molecule state changes up to the signal on cell level. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simulate a variety of experiments. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data of spontaneous oscillations in astrocytes emphasize the role of spatial concentration gradients in Ca2+ signalling. Analysis of extensive simulations indicates that frequency encoding described by the relation between average and standard deviation of interspike intervals is surprisingly robust. This robustness is a property of the random spiking mechanism and not a result of control.

  20. Polycystins, calcium signaling, and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, Patrick; Padilla, Francoise; Osorio, Nancy; Coste, Bertrand; Raoux, Matthieu; Crest, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major, inherited nephropathy affecting over 1:1000 of the worldwide population. It is a systemic condition with frequent hepatic and cardiovascular manifestations in addition to the progressive development of fluid-filled cysts from the tubules and collecting ducts of affected kidneys. The pathogenesis of cyst formation is currently thought to involve increased proliferation of epithelial cells, mild dedifferentiation, and fluid accumulation. In the past decade, study of ADPKD led to the discovery of a unique family of highly complex proteins, the polycystins. Loss-of-function mutations in either of two polycystin proteins, polycystin-1 or polycystin-2, give rise to ADPKD. These proteins are thought to function together as part of a multiprotein complex that may initiate Ca 2+ signals, directing attention to the regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ as a possible misstep that participates in cyst formation. Here we review what is known about the Ca 2+ signaling functions of polycystin proteins and focus on findings that have significantly advanced our physiological insight. Special attention is paid to the recently discovered role of these proteins in the mechanotransduction of the renal primary cilium and the model it suggests

  1. [Effects of grape procyanidins on the concentration of intracellular calcium and the proliferation activity of the hepatoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jin-Yi; Li, Jie; Liu, Hui; Zhang, She-Hua

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the effects of grape procyanidins (GPC) on concentration of intracellular calcium and the proliferation activity of normal hepatic cells and the hepatic cell injuried by alcohol. Rat hepatic cells and the cell injuried by alcohol were cultured with different concentration of GPC. The proliferation activity and concentration of intracellular calcium of the hepatic cells were measured by MTT assay and Fura-2 fluorescence methods. (1) The concentration of intracellular calcium of the normal control group and alcohol injury group were (108.26 +/- 14.17) and (651.24 +/- 47.95) nmol/L respectively, and that of both the high and the medium dose GPC groups were lower than the alcohol injury group, all differences are significant (P calcium in the normal hepatic cells treated with GPC is the group with calcium of extracellular fluid > the group free from calcium of extracellular fluid > the normal control group. (3) The proliferation activity of the high and the medium dose GPC group of normal hepatic cell and the cell injuried by alcohol were higher than the normal control group and alcohol injury group, all differences are significant (P calcium concentration of normal hepatic cell by increasing extracellular fluidca introaffluxion and release from calcium pool, and enhance the proliferation activity of hepatic cells. It also can inhibit the abnormal rise (overload) of intracellular calcium concentration and the proliferation activity injury of hepatic cell induced by alcohol.

  2. Intracellular Signaling Mediators in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to phenomenological models of nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 4 is devoted to major sets of intracellular mediators that transmit signals upon stimulation of cell-surface receptors.  Activation of...

  3. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    OpenAIRE

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nuc...

  4. Differences between negative inotropic and vasodilator effects of calcium antagonists acting on extra- and intracellular calcium movements in rat and guinea-pig cardiac preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugtenburg, J. G.; Mathy, M. J.; Boddeke, H. W.; Beckeringh, J. J.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to get more insight into the utilization of calcium in the mammalian heart and the influence of calcium antagonists on this process we have evaluated the negative inotropic and vasodilator effect of nifedipine, diltiazem, verapamil, bepridil and lidoflazine as well as of the intracellularly

  5. Insulin induces calcium signals in the nucleus of rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A; Andrade, Viviane A; Leite, M Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    Insulin is an hepatic mitogen that promotes liver regeneration. Actions of insulin are mediated by the insulin receptor, which is a receptor tyrosine kinase. It is currently thought that signaling via the insulin receptor occurs at the plasma membrane, where it binds to insulin. Here we report that insulin induces calcium oscillations in isolated rat hepatocytes, and that these calcium signals depend upon activation of phospholipase C and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but not upon extracellular calcium. Furthermore, insulin-induced calcium signals occur in the nucleus, and are temporally associated with selective depletion of nuclear phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and translocation of the insulin receptor to the nucleus. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor translocates to the nucleus to initiate nuclear, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium signals in rat hepatocytes. This novel signaling mechanism may be responsible for insulin's effects on liver growth and regeneration.

  6. Effect of Cu2+ and pH on intracellular calcium content and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Riazanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of copper ions and pH of external solution on intracellular calcium homeostasis and lipid peroxidation in winter wheat roots. Experiment was carried out with winter wheat. Sterile seeds were germinated in Petri dishes on the filter paper soaked with acetic buffer (pH 4.7 and 6.2 at 20 °Cin the dark for 48 hours. Copper was added as CuSO4. It’s concentrations varied from 0 to 50 µM. The Ca2+-fluorescent dye Fluo-3/AM ester was loaded on 60 hour. Root fluorescence with Fluo-3 loading was detected using X-Cite Series 120 Q unit attached to microscope Olympus BX53 with camera Olympus DP72. Imaging of root cells was achieved after exciting with 488 nm laser and collection of emission signals above 512 nm. Preliminary analysis of the images was performed using software LabSens; brightness (fluorescence intensity analysis was carried out by means of ImageJ. Peroxidation of lipids was determined according to Kumar and Knowles method. It was found that pH of solution had effect on release of calcium from intracellular stores. Low pH provokes an increase of [Ca2+]cyt which may be reaction of roots to acidic medium. Copper induces increase in non-selective permeability of plasma membrane and leads to its faster depolarization. This probably initiates Ca-dependent depolarization channels which are responsible for the influx of calcium from apoplast into the cell. Changing of the membrane permeability may occur due to interaction between Cu2+ ions and Ca-binding sites on plasma membrane or may be due to binding of copper with sulfhydryl groups and increasing of POL. Copper may also damage lipid bilayer and change the activity of some non-selective channels and transporters. Reactive oxygen species which are formed under some types of stress factors, especially the effect of heavy metals, can be activators of Ca-channels. Cu2+ ions rise MDA content and promote the oxidative stress. Low medium pH also induces its

  7. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C; Dalzell, Danielle R; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (2  nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2  kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  8. Calcium influx affects intracellular transport and membrane repair following nanosecond pulsed electric field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gary Lee; Roth, Caleb C.; Dalzell, Danielle R.; Kuipers, Marjorie; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2014-05-01

    The cellular response to subtle membrane damage following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) is not well understood. Recent work has shown that when cells are exposed to nsPEF, ion permeable nanopores (2 nm) created by longer micro- and millisecond duration pulses. Nanoporation of the plasma membrane by nsPEF has been shown to cause a transient increase in intracellular calcium concentration within milliseconds after exposure. Our research objective is to determine the impact of nsPEF on calcium-dependent structural and repair systems in mammalian cells. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells were exposed in the presence and absence of calcium ions in the outside buffer to either 1 or 20, 600-ns duration electrical pulses at 16.2 kV/cm, and pore size was determined using propidium iodide and calcium green. Membrane organization was observed with morphological changes and increases in FM1-43 fluorescence. Migration of lysosomes, implicated in membrane repair, was followed using confocal microscopy of red fluorescent protein-tagged LAMP1. Microtubule structure was imaged using mEmerald-tubulin. We found that at high 600-ns PEF dosage, calcium-induced membrane restructuring and microtubule depolymerization coincide with interruption of membrane repair via lysosomal exocytosis.

  9. Opposing Roles of Calcium and Intracellular ATP on Gating of the Purinergic P2X2 Receptor Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos B. Rokic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available P2X2 receptors (P2X2R exhibit a slow desensitization during the initial ATP application and a progressive, calcium-dependent increase in rates of desensitization during repetitive stimulation. This pattern is observed in whole-cell recordings from cells expressing recombinant and native P2X2R. However, desensitization is not observed in perforated-patched cells and in two-electrode voltage clamped oocytes. Addition of ATP, but not ATPγS or GTP, in the pipette solution also abolishes progressive desensitization, whereas intracellular injection of apyrase facilitates receptor desensitization. Experiments with injection of alkaline phosphatase or addition of staurosporine and ATP in the intracellular solution suggest a role for a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation in receptor desensitization. Mutation of residues that are potential phosphorylation sites identified a critical role of the S363 residue in the intracellular ATP action. These findings indicate that intracellular calcium and ATP have opposing effects on P2X2R gating: calcium allosterically facilitates receptor desensitization and ATP covalently prevents the action of calcium. Single cell measurements further revealed that intracellular calcium stays elevated after washout in P2X2R-expressing cells and the blockade of mitochondrial sodium/calcium exchanger lowers calcium concentrations during washout periods to basal levels, suggesting a role of mitochondria in this process. Therefore, the metabolic state of the cell can influence P2X2R gating.

  10. The decompensated detrusor I: the effects of bladder outlet obstruction on the use of intracellular calcium stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, D; Levin, R M; Duckett, J W; Zderic, S A

    1996-08-01

    As in other smooth muscle groups, extracellular calcium influx as well as the release of calcium from intracellular storage sites or sarcoplasmic reticulum occur in response to receptor stimulation. The relative participation of extracellular influx versus intracellular release has recently been shown to be influenced by developmental stage and obstruction. Partial bladder outlet obstruction results in marked hypertrophy of the bladder and produces alterations in contractile function. To understand better how this contractile dysfunction after outlet obstruction is influenced by intracellular calcium handling we tested the effects of 2 drugs with known effects on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. We evaluated ryanodine, which blocks the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and thapsigargin, which blocks the ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum to pump cytosolic calcium back into the storage sites. Rabbit bladders were obstructed for different periods, after which detrusor muscle strips were harvested and contractile performance was evaluated in the absence and presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin. In the early phases of outlet obstruction the release of intracellular calcium increased significantly. With prolonged obstruction and detrusor decompensation the intracellular storage sites lost the ability to contribute to the generation of contractile force. Alterations in the calcium handling ability of the smooth muscle cell appear to have an important role in the process of decompensation of bladder function in infravesical obstruction.

  11. Plants, endosymbionts and parasites: Abscisic acid and calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamune, Kisaburo; Xiong, Liming; Chini, Eduardo; Sibley, L David

    2008-01-01

    It was recently discovered that the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii produces and uses the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), for communication. Following intracellular replication, ABA production influences the timing of parasite egress from the host cell. This density-dependent signal may serve to coordinate exit from the host cell in a synchronous manner by triggering calcium-dependent activation of motility. In the absence of ABA production, parasites undergo differentiation to the semidormant, tissue cyst. The pathway for ABA production in T. gondii may be derived from a relict endosymbiont, acquired by ingestion of a red algal cell. Although the parasite has lost the capacity for photosynthesis, the plant-like nature of this signaling pathway may be exploited to develop new drugs. In support of this idea, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis protected mice against lethal infection with T. gondii. Here, we compare the role of ABA in parasites to its activities in plants, where it is know to control development and stress responses.

  12. Vasomotion dynamics following calcium spiking depend on both cell signalling and limited constriction velocity in rat mesenteric small arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanBavel, Ed; van der Meulen, Esther T.; Spaan, Jos A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell contraction depends on intracellular calcium. However, calcium-contraction coupling involves a complex array of intracellular processes. Quantitating the dynamical relation between calcium perturbations and resulting changes in tone may help identifying these processes.

  13. Activation of Intracellular Calcium by Multiple Wnt Ligands and Translocation of β-Catenin into the Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Millar, Michael; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+ and β-catenin, a 92-kDa negatively charged transcription factor, transduce Wnt signaling via the non-canonical, Wnt/Ca2+ and canonical, Wnt/β-catenin pathways independently. The nuclear envelope is a barrier to large protein entry, and this process is regulated by intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i and trans-nuclear potential. How β-catenin traverses the nuclear envelope is not well known. We hypothesized that Wnt/Ca2+ and Wnt/β-catenin pathways act in a coordinated manner and that [Ca2+]i release facilitates β-catenin entry into the nucleus in mammalian cells. In a live assay using calcium dyes in PC3 prostate cancer cells, six Wnt peptides (3A, 4, 5A, 7A, 9B, and 10B) mobilized [Ca2+]i but Wnt11 did not. Based upon dwell time (range = 15–30 s) of the calcium waveform, these Wnts could be classified into three classes: short, 3A and 5A; long, 7A and 10B; and very long, 4 and 9B. Wnt-activated [Ca2+]i release was followed by an increase in intranuclear calcium and the depolarization of both the cell and nuclear membranes, determined by using FM4-64. In cells treated with Wnts 5A, 9B, and 10B, paradigm substrates for each Wnt class, increased [Ca2+]i was followed by β-catenin translocation into the nucleus in PC3, MCF7, and 253J, prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cell lines; both the increase in Wnt 5A, 9B, and 10B induced [Ca2+]i release and β-catenin translocation are suppressed by thapsigargin in PC3 cell line. We propose a convergent model of Wnt signaling network where Ca2+ and β-catenin pathways may act in a coordinated, interdependent, rather than independent, manner. PMID:24158438

  14. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Jalini

    Full Text Available Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs. Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging, increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX, also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery.

  15. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalini, Shirin; Ye, Hui; Tonkikh, Alexander A; Charlton, Milton P; Carlen, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging), increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM) partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX), also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery.

  16. Designer small molecules to target calcium signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarbrick, Joanna M; Riley, Andrew M; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic compounds open up new avenues to interrogate and manipulate intracellular Ca2+ signalling pathways. They may ultimately lead to drug-like analogues to intervene in disease. Recent advances in chemical biology tools available to probe Ca2+ signalling are described, with a particular focus on those synthetic analogues from our group that have enhanced biological understanding or represent a step towards more drug-like molecules. Adenophostin (AdA) is the most potent known agonist at the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and synthetic analogues provide a binding model for receptor activation and channel opening. 2-O-Modified inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) derivatives that are partial agonists at the IP3R reveal key conformational changes of the receptor upon ligand binding. Biphenyl polyphosphates illustrate that simple non-inositol surrogates can be engineered to give prototype IP3R agonists or antagonists and act as templates for protein co-crystallization. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR) can be selectively modified using total synthesis, generating chemically and biologically stable tools to investigate Ca2+ release via the ryanodine receptor (RyR) and to interfere with cADPR synthesis and degradation. The first neutral analogues with a synthetic pyrophosphate bioisostere surprisingly retain the ability to release Ca2+, suggesting a new route to membrane-permeant tools. Adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (ADPR) activates the Ca2+-, Na+- and K+-permeable transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) cation channel. Synthetic ADPR analogues provide the first structure-activity relationship (SAR) for this emerging messenger and the first functional antagonists. An analogue based on the nicotinic acid motif of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) antagonizes NAADP-mediated Ca2+ release in vitro and is effective in vivo against induced heart arrhythmia and autoimmune disease, illustrating the therapeutic potential of

  17. The transduction channel TRPM5 is gated by intracellular calcium in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhao, Zhen; Margolskee, Robert; Liman, Emily

    2007-05-23

    Bitter, sweet, and umami tastants are detected by G-protein-coupled receptors that signal through a common second-messenger cascade involving gustducin, phospholipase C beta2, and the transient receptor potential M5 (TRPM5) ion channel. The mechanism by which phosphoinositide signaling activates TRPM5 has been studied in heterologous cell types with contradictory results. To resolve this issue and understand the role of TRPM5 in taste signaling, we took advantage of mice in which the TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein and mice that carry a targeted deletion of the TRPM5 gene to unequivocally identify TRPM5-dependent currents in taste receptor cells. Our results show that brief elevation of intracellular inositol trisphosphate or Ca2+ is sufficient to gate TRPM5-dependent currents in intact taste cells, but only intracellular Ca2+ is able to activate TRPM5-dependent currents in excised patches. Detailed study in excised patches showed that TRPM5 forms a nonselective cation channel that is half-activated by 8 microM Ca2+ and that desensitizes in response to prolonged exposure to intracellular Ca2+. In addition to channels encoded by the TRPM5 gene, we found that taste cells have a second type of Ca2+-activated nonselective cation channel that is less sensitive to intracellular Ca2+. These data constrain proposed models for taste transduction and suggest a link between receptor signaling and membrane potential in taste cells.

  18. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events.

  19. Calcium signals can freely cross the nuclear envelope in hippocampal neurons: somatic calcium increases generate nuclear calcium transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Anja; Bading, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    Background In hippocampal neurons, nuclear calcium signaling is important for learning- and neuronal survival-associated gene expression. However, it is unknown whether calcium signals generated by neuronal activity at the cell membrane and propagated to the soma can unrestrictedly cross the nuclear envelope to invade the nucleus. The nuclear envelope, which allows ion transit via the nuclear pore complex, may represent a barrier for calcium and has been suggested to insulate the nucleus from activity-induced cytoplasmic calcium transients in some cell types. Results Using laser-assisted uncaging of caged calcium compounds in defined sub-cellular domains, we show here that the nuclear compartment border does not represent a barrier for calcium signals in hippocampal neurons. Although passive diffusion of molecules between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm may be modulated through changes in conformational state of the nuclear pore complex, we found no evidence for a gating mechanism for calcium movement across the nuclear border. Conclusion Thus, the nuclear envelope does not spatially restrict calcium transients to the somatic cytosol but allows calcium signals to freely enter the cell nucleus to trigger genomic events. PMID:17663775

  20. Cytosolic calcium homeostasis in fungi: Roles of plasma membrane transport and intracellular sequestration of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.J.; Vogg, G.; Sanders, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cytosolic free calcium ([Ca 2+ ] c ) has been measured in the mycelial fungus Neurospora crassa with Ca 2+ - selective microelectrodes. The mean value of [Ca 2+ ] c is 92 ± 15 nM and it is insensitive to external pH values between 5.8 and 8.4. Simultaneous measurement of membrane potential enables the electrochemical potential difference for Ca 2+ across the plasma membrane to be estimated as about -60 kJmol -1 - a value that cannot be sustained either by a simple Ca 2+ - ATPase, or, in alkaline conditions, by straightforward H + /Ca 2+ exchange with a stoichiometric ratio of + /Ca 2+ . The authors propose that the most likely alternative mechanism of Ca 2+ efflux is ATP-driven H + /Ca 2+ exchange, with a stoichiometric ratio of at least 2 H + /Ca 2+ . The increase in [Ca 2+ ] c in the presence of CN - at pH 8.4 is compared with 45 Ca 2+ influx under the same conditions. The proportion of entering Ca 2+ remaining free in the cytosol is only 8 x 10 -5 , and since the concentration of available chelation sites on Ca 2+ binding proteins is unlikely to exceed 100 μM, a major role for the fungal vacuole in short-term Ca 2+ homeostasis is indicated. This notion is supported by the observation that cytosolic Ca 2+ homeostasis is disrupted by a protonophore, which rapidly abolishes the driving force for Ca 2+ uptake into fungal vacuoles

  1. Intracellular calcium spikes in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons induced by BAPTA-based calcium dyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Hong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms in spontaneous action potential (AP firing frequencies and in cytosolic free calcium concentrations have been reported for mammalian circadian pacemaker neurons located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. Also reported is the existence of "Ca(2+ spikes" (i.e., [Ca(2+](c transients having a bandwidth of 10 approximately 100 seconds in SCN neurons, but it is unclear if these SCN Ca(2+ spikes are related to the slow circadian rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We addressed this issue based on a Ca(2+ indicator dye (fluo-4 and a protein Ca(2+ sensor (yellow cameleon. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found spontaneous Ca(2+ spikes in 18% of rat SCN cells in acute brain slices, but the Ca(2+ spiking frequencies showed no day/night variation. We repeated the same experiments with rat (and mouse SCN slice cultures that expressed yellow cameleon genes for a number of different circadian phases and, surprisingly, spontaneous Ca(2+ spike was barely observed (<3%. When fluo-4 AM or BAPTA-AM was loaded in addition to the cameleon-expressing SCN cultures, however, the number of cells exhibiting Ca(2+ spikes was increased to 13 approximately 14%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite our extensive set of experiments, no evidence of a circadian rhythm was found in the spontaneous Ca(2+ spiking activity of SCN. Furthermore, our study strongly suggests that the spontaneous Ca(2+ spiking activity is caused by the Ca(2+ chelating effect of the BAPTA-based fluo-4 dye. Therefore, this induced activity seems irrelevant to the intrinsic circadian rhythm of [Ca(2+](c in SCN neurons. The problems with BAPTA based dyes are widely known and our study provides a clear case for concern, in particular, for SCN Ca(2+ spikes. On the other hand, our study neither invalidates the use of these dyes as a whole, nor undermines the potential role of SCN Ca(2+ spikes in the function of SCN.

  2. Agouti regulation of intracellular calcium: Role in the insulin resistance of viable yellow mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemel, M.B.; Kim, J.H. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Woychik, R.P.; Michaud, E.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hadwell, S.H.; Patel, I.R.; Wilkison, W.O. [Research Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Several dominant mutations at the agouti locus in the mouse cause a syndrome of marked obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. Although it is known that the agouti gene is expressed in an ectopic manner in these mutants, the precise mechanism by which the agouti gene product mediates these effects is unclear. Since intracellular Ca{sup 2+} is believed to play a role in mediating insulin action and dysregulation of Ca{sup 2+} flux is observed in diabetic animals and humans, we examined the status of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in mice carrying the dominant agouti allele, viable yellow (A{sup vy}). We show here that in mice carrying this mutation, the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is elevated in skeletal muscle, and the degree of elevation is closely correlated with the degree to which the mutant traits are expressed in individual animals. Moreover, we demonstrate that the agouti gene product is capable of inducing increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in cultured and freshly isolated skeletal muscle myocytes from wild-type mice. Based on these findings, we present a model in which we propose that the agouti polypeptide promotes insulin resistance in mutant animals through its ability to increase [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. 36 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Intracellular Calcium Decreases Upon Hyper Gravity-Treatment of Arabidopsis Thaliana Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Maren; Denn, Tamara; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2016-06-01

    Cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana ( A. t.) respond to changes in the gravitational field strength with fluctuations of the amount of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+). In parabolic flight experiments, where hyper- and μg phases follow each other, μg clearly increased Ca2+, while hyper-g caused a slight reduction. Since the latter observation had not been reported before, we studied this effect in more detail. Using a special centrifuge for heavy items (ZARM, Bremen, Germany), we determined the hyper-g-dependent intracellular Ca2+ level with transgenic cell lines expressing the Ca2+ sensor, cameleon. This sensor exhibits a shift in fluorescence from 480 to 530 nm in response to Ca2+ binding. The data show a drop in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration with a threshold gravity of around 3 g. This is above hypergravity levels achieved during parabolic flights (1.8 g). The use of mutants with different sub-cellular targets of cameleon expression (nucleus, tonoplast, plasma membrane) gave the same results, i.e. Ca2+ is obviously exported from several intracellular compartments.

  4. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Modifies NMDA Receptor Mediated Release of Intracellular Calcium: Implications for Endocannabinoid Control of Hippocampal Neural Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E.; Miller, Frances; Palchik, Guillermo; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors (CB1) leads to continuous suppression of neuronal plasticity in hippocampus and other brain regions, suggesting that endocannabinoids may have a functional role in synaptic processes that produce state-dependent transient modulation of hippocampal cell activity. In support of this, it has previously been shown in vitro that cannabinoid CB1 receptors modulate second messenger systems in hippocampal neurons that can modulate intracellular ion channels, including channels which release calcium from intracellular stores. Here we demonstrate in hippocampal slices a similar endocannabinoid action on excitatory glutamatergic synapses via modulation of NMDA-receptor mediated intracellular calcium levels in confocal imaged neurons. Calcium entry through glutamatergic NMDA-mediated ion channels increases intracellular calcium concentrations via modulation of release from ryanodine-sensitive channels in endoplasmic reticulum. The studies reported here show that NMDA-elicited increases in Calcium Green fluorescence are enhanced by CB1 receptor antagonists (i.e. rimonabant), and inhibited by CB1 agonists (i.e. WIN 55,212-2). Suppression of endocannabinoid breakdown by either reuptake inhibition (AM404) or fatty-acid amide hydrolase inhibition (URB597) produced suppression of NMDA elicited calcium increases comparable to WIN 55,212-2, while enhancement of calcium release provoked by endocannabinoid receptor antagonists (Rimonabant) was shown to depend on the blockade of CB1 receptor mediated de-phosphorylation of Ryanodine receptors. Such CB1 receptor modulation of NMDA elicited increases in intracellular calcium may account for the respective disruption and enhancement by CB1 agents of trial-specific hippocampal neuron ensemble firing patterns during performance of a short-term memory task, reported previously from this laboratory. PMID:21288475

  5. Regulation of neural cell adhesion molecule polysialylation: evidence for nontranscriptional control and sensitivity to an intracellular pool of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusés, J L; Rutishauser, U

    1998-03-09

    The up- and downregulation of polysialic acid-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) expression on motorneurons during development is associated respectively with target innervation and synaptogenesis, and is regulated at the level of PSA enzymatic biosynthesis involving specific polysialyltransferase activity. The purpose of this study has been to describe the cellular mechanisms by which that regulation might occur. It has been found that developmental regulation of PSA synthesis by ciliary ganglion motorneurons is not reflected in the levels of polysialyltransferase-1 (PST) or sialyltransferase-X (STX) mRNA. On the other hand, PSA synthesis in both the ciliary ganglion and the developing tectum appears to be coupled to the concentration of calcium in intracellular compartments. This study documents a calcium dependence of polysialyltransferase activity in a cell-free assay over the range of 0.1-1 mM, and a rapid sensitivity of new PSA synthesis, as measured in a pulse-chase analysis of tissue explants, to calcium ionophore perturbation of intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, the relevant calcium pool appears to be within a specific intracellular compartment that is sensitive to thapsigargin and does not directly reflect the level of cytosolic calcium. Perturbation of other major second messenger systems, such as cAMP and protein kinase-dependent pathways, did not affect polysialylation in the pulse chase analysis. These results suggest that the shuttling of calcium to different pools within the cell can result in the rapid regulation of PSA synthesis in developing tissues.

  6. Intracellular signaling by diffusion: can waves of hydrogen peroxide transmit intracellular information in plant cells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian L.; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Møller, Ian Max

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude- and frequency-modulated waves of Ca(2+) ions transmit information inside cells. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), specifically hydrogen peroxide, have been proposed to have a similar role in plant cells. We consider the feasibility of such an intracellular communication system in view...

  7. The Role of Intracellular Calcium for the Development and Treatment of Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satheesh, Noothan Jyothi; Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, POB 24144, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-05-22

    Neuroblastoma is the second most common paediatric cancer. It develops from undifferentiated simpatico-adrenal lineage cells and is mostly sporadic; however, the aetiology behind the development of neuroblastoma is still not fully understood. Intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a secondary messenger which regulates numerous cellular processes and, therefore, its concentration is tightly regulated. This review focuses on the role of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation in neuroblastoma. It describes the mechanisms by which [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} is regulated and how it modulates intracellular pathways. Furthermore, the importance of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} for the function of anti-cancer drugs is illuminated in this review as [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} could be a target to improve the outcome of anti-cancer treatment in neuroblastoma. Overall, modulations of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} could be a key target to induce apoptosis in cancer cells leading to a more efficient and effective treatment of neuroblastoma.

  8. The effect and mechanism of endothelin-1-induced intracellular free calcium in human lung adenocarcinoma cells SPC-A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan ZHOU

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a potent mitogen involved in cell growth in human lung adenocarcinoma cells SPC-A1. The increase in intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i plays a great role in this process. The aim of this study is to investigate the ET-1-induced [Ca2+]i responses in SPC-A1 cells and to explore its cellular mechanism. Methods [Ca2+]i was measured by Fura-2/AM fluorescent assay. Endothelin receptors antagonists, calcium channel blockers and intracellular signal transduction blockers were used to study the underlying mechanism of ET-1-induced [Ca2+]i responses in SPC-A1 cells. Results At the concentration of 1×10-15 mol/L-1×10-8 mol/L, ET-1 caused a dose-dependent increase of [Ca2+]i in SPC-A1 cells (P0.05, a highly selective endothelin receptor B (ETBR antagonist. Depletion of extracellular Ca2+ with free Ca2+ solution and 0.1mmol/L ethyleneglycol bis (2-aminoethyl ether tetraacetic acid (EGTA or blockade of voltage dependent calcium channel with nifedipine at 1×10-6 mol/L significantly reduced the ET-1-induced increase of [Ca2+]i. The ET-1-induced (1×10-10 mol/L increase of [Ca2+]i was also significantly attenuated by U73122 at 1×10-5 mol/L (P<0.05, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and by Ryanodine at 50×10-6 mol/L. However, Staurosporine (2×10-9 mol/L, a protein kinas C inhibitor, exerted no significant effect on the ET-1-induced (1×10-10 mol/L increase of [Ca2+]i. Conclusion ET-1 elevates [Ca2+]i via activation of ETA receptor. Both phospholipase C/Ca2+ pathway and Ca2+ influx through voltage dependent Ca2+ channel activate by ETAR contribute to this process.

  9. The effects of thermal stimuli on intracellular calcium change and histamine releases in rat basophilic leukemia mast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zu-Hui; Zhu, Dan; Chen, Ji-Yao; Zhou, Lu-Wei

    2012-05-01

    The effects of thermal stimuli on rat basophilic leukemia mast cells were studied. The cells in calcium-contained or calcium-free buffers were thermally stimulated in the temperature range of 25-60 °C. The corresponding calcium ion concentration in cells [Ca2+]i as well as the released histamine from cells was measured with fluorescence staining methods. The ruthenium red (RR), a block of membrane calcium channels (transient receptor potential family V (TRPV)), was used in experiments. Under the stimulus of 25-50 °C, no significant difference on [Ca2+]i was found between these three groups of the cells in calcium-contained buffer without or with RR and cells in calcium-free saline, indicating that the increased calcium in cytosol did not result from the extracellular buffer but came from the intracellular calcium stores. The [Ca2+]i continuously increased under the temperature of 50-60 °C, but the RR and calcium-free saline can obviously diminish the [Ca2+]i increase at these high temperatures, reflecting that the opening of the TRPV2 channels leads to a calcium influx resulting in the [Ca2+]i increment. The histamine release also became significant in these cases. Since the released histamine is a well-known mediator for the microcirculation promotion, the histamine release from mast cells could be one of the mechanisms of thermal therapy.

  10. Involvement of calcium signalling in dormancy release of grape buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuequn; Halaly, Tamar; Crane, Omer; Keilin, Tsvicka; Keren-Keiserman, Alexandra; Ogrodovitch, Aliza; Galbraith, David; Or, Etti

    2007-01-01

    Artificial induction of grape bud dormancy release by hydrogen cyanamide (HC) serves as a reliable model system to explore the events occurring shortly after the induction of dormancy release. Recently, a group of genes with remarkable differences in expression level between HC-treated and control buds was identified. The identification of several calcium signalling-related genes within that group raised the hypothesis of the involvement of Ca(2+) signalling in grape bud dormancy release. Therefore, the effects of HC treatment on the expression profiles of several calcium sensors, the effect of the plasma membrane calcium channel blocker LaCl(3) and the calcium chelator EGTA on HC-induced and chilling-induced bud-break, and the effect of HC application on calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation activities in the bud tissue were studied. Here the HC-induced expression of Ca(2+)-ATPase is described, indicating that this treatment might evoke an increase in [Ca(2+)]cyt. Similar induction was confirmed for calmodulin, calmodulin-binding protein, and calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK). Both LaCl(3) and EGTA blocked the inducing effect of HC on bud-break, and their inhibitory effects were removed by supplying exogenous Ca(2+). Calcium-dependent histone phosphorylation was up to 70% higher in HC-treated buds. Endogenous protein phosphorylation assays detected four proteins exhibiting increased phosphorylation following HC treatment, of which two were phosphorylated in a calcium-dependent manner. One of these, a 47 kDa protein, presented strong and Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation only in HC-treated buds. The potential role of CDPK in the phosphorylation of this protein was supported by an immunoprecipitation assay. The data suggest, for the first time, that calcium signalling is involved in the mechanism of bud dormancy release.

  11. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B

    1992-01-01

    -fluoromethyl histidine (alpha-FMH) failed to inhibit Tg-induced aggregation. The intracellular histamine receptor antagonist, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine. HCl (DPPE), inhibited Tg-induced aggregation but with IC50 values dependent on the concentration of agonist used. The inhibitory effects...... of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...... that the effects of DPPE are also not due to the inhibition of mobilization of cytosolic calcium. The ultrastructural studies suggest that the major Tg-induced changes (pseudopod formation and granule centralization) are consistent with a primary role for Tg to mobilize calcium; DPPE had very little effect...

  12. Subcellular Imaging of Voltage and Calcium Signals Reveals Neural Processing In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Helen H; St-Pierre, François; Sun, Xulu; Ding, Xiaozhe; Lin, Michael Z; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2016-06-30

    A mechanistic understanding of neural computation requires determining how information is processed as it passes through neurons and across synapses. However, it has been challenging to measure membrane potential changes in axons and dendrites in vivo. We use in vivo, two-photon imaging of novel genetically encoded voltage indicators, as well as calcium imaging, to measure sensory stimulus-evoked signals in the Drosophila visual system with subcellular resolution. Across synapses, we find major transformations in the kinetics, amplitude, and sign of voltage responses to light. We also describe distinct relationships between voltage and calcium signals in different neuronal compartments, a substrate for local computation. Finally, we demonstrate that ON and OFF selectivity, a key feature of visual processing across species, emerges through the transformation of membrane potential into intracellular calcium concentration. By imaging voltage and calcium signals to map information flow with subcellular resolution, we illuminate where and how critical computations arise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates EP2, Adenylate Cyclase, Phospholipase C, and Intracellular Calcium Release to Mediate Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Production in Dental Pulp Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Szu-I; Lin, Li-Deh; Chan, Chiu-Po; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a crucial role in pulpal inflammation and repair. However, its induction of signal transduction pathways is not clear but is crucial for future control of pulpal inflammation. Primary dental pulp cells were exposed to PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) or sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) for 5 to 40 minutes. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In some experiments, cells were pretreated with SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), dorsomorphin (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibitor), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), thapsigargin (inhibitor of intracellular calcium release), W7 (calmodulin antagonist), verapamil (L-type calcium channel blocker), and EGTA (extracellular calcium chelator) for 20 minutes before the addition of PGE2. PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) stimulated cAMP production, whereas sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) shows little effect. PGE2-induced cAMP production was attenuated by SQ22536 and U73122 but not H89 and dorsomorphin. Intriguingly, thapsigargin and W7 prevented PGE2-induced cAMP production, but verapamil and EGTA showed little effect. These results indicate that PGE2-induced cAMP production is associated with EP2 receptor and adenylate cyclase activation. These events are mediated by phospholipase C, intracellular calcium release, and calcium-calmodulin signaling. These results are helpful for understanding the role of PGE2 in pulpal inflammation and repair and possible future drug intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Excessive signal transduction of gain-of-function variants of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR are associated with increased ER to cytosol calcium gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ranieri

    Full Text Available In humans, gain-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR gene are the cause of autosomal dominant hypocalcemia or type 5 Bartter syndrome characterized by an abnormality of calcium metabolism with low parathyroid hormone levels and excessive renal calcium excretion. Functional characterization of CaSR activating variants has been so far limited at demonstrating an increased sensitivity to external calcium leading to lower Ca-EC50. Here we combine high resolution fluorescence based techniques and provide evidence that for the efficiency of calcium signaling system, cells expressing gain-of-function variants of CaSR monitor cytosolic and ER calcium levels increasing the expression of the Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-ATPase (SERCA and reducing expression of Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase (PMCA. Wild-type CaSR (hCaSR-wt and its gain-of-function (hCaSR-R990G; hCaSR-N124K variants were transiently transfected in HEK-293 cells. Basal intracellular calcium concentration was significantly lower in cells expressing hCaSR-wt and its gain of function variants compared to mock. In line, FRET studies using the D1ER probe, which detects [Ca2+]ER directly, demonstrated significantly higher calcium accumulation in cells expressing the gain of function CaSR variants compared to hCaSR-wt. Consistently, cells expressing activating CaSR variants showed a significant increase in SERCA activity and expression and a reduced PMCA expression. This combined parallel regulation in protein expression increases the ER to cytosol calcium gradient explaining the higher sensitivity of CaSR gain-of-function variants to external calcium. This control principle provides a general explanation of how cells reliably connect (and exacerbate receptor inputs to cell function.

  15. D1-D2 Dopamine Receptor Synergy Promotes Calcium Signaling via Multiple Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Lani S.; Free, R. Benjamin; Doyle, Trevor B.; Huang, Xi-Ping; Rankin, Michele L.

    2013-01-01

    The D1 dopamine receptor (D1R) has been proposed to form a hetero-oligomer with the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), which in turn results in a complex that couples to phospholipase C–mediated intracellular calcium release. We have sought to elucidate the pharmacology and mechanism of action of this putative signaling pathway. Dopamine dose-response curves assaying intracellular calcium mobilization in cells heterologously expressing the D1 and D2 subtypes, either alone or in combination, and using subtype selective ligands revealed that concurrent stimulation is required for coupling. Surprisingly, characterization of a putative D1-D2 heteromer-selective ligand, 6-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-1-(3-methylphenyl)-1H-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol (SKF83959), found no stimulation of calcium release, but it did find a broad range of cross-reactivity with other G protein–coupled receptors. In contrast, SKF83959 appeared to be an antagonist of calcium mobilization. Overexpression of Gqα with the D1 and D2 dopamine receptors enhanced the dopamine-stimulated calcium response. However, this was also observed in cells expressing Gqα with only the D1R. Inactivation of Gi or Gs with pertussis or cholera toxin, respectively, largely, but not entirely, reduced the calcium response in D1R and D2R cotransfected cells. Moreover, sequestration of Gβγ subunits through overexpression of G protein receptor kinase 2 mutants either completely or largely eliminated dopamine-stimulated calcium mobilization. Our data suggest that the mechanism of D1R/D2R–mediated calcium signaling involves more than receptor-mediated Gq protein activation, may largely involve downstream signaling pathways, and may not be completely heteromer-specific. In addition, SKF83959 may not exhibit selective activation of D1-D2 heteromers, and its significant cross-reactivity to other receptors warrants careful interpretation of its use in vivo. PMID:23680635

  16. Nuclear calcium signalling in the regulation of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bading, Hilmar

    2013-09-01

    Synaptic activity initiates biochemical processes that have various outcomes, including the formation of memories, increases in neuronal survival and the development of chronic pain and addiction. Virtually all activity-induced, long-lasting adaptations of brain functions require a dialogue between synapses and the nucleus that results in changes in gene expression. Calcium signals that are induced by synaptic activity and propagate into the nucleus are a major route for synapse-to-nucleus communication. Recent findings indicate that diverse forms of neuroadaptation require calcium transients in the nucleus to switch on the necessary genomic programme. Deficits in nuclear calcium signalling as a result of a reduction in synaptic activity or increased extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signalling may underlie the aetiologies of various diseases, including neurodegeneration and cognitive dysfunction.

  17. Molecular Basis of the Extracellular Ligands Mediated Signaling by the Calcium Sensing Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+-sensing receptors (CaSRs play a central role in regulating extracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]o homeostasis and many (pathophysiological processes in multiple organs. This regulation is orchestrated by a cooperative response to extracellular stimuli such as small changes in Ca2+, Mg2+, amino acids and other ligands. In addition, CaSR is a pleiotropic receptor regulating several intracellular signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization and intracellular calcium oscillation. Nearly 200 mutations and polymorphisms have been found in CaSR in relation to a variety of human disorders associated with abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis. In this review, we summarize efforts directed at identifying binding sites for calcium and amino acids. Both homotropic cooperativity among multiple calcium binding sites and heterotropic cooperativity between calcium and amino acid were revealed using computational modeling, predictions, and site-directed mutagenesis coupled with functional assays. The hinge region of the bilobed Venus flytrap (VFT domain of CaSR plays a pivotal role in coordinating multiple extracellular stimuli, leading to cooperative responses from the receptor. We further highlight the extensive number of disease-associated mutations that have also been shown to affect CaSR’s cooperative action via several types of mechanisms. These results provide insights into the molecular bases of the structure and functional cooperativity of this receptor and other members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptors (cGPCRs in health and disease states, and may assist in the prospective development of novel receptor-based therapeutics.

  18. Mechanisms of Borrelia burgdorferi internalization and intracellular innate immune signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja ePetnicki-Ocwieja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a long-term infection whose most severe pathology is characterized by inflammatory arthritis of the lower bearing joints, carditis and neuropathy. The inflammatory cascades are initiated through the early recognition of invading Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes by cells of the innate immune response, such as neutrophils and macrophage. B. burgdorferi does not have an intracellular niche and thus much research has focused on immune pathways activated by pathogen recognition molecules at the cell surface, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs. However, in recent years, studies have shown that internalization of the bacterium by host cells is an important component of the defense machinery in response to B. burgdorferi. Upon internalization, B. burgdorferi is trafficked through an endo/lysosomal pathway resulting in the activation of a number of intracellular pathogen recognition receptors including TLRs and Nod-like receptors (NLRs. Here we will review the innate immune molecules that participate in both cell surface and intracellular immune activation by B. burgdorferi.

  19. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Moreno, Estefania; Hradsky, Johannes; Reddy, Pasham P; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-11-20

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that control its distinctive biochemical properties are still unknown. We demonstrate that different intracellular Ca2+ levels exert a differential modulation of A2AR-D2R heteromer-mediated adenylyl-cyclase and MAPK signaling in striatal cells. This depends on the ability of low and high Ca2+ levels to promote a selective interaction of the heteromer with the neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins NCS-1 and calneuron-1, respectively. These Ca2+-binding proteins differentially modulate allosteric interactions within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, which constitutes a unique cellular device that integrates extracellular (adenosine and dopamine) and intracellular (Ca+2) signals to produce a specific functional response.

  20. The cannabinoid agonist WIN55,212-2 increases intracellular calcium via CB1 receptor coupling to Gq/11 G proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lauckner, Jane E.; Hille, Bertil; Mackie, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system responses to cannabis are primarily mediated by CB1 receptors, which couple preferentially to Gi/o G proteins. Here, we used calcium photometry to monitor the effect of CB1 activation on intracellular calcium concentration. Perfusion with 5 μM CB1 aminoalkylindole agonist, WIN55,212-2 (WIN), increased intracellular calcium by several hundred nanomolar in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing CB1 and in cultured hippocampal neurons. The increase was blocked ...

  1. Nicotine-induced embryonic malformations mediated by apoptosis from increasing intracellular calcium and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Reece, E Albert

    2005-10-01

    Tobacco smoking by women during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital birth defects in the infants. Among the smoke products, nicotine is believed to be the major teratogenic factor that perturbs embryonic development. However, the role of nicotine in embryonic malformations has not been addressed, and the mechanisms by which nicotine affects embryonic development remain to be delineated. To investigate the effects of nicotine on early embryogenesis, murine embryos at embryonic day (E) 8.5 were dissected out of the uteri, cultured in a roller bottle system, and treated with nicotine (0.6-6 microM) or vehicle. Embryonic morphogenesis and growth were examined in terms of structural morphology and crown/rump length, respectively. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) was assessed using LysoTracker Red staining of whole mount embryos and TUNEL assay of tissue sections. Changes in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were assessed using fluorescent dyes (Flu-4, AM; H2DCFDA, respectively) under a confocal microscope. To further investigate the role of intracellular calcium and ROS in nicotine-induced embryopathy, embryos were treated with BAPTA-AM (2 microM) to inhibit [Ca2+]i elevation and ascorbic acid (vitamin C; 100 microg/ml) to scavenge ROS in presence of nicotine (6 microM). The embryos treated with nicotine in 3-6 microM were smaller than those treated with vehicle. Most of the embryos had open neural tube in the anterior (brain) regions. The embryos treated with 6 microM nicotine also exhibited severe defects in the posterior trunk, resembling caudal dysplasia. Excessive apoptosis was observed in the deformed structures. Significant increases in [Ca2+]i and ROS were seen in the tissues that had higher levels of apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of [Ca2+]i and scavenging of ROS significantly reduced embryonic malformation and apoptotic rates in the embryos. Nicotine affects embryonic development in a

  2. Fluorochloridone induces primary cultured Sertoli cells apoptosis: Involvement of ROS and intracellular calcium ions-mediated ERK1/2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luqing; Chang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, Chunhua; Li, Rui; Tang, Liming; Zhou, Zhijun

    2018-03-01

    Fluorochloridone (FLC) is a widely used pyrrolidone selective herbicide and reported to induce testis injuries in male rats, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. In the present study, primary-cultured Sertoli cells were exposed to FLC at the concentration of 0-10.00μM to study the mechanism of FLC-induced apoptosis. The roles of ROS, intracellular calcium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ERK1/2 were looked at with ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, ER calcium depleting agent thapsigargin (TG), and ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126, respectively. FLC induced dose-dependent apoptosis increase as well as the elevation in levels of ROS, intracellular calcium, and ERK1/2 activation. FLC treatment led to constantly increasing apoptotic rates and ERK1/2 activation over time, while inversed-V shaped change tendencies of ROS and intracellular calcium levels were observed. FLC-induced ROS generation disrupted the intracellular calcium homeostasis by attacking the ER, and the elevated intracellular calcium levels resulted in ERK1/2 over-phosphorylation and consequently promoted Sertoli cell apoptosis. Taken together, ROS and intracellular calcium-mediated ERK1/2 activation led to FLC-induced Sertoli cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of Src and release of intracellular calcium by phosphatidic acid during Xenopus laevis fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Ryan C.; Fees, Colby P.; Holland, William L.; Winger, Courtney C.; Batbayar, Khulan; Ancar, Rachel; Bergren, Todd; Petcoff, Douglas; Stith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    We report a new step in the fertilization in Xenopus laevis which has been found to involve activation of Src tyrosine kinase to stimulate phospholipase C-γ (PLC- γ) which increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to release intracellular calcium ([Ca]i). Molecular species analysis and mass measurements suggested that sperm activate phospholipase D (PLD) to elevate phosphatidic acid (PA). We now report that PA mass increased 2.7 fold by 1 minute after insemination and inhibition of PA production by two methods inhibited activation of Src and PLCγ, increased [Ca]i and other fertilization events. As compared to 14 other lipids, PA strongly bound Xenopus Src but not PLCγ. Addition of synthetic PA activated egg Src (an action requiring intact lipid rafts) and PLCγ as well as doubling the amount of PLCγ in rafts. In the absence of elevated [Ca]i, PA addition elevated IP3 mass to levels equivalent to that induced by sperm (but twice that achieved by calcium ionophore). Finally, PA induced [Ca]i release that was blocked by an IP3 receptor inhibitor. As only PLD1b message was detected, and Western blotting did not detect PLD2, we suggest that sperm activate PLD1b to elevate PA which then binds to and activates Src leading to PLCγ stimulation, IP3 elevation and [Ca]i release. Due to these and other studies, PA may also play a role in membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg fusion, cortical granule exocytosis, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the large, late increase in sn 1,2-diacylglycerol in fertilization. PMID:24269904

  4. Mitochondrial calcium signaling mediates rhythmic extracellular ATP accumulation in suprachiasmatic nucleus astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkeen, Jeff F; Womac, Alisa D; Earnest, David J; Zoran, Mark J

    2011-06-08

    The master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) controls neural and neuroendocrine rhythms in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are abundant in the SCN, and this cell type displays circadian rhythms in clock gene expression and extracellular accumulation of ATP. Still, the intracellular signaling pathways that link the SCN clockworks to circadian rhythms in extracellular ATP accumulation remain unclear. Because ATP release from astrocytes is a calcium-dependent process, we investigated the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) and ATP accumulation and have demonstrated that intracellular Ca(2+) levels fluctuate in an antiphase relationship with rhythmic ATP accumulation in rat SCN2.2 cell cultures. Furthermore, mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were rhythmic and maximal in precise antiphase with the peak in cytosolic Ca(2+). In contrast, our finding that peak mitochondrial Ca(2+) occurred during maximal extracellular ATP accumulation suggests a link between these cellular rhythms. Inhibition of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter disrupted the rhythmic production and extracellular accumulation of ATP. ATP, calcium, and the biological clock affect cell division and have been implicated in cell death processes. Nonetheless, rhythmic extracellular ATP accumulation was not disrupted by cell cycle arrest and was not correlated with caspase activity in SCN2.2 cell cultures. Together, these results demonstrate that mitochondrial Ca(2+) mediates SCN2.2 rhythms in extracellular ATP accumulation and suggest a role for circadian gliotransmission in SCN clock function.

  5. Biochemical and ultrastructural studies suggest that the effects of thapsigargin on human platelets are mediated by changes in intracellular calcium but not by intracellular histamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, S P; McNicol, A; Becker, A B

    1992-01-01

    was observed at 1 microM Tg. Preincubation of platelets with inhibitors of histamine metabolizing enzymes had little effect on intracellular histamine levels in platelets stimulated by 0.5 microM Tg. In addition, the inhibitors of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), alpha-methyl histidine (alpha-MH) and alpha......-fluoromethyl histidine (alpha-FMH) failed to inhibit Tg-induced aggregation. The intracellular histamine receptor antagonist, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl)phenoxy] ethanamine. HCl (DPPE), inhibited Tg-induced aggregation but with IC50 values dependent on the concentration of agonist used. The inhibitory effects...... of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation were not reversed by the addition of histamine to saponin-permeabilized platelets suggesting non-histamine mediated effects of DPPE on Tg-induced aggregation. Tg stimulated an increase in the cytosolic free calcium concentration which was unaffected by DPPE indicating...

  6. Effect of Tetrodotoxin from Crude Puffer Fish (Tetraodon fluviatilis Liver Extract on Intracellular Calcium Level and Apoptosis of HeLa Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Untario

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and fourth leading cause of women death with 8% of total death caused by cancer in women in 2008. Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a potent neurotoxin found in inner organs puffer fish, with the specific mechanism of sodium channel blocking, and widely used for research purposes. Previous reports claimed that TTX has the capability of inhibiting the metastatic process of cancer and apoptotic effect. Studies also show that apoptosis is a process involving the increase of intracellular calcium level, yet the connection between TTX and increase of intracellular calcium level, therefore triggering apoptosis, has not been established. This is an experimental study with post test only control group design, carried out by exposing HeLa cell culture to a crude liver extract of a puffer fish species, Tetraodon fluviatilis. Crude puffer fish liver extract is administered into HeLa cell culture well in different concentrations 10-4, 10-2, and 10-1. Intracellular calcium level and apoptosis were then measured after 18 hours of incubation. Measurements of intracellular calcium level were done by using CLSM with Fura-2AM staining, and apoptosis by using flowcytometry with Annexin V/PI.  The result shows that there is a significant difference between samples both in intracellular calcium (p < 0.05 and apoptosis (p < 0,05. Both intracellular calcium and apoptosis levels are proportional to liver fish extract concentration. Pearson’s correlation test shows correlation between treatment and intracellular calcium levels (p = 0.000, between treatment and apoptosis (p = 0.002, but not between intracellular calcium and apoptosis (p = 0.05. These results suggest that TTX induces an increase in intracellular calcium level and apoptosis, but calcium pathway is not the sole cause of the apoptosis.

  7. The influence of statins on the free intracellular calcium concentration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figulla Hans R

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that are widely used to reduce the risk of cardiac infarction. Their beneficial clinical effects, however, are not restricted to their influence on cholesterol production. As several studies have shown that they have a potency of relaxing blood vessels. Methods We measured the effects of statins on the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC after acute application and 24-h-preincubation of statins. Results Incubation of the cells for 24 h with cerivastatin or fluvastatin significantly increased the resting [Ca2+]i. For cerivastatin this effect manifested at a concentration of 1 μM. Increase of resting [Ca2+]i in the presence of cerivastatin also occurred when the nitric oxide synthase was inhibited. Transient Ca2+ release induced by histamine was not affected. Conclusions The increase of resting [Ca2+]i after incubation with cerivastatin or fluvastatin may provide an explanation for the direct effects of statins on the endothelial-dependent vasodilatation and restoration of endothelial activity in vivo.

  8. Genetic analysis of hyperemesis gravidarum reveals association with intracellular calcium release channel (RYR2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena Schoenberg; Myhre, Ronny; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; MacGibbon, Kimber W; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Reddy, M V Prasad Linga; Pajukanta, Päivi; Nyholt, Dale R; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Engel, Stephanie M; Medland, Sarah E; Magnus, Per; Mullin, Patrick M

    2017-01-05

    Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG), severe nausea/vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), can cause poor maternal/fetal outcomes. Genetic predisposition suggests the genetic component is essential in discovering an etiology. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 5 families followed by analysis of variants in 584 cases/431 controls. Variants in RYR2 segregated with disease in 2 families. The novel variant L3277R was not found in any case/control. The rare variant, G1886S was more common in cases (p = 0.046) and extreme cases (p = 0.023). Replication of G1886S using Norwegian/Australian data was supportive. Common variants rs790899 and rs1891246 were significantly associated with HG and weight loss. Copy-number analysis revealed a deletion in a patient. RYR2 encodes an intracellular calcium release channel involved in vomiting, cyclic-vomiting syndrome, and is a thyroid hormone target gene. Additionally, RYR2 is a downstream drug target of Inderal, used to treat HG and CVS. Thus, herein we provide genetic evidence for a pathway and therapy for HG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cross-talk between signaling pathways can generate robust oscillations in calcium and cAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siso-Nadal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To control and manipulate cellular signaling, we need to understand cellular strategies for information transfer, integration, and decision-making. A key feature of signal transduction is the generation of only a few intracellular messengers by many extracellular stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we model molecular cross-talk between two classic second messengers, cyclic AMP (cAMP and calcium, and show that the dynamical complexity of the response of both messengers increases substantially through their interaction. In our model of a non-excitable cell, both cAMP and calcium concentrations can oscillate. If mutually inhibitory, cross-talk between the two second messengers can increase the range of agonist concentrations for which oscillations occur. If mutually activating, cross-talk decreases the oscillation range, but can generate 'bursting' oscillations of calcium and may enable better filtering of noise. CONCLUSION: We postulate that this increased dynamical complexity allows the cell to encode more information, particularly if both second messengers encode signals. In their native environments, it is unlikely that cells are exposed to one stimulus at a time, and cross-talk may help generate sufficiently complex responses to allow the cell to discriminate between different combinations and concentrations of extracellular agonists.

  10. Single organelle fret-based analysis of intracellular calcium: different effects of presinilis carrying Familial Alzheimer's Disease mutations

    OpenAIRE

    wong, andrea kuan cie

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is one of the major intracellular messengers that impacts nearly every aspect of cell life. In particular, it plays essential roles in neuronal development, synaptic transmission and plasticity, as well as in the regulation of metabolic pathways and cell fate decisions. The first goal of my work was to study more in details the Golgi apparatus (GA), as an intracellular Ca2+ store. The Golgi complex may store up to 5% of the total cellular Ca2+ at higher concentrations an...

  11. Regulation of calcium signals in the nucleus by a nucleoplasmic reticulum

    OpenAIRE

    Echevarría, Wihelma; Leite, M. Fatima; Guerra, Mateus T.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Nathanson, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is a second messenger in virtually all cells and tissues1. Calcium signals in the nucleus have effects on gene transcription and cell growth that are distinct from those of cytosolic calcium signals; however, it is unknown how nuclear calcium signals are regulated. Here we identify a reticular network of nuclear calcium stores that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. This network expresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and the nucle...

  12. ERK1/2 mediates sperm acrosome reaction through elevation of intracellular calcium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaldety, Yael; Breitbart, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Mammalian sperm acquire fertilization capacity after residing in the female reproductive tract for a few hours in a process called capacitation. Only capacitated sperm can bind the zona pellucida (ZP) of the egg and undergo the acrosome reaction, a process that allows penetration and fertilization. Extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mediates signalling in many cell types, however its role in sperm function is largely unknown. Here we show that ERK1/2 is highly phosphorylated/activated after a short incubation of mouse sperm under capacitation conditions and that this phosphorylation is reduced after longer incubation. Further phosphorylation was observed upon addition of crude extract of egg ZP or epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mitogen-activated ERK-kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 abolished ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in vitro fertilization rate and the acrosome reaction induced by ZP or EGF but not by the Ca2+-ionophore A23187. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 along the capacitation process diminished almost completely the sperm's ability to go through the acrosome reaction, while inhibition at the end of capacitation attenuated the acrosome reaction rate by only 45%. The fact that the acrosome reaction, induced by the Ca2+ -ionophore A23187, was not inhibited by U0126 suggests that ERK1/2 mediates the acrosome reaction by activating Ca2+ transport into the cell. Direct determination of intracellular [Ca2+] revealed that Ca2+ influx induced by EGF or ZP was completely blocked by U0126. Thus, it has been established that the increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in response to ZP or by activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) by EGF, is a key event for intracellular Ca2+ elevation and the subsequent occurrence of the acrosome reaction.

  13. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...

  14. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance molecules of embryonic stem cells through elevation of intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifpanah, Fatemeh; Behr, Sascha; Wartenberg, Maria; Sauer, Heinrich

    2016-12-01

    Differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells may be regulated by mechanical strain. Herein, signaling molecules underlying mechanical stimulation of vasculogenesis and expression of angiogenesis guidance cues were investigated in ES cell-derived embryoid bodies. Treatment of embryoid bodies with 10% static mechanical strain using a Flexercell strain system significantly increased CD31-positive vascular structures and the angiogenesis guidance molecules plexinB1, ephrin B2, neuropilin1 (NRP1), semaphorin 4D (sem4D) and robo4 as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) as evaluated by Western blot and real time RT-PCR. In contrast ephrin type 4 receptor B (EphB4) expression was down-regulated upon mechanical strain, indicating an arterial-type differentiation. Robo1 protein expression was modestly increased with no change in mRNA expression. Mechanical strain increased intracellular calcium as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Mechanical strain-induced vasculogenesis was abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor VAS2870, upon chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA as well as upon siRNA inactivation of ephrin B2, NRP1 and robo4. BAPTA blunted the strain-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors, the increase in NO and ROS as well as the expression of NRP1, sem4D and plexinB1, whereas ephrin B2, EphB4 as well as robo1 and robo4 expression were not impaired. Mechanical strain stimulates vasculogenesis of ES cells by the intracellular messengers ROS, NO and calcium as well as by upregulation of angiogenesis guidance molecules and the angiogenic growth factors VEGF, FGF-2 and PDGF-BB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell growth, intracellular calcium concentration and metabolic cooperation measured in cells exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skauli, K.S.

    1996-08-01

    Colony-forming efficiency, DNA/protein and DNA/cell were measured in cells exposed to magnetic fields of 0.2 and 1 mT at a frequency of 50 Hz. Intracellular calcium concentrations were measured in cells exposed to 0.3 and 1 mT at 50 Hz. Metabolic cooperation was measured in cells exposed to 1 mT at 50 Hz. No significant effects of the fields were observed. 20 refs., 10 figs

  16. Impact of human D398N single nucleotide polymorphism on intracellular calcium response mediated by α3β4α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammimäki, Anne; Herder, Penelope; Li, Ping; Esch, Caroline; Laughlin, James R.; Akk, Gustav; Stitzel, Jerry A.

    2013-01-01

    The human CHRNA5 D398N polymorphism (rs16969968) causes an aspartic acid to asparagine change in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α5 subunit gene. The N398 variant of CHRNA5 is linked to increased risk for nicotine dependence. In this study, we explored the effect of the CHRNA5 D398N polymorphism on the properties of human α3β4* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Addition of either D398 or N398 variant of α5 subunit in the α3β4* receptor did not affect total [125I]-epibatidine binding or surface expression of the receptor. However, addition of α5D398 into α3β4* receptor decreased the maximal response to agonist without significantly affecting EC50 in aequorin intracellular calcium assay. α3β4α5N398 nAChRs showed further decreased maximal response. The differences in agonist efficacy between the receptor subtypes were found to be dependent upon the concentration of external calcium but independent of external sodium. Moreover, activation of α3β4α5 nAChRs led to significantly greater intracellular calcium release from IP3 stores relative to α3β4 nAChRs although no effect of the α5 polymorphism was observed. Finally, inclusion of the α5 variant caused a small shift to the left in IC50 for some of the antagonists tested, depending upon α5 variant but did not affect sensitivity of α3β4* receptors to desensitization in response to incubation with nicotine. In conclusion, addition of either variant of a5 into an α3β4α5 receptor similarly effects receptor pharmacology and function. However, the N398 variant exhibits a reduced response to agonists when extracellular calcium is high and it may lead to distinct downstream cellular signaling. PMID:22820273

  17. Hearts of surviving MLP-KO mice show transient changes of intracellular calcium handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemecsei, Péter; Miklós, Zsuzsanna; Bíró, Tamás; Marincsák, Rita; Tóth, Balázs I; Komlódi-Pásztor, Edina; Barnucz, Eniko; Mirk, Eva; Van der Vusse, Ger J; Ligeti, László; Ivanics, Tamás

    2010-09-01

    The muscle Lim protein knock-out (MLP-KO) mouse model is extensively used for studying the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, explanation is lacking for the observed long survival of the diseased mice which develop until adulthood despite the gene defect, which theoretically predestines them to early death due to heart failure. We hypothesized that adaptive changes of cardiac intracellular calcium (Ca(i)(2+)) handling might explain the phenomenon. In order to study the progression of changes in cardiac function and Ca(i)(2+) cycling, myocardial Ca(i)(2+)-transients recorded by Indo-1 surface fluorometry were assessed with concomitant measurement of hemodynamic performance in isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts of 3- and 9-month old MLP-KO animals. Hearts were challenged with beta-agonist isoproterenol and the sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). Cardiac mRNA content and levels of key Ca(2+) handling proteins were also measured. A decline in lusitropic function was observed in 3-month old, but not in 9-month old MLP-KO mice under unchallenged conditions. beta-adrenergic responses to isoproterenol were similar in all the studied groups. The CPA induced an increase in end-diastolic Ca(i)(2+)-level and a decrease in Ca(2+)-sequestration capacity in 3-month old MLP-KO mice compared to age-matched controls. This unfavorable condition was absent at 9 months of age. SERCA2a expression was lower in 3-month old MLP-KO than in the corresponding controls and in 9-month old MLP-KO hearts. Our results show time-related recovery of hemodynamic function and an age-dependent compensatory upregulation of Ca(i)(2+) handling in hearts of MLP-KO mice, which most likely involve the normalization of the expression of SERCA2a in the affected hearts.

  18. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    lymphocytes. Our experiments on preB lymphocytes supported by stromal cells suggest that apoptosis is one of the mechanisms for PAH immunosuppression. It could be either due to direct effect of the PAH on the B cells, via stromal cell signaling. Ubiquitous PAH-like toxin, fluoranthene, was tested for it......’s ability to initiate apoptosis in T cell hybridomas. Our data demonstrate that PAH may induce apoptosis and innnunotoxicity in T cell branch of immune system. The mechanism of this process seems to be the AhR independent, and mediated by Ca...

  19. Hierarchic stochastic modelling applied to intracellular Ca(2+ signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Moenke

    Full Text Available Important biological processes like cell signalling and gene expression have noisy components and are very complex at the same time. Mathematical analysis of such systems has often been limited to the study of isolated subsystems, or approximations are used that are difficult to justify. Here we extend a recently published method (Thurley and Falcke, PNAS 2011 which is formulated in observable system configurations instead of molecular transitions. This reduces the number of system states by several orders of magnitude and avoids fitting of kinetic parameters. The method is applied to Ca(2+ signalling. Ca(2+ is a ubiquitous second messenger transmitting information by stochastic sequences of concentration spikes, which arise by coupling of subcellular Ca(2+ release events (puffs. We derive analytical expressions for a mechanistic Ca(2+ model, based on recent data from live cell imaging, and calculate Ca(2+ spike statistics in dependence on cellular parameters like stimulus strength or number of Ca(2+ channels. The new approach substantiates a generic Ca(2+ model, which is a very convenient way to simulate Ca(2+ spike sequences with correct spiking statistics.

  20. Intravital imaging reveals p53-dependent cancer cell death induced by phototherapy via calcium signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiroli, Sonia; Poletti, Federica; Ramirez, Fabian Galindo; Morciano, Giampaolo; Morganti, Claudia; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Mammano, Fabio; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in biology is signal transduction monitoring in a physiological context. Intravital imaging techniques are revolutionizing our understanding of tumor and host cell behaviors in the tumor environment. However, these deep tissue imaging techniques have not yet been adopted to investigate the second messenger calcium (Ca2+). In the present study, we established conditions that allow the in vivo detection of Ca2+ signaling in three-dimensional tumor masses in mouse models. By combining intravital imaging and a skinfold chamber technique, we determined the ability of photodynamic cancer therapy to induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and, consequently, an increase in cell death in a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:25544762

  1. A secreted chitinase-like protein (OsCLP) supports root growth through calcium signaling in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingni; Wang, Yiming; Kim, Sang Gon; Jung, Ki-Hong; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Joonyup; Park, Younghoon; Kang, Kyu Young; Kim, Sun Tae

    2017-10-01

    Chitinases belong to a conserved protein family and play multiple roles in defense, development and growth regulation in plants. Here, we identified a secreted chitinase-like protein, OsCLP, which functions in rice growth. A T-DNA insertion mutant of OsCLP (osclp) showed significant retardation of root and shoot growth. A comparative proteomic analysis was carried out using root tissue of wild-type and the osclp mutant to understand the OsCLP-mediated rice growth retardation. Results obtained revealed that proteins related to glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), stress adaption (chaperonin) and calcium signaling (calreticulin and CDPK1) were differentially regulated in osclp roots. Fura-2 molecular probe staining, which is an intracellular calcium indicator, and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis suggested that the intracellular calcium content was significantly lower in roots of osclp as compared with the wild-type. Exogenous application of Ca 2+ resulted in successful recovery of both primary and lateral root growth in osclp. Moreover, overexpression of OsCLP resulted in improved growth with modified seed shape and starch structure; however, the overall yield remained unaffected. Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of OsCLP in rice growth by regulating the intracellular calcium concentrations. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Lpx1p links glucose-induced calcium signaling and plasma membrane H+-ATPase activation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Diogo Dias; Santana, Eduardo Perovano; Godoy-Santos, Fernanda; Diniz, Raphael Hermano Santos; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Pereira, Renata Rebeca; Trópia, Maria José Magalhães; Castro, Ieso Miranda; Brandão, Rogelio Lopes

    2018-02-01

    In yeast, as in other eukaryotes, calcium plays an essential role in signaling transduction to regulate different processes. Many pieces of evidence suggest that glucose-induced activation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase, essential for yeast physiology, is related to calcium signaling. Until now, no protein that could be regulated by calcium in this context has been identified. Lpx1p, a serine-protease that is also involved in the glucose-induced activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, could be a candidate to respond to intracellular calcium signaling involved in this process. In this work, by using different approaches, we obtained many pieces of evidence suggesting that the requirement of calcium signaling for activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase is due to its requirement for activation of Lpx1p. According to the current model, activation of Lpx1p would cause hydrolysis of an acetylated tubulin that maintains the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in an inactive state. Therefore, after its activation, Lpx1p would hydrolyze the acetylated tubulin making the plasma membrane H+-ATPase accessible for phosphorylation by at least one protein kinase. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Regulation of NKG2D-ligand cell surface expression by intracellular calcium after HDAC-inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2013-01-01

    cell surface expression on melanoma cells and Jurkat T-cells. A NKG2D-dependent cytolytic assay and staining with a recombinant NKG2D-Fc fusion protein showed that calcium chelation impaired the functional ability of NKG2D-ligands induced by HDAC-inhibitor treatment. The HDAC-inhibitor induced cell...... surface expression of ULBP2, but not MICA/B, was sensitive to treatment calmidazolium and trifluoperazine, two agents known to block calcium signaling. siRNA-mediated knock-down of the calcium-regulated proteins calmodulin or calpain did however not affect NKG2D-ligand cell surface expression on Jurkat T...

  4. Lung cancer, intracellular signaling pathways, and preclinical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordant, P.

    2012-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) can induce cellular immortalization, proliferation, and resistance to anticancer therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or chemotherapy. This study assessed the consequences of inhibiting these two pathways in tumor cells with activation of KRAS, PI3K-AKT, or both. We investigated whether the combination of a novel RAF/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, RAF265, with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), could lead to enhanced anti-tumoral effects in vitro and in vivo. To address this question, we used cell lines with different status regarding KRAS, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations, using immunoblotting to evaluate the inhibitors, and MTT and clonogenic assays for effects on cell viability and proliferation. Subcutaneous xenografts were used to assess the activity of the combination in vivo. RAD001 inhibited mTOR downstream signaling in all cell lines, whereas RAF265 inhibited RAF downstream signaling only in BRAF mutant cells. In vitro, addition of RAF265 to RAD001 led to decreased AKT, S6, and Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 phosphorylation in HCT116 cells. In vitro and in vivo, RAD001 addition enhanced the anti-tumoral effect of RAF265 in HCT116 and H460 cells (both KRAS mut, PIK3CA mut); in contrast, the combination of RAF265 and RAD001 yielded no additional activity in A549 and MDAMB231 cells. The combination of RAF and mTOR inhibitors is effective for enhancing anti-tumoral effects in cells with deregulation of both RAS-RAF and PI3K, possibly through the cross-inhibition of 4E binding protein 1 and S6 protein. We then focus on animal models. Preclinical models of NSCLC require better clinical relevance to study disease mechanisms and innovative

  5. Activity-dependent calcium signaling and ERK-MAP kinases in neurons: a link to structural plasticity of the nucleus and gene transcription regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegert, J Simon; Bading, Hilmar

    2011-05-01

    Activity-dependent gene expression is important for the formation and maturation of neuronal networks, neuronal survival and for plastic modifications within mature networks. At the level of individual neurons, expression of new protein is required for dendritic branching, synapse formation and elimination. Experience-driven synaptic activity induces membrane depolarization, which in turn evokes intracellular calcium transients that are decoded according to their source and strength by intracellular calcium sensing proteins. In order to activate the gene transcription machinery of the cell, calcium signals have to be conveyed from the site of their generation in the cytoplasm to the cell nucleus. This can occur via a variety of mechanisms and with different kinetics depending on the source and amplitude of calcium influx. One mechanism involves the propagation of calcium itself, leading to nuclear calcium transients that subsequently activate transcription. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade represents a second central signaling module that transduces information from the site of calcium signal generation at the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Nuclear signaling of the MAPK cascades catalyzes the phosphorylation of transcription factors but also regulates gene transcription more globally at the level of chromatin remodeling as well as through its recently identified role in the modulation of nuclear shape. Here we discuss the possible mechanisms by which the MAPKs ERK1 and ERK2, activated by synaptically evoked calcium influx, can signal to the nucleus and regulate gene transcription. Moreover, we describe how MAPK-dependent structural plasticity of the nuclear envelope enhances nuclear calcium signaling and suggest possible implications for the regulation of gene transcription in the context of nuclear geometry. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracellular calcium modulates basolateral K(+)-permeability in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1994-01-01

    Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) has been suggested as a key modulator in the regulation of active sodium transport across electrically "tight" (high resistance) epithelia. In this study we investigated the effects of calcium on cellular electrophysiological parameters in a classical model tissue, the......, the frog skin. [Ca2+]i was measured with fura-2 in an epifluorescence microscope setup. An inhibition of basolateral potassium permeability was observed when cytosolic calcium was increased. This inhibition was reversible upon removal of calcium from the serosal solution....

  7. Intracellular Calcium Plays a Critical Role in the Microcystin-LR-Elicited Neurotoxicity Through PLC/IP3 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Liu, Jue; Li, Cairong; Wang, Jianghua

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxicity of microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) has been widely reported. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. Using primary hippocampal neurons, we tested the hypothesis that MCLR-triggered activation in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) induces the death of neurons. Microcystin-leucine-arginine inhibited cell viability at a range of 0.1 to 30 μmol/L and caused a dose-dependent increase in [Ca(2+)](i). This increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was observed in Ca(2+)-free media and blocked by an endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump inhibitor, suggesting intracellular Ca(2+) release. Moreover, pretreatment of hippocampal neurons with intracellular Ca(2+) chelator (O,O'-bis (2-aminophenyl) ethyleneglycol-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, tetraacetoxy-methyl ester) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) could block both the Ca(2+) mobilization and the neuronal death following MCLR exposure. In contrast, the ryanodine receptor inhibitor (dantrolene) did not ameliorate the effect of MCLR. In conclusion, MCLR disrupts [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis in neurons by releasing Ca(2+) from intracellular stores, and this increase in [Ca(2+)](i) may be a key determinant in the mechanism underlying MCLR-induced neurotoxicity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A new type of intracellular retention signal identified in a pestivirus structural glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Sandra; Aberle, Daniel; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S; Meyers, Gregor

    2012-08-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins into intracellular organelles is crucial for cell function. Viruses exploit intracellular transport and retention systems to concentrate envelope proteins at the site of virus budding. In pestiviruses, a group of important pathogens of pigs and ruminants closely related to human hepatitis C virus, the E(rns) protein translated from the viral RNA is secreted from the infected cells and found in the serum of infected animals. Secretion of the protein is regarded as crucial for its function as a viral virulence factor associated with its RNase activity. However, ∼95% of the E(rns) molecules are retained within the infected cell. Fusion of different E(rns) fragments to the C terminus of CD72 allowed identification of a retention signal within the C-terminal 65 aa of the viral protein. This C-terminal sequence represents its membrane anchor and folds into an amphipathic helix binding in-plane to the membrane surface. Residues L183, I190, and L208 are important for intracellular location of E(rns). Presentation of the retention signal on the cytoplasmic instead of the luminal face of the ER membrane in CD8α fusion proteins still led to retention. Thus, E(rns) contains in its C-terminal amphipathic helix an intracellular retention signal that is active on both faces of the membrane.

  9. Up-regulation of Intracellular Calcium Handling Underlies the Recovery of Endotoxemic Cardiomyopathy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Justin C; Huang, Joanne; Khona, Natasha; Miller, Edward J; Siwik, Deborah A; Colucci, Wilson S; Hobai, Ion A

    2017-06-01

    In surviving patients, sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy is spontaneously reversible. In the absence of any experimental data, it is generally thought that cardiac recovery in sepsis simply follows the remission of systemic inflammation. Here the authors aimed to identify the myocardial mechanisms underlying cardiac recovery in endotoxemic mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (7 μg/g, intraperitoneally) and followed for 12 days. The authors assessed survival, cardiac function by echocardiography, sarcomere shortening, and calcium transients (with fura-2-acetoxymethyl ester) in electrically paced cardiomyocytes (5 Hz, 37°C) and myocardial protein expression by immunoblotting. Left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiomyocyte sarcomere shortening, and calcium transients were depressed 12 h after lipopolysaccharide challenge, started to recover by 24 h (day 1), and were back to baseline at day 3. The recovery of calcium transients at day 3 was associated with the up-regulation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump to 139 ± 19% (mean ± SD) of baseline and phospholamban down-regulation to 35 ± 20% of baseline. At day 6, calcium transients were increased to 123 ± 31% of baseline, associated with increased sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium load (to 126 ± 32% of baseline, as measured with caffeine) and inhibition of sodium/calcium exchange (to 48 ± 12% of baseline). In mice surviving lipopolysaccharide challenge, the natural recovery of cardiac contractility was associated with the up-regulation of cardiomyocyte calcium handling above baseline levels, indicating the presence of an active myocardial recovery process, which included sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump activation, the down-regulation of phospholamban, and sodium/calcium exchange inhibition.

  10. Intracellular calcium measurements as a method in studies on activity of purinergic P2X receptor channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, M. L.; Zemková, Hana; Koshimizu, T.; Tomič, M.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 2 (2003), s. C467-C479 ISSN 0363-6143 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : P2X purinergic receptor * calcium signaling * membrane current Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.103, year: 2003

  11. Structural Reconstruction of Protein-Protein Complexes Involved in Intracellular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Klára; Sok, Péter; Reményi, Attila

    2016-01-01

    Signaling complexes within the cell convert extracellular cues into physiological outcomes. Their assembly involves signaling enzymes, allosteric regulators and scaffold proteins that often contain long stretches of disordered protein regions, display multi-domain architectures, and binding affinity between individual components is low. These features are indispensable for their central roles as dynamic information processing hubs, on the other hand they also make reconstruction of structurally homogeneous complex samples highly challenging. In this present chapter we discuss protein machinery which influences extracellular signal reception, intracellular pathway activity, and cytoskeletal or transcriptional activity.

  12. Local perinuclear calcium signals associated with mitosis-entry in early sea urchin embryos

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Using calcium-sensitive dyes together with their dextran conjugates and confocal microscopy, we have looked for evidence of localized calcium signaling in the region of the nucleus before entry into mitosis, using the sea urchin egg first mitotic cell cycle as a model. Global calcium transients that appear to originate from the nuclear area are often observed just before nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). In the absence of global increases in calcium, confocal microscopy using Calcium Green- 1...

  13. Activation of PKA and Epac proteins by cyclic AMP depletes intracellular calcium stores and reduces calcium availability for vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuíñas, Andrea; García-Morales, Verónica; Viña, Dolores; Gil-Longo, José; Campos-Toimil, Manuel

    2016-06-15

    We investigated the implication of PKA and Epac proteins in the endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) was measured by fura-2 imaging in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). Contraction-relaxation experiments were performed in rat aortic rings deprived of endothelium. In extracellular Ca(2+)-free solution, cAMP-elevating agents induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]c in RASMC that was reproduced by PKA and Epac activation and reduced after depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) reservoirs. Arginine-vasopressin (AVP)-evoked increase of [Ca(2+)]c and store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) were inhibited by cAMP-elevating agents, PKA or Epac activation in these cells. In aortic rings, the contractions induced by phenylephrine in absence of extracellular Ca(2+) were inhibited by cAMP-elevating agents, PKA or Epac activation. In these conditions, reintroduction of Ca(2+) induced a contraction that was inhibited by cAMP-elevating agents, an effect reduced by PKA inhibition and reproduced by PKA or Epac activators. Our results suggest that increased cAMP depletes intracellular, thapsigargin-sensitive Ca(2+) stores through activation of PKA and Epac in RASMC, thus reducing the amount of Ca(2+) released by IP3-generating agonists during the contraction of rat aorta. cAMP rise also inhibits the contraction induced by depletion of intracellular Ca(2+), an effect mediated by reduction of SOCE after PKA or Epac activation. Both effects participate in the cAMP-induced endothelium-independent vasorelaxation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bruton's tyrosine kinase is essential for hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, S; Chock, P B

    2001-07-10

    Using Btk-deficient DT40 cells and the transfectants expressing wild-type Btk or Btk mutants in either kinase (Arg(525) to Gln), Src homology 2 (SH2, Arg(307) to Ala), or pleckstrin homology (PH, Arg(28) to Cys) domains, we investigated the roles and structure-function relationships of Btk in hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium mobilization. Our genetic evidence showed that Btk deficiency resulted in a significant reduction in hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium response. This impaired calcium signaling is correlated with the complete elimination of IP3 production and the significantly reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 in Btk-deficient DT40 cells. All of these defects were fully restored by the expression of wild-type Btk in Btk-deficient DT40 cells. The data from the point mutation study revealed that a defect at any one of the three functional domains would prevent a full recovery of Btk-mediated hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular calcium mobilization. However, mutation at either the SH2 or PH domain did not affect the hydrogen peroxide-induced activation of Btk. Mutation at the SH2 domain abrogates both IP3 generation and calcium release, while the mutant with the nonfunctional PH domain can partially activate PLCgamma2 and catalyze IP3 production but fails to produce significant calcium mobilization. Thus, these observations suggest that Btk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of PLCgamma2 is required but not sufficient for hydrogen peroxide-induced calcium mobilization. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide stimulates a Syk-, but not Btk-, dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of B cell linker protein BLNK. The overall results, together with those reported earlier [Qin et al. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97, 7118], are consistent with the notion that functional SH2 and PH domains are required for Btk to form a complex with PLCgamma2 through BLNK in order to position the Btk, PLCgamma2, and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in close proximity for

  15. Calcium signaling and amyloid toxicity in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuro, Angelo; Parker, Ian; Stutzmann, Grace E

    2010-04-23

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is fundamental to neuronal physiology and viability. Because of its ubiquitous roles, disruptions in Ca(2+) homeostasis are implicated in diverse disease processes and have become a major focus of study in multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). A hallmark of AD is the excessive production of beta-amyloid (Abeta) and its massive accumulation in amyloid plaques. In this minireview, we highlight the pathogenic interactions between altered cellular Ca(2+) signaling and Abeta in its different aggregation states and how these elements coalesce to alter the course of the neurodegenerative disease. Ca(2+) and Abeta intersect at several functional levels and temporal stages of AD, thereby altering neurotransmitter receptor properties, disrupting membrane integrity, and initiating apoptotic signaling cascades. Notably, there are reciprocal interactions between Ca(2+) pathways and amyloid pathology; altered Ca(2+) signaling accelerates Abeta formation, whereas Abeta peptides, particularly in soluble oligomeric forms, induce Ca(2+) disruptions. A degenerative feed-forward cycle of toxic Abeta generation and Ca(2+) perturbations results, which in turn can spin off to accelerate more global neuropathological cascades, ultimately leading to synaptic breakdown, cell death, and devastating memory loss. Although no cause or cure is currently known, targeting Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis as an underlying and integral component of AD pathology may result in novel and effective treatments for AD.

  16. Characteristics of calcium signaling in astrocytes induced by photostimulation with femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Wei; Liu, Xiuli; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

    2010-05-01

    Astrocytes have been identified to actively contribute to brain functions through Ca2+ signaling, serving as a bridge to communicate with neurons and other brain cells. However, conventional stimulation techniques are hard to apply to delicate investigations on astrocytes. Our group previously reported photostimulation with a femtosecond laser to evoke astrocytic calcium (Ca2+) waves, providing a noninvasive and efficient approach with highly precise targeting. In this work, detailed characteristics of astrocytic Ca2+ signaling induced by photostimulation are presented. In a purified astrocytic culture, after the illumination of a femtosecond laser onto one cell, a Ca2+ wave throughout the network with reduced speed is induced, and intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are observed. The intercellular propagation is pharmacologically confirmed to be mainly mediated by ATP through P2Y receptors. Different patterns of Ca2+ elevations with increased amplitude in the stimulated astrocyte are discovered by varying the femtosecond laser power, which is correspondingly followed by broader intercellular waves. These indicate that the strength of photogenerated Ca2+ signaling in astrocytes has a positive relationship with the stimulating laser power. Therefore, distinct Ca2+ signaling is feasibly available for specific studies on astrocytes by employing precisely controlled photostimulation.

  17. Cadmium-induced apoptosis in primary rat cerebral cortical neurons culture is mediated by a calcium signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yuan

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is an extremely toxic metal, capable of severely damaging several organs, including the brain. Studies have shown that Cd disrupts intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+]i homeostasis, leading to apoptosis in a variety of cells including primary murine neurons. Calcium is a ubiquitous intracellular ion which acts as a signaling mediator in numerous cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival/death. However, little is known about the role of calcium signaling in Cd-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. Thus we investigated the role of calcium signaling in Cd-induced apoptosis in primary rat cerebral cortical neurons. Consistent with known toxic properties of Cd, exposure of cerebral cortical neurons to Cd caused morphological changes indicative of apoptosis and cell death. It also induced elevation of [Ca(2+]i and inhibition of Na(+/K(+-ATPase and Ca(2+/Mg(2+-ATPase activities. This Cd-induced elevation of [Ca(2+]i was suppressed by an IP3R inhibitor, 2-APB, suggesting that ER-regulated Ca(2+ is involved. In addition, we observed elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, dysfunction of cytochrome oxidase subunits (COX-I/II/III, depletion of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP during Cd exposure. Z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor, partially prevented Cd-induced apoptosis and cell death. Interestingly, apoptosis, cell death and these cellular events induced by Cd were blocked by BAPTA-AM, a specific intracellular Ca(2+ chelator. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed an up-regulated expression of Bcl-2 and down-regulated expression of Bax. However, these were not blocked by BAPTA-AM. Thus Cd toxicity is in part due to its disruption of intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis, by compromising ATPases activities and ER-regulated Ca(2+, and this elevation in Ca(2+ triggers the activation of the Ca(2+-mitochondria apoptotic

  18. Real-time monitoring of intracellular signal transduction in PC12 cells by non-adiabatic tapered optical fiber biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Asadollahi, A.; Noraeipoor, Z.; Dargahi, L.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time observation of intracellular process of signal transduction is very useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications as well as for basic research work of cell biology. For feasible and reagentless observation of intracellular alterations in real time, we examined the use of a nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber (NATOF) biosensor for monitoring of intracellular signal transduction that was mainly translocation of protein kinase C via refractive index change in PC12 cells adhered on tapered fiber sensor without any indicator reagent. PC12 cells were stimulated with KCl . Our results suggest that complex intracellular reactions could be real-time monitored and characterized by NATOF biosensor.

  19. Neural cell adhesion molecule induces intracellular signaling via multiple mechanisms of Ca2+ homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiryushko, Darya; Korshunova, Irina; Berezin, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in the development of the nervous system, promoting neuronal differentiation via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) as well as heterophilic (NCAM-fibroblast growth factor receptor [FGFR]) interactions. NCAM-induced intracellular signaling has been...... with the Src-family kinases, were also involved in neuritogenesis induced by physiological, homophilic NCAM interactions. Thus, unanticipated mechanisms of Ca2+ homeostasis are shown to be activated by NCAM and to contribute to neuronal differentiation....

  20. Acanthamoeba castellanii metabolites increase the intracellular calcium level and cause cytotoxicity in wish cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, A; Bennardini, F; Usai, S; Fiori, P L; Franconi, F; Cappuccinelli, P

    1997-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that trophozoites of the pathogenic free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii rapidly lyse a variety of cells in vitro. However, the role played by cytolitic molecules that may participate in Acanthamoebal cytopathogenicity has yet to be completely elucidated. The aim of this work was to study whether soluble molecules released by A. castellanii trophozoites could induce cytopathic effect in human epithelial cells in vitro. The results obtained indicate that A. castellanii trophozoites constitutively elaborate and release soluble factors that immediately elicit a cytosolic free-calcium increase in target cells. This phenomenon is induced by low molecular weight amoebic metabolites and depends on a transmembrane influx of extracellular calcium. Morphological changes, cytoskeletal damage, cell death and cytolysis followed the elevation of cytosolic free-calcium levels. Calcium ions are very important for cell homeostasis, in fact, they control the functions of a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Our results suggest that the substained elevation of the cytosolic free-calcium in response to A. castellanii metabolites might play a fundamental role in target cell damage during Acanthamoeba infections.

  1. An atmospheric-pressure cold plasma leads to apoptosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by accumulating intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Liang, Y. D.; Zhang, Q.; Tian, Y.; Su, B.; Zhang, J.; Fang, J.

    2013-07-01

    A non-thermal plasma is known to induce apoptosis of various cells but the mechanism is not yet clear. A eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiaewas used to investigate the cellular and biochemical regulations of cell apoptosis and cell cycle after an atmospheric-pressure cold plasma treatment. More importantly, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) was first involved in monitoring the process of plasma-induced apoptosis in this study. We analysed the cell apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometry and observed the changes in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca2+ concentration, cell mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) as well as nuclear DNA morphology via fluorescence staining assay. All experimental results indicated that plasma-generated ROS leads to the accumulation of intracellular ROS and Ca2+ that ultimately contribute to apoptosis associated with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through depolarization of Δψm and fragmenting nuclear DNA. This work provides a novel insight into the physical and biological mechanism of apoptosis induced by a plasma which could benefit for promoting the development of plasmas applied to cancer therapy.

  2. Regulation of calcium signals in the nucleus by a nucleoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarría, Wihelma; Leite, M Fatima; Guerra, Mateus T; Zipfel, Warren R; Nathanson, Michael H

    2003-05-01

    Calcium is a second messenger in virtually all cells and tissues. Calcium signals in the nucleus have effects on gene transcription and cell growth that are distinct from those of cytosolic calcium signals; however, it is unknown how nuclear calcium signals are regulated. Here we identify a reticular network of nuclear calcium stores that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. This network expresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and the nuclear component of InsP3-mediated calcium signals begins in its locality. Stimulation of these receptors with a little InsP3 results in small calcium signals that are initiated in this region of the nucleus. Localized release of calcium in the nucleus causes nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) to translocate to the region of the nuclear envelope, whereas release of calcium in the cytosol induces translocation of cytosolic PKC to the plasma membrane. Our findings show that the nucleus contains a nucleoplasmic reticulum with the capacity to regulate calcium signals in localized subnuclear regions. The presence of such machinery provides a potential mechanism by which calcium can simultaneously regulate many independent processes in the nucleus.

  3. Aroclor 1254, a developmental neurotoxicant, alters energy metabolism- and intracellular signaling-associated protein networks in rat cerebellum and hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Osorio, Cristina [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Royland, Joyce E.; Ramabhadran, Ram [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Department of Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Program on Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The vast literature on the mode of action of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicates that PCBs are a unique model for understanding the mechanisms of toxicity of environmental mixtures of persistent chemicals. PCBs have been shown to adversely affect psychomotor function and learning and memory in humans. Although the molecular mechanisms for PCB effects are unclear, several studies indicate that the disruption of Ca{sup 2+}-mediated signal transduction plays significant roles in PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Culminating events in signal transduction pathways include the regulation of gene and protein expression, which affects the growth and function of the nervous system. Our previous studies showed changes in gene expression related to signal transduction and neuronal growth. In this study, protein expression following developmental exposure to PCB is examined. Pregnant rats (Long Evans) were dosed with 0.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day of Aroclor-1254 from gestation day 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21, and the cerebellum and hippocampus from PND14 animals were analyzed to determine Aroclor 1254-induced differential protein expression. Two proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the cerebellum following PCB exposure while 18 proteins were differentially expressed in the hippocampus. These proteins are related to energy metabolism in mitochondria (ATP synthase, sub unit {beta} (ATP5B), creatine kinase, and malate dehydrogenase), calcium signaling (voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and ryanodine receptor type II (RyR2)), and growth of the nervous system (dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4 (DPYSL4), valosin-containing protein (VCP)). Results suggest that Aroclor 1254-like persistent chemicals may alter energy metabolism and intracellular signaling, which might result in developmental neurotoxicity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed brain proteomic analysis of rats exposed to the neurotoxicant

  4. Heat shock protein 90 has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-responsive sperm function in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Xue, Yamei; Chen, Aijun; Jiang, Youfang; Xie, Haifeng; Shi, Qixian; Zhang, Songying; Ni, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 plays critical roles in client protein maturation, signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution; however, its function in human sperm is not fully understood. Therefore, our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which heat shock protein 90 exerts its effects on human sperm function. By performing indirect immunofluorescence staining, we found that heat shock protein 90 was localized primarily in the neck, midpiece, and tail regions of human sperm, and that its expression increased with increasing incubation time under capacitation conditions. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, was shown to inhibit this increase in heat shock protein 90 expression in western blotting analyses. Using a multifunctional microplate reader to examine Fluo-3 AM-loaded sperm, we observed for the first time that inhibition of heat shock protein 90 by using geldanamycin significantly decreased intracellular calcium concentrations during capacitation. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that geldanamycin enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including heat shock protein 90, in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of geldanamycin on human sperm function in the absence or presence of progesterone was evaluated by performing chlortetracycline staining and by using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. We found that geldanamycin alone did not affect sperm capacitation, hyperactivation, and motility, but did so in the presence of progesterone. Taken together, these data suggest that heat shock protein 90, which increases in expression in human sperm during capacitation, has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-stimulated sperm function. In this study, we provide new insights into the roles of heat shock protein 90 in sperm function.

  5. Parvalbumin overexpression alters immune-mediated increases in intracellular calcium, and delays disease onset in a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, D. R.; Ho, B. K.; Siklos, L.; Alexianu, M. E.; Mosier, D. R.; Mohamed, A. H.; Otsuka, Y.; Kozovska, M. E.; McAlhany, R. E.; Smith, R. G.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Intracellular calcium is increased in vulnerable spinal motoneurons in immune-mediated as well as transgenic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To determine whether intracellular calcium levels are influenced by the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, we developed transgenic mice overexpressing parvalbumin in spinal motoneurons. ALS immunoglobulins increased intracellular calcium and spontaneous transmitter release at motoneuron terminals in control animals, but not in parvalbumin overexpressing transgenic mice. Parvalbumin transgenic mice interbred with mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) transgenic mice, an animal model of familial ALS, had significantly reduced motoneuron loss, and had delayed disease onset (17%) and prolonged survival (11%) when compared with mice with only the mSOD1 transgene. These results affirm the importance of the calcium binding protein parvalbumin in altering calcium homeostasis in motoneurons. The increased motoneuron parvalbumin can significantly attenuate the immune-mediated increases in calcium and to a lesser extent compensate for the mSOD1-mediated 'toxic-gain-of-function' in transgenic mice.

  6. Model-based control of the temporal patterns of intracellular signaling in silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yohei; Koyama, Masanori; Oba, Shigeyuki; Kuroda, Shinya; Ishii, Shin

    2017-01-01

    The functions of intracellular signal transduction systems are determined by the temporal behavior of intracellular molecules and their interactions. Of the many dynamical properties of the system, the relationship between the dynamics of upstream molecules and downstream molecules is particularly important. A useful tool in understanding this relationship is a methodology to control the dynamics of intracellular molecules with an extracellular stimulus. However, this is a difficult task because the relationship between the levels of upstream molecules and those of downstream molecules is often not only stochastic, but also time-inhomogeneous, nonlinear, and not one-to-one. In this paper, we present an easy-to-implement model-based control method that makes the target downstream molecule to trace a desired time course by changing the concentration of a controllable upstream molecule. Our method uses predictions from Monte Carlo simulations of the model to decide the strength of the stimulus, while using a particle-based approach to make inferences regarding unobservable states. We applied our method to in silico control problems of insulin-dependent AKT pathway model and EGF-dependent Akt pathway model with system noise. We show that our method can robustly control the dynamics of the intracellular molecules against unknown system noise of various strengths, even in the absence of complete knowledge of the true model of the target system. PMID:28275530

  7. The control of calcium signaling in the heart | Eisner | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work on the role of calcium in the heart began in the nineteenth century with Ringer's demonstration that calcium is essential for cardiac contraction. This article provides a brief overview of the regulation of cardiac calcium signalling. Contraction results from the systolic rise of Ca concentration (the Ca transient). This occurs ...

  8. Moringa oleifera-rich diet and T cell calcium signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attakpa, E S; Bertin, G A; Chabi, N W; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-11-24

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose fruits, roots and leaves have been advocated for traditional medicinal uses. The physicochemical analysis shows that Moringa oleifera contains more dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFA). The consumption of an experimental diet enriched with Moringa oleifera extracts lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as compared to rats fed an unsupplemented control diet. Anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation was diminished in both strains of rats fed the Moringa oleifera. The experimental diet lowered secretion of interleukin-2 in SHR, but not in WKY rats compared with rats fed the control diet. Studies of platelets from patients with primary hypertension and from SHR support the notion that the concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)](i) is modified in both clinical and experimental hypertension. We observed that the basal, [Ca(2+)](i) was lower in T cells of SHR than in those of WKY rats fed the control diet. Feeding the diet with Moringa oleifera extracts to WKY rats did not alter basal [Ca(2+)](i) in T cells but increased basal [Ca(2+)](i) in SHR. Our study clearly demonstrated that Moringa oleifera exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting the secretion of IL-2 and modulates T cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria calcium signaling in hepatic metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieusset, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    The liver plays a central role in glucose homeostasis, and both metabolic inflexibility and insulin resistance predispose to the development of hepatic metabolic diseases. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which play a key role in the control of hepatic metabolism, also interact at contact points defined as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), in order to exchange metabolites and calcium (Ca 2+ ) and regulate cellular homeostasis and signaling. Here, we overview the role of the liver in the control of glucose homeostasis, mainly focusing on the independent involvement of mitochondria, ER and Ca 2+ signaling in both healthy and pathological contexts. Then we focus on recent data highlighting MAM as important hubs for hormone and nutrient signaling in the liver, thus adapting mitochondria physiology and cellular metabolism to energy availability. Lastly, we discuss how chronic ER-mitochondria miscommunication could participate to hepatic metabolic diseases, pointing MAM interface as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Local perinuclear calcium signals associated with mitosis-entry in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, M; Wright, E M; Patel, R; Ellis-Davies, G; Whitaker, M

    1996-10-01

    Using calcium-sensitive dyes together with their dextran conjugates and confocal microscopy, we have looked for evidence of localized calcium signaling in the region of the nucleus before entry into mitosis, using the sea urchin egg first mitotic cell cycle as a model. Global calcium transients that appear to originate from the nuclear area are often observed just before nuclear envelope breakdown (NEB). In the absence of global increases in calcium, confocal microscopy using Calcium Green-1 dextran indicator dye revealed localized calcium transients in the perinuclear region. We have also used a photoinactivatable calcium chelator, nitrophenyl EGTA (NP-EGTA), to test whether the chelator-induced block of mitosis entry can be reversed after inactivation of the chelator. Cells arrested before NEB by injection of NP-EGTA resume the cell cycle after flash photolysis of the chelator. Photolysis of chelator triggers calcium release. TreatmenT with caFfeine to enhance calcium-induced calcium release increases the amplitude of NEB-associated calcium transients. These results indicate that calcium increases local to the nucleus are required to trigger entry into mitosis. Local calcium transients arise in the perinuclear region and can spread from this region into the cytoplasm. Thus, cell cycle calcium signals are generated by the perinuclear mitotic machinery in early sea urchin embryos.

  11. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian

    2012-03-06

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E 2) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E 2 elevated [Ca 2+] i and increased Ca 2+ oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E 2 mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E 2 activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E 2 induces the non-genomic responses Ca 2+ release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E 2 responses. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Identification of intracellular domains in the growth hormone receptor involved in signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Allevato, G; Norstedt, G

    1994-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) receptor belongs to the GH/prolactin/cytokine super-family of receptors. The signal transduction mechanism utilized by this class of receptors remains largely unknown. In order to identify functional domains in the intracellular region of the GH receptor we generated...... a number of GH receptor mutants and analyzed their function after transfection into various cell lines. A truncated GH receptor missing 184 amino acids at the C-terminus was unable to mediate GH effects on transcription of the Spi 2.1 and insulin genes. However, this mutant was fully active in mediating GH...... as well as metabolic effects. These results indicate that the intracellular part of the GH receptor can be divided into at least three functional domains: (i) for transcriptional activity, two domains are involved, one located in the C-terminal 184 amino acids and the other in the proline-rich domain; (ii...

  13. Wnt signaling in the thymus is regulated by differential expression of intracellular signaling molecules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Weerkamp (Floor); M.R.M. Baert (Miranda); B.A. Naber (Brigitta); E.E. Koster (Esther); E.F. de Haas (Edwin); K.R. Atkuri (Kondala); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques); L.A. Herzenberg (Leonard); F.J.T. Staal (Frank)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractWnt signaling is essential for T cell development in the thymus, but the stages in which it occurs and the molecular mechanisms underlying Wnt responsiveness have remained elusive. Here we examined Wnt signaling activity in both human and murine thymocyte populations by determining

  14. Dystrophin gene expression and intracellular calcium changes in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in response to white spot symptom disease infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees Fathima Noor

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: Both the functionality of the dystrophin protein and the intracellular calcium concentration were affected by WSSV infection which resulted in progressive muscle degeneration. An increased understanding of the role of dystrophin-calcium in MrDys and the interactions between these two components is necessary to prevent or reduce occurrences of muscle degeneration caused by WSSV infection, thereby reducing economic losses in the prawn farming industry from such disease.

  15. Activation of Apoptotic Signal in Endothelial Cells through Intracellular Signaling Molecules Blockade in Tumor-Induced Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bazmara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced angiogenesis is the bridge between avascular and vascular tumor growth phases. In tumor-induced angiogenesis, endothelial cells start to migrate and proliferate toward the tumor and build new capillaries toward the tumor. There are two stages for sprout extension during angiogenesis. The first stage is prior to anastomosis, when single sprouts extend. The second stage is after anastomosis when closed flow pathways or loops are formed and blood flows in the closed loops. Prior to anastomosis, biochemical and biomechanical signals from extracellular matrix regulate endothelial cell phenotype; however, after anastomosis, blood flow is the main regulator of endothelial cell phenotype. In this study, the critical signaling pathways of each stage are introduced. A Boolean network model is used to map environmental and flow induced signals to endothelial cell phenotype (proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and lumen formation. Using the Boolean network model, blockade of intracellular signaling molecules of endothelial cell is investigated prior to and after anastomosis and the cell fate is obtained in each case. Activation of apoptotic signal in endothelial cell can prevent the extension of new vessels and may inhibit angiogenesis. It is shown that blockade of a few signaling molecules in endothelial cell activates apoptotic signal that are proposed as antiangiogenic strategies.

  16. Thapsigargin-induced nuclear calcium signals in rat basophilic leukaemia cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horikoshi, Y; Furuno, T; Teshima, R; Sawada, J; Nakanishi, M

    1994-01-01

    By a confocal fluorescence microscope with an argon-ion laser (488 nm) and a He-Cd laser (325 nm) we have studied thapsigargin-induced calcium signals in individual rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL-2H3) cells. In the presence or absence of external calcium ions, thapsigargin-induced calcium signals were transferred to the nucleus as well as to the cytoplasm of RBL-2H3 cells. The calcium signals were generally much stronger in the nucleus than in the cytoplasm. However, some of the RBL-2H3 cells ...

  17. Influence of dietary cholesterol on 26-hydroxycholesterol and the effect of 26-hydroxycholesterol on the intracellular free calcium level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, I.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing serum level of 26-hydroxycholesterol after long-term consumption of cholesterol by animals. It is also to examine the effect of this sterol on intracellular free calcium level. Purified 26-hydroxycholesterol was synthesized from kryptogenin by the Clemmemsen and Wolff-Kishner reduction method. 26-Hydroxycholesterol was also used for fatty acid esters syntheses, and to study its influence on membranes. Tritiated 26-hydroxycholesterol which was synthesized by an enzymatic method, was used to monitor the 26-hydroxycholesterol loss during the procedure. The ester form of 26-hydroxycholesterol was also synthesized, and used to investigate its effects on membranes. The HPLC method that was developed for the analysis of 26-hydroxycholesterol levels in animal tissues was accurate, efficient, and reproducible for the determination of 26-hydroxycholesterol in plasma. However, it was not suitable for the analysis of other tissues, due to the overlapping of peaks making quantitation difficult

  18. Wave failure at strong coupling in intracellular C a2 + signaling system with clustered channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wu, Yuning; Gao, Xuejuan; Cai, Meichun; Shuai, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    As an important intracellular signal, C a2 + ions control diverse cellular functions. In this paper, we discuss the C a2 + signaling with a two-dimensional model in which the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (I P3 ) receptor channels are distributed in clusters on the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The wave failure at large C a2 + diffusion coupling is discussed in detail in the model. We show that with varying model parameters the wave failure is a robust behavior with either deterministic or stochastic channel dynamics. We suggest that the wave failure should be a general behavior in inhomogeneous diffusing systems with clustered excitable regions and may occur in biological C a2 + signaling systems.

  19. The influence of calcium signaling on the regulation of alternative splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    In this review the influence of calcium signaling on the regulation of alternative splicing is discussed with respect to its influence on cell- and developmental-specific expression of different isoforms of the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA). In a second part the possibility is discussed that due to the interaction of the calcium-binding protein ALG-2 with a spliceosomal regulator of alternative splicing, RBM22, Ca2+-signaling may thus influence its regulatory property.

  20. Ca analysis: An Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. PMID:24125908

  1. Ca analysis: an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular calcium transients including multiple, simultaneous regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, David J

    2014-01-01

    Here I present an Excel based program for the analysis of intracellular Ca transients recorded using fluorescent indicators. The program can perform all the necessary steps which convert recorded raw voltage changes into meaningful physiological information. The program performs two fundamental processes. (1) It can prepare the raw signal by several methods. (2) It can then be used to analyze the prepared data to provide information such as absolute intracellular Ca levels. Also, the rates of change of Ca can be measured using multiple, simultaneous regression analysis. I demonstrate that this program performs equally well as commercially available software, but has numerous advantages, namely creating a simplified, self-contained analysis workflow. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Modulation of intracellular calcium waves and triggered activities by mitochondrial ca flux in mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghang Zhao

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that mitochondria may play important roles in the Ca(2+ homeostasis of cardiac myocytes. However, it is still unclear if mitochondrial Ca(2+ flux can regulate the generation of Ca(2+ waves (CaWs and triggered activities in cardiac myocytes. In the present study, intracellular/cytosolic Ca(2+ (Cai (2+ was imaged in Fluo-4-AM loaded mouse ventricular myocytes. Spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca(2+ release and CaWs were induced in the presence of high (4 mM external Ca(2+ (Cao (2+. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP reversibly raised basal Cai (2+ levels even after depletion of SR Ca(2+ in the absence of Cao (2+ , suggesting Ca(2+ release from mitochondria. FCCP at 0.01 - 0.1 µM partially depolarized the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m and increased the frequency and amplitude of CaWs in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous recording of cell membrane potentials showed the augmentation of delayed afterdepolarization amplitudes and frequencies, and induction of triggered action potentials. The effect of FCCP on CaWs was mimicked by antimycin A (an electron transport chain inhibitor disrupting Δψ m or Ru360 (a mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter inhibitor, but not by oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor or iodoacetic acid (a glycolytic inhibitor, excluding the contribution of intracellular ATP levels. The effects of FCCP on CaWs were counteracted by the mitochondrial permeability transition pore blocker cyclosporine A, or the mitochondrial Ca(2+ uniporter activator kaempferol. Our results suggest that mitochondrial Ca(2+ release and uptake exquisitely control the local Ca(2+ level in the micro-domain near SR ryanodine receptors and play an important role in regulation of intracellular CaWs and arrhythmogenesis.

  3. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang; Liu, Baoqin; Kong, Dehui; Li, Si; Li, Chao; Wang, Huaqin; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  4. Atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotypic modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs via down-regulation the Akt signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Chen

    Full Text Available Plasticity of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs plays a central role in the onset and progression of proliferative vascular diseases. In adult tissue, VSMCs exist in a physiological contractile-quiescent phenotype, which is defined by lack of the ability of proliferation and migration, while high expression of contractile marker proteins. After injury to the vessel, VSMC shifts from a contractile phenotype to a pathological synthetic phenotype, associated with increased proliferation, migration and matrix secretion. It has been demonstrated that PDGF-BB is a critical mediator of VSMCs phenotypic switch. Atorvastatin calcium, a selective inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl l coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase, exhibits various protective effects against VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the effects of atorvastatin calcium on phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and the related intracellular signal transduction pathways. Treatment of VSMCs with atorvastatin calcium showed dose-dependent inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced proliferation. Atorvastatin calcium co-treatment inhibited the phenotype modulation and cytoskeleton rearrangements and improved the expression of contractile phenotype marker proteins such as α-SM actin, SM22α and calponin in comparison with PDGF-BB alone stimulated VSMCs. Although Akt phosphorylation was strongly elicited by PDGF-BB, Akt activation was attenuated when PDGF-BB was co-administrated with atorvastatin calcium. In conclusion, atorvastatin calcium inhibits phenotype modulation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs and activation of the Akt signaling pathway, indicating that Akt might play a vital role in the modulation of phenotype.

  5. Inhibitory effect of donepezil on bradykinin-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitani, Kouki; Nakagawa, Shota; Izumi, Yasuhiko; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2017-05-01

    Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the responses of astrocytes to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and the effect of donepezil on these responses using cultured cortical astrocytes. Bradykinin induced a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in cultured astrocytes. Bradykinin-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was inhibited by the exposure to thapsigargin, which depletes Ca 2+ stores on endoplasmic reticulum, but not by the exclusion of extracellular Ca 2+ . Twenty four hours pretreatment of donepezil reduced the bradykinin-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase. This reduction was inhibited not only by mecamylamine, a nAChR antagonist, but also by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. In addition, donepezil inhibited bradykinin-induced increase of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in astrocytes. These results suggest that donepezil inhibits the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin via nAChR and PI3K-Akt pathway in astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory effect of donepezil on bradykinin-induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in cultured cortical astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouki Makitani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the responses of astrocytes to bradykinin, an inflammatory mediator, and the effect of donepezil on these responses using cultured cortical astrocytes. Bradykinin induced a transient increase of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i in cultured astrocytes. Bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by the exposure to thapsigargin, which depletes Ca2+ stores on endoplasmic reticulum, but not by the exclusion of extracellular Ca2+. Twenty four hours pretreatment of donepezil reduced the bradykinin-induced [Ca2+]i increase. This reduction was inhibited not only by mecamylamine, a nAChR antagonist, but also by PI3K and Akt inhibitors. In addition, donepezil inhibited bradykinin-induced increase of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level in astrocytes. These results suggest that donepezil inhibits the inflammatory response induced by bradykinin via nAChR and PI3K-Akt pathway in astrocytes.

  7. Differential intracellular calcium influx, nitric oxide production, ICAM-1 and IL8 expression in primary bovine endothelial cells exposed to nonesterified fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Anitsi; Carretta, María D; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A

    2016-02-25

    Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are involved in proinflammatory processes in cattle, including in the increased expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of NEFAs on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+) i) influx, nitric oxide production, and ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression in primary bovine umbilical vein endothelial cells (BUVECs). Myristic (MA), palmitic (PA), stearic (SA), oleic (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) rapidly increased Ca(2+) i. The calcium response to all tested NEFAs showed an extracellular calcium dependence and only the LA response was significantly inhibited until the intracellular calcium was chelated. The EC50 values for MA and LA were 125 μM and 37 μM, respectively, and the MA and LA effects were dependent on calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum stores and on the L-type calcium channels. Only the calcium response to MA was significantly reduced by GW1100, a selective G-protein-coupled free fatty acid receptor (GPR40) antagonist. We also detected a functional FFAR1/GPR40 protein in BUVECs by using western blotting and the FFAR1/GPR40 agonist TAK-875. Only LA increased the cellular nitric oxide levels in a calcium-dependent manner. LA stimulation but not MA stimulation increased ICAM-1 and IL-8-expression in BUVECs. This effect was inhibited by GW1100, an antagonist of FFAR1/GPR40, but not by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. These findings strongly suggest that each individual NEFA stimulates endothelial cells in a different way, with clearly different effects on intracellular calcium mobilization, NO production, and IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in primary BUVECs. These findings not only extend our understanding of NEFA-mediated diseases in ruminants, but also provide new insight into the different molecular mechanisms involved during endothelial cell activation by NEFAs.

  8. Key mediators of intracellular amino acids signaling to mTORC1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Tan, Kunrong; Liu, Hongnan; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Yingying; Kong, Xiangfeng; Tang, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2015-05-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is activated by amino acids to promote cell growth via protein synthesis. Specifically, Ras-related guanosine triphosphatases (Rag GTPases) are activated by amino acids, and then translocate mTORC1 to the surface of late endosomes and lysosomes. Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) resides on this surface and directly activates mTORC1. Apart from the presence of intracellular amino acids, Rag GTPases and Rheb, other mediators involved in intracellular amino acid signaling to mTORC1 activation include human vacuolar sorting protein-34 (hVps34) and mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase kinase kinase-3 (MAP4K3). Those molecular links between mTORC1 and its mediators form a complicate signaling network that controls cellular growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Moreover, it is speculated that amino acid signaling to mTORC1 may start from the lysosomal lumen. In this review, we discussed the function of these mediators in mTORC1 pathway and how these mediators are regulated by amino acids in details.

  9. Modulation of L-type calcium current by intracellular magnesium in differentiating cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguemo, Filomain; Semmler, Judith; Reppel, Michael; Hescheler, Jürgen

    2014-06-15

    Intracellular Mg(2+), which is implicated in arrhythmogenesis and transient cardiac ischemia, inhibits L-type Ca(2+) calcium channel current (ICaL) of adult cardiomyocytes (CMs). We take the advantage of an in vitro model of CMs based on induced pluripotent stem cells to investigate the effects of intracellular Mg(2+) on the phosphorylation or dephosphorylation processes of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) at early and late stages of cardiac cell differentiation. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrate that increasing intracellular Mg(2+) concentration [Mg(2+)]i from 0.2 to 5 mM markedly reduced the peak of ICaL density, showing less effect on both the activation and inactivation properties in the late differentiation stage (LDS) of CMs more so than in the early differentiation stage (EDS). Increasing the [Mg(2+)]i from 0.2 to 2 mM in the presence of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A significantly decreased ICaL in LDS (70%) and in EDS (36%) CMs. In addition, the effect of forskolin was greatly attenuated in the presence of 2 mM [Mg(2+)]i in LDS but not in EDS CMs. The effect of forskolin was enhanced in the presence of ATP-γ-S in LDS CMs compared with EDS CMs. The exposure of both EDS and LDS CMs to 2 mM [Mg(2+)]i considerably reduced the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and okadaic acid on ICaL. Our results provide evidence for differential regulation of LTCCs activities by cytosolic Mg(2+) concentration in developing cardiac cells and confirm that Mg(2+) acts under conditions that favor opening of the LTCCs caused by channel phosphorylation.

  10. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium increases the intracellular free calcium concentration in rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Min, Shengping; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-04-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is involved in the activation of astrocytes. A previous study showed that CNTF-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) contributed to the increase of the calcium current and the elevation of corresponding ion channels in cortical neurons. On this basis, it is reasonable to assume that CNTF-ACM may increase the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in neurons. In the present study, the effects of CNTF-ACM on [Ca 2+ ] i in rat cortical neurons were determined, and on this basis, the aim was to investigate the potential active ingredients in ACM that are responsible for this biological process. As expected, the data indicated that CNTF-ACM resulted in a clear elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i in neurons. Additionally, the fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) contained in the CNTF-ACM was found to participate in the upregulation of [Ca 2+ ] i . Taken together, CNTF induces the production of active factors (at least including FGF-2) released from astrocytes, which finally potentiate the increase of [Ca 2+ ] i in cortical neurons.

  11. P2Y1 receptor inhibits GABA transport through a calcium signalling-dependent mechanism in rat cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Pedro F; Vaz, Sandra H; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes express a variety of purinergic (P2) receptors, involved in astrocytic communication through fast increases in [Ca(2+) ]i . Of these, the metabotropic ATP receptors (P2Y) regulate cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels through the PLC-PKC pathway. GABA transporters are a substrate for a number of Ca(2+) -related kinases, raising the possibility that calcium signalling in astrocytes impact the control of extracellular levels of the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain. To access this possibility we tested the influence of P2Y receptors upon GABA transport into astrocytes. Mature primary cortical astroglial-enriched cultures expressed functional P2Y receptors, as evaluated through Ca(2+) imaging, being P2Y1 the predominant P2Y receptor subtype. ATP (100 μM, for 1 min) caused an inhibition of GABA transport through either GAT-1 or GAT-3 transporters, decreasing the Vmax kinetic constant. ATP-induced inhibition of GATs activity was still evident in the presence of adenosine deaminase, precluding an adenosine-mediated effect. This, was mimicked by a specific agonist for the P2Y1,12,13 receptor (2-MeSADP). The effect of 2-MeSADP on GABA transport was blocked by the P2 (PPADS) and P2Y1 selective (MRS2179) receptor antagonists, as well as by the PLC inhibitor (U73122). 2-MeSADP failed to inhibit GABA transport in astrocytes where intracellular calcium had been chelated (BAPTA-AM) or where calcium stores were depleted (α-cyclopiazonic acid, CPA). In conclusion, P2Y1 receptors in astrocytes inhibit GABA transport through a mechanism dependent of P2Y1 -mediated calcium signalling, suggesting that astrocytic calcium signalling, which occurs as a consequence of neuronal firing, may operate a negative feedback loop to enhance extracellular levels of GABA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Loverde

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  13. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loverde, Joseph R; Pfister, Bryan J

    2015-01-01

    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  14. Intracellular Redox Compartmentation and ROS-Related Communication in Regulation and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed enormous progress in understanding redox signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. The consensus view is that such signaling is intrinsic to many developmental processes and responses to the environment. ROS-related redox signaling is tightly wedded to compartmentation. Because membranes function as barriers, highly redox-active powerhouses such as chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria may elicit specific signaling responses. However, transporter functions allow membranes also to act as bridges between compartments, and so regulated capacity to transmit redox changes across membranes influences the outcome of triggers produced at different locations. As well as ROS and other oxidizing species, antioxidants are key players that determine the extent of ROS accumulation at different sites and that may themselves act as signal transmitters. Like ROS, antioxidants can be transported across membranes. In addition, the intracellular distribution of antioxidative enzymes may be modulated to regulate or facilitate redox signaling appropriate to the conditions. Finally, there is substantial plasticity in organellar shape, with extensions such as stromules, peroxules, and matrixules playing potentially crucial roles in organelle-organelle communication. We provide an overview of the advances in subcellular compartmentation, identifying the gaps in our knowledge and discussing future developments in the area. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  15. ATP- and gap junction-dependent intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, N R; Geist, S T; Civitelli, R

    1997-01-01

    mechanically induced calcium waves in two rat osteosarcoma cell lines that differ in the gap junction proteins they express, in their ability to pass microinjected dye from cell to cell, and in their expression of P2Y2 (P2U) purinergic receptors. ROS 17/2.8 cells, which express the gap junction protein...... connexin43 (Cx43), are well dye coupled, and lack P2U receptors, transmitted slow gap junction-dependent calcium waves that did not require release of intracellular calcium stores. UMR 106-01 cells predominantly express the gap junction protein connexin 45 (Cx45), are poorly dye coupled, and express P2U...

  16. Characterization of NAADP-mediated calcium signaling in human spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Tusie, A.A. [Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Vasudevan, S.R.; Churchill, G.C. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, England (United Kingdom); Nishigaki, T. [Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Treviño, C.L., E-mail: ctrevino@ibt.unam.mx [Departamento de Genética del Desarrollo y Fisiología Molecular, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Human sperm cells synthesize NAADP. •NAADP-AM mediates [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases in human sperm in the absence of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}. •Human sperm have two acidic compartments located in the head and midpiece. -- Abstract: Ca{sup 2+} signaling in spermatozoa plays a crucial role during processes such as capacitation and release of the acrosome, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a potent Ca{sup 2+}-releasing second messenger in a variety of cellular processes. The presence of a NAADP synthesizing enzyme in sea urchin sperm has been previously reported, suggesting a possible role of NAADP in sperm Ca{sup 2+} signaling. In this work we used in vitro enzyme assays to show the presence of a novel NAADP synthesizing enzyme in human sperm, and to characterize its sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} and pH. Ca{sup 2+} fluorescence imaging studies demonstrated that the permeable form of NAADP (NAADP-AM) induces intracellular [Ca{sup 2+}] increases in human sperm even in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Using LysoTracker®, a fluorescent probe that selectively accumulates in acidic compartments, we identified two such stores in human sperm cells. Their acidic nature was further confirmed by the reduction in staining intensity observed upon inhibition of the endo-lysosomal proton pump with Bafilomycin, or after lysosomal bursting with glycyl-L-phenylalanine-2-naphthylamide. The selective fluorescent NAADP analog, Ned-19, stained the same subcellular regions as LysoTracker®, suggesting that these stores are the targets of NAADP action.

  17. Intracellular calcium oscillations in strongly metastatic human breast and prostate cancer cells: control by voltage-gated sodium channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaner, Nahit; Onkal, Rustem; Fraser, Scott P; Pristerá, Alessandro; Okuse, Kenji; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2016-10-01

    The possible association of intracellular Ca 2+ with metastasis in human cancer cells is poorly understood. We have studied Ca 2+ signaling in human prostate and breast cancer cell lines of strongly versus weakly metastatic potential in a comparative approach. Intracellular free Ca 2+ was measured using a membrane-permeant fluorescent Ca 2+ -indicator dye (Fluo-4 AM) and confocal microscopy. Spontaneous Ca 2+ oscillations were observed in a proportion of strongly metastatic human prostate and breast cancer cells (PC-3M and MDA-MB-231, respectively). In contrast, no such oscillations were observed in weakly/non metastatic LNCaP and MCF-7 cells, although a rise in the resting Ca 2+ level could be induced by applying a high-K + solution. Various parameters of the oscillations depended on extracellular Ca 2+ and voltage-gated Na + channel activity. Treatment with either tetrodotoxin (a general blocker of voltage-gated Na + channels) or ranolazine (a blocker of the persistent component of the channel current) suppressed the Ca 2+ oscillations. It is concluded that the functional voltage-gated Na + channel expression in strongly metastatic cancer cells makes a significant contribution to generation of oscillatory intracellular Ca 2+ activity. Possible mechanisms and consequences of the Ca 2+ oscillations are discussed.

  18. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  19. Differential calcium signaling mediated by voltage-gated calcium channels in rat retinal ganglion cells and their unmyelinated axons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Sargoy

    Full Text Available Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury.

  20. Monitoring intracellular calcium ion dynamics in hair cell populations with Fluo-4 AM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri J Spinelli

    Full Text Available We optimized Fluo-4 AM loading of chicken cochlea to report hair-bundle Ca(2+ signals in populations of hair cells. The bundle Ca(2+ signal reported the physiological state of the bundle and cell; extruding cells had very high bundle Fluo-4 fluorescence, cells with intact bundles and tip links had intermediate fluorescence, and damaged cells with broken tip links had low fluorescence. Moreover, Fluo-4 fluorescence in the bundle correlated with Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels; mechanically activating transduction channels increased the Fluo-4 signal, while breaking tip links with Ca(2+ chelators or blocking Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels each caused bundle and cell-body Fluo-4 fluorescence to decrease. These results show that when tip links break, bundle and soma Ca(2+ decrease, which could serve to stimulate the hair cell's tip-link regeneration process. Measurement of bundle Ca(2+ with Fluo-4 AM is therefore a simple method for assessing mechanotransduction in hair cells and permits an increased understanding of the interplay of tip links, transduction channels, and Ca(2+ signaling in the hair cell.

  1. Are Molecular Vibration Patterns of Cell Structural Elements Used for Intracellular Signalling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaross, Werner

    2016-01-01

    To date the manner in which information reaches the nucleus on that part within the three-dimensional structure where specific restorative processes of structural components of the cell are required is unknown. The soluble signalling molecules generated in the course of destructive and restorative processes communicate only as needed. All molecules show temperature-dependent molecular vibration creating a radiation in the infrared region. Each molecule species has in its turn a specific frequency pattern under given specific conditions. Changes in their structural composition result in modified frequency patterns of the molecules in question. The main structural elements of the cell membrane, of the endoplasmic reticulum, of the Golgi apparatus, and of the different microsomes representing the great variety of polar lipids show characteristic frequency patterns with peaks in the region characterised by low water absorption. These structural elements are very dynamic, mainly caused by the creation of signal molecules and transport containers. By means of the characteristic radiation, the area where repair or substitution services are needed could be identified; this spatial information complements the signalling of the soluble signal molecules. Based on their resonance properties receptors located on the outer leaflet of the nuclear envelope should be able to read typical frequencies and pass them into the nucleus. Clearly this physical signalling must be blocked by the cell membrane to obviate the flow of information into adjacent cells. If the hypothesis can be proved experimentally, it should be possible to identify and verify characteristic infrared frequency patterns. The application of these signal frequencies onto cells would open entirely new possibilities in medicine and all biological disciplines specifically to influence cell growth and metabolism. Similar to this intracellular system, an extracellular signalling system with many new therapeutic options

  2. Correlation between oxidative stress and alteration of intracellular calcium handling in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Alvarez-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Yáñez, Lucía; Vidrio, Susana; Martínez, Lidia; Rosas, Gisele; Yáñez, Mario; Ramírez, Sotero; de Sánchez, Victoria Chagoya

    2006-09-01

    Myocardial Ca(2+) overload and oxidative stress are well documented effects associated to isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis, but information correlating these two issues is scarce. Using an ISO-induced myocardial infarction model, 3 stages of myocardial damage were defined: pre-infarction (0-12 h), infarction (12-24 h) and post-infarction (24-96 h). Alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative stress were studied in mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and plasmalemma by measuring the Ca(2+) content, the activity of Ca(2+) handling proteins, and by quantifying TBARs, nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative protein damage (changes in carbonyl and thiol groups). Free radicals generated system, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress (GSH/GSSG ratio) were also monitored at different times of ISO-induced cardiotoxicity. The Ca(2+) overload induced by ISO was counterbalanced by a diminution in the ryanodine receptor activity and the Na(+)-Ca(+2) exchanger as well as by the increase in both calcium ATPases activities (vanadate- and thapsigargine-sensitive) and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake during pre-infarction and infarction stages. Pro-oxidative reactions and antioxidant defences during the 3 stages of cardiotoxicity were observed, with maximal oxidative stress during the infarction. Significant correlations were found among pro-oxidative reactions with plasmalemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases, and ryanodine receptor activities at the onset and development of ISO-induced infarction. These findings could be helpful in the design of antioxidant therapies in this pathology.

  3. The control of calcium signaling in the heart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    Shannon, T.R., Ginsburg, K.S., & Bers, D.M. 2000. Potentiation of fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release by total and free intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration. Biophysical Journal,. 78, 334-343. Shannon, T.R., Pogwizd, S.M., & Bers, D.M. 2003. Elevated. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ Leak in Intact ...

  4. Sensing and Transmitting Intracellular Amino Acid Signals through Reversible Lysine Aminoacylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xia-Di; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jia-Nong; Nie, Ji; Yao, Cui-Fang; Guo, Fu-Shen; Lin, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Li, Feng; Li, Jie; Sun, Wei-Cheng; Wang, En-Duo; An, Yan-Peng; Tang, Hui-Ru; Yan, Guo-Quan; Yang, Peng-Yuan; Wei, Yun; Mao, Yun-Zi; Lin, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, Jian-Yuan; Xu, Yanhui; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Shi-Min

    2018-01-09

    Amino acids are known regulators of cellular signaling and physiology, but how they are sensed intracellularly is not fully understood. Herein, we report that each aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) senses its cognate amino acid sufficiency through catalyzing the formation of lysine aminoacylation (K-AA) on its specific substrate proteins. At physiologic levels, amino acids promote ARSs bound to their substrates and form K-AAs on the ɛ-amine of lysines in their substrates by producing reactive aminoacyl adenylates. The K-AA marks can be removed by deacetylases, such as SIRT1 and SIRT3, employing the same mechanism as that involved in deacetylation. These dynamically regulated K-AAs transduce signals of their respective amino acids. Reversible leucylation on ras-related GTP-binding protein A/B regulates activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Glutaminylation on apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 suppresses apoptosis. We discovered non-canonical functions of ARSs and revealed systematic and functional amino acid sensing and signal transduction networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liraglutide, leptin and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signalling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, S E; Ong, Z Y; Fortin, S M; Schlessinger, E S; Grill, H J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the behavioural and intracellular mechanisms by which the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, liraglutide, and leptin in combination enhance the food intake inhibitory and weight loss effects of either treatment alone. We examined the effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (s.c.) or to the third ventricle, respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signalling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] in lean rats. A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25 µg/kg) and leptin (0.75 µg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75 µg/kg) and leptin (4 µg), examined separately, each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot analysis showed elevated pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic tissue after liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect which was greater than that of leptin treatment alone. In addition, s.c. liraglutide reduced the expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signalling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response after liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Collectively, these results show novel behavioural and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight after liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Selective effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on osteoporotic and healthy bone formation correlates with intracellular calcium homeostasis regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Xie, Pengfei; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Zhurong; Chen, Xuening; Zhu, Xiangdong; Fan, Yujiang; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xingdong

    2017-09-01

    Adequate bone substitutes osseointegration has been difficult to achieve in osteoporosis. Hydroxyapatite of the osteoporotic bone, secreted by pathologic osteoblasts, had a smaller crystal size and lower crystallinity than that of the normal. To date, little is known regarding the interaction of synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with osteoblasts born in bone rarefaction. The present study investigated the biological effects of HANPs on osteoblastic cells derived from osteoporotic rat bone (OVX-OB), in comparison with the healthy ones (SHM-OB). A selective effect of different concentrations of HANPs on the two cell lines was observed that the osteoporotic osteoblasts had a higher tolerance. Reductions in cell proliferation, ALP activity, collagen secretion and osteoblastic gene expressions were found in the SHM-OB when administered with HANPs concentration higher than 25µg/ml. In contrast, those of the OVX-OB suffered no depression but benefited from 25 to 250µg/ml HANPs in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated that the different effects of HANPs on osteoblasts were associated with the intracellular calcium influx into the endoplasmic reticulum. The in vivo bone defect model further confirmed that, with a critical HANPs concentration administration, the osteoporotic rats had more and mechanically matured new bone formation than the non-treated ones, whilst the sham rats healed no better than the natural healing control. Collectively, the observed epigenetic regulation of osteoblastic cell function by HANPs has significant implication on defining design parameters for a potential therapeutic use of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) on osteoporotic rat bone and the derived osteoblast. Our findings revealed a previously unrecognized phenomenon that the osteoporotic individuals could benefit from higher concentrations of HANPs, as compared with the healthy individuals. The in

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum generates calcium signalling microdomains around the nucleus and spindle in syncytial Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, H; McDougall, A; Whitaker, M

    2006-06-01

    Cell cycle calcium signals are generated by inositol trisphosphate-mediated release of calcium from internal stores [Ciapa, Pesando, Wilding and Whitaker (1994) Nature (London) 368, 875-878; Groigno and Whitaker (1998) Cell 92, 193-204]. The major internal calcium store is the ER (endoplasmic reticulum): the spatial organization of the ER during mitosis is important in defining a microdomain around the nucleus and mitotic spindle in early Drosophila embryos [Parry, McDougall and Whitaker (2005) J. Cell Biol. 171, 47-59]. Nuclear divisions in syncytial Drosophila embryos are accompanied by both cortical and nuclear localized calcium transients. Mitosis is prevented by the InsP(3) antagonists Xestospongin C and heparin. Nuclear-localized transients and cortical transients rely on extraembryonic calcium, suggesting that ER calcium levels are maintained by calcium influx.

  8. Membrane Estrogen Receptor-α Interacts with Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Type 1a to Mobilize Intracellular Calcium in Hypothalamic Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, John; Hariri, Omid R.; Bondar, Galyna; Ogi, Julie; Micevych, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Estradiol, acting on a membrane-associated estrogen receptor-α (mERα), induces an increase in free cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) needed for progesterone synthesis in hypothalamic astrocytes. To determine whether rapid estradiol signaling involves an interaction of mERα with metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1a (mGluR1a), changes in [Ca2+]i were monitored with the calcium indicator, Fluo-4 AM, in primary cultures of female postpubertal hypothalamic astrocytes. 17β-Estradiol over a range of 1 nm to 100 nm induced a maximal increase in [Ca2+]i flux measured as a change in relative fluorescence [ΔF Ca2+ = 615 ± 36 to 641 ± 47 relative fluorescent units (RFU)], whereas 0.1 nm of estradiol stimulated a moderate [Ca2+]i increase (275 ± 16 RFU). The rapid estradiol-induced [Ca2+]i flux was blocked with 1 μm of the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (635 ± 24 vs. 102 ± 11 RFU, P estradiol-induced membrane signaling in astrocytes. PMID:18948402

  9. Mitochondrial hyperoxidation signals residual intracellular dysfunction after global ischemia in rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M; Feng, Z C; Raffin, C N; Harrison, M; Sick, T J

    1995-07-01

    Reperfusion after global ischemia (10-60 min in duration) in rat neocortex most commonly provoked transient hyperoxidation of mitochondrial electron carriers, tissue hyperoxygenation, and CBF hyperemia. These responses were normally accompanied by recovery of K+ homeostasis and EEG spike activity. Goals of this research were to understand putative relationships among these postreperfusion events with special emphasis on determining whether mitochondrial hyperoxidation results from intracellular changes that may modulate residual damage. The amplitude of postischemic mitochondrial hyperoxidation (PIMHo) did not increase when CBF increased above an apparent threshold during reperfusion, and tissue hyperoxygenation was not required for PIMHo to occur or to continue. These findings suggest that PIMHo is not merely a response to increased CBF and tissue hyperoxygenation; rather, PIMHo is modulated, at least in part, by residual intracellular derangements that limit mitochondrial electron transport. This suggestion was supported by observations that NAD became hyperoxidized after reoxygenation in anoxic hippocampal slices. Also, PIMHo occurred and subsequently resolved in many animals, but K+o never was cleared fully to baseline and/or EEG spike activity never was evident. One suggestion is that PIMHo signals or initiates residual intracellular derangements that in turn impair electrical and metabolic recovery of cerebral neurons after ischemia; an alternative suggestion is that PIMHo and tissue hyperoxygenation are not the sole factors modulating the immediate restoration of electrical activity after ischemia. Present data also support the following: Decreased oxygen consumption, despite adequate oxygen delivery, likely contributes to tissue hyperoxygenation after ischemia; and mitochondrial hyperoxidation is modulated by a limitation in the supply of electrons to the mitochondrial respiratory chain.

  10. Calcium threshold shift enables frequency-independent control of plasticity by an instructive signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piochon, Claire; Titley, Heather K.; Elgersma, Ype; Hansel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    At glutamatergic synapses, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) can be induced at the same synaptic activation frequency. Instructive signals determine whether LTP or LTD is induced, by modulating local calcium transients. Synapses maintain the ability to potentiate or depress over a wide frequency range, but it remains unknown how calcium-controlled plasticity operates when frequency variations alone cause differences in calcium amplitudes. We addressed this problem at cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, which can undergo LTD or LTP in response to 1-Hz and 100-Hz stimulation. We observed that high-frequency activation elicits larger spine calcium transients than low-frequency stimulation under all stimulus conditions, but, regardless of activation frequency, climbing fiber (CF) coactivation provides an instructive signal that further enhances calcium transients and promotes LTD. At both frequencies, buffering calcium prevents LTD induction and LTP results instead, identifying the enhanced calcium signal amplitude as the critical parameter contributed by the instructive CF signal. These observations show that it is not absolute calcium amplitudes that determine whether LTD or LTP is evoked but, instead, the LTD threshold slides, thus preserving the requirement for relatively larger calcium transients for LTD than for LTP induction at any given stimulus frequency. Cerebellar LTD depends on the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Using genetically modified (TT305/6VA and T305D) mice, we identified α-CaMKII inhibition upon autophosphorylation at Thr305/306 as a molecular event underlying the threshold shift. This mechanism enables frequency-independent plasticity control by the instructive CF signal based on relative, not absolute, calcium thresholds. PMID:27799554

  11. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. → The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. → Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. → Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. → Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.

  12. Signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation and its biomedical application as a functional coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiupeng; Ito, Atsuo; Li Xia; Sogo, Yu; Oyane, Ayako

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the current knowledge of signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation and its biomedical application as a functional coating are described. Although signal molecules regulate a variety of cellular processes, it is difficult to sustain the regulation activity for a long term when the signal molecules are only injected in a free form. The signal molecules-calcium phosphate coprecipitation on a substrate surface is a very promising process to achieve sustained regulation activity of the signal molecules by controlled and localized delivery of the signal molecules to specific body sites (implantation sites). However, the significance of immobilizing signal molecules with calcium phosphate coatings and their biomedical application are not systematically illustrated. For this purpose, the presently existing coprecipitation methods and strategies on biomedical application are summarized and discussed. (topical review)

  13. EFFECTS OF LOW-INTENSITY MICROWAVE IRRADIATION UPON INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING OF MONONUCLEAR CELLS IN PNEUMONIA PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Terekhov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Some molecular biomarkers of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were studied in patients 18 to 30 years old with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30 and healthy persons (n = 15, along with testing appropriate biological effects of low-intensity microwave irradiation (1000 MHz, at a dose rate of 100 pW/cm2. Concentrations of cytokines and some molecules providing intracellular signal transduction in PBMC were measured by ELISA tests. Biological action of microwave radiation was studied after 1-hour irradiation of whole blood, followed by incubation for 24 hours. A single round of irradiation was shown to cause an increase in NFκB content by 12.5% (р = 0.001; IκB by 21.1% (р = 0.0007; phosphorylated JNK1/2, by 18.2% (р = 0.052; p21 protein amounts, by 56.2% (р = 0.031; IL-2, by 8.5% (р = 0.08; IL-4, by 17.6% (р = 0.031. Antioxidant potential of PBMC supernatewas augmented by 65.2% (р < 0,001. Hence, a single 1000-MHz microwave irradiation modulates activity of intracellular events in PBMCs from pneumonia patients.

  14. Effect of HeNe laser on calcium signals in sperm cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubart, Rachel; Friedmann, Harry; Cohen, Natalie; Brietbart, Haim

    1998-12-01

    Irradiation of mouse spermatozoa by 630 nm HeNe laser was found to enhance calcium transport in these cells. The change in Ca transport was investigated through two approaches, the first employing the fluorescent Ca indicator, Fluo-3 AM and a fluorescence microscopic system, and the second the radiolabeled Ca uptake. In both approaches the effect of light on Ca transport was abrogated in the absence of Ca during the irradiation time, indicating that the effect of light is Ca-dependent. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca uptake was inhibited by treatment with catalase, suggesting H2O2 to be involved in light stimulated Ca2+ uptake. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca uptake was abolished in the presence of a voltage-dependent Ca-channel inhibitor, nifedipine, indicating the involvement of a plasma membrane, voltage- dependent Ca-channel. In contrast, addition of nifedipine prior to the HeNe laser irradiation did not affect the light-induced rise in intracellular Ca levels, as measured with Fluo-3 loaded sperm cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that this Ca influx occurs via a voltage- insensitive Ca-channel. The stimulatory effect of light on Ca uptake was almost completely abolished by the mitochondrial uncoupler FCCP. These data imply that light affects the mitochondrial Ca transport mechanisms. It is well known that Ca influx from an extracellular environment is an essential component of a signaling cascade leading to fertilization.

  15. KCa3.1-Dependent Hyperpolarization Enhances Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling Induced by fMLF in Differentiated U937 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Penna

    Full Text Available Formylated peptides are chemotactic agents generated by pathogens. The most relevant peptide is fMLF (formyl-Met-Leu-Phe which participates in several immune functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokine release and generation of reactive oxygen species. In macrophages fMLF-dependent responses are dependent on both, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration and on a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. However, the molecular entity underlying this hyperpolarization remains unknown and it is not clear whether changes in membrane potential are linked to the increase in intracellular Ca2+. In this study, differentiated U937 cells, as a macrophage-like cell model, was used to characterize the fMLF response using electrophysiological and Ca2+ imaging techniques. We demonstrate by means of pharmacological and molecular biology tools that fMLF induces a Ca2+-dependent hyperpolarization via activation of the K+ channel KCa3.1 and thus, enhancing fMLF-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase through an amplification of the driving force for Ca2+ entry. Consequently, enhanced Ca2+ influx would in turn lengthen the hyperpolarization, operating as a positive feedback mechanism for fMLF-induced Ca2+ signaling.

  16. Optogenetic Modulation of Intracellular Signalling and Transcription: Focus on Neuronal Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Eleftheriou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several fields in neuroscience have been revolutionized by the advent of optogenetics, a technique that offers the possibility to modulate neuronal physiology in response to light stimulation. This innovative and far-reaching tool provided unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution to explore the activity of neural circuits underlying cognition and behaviour. With an exponential growth in the discovery and synthesis of new photosensitive actuators capable of modulating neuronal networks function, other fields in biology are experiencing a similar re-evolution. Here, we review the various optogenetic toolboxes developed to influence cellular physiology as well as the diverse ways in which these can be engineered to precisely modulate intracellular signalling and transcription. We also explore the processes required to successfully express and stimulate these photo-actuators in vivo before discussing how such tools can enlighten our understanding of neuronal plasticity at the systems level.

  17. The Yeast Retrograde Response as a Model of Intracellular Signaling of Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Michal eJazwinski

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction activates intracellular signaling pathways that impact yeast longevity, and the best known of these pathways is the retrograde response. More recently, similar responses have been discerned in other systems, from invertebrates to human cells. However, the identity of the signal transducers is either unknown or apparently diverse, contrasting with the well-established signaling module of the yeast retrograde response. On the other hand, it has become equally clear that several other pathways and processes interact with the retrograde response, embedding it in a network responsive to a variety of cellular states. An examination of this network supports the notion that the master regulator NFkB aggregated a variety of mitochondria-related cellular responses at some point in evolution and has become the retrograde transcription factor. This has significant consequences for how we view some of the deficits associated with aging, such as inflammation. The support for NFkB as the retrograde response transcription factor is not only based on functional analyses. It is bolstered by the fact that NFkB can regulate Myc-Max, which is activated in human cells with dysfunctional mitochondria and impacts cellular metabolism. Myc-Max is homologous to the yeast retrograde response transcription factor Rtg1-Rtg3. Further research will be needed to disentangle the pro-aging from the anti-aging effects of NFkB. Interestingly, this is also a challenge for the complete understanding of the yeast retrograde response.

  18. Mitochondrial dysfunction in oxidative stress : On the impact of neuronal KCa channels & calcium signaling in neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honrath, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondriale dysfunctie in oxidatieve stress – over de impact van neuronale KCa kanalen en calcium signalering in neurodegeneratie (246 words) Neurodegeneratieve ziektes, zoals de ziekte van Alzheimer of Parkinson, worden gekarakteriseerd door een verlies van neuronen in verschillende

  19. Arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular calcium homeostasis induces head kidney macrophage apoptosis involving the activation of calpain-2 and ERK in Clarias batrachus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Datta, Soma; Rajagopal, R.; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2011-01-01

    We had earlier shown that exposure to arsenic (0.50 μM) caused caspase-3 mediated head kidney macrophage (HKM) apoptosis involving the p38-JNK pathway in Clarias batrachus. Here we examined the roles of calcium (Ca 2+ ) and extra-cellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), the other member of MAPK-pathway on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involved increased expression of ERK and calpain-2. Nifedipine, verapamil and EGTA pre-treatment inhibited the activation of calpain-2, ERK and reduced arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis as evidenced from reduced caspase-3 activity, Annexin V-FITC-propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. Pre-incubation with ERK inhibitor U 0126 inhibited the activation of calpain-2 and interfered with arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. Additionally, pre-incubation with calpain-2 inhibitor also interfered with the activation of ERK and inhibited arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium chloride also inhibited ERK activation indicating activation of ERK in arsenic-exposed HKM also depends on signals from NADPH oxidase pathway. Our study demonstrates the critical role of Ca 2+ homeostasis on arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. We suggest that arsenic-induced alteration in intracellular Ca 2+ levels initiates pro-apoptotic ERK and calpain-2; the two pathways influence each other positively and induce caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis. Besides, our study also indicates the role of ROS in the activation of ERK pathway in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus. - Highlights: → Altered Ca 2+ homeostasis leads to arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Calpain-2 plays a critical role in the process. → ERK is pro-apoptotic in arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis. → Arsenic-induced HKM apoptosis involves cross talk between calpain-2 and ERK.

  20. Minireview: Role of Intracellular Scaffolding Proteins in the Regulation of Endocrine G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hormones stimulates and mediates their signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The signal is transmitted into the cell due to the association of the GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, which in turn activates an extensive array of signaling pathways to regulate cell physiology. However, GPCRs also function as scaffolds for the recruitment of a variety of cytoplasmic protein-interacting proteins that bind to both the intracellular face and protein interaction motifs encoded by GPCRs. The structural scaffolding of these proteins allows GPCRs to recruit large functional complexes that serve to modulate both G protein-dependent and -independent cellular signaling pathways and modulate GPCR intracellular trafficking. This review focuses on GPCR interacting PSD95-disc large-zona occludens domain containing scaffolds in the regulation of endocrine receptor signaling as well as their potential role as therapeutic targets for the treatment of endocrinopathies. PMID:25942107

  1. Nuclear Calcium Signaling Induces Expression of the Synaptic Organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N.; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2–4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. PMID:25527504

  2. Nuclear calcium signaling induces expression of the synaptic organizers Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Stefanie N; Bading, Hilmar

    2015-02-27

    Calcium transients in the cell nucleus evoked by synaptic activity in hippocampal neurons function as a signaling end point in synapse-to-nucleus communication. As an important regulator of neuronal gene expression, nuclear calcium is involved in the conversion of synaptic stimuli into functional and structural changes of neurons. Here we identify two synaptic organizers, Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2, as targets of nuclear calcium signaling. Expression of both Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 increased in a synaptic NMDA receptor- and nuclear calcium-dependent manner in hippocampal neurons within 2-4 h after the induction of action potential bursting. Induction of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2 occurred independently of the need for new protein synthesis and required calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases and the nuclear calcium signaling target CREB-binding protein. Analysis of reporter gene constructs revealed a functional cAMP response element in the proximal promoter of Lrrtm2, indicating that at least Lrrtm2 is regulated by the classical nuclear Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV-CREB/CREB-binding protein pathway. These results suggest that one mechanism by which nuclear calcium signaling controls neuronal network function is by regulating the expression of Lrrtm1 and Lrrtm2. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. The Role of Membrane Curvature in Nanoscale Topography-Induced Intracellular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hsin-Ya; Zhao, Wenting; Zeng, Yongpeng; Cui, Bianxiao

    2018-04-12

    Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in developing biosensors and devices with nanoscale and vertical topography. Vertical nanostructures induce spontaneous cell engulfment, which enhances the cell-probe coupling efficiency and the sensitivity of biosensors. Although local membranes in contact with the nanostructures are found to be fully fluidic for lipid and membrane protein diffusions, cells appear to actively sense and respond to the surface topography presented by vertical nanostructures. For future development of biodevices, it is important to understand how cells interact with these nanostructures and how their presence modulates cellular function and activities. How cells recognize nanoscale surface topography has been an area of active research for two decades before the recent biosensor works. Extensive studies show that surface topographies in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can significantly affect cell functions, behaviors, and ultimately the cell fate. For example, titanium implants having rough surfaces are better for osteoblast attachment and host-implant integration than those with smooth surfaces. At the cellular level, nanoscale surface topography has been shown by a large number of studies to modulate cell attachment, activity, and differentiation. However, a mechanistic understanding of how cells interact and respond to nanoscale topographic features is still lacking. In this Account, we focus on some recent studies that support a new mechanism that local membrane curvature induced by nanoscale topography directly acts as a biochemical signal to induce intracellular signaling, which we refer to as the curvature hypothesis. The curvature hypothesis proposes that some intracellular proteins can recognize membrane curvatures of a certain range at the cell-to-material interface. These proteins then recruit and activate downstream components to modulate cell signaling and behavior. We discuss current technologies

  4. Two zebrafish G2A homologs activate multiple intracellular signaling pathways in acidic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichijo, Yuta; Mochimaru, Yuta [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Azuma, Morio [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190-Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Satou, Kazuhiro; Negishi, Jun [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1 Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo 173-8605 (Japan); Oshima, Natsuki [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan); Mogi, Chihiro; Sato, Koichi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Matsuda, Kouhei [Laboratory of Regulatory Biology, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190-Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Tomura, Hideaki, E-mail: tomurah@meiji.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Signaling Regulation, Department of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Meiji University, Kawasaki 214-8571 (Japan)

    2016-01-01

    Human G2A is activated by various stimuli such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 9-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (9-HODE), and protons. The receptor is coupled to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including the G{sub s}-protein/cAMP/CRE, G{sub 12/13}-protein/Rho/SRE, and G{sub q}-protein/phospholipase C/NFAT pathways. In the present study, we examined whether zebrafish G2A homologs (zG2A-a and zG2A-b) could respond to these stimuli and activate multiple intracellular signaling pathways. We also examined whether histidine residue and basic amino acid residue in the N-terminus of the homologs also play roles similar to those played by human G2A residues if the homologs sense protons. We found that the zG2A-a showed the high CRE, SRE, and NFAT activities, however, zG2A-b showed only the high SRE activity under a pH of 8.0. Extracellular acidification from pH 7.4 to 6.3 ameliorated these activities in zG2A-a-expressing cells. On the other hand, acidification ameliorated the SRE activity but not the CRE and NFAT activities in zG2A-b-expressing cells. LPC or 9-HODE did not modify any activity of either homolog. The substitution of histidine residue at the 174{sup th} position from the N-terminus of zG2A-a to asparagine residue attenuated proton-induced CRE and NFAT activities but not SRE activity. The substitution of arginine residue at the 32nd position from the N-terminus of zG2A-a to the alanine residue also attenuated its high and the proton-induced CRE and NFAT activities. On the contrary, the substitution did not attenuate SRE activity. The substitution of the arginine residue at the 10th position from the N-terminus of zG2A-b to the alanine residue also did not attenuate its high or the proton-induced SRE activity. These results indicate that zebrafish G2A homologs were activated by protons but not by LPC and 9-HODE, and the activation mechanisms of the homologs were similar to those of human G2A. - Highlights: • Zebrafish two G2A homologs are proton

  5. Intracellular Signaling Pathway Regulation of Myelination and Remyelination in the CNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, Jenna M.; Fyffe-Maricich, Sharyl L.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of myelin sheaths on demyelinated axons remains a major obstacle in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Currently approved therapies work by modulating the immune system to reduce the number and rate of lesion formation but are only partially effective since they are not able to restore lost myelin. In the healthy CNS, myelin continues to be generated throughout life and spontaneous remyelination occurs readily in response to insults. In patients with MS, however, remyelination eventually fails, at least in part as a result of a failure of oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation and the subsequent production of new myelin. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways that drive the process of myelin sheath formation is therefore important in order to speed the development of novel therapeutics designed to target remyelination. Here we review data supporting critical roles for three highly conserved intracellular signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK in the regulation of OPC differentiation and myelination both during development and in remyelination. Potential points of crosstalk between the three pathways and important areas for future research are also discussed. PMID:26957369

  6. Intracellular signaling entropy can be a biomarker for predicting the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Sato

    Full Text Available While the mortality rates for cervical cancer have been drastically reduced after the introduction of the Pap smear test, it still is one of the leading causes of death in women worldwide. Additionally, studies that appropriately evaluate the risk of developing cervical lesions are needed. Therefore, we investigated whether intracellular signaling entropy, which is measured with microarray data, could be useful for predicting the risks of developing cervical lesions. We used three datasets, GSE63514 (histology, GSE27678 (cytology and GSE75132 (cytology, a prospective study. From the data in GSE63514, the entropy rate was significantly increased with disease progression (normal < cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN < cancer (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.0001. From the data in GSE27678, similar results (normal < low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSILs < high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSILs ≤ cancer were obtained (Kruskal-Wallis test, p < 0.001. From the data in GSE75132, the entropy rate tended to be higher in the HPV-persistent groups than the HPV-negative group. The group that was destined to progress to CIN 3 or higher had a tendency to have a higher entropy rate than the HPV16-positive without progression group. In conclusion, signaling entropy was suggested to be different for different lesion statuses and could be a useful biomarker for predicting the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  7. Role of α7 nicotinic receptor in the immune system and intracellular signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowski, Robert; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata; Ujazdowska, Dominika; Lewicka, Aneta; Lewicki, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been well known as one of the most exemplary neurotransmitters. In humans, this versatile molecule and its synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, have been found in various non-neural tissues such as the epithelium, endothelium, mesothelium muscle, blood cells and immune cells. The non-neuronal acetylcholine is accompanied by the expression of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic/muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence of the non-neuronal acetylcholine system found throughout the last few years has indicated this neurotransmitter as one of the major cellular signaling molecules (associated e.g. with kinases and transcription factors activity). This system is responsible for maintenance and optimization of the cellular function, such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, intercellular contact and apoptosis. Additionally, it controls proper activity of immune cells and affects differentiation, antigen presentation or cytokine production (both pro- and anti-inflammatory). The present article reviews recent findings about the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the field of immune system and intracellular signaling pathways.

  8. Chronic ethanol exposure induces SK-N-SH cell apoptosis by increasing N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor expression and intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Yan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Changliang; Feng, Chunmei; Xu, Guohui; Chen, Jiajun; You, Jiabin; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Xu; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua

    2018-04-01

    It has been identified that chronic ethanol exposure damages the nervous system, particularly neurons. There is scientific evidence suggesting that neuronal loss caused by chronic ethanol exposure has an association with neuron apoptosis and intracellular calcium oscillation is one of the primary inducers of apoptosis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the inductive effects of intracellular calcium oscillation on apoptosis in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells and the protective effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, memantine, on SK-N-SH cell apoptosis caused by chronic ethanol exposure. SK-N-SH cells were treated with 100 mM ethanol and memantine (4 µM) for 2 days. Protein expression of NR1 was downregulated by RNA interference (RNAi). Apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double-staining and flow cytometry and cell viability was detected using an MTS kit. Fluorescence dual wavelength spectrophotometry was used to determine the intracellular calcium concentration and the levels of NR1 and caspase-3 were detected using western blotting. NR1 mRNA levels were also detected using qPCR. It was found that chronic ethanol exposure reduced neuronal cell viability and caused apoptosis of SK-N-SH cells, and the extent of damage in SK-N-SH cells was associated with ethanol exposure concentration and time. In addition, chronic ethanol exposure increased the concentration of intracellular calcium in SK-N-SH cells by inducing the expression of NMDAR, resulting in apoptosis, and memantine treatment reduced ethanol-induced cell apoptosis. The results of the present study indicate that the application of memantine may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of alcoholic dementia.

  9. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen allergen induces elevation of intracellular calcium in human keratinocytes and impairs epidermal barrier function of human skin ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Junichi; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Cry j1 is the major peptide allergen of Japanese cedar (Sugi), Cryptomeria japonica. Since some allergens disrupt epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, we hypothesized that Cry j1 might have a similar effect. Intracellular calcium level in cultured human keratinocytes was measured with a ratiometric fluorescent probe, Fura-2 AM. Application of Cry j1 significantly increased the intracellular calcium level of keratinocytes, and this increase was inhibited by trypsin inhibitor or a protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) antagonist. We found that Cry j1 itself did not show protease activity, but application of Cry j1 to cultured keratinocytes induced a rapid (within 30 s) and transient increase of protease activity in the medium. This transient increase was blocked by trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. The effect of Cry j1 on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of cultured human skin was measured in the presence and absence of a trypsin inhibitor and PAR-2 antagonist. Cry j1 significantly impaired the barrier function of human skin ex vivo, and this action was blocked by co-application of trypsin inhibitor or PAR-2 antagonist. Our results suggested that interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes leads to the activation of PAR-2, which induces elevation of intracellular calcium and disruption of barrier function. Blocking the interaction of Cry j1 with epidermal keratinocytes might ameliorate allergic reaction and prevent disruption of epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis.

  10. [Mechanism of 17β-estrogen on intracellular free calcium regulation in smooth muscle cells at the endometrial-myometrial interface in uteri with adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Duan, Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Henghui; Li, Guoli

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the regulation mechanism of estrogen on the free calcium of smooth muscle cells at the endometrial-myometrial interface (EMI) in uteri with adenomyosis. From September 2011 to November 2012, 59 uterine myometrial specimens were obtained from 59 cases underwent hysterectomy, including 28 adenomyosis patients as adenomyosis (ADS) group and 31 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III as control group. EMI smooth muscle cells were cultured and loaded with calcium ion fluorescent probe fluo-4/AM. After treated with trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist, blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-adenosine triphosphate (ATP), depleted agent of the ryanodine receptor-operated Ca(2+), inhibitor of L-type calcium channel, inhibitor of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger, the labeled cells were stimulated with estrogen. The changes of intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity were detected by laser scanning microscopy. The changes of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was indicated by △F[Ca(2+)](i). (1) Under normal calcium conditions, after the stimulation of estrogen, intracellular Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity in ADS group and control group both increased than those without estrogen. The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was 384 ± 26, and in the control group △F[Ca(2+)](i) was 235 ± 20. The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was higher than that in the control (P calcium conditions, the △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was 207 ± 17, and in the control group △F[Ca(2+)](i) was 221 ± 19. The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was almost the same with the increase in the control (P = 0.731). The △F[Ca(2+)](i) in ADS group was significantly decreased compared with the calcium condition (P calcium conditions (P = 0.060). (2) After treated with IP3 receptor antagonist, blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATP, depleted agent of the ryanodine receptor-operated Ca(2+), the △F[Ca(2+)]i in both groups were significantly reduced (P calcium channel, the △F[Ca(2+)](i

  11. Effect of toluene diisocyanate on homeostasis of intracellular-free calcium in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.-S.; Chiung, Y.-M.; Kao, Y.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of TDI (2,4-toluene diisocyanate)-induced occupational asthma are not fully established. Previous studies have indicated that TDI induces non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine and induces contraction of smooth muscle tissue by activating 'capsaicin-sensitive' nerves resulting asthma. Cytosolic-free calcium ion concentrations ([Ca 2+ ] c ) are elevated when either capsaicin acts at vanilloid receptors, or methacholine at muscarinic receptors. This study therefore investigated the effects of TDI on Ca 2+ mobilization in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. TDI was found to elevate [Ca 2+ ] c by releasing Ca 2+ from the intracellular stores and extracellular Ca 2+ influx. 500 μM TDI induced a net [Ca 2+ ] c increase of 112 ± 8 and 78 ± 6 nM in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca 2+ , respectively. In Ca 2+ -free buffer, TDI induced Ca 2+ release from internal stores to reduce their Ca 2+ content and this reduction was evidenced by a suppression occurring on the [Ca 2+ ] c rise induced by thapsigargin, ionomycin, and methacholine after TDI incubation. In the presence of extracellular Ca 2+ , simultaneous exposure to TDI and methacholine led a higher level of [Ca 2+ ] c compared to single methacholine stimulation, that might explain that TDI induces bronchial hyperreactivity to methacholine. We conclude that TDI is capable of interfering the [Ca 2+ ] c homeostasis including releasing Ca 2+ from internal stores and inducing extracellular Ca 2+ influx. The interaction of this novel character and bronchial hyperreactivity need further investigation

  12. Impaired recovery of intracellular calcium and force after activation in isolated myometrial and subcutaneous resistance arteries from women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalasundera, Ruwan C; Wijetunge, Sumangali; Thom, Simon M; Regan, Lesley; Hughes, Alun D

    2010-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, but its cause is poorly understood. This study investigated whether there is an abnormality of intracellular calcium ([Ca2=]i) and tension during recovery from activation in isolated resistance arteries in preeclampsia and investigated the underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous and myometrial resistance arteries from preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant and nonpregnant women were mounted on an isometric myograph and loaded with fura-2 to allow simultaneous measurement of force and [Ca2+]i. Arteries were activated by a high-potassium solution or noradrenaline, and the rate of decline in force and [Ca2+]i examined following washout. Basal tone and [Ca2+]i and rise in force and [Ca2+]i induced by high-potassium solution did not differ between groups but the rate of decline after washout was significantly slowed in both subcutaneous and myometrial arteries from preeclamptic women as compared with normotensive pregnant or nonpregnant women. The rate of decline in force after noradrenaline was also slowed in arteries from preeclamptic women. In subcutaneous resistance arteries from nonpregnant women, removal of the endothelium did not affect the rate of decline in force after high-potassium solution. However, inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca ATPase with carboxyeosin mimicked the findings seen in preeclampsia. In contrast, inhibition of the sarcoplasmic endoreticulum Ca ATPase with cyclopiazonic acid had no effect on the rate of decline in force or [Ca2+]i. The rate of relaxation and decline in [Ca2+]i in resistance arteries are impaired in preeclampsia. This may be mediated by decreased activity of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase and could be a mechanism contributing to elevated peripheral resistance and raised blood pressure in preeclampsia.

  13. Resveratrol inhibits the intracellular calcium increase and angiotensin/endothelin system activation induced by soluble uric acid in mesangial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Albertoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (Resv is natural polyphenol found in grapes. This study evaluated the protective effect of Resv against the effects of uric acid (UA in immortalized human mesangial cells (ihMCs. ihMCs were preincubated with Resv (12.5 µM for 1 h and treated with UA (10 mg/dL for 6 or 12 h. The intracellular calcium concentration [Ca2+]i was quantified by fluorescence using flow cytometry. Angiotensinogen (AGT and pre-pro endothelin-1 (ppET-1 mRNA were assayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Angiotensin II (AII and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were assayed by ELISA. UA significantly increased [Ca2+]i. Pre-incubation with Resv significantly reduced the change in [Ca2+]i induced by UA. Incubation with UA for 6 or 12 h also increased AGT mRNA expression and AII protein synthesis. Resv blunted these increases in AGT mRNA expression and AII protein. Incubation with UA in the ihMCs increased ppET-1 expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h. When ihMCs were pre-incubated with Resv, UA had a significantly diminished effect on ppET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h, respectively. Our results suggested that UA triggers reactions including AII and ET-1 production in mesangial cells. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal function and chronic kidney disease. Resv can minimize the impact of UA on AII, ET-1 and the increase of [Ca2+]i in mesangial cells, suggesting that, at least in part, Resv can prevent the effects of soluble UA in mesangial cells.

  14. Resveratrol inhibits the intracellular calcium increase and angiotensin/endothelin system activation induced by soluble uric acid in mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertoni, G.; Schor, N. [Divisão de Nefrologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-10-24

    Resveratrol (Resv) is natural polyphenol found in grapes. This study evaluated the protective effect of Resv against the effects of uric acid (UA) in immortalized human mesangial cells (ihMCs). ihMCs were preincubated with Resv (12.5 µM) for 1 h and treated with UA (10 mg/dL) for 6 or 12 h. The intracellular calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]i was quantified by fluorescence using flow cytometry. Angiotensinogen (AGT) and pre-pro endothelin-1 (ppET-1) mRNA were assayed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were assayed by ELISA. UA significantly increased [Ca{sup 2+}]i. Pre-incubation with Resv significantly reduced the change in [Ca{sup 2+}]i induced by UA. Incubation with UA for 6 or 12 h also increased AGT mRNA expression and AII protein synthesis. Resv blunted these increases in AGT mRNA expression and AII protein. Incubation with UA in the ihMCs increased ppET-1 expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h. When ihMCs were pre-incubated with Resv, UA had a significantly diminished effect on ppET-1 mRNA expression and ET-1 protein synthesis at 6 and 12 h, respectively. Our results suggested that UA triggers reactions including AII and ET-1 production in mesangial cells. The renin-angiotensin system may contribute to the pathogenesis of renal function and chronic kidney disease. Resv can minimize the impact of UA on AII, ET-1 and the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in mesangial cells, suggesting that, at least in part, Resv can prevent the effects of soluble UA in mesangial cells.

  15. Involvement of calcium and calmodulin signaling in adaptation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat stress is a common form of stress suffered by plants. Therefore, plants have evolved mechanisms to cope with the problems caused by high temperatures. In this study, the involvement of calcium ion and calmodulin (Ca2+-CaM) in the protection against heat stress-induced oxidative damage in tomato (Solanum ...

  16. Functions of IQD proteins as hubs in cellular calcium and auxin signaling: A toolbox for shape formation and tissue-specification in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürstenbinder, Katharina; Mitra, Dipannita; Quegwer, Jakob

    2017-06-03

    Calcium (Ca 2+ ) ions play pivotal roles as second messengers in intracellular signal transduction, and coordinate many biological processes. Changes in intracellular Ca 2+ levels are perceived by Ca 2+ sensors such as calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like (CML) proteins, which transduce Ca 2+ signals into cellular responses by regulation of diverse target proteins. Insights into molecular functions of CaM targets are thus essential to understand the molecular and cellular basis of Ca 2+ signaling. During the last decade, IQ67-domain (IQD) proteins emerged as the largest class of CaM targets in plants with mostly unknown functions. In the March issue of Plant Physiology, we presented the first comprehensive characterization of the 33-membered IQD family in Arabidopsis thaliana. We showed, by analysis of the subcellular localization of translational green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins, that most IQD members label microtubules (MTs), and additionally often localize to the cell nucleus or to membranes, where they recruit CaM Ca 2+ sensors. Important functions at MTs are supported by altered MT organization and plant growth in IQD gain-of-function lines. Because IQD proteins share structural hallmarks of scaffold proteins, we propose roles of IQDs in the assembly of macromolecular complexes to orchestrate Ca 2+ CaM signaling from membranes to the nucleus. Interestingly, expression of several IQDs is regulated by auxin, which suggests functions of IQDs as hubs in cellular auxin and calcium signaling to regulate plant growth and development.

  17. Taurine prevention of calcium paradox-related damage in cardiac muscle. Its regulatory action on intracellular cation contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi-Takihara, K; Azuma, J; Kishimoto, S; Onishi, S; Sperelakis, N

    1988-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate in chick heart whether oral pretreatment with taurine or taurine added directly to the perfusate has any effect upon calcium paradox-induced heart failure. In both protocols, taurine significantly reduced the mechanical dysfunction resulting from the calcium paradox. Taurine pretreatment partially inhibited the excess accumulation of calcium in the myocardium that occurs upon calcium repletion, and microscopy revealed almost normal structure. This protective effect of taurine was accompanied by (a) reduction of the gain of sodium content that occurs during calcium depletion, and (b) reduction of the late gain in calcium that occurs during calcium repletion. It is proposed that taurine plays a role in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and membrane stabilization.

  18. Evidence for a role of intracellular stored parathyroid hormone in producing hysteresis of the PTH-calcium relationship in normal humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Peter; Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the clear recognition that extracellular ionized calcium controls PTH secretion, there have been suggestions of hysteresis in the relationship between extracellular ionized calcium and PTH during recovery from induced hypo- and hypercalcaemia in vivo in humans. In this study, we...... examined the possibility that release of intracellular stored PTH during induced hypocalcaemia may explain hysteresis. VOLUNTEERS: Eleven volunteers, five women and six men, were recruited to participate in the study. DESIGN: A series of three protocols of repeated induction of hypocalcaemia or sequential...... induction of hypo- and hypercalcaemia. RESULTS: We observed in a total of 13 trials that a drastic lowering of blood ionized calcium by 0.20 mmol/l within 30 min elicited an immediate large, transient peak release of PTH amounting to 6-16 times the baseline concentration. However, following a steady...

  19. Calcium signaling induced by angiotensin II in the pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, D C; Sarosi, G A; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and mechanisms of angiotensin II-evoked calcium signaling in AR42J cells. Cytosolic calcium concentrations were determined using fura-2-based microfluorimetry. Angiotensin II causes elevations in free cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in the rat pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J. The mechanisms of angiotensin II-evoked calcium signaling were examined using fura-2-based fluorescent digital microscopy. Angiotensin II caused dose-dependent increments in [Ca2+]i over a concentration range of 0.1-1,000 nM, with an average increment of 243 +/- 16 nM at an angiotensin II concentration of 1,000 nM. Dup753, an AT1-specific antagonist, inhibited angiotensin II-evoked signaling, whereas the AT2 antagonist PD123,319 had no effect. Preincubation with the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 reduced the response in [Ca2+]i to 25% of that of the control. Thapsigargin abolished angiotensin II-evoked calcium signaling. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist heparin introduced by radiofrequency electroporation inhibited responses to 46 +/- 6% of controls. Angiotensin II-evoked signals were reduced in magnitude and duration by elimination of Ca2+ from the extracellular buffer. Preincubation with pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) had no effect. Angiotensin II did not stimulate cyclic AMP or suppress vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulated cyclic AMP production over the concentration range that caused Ca2+ signaling.

  20. A framework to reconcile frequency scaling measurements, from intracellular recordings, local-field potentials, up to EEG and MEG signals

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Claude; Gomes, Jean-Marie; Bal, Thierry; Destexhe, Alain

    2016-01-01

    In this viewpoint article, we discuss the electric properties of the medium around neurons, which are important to correctly interpret extracellular potentials or electric field effects in neural tissue. We focus on how these electric properties shape the frequency scaling of brain signals at different scales, such as intracellular recordings, the local field potential (LFP), the electroencephalogram (EEG) or the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). These signals display frequency-scaling properties w...

  1. Regulation of Notch1 signaling by the APP intracellular domain facilitates degradation of the Notch1 intracellular domain and RBP-Jk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Yeon; Mo, Jung-Soon; Ann, Eun-Jung; Yoon, Ji-Hye; Jung, Jane; Choi, Yun-Hee; Kim, Su-Man; Kim, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Ji-Seon; Kim, Hangun; Kim, Kwonseop; Hoe, Hyang-Sook; Park, Hee-Sae

    2011-06-01

    The Notch1 receptor is a crucial controller of cell fate decisions, and is also a key regulator of cell growth and differentiation in a variety of contexts. In this study, we have demonstrated that the APP intracellular domain (AICD) attenuates Notch1 signaling by accelerated degradation of the Notch1 intracellular domain (Notch1-IC) and RBP-Jk, through different degradation pathways. AICD suppresses Notch1 transcriptional activity by the dissociation of the Notch1-IC-RBP-Jk complex after processing by γ-secretase. Notch1-IC is capable of forming a trimeric complex with Fbw7 and AICD, and AICD enhances the protein degradation of Notch1-IC through an Fbw7-dependent proteasomal pathway. AICD downregulates the levels of RBP-Jk protein through the lysosomal pathway. AICD-mediated degradation is involved in the preferential degradation of non-phosphorylated RBP-Jk. Collectively, our results demonstrate that AICD functions as a negative regulator in Notch1 signaling through the promotion of Notch1-IC and RBP-Jk protein degradation.

  2. Visualization of Plasticity in Fear-Evoked Calcium Signals in Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Bryan B.; Soden, Marta E.; Zweifel, Larry S.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is broadly implicated in fear-related processes, yet we know very little about signaling dynamics in these neurons during active fear conditioning. We describe the direct imaging of calcium signals of dopamine neurons during Pavlovian fear conditioning using fiber-optic confocal microscopy coupled with the genetically encoded calcium…

  3. Dystrophin gene expression and intracellular calcium changes in the giant freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, in response to white spot symptom disease infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Anees Fathima; Soo, Tze Chiew Christie; Ghani, Farhana Mohd; Goh, Zee Hong; Khoo, Li Teng; Bhassu, Subha

    2017-12-01

    Dystrophin, an essential protein functional in the maintenance of muscle structural integrity is known to be responsible for muscle deterioration during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection among prawn species. Previous studies have shown the upregulation of dystrophin protein in Macrobrachium rosenbergii (the giant freshwater prawn) upon white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. The literature has also suggested the important role of calcium ion alterations in causing such muscle diseases. Thus, the interest of this study lies within the linkage between dystrophin functioning, intracellular calcium and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection condition. In this study, the dystrophin gene from M. rosenbergii (MrDys) was first characterised followed by the characterization of dystrophin gene from a closely related shrimp species, Penaeus monodon (PmDys). Dystrophin sequences from different phyla were then used for evolutionary comparison through BLAST analysis, conserved domain analysis and phylogenetic analysis. The changes in mRNA expression levels of dystrophin and the alteration of intracellular calcium concentrations in WSSV infected muscle cells were then studied. A 1246 base pair long dystrophin sequence was identified in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii ( MrDys ) followed by 1082 base pair long dystrophin sequence in P. monodon ( PmDys ). Four conserved domains were identified from the thirteen dystrophin sequences compared which were classified into 5 different phyla. From the phylogenetic analysis, aside from PmDys, the characterised MrDys was shown to be most similar to the invertebrate phylum of Nematoda. In addition, an initial down-regulation of dystrophin gene expression followed by eventual up-regulation, together with an increase in intracellular calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i were shown upon WSSV experimental infection. Both the functionality of the dystrophin protein and the intracellular calcium concentration were

  4. Early effects of gliadin on enterocyte intracellular signalling involved in intestinal barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, M G; De Virgiliis, S; Kang, J S; Macatagney, R; Musu, M P; Di Pierro, M R; Drago, S; Congia, M; Fasano, A

    2003-02-01

    Despite the progress made in understanding the immunological aspects of the pathogenesis of coeliac disease (CD), the early steps that allow gliadin to cross the intestinal barrier are still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to establish whether gliadin activates a zonulin dependent enterocyte intracellular signalling pathway(s) leading to increased intestinal permeability. The effect of gliadin on the enterocyte actin cytoskeleton was studied on rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cell cultures by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. Zonulin concentration was measured on cell culture supernatants by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Transepithelial intestinal resistance (Rt) was measured on ex vivo intestinal tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Incubation of cells with gliadin led to a reversible protein kinase C (PKC) mediated actin polymerisation temporarily coincident with zonulin release. A significant reduction in Rt was observed after gliadin addition on rabbit intestinal mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Pretreatment with the zonulin inhibitor FZI/0 abolished the gliadin induced actin polymerisation and Rt reduction but not zonulin release. Gliadin induces zonulin release in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Activation of the zonulin pathway by PKC mediated cytoskeleton reorganisation and tight junction opening leads to a rapid increase in intestinal permeability.

  5. Rare genomic variants link bipolar disorder to CREB regulated intracellular signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit eKerner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a common, complex, and severe psychiatric disorder with cyclical disturbances of mood and a high suicide rate. Here, we describe a family with four siblings, three affected females and one unaffected male. The disease course was characterized by early-onset bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety spectrum disorders that followed the onset of bipolar disorder. Genetic risk factors were suggested by the early onset of the disease, the severe disease course, including multiple suicide attempts, and lack of adverse prenatal or early life events. In particular, drug and alcohol abuse did not contribute to the disease onset. Exome sequencing identified very rare, heterozygous, and likely protein-damaging variants in eight brain-expressed genes: IQUB, JMJD1C, GADD45A, GOLGB1, PLSCR5, VRK2, MESDC2, and FGGY. The variants were shared among all three affected family members but absent in the unaffected sibling and in more than 200 controls. The genes encode proteins with significant regulatory roles in the ERK/MAPK and CREB-regulated intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways are central to neuronal and synaptic plasticity, cognition, affect regulation and response to chronic stress. In addition, proteins in these pathways are the target of commonly used mood stabilizing drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants, lithium and valproic acid. The combination of multiple rare, damaging mutations in these central pathways could lead to reduced resilience and increased vulnerability to stressful life events. Our results support a new model for psychiatric disorders, in which multiple rare, damaging mutations in genes functionally related to a common signaling pathway contribute to the manifestation of bipolar disorder.

  6. Involvement of the Tyro3 receptor and its intracellular partner Fyn signaling in Schwann cell myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Torii, Tomohiro; Takada, Shuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Saitoh, Yurika; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Ito, Akihito; Ogata, Toru; Terada, Nobuo; Tanoue, Akito; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-10-01

    During early development of the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cell precursors proliferate, migrate, and differentiate into premyelinating Schwann cells. After birth, Schwann cells envelop neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Although some molecular mechanisms underlying myelination by Schwann cells have been identified, the whole picture remains unclear. Here we show that signaling through Tyro3 receptor tyrosine kinase and its binding partner, Fyn nonreceptor cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase, is involved in myelination by Schwann cells. Impaired formation of myelin segments is observed in Schwann cell neuronal cultures established from Tyro3-knockout mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Indeed, Tyro3-knockout mice exhibit reduced myelin thickness. By affinity chromatography, Fyn was identified as the binding partner of the Tyro3 intracellular domain, and activity of Fyn is down-regulated in Tyro3-knockout mice, suggesting that Tyro3, acting through Fyn, regulates myelination. Ablating Fyn in mice results in reduced myelin thickness. Decreased myelin formation is observed in cultures established from Fyn-knockout mouse DRG. Furthermore, decreased kinase activity levels and altered expression of myelination-associated transcription factors are observed in these knockout mice. These results suggest the involvement of Tyro3 receptor and its binding partner Fyn in Schwann cell myelination. This constitutes a newly recognized receptor-linked signaling mechanism that can control Schwann cell myelination. © 2015 Miyamoto et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  7. Intracellular metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) activates signaling cascades distinct from cell surface counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Yuh-Jiin I; Kumar, Vikas; O'Malley, Karen L

    2009-12-18

    G-protein-coupled receptors are thought to transmit extracellular signals to the cytoplasm from their position on the cell surface. Some receptors, including the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), are also highly expressed on intracellular membranes where they serve unknown functions. Here, we show that activation of cell surface versus intracellular mGluR5 results in unique Ca(2+) signatures leading to unique cellular responses. Specifically, activation of either cell surface or intracellular mGluR5 leads to JNK, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, whereas activation of only intracellular mGluR5 leads to ERK1/2 and Elk-1 phosphorylation. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, the present findings support a role for CaMK kinase in mediating mGluR5-dependent cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation, whereas CaMKII is upstream of intracellular mGluR5-mediated Elk-1 phosphorylation. Consistent with models showing Elk-1 regulating cascades of gene expression, the known Elk-1 targets c-fos and egr1 were up-regulated following intracellular mGluR5 activation, whereas a representative non-Elk-1 target, c-jun, was not. These findings emphasize that glutamate not only serves as a neurotransmitter for cell surface receptors but, when transported into the cell, can also activate intracellular receptors such as mGluR5. Glutamate activation of intracellular mGluR5 serves an important role in the regulation of nuclear Ca(2+), transcriptional activation, and gene expression necessary for physiological processes such as synaptic plasticity.

  8. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Shin Nishitani

    Full Text Available A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7 expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  9. Filamin and phospholipase C-ε are required for calcium signaling in the Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismar Kovacevic

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Caenorhabditis elegans spermatheca is a myoepithelial tube that stores sperm and undergoes cycles of stretching and constriction as oocytes enter, are fertilized, and exit into the uterus. FLN-1/filamin, a stretch-sensitive structural and signaling scaffold, and PLC-1/phospholipase C-ε, an enzyme that generates the second messenger IP3, are required for embryos to exit normally after fertilization. Using GCaMP, a genetically encoded calcium indicator, we show that entry of an oocyte into the spermatheca initiates a distinctive series of IP3-dependent calcium oscillations that propagate across the tissue via gap junctions and lead to constriction of the spermatheca. PLC-1 is required for the calcium release mechanism triggered by oocyte entry, and FLN-1 is required for timely initiation of the calcium oscillations. INX-12, a gap junction subunit, coordinates propagation of the calcium transients across the spermatheca. Gain-of-function mutations in ITR-1/IP3R, an IP3-dependent calcium channel, and loss-of-function mutations in LFE-2, a negative regulator of IP3 signaling, increase calcium release and suppress the exit defect in filamin-deficient animals. We further demonstrate that a regulatory cassette consisting of MEL-11/myosin phosphatase and NMY-1/non-muscle myosin is required for coordinated contraction of the spermatheca. In summary, this study answers long-standing questions concerning calcium signaling dynamics in the C. elegans spermatheca and suggests FLN-1 is needed in response to oocyte entry to trigger calcium release and coordinated contraction of the spermathecal tissue.

  10. Developmental regulation of intracellular calcium by N-methyl-D-aspartate and noradrenaline in rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Imamura, K; Kaub, P A; Nakadate, K; Watanabe, Y

    1999-01-01

    The effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate and noradrenaline on intracellular Ca2+ concentration in slices of rat visual cortex were studied using a fluorescent indicator, Fura-2. Bath application of N-methyl-D-aspartate (1-100 microM) increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a dose-dependent manner, especially in layers II/III. Noradrenaline (1-100 microM) also increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration in a dose-dependent manner, especially in layers I and IV. However, the maximum increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after 100 microM noradrenaline application was less than half of that after 100 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate application in slices obtained from animals in the sensitive period. The effect of noradrenaline was most prominent in slices of the sensitive period, whereas the N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration response decreased with age. Additive effects from application of both N-methyl-D-aspartate and noradrenaline on intracellular Ca2+ concentration were found only in the neonatal stage. Pharmacological experiments showed that alpha1-adrenergic receptors play a major role in the noradrenaline-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration response, although both alpha2- and beta-adrenergic receptors were also partially involved. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular storage underlay the early phase of the noradrenaline-induced intracellular Ca2+ concentration response, while extracellular Ca2+ influxes contributed to the sustained phase. Experiments using a gliotoxin, fluorocitric acid, suggested that the function of glial cells is involved in the noradrenaline-induced increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The larger intracellular Ca2+ concentration response to noradrenaline during the sensitive period may modulate the increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration by N-methyl-D-aspartate to maintain a higher level of cortical plasticity during this period.

  11. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Intracellular Calcium Dyshomeostasis Through Both Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palee, Siripong; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress induced intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several heart diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh) has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information regarding the effects of ACh on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ACh applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the male Wistar rats for the intracellular Ca2+ transient study by a fluorimetric ratio technique. H2O2 significantly decreased both of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh applied before, but not after, H2O2 treatment attenuated the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Both atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker) significantly decreased the protective effects of acetylcholine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Moreover, the combination of atropine and mecamylamine completely abolished the protective effects of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh pretreatment attenuates H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis through both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absorb calcium as well. Sufficient calcium intake from food, and supplements if needed, can slow the rate of bone loss. Women of childbearing ... calcium absorption. People who eat a variety of foods don't have to consider ... include consumption of alcohol- and caffeine-containing beverages as well ...

  13. Synaptic plasticity at the interface of health and disease: New insights on the role of endoplasmic reticulum intracellular calcium stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, N; Vlachos, A

    2014-12-05

    Work from the past 40years has unraveled a wealth of information on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and their relevance in physiological brain function. At the same time, it has been recognized that a broad range of neurological diseases may be accompanied by severe alterations in synaptic plasticity, i.e., 'maladaptive synaptic plasticity', which could initiate and sustain the remodeling of neuronal networks under pathological conditions. Nonetheless, our current knowledge on the specific contribution and interaction of distinct forms of synaptic plasticity (including metaplasticity and homeostatic plasticity) in the context of pathological brain states remains limited. This review focuses on recent experimental evidence, which highlights the fundamental role of endoplasmic reticulum-mediated Ca(2+) signals in modulating the duration, direction, extent and type of synaptic plasticity. We discuss the possibility that intracellular Ca(2+) stores may regulate synaptic plasticity and hence behavioral and cognitive functions at the interface between physiology and pathology. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium homeostasis and signaling in fungi and their relevance for pathogenicity of yeasts and filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tisi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though fungi show peculiarities in the purposes and specific traits of calcium signaling pathways, the general scheme and the most important players are well conserved if compared to higher eukaryotes. This provides a powerful opportunity either to investigate shared features using yeast as a model or to exploit fungal specificities as potential targets for antifungal therapies. The sequenced genomes from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa were already published more than ten years ago. More recently the genome sequences of filamentous fungi of Aspergillus genus, some of which threatening pathogens, and dimorphic fungi Ustilago maydis were published, giving the chance to identify several proteins involved in calcium signaling based on their homology to yeast or mammalian counterparts. Nonetheless, unidentified calcium transporters are still present in these organisms which await to be molecularly characterized. Despite the relative simplicity in yeast calcium machinery and the availability of sophisticated molecular tools, in the last years, a number of new actors have been identified, albeit not yet fully characterized. This review will try to describe the state of the art in calcium channels and calcium signaling knowledge in yeast, with particular attention to the relevance of this knowledge with respect to pathological fungi.

  15. Auranofin, an Anti-Rheumatic Gold Compound, Modulates Apoptosis by Elevating the Intracellular Calcium Concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varghese, Elizabeth; Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144 Doha (Qatar)

    2014-11-06

    Auranofin, a transition metal complex is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis but is also an effective anti-cancer drug. We investigate the effects of Auranofin in inducing cell death by apoptosis and whether these changes are correlated to changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Cytotoxicity of Auranofin was evaluated using MTS assay and the Trypan blue dye exclusion method. With fluorescent dyes SR-FLICA and 7-AAD apoptotic death and necrotic death were differentiated by Flow cytometry. A concentration dependent decrease in the viability occurred and cells were shifted to the apoptotic phase. Intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) was recorded using florescence microscopy and a calcium sensitive dye (Fluo-4 AM) with a strong negative correlation (r = −0.713) to viability. Pharmacological modulators 2-APB (50 μM), Nimodipine (10 μM), Caffeine (10 mM), SKF 96365(20 μM) were used to modify calcium entry and release. Auranofin induced a sustained increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a concentration and time dependent manner. The use of different blockers of calcium channels did not reveal the source for the rise of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. Overall, elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} by Auranofin might be crucial for triggering Ca{sup 2+}-dependent apoptotic pathways. Therefore, in anti-cancer therapy, modulating [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} should be considered as a crucial factor for the induction of cell death in cancer cells.

  16. Activation of intracellular calcium by multiple Wnt ligands and translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus: a convergent model of Wnt/Ca2+ and Wnt/β-catenin pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Millar, Michael; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-12-13

    Ca(2+) and β-catenin, a 92-kDa negatively charged transcription factor, transduce Wnt signaling via the non-canonical, Wnt/Ca(2+) and canonical, Wnt/β-catenin pathways independently. The nuclear envelope is a barrier to large protein entry, and this process is regulated by intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and trans-nuclear potential. How β-catenin traverses the nuclear envelope is not well known. We hypothesized that Wnt/Ca(2+) and Wnt/β-catenin pathways act in a coordinated manner and that [Ca(2+)]i release facilitates β-catenin entry into the nucleus in mammalian cells. In a live assay using calcium dyes in PC3 prostate cancer cells, six Wnt peptides (3A, 4, 5A, 7A, 9B, and 10B) mobilized [Ca(2+)]i but Wnt11 did not. Based upon dwell time (range = 15-30 s) of the calcium waveform, these Wnts could be classified into three classes: short, 3A and 5A; long, 7A and 10B; and very long, 4 and 9B. Wnt-activated [Ca(2+)]i release was followed by an increase in intranuclear calcium and the depolarization of both the cell and nuclear membranes, determined by using FM4-64. In cells treated with Wnts 5A, 9B, and 10B, paradigm substrates for each Wnt class, increased [Ca(2+)]i was followed by β-catenin translocation into the nucleus in PC3, MCF7, and 253J, prostate, breast, and bladder cancer cell lines; both the increase in Wnt 5A, 9B, and 10B induced [Ca(2+)]i release and β-catenin translocation are suppressed by thapsigargin in PC3 cell line. We propose a convergent model of Wnt signaling network where Ca(2+) and β-catenin pathways may act in a coordinated, interdependent, rather than independent, manner.

  17. Silver Nanoparticle-Directed Mast Cell Degranulation Is Mediated through Calcium and PI3K Signaling Independent of the High Affinity IgE Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser B Alsaleh

    Full Text Available Engineered nanomaterial (ENM-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1 in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation. However, it is completely unknown how SR-B1 mediates mast cell degranulation and the intracellular signaling pathways involved. In the current study, we hypothesized that SR-B1 interaction with AgNPs directs mast cell degranulation through activation of signal transduction pathways that culminate in an increase in intracellular calcium signal leading to mast cell degranulation. For these studies, we utilized bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC isolated from C57Bl/6 mice and RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophilic leukemia cell line. Our data support our hypothesis and show that AgNP-directed mast cell degranulation involves activation of PI3K, PLCγ and an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, we found that influx of extracellular calcium is required for the cells to degranulate in response to AgNP exposure and is mediated at least partially via the CRAC channels. Taken together, our results provide new insights into AgNP-induced mast cell activation that are key for designing novel ENMs that are devoid of immune system activation.

  18. Neurosteroids block the increase in intracellular calcium level induced by Alzheimer’s β-amyloid protein in long-term cultured rat hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Kato-Negishi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Midori Kato-Negishi1, Masahiro Kawahara21Department of Developmental Morphology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute for Neuroscience, 2-6 Musashidai, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183- 8526, Japan; 2Department of Analytical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, 1714-1 Yoshino-cho, Nobeoka-shi, Miyazaki 882-8508, JapanAbstract: The neurotoxicity of β-amyloid protein (AβP is implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. We previously have demonstrated that AβP forms Ca2+-permeable pores on neuronal membranes, causes a marked increase in intracellular calcium level, and leads to neuronal death. Here, we investigated in detail the features of AβP-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ level in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons using a multisite Ca2+- imaging system with fura-2 as a fluorescent probe. Only a small fraction of short-term cultured hippocampal neurons (ca 1 week in vitro exhibited changes in intracellular Ca2+ level after AβP exposure. However, AβP caused an acute increase in intracellular Ca2+ level in long-term cultured neurons (ca 1 month in vitro. The responses to AβP were highly heterogeneous, and immunohistochemical analysis using an antibody to AβP revealed that AβP is deposited on some but not all neurons. Considering that the disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis is the primary event in AβP neurotoxicity, substances that protect neurons from an AβP-induced intracellular Ca2+ level increase may be candidates as therapeutic drugs for Alzheimer’s disease. In line with the search for such protective substances, we found that the preadministration of neurosteroids including dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and pregnenolone significantly inhibits the increase in intracellular calcium level induced by AβP. Our results suggest the possible significance of neurosteroids, whose levels are reduced in the elderly, in preventing AβP neurotoxicity

  19. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  20. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samigullin, Dmitry; Fatikhov, Nijaz; Khaziev, Eduard; Skorinkin, Andrey; Nikolsky, Eugeny; Bukharaeva, Ellya

    2014-01-01

    At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers-which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal-has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca(2+) currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 pA and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 μM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  1. Characterization of calcium signals in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dentate gyrus neuronal progenitors and mature neurons, stably expressing an advanced calcium indicator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vőfély, Gergő; Berecz, Tünde; Szabó, Eszter; Szebényi, Kornélia; Hathy, Edit; Orbán, Tamás I; Sarkadi, Balázs; Homolya, László; Marchetto, Maria C; Réthelyi, János M; Apáti, Ágota

    2018-04-01

    Pluripotent stem cell derived human neuronal progenitor cells (hPSC-NPCs) and their mature neuronal cell culture derivatives may efficiently be used for central nervous system (CNS) drug screening, including the investigation of ligand-induced calcium signalization. We have established hippocampal NPC cultures derived from human induced PSCs, which were previously generated by non-integrating Sendai virus reprogramming. Using established protocols these NPCs were differentiated into hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons. In order to study calcium signaling without the need of dye loading, we have stably expressed an advanced calcium indicator protein (GCaMP6fast) in the NPCs using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system. We observed no significant effects of the long-term GCaMP6 expression on NPC morphology, gene expression pattern or neural differentiation capacity. In order to compare the functional properties of GCaMP6-expressing neural cells and the corresponding parental cells loaded with calcium indicator dye Fluo-4, a detailed characterization of calcium signals was performed. We found that the calcium signals induced by ATP, glutamate, LPA, or proteases - were similar in these two systems. Moreover, the presence of the calcium indicator protein allowed for a sensitive, repeatable detection of changes in calcium signaling during the process of neurogenesis and neuronal maturation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ratiometric analysis of fura red by flow cytometry: a technique for monitoring intracellular calcium flux in primary cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Wendt

    Full Text Available Calcium flux is a rapid and sensitive measure of cell activation whose utility could be enhanced with better techniques for data extraction. We describe a technique to monitor calcium flux by flow cytometry, measuring Fura Red calcium dye by ratiometric analysis. This technique has several advantages: 1 using a single calcium dye provides an additional channel for surface marker characterization, 2 allows robust detection of calcium flux by minority cell populations within a heterogeneous population of primary T cells and monocytes 3 can measure total calcium flux and additionally, the proportion of responding cells, 4 can be applied to studying the effects of drug treatment, simultaneously stimulating and monitoring untreated and drug treated cells. Using chemokine receptor activation as an example, we highlight the utility of this assay, demonstrating that only cells expressing a specific chemokine receptor are activated by cognate chemokine ligand. Furthermore, we describe a technique for simultaneously stimulating and monitoring calcium flux in vehicle and drug treated cells, demonstrating the effects of the Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX, on chemokine stimulated calcium flux. The described real time calcium flux assay provides a robust platform for characterizing cell activation within primary cells, and offers a more accurate technique for studying the effect of drug treatment on receptor activation in a heterogeneous population of primary cells.

  3. Human β-Cell Proliferation and Intracellular Signaling Part 2: Still Driving in the Dark Without a Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Scott, Donald K.; Mauvais-Jarvis, Franck; Stewart, Andrew F.; Garcia-Ocaña, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing β-cell proliferation is a major goal for type 1 and type 2 diabetes research. Unraveling the network of β-cell intracellular signaling pathways that promote β-cell replication can provide the tools to address this important task. In a previous Perspectives in Diabetes article, we discussed what was known regarding several important intracellular signaling pathways in rodent β-cells, including the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt (IRS-PI3K-Akt) pathways, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) S6 kinase pathways, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) pathways, and their downstream cell-cycle molecular targets, and contrasted that ample knowledge to the small amount of complementary data on human β-cell intracellular signaling pathways. In this Perspectives, we summarize additional important information on signaling pathways activated by nutrients, such as glucose; growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and Wnt; and hormones, such as leptin, estrogen, and progesterone, that are linked to rodent and human β-cell proliferation. With these two Perspectives, we attempt to construct a brief summary of knowledge for β-cell researchers on mitogenic signaling pathways and to emphasize how little is known regarding intracellular events linked to human β-cell replication. This is a critical aspect in the long-term goal of expanding human β-cells for the prevention and/or cure of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24556859

  4. Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Katharine L; Jackson, Claire; Balakrishnan, Saju; Bellamy, Tomas C

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar parallel fibres release glutamate at both the synaptic active zone and at extrasynaptic sites-a process known as ectopic release. These sites exhibit different short-term and long-term plasticity, the basis of which is incompletely understood but depends on the efficiency of vesicle release and recycling. To investigate whether release of calcium from internal stores contributes to these differences in plasticity, we tested the effects of the ryanodine receptor agonist caffeine on both synaptic and ectopic transmission. Whole cell patch clamp recordings from Purkinje neurons and Bergmann glia were carried out in transverse cerebellar slices from juvenile (P16-20) Wistar rats. Caffeine caused complex changes in transmission at both synaptic and ectopic sites. The amplitude of postsynaptic currents in Purkinje neurons and extrasynaptic currents in Bergmann glia were increased 2-fold and 4-fold respectively, but paired pulse ratio was substantially reduced, reversing the short-term facilitation observed under control conditions. Caffeine treatment also caused synaptic sites to depress during 1 Hz stimulation, consistent with inhibition of the usual mechanisms for replenishing vesicles at the active zone. Unexpectedly, pharmacological intervention at known targets for caffeine--intracellular calcium release, and cAMP signalling--had no impact on these effects. We conclude that caffeine increases release probability and inhibits vesicle recovery at parallel fibre synapses, independently of known pharmacological targets. This complex effect would lead to potentiation of transmission at fibres firing at low frequencies, but depression of transmission at high frequency connections.

  5. Rhein triggers apoptosis via induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress, caspase-4 and intracellular calcium in primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KoraMagazi, Arouna [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Dandan [Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yousef, Bashir; Guerram, Mounia [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Yu, Feng, E-mail: yufengcpu14@yahoo.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-04-22

    Rhein is an active component of rhubarb; a traditional Chinese medicine reported to induce apoptosis and cause liver toxicity. However, rhein's apoptotic-inducing effects, as well as its molecular mechanisms of action on hepatic cells need to be further explored. In the present study, rhein was found to trigger apoptosis in primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells as showed by annexin V/PI double staining assay and nuclear morphological changes demonstrated by Hoechst 33258 staining. Moreover, it was observed that the mechanism implicated in rhein-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent, presumably via ER-stress associated pathways, as illustrated by up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP 78), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Meanwhile, caspase-4 as a hallmark of ER-stress, was also showed to be activated following by caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, rhein also promoted intracellular elevation of calcium that contributed in apoptosis induction. Interestingly, pre-treatment with calpain inhibitor I reduced the effects of rhein on apoptosis induction and JNK activation. These data suggested that rhein-induced apoptosis through ER-stress and elevated intracellular calcium level in HL-7702 cells. - Highlights: • Rhein triggers apoptotic cell death on primary human hepatic HL-7702 cells. • Rhein leads to caspase-4 activation in HL-7702 cells. • Rhein induces endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways in HL-7702 cells. • Rhein causes elevation of intracellular calcium concentrations in HL-7702 cells.

  6. Methylmercury-induced toxicity is mediated by enhanced intracellular calcium through activation of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ju Yeon; Seo, Ji Heui; Jeon, Hyung Jun; Jung, Kwang Mook; Chin, Mi-Reyoung; Moon, Chang-Kiu; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Jung, Sung Yun; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2006-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a ubiquitous environmental toxicant to which humans can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated food. MeHg has been suggested to exert its toxicity through its high reactivity to thiols, generation of arachidonic acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and elevation of free intracellular Ca 2+ levels ([Ca 2+ ] i ). However, the precise mechanism has not been fully defined. Here we show that phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is a critical pathway for MeHg-induced toxicity in MDCK cells. D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC, significantly reversed the toxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner with concomitant inhibition of the diacylglycerol (DAG) generation and the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-breakdown. MeHg activated the group IV cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) and acidic form of sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) downstream of PC-PLC, but these enzymes as well as protein kinase C (PKC) were not linked to the toxicity by MeHg. Furthermore, MeHg produced ROS, which did not affect the toxicity. Addition of EGTA to culture media resulted in partial decrease of [Ca 2+ ] i and partially blocked the toxicity. In contrast, when the cells were treated with MeHg in the presence of Ca 2+ in the culture media, D609 completely prevented cell death with parallel decrease in [Ca 2+ ] i . Our results demonstrated that MeHg-induced toxicity was linked to elevation of [Ca 2+ ] i through activation of PC-PLC, but not attributable to the signaling pathways such as cPLA 2 , A-SMase, and PKC, or to the generation of ROS

  7. The plant vacuole: emitter and receiver of calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiter, Edgar

    2011-08-01

    This review portrays the plant vacuole as both a source and a target of Ca(2+) signals. In plants, the vacuole represents a Ca(2+) store of enormous size and capacity. Total and free Ca(2+) concentrations in the vacuole vary with plant species, cell type, and environment, which is likely to have an impact on vacuolar function and the release of vacuolar Ca(2+). It is known that cytosolic Ca(2+) signals are often generated by release of the ion from internal stores, but in very few cases has a role of the vacuole been directly demonstrated. Biochemical and electrophysical studies have provided evidence for the operation of ligand- and voltage-gated Ca(2+)-permeable channels in the vacuolar membrane. The underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown with one exception: the slow vacuolar channel, encoded by TPC1, is the only vacuolar Ca(2+)-permeable channel cloned to date. However, due to its complex regulation and its low selectivity amongst cations, the role of this channel in Ca(2+) signalling is still debated. Many transport proteins at the vacuolar membrane are also targets of Ca(2+) signals, both by direct binding of Ca(2+) and by Ca(2+)-dependent phosphorylation. This enables the operation of feedback mechanisms and integrates vacuolar transport systems in the wider signalling network of the plant cell. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brief bursts of parallel fiber activity trigger calcium signals in bergmann glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, Michael; Regehr, Wade G

    2006-06-28

    Changes in synaptic strength during ongoing activity are often mediated by neuromodulators. At the synapse between cerebellar granule cell parallel fibers (PFs) and Purkinje cells (PCs), brief bursts of stimuli can evoke endocannabinoid release from PCs and GABA release from interneurons that both inhibit transmission by activating presynaptic G-protein-coupled receptors. Studies in several brain regions suggest that synaptic activity can also evoke calcium signals in astrocytes, thereby causing them to release a transmitter, which acts presynaptically to regulate neurotransmitter release. In the cerebellum, Bergmann glia cells (BGs) are intimately associated with PF synapses. However, the mechanisms leading to calcium signals in BGs under physiological conditions and the role of BGs in regulating ongoing synaptic transmission are poorly understood. We found that brief bursts of PF activity evoke calcium signals in BGs that are triggered by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 and purinergic receptors and mediated by calcium release from IP3-sensitive internal stores. We found no evidence for modulation of release from PFs mediated by BGs, even when endocannabinoid- and GABA-mediated presynaptic modulation was prominent. Thus, despite the fact that PF activation can reliably evoke calcium transients within BGs, it appears that BGs do not regulate synaptic transmission on the time scale of seconds to tens of seconds. Instead, endocannabinoid release from PCs and GABA release from molecular layer interneurons provide the primary means of feedback that dynamically regulate release from PF synapses.

  9. Ascorbic Acid Induces Necrosis in Human Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma via ROS, PKC, and Calcium Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min-Woo; Cho, Heui-Seung; Kim, Sun-Hun; Kim, Won-Jae; Jung, Ji-Yeon

    2017-02-01

    Ascorbic acid induces apoptosis, autophagy, and necrotic cell death in cancer cells. We investigated the mechanisms by which ascorbic acid induces death in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma Hep2 cells. Ascorbic acid markedly reduced cell viability and induced death without caspase activation and an increase in cytochrome c. Hep2 cells exposed to ascorbic acid exhibited membrane rupture and swelling, the morphological characteristics of necrotic cell death. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in Hep2 cells treated with ascorbic acid, and pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine blocked ascorbic acid-induced cell death. Ascorbic acid also stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, especially PKC α/β activation, and subsequently increased cytosolic calcium levels. However, ascorbic acid-induced necrotic cell death was inhibited by Ro-31-8425 (PKC inhibitor) and BAPTA-AM (cytosolic calcium-selective chelator). ROS scavenger NAC inhibited PKC activation induced by ascorbic acid and Ro-31-8425 suppressed the level of cytosolic calcium increased by ascorbic acid, indicating that ROS is represented as an upstream signal of PKC pathway and PKC activation leads to the release of calcium into the cytosol, which ultimately regulates the induction of necrosis in ascorbic acid-treated Hep2 cells. These data demonstrate that ascorbic acid induces necrotic cell death through ROS generation, PKC activation, and cytosolic calcium signaling in Hep2 cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 417-425, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acrolein produces nitric oxide through the elevation of intracellular calcium levels to induce apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells: implications for smoke angiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misonou, Yoshiko; Asahi, Michio; Yokoe, Shunichi; Miyoshi, Eiji; Taniguchi, Naoyuki

    2006-03-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde, the levels of which are increased in the blood of smokers. To determine if acrolein is involved in the pathology of smoke angiopathy, the effect of acrolein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was examined. Intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, determined using diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2 DA), an NO sensitive fluorescent dye, were found to be increased after treatment in HUVEC with 10 microM acrolein. The measurement of nitrite with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene and a Western blot analysis revealed that nitrite and S-nitroso-cysteine levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner, confirming that NO production is increased by acrolein. The increase was not reduced by treatment with 10mM N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, but was reduced with 10 microM of the intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2-bis (o-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra (acetoxymethyl) ester. Acrolein-stimulated NO production was significantly reduced by pretreatment with 1mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME), an NO synthase inhibitor. The cytotoxicity of acrolein was reduced by pretreatment with 10 microM 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO), an intracellular NO scavenger, or 1mM L-NAME, whereas it was not reduced by 10mM NAC, 20 microM Curcumin, another peroxide scavenger, or 100 microM Mn(III)TMPyP, a superoxide dismutase mimic. Nuclear staining and a Western blot analysis using an anti-cleaved caspase 3 antibody revealed that the reduced viability of HUVEC by acrolein was due to apoptosis, which was reversed after pretreatment with 0.1mM carboxy-PTIO or 1mM L-NAME. Thus, acrolein increases intracellular calcium production to induce intracellular NO production by a calcium-dependent NO synthase, possibly eNOS, and the excess and rapid increase in NO might lead to the apoptosis of HUVEC. These data suggest that acrolein might be

  11. Contribution of α4β2 nAChR in nicotine-induced intracellular calcium response and excitability of MSDB neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangang; Wang, Yali; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ran; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Chengbiao

    2014-12-10

    The neurons of medial septal diagonal band of broca (MSDB) project to hippocampus and play an important role in MSDB-hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and network oscillation. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits, α4β2 and α7 nAChRs, are expressed in MSDB neurons and permeable to calcium ions, which may modulate the function of MSDB neurons. The aims of this study are to determine the roles of selective nAChR activation on the calcium responses and membrane currents in MSDB neurons. Our results showed that nicotine increased calcium responses in the majority of MSDB neurons, pre-treatment of MSDB slices with a α4β2 nAChR antagonist, DhβE but not a α7 nAChR antagonist, MLA prevented nicotine-induced calcium responses. The whole cell patch clamp recordings showed that nicotine-induced inward current and acetylcholine (ACh) induced-firing activity can be largely reduced or prevented by DhβE in MSDB neurons. Surprisingly, post-treatment of α4β2 or α7 nAChR antagonists failed to block nicotine׳s role, they increased calcium responses instead. Application of calcium chelator EGTA reduced calcium responses in all neurons tested. These results suggest that there was a subtype specific modulation of nAChRs on calcium signaling and membrane currents in MSDB neurons and nAChR antagonists were also able to induce calcium responses involving a distinct mechanism.

  12. Quantitative imaging of intracellular signaling for personalized pancreatic cancer therapy in an in vivo avatar (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Schultz, Emily; Park, Yeonjae; Fischer, Dawn; Pogue, Brian W.; Smith, Kerrington; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) are notoriously difficult to treat and in general, molecular targeted therapies have failed even when the targeted protein is overexpressed in the tumor tissue. Genetic mutations in extracellular receptors and downstream signaling proteins (i.e., RAS signaling pathway) and convoluted intracellular cross-talk between cell signaling pathways are likely reasons that these promising therapies fail. Monitoring the complex relationship between intracellular protein signaling is difficult and to-date, standard techniques that are used (Western blot, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, etc.) are invasive, static and do not accurately represent in vivo structure-function relationships. Here, we describe the development of an in ovo avatar using patient derived tumors grown on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and the novel fluorescence-based Quantitative Protein Expression Tracking (QUIET) methodology to bridge the gap between oncology, genomics and patient outcomes. Previously developed paired-agent imaging, was extended to a three-compartment model system in QUIET, which utilizes three types of imaging agents: novel fluorophore conjugated cell permeable targeted and untargeted small molecule paired-agents, in addition to a tumor perfusion agent that is not cell membrane permeable. We have demonstrated the ability to quantify the intracellular binding domain of a trans-membrane protein in vitro using cell permeable fluorescent agents (erlotinib-TRITC and control isotype-BODIPY FL). In addition, we have demonstrated imaging protocols to simultaneously image up to 6 spectrally distinct organic fluorophores in in ovo avatars using the Nuance EX (Perkin Elmer) and established proof-of-principle intracellular and extracellular protein concentrations of epidermal growth factor receptor using QUIET and traditional paired-agent imaging.

  13. Reciprocal Interaction of Dendrite Geometry and Nuclear Calcium-VEGFD Signaling Gates Memory Consolidation and Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemstedt, Thekla J; Bengtson, C Peter; Ramírez, Omar; Oliveira, Ana M M; Bading, Hilmar

    2017-07-19

    Nuclear calcium is an important signaling end point in synaptic excitation-transcription coupling that is critical for long-term neuroadaptations. Here, we show that nuclear calcium acting via a target gene, VEGFD, is required for hippocampus-dependent fear memory consolidation and extinction in mice. Nuclear calcium-VEGFD signaling upholds the structural integrity and complexity of the dendritic arbor of CA1 neurons that renders those cells permissive for the efficient generation of synaptic input-evoked nuclear calcium transients driving the expression of plasticity-related genes. Therefore, the gating of memory functions rests on the reciprocally reinforcing maintenance of an intact dendrite geometry and a functional synapse-to-nucleus communication axis. In psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic application of VEGFD may help to stabilize dendritic structures and network connectivity, which may prevent cognitive decline and could boost the efficacy of extinction-based exposure therapies. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study uncovers a reciprocal relationship between dendrite geometry, the ability to generate nuclear calcium transients in response to synaptic inputs, and the subsequent induction of expression of plasticity-related and dendritic structure-preserving genes. Insufficient nuclear calcium signaling in CA1 hippocampal neurons and, consequently, reduced expression of the nuclear calcium target gene VEGFD, a dendrite maintenance factor, leads to reduced-complexity basal dendrites of CA1 neurons, which severely compromises the animals' consolidation of both memory and extinction memory. The structure-protective function of VEGFD may prove beneficial in psychiatric disorders as well as neurodegenerative and aging-related conditions that are associated with loss of neuronal structures, dysfunctional excitation-transcription coupling, and cognitive decline. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376946-10$15.00/0.

  14. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  15. Cytoplasmic organelles determine complexity and specificity of calcium signalling in adrenal chromaffin cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Garsia-Sancho, J.; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 2 (2008), s. 263-271 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Ca2+ signalling * calcium microdomains * chromaffin cells Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 2.455, year: 2008

  16. Calcium threshold shift enables frequency-independent control of plasticity by an instructive signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Piochon (Claire); Titley, H.K. (Heather K.); D.H. Simmons (Dana H.); Grasselli, G. (Giorgio); Y. Elgersma (Ype); C.R.W. Hansel (Christian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAt glutamatergic synapses, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) can be induced at the same synaptic activation frequency. Instructive signals determine whether LTP or LTD is induced, by modulating local calcium transients. Synapses maintain the ability to

  17. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...

  18. Calcium signaling in the cochlea – Molecular mechanisms and physiopathological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceriani Federico

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium ions (Ca2+ regulate numerous and diverse aspects of cochlear and vestibular physiology. This review focuses on the Ca2+ control of mechanotransduction and synaptic transmission in sensory hair cells, as well as on Ca2+ signalling in non-sensory cells of the developing cochlea.

  19. Nesfatin-1 induces the phosphorylation levels of cAMP response element-binding protein for intracellular signaling in a neural cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Ishida

    Full Text Available Nesfatin-1 is a novel anorexic peptide that reduces the food intake of rodents when administered either intraventricularly or intraperitoneally. However, the molecular mechanism of intracellular signaling via Nesfatin-1 is yet to be resolved. In the current study, we investigated the ability of different neuronal cell lines to respond to Nesfatin-1 and further elucidated the signal transduction pathway of Nesfatin-1. To achieve this, we transfected several cell lines with various combinations of reporter vectors containing different kinds of response elements and performed reporter assays with Nesfatin-1, its active midsegment encoding 30 amino acid residues (M30 and M30-derived mutants. Notably, we found that both Nesfatin-1 as well as M30, significantly increased cAMP response element (CRE reporter activity in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, NB41A3. An antagonist of Melanocortin 3/4 receptor, SHU9119, aborted the promoter activity, and a mutant M30, which exerts no anorexic effect in vivo did not induce the CRE reporter activity in NB41A3 cells. Western blotting analyses revealed that Nesfatin-1 and M30 significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of CRE-binding protein (CREB, without altering the intracellular cAMP levels. Further, our study showed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK kinase inhibitor and an L-type Calcium (Ca(2+ channel blocker abolished the M30-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, the radio-receptor assay revealed that (125I-Nesfatin-1 binds in a saturable fashion to the membrane fractions of the mouse hypothalamus and NB41A3 cells, with Kd values of 0.79 nM and 0.17 nM, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate the presence of a Nesfatin-1-specific receptor on the cell surface of NB41A3 cells and mouse hypothalamus. Our study highlights that Nesfatin-1, via its receptor, induces the phosphorylation of CREB, thus activating the intracellular signaling cascade in neurons.

  20. Astrocyte calcium signal and gliotransmission in human brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Marta; Perea, Gertrudis; Maglio, Laura; Pastor, Jesús; García de Sola, Rafael; Araque, Alfonso

    2013-05-01

    Brain function is recognized to rely on neuronal activity and signaling processes between neurons, whereas astrocytes are generally considered to play supportive roles for proper neuronal function. However, accumulating evidence indicates that astrocytes sense and control neuronal and synaptic activity, indicating that neuron and astrocytes reciprocally communicate. While this evidence has been obtained in experimental animal models, whether this bidirectional signaling between astrocytes and neurons occurs in human brain remains unknown. We have investigated the existence of astrocyte-neuron communication in human brain tissue, using electrophysiological and Ca(2+) imaging techniques in slices of the cortex and hippocampus obtained from biopsies from epileptic patients. Cortical and hippocampal human astrocytes displayed spontaneous Ca(2+) elevations that were independent of neuronal activity. Local application of transmitter receptor agonists or nerve electrical stimulation transiently elevated Ca(2+) in astrocytes, indicating that human astrocytes detect synaptic activity and respond to synaptically released neurotransmitters, suggesting the existence of neuron-to-astrocyte communication in human brain tissue. Electrophysiological recordings in neurons revealed the presence of slow inward currents (SICs) mediated by NMDA receptor activation. The frequency of SICs increased after local application of ATP that elevated astrocyte Ca(2+). Therefore, human astrocytes are able to release the gliotransmitter glutamate, which affect neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors in neurons. These results reveal the existence of reciprocal signaling between neurons and astrocytes in human brain tissue, indicating that astrocytes are relevant in human neurophysiology and are involved in human brain function.

  1. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  2. Ehrlichia chaffeensis TRP120 Activates Canonical Notch Signaling To Downregulate TLR2/4 Expression and Promote Intracellular Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima T. Lina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis preferentially targets mononuclear phagocytes and survives through a strategy of subverting innate immune defenses, but the mechanisms are unknown. We have shown E. chaffeensis type 1 secreted tandem repeat protein (TRP effectors are involved in diverse molecular pathogen-host interactions, such as the TRP120 interaction with the Notch receptor-cleaving metalloprotease ADAM17. In the present study, we demonstrate E. chaffeensis, via the TRP120 effector, activates the canonical Notch signaling pathway to promote intracellular survival. We found that nuclear translocation of the transcriptionally active Notch intracellular domain (NICD occurs in response to E. chaffeensis or recombinant TRP120, resulting in upregulation of Notch signaling pathway components and target genes notch1, adam17, hes, and hey. Significant differences in canonical Notch signaling gene expression levels (>40% were observed during early and late stages of infection, indicating activation of the Notch pathway. We linked Notch pathway activation specifically to the TRP120 effector, which directly interacts with the Notch metalloprotease ADAM17. Using pharmacological inhibitors and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs against γ-secretase enzyme, Notch transcription factor complex, Notch1, and ADAM17, we demonstrated that Notch signaling is required for ehrlichial survival. We studied the downstream effects and found that E. chaffeensis TRP120-mediated activation of the Notch pathway causes inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways required for PU.1 and subsequent Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4 expression. This investigation reveals a novel mechanism whereby E. chaffeensis exploits the Notch pathway to evade the host innate immune response for intracellular survival.

  3. Nuclear proton dynamics and interactions with calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Biochemical signals acting on the nucleus can regulate gene expression. Despite the inherent affinity of nucleic acids and nuclear proteins (e.g. transcription factors) for protons, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate nuclear pH (pHnuc), and how these could be exploited to control gene expression. Here, we show that pHnuc dynamics can be imaged using the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Nuclear pores allow the passage of medium-sized molecules (calcein), but protons must first bind to mobile buffers in order to gain access to the nucleoplasm. Fixed buffering residing in the nucleus of permeabilized cells was estimated to be very weak on the basis of the large amplitude of pHnuc transients evoked by photolytic H(+)-uncaging or exposure to weak acids/bases. Consequently, the majority of nuclear pH buffering is sourced from the cytoplasm in the form of mobile buffers. Effective proton diffusion was faster in nucleoplasm than in cytoplasm, in agreement with the higher mobile-to-fixed buffering ratio in the nucleus. Cardiac myocyte pHnuc changed in response to maneuvers that alter nuclear Ca(2+) signals. Blocking Ca(2+) release from inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors stably alkalinized the nucleus. This Ca(2+)-pH interaction may arise from competitive binding to common chemical moieties. Competitive binding to mobile buffers may couple the efflux of Ca(2+)via nuclear pores with a counterflux of protons. This would generate a stable pH gradient between cytoplasm and nucleus that is sensitive to the state of nuclear Ca(2+) signaling. The unusual behavior of protons in the nucleus provides new mechanisms for regulating cardiac nuclear biology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. L-type calcium channels regulate filopodia stability and cancer cell invasion downstream of integrin signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemet, Guillaume; Baghirov, Habib; Georgiadou, Maria; Sihto, Harri; Peuhu, Emilia; Cettour-Janet, Pierre; He, Tao; Perälä, Merja; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src. Moreover, L-type calcium channels promote filopodia stability and maturation into talin-rich adhesions through the spatially restricted regulation of calcium entry and subsequent activation of the protease calpain-1. Altogether we uncover a novel and clinically relevant signalling pathway that regulates filopodia formation in cancer cells and propose that cycles of filopodia stabilization, followed by maturation into focal adhesions, directs cancer cell migration and invasion. PMID:27910855

  5. Muscle mitochondrial metabolism and calcium signaling impairment in patients treated with statins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirvent, P., E-mail: pascal.sirvent@univ-bpclermont.fr [U1046, INSERM, Université Montpellier 1 and Université Montpellier 2, 34295 Montpellier (France); CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, EA 3533, Laboratoire des Adaptations Métaboliques à l' Exercice en conditions Physiologiques et Pathologiques (AME2P), BP 80026, F-63171 Aubière cedex (France); Fabre, O.; Bordenave, S. [U1046, INSERM, Université Montpellier 1 and Université Montpellier 2, 34295 Montpellier (France); CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France); Hillaire-Buys, D. [CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France); Raynaud De Mauverger, E.; Lacampagne, A.; Mercier, J. [U1046, INSERM, Université Montpellier 1 and Université Montpellier 2, 34295 Montpellier (France); CHRU Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier (France)

    2012-03-01

    The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. To date, the patho-physiological mechanisms of statin myotoxicity are still not clearly understood. In previous studies, we showed that acute application in vitro of simvastatin caused impairment of mitochondrial function and dysfunction of calcium homeostasis in human and rat healthy muscle samples. We thus evaluated in the present study, mitochondrial function and calcium signaling in muscles of patients treated with statins, who present or not muscle symptoms, by oxygraphy and recording of calcium sparks, respectively. Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration that involved mainly the complex I of the respiratory chain and altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks. The muscle problems observed in statin-treated patients appear thus to be related to impairment of mitochondrial function and muscle calcium homeostasis, confirming the results we previously reported in vitro. -- Highlights: ► The most common and problematic side effect of statins is myopathy. ► Patients treated with statins showed impairment of mitochondrial respiration. ► Statins-treated patients showed altered frequency and amplitude of calcium sparks.

  6. Intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor β superfamily signaling localize to endosomes in chicken embryo and mouse lenses in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Shunsuke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocytosis is a key regulator of growth factor signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the localization to endosomes of intracellular mediators of growth factor signaling may be required for their function. Although there is substantial evidence linking endocytosis and growth factor signaling in cultured cells, there has been little study of the endosomal localization of signaling components in intact tissues or organs. Results Proteins that are downstream of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway were found on endosomes in chicken embryo and postnatal mouse lenses, which depend on signaling by members of the TGFβ superfamily for their normal development. Phosphorylated Smad1 (pSmad1, pSmad2, Smad4, Smad7, the transcriptional repressors c-Ski and TGIF and the adapter molecules Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA and C184M, localized to EEA-1- and Rab5-positive vesicles in chicken embryo and/or postnatal mouse lenses. pSmad1 and pSmad2 also localized to Rab7-positive late endosomes. Smad7 was found associated with endosomes, but not caveolae. Bmpr1a conditional knock-out lenses showed decreased nuclear and endosomal localization of pSmad1. Many of the effectors in this pathway were distributed differently in vivo from their reported distribution in cultured cells. Conclusion Based on the findings reported here and data from other signaling systems, we suggest that the localization of activated intracellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily to endosomes is important for the regulation of growth factor signaling.

  7. PDGF-mediated protection of SH-SY5Y cells against Tat toxin involves regulation of extracellular glutamate and intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuhui; Yao Honghong; Peng Fuwang; Callen, Shannon; Buch, Shilpa

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) protein Tat has been implicated in mediating neuronal apoptosis, one of the hallmark features of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Mitigation of the toxic effects of Tat could thus be a potential mechanism for reducing HIV toxicity in the brain. In this study we demonstrated that Tat-induced neurotoxicity was abolished by NMDA antagonist-MK801, suggesting the role of glutamate in this process. Furthermore, we also found that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with PDGF exerted protection against Tat toxicity by decreasing extracellular glutamate levels. We also demonstrated that extracellular calcium chelator EGTA was able to abolish PDGF-mediated neuroprotection, thereby underscoring the role of calcium signaling in PDGF-mediated neuroprotection. We also showed that Erk signaling pathway was critical for PDGF-mediated protection of cells. Additionally, blocking calcium entry with EGTA resulted in suppression of PDGF-induced Erk activation. These findings thus underscore the role of PDGF-mediated calcium signaling and Erk phosphorylation in the protection of cells against HIV Tat toxicity.

  8. FM dyes enter via a store-operated calcium channel and modify calcium signaling of cultured astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Hérault, Karine; Oheim, Martin; Ropert, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The amphiphilic fluorescent styryl pyridinium dyes FM1-43 and FM4-64 are used to probe activity-dependent synaptic vesicle cycling in neurons. Cultured astrocytes can internalize FM1-43 and FM4-64 inside vesicles but their uptake is insensitive to the elevation of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and pharmacological tools to study the mechanisms of FM4-64 uptake into cultured astrocytes from mouse neocortex. Our data show that: (i) endocytosis is not a major route for FM4-64 uptake into astrocytes; (ii) FM4-64 enters astrocytes through an aqueous pore and strongly affects Ca2+ homeostasis; (iii) partitioning of FM4-64 into the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane results in a facilitation of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channel gating; (iv) FM4-64 permeates and competes with Ca2+ for entry through a SOCE channel; (v) intracellular FM4-64 mobilizes Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum stores, conveying a positive feedback to activate SOCE and to sustain dye uptake into astrocytes. Our study demonstrates that FM dyes are not markers of cycling vesicles in astrocytes and calls for a careful interpretation of FM fluorescence. PMID:20007370

  9. Intracellular signalling pathways in the vasoconstrictor response of mouse afferent arterioles to adenosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B. Lærkegaard; Friis, Ulla Glenert; Uhrenholt, Torben Rene

    2007-01-01

    of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), stimulated presumably by IP(3), is involved in the adenosine contraction mechanism of the afferent arteriole. In agreement with this notion is the observation that 2 aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (100 microM) blocked the adenosine-induced constriction whereas...... was abolished by IAA-94. Furthermore, the vasoconstriction caused by adenosine was significantly inhibited by 5 microM nifedipine (control 8.3 +/- 0.2 microM, ado 3.6 +/- 0.6 microM, ado + nifedipine 6.8 +/- 0.2 microM) suggesting involvement of voltage-dependent calcium channels. CONCLUSION: We conclude...

  10. Plants, symbiosis and parasites: a calcium signalling connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jeffrey F; Harmon, Alice

    2005-07-01

    A unique family of protein kinases has evolved with regulatory domains containing sequences that are related to Ca(2+)-binding EF-hands. In this family, the archetypal Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been found in plants and some protists, including the malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Recent genetic evidence has revealed isoform-specific functions for a CDPK that is essential for Plasmodium berghei gametogenesis, and for a related chimeric Ca(2+) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) that is essential to the formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the analysis of 42 isoforms of CDPK and related kinases is expected to delineate Ca(2+) signalling pathways in all aspects of plant biology.

  11. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: Bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galperin Michael Y

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. Results This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins – histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases – encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. Conclusion The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the

  12. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael Y

    2005-06-14

    Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins--histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases--encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set) can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the highest IQ, including the current leader Wolinella succinogenes

  13. Glutamate-dependent neuroglial calcium signaling differs between young and adult brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; McConnell, Evan; Pare, Jean-Francois; Xu, Qiwu; Chen, Michael; Peng, Weiguo; Lovatt, Ditte; Han, Xiaoning; Smith, Yoland; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2013-01-11

    An extensive literature shows that astrocytes exhibit metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent increases in cytosolic calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in response to glutamatergic transmission and, in turn, modulate neuronal activity by their Ca(2+)-dependent release of gliotransmitters. These findings, based on studies of young rodents, have led to the concept of the tripartite synapse, in which astrocytes actively participate in neurotransmission. Using genomic analysis, immunoelectron microscopy, and two-photon microscopy of astrocytic Ca(2+) signaling in vivo, we found that astrocytic expression of mGluR5 is developmentally regulated and is undetectable after postnatal week 3. In contrast, mGluR3, whose activation inhibits adenylate cyclase but not calcium signaling, was expressed in astrocytes at all developmental stages. Neuroglial signaling in the adult brain may therefore occur in a manner fundamentally distinct from that exhibited during development.

  14. Effect of sound on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling: Calcium waves under acoustic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deymier, P A; Swinteck, N; Runge, K; Deymier-Black, A; Hoying, J B

    2015-01-01

    We present a previously unrecognized effect of sound waves on gap-junction-based intercellular signaling such as in biological tissues composed of endothelial cells. We suggest that sound irradiation may, through temporal and spatial modulation of cell-to-cell conductance, create intercellular calcium waves with unidirectional signal propagation associated with nonconventional topologies. Nonreciprocity in calcium wave propagation induced by sound wave irradiation is demonstrated in the case of a linear and a nonlinear reaction-diffusion model. This demonstration should be applicable to other types of gap-junction-based intercellular signals, and it is thought that it should be of help in interpreting a broad range of biological phenomena associated with the beneficial therapeutic effects of sound irradiation and possibly the harmful effects of sound waves on health.

  15. Absence of the ER Cation Channel TMEM38B/TRIC-B Disrupts Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Dysregulates Collagen Synthesis in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Wayne A; Ishikawa, Masaki; Garten, Matthias; Makareeva, Elena N; Sargent, Brandi M; Weis, MaryAnn; Barnes, Aileen M; Webb, Emma A; Shaw, Nicholas J; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Lacbawan, Felicitas L; Högler, Wolfgang; Leikin, Sergey; Blank, Paul S; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Eyre, David R; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Marini, Joan C

    2016-07-01

    Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by defects in proteins involved in post-translational interactions with type I collagen. Recently, a novel form of moderately severe OI caused by null mutations in TMEM38B was identified. TMEM38B encodes the ER membrane monovalent cation channel, TRIC-B, proposed to counterbalance IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The molecular mechanisms by which TMEM38B mutations cause OI are unknown. We identified 3 probands with recessive defects in TMEM38B. TRIC-B protein is undetectable in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, although reduced TMEM38B transcripts are present. TRIC-B deficiency causes impaired release of ER luminal Ca2+, associated with deficient store-operated calcium entry, although SERCA and IP3R have normal stability. Notably, steady state ER Ca2+ is unchanged in TRIC-B deficiency, supporting a role for TRIC-B in the kinetics of ER calcium depletion and recovery. The disturbed Ca2+ flux causes ER stress and increased BiP, and dysregulates synthesis of proband type I collagen at multiple steps. Collagen helical lysine hydroxylation is reduced, while telopeptide hydroxylation is increased, despite increased LH1 and decreased Ca2+-dependent FKBP65, respectively. Although PDI levels are maintained, procollagen chain assembly is delayed in proband cells. The resulting misfolded collagen is substantially retained in TRIC-B null cells, consistent with a 50-70% reduction in secreted collagen. Lower-stability forms of collagen that elude proteasomal degradation are not incorporated into extracellular matrix, which contains only normal stability collagen, resulting in matrix insufficiency. These data support a role for TRIC-B in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and demonstrate that absence of TMEM38B causes OI by dysregulation of calcium flux kinetics in the ER, impacting multiple collagen-specific chaperones and modifying enzymes.

  16. Absence of the ER Cation Channel TMEM38B/TRIC-B Disrupts Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Dysregulates Collagen Synthesis in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A Cabral

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is caused by defects in proteins involved in post-translational interactions with type I collagen. Recently, a novel form of moderately severe OI caused by null mutations in TMEM38B was identified. TMEM38B encodes the ER membrane monovalent cation channel, TRIC-B, proposed to counterbalance IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The molecular mechanisms by which TMEM38B mutations cause OI are unknown. We identified 3 probands with recessive defects in TMEM38B. TRIC-B protein is undetectable in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, although reduced TMEM38B transcripts are present. TRIC-B deficiency causes impaired release of ER luminal Ca2+, associated with deficient store-operated calcium entry, although SERCA and IP3R have normal stability. Notably, steady state ER Ca2+ is unchanged in TRIC-B deficiency, supporting a role for TRIC-B in the kinetics of ER calcium depletion and recovery. The disturbed Ca2+ flux causes ER stress and increased BiP, and dysregulates synthesis of proband type I collagen at multiple steps. Collagen helical lysine hydroxylation is reduced, while telopeptide hydroxylation is increased, despite increased LH1 and decreased Ca2+-dependent FKBP65, respectively. Although PDI levels are maintained, procollagen chain assembly is delayed in proband cells. The resulting misfolded collagen is substantially retained in TRIC-B null cells, consistent with a 50-70% reduction in secreted collagen. Lower-stability forms of collagen that elude proteasomal degradation are not incorporated into extracellular matrix, which contains only normal stability collagen, resulting in matrix insufficiency. These data support a role for TRIC-B in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and demonstrate that absence of TMEM38B causes OI by dysregulation of calcium flux kinetics in the ER, impacting multiple collagen-specific chaperones and modifying enzymes.

  17. Absence of the ER Cation Channel TMEM38B/TRIC-B Disrupts Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Dysregulates Collagen Synthesis in Recessive Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Wayne A.; Ishikawa, Masaki; Garten, Matthias; Makareeva, Elena N.; Sargent, Brandi M.; Weis, MaryAnn; Barnes, Aileen M.; Webb, Emma A.; Shaw, Nicholas J.; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Lacbawan, Felicitas L.; Högler, Wolfgang; Leikin, Sergey; Blank, Paul S.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Eyre, David R.; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Marini, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is caused by defects in proteins involved in post-translational interactions with type I collagen. Recently, a novel form of moderately severe OI caused by null mutations in TMEM38B was identified. TMEM38B encodes the ER membrane monovalent cation channel, TRIC-B, proposed to counterbalance IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. The molecular mechanisms by which TMEM38B mutations cause OI are unknown. We identified 3 probands with recessive defects in TMEM38B. TRIC-B protein is undetectable in proband fibroblasts and osteoblasts, although reduced TMEM38B transcripts are present. TRIC-B deficiency causes impaired release of ER luminal Ca2+, associated with deficient store-operated calcium entry, although SERCA and IP3R have normal stability. Notably, steady state ER Ca2+ is unchanged in TRIC-B deficiency, supporting a role for TRIC-B in the kinetics of ER calcium depletion and recovery. The disturbed Ca2+ flux causes ER stress and increased BiP, and dysregulates synthesis of proband type I collagen at multiple steps. Collagen helical lysine hydroxylation is reduced, while telopeptide hydroxylation is increased, despite increased LH1 and decreased Ca2+-dependent FKBP65, respectively. Although PDI levels are maintained, procollagen chain assembly is delayed in proband cells. The resulting misfolded collagen is substantially retained in TRIC-B null cells, consistent with a 50–70% reduction in secreted collagen. Lower-stability forms of collagen that elude proteasomal degradation are not incorporated into extracellular matrix, which contains only normal stability collagen, resulting in matrix insufficiency. These data support a role for TRIC-B in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and demonstrate that absence of TMEM38B causes OI by dysregulation of calcium flux kinetics in the ER, impacting multiple collagen-specific chaperones and modifying enzymes. PMID:27441836

  18. Effect of TGFβ on calcium signaling in megakaryocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jing [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Schmid, Evi [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Department of Pediatric Surgery and Pediatric Urology, University Children' s Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Almilaji, Ahmad; Shumilina, Ekaterina [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Borst, Oliver [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Department of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Laufer, Stefan [Department of Pharmacy, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Gawaz, Meinrad [Department of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    TGFβ is a powerful regulator of megakaryocyte maturation and platelet formation. As previously shown for other cell types, TGFβ may up-regulate the expression of the serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, an effect requiring p38 kinase. SGK1 has in turn recently been shown to participate in the regulation of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} activity ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) in megakaryocytes and platelets. SGK1 phosphorylates the IκB kinase (IKKα/β), which in turn phosphorylates the inhibitor protein IκBα resulting in nuclear translocation of nuclear factor NFκB. Genes up-regulated by NFκB include Orai1, the pore forming ion channel subunit accomplishing store operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE). The present study explored whether TGFβ influences Ca{sup 2+} signaling in megakaryocytes. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was determined by Fura-2 fluorescence and SOCE from the increase of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} following re-addition of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} after store depletion by removal of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} and inhibition of the sarcoendoplasmatic Ca{sup 2+} ATPase (SERCA) with thapsigargin (1 μM). As a result, TGFβ (60 ng, 24 h) increased SOCE, an effect significantly blunted by p38 kinase inhibitor Skepinone-L (1 μM), SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683 (50 μM) and NFκB inhibitor wogonin (100 μM). In conclusion, TGFβ is a powerful regulator of store operated Ca{sup 2+} entry into megakaryocytes, an effect mediated by a signaling cascade involving p38 kinase, SGK1 and NFκB. - Highlights: • TGFβ up-regulates store operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) in megakaryocytes. • The effect of TGFβ on SOCE is blunted by p38 kinase inhibitor Skepinone-L. • The effect of TGFβ on SOCE is virtually abrogated by SGK1 inhibitor EMD638683. • The effect of TGFβ on SOCE is almost abolished by NFκB inhibitor wogonin. • The effect of TGFβ is expected to enhance sensitivity of platelets to activation.

  19. P2Y13 receptor-mediated rapid increase in intracellular calcium induced by ADP in cultured dorsal spinal cord microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Junwei; Wang, Gaoxia; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Chunmei; Tian, Hong; Liu, Aidong; Jin, Huan; Luo, Xiaomei; Chen, Yuanshou

    2014-11-01

    P2Y receptors have been implicated in the calcium mobilization by the response to neuroexcitatory substances in neurons and astrocytes, but little is known about P2Y receptors in microglia cells. In the present study, the effects of ADP on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in cultured dorsal spinal cord microglia were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluorescence indicator that could monitor real-time alterations of [Ca(2+)]i. Here we show that ADP (0.01-100 μM) causes a rapid increase in [Ca(2+)]i with a dose-dependent manner in cultured microglia. The action of ADP on [Ca(2+)]i was significantly blocked by MRS2211 (a selective P2Y13 receptor antagonist), but was unaffected by MRS2179 (a selective P2Y1 receptor antagonist) or MRS2395 (a selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist), which suggest that P2Y13 receptor may be responsible for ADP-evoked Ca(2+) mobilization in cultured microglia. P2Y13-evoked Ca(2+) response can be obviously inhibited by BAPTA-AM and U-73122, respectively. Moreover, removal of extracellular Ca(2+) (by EGTA) also can obvious suppress the Ca(2+) mobilization. These results means both intracellular calcium and extracellular calcium are potentially important mechanisms in P2Y13 receptor-evoked Ca(2+) mobilization. However, P2Y13 receptor-evoked Ca(2+) response was not impaired after CdCl2 and verapamil administration, which suggest that voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels may be not related with P2Y13-evoked Ca(2+) response. In addition, Ca(2+) mobilization induced by ADP was abolished by different store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) blocker, 2-APB (50 μM) and SKF-96365 (1 mM), respectively. These observations suggest that the activation of P2Y13 receptor might be involved in the effect of ADP on [Ca(2+)]i in cultured dorsal spinal cord microglia. Furthermore, our results raise a possibility that P2Y13 receptor activation causes Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) store, which leads to the

  20. Is Increased Intracellular Calcium in Red Blood Cells a Common Component in the Molecular Mechanism Causing Anemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Hertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For many hereditary disorders, although the underlying genetic mutation may be known, the molecular mechanism leading to hemolytic anemia is still unclear and needs further investigation. Previous studies revealed an increased intracellular Ca2+ in red blood cells (RBCs from patients with sickle cell disease, thalassemia, or Gardos channelopathy. Therefore we analyzed RBCs' Ca2+ content from 35 patients with different types of anemia (16 patients with hereditary spherocytosis, 11 patients with hereditary xerocytosis, 5 patients with enzymopathies, and 3 patients with hemolytic anemia of unknown cause. Intracellular Ca2+ in RBCs was measured by fluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4 and subsequent single cell analysis. We found that in RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary xerocytosis the intracellular Ca2+ levels were significantly increased compared to healthy control samples. For enzymopathies and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause the intracellular Ca2+ levels in RBCs were not significantly different. These results lead us to the hypothesis that increased Ca2+ levels in RBCs are a shared component in the mechanism causing an accelerated clearance of RBCs from the blood stream in channelopathies such as hereditary xerocytosis and in diseases involving defects of cytoskeletal components like hereditary spherocytosis. Future drug developments should benefit from targeting Ca2+ entry mediating molecular players leading to better therapies for patients.

  1. Y1 receptors for neuropeptide Y are coupled to mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of adenylate cyclase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakerlund, L; Gether, U; Fuhlendorff, J

    1990-01-01

    Two types of binding sites have previously been described for neuropeptide Y (NPY), called Y1 and Y2 receptors. The intracellular events following Y1 receptor activation was studied in the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-MC. Both NPY and the specific Y1 receptor ligand, [Leu31,Pro34]-NPY, caused...

  2. Dependence of electrical activity and calcium influx-controlled prolactin release on adenylyl cyclase signaling pathway in pituitary lactotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez-Iglesias, A. E.; Jiang, Y.; Tomič, M.; Kretschmannová, K.; Andric, S. A.; Zemková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 9 (2006), s. 2231-2246 ISSN 0888-8809 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adenylyl cyclase * intracellular calcium concentration * lactotrophs Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.967, year: 2006

  3. Glucocorticoids can affect Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) internalization and intracellular calcium concentration in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rashida; Shahror, Rami; Karpati, Ferenc; Roomans, Godfried M

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are anti-inflammatory agents, but their use in cystic fibrosis (CF) is controversial. In CF, the early colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mainly due to nonmucoid strains that can internalize, and induce apoptosis in the epithelial cells. Uptake of P. aeruginosa by the epithelial cells and subsequent apoptosis may prevent colonization of P. aeruginosa in CF airways. In the airway epithelia, several other biological effects, including an anti-secretory role by decreasing intracellular Ca(2+) concentration have been described for this anti-inflammatory drug. However, the effects of GCs on the nonmucoid P. aeruginosa internalization and intracellular Ca(2+) in CF bronchial epithelial cells have not been evaluated. We used cultured human CF bronchial airway epithelial cell (CFBE) monolayers to determine P. aeruginosa internalization, apoptosis, and intracellular Ca(2+)concentration in CF bronchial epithelial cells. Cells were treated with IL-6, IL-8, dexamethasone, betamethasone, or budesonide. GCs in co-treatments with IL-6 reversed the effect of IL-6 by decreasing the internalization of P. aeruginosa in the CFBE cells. GCs decreased the extent of apoptosis in CFBE cells infected with internalized P. aeruginosa, and increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. These findings suggest that if internalization of P. aeruginosa reduces infection, GC therapy would increase the risk of pulmonary infection by decreasing the internalization of P. aeruginosa in CF cells, but GCs may improve airway hydration by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Whether the benefits of GC treatment outweigh the negative effects is questionable, and further clinical studies need to be carried out.

  4. Integration of Kinase and Calcium Signaling at the Level of Chromatin Underlies Inducible Gene Activation in T Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Brignall, Ruth; Cauchy, Pierre; Bevington, Sarah L.; Gorman, Bethany; Pisco, Angela O.; Bagnall, James; Boddington, Christopher; Rowe, William; England, Hazel; Rich, Kevin; Schmidt, Lorraine; Dyer, Nigel P.; Travis, Mark A.; Ott, Sascha; Jackson, Dean A.

    2017-01-01

    TCR signaling pathways cooperate to activate the inducible transcription factors NF-B, NFAT and AP-1. Here, using the calcium ionophore ionomycin and/or PMA on Jurkat T cells, we show that the gene expression program associated with activation of TCR signaling is closely related to specific chromatin landscapes. We find that calcium and kinase signaling cooperate to induce chromatin remodeling at ~2100 chromatin regions, which demonstrate enriched binding motifs for inducible factors and cor...

  5. Effect of nicotine on exocytotic pancreatic secretory response: role of calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Parimal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a risk factor for pancreatitis resulting in loss of pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of nicotine-induced secretory response measured in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from Male Sprague Dawley rats. The study examines the role of calcium signaling in the mechanism of the enhanced secretory response observed with nicotine exposure. Methods Isolated and purified pancreatic acinar cells were subjected to a nicotine exposure at a dose of 100 μM for 6 minutes and then stimulated with cholecystokinin (CCK for 30 min. The cell’s secretory response was measured by the percent of amylase released from the cells in the incubation medium Calcium receptor antagonists, inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers, mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors and specific nicotinic receptor antagonists were used to confirm the involvement of calcium in this process. Results Nicotine exposure induced enhanced secretory response in primary cells. These responses remained unaffected by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK’s inhibitors. The effects, however, have been completely abolished by nicotinic receptor antagonist, calcium channel receptor antagonists and inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers. Conclusions The data suggest that calcium activated events regulating the exocytotic secretion are affected by nicotine as shown by enhanced functional response which is inhibited by specific antagonists… The results implicate the role of nicotine in the mobilization of both intra- and extracellular calcium in the regulation of stimulus-secretory response of enzyme secretion in this cell system. We conclude that nicotine plays an important role in promoting enhanced calcium levels inside the acinar cell.

  6. Nuclear calcium signaling in spinal neurons drives a genomic program required for persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Manuela; Hagenston, Anna M; Vardeh, Daniel; Freitag, H Eckehard; Mauceri, Daniela; Lu, Jianning; Satagopam, Venkata P; Schneider, Reinhard; Costigan, Michael; Bading, Hilmar; Kuner, Rohini

    2013-01-09

    Persistent pain induced by noxious stimuli is characterized by the transition from normosensitivity to hypersensitivity. Underlying mechanisms are not well understood, although gene expression is considered important. Here, we show that persistent nociceptive-like activity triggers calcium transients in neuronal nuclei within the superficial spinal dorsal horn, and that nuclear calcium is necessary for the development of long-term inflammatory hypersensitivity. Using a nucleus-specific calcium signal perturbation strategy in vivo complemented by gene profiling, bioinformatics, and functional analyses, we discovered a pain-associated, nuclear calcium-regulated gene program in spinal excitatory neurons. This includes C1q, a modulator of synaptic spine morphogenesis, which we found to contribute to activity-dependent spine remodelling on spinal neurons in a manner functionally associated with inflammatory hypersensitivity. Thus, nuclear calcium integrates synapse-to-nucleus communication following noxious stimulation and controls a spinal genomic response that mediates the transition between acute and long-term nociceptive sensitization by modulating functional and structural plasticity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intracellular NAMPT-NAD+-SIRT1 cascade improves post-ischaemic vascular repair by modulating Notch signalling in endothelial progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Du, Hui; Zhou, Can-Can; Song, Jie; Liu, Xingguang; Cao, Xuetao; Mehta, Jawahar L; Shi, Yi; Su, Ding-Feng; Miao, Chao-Yu

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is the rate-limiting enzyme for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis. This study investigated the role of NAMPT-mediated NAD(+) signalling in post-ischaemic vascular repair. Mouse hind-limb ischaemia up-regulated NAMPT expression and NAD(+) level in bone marrow (BM). Pharmacological inhibition of NAMPT by a chemical inhibitor FK866 impaired the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from BM upon ischaemic stress. Transgenic mice overexpressing NAMPT (Tg mice), but not H247A-mutant dominant-negative NAMPT (DN-Tg mice), exhibited enhanced capillary density, increased number of proliferating endothelial cells, improved blood flow recovery, and augmented collateral arterioles in the ischaemic limb. In cultured BM-derived EPCs, inhibition of NAMPT suppressed proliferation, migration, and tube formation, whereas overexpression of NAMPT induced opposite effects. The promoting effects of NAMPT on EPCs were abolished by silencing of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), rather than silencing of SIRT2-7. Overexpression of NAMPT led to a SIRT1-depedent enhancement of Notch-1 intracellular domain deacetylation, which inhibited Delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4)-Notch signalling and thereby up-regulated of VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3. Injection of recombinant VEGF induced a more pronounced EPC mobilization in Tg, but not in DN-Tg, mice. Furthermore, overexpression of NAMPT down-regulated Fringe family glycosyltransferases in a SIRT1-dependent manner, which rendered Notch more sensitive to the pro-angiogenic ligand Jagged1 rather than the anti-angiogenic ligand DLL4. These results demonstrate that intracellular NAMPT-NAD(+)-SIRT1 cascade improves post-ischaemic neovascularization. The modulation of Notch signalling may contribute to the enhanced post-ischaemic neovascularization. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Smad signaling pathway in pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the involvement of Smad signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats to provide a reference for clinical treatment. Methods: Clean SD rats were randomly divided into 3 group, namely the control group, model group and pirfenidone group. Ethylene glycol + αhydroxy vitamin D3 was used as a stone-inducing agent to replicate the renal calcium oxalate stone model. Rats in the pirfenidone group were treated with pirfenidone intragastric administration. The serum Cr, BUN and 24-hour oxalate and calcium in renal tissues were assayed. The expressions of Bax/ Bcl2 protein, Caspase3 protein, TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins were detected by the fluorescent quantitation PCR method. Results: Compared with the rats of the control group, the results showed that the levels of serum BUN, Cr and 24-hour oxalate in rats of the model group were increased greatly, Bax and Caspase3 mRNA also increased while the level of Bcl2 decreased significantly, and the expressions of TGFβ, Smad1, Smad2 and Smad3 proteins increased distinctly as well (P<0.01. These abnormal parameters could be normalized effectively by pirfenidone. Conclusions: Activated TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of kidney injury induced by calcium oxalate stone in rats.

  9. Dextran sulfate sodium upregulates MAPK signaling for the uptake and subsequent intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Kim, Dong Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-02-01

    Brucellosis is one of the major zoonoses worldwide that inflicts important health problems in animal and human. Here, we demonstrated that dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) significantly increased adhesion of Brucella (B.) abortus in murine macrophages compared to untreated cells. Even without infection, Brucella uptake into macrophages increased and F-actin reorganization was induced compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, DSS increased the phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK1/2 and p38α) in Brucella-infected, DSS-treated cells compared with the control cells. Lastly, DSS markedly increased the intracellular survival of Brucella abortus in macrophages by up to 48 h. These results suggest that DSS enhanced the adhesion and phagocytosis of B. abortus into murine macrophages by stimulating the MAPK signaling proteins phospho-ERK1/2 and p38α and that DSS increased the intracellular survival of B. abortus by inhibiting colocalization of Brucella-containing vacuoles (BCVs) with the late endosome marker LAMP-1. This study emphasizes the enhancement of the phagocytic and intracellular modulatory effects of DSS, which may suppress the innate immune system and contribute to prolonged Brucella survival and chronic infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of intracellular calcium in the spermicidal action of 2',4'-dichlorobenzamil, a novel contact spermicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patni, A K; Gupta, S; Sharma, A; Tiwary, A K; Garg, S K

    2001-10-01

    The Na+-Ca2+ exchanger and Ca2+-ATPase pumps reported to be present on the sperm membrane are responsible for maintaining the intracellular Ca2+ concentration that is involved in regulation of sperm function. We have investigated the role of intracellular Ca2+ in the presence of 2',4'-dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride (benzamil), a Na+-Ca2+ exchange inhibitor, on human sperm motility. The mechanism of the complementary spermicidal action produced by a combination of benzamil and propranolol on human spermatozoa has been investigated also. When administered alone benzamil and propranolol produced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in motility of sperm in ejaculated semen and spermatozoa separated from semen. A combination of benzamil and propranolol exhibited a complementary spermicidal action, thereby resulting in dose reduction of both drugs for obtaining total immotility within 1 min of administration. An increase in the intracellular Ca2+ level was found to contribute to the spermicidal activity. Inhibition of the Na+-Ca2+ exchange system on sperm membrane by benzamil and membrane stabilization by propranolol resulted in accumulation of Ca2+ inside the sperm cells. When the two drugs were used in combination the time required for the total loss of motility of spermatozoa was significantly reduced due to a similar mechanism of action of both drugs.

  11. Mutual independence of alkaline- and calcium-mediated signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus refutes the existence of a conserved druggable signalling nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Omar; Bertuzzi, Margherita; Yan, Yu; Fedorova, Natalie; McCann, Bethany L; Armstrong-James, Darius; Espeso, Eduardo A; Read, Nick D; Nierman, William C; Bignell, Elaine M

    2017-12-01

    Functional coupling of calcium- and alkaline responsive signalling occurs in multiple fungi to afford efficient cation homeostasis. Host microenvironments exert alkaline stress and potentially toxic concentrations of Ca 2+ , such that highly conserved regulators of both calcium- (Crz) and pH- (PacC/Rim101) responsive signalling are crucial for fungal pathogenicity. Drugs targeting calcineurin are potent antifungal agents but also perturb human immunity thereby negating their use as anti-infectives, abrogation of alkaline signalling has, therefore, been postulated as an adjunctive antifungal strategy. We examined the interdependency of pH- and calcium-mediated signalling in Aspergillus fumigatus and found that calcium chelation severely impedes hyphal growth indicating a critical requirement for this ion independently of ambient pH. Transcriptomic responses to alkaline pH or calcium excess exhibited minimal similarity. Mutants lacking calcineurin, or its client CrzA, displayed normal alkaline tolerance and nuclear translocation of CrzA was unaffected by ambient pH. Expression of a highly conserved, alkaline-regulated, sodium ATPase was tolerant of genetic or chemical perturbations of calcium-mediated signalling, but abolished in null mutants of the pH-responsive transcription factor PacC, and PacC proteolytic processing occurred normally during calcium excess. Taken together our data demonstrate that in A. fumigatus the regulatory hierarchy governing alkaline tolerance circumvents calcineurin signalling. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Astrocytic Calcium Waves Signal Brain Injury to Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Kraft; Eduardo Rosales Jubal; Ruth von Laer; Claudia Döring; Adriana Rocha; Moyo Grebbin; Martin Zenke; Helmut Kettenmann; Albrecht Stroh; Stefan Momma

    2017-01-01

    Summary Brain injuries, such as stroke or trauma, induce neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) to a neurogenic response. Very little is known about the molecular cues that signal tissue damage, even over large distances, to the SVZ. Based on our analysis of gene expression patterns in the SVZ, 48?hr after an ischemic lesion caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, we hypothesized that the presence of an injury might be transmitted by an astrocytic traveling calcium wave rather...

  13. Intracellular calcium movements during excitation–contraction coupling in mammalian slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, action potentials elicit contractions by releasing calcium ions (Ca2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments on individual mouse muscle fibers micro-injected with a rapidly responding fluorescent Ca2+ indicator dye reveal that the amount of Ca2+ released is three- to fourfold larger in fast-twitch fibers than in slow-twitch fibers, and the proportion of the released Ca2+ that binds to troponin to activate contraction is substantially smaller. PMID:22450485

  14. Vcx1 and ESCRT components regulate intracellular pH homeostasis in the response of yeast cells to calcium stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušková, Klára; Jiang, L.; Sychrová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2015), fov007 ISSN 1567-1356 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/10/0307; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14297; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : calcium * ESCRT * pHin * Vcx1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.479, year: 2015

  15. Silver ions increase plasma membrane permeability through modulation of intracellular calcium levels in tobacco BY-2 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíma, Petr; Laňková, Martina; Vandenbussche, F.; Van Der Straeten, D.; Petrášek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2018), s. 809-818 ISSN 0721-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-10948S Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21519 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Auxin * Calcium * Ethylene * Silver ions * Tobacco BY-2 cells * Transmembrane transport Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  16. Caffeine Modulates Vesicle Release and Recovery at Cerebellar Parallel Fibre Terminals, Independently of Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L Dobson

    Full Text Available Cerebellar parallel fibres release glutamate at both the synaptic active zone and at extrasynaptic sites-a process known as ectopic release. These sites exhibit different short-term and long-term plasticity, the basis of which is incompletely understood but depends on the efficiency of vesicle release and recycling. To investigate whether release of calcium from internal stores contributes to these differences in plasticity, we tested the effects of the ryanodine receptor agonist caffeine on both synaptic and ectopic transmission.Whole cell patch clamp recordings from Purkinje neurons and Bergmann glia were carried out in transverse cerebellar slices from juvenile (P16-20 Wistar rats.Caffeine caused complex changes in transmission at both synaptic and ectopic sites. The amplitude of postsynaptic currents in Purkinje neurons and extrasynaptic currents in Bergmann glia were increased 2-fold and 4-fold respectively, but paired pulse ratio was substantially reduced, reversing the short-term facilitation observed under control conditions. Caffeine treatment also caused synaptic sites to depress during 1 Hz stimulation, consistent with inhibition of the usual mechanisms for replenishing vesicles at the active zone. Unexpectedly, pharmacological intervention at known targets for caffeine--intracellular calcium release, and cAMP signalling--had no impact on these effects.We conclude that caffeine increases release probability and inhibits vesicle recovery at parallel fibre synapses, independently of known pharmacological targets. This complex effect would lead to potentiation of transmission at fibres firing at low frequencies, but depression of transmission at high frequency connections.

  17. An inside job: hacking into Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling cascades by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkers, Eric Y; Bzik, David J; Fox, Barbara A; Butcher, Barbara A

    2012-02-01

    The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is well known for its skill at invading and living within host cells. New discoveries are now also revealing the astounding ability of the parasite to inject effector proteins into the cytoplasm to seize control of the host cell. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of one such secretory protein called ROP16. This molecule is released from rhoptries into the host cell during invasion. The ROP16 molecule acts as a kinase, directly activating both signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and STAT6 signaling pathways. In macrophages, an important and preferential target cell of parasite infection, the injection of ROP16 has multiple consequences, including downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine signaling and macrophage deviation to an alternatively activated phenotype.

  18. The effect of tetraethylammonium on intracellular calcium concentration in Alzheimer's disease fibroblasts with APP, S182 and E5-1 missense mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failli, P; Tesco, G; Ruocco, C; Ginestroni, A; Amaducci, L; Giotti, A; Sorbi, S

    1996-04-26

    It has been proposed that the lack of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) increase induced by the potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA) in skin fibroblast cell lines identifies patients with both sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to verify this hypothesis, the effect of TEA on [Ca2+]i was studied in single fura-2-loaded skin fibroblast cell lines available in the Tissue Bank of the Italian Research Council. Four out of eight familial AD patients (one patient with S182 mutation, one patient with E5-1 mutation and two patients with 717 Val-->Ile APP mutation) and two out of five sporadic AD patients showed a positive response to TEA, whereas five out of 11 control lines were unresponsive. Our data suggest that the absence of the TEA-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in skin fibroblast cell lines does not identify all AD patients.

  19. Regulatory role of regucalcin in heart calcium signaling: Insight into cardiac failure (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Regucalcin was first identified in 1978 as a regulatory protein of Ca 2+ signaling in liver cells. Regucalcin was shown to play a multifunctional role in cell regulation, such as maintainance of intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis and suppression of signal transduction, protein synthesis, nuclear function, cell proliferation and apoptosis in various types of cells and tissues. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is based on the regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration by the Ca 2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of heart muscle cells. Regucalcin, which is expressed in the heart, was found to increase rat heart sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase activity and ATP-dependent Ca 2+ uptake and mitochondrial Ca 2+ -ATPase activity. Regucalcin was also shown to suppress Ca 2+ -dependent protein tyrosine phosphatase, Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin) and nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity in the heart cytoplasm. Moreover, regucalcin was found to activate superoxide dismutase (SOD), which plays a significant role in the prevention of cell death and apoptosis in the heart. Regucalcin may be a key molecule in heart muscle cell regulation through Ca 2+ signaling. Regucalcin may also play a pathophysiological role in heart failure. The aim of this study was to review the recent findings regarding the role of regucalcin in Ca 2+ signaling in the heart.

  20. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora

    2018-01-01

    Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profilin...

  1. In vivo optical microprobe imaging for intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in response to dopaminergic signaling in deep brain evoked by cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongchi; Pan, Yingtian; Du, Congwu

    2012-02-01

    Ca2+ plays a vital role as second messenger in signal transduction and the intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) change is an important indicator of neuronal activity in the brain, including both cortical and subcortical brain regions. Due to the highly scattering and absorption of brain tissue, it is challenging to optically access the deep brain regions (e.g., striatum at >3mm under the brain surface) and image [Ca2+]i changes with cellular resolutions. Here, we present two micro-probe approaches (i.e., microlens, and micro-prism) integrated with a fluorescence microscope modified to permit imaging of neuronal [Ca2+]i signaling in the striatum using a calcium indicator Rhod2(AM). While a micro-prism probe provides a larger field of view to image neuronal network from cortex to striatum, a microlens probe enables us to track [Ca2+]i dynamic change in individual neurons within the brain. Both techniques are validated by imaging neuronal [Ca2+]i changes in transgenic mice with dopamine receptors (D1R, D2R) expressing EGFP. Our results show that micro-prism images can map the distribution of D1R- and D2R-expressing neurons in various brain regions and characterize their different mean [Ca2+]i changes induced by an intervention (e.g., cocaine administration, 8mg/kg., i.p). In addition, microlens images can characterize the different [Ca2+]i dynamics of D1 and D2 neurons in response to cocaine, including new mechanisms of these two types of neurons in striatum. These findings highlight the power of the optical micro-probe imaging for dissecting the complex cellular and molecular insights of cocaine in vivo.

  2. Potassium conductances mediate bidirectional state-dependent modulation of action potential evoked dendritic calcium signals in dentate gyrus granule cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Brunner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Backpropagating action potentials (bAPs and local calcium signals that they trigger are fundamental for dendritic functions. Here we addressed the question what extent the changes of local dendritic membrane properties can contribute to the shaping of the coupling between dendritic action potentials and the local calcium responses. Using a combination of in vitro electrophysiological and confocal imaging techniques we found that activation of dendritic GIRK channels via mGlu2 or GABAB receptors enhanced the bAP¬-triggered calcium signals in the dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells (GCs. The enhancement of calcium signals was significant only in those dendritic regions, where these receptors are predominantly expressed. Similarly to GIRK channel activation, somatic hyperpolarization by DC current injection (from -64 mV to -77 mV, significantly increased bAP-associated calcium signals in the proximal dendrites. The hyperpolarization was associated with a decrease in the input resistance due to the rectification of the membrane potential of GCs. The effect of hyperpolarization on the calcium signals was maintained when T-type calcium currents were blocked but it decreased when GIRK channels were inhibited. Simultaneous dual somato-dendritic recordings from GCs showed that somatic hyperpolarization accelerated the repolarization phase of dendritic bAP in the proximal region whereas the rising phase and peak amplitude was not affected. We hypothesize that the larger driving force for calcium ions during the faster repolarization can contribute to the increasing in calcium signals. Employment of previously recorded dendritic bAP waveforms from hyperpolarized membrane potential as voltage command evoked larger calcium currents in nucleated patches compared to bAP waveform from the same recording at depolarized membrane potential. Furthermore, addition of native, high-voltage activated, inactivating potassium conductance by somatic dynamic clamp

  3. The Role of nAChR and Calcium Signaling in Pancreatic Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaal, Courtney [Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Padmanabhan, Jaya [Department of Molecular Medicine and USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute, University of South Florida, 4001 E. Fletcher Ave., Tampa, FL 33612 (United States); Chellappan, Srikumar, E-mail: Srikumar.Chellappan@moffitt.org [Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612 (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Pancreatic cancer shows a strong correlation with smoking and the current therapeutic strategies have been relatively ineffective in improving the survival of patients. Efforts have been made over the past many years to understand the molecular events that drive the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer, especially in the context of smoking. It has become clear that components of tobacco smoke not only initiate these cancers, especially pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) through their mutagenic properties, but can also promote the growth and metastasis of these tumors by stimulating cell proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Studies in cell culture systems, animal models and human samples have shown that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation enhances these tumor-promoting events by channeling signaling through multiple pathways. In this context, signaling through calcium channels appear to facilitate pancreatic cancer growth by itself or downstream of nAChRs. This review article highlights the role of nAChR downstream signaling events and calcium signaling in the growth, metastasis as well as drug resistance of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Rapid expression of RASD1 is regulated by estrogen receptor-dependent intracellular signaling pathway in the mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Cho, Kil-Sang; Kim, Eunhye; Lee, Ok-Hee; Yoon, Hyemin; Lee, Sangho; Moon, Sohyeon; Park, Miseon; Hong, Kwonho; Na, Younghwa; Shin, Ji-Eun; Kwon, Hwang; Song, Haengseok; Choi, Dong Hee; Choi, Youngsok

    2017-05-05

    Dexamethasone-induced RAS-related protein 1 (RASD1) is a signaling protein that is involved in various cellular processes. In a previous study, we found that RASD1 expression was down-regulated in the uterine endometrium of repeated implantation failure patients. The study aim was to determine whether RASD1 is expressed in the endometrium of mouse uterus and how it is regulated by steroid hormones during the estrous cycle. In this study, we investigated RASD1 expression and regulation in an ovariectomized female mouse model. Rasd1 mRNA was highly expressed in mouse reproductive tissues, including the uterus. Rasd1 expression was detected exclusively in the endometrial epithelium at the proestrus stage of the estrous cycle. Rasd1 expression in uteri increased with administration of estradiol, but not progesterone. Its expression was rapidly induced within 2 h after E 2 treatment. Pretreatment with ICI 182,780, an estrogen receptor antagonist, reduced RASD1 protein expression. In addition, we identified that rapid expression of Rasd1 was mediated by the estrogen intracellular signaling including both p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase. These findings suggest that RASD1 acts as a novel signaling molecule and plays an important role in regulating dynamic uterine remodeling during the estrous cycle in the uterus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HDAC6 controls innate immune and autophagy responses to TLR-mediated signalling by the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Moreno-Gonzalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence on HDAC6 function underlines its role as a key protein in the innate immune response to viral infection. However, whether HDAC6 regulates innate immunity during bacterial infection remains unexplored. To assess the role of HDAC6 in the regulation of defence mechanisms against intracellular bacteria, we used the Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infection model. Our data show that Hdac6-/- bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs have a higher bacterial load than Hdac6+/+ cells, correlating with weaker induction of IFN-related genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrite production after bacterial infection. Hdac6-/- BMDCs have a weakened phosphorylation of MAPK signalling in response to Lm infection, suggesting altered Toll-like receptor signalling (TLR. Compared with Hdac6+/+ counterparts, Hdac6-/- GM-CSF-derived and FLT3L-derived dendritic cells show weaker pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to various TLR agonists. Moreover, HDAC6 associates with the TLR-adaptor molecule Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, and the absence of HDAC6 seems to diminish the NF-κB induction after TLR stimuli. Hdac6-/- mice display low serum levels of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and correspondingly an increased survival to a systemic infection with Lm. The impaired bacterial clearance in the absence of HDAC6 appears to be caused by a defect in autophagy. Hence, Hdac6-/- BMDCs accumulate higher levels of the autophagy marker p62 and show defective phagosome-lysosome fusion. These data underline the important function of HDAC6 in dendritic cells not only in bacterial autophagy, but also in the proper activation of TLR signalling. These results thus demonstrate an important regulatory role for HDAC6 in the innate immune response to intracellular bacterial infection.

  6. Effect of atorvastatin on intracellular calcium uptake in coronary smooth muscle cells from diabetic pigs fed an atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, B J; Dixon, J L; Sturek, M

    2001-11-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) store loading has been shown to alter proliferation and apoptosis of several cell types. In addition, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e. atorvastatin) are effective in treating diabetic dyslipidemic patients. Thus, we hypothesized that chronic atorvastatin treatment would prevent increased Ca(2+) uptake into intracellular Ca(2+) stores in vascular smooth muscle cells from diabetic dyslipidemic pigs. Male Yucatan pigs were divided into four groups for 20 weeks-- (1) low fat fed (control); (2) hyperlipidemic (F); (3) alloxan-induced diabetic dyslipidemic (DF); and (4) diabetic dyslipidemic pigs treated with atorvastatin (DFA). The F, DF, and DFA groups were fed a high fat/cholesterol diet. Cells were isolated from the coronary artery and the myoplasmic Ca(2+) (Ca(m)) response measured using single cell fura-2 imaging. The Ca(m) response to caffeine (5 mM to release Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, SR) and ionomycin (10 microM; to release the total Ca(2+) store) was determined in either the presence of low Na (19Na; inhibits Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange), thapsigargin (TSG; inhibits the SR Ca(2+) pump), and a 19Na+TSG solution. Low Na induced the uptake of Ca(2+) into both SR and non-SR Ca(2+) stores in the DF group, but not the DFA group. Furthermore, after depletion of the SR Ca(2+) store with TSG, 19Na evoked Ca(2+) uptake into non-SR Ca(2+) stores in all three groups except in the DFA group. In summary, this study demonstrates that atorvastatin prevents the enhanced uptake of Ca(2+) by SR and non-SR Ca(2+) stores in diabetic dyslipidemic pigs.

  7. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  8. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  9. SR Calcium Handling Dysfunction, Stress-Response Signaling Pathways, and Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun eAi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia. It is associated with a markedly increased risk of premature death due to embolic stroke and also complicates co-existing cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure. The prevalence of AF increases dramatically with age, and aging has been shown to be an independent risk of AF. Due to an aging population in the world, a growing body of AF patients are suffering a diminished quality of life and causing an associated economic burden. However, effective pharmacologic treatments and prevention strategies are lacking due to a poor understanding of the molecular and electrophysiologic mechanisms of AF in the failing and/or aged heart. Recent studies suggest that altered atrial calcium handling contributes to the onset and maintenance of AF. Here we review the role of stress-induced calcium signaling dysfunction in atrial arrhythmogenesis in the aged and failing heart.

  10. Identification of a Calcium Signalling Pathway of S-[6]-Gingerol in HuH-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium signals in hepatocytes control cell growth, proliferation, and death. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP cation channel superfamily are candidate calcium influx channels. NFκB activation strictly depends on calcium influx and often induces antiapoptotic genes favouring cell survival. Previously, we reported that S-[6]-gingerol is an efficacious agonist of the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1 in neurones. In this study, we tested the effect of S-[6]-gingerol on HuH-7 cells using the Fluo-4 calcium assay, RT-qPCR, transient cell transfection, and luciferase measurements. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced a transient rise in [Ca2+]i in HuH-7 cells. The increase in [Ca2+]i induced by S-[6]-gingerol was abolished by preincubation with EGTA and was also inhibited by the TRPV1 channel antagonist capsazepine. Expression of TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells was confirmed by mRNA analysis as well as a test for increase of [Ca2+]i by TRPV1 agonist capsaicin and its inhibition by capsazepine. We found that S-[6]-gingerol induced rapid NFκB activation through TRPV1 in HuH-7 cells. Furthermore, S-[6]-gingerol-induced NFκB activation was dependent on the calcium gradient and TRPV1. The rapid NFκB activation by S-[6]-gingerol was associated with an increase in mRNA levels of NFκB-target genes: cIAP-2, XIAP, and Bcl-2 that encode antiapoptotic proteins.

  11. Stimulus-dependent regulation of nuclear Ca2+ signaling in cardiomyocytes: a role of neuronal calcium sensor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Shu; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomoe Y

    2015-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients are elicited by electrical and receptor stimulations, leading to muscle contraction and gene expression, respectively. Although such elevations of Ca2+levels ([Ca2+]) also occur in the nucleus, the precise mechanism of nuclear [Ca2+] regulation during different kinds of stimuli, and its relationship with cytoplasmic [Ca2+] regulation are not fully understood. To address these issues, we used a new region-specific fluorescent protein-based Ca2+ indicator, GECO, together with the conventional probe Fluo-4 AM. We confirmed that nuclear Ca2+ transients were elicited by both electrical and receptor stimulations in neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes. Kinetic analysis revealed that electrical stimulation-elicited nuclear Ca2+ transients are slower than cytoplasmic Ca2+ transients, and chelating cytoplasmic Ca2+ abolished nuclear Ca2+ transients, suggesting that nuclear Ca2+ are mainly derived from the cytoplasm during electrical stimulation. On the other hand, receptor stimulation such as with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) preferentially increased nuclear [Ca2+] compared to cytoplasmic [Ca2+]. Experiments using inhibitors revealed that electrical and receptor stimulation-elicited Ca2+ transients were mainly mediated by ryanodine receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), respectively, suggesting different mechanisms for the two signals. Furthermore, IGF-1-elicited nuclear Ca2+ transient amplitude was significantly lower in myocytes lacking neuronal Ca2+ sensor-1 (NCS-1), a Ca2+ binding protein implicated in IP3R-mediated pathway in the heart. Moreover, IGF-1 strengthened the interaction between NCS-1 and IP3R. These results suggest a novel mechanism for receptor stimulation-induced nuclear [Ca2+] regulation mediated by IP3R and NCS-1 that may further fine-tune cardiac Ca2+ signal regulation.

  12. ATP-Evoked Intracellular Ca(2+) Signaling of Different Supporting Cells in the Hearing Mouse Hemicochlea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horvath, T.; Polony, G.; Fekete, A.; Aller, M.; Halmos, G.; Lendvai, B.; Heinrich, A.; Sperlagh, B.; Vizi, E. S.; Zelles, T.

    Hearing and its protection is regulated by ATP-evoked Ca(2+) signaling in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti, however, the unique anatomy of the cochlea hampers observing these mechanisms. For the first time, we have performed functional ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging (fura-2) in three different

  13. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) MyD88 and Tollip: intracellular localization and signal transduction function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Wang, Zheng; Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Xia; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming; Li, An-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll-interacting protein (Tollip) are two important regulatory proteins of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. In this paper, a Tollip sequence of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified and the signal transduction functions of Tollip and MyD88 were studied. The full length of E. coioides Tollip (EcTollip) cDNA with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1734 nucleotides encoded a putative protein of 274 amino acid residues. The EcTollip protein had conservative domains with mammalian homologous proteins, and high identity (78%-95%) with other vertebrates. MyD88 and Tollip were distributed in the HeLa cytoplasm in a highly condensed form. Over-expression of MyD88 could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its function was dependent on the death domain and ID domain on the N-terminal. Some important functional sites of mammalian MyD88 also affected fish MyD88 signal transduction. Tollip impaired NF-κB signals activated by MyD88, and its activity was dependent on the coupling of ubiquitin to the endoplasmic reticulum degradation (CUE) domain on the C-terminal. These results suggest that MyD88 and Tollip of fish and mammals are conservative on function during evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Valproic Acid Influences MTNR1A Intracellular Trafficking and Signaling in a β-Arrestin 2-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ling-juan; Jiang, Quan; Long, Sen; Wang, Huan; Zhang, Ling-di; Tian, Yun; Wang, Cheng-kun; Cao, Jing-jing; Tao, Rong-rong; Huang, Ji-yun; Liao, Mei-hua; Lu, Ying-mei; Fukunaga, Kohji; Zhou, Nai-ming; Han, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Valproate exposure is associated with increased risks of autism spectrum disorder. To date, the mechanistic details of disturbance of melatonin receptor subtype 1 (MTNR1A) internalization upon valproate exposure remain elusive. By expressing epitope-tagged receptors (MTNR1A-EGFP) in HEK-293 and Neuro-2a cells, we recorded the dynamic changes of MTNR1A intracellular trafficking after melatonin treatment. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy, we showed in living cells that valproic acid interfered with the internalization kinetics of MTNR1A in the presence of melatonin. This attenuating effect was associated with a decrease in the phosphorylation of PKA (Thr197) and ERK (Thr202/Tyr204). VPA treatment did not alter the whole-cell currents of cells with or without melatonin. Furthermore, fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging data demonstrated that valproic acid reduced the melatonin-initiated association between YFP-labeled β-arrestin 2 and CFP-labeled MTNR1A. Together, we suggest that valproic acid influences MTNR1A intracellular trafficking and signaling in a β-arrestin 2-dependent manner.

  15. Measurement of intracellular Ca2+mobilization to study GPCR signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashokan, Anisha; Aradhyam, Gopala K

    2017-01-01

    Understanding G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structure-function relationship and its activation mechanism has been broadly explored using mutational strategy due to problems in GPCR crystallization. Probing into GPCR: effector (G protein/β-arrestin) interactions and downstream signaling are important aspects of GPCR research. Among the G proteins, though there are some approaches to investigate G q -mediated signaling, they involve the use of radioactivity and are qualitative in nature. Our method described here makes use of the cell permeable nature of fluorescent Ca 2+ indicator dye, fura2AM, that binds with the Ca 2+ released in response to GPCR: G q interaction on ligand treatment. Using this spectrophotometric method, EC 50 values of the GPCR: ligand binding can be calculated and the binding affinity can be analyzed. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A fluorogenic TMP-tag for high signal-to-background intracellular live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chaoran; Cornish, Virginia W

    2013-08-16

    Developed to complement the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging, chemical tags enjoy the benefit of modular incorporation of organic fluorophores, opening the possibility of high photon output and special photophysical properties. However, the theoretical challenge in using chemical tags as opposed to fluorescent proteins for high-resolution imaging is background noise from unbound and/or nonspecifically bound ligand-fluorophore. We envisioned we could overcome this limit by engineering fluorogenic trimethoprim-based chemical tags (TMP-tags) in which the fluorophore is quenched until binding with E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR)-tagged protein displaces the quencher. Thus, we began by building a nonfluorogenic, covalent TMP-tag based on a proximity-induced reaction known to achieve rapid and specific labeling both in vitro and inside of living cells. Here we take the final step and render the covalent TMP-tag fluorogenic. In brief, we designed a trimeric TMP-fluorophore-quencher molecule (TMP-Q-Atto520) with the quencher attached to a leaving group that, upon TMP binding to eDHFR, would be cleaved by a cysteine residue (Cys) installed just outside the binding pocket of eDHFR. We present the in vitro experiments showing that the eDHFR:L28C nucleophile cleaves the TMP-Q-Atto520 rapidly and efficiently, resulting in covalent labeling and remarkable fluorescence enhancement. Most significantly, while only our initial design, TMP-Q-Atto520 achieved the demanding goal of not only labeling highly abundant, localized intracellular proteins but also less abundant, more dynamic cytoplasmic proteins. These results suggest that the fluorogenic TMP-tag can significantly impact high-resolution live cell imaging and further establish the potential of proximity-induced reactivity and organic chemistry more broadly as part of the growing toolbox for synthetic biology and cell engineering.

  17. A Fluorogenic TMP-tag for High Signal-to-Background Intracellular Live Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chaoran

    2013-01-01

    Developed to compliment the use of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging, chemical tags enjoy the benefit of modular incorporation of organic fluorophores, opening the possibility of high photon output and special photophysical properties. However, the theoretical challenge in using chemical tags as opposed to fluorescent proteins for high-resolution imaging is background noise from unbound and/or non-specifically bound ligand-fluorophore. We envisioned we could overcome this limit by engineering fluorogenic trimethoprim-based chemical tags (TMP-tags) in which the fluorophore is quenched until binding with E. coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR) tagged protein displaces the quencher. Thus, we began by building a non-fluorogenic, covalent TMP-tag based on a proximity-induced reaction known to achieve rapid and specific labeling both in vitro and inside of living cells. Here we take the final step and render the covalent TMP-tag fluorogenic. In brief, we designed a trimeric TMP-fluorophore-quencher molecule (TMP-Q-Atto520) with the quencher attached to a leaving group that, upon TMP binding to eDHFR, would be cleaved by a cysteine residue (Cys) installed just outside the binding pocket of eDHFR. We present the in vitro experiments showing that the eDHFR:L28C nucleophile cleaves the TMP-Q-Atto520 rapidly and efficiently, resulting in covalent labeling and remarkable fluorescence enhancement. Most significantly, while only our initial design, TMP-Q-Atto520 achieved the demanding goal of not only labeling highly abundant, localized intracellular proteins, but also less abundant, more dynamic cytoplasmic proteins. These results suggest that fluorogenic TMP-tag can significantly impact highresolution live cell imaging and further establish the potential of proximity-induced reactivity and organic chemistry more broadly as part of the growing toolbox for synthetic biology and cell engineering. PMID:23745575

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein Smads signaling in mesenchymal stem cells affected by osteoinductive calcium phosphate ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhurong; Wang, Zhe; Qing, Fangzhu; Ni, Yilu; Fan, Yujiang; Tan, Yanfei; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-03-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics (CaP ceramics) could induce ectopic bone formation which was regulated by various signal molecules. In this work, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the surface of osteoinductive hydroxyapatite (HA) and biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) ceramics in comparison with control (culture plate) for up to 14 days to detect the signal molecules which might be affected by the CaP ceramics. Without adding osteogenic factors, MSCs cultured on HA and BCP both expressed higher Runx2, Osterix, collagen type I, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin at various stages compared with control, thus confirmed the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. Later study demonstrated the messenger RNA level of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and BMP4 were also significantly enhanced by HA and BCP. Furthermore, Smad1, 4, 5, and Dlx5, the main molecules in the BMP/Smads signaling pathway, were upregulated by HA and BCP. Moreover, the higher expression of Smads and BMP2, 4 in BCP over HA, corresponded to the better performance of BCP in stimulating in vitro osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs. This was in accordance with the better osteoinductivity of BCP over HA in vivo. Altogether, these results implied that the CaP ceramics may initiate the osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs by influencing the expression of molecules in BMP/Smads pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The effects of heat stress on morphological properties and intracellular signaling of denervated and intact soleus muscles in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Takashi; Higashibata, Akira; Seki, Masaya; Kurata, Yoichi; Kimura, Yayoi; Hirano, Hisashi; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Minamisawa, Susumu; Kudo, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoru; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Furukawa, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    The effects of heat stress on the morphological properties and intracellular signaling of innervated and denervated soleus muscles were investigated. Heat stress was applied to rats by immersing their hindlimbs in a warm water bath (42°C, 30 min/day, every other day following unilateral denervation) under anesthesia. During 14 days of experimental period, heat stress for a total of seven times promoted growth-related hypertrophy in sham-operated muscles and attenuated atrophy in denervated muscles. In denervated muscles, the transcription of ubiquitin ligase, atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box ( Atrogin-1 ), and muscle RING-finger protein-1 ( MuRF-1 ), genes was upregulated and ubiquitination of proteins was also increased. Intermittent heat stress inhibited the upregulation of Atrogin-1 , but not MuRF-1 transcription. And the denervation-caused reduction in phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt), 70-kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1 α ), which are negative regulators of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 transcription, was mitigated. In sham-operated muscles, repeated application of heat stress did not affect Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 transcription, but increased the level of phosphorylated Akt and HSP70, but not PGC-1 α Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal protein S6, which is known to stimulate protein synthesis, was increased immediately after a single heat stress particularly in the sham-operated muscles. The effect of a heat stress was suppressed in denervated muscles. These results indicated that the beneficial effects of heat stress on the morphological properties of muscles were brought regardless of innervation. However, the responses of intracellular signaling to heat stress were distinct between the innervated and denervated muscles. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological

  20. Targets and intracellular signaling mechanisms for deoxynivalenol-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Kaiyu; Zhou, Hui-Ren; Pestka, James J

    2012-06-01

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a known translational inhibitor, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage. Here, we characterized this process relative to (1) specific 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage sites and (2) identity of specific upstream signaling elements in this pathway. Capillary electrophoresis indicated that DON at concentrations as low as 200 ng/ml evoked selective rRNA cleavage after 6 h and that 1000 ng/ml caused cleavage within 2 h. Northern blot analysis revealed that DON exposure induced six rRNA cleavage fragments from 28S rRNA and five fragments from 18S rRNA. When selective kinase inhibitors were used to identify potential upstream signals, RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), hematopoietic cell kinase (Hck), and p38 were found to be required for rRNA cleavage, whereas c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase were not. Furthermore, rRNA fragmentation was suppressed by the p53 inhibitors pifithrin-α and pifithrin-μ as well as the pan caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Concurrent apoptosis was confirmed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry. DON activated caspases 3, 8, and 9, thus suggesting the possible coinvolvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways in rRNA cleavage. Satratoxin G (SG), anisomycin, and ricin also induced specific rRNA cleavage profiles identical to those of DON, suggesting that ribotoxins might share a conserved rRNA cleavage mechanism. Taken together, DON-induced rRNA cleavage is likely to be closely linked to apoptosis activation and appears to involve the sequential activation of PKR/Hck →p38→p53→caspase 8/9→caspase 3.

  1. Intracellular calcium is a target of modulation of apoptosis in MCF-7 cells in the presence of IgA adsorbed to polyethylene glycol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina; Nunes, Gabriel Triches; Fagundes, Danny Laura Gomes; de Marchi, Patrícia Gelli Feres; Fernandes, Rubian Trindade da Silva; França, Juliana Luzia; França-Botelho, Aline do Carmo; Moraes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla; França, Eduardo Luzía

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that breastfeeding has a protective effect on breast cancer risk. Protein-based drugs, including antibodies, are being developed to attain better forms of cancer therapy. Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the antibody class in human breast milk, and its activity can be linked to the protective effect of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres with adsorbed SIgA on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Methods The PEG microspheres were characterized by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The MCF-7 cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection. MCF-7 cells were pre-incubated for 24 hours with or without SIgA (100 ng/mL), PEG microspheres or SIgA adsorbed in PEG microspheres (100 ng/mL). Viability, intracellular calcium release, and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analyses revealed that SIgA was able to adsorb to the PEG microspheres. The MCF-7 cells that were incubated with PEG microspheres with adsorbed SIgA showed decreased viability. MCF-7 cells that were incubated with SIgA or PEG microspheres with adsorbed SIgA had increased intracellular Ca2+ levels. In the presence of SIgA, an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells was observed. The highest apoptosis index was observed when the cells were treated with PEG microspheres with adsorbed SIgA. Conclusion These data suggest that colostral SIgA adsorbed to PEG microspheres has antitumor effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and that the presence of large amounts of this protein in secreted breast milk may provide protection against breast tumors in women who breastfed. PMID:26893571

  2. The Potential of Vitamin D-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways as Targets for Myeloid Leukemia Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Gocek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current standard regimens for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML are curative in less than half of patients; therefore, there is a great need for innovative new approaches to this problem. One approach is to target new treatments to the pathways that are instrumental to cell growth and survival with drugs that are less harmful to normal cells than to neoplastic cells. In this review, we focus on the MAPK family of signaling pathways and those that are known to, or potentially can, interact with MAPKs, such as PI3K/AKT/FOXO and JAK/STAT. We exemplify the recent studies in this field with specific relevance to vitamin D and its derivatives, since they have featured prominently in recent scientific literature as having anti-cancer properties. Since microRNAs also are known to be regulated by activated vitamin D, this is also briefly discussed here, as are the implications of the emerging acquisition of transcriptosome data and potentiation of the biological effects of vitamin D by other compounds. While there are ongoing clinical trials of various compounds that affect signaling pathways, more studies are needed to establish the clinical utility of vitamin D in the treatment of cancer.

  3. Signaling domain of Sonic Hedgehog as cannibalistic calcium-regulated zinc-peptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Rebollido-Rios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sonic Hedgehog (Shh is a representative of the evolutionary closely related class of Hedgehog proteins that have essential signaling functions in animal development. The N-terminal domain (ShhN is also assigned to the group of LAS proteins (LAS = Lysostaphin type enzymes, D-Ala-D-Ala metalloproteases, Sonic Hedgehog, of which all members harbor a structurally well-defined Zn2+ center; however, it is remarkable that ShhN so far is the only LAS member without proven peptidase activity. Another unique feature of ShhN in the LAS group is a double-Ca2+ center close to the zinc. We have studied the effect of these calcium ions on ShhN structure, dynamics, and interactions. We find that the presence of calcium has a marked impact on ShhN properties, with the two calcium ions having different effects. The more strongly bound calcium ion significantly stabilizes the overall structure. Surprisingly, the binding of the second calcium ion switches the putative catalytic center from a state similar to LAS enzymes to a state that probably is catalytically inactive. We describe in detail the mechanics of the switch, including the effect on substrate co-ordinating residues and on the putative catalytic water molecule. The properties of the putative substrate binding site suggest that ShhN could degrade other ShhN molecules, e.g. by cleavage at highly conserved glycines in ShhN. To test experimentally the stability of ShhN against autodegradation, we compare two ShhN mutants in vitro: (1 a ShhN mutant unable to bind calcium but with putative catalytic center intact, and thus, according to our hypothesis, a constitutively active peptidase, and (2 a mutant carrying additionally mutation E177A, i.e., with the putative catalytically active residue knocked out. The in vitro results are consistent with ShhN being a cannibalistic zinc-peptidase. These experiments also reveal that the peptidase activity depends on pH.

  4. Signaling domain of Sonic Hedgehog as cannibalistic calcium-regulated zinc-peptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollido-Rios, Rocio; Bandari, Shyam; Wilms, Christoph; Jakuschev, Stanislav; Vortkamp, Andrea; Grobe, Kay; Hoffmann, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a representative of the evolutionary closely related class of Hedgehog proteins that have essential signaling functions in animal development. The N-terminal domain (ShhN) is also assigned to the group of LAS proteins (LAS = Lysostaphin type enzymes, D-Ala-D-Ala metalloproteases, Sonic Hedgehog), of which all members harbor a structurally well-defined Zn2+ center; however, it is remarkable that ShhN so far is the only LAS member without proven peptidase activity. Another unique feature of ShhN in the LAS group is a double-Ca2+ center close to the zinc. We have studied the effect of these calcium ions on ShhN structure, dynamics, and interactions. We find that the presence of calcium has a marked impact on ShhN properties, with the two calcium ions having different effects. The more strongly bound calcium ion significantly stabilizes the overall structure. Surprisingly, the binding of the second calcium ion switches the putative catalytic center from a state similar to LAS enzymes to a state that probably is catalytically inactive. We describe in detail the mechanics of the switch, including the effect on substrate co-ordinating residues and on the putative catalytic water molecule. The properties of the putative substrate binding site suggest that ShhN could degrade other ShhN molecules, e.g. by cleavage at highly conserved glycines in ShhN. To test experimentally the stability of ShhN against autodegradation, we compare two ShhN mutants in vitro: (1) a ShhN mutant unable to bind calcium but with putative catalytic center intact, and thus, according to our hypothesis, a constitutively active peptidase, and (2) a mutant carrying additionally mutation E177A, i.e., with the putative catalytically active residue knocked out. The in vitro results are consistent with ShhN being a cannibalistic zinc-peptidase. These experiments also reveal that the peptidase activity depends on pH.

  5. 17beta-estradiol rapidly mobilizes intracellular calcium from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores via a PKC-PKA-Erk-dependent pathway in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2008-09-01

    We describe a novel rapid non-genomic effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) on intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) signalling in the eccrine sweat gland epithelial cell line NCL-SG3. E2 had no observable effect on basal [Ca2+]i, however exposure of cells to E2 in the presence of the microsomal Ca2+ ATPase pump inhibitor, thapsigargin, produced a secondary, sustained increase in [Ca2+]i compared to thapsigargin treatment alone, where cells responded with a transient single spike-like increase in [Ca2+]i. The E2-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was not dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium and was completely abolished by ryanodine (100 microM). The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 (1 microM) prevented the E2-induced effects suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in the release of [Ca2+]i from ryanodine-receptor-gated stores. The E2-induced effect on [Ca2+]i could also be prevented by the protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta)-specific inhibitor rottlerin (10 microM), the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-adenosine 3\\

  6. A flow cytometry technique to study intracellular signals NF-κB and STAT3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavarin Patricia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytokines have essential roles on intercellular communications and are effective in using a variety of intracellular pathways. Among this multitude of signalling pathways, the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappaB and STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription families are among the most frequently investigated because of their importance. Indeed, they have important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Current techniques to study NF-κB and STAT rely on specific ELISAs, Western Blots and – most recently described – flow cytometry; so far, investigation of such signalling pathways are most commonly performed on homogeneous cells after purification. Results The present investigation aimed at developing a flow cytometry technique to study transcription factors in various cellular types such as mixtures of B-cells, T-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages stimulated in steady state conditions (in other words, as peripheral blood mononuclear cells. To achieve this goal, a two step procedure was carried out; the first one consisted of stimulating PBMCs with IL1β, sCD40L and/or IL10 in such a manner that optimal stimulus was found for each cell subset (and subsequent signal transduction, therefore screened by specific ELISA; the second step consisted of assessing confirmation and fine delineation of technical conditions by specific Western-Blotting for either NF-κB or STAT products. We then went on to sensitize the detection technique for mixed cells using 4 color flow cytometry. Conclusion In response to IL1β, or IL10, the levels of phosphorylated NF-κB and STAT3 – respectively – increased significantly for all the studied cell types. In contrast, B-cells and monocytes/macrophages – but, interestingly, not T-lymphocytes (in the context of PBMCs – responded significantly to sCD40L by increasing phosphorylated NF-κB.

  7. Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Downregulates Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding to the Cell Surface and Intracellular Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Evelyne; Valacca, Cristina; Mignatti, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP, MMP-14), a transmembrane proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain and a short cytoplasmic tail, degrades extracellular matrix components and controls diverse cell functions through proteolytic and non-proteolytic interactions with extracellular, intracellular, and transmembrane proteins. Here we show that in tumor cells MT1-MMP downregulates fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) signaling by reducing the amount of FGF-2 bound to the cell surface with high and low affinity. FGF-2 induces weaker activation of ERK1/2 MAP kinase in MT1-MMP expressing cells than in cells devoid of MT1-MMP. This effect is abolished in cells that express proteolytically inactive MT1-MMP but persists in cells expressing MT1-MMP mutants devoid of hemopexin-like or cytoplasmic domain, showing that FGF-2 signaling is downregulated by MT1-MMP proteolytic activity. MT1-MMP expression results in downregulation of FGFR-1 and -4, and in decreased amount of cell surface-associated FGF-2. In addition, MT1-MMP strongly reduces the amount of FGF-2 bound to the cell surface with low affinity. Because FGF-2 association with low-affinity binding sites is a prerequisite for binding to its high-affinity receptors, downregulation of low-affinity binding to the cell surface results in decreased FGF-2 signaling. Consistent with this conclusion, FGF-2 induction of tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro is stronger in cells devoid of MT1- MMP than in MT1-MMP expressing cells. Thus, MT1-MMP controls FGF-2 signaling by a proteolytic mechanism that decreases the cell's biological response to FGF-2. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. p120-catenin differentially regulates cell migration by Rho-dependent intracellular and secreted signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epifano, Carolina; Megias, Diego; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2014-01-01

    The adherens junction protein p120-catenin is implicated in the regulation of cadherin stability, cell migration and inflammatory responses in mammalian epithelial tissues. How these events are coordinated to promote wound repair is not understood. We show that p120 catenin regulates the intrinsic...... migratory properties of primary mouse keratinocytes, but also influences the migratory behavior of neighboring cells by secreted signals. These events are rooted in the ability of p120-catenin to regulate RhoA GTPase activity, which leads to a two-tiered control of cell migration. One restrains cell...... motility via an increase in actin stress fibers, reduction in integrin turnover and an increase in the robustness of focal adhesions. The other is coupled to the secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-24, which causally enhances randomized cell movements. Taken together, our results...

  9. Novel strategies in drug discovery of the calcium-sensing receptor based on biased signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Alex Rojas Bie; Smajilovic, Sanela; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of chronic kidney disease is hyperphosphatemia due to renal phosphate retention. Prolonged parathyroid gland exposure to hyperphosphatemia leads to secondary hyperparathyroidism characterized by hyperplasia of the glands and excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which cause...... by virtue of it not affecting calcitonin secretion. The present review will focus on recent advancements in understanding signaling and biased signaling of the CaSR, and how that may be utilized to discover new and smarter drugs targeting the CaSR....... targeting the CaSR and can be used to effectively control and reduce PTH secretion in PTH-related diseases. Cinacalcet is a positive allosteric modulator of the CaSR and affects PTH secretion from parathyroid glands by shifting the calcium-PTH concentration-response curve to the left. One major disadvantage...

  10. ROS and calcium signaling mediated pathways involved in stress responses of the marine microalgae Dunaliella salina to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You

    2017-08-01

    UV-B ray has been addressed to trigger common metabolic responses on marine microalgae, however, the upstream events responsible for these changes in marine microalgae are poorly understood. In the present study, a species of marine green microalgae Dunaliella salina was exposed to a series of enhanced UV-B radiation ranging from 0.25 to 1.00 KJ·m -2 per day. The role of ROS and calcium signaling in the D. salina responses to UV-B was discussed. Results showed that enhanced UV-B radiation markedly decreased the cell density in a dose-dependent manner, but the contents of protein and glycerol that were essential for cell growth increased. It suggested that it was cell division instead of cell growth that UV-B exerted negative effects on. The subcellular damages on nuclei and plasmalemma further evidenced the hypothesis. The nutrient absorption was affected with UV-B exposure, and the inhibition on PO 4 3- uptake was more serious compared to NO 3 - uptake. UV-B radiation promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) contents, decreased the redox status and altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. The addition of the ROS scavenger and the glutathione biosynthesis precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) alleviated the stress degree, implying ROS-mediated pathway was involved in the stress response to UV-B radiation. Transient increase in Ca 2+ -ATPase was triggered simultaneously with UV-B exposure. Meanwhile, the addition of an intracellular free calcium chelator aggravated the damage of cell division, but exogenous calcium and ion channel blocker applications did not, inferring that endogenously initiated calcium signaling played roles in response to UV-B. Cross-talk analysis showed a relatively clear relationship between ROS inhibition and Ca 2+ -ATPase suppression, and a relation between Ca 2+ inhibition and GPx activity change was also observed. It was thus presumed that ROS-coupled calcium signaling via the

  11. Contradictory effects of short- and long-term hyperglycemias on ischemic injury of myocardium via intracellular signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Takashi, En; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Naito, Zenya

    2004-02-01

    Although clinical diabetes mellitus is obviously a high risk factor for myocardial infarction, there is disagreement about the sensitivity of ischemic injury of an infarcted myocardium in experimental studies. The present study evaluated the influences of different durations of hyperglycemia on ischemic and reperfusion injuries of the myocardium, and focused on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which plays an important role in the intracellular signaling pathway and is reported to be associated with myocardial protection against heart injury. Short- and long-term hyperglycemias were induced in rats by streptozotocin (STZ) injection and the rats were examined 4 (4WDM) and 20 weeks (20WDM) after the treatment. Ischemia and reperfusion were induced by occlusion and reperfusion (I/R) of the left coronary artery (LCA). I/R-induced infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. After 20 weeks of STZ treatment (20WDM+I/R), the infarct size in the rat heart increased by 65.2 +/- 4.3%, whereas after 4 weeks of STZ treatment (4WDM+I/R), the infarct size decreased compared with the time-matched I/R group (43.1 +/- 3.6% and 59.5 +/- 5.6%, respectively). The number of dead myocytes including necrotic and apoptotic cells was determined using horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and terminal deoxynucleotide nick-end labeling (TUNEL) methods. The number of dead myocytes decreased in the 4WDM+I/R group, while the number of dead myocytes increased markedly in the 20WDM+I/R group, compared with the time-matched I/R group. The increment of ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the 4WDM group and the slight enhancement of this phosphorylation by I/R treatment were observed by western blotting. However, in the 20WDM group, the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation reduced by approximately 1/3 compared with the time-matched control group; moreover, I/R treatment did not enhance the phosphorylation level. This study demonstrated that short- and long

  12. OncoFinder, a new method for the analysis of intracellular signaling pathway activation using transcriptomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton A. Buzdin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new biomathematical method, OncoFinder, for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the intracellular signaling pathway activation (SPA. This method is universal and may be used for the analysis of any physiological, stress, malignancy and other perturbed conditions at the molecular level. In contrast to the other existing techniques for aggregation and generalization of the gene expression data for individual samples, we suggest to distinguish the positive/activator and negative/repressor role of every gene product in each pathway. We show that the relative importance of each gene product in a pathway can be assessed using kinetic models for low-level protein interactions. Although the importance factors for the pathway members cannot be so far established for most of the signaling pathways due to the lack of the required experimental data, we showed that ignoring these factors can be sometimes acceptable and that the simplified formula for SPA evaluation may be applied for many cases. We hope that due to its universal applicability, the method OncoFinder will be widely used by the researcher community.

  13. Increasing complexity and versatility: how the calcium signaling toolkit was shaped during plant land colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, Kai H; Kudla, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    Calcium serves as a versatile messenger in adaptation reactions and developmental processes in plants and animals. Eukaryotic cells generate cytosolic Ca(2+) signals via Ca(2+) conducting channels. Ca(2+) signals are represented in form of stimulus-specific spatially and temporally defined Ca(2+) signatures. These Ca(2+) signatures are detected, decoded and transmitted to downstream responses by an elaborate toolkit of Ca(2+) binding proteins that function as Ca(2+) sensors. In this article, we examine the distribution and evolution of Ca(2+)-conducting channels and Ca(2+) decoding proteins in the plant lineage. To this end, we have in addition to previously studied genomes of plant species, identified and analyzed the Ca(2+)-signaling components from species that hold key evolutionary positions like the filamentous terrestrial algae Klebsormidium flaccidum and Amborella trichopoda, the single living representative of the sister lineage to all other extant flowering plants. Plants and animals exhibit substantial differences in their complements of Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+) binding proteins. Within the plant lineage, remarkable differences in the evolution of complexity between different families of Ca(2+) signaling proteins are observable. Using the CBL/CIPK Ca(2+) sensor/kinase signaling network as model, we attempt to link evolutionary tendencies to functional predictions. Our analyses, for example, suggest Ca(2+) dependent regulation of Na(+) homeostasis as an evolutionary most ancient function of this signaling network. Overall, gene families of Ca(2+) signaling proteins have significantly increased in their size during plant evolution reaching an extraordinary complexity in angiosperms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stroma cell-derived factor-1α signaling enhances calcium transients and beating frequency in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ielham Hadad

    Full Text Available Stroma cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α is a cardioprotective chemokine, acting through its G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4. In experimental acute myocardial infarction, administration of SDF-1α induces an early improvement of systolic function which is difficult to explain solely by an anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effect. We wondered whether SDF-1α signaling might have direct effects on calcium transients and beating frequency.Primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were culture-expanded and characterized by immunofluorescence staining. Calcium sparks were studied by fluorescence microscopy after calcium loading with the Fluo-4 acetoxymethyl ester sensor. The cardiomyocyte enriched cellular suspension expressed troponin I and CXCR4 but was vimentin negative. Addition of SDF-1α in the medium increased cytoplasmic calcium release. The calcium response was completely abolished by using a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody and partially suppressed and delayed by preincubation with an inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R blocker, but not with a ryanodine receptor (RyR antagonist. Calcium fluxes induced by caffeine, a RyR agonist, were decreased by an IP3R blocker. Treatment with forskolin or SDF-1α increased cardiomyocyte beating frequency and their effects were additive. In vivo, treatment with SDF-1α increased left ventricular dP/dtmax.These results suggest that in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, the SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling increases calcium transients in an IP3-gated fashion leading to a positive chronotropic and inotropic effect.

  15. Intracellular expression of IRF9 Stat fusion protein overcomes the defective Jak-Stat signaling and inhibits HCV RNA replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balart Luis A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interferon alpha (IFN-α binds to a cell surface receptor that activates the Jak-Stat signaling pathway. A critical component of this pathway is the translocation of interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (a complex of three proteins Stat1, Stat2 and IRF9 to the nucleus to activate antiviral genes. A stable sub-genomic replicon cell line resistant to IFN-α was developed in which the nuclear translocation of Stat1 and Stat2 proteins was prevented due to the lack of phosphorylation; whereas the nuclear translocation of IRF9 protein was not affected. In this study, we sought to overcome defective Jak-Stat signaling and to induce an antiviral state in the IFN-α resistant replicon cell line by developing a chimera IRF9 protein fused with the trans activating domain (TAD of either a Stat1 (IRF9-S1C or Stat2 (IRF9-S2C protein. We show here that intracellular expression of fusion proteins using the plasmid constructs of either IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C, in the IFN-α resistant cells, resulted in an increase in Interferon Stimulated Response Element (ISRE luciferase promoter activity and significantly induced HLA-1 surface expression. Moreover, we show that transient transfection of IRF9-S1C or IRF9-S2C plasmid constructs into IFN-α resistant replicon cells containing sub-genomic HCV1b and HCV2a viruses resulted in an inhibition of viral replication and viral protein expression independent of IFN-α treatment. The results of this study indicate that the recombinant fusion proteins of IRF9-S1C, IRF9-S2C alone, or in combination, have potent antiviral properties against the HCV in an IFN-α resistant cell line with a defective Jak-Stat signaling.

  16. LPA1 is a key mediator of intracellular signalling and neuroprotection triggered by tetracyclic antidepressants in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Onali, Pierluigi

    2017-10-01

    Both lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and antidepressants have been shown to affect neuronal survival and differentiation, but whether LPA signalling participates in the action of antidepressants is still unknown. In this study, we examined the role of LPA receptors in the regulation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activity and neuronal survival by the tetracyclic antidepressants, mianserin and mirtazapine in hippocampal neurons. In HT22 immortalized hippocampal cells, antidepressants and LPA induced a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This response was inhibited by either LPA 1 and LPA 1/3 selective antagonists or siRNA-induced LPA 1 down-regulation, and enhanced by LPA 1 over-expression. Conversely, the selective LPA 2 antagonist H2L5186303 had no effect. Antidepressants induced cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation and this response was prevented by LPA 1 blockade. ERK1/2 stimulation involved pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins, Src tyrosine kinases and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF-R) activity. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FGF-R was enhanced by antidepressants through LPA 1 . Serum withdrawal induced apoptotic death, as indicated by increased annexin V staining, caspase activation and cleavage of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase. Antidepressants inhibited the apoptotic cascade and this protective effect was curtailed by blockade of either LPA 1 , ERK1/2 or FGF-R activity. Moreover, in primary mouse hippocampal neurons, mianserin acting through LPA 1 increased phospho-ERK1/2 and protected from apoptosis induced by removal of growth supplement. These data indicate that in neurons endogenously expressed LPA 1 receptors mediate intracellular signalling and neuroprotection by tetracyclic antidepressants. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Comparison of intracellular signalling by insulin and the hypermitogenic AspB10 analogue in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Bonnesen, Christine; Hegelund, Anne Charlotte; Lundby, Anders; Holm, Gitte-Mai Nelander; Jensen, Marianne B; Krabbe, Jonas S

    2011-05-01

    We compared mitogenicity and intracellular signalling by human insulin and the AspB10 (X-10) human insulin analogue in MCF-7 human mammary adenocarcinoma cells. By flow analysis of phosphorylated histone H3 or cell cycle distributions, insulin and X-10 were mitogenic at physiologically relevant concentrations (2 nm to 74 pm range), with X-10 being approximately 3-fold more mitogenic than insulin. By western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies, insulin induced phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, p70S6K, S6 ribosomal protein, 4E-BP1, FoxO3a, FoxO1, p44/42 MAPK and the EGFR. Blocking with wortmannin, rapamycin and U0126 showed that these signalling events conformed to the canonical PI3K pathway. IRS-1 (Ser302) phosphorylation was abolished by wortmannin and rapamycin, suggesting a feedback from the PI3K pathway on insulin signalling. Compared with equimolar insulin, X-10 caused up to 2-fold higher phosphorylation of all proteins examined in this study. The phosphorylation sites that responded most strongly to insulin were not generally the same as those responding most strongly to X-10. In the PI3K pathway, the most X-10-sensitive protein localized to the translation-regulating arm (p70S6K), with FoxO3a and FoxO1 transcription factors showing a more comparable response to insulin and X-10. Using flow analysis, we confirmed the correlation between insulin-triggered translational activation in G0/G1 (S6 phosphorylation) and S-phase entry by MCF-7 cells. In summary, our findings implicate asymmetrical PI3K pathway activation and specifically stimulation of protein translation in the hypermitogenic effect of insulin analogues such as X-10. It remains to be shown whether these findings are relevant to other human mammary cancer cell types. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J

    2015-03-10

    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  19. Identification of tyrosine residues in the intracellular domain of the growth hormone receptor required for transcriptional signaling and Stat5 activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Wang, X.; Kopchick, J J

    1996-01-01

    phosphorylation in intracellular signaling, we constructed GH receptors in which combinations of tyrosines were mutated to phenylalanines. We identified three tyrosine residues at positions 534, 566, and 627 that were required for activation of GH-stimulated transcription of the serine protease inhibitor (Spi) 2...

  20. Intracellular calcium elevation during plateau potentials mediated by extrasynaptic NMDA receptor activation in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is primarily due to calcium entry through voltage-gated calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yoshiaki; Kodama, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Sadahiro; Inoue, Masashi; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi

    2014-05-01

    We reported previously that plateau potentials mediated by extrasynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) can be induced either by synaptic stimulation in the presence of glutamate transporter antagonist or by iontophoresis of NMDA in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. To examine whether the plateau potentials are accompanied by an elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and to determine the source of Ca2+ elevation, we performed Ca2+ imaging during the plateau potential. Neurons were loaded with Ca2+ indicator fluo-4, and the plateau potentials were generated either synaptically in the presence of glutamate transporter antagonist or by iontophoretically applying NMDA. We have found that a transient elevation in intracellular Ca2+ accompanies the plateau potential. The synaptically induced plateau potential and the Ca2+ elevation were blocked by 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (5,7-dCK), an antagonist for the glycine-binding sites of NMDAR. A mixture of Cd2+ and tetrodotoxin did not block NMDA-induced plateau potentials, but completely abolished the accompanying Ca2+ elevation in both the presence and absence of Mg2+ ions in the bathing solution. The NMDA-induced plateau potential was blocked by further adding 5,7-dCK. Our results show that the NMDAR-mediated plateau potential is accompanied by elevation of intracellular Ca2+ that is primarily caused by the influx of Ca2+ through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Calcium signals inhibition sensitizes ovarian carcinoma cells to anti-Bcl-xL strategies through Mcl-1 down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefond, Marie-Laure; Lambert, Bernard; Giffard, Florence; Abeilard, Edwige; Brotin, Emilie; Louis, Marie-Hélène; Gueye, Mor Sény; Gauduchon, Pascal; Poulain, Laurent; N'Diaye, Monique

    2015-04-01

    Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of death from gynecologic cancer in the developed world and is characterized by acquired chemoresistance leading to an overall 5-year survival rate of about 30 %. We previously showed that Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 cooperatively protect platinum-resistant ovarian cancer cells from apoptosis. Despite BH3-mimetics represent promising drugs to target Bcl-xL, anti-Mcl-1 strategies are still in pre-clinical studies and required new investigations. Calcium is a universal second messenger and dysregulation of calcium signal is often observed during carcinogenesis. As change in cytosolic free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i is known to control the fate of the cell by regulating Bcl-2 family members, we wonder if calcium signal could impact on Mcl-1 expression and if its pharmacological inhibition could be useful to sensitize ovarian carcinoma cells to anti-Bcl-xL strategies. We therefore studied the effect of different calcium signals inhibitors in ovarian carcinoma cell lines SKOV3 and IGROV1-R10 and analysed their effects on proliferation and Mcl-1 expression. We also exposed these cells to these inhibitors in combination with anti-Bcl-xL strategies (siRNA or BH3-mimetic: ABT-737). We found that calcium signaling regulates Mcl-1 through translational events and a calmodulin-mediated pathway. BAPTA-AM and calmodulin inhibitor combination with ABT-737 leads to apoptosis, a process that is reversed by Mcl-1 enforced expression. As Mcl-1 represents a crucial hurdle to the success of chemotherapy, these results could open to new area of investigation using calcium modulators to directly or indirectly target Mcl-1 and thus efficiently sensitize ovarian carcinoma cells to anti-Bcl-xL strategies.

  2. Neuronal MHC Class I Expression Is Regulated by Activity Driven Calcium Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lv

    Full Text Available MHC class I (MHC-I molecules are important components of the immune system. Recently MHC-I have been reported to also play important roles in brain development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examine the molecular mechanism(s underlying activity-dependent MHC-I expression using hippocampal neurons. Here we report that neuronal expression level of MHC-I is dynamically regulated during hippocampal development after birth in vivo. Kainic acid (KA treatment significantly increases the expression of MHC-I in cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro, suggesting that MHC-I expression is regulated by neuronal activity. In addition, KA stimulation decreased the expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins. This down-regulation is prevented by addition of an MHC-I antibody to KA treated neurons. Further studies demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC is important in relaying KA simulation activation signals to up-regulated MHC-I expression. This signaling cascade relies on activation of the MAPK pathway, which leads to increased phosphorylation of CREB and NF-κB p65 while also enhancing the expression of IRF-1. Together, these results suggest that expression of MHC-I in hippocampal neurons is driven by Ca2+ regulated activation of the MAPK signaling transduction cascade.

  3. Manganese interferes with calcium, perturbs ERK signaling, and produces embryos with no skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsino, Annalisa; Roccheri, Maria Carmela; Costa, Caterina; Matranga, Valeria

    2011-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) has been associated with embryo toxicity as it impairs differentiation of neural and skeletogenic cells in vertebrates. Nevertheless, information on the mechanisms operating at the cellular level remains scant. We took advantage of an amenable embryonic model to investigate the effects of Mn in biomineral formation. Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos were exposed to Mn from fertilization, harvested at different developmental stages, and analyzed for their content in calcium (Ca), expression of skeletogenic genes, localization of germ layer markers, and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). By optical and immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that Mn exposure produced embryos with no skeleton, by preventing the deposition of the triradiate calcitic spicules usually produced only by specialized mesoderm cells. On the contrary, ectoderm and endoderm differentiation was not impaired. Endogenous Ca content in whole embryos and its localization in Golgi regions of skeletogenic cells was strongly reduced, as measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and in vivo calcein labeling. Spicule-lacking embryos showed persistent ERK activation by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, contrary to the physiological oscillations observed in normal embryos. The expression of the skeletogenic genes, Pl-msp130 and Pl-sm30, was also differentially affected if compared with controls. Here, we showed for the first time the ability of Mn to interfere with Ca uptake and internalization into skeletogenic cells and demonstrate that Ca content regulates ERK activation/inactivation during sea urchin embryo morphogenesis. The use of Mn-exposed sea urchin embryos as a new model to study signaling pathways occurring during skeletogenesis will provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in Mn embryo toxicity and underlie the role of calcium in the biomineralization process in vertebrates.

  4. GABAAα1 and GABAAρ1 subunits are expressed in cultured human RPE cells and GABAA receptor agents modify the intracellular calcium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhen-Ying; Wang, Xu-Ping; Schmid, Katrina L; Han, Xu-Guang; Song, Hui; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors (GABAARs), which are ionotropic receptors involving chloride channels, have been identified in various neural (e.g., mouse retinal ganglion cells) and nonneural cells (e.g., mouse lens epithelial cells) regulating the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). GABAAR β-subunit protein has been isolated in the cultured human and rat RPE, and GABAAα1 and GABAAρ1 mRNAs and proteins are present in the chick RPE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of GABAAα1 and GABAAρ1, two important subunits in forming functional GABAARs, in the cultured human RPE, and further to explore whether altering receptor activation modifies [Ca(2+)]i. Human RPE cells were separately cultured from five donor eye cups. Real-time PCR, western blots, and immunofluorescence were used to test for GABAAα1 and GABAAρ1 mRNAs and proteins. The effects of the GABAAR agonist muscimol, antagonist picrotoxin, or the specific GABAAρ antagonist 1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl) methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA) on [Ca(2+)]i in cultured human RPE were demonstrated using Fluo3-AM. Both GABAAα1 and GABAAρ1 mRNAs and proteins were identified in cultured human RPE cells; antibody staining was mainly localized to the cell membrane and was also present in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus. Muscimol (100 μM) caused a transient increase of the [Ca(2+)]i in RPE cells regardless of whether Ca(2+) was added to the buffer. Muscimol-induced increases in the [Ca(2+)]i were inhibited by pretreatment with picrotoxin (300 μM) or TPMPA (500 μM). GABAAα1 and GABAAρ1 are expressed in cultured human RPE cells, and GABAA agents can modify [Ca(2+)]i.

  5. A Stretch of Negatively Charged Amino Acids of Linker for Activation of T-Cell Adaptor Has a Dual Role in T-Cell Antigen Receptor Intracellular Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel M. Arbulo-Echevarria

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The adaptor protein linker for activation of T cells (LAT has an essential role transducing activatory intracellular signals coming from the TCR/CD3 complex. Previous reports have shown that upon T-cell activation, LAT interacts with the tyrosine kinase Lck, leading to the inhibition of its kinase activity. LAT–Lck interaction seemed to depend on a stretch of negatively charged amino acids in LAT. Here, we have substituted this segment of LAT between amino acids 113 and 126 with a non-charged segment and expressed the mutant LAT (LAT-NIL in J.CaM2 cells in order to analyze TCR signaling. Substitution of this segment in LAT prevented the activation-induced interaction with Lck. Moreover, cells expressing this mutant form of LAT showed a statistically significant increase of proximal intracellular signals such as phosphorylation of LAT in tyrosine residues 171 and 191, and also enhanced ZAP70 phosphorylation approaching borderline statistical significance (p = 0.051. Nevertheless, downstream signals such as Ca2+ influx or MAPK pathways were partially inhibited. Overall, our data reveal that LAT–Lck interaction constitutes a key element regulating proximal intracellular signals coming from the TCR/CD3 complex.

  6. Signaling Network of Environmental Sensing and Adaptation in Plants:. Key Roles of Calcium Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Considering the important issues concerning food, environment, and energy that humans are facing in the 21st century, humans mostly depend on plants. Unlike animals which move from an inappropriate environment, plants do not move, but rapidly sense diverse environmental changes or invasion by other organisms such as pathogens and insects in the place they root, and adapt themselves by changing their own bodies, through which they developed adaptability. Whole genetic information corresponding to the blueprints of many biological systems has recently been analyzed, and comparative genomic studies facilitated tracing strategies of each organism in their evolutional processes. Comparison of factors involved in intracellular signal transduction between animals and plants indicated diversification of different gene sets. Reversible binding of Ca2+ to sensor proteins play key roles as a molecular switch both in animals and plants. Molecular mechanisms for signaling network of environmental sensing and adaptation in plants will be discussed with special reference to Ca2+ as a key element in information processing.

  7. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide impairs the calcium signaling pathway in mesangial cells: role of angiotensin II receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquigussa, Edgar; Arnoni, Carine P; Cristovam, Priscila C; de Oliveira, Andrea S; Higa, Elisa M S; Boim, Mirian A

    2010-06-01

    Sepsis causes impaired vascular reactivity, hypotension and acute renal failure. The ability of the Escherichia coli endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) to impair agonist-induced contractility in mesangial cells, which contributes to LPS-induced renal dysfunction, was evaluated. Agonist-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) mobilization was analyzed using angiotensin II (AngII). The effect of LPS on the levels of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components and the roles of vasodilatation-inducing molecules including AT2 receptor (AT2R) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cell reactivity were also evaluated. Confluent human mesangial cells (HMCs) were stimulated with LPS (0111-B4, 100 microg/mL). AngII-induced [Ca(2+)]i mobilization was measured by fluorometric analysis using Fura-2AM in the absence and presence of an AT2R antagonist (PD123319). The mRNA and protein levels for angiotensinogen, renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, AT1R and AT2R were analyzed by realtime reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, respectively. NO production was measured by the chemiluminescence method in the culture media after 24, 48 and 72 h of LPS incubation. After 24 h, LPS-stimulated HMCs displayed lower basal [Ca(2+)]i and an impaired response to AngII-induced rise in [Ca(2+)]i. LPS significantly increased AT2R levels, but did not cause significant alterations of RAS components. PD123319 restored both basal and AngII-induced [Ca(2+)]i peak, suggesting an involvement of AT2R in these responses. The expected increase in NO production was significant only after 72 h of LPS incubation and it was unaffected by PD123319. Results showed that LPS reduced the reactivity of HMCs to AngII and suggest that the vasodilatation induced by AT2R is a potential mediator of this response through a pathway independent of NO.

  8. Excitability in a stochastic differential equation model for calcium puffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S

    2014-06-01

    Calcium dynamics are essential to a multitude of cellular processes. For many cell types, localized discharges of calcium through small clusters of intracellular channels are building blocks for all spatially extended calcium signals. Because of the large noise amplitude, the validity of noise-approximating model equations for this system has been questioned. Here we revisit the master equations for local calcium release, examine the multiple scales of calcium concentrations in the cluster domain, and derive adapted stochastic differential equations. We show by comparison of discrete and continuous trajectories that the Langevin equations can be made consistent with the master equations even for very small channel numbers. In its deterministic limit, the model reveals that excitability, a dynamical phenomenon observed in many natural systems, is at the core of calcium puffs. The model also predicts a bifurcation from transient to sustained release which may link local and global calcium signals in cells.

  9. Calcium signals activated by ghrelin and D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 ghrelin antagonist in developing dorsal root ganglion glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erriquez, Jessica; Bernascone, Silvia; Ciarletta, Monica; Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Graziani, Andrea; Distasi, Carla

    2009-09-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone regulating energy homeostasis via interaction with its receptor, GHSR-1a. Ghrelin activities in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells are unknown. Herein we show that ghrelin induces a change of cytosolic calcium concentration in both glia and neurons of embryonic chick DRG. Both RT-PCR and binding studies performed with fluorescent ghrelin in the presence of either unlabeled ghrelin or GHSR-1a antagonist D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6, indicate that DRG cells express GHSR-1a. In glial cells the response is characterized by a rapid transient rise in [Ca(2+)](i) followed by a long lasting rise. The calcium elevation is dependent on calcium release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and on activation of two distinct Ca(2+) entry pathways, a receptor activated calcium entry and a store operated calcium entry. Surprisingly, D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 exerts several activities in the absence of exogenous ghrelin: (i) it activates calcium release from thapsigargin-sensitive intracellular stores and calcium entry via voltage-operated channels in non-neuronal cells; (ii) it inhibits calcium oscillations in non-neuronal cells exhibiting spontaneous Ca(2+) activity and iii) it promotes apoptosis of DRG cells, both neurons and glia. In summary, we provide the first evidence for ghrelin activity in DRG, and we also demonstrate that the widely used D-Lys(3)-GHRP-6 ghrelin antagonist features ghrelin independent activities.

  10. Does GRK-β arrestin machinery work as a "switch on" for GPR17-mediated activation of intracellular signaling pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Simona; Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Fumagalli, Marta; Zappelli, Elisa; Lecca, Davide; Bonfanti, Elisabetta; Campiglia, Pietro; Abbracchio, Maria P; Martini, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    During oligodendrocyte-precursor cell (OPC) differentiation program, an impairment in the regulatory mechanisms controlling GPR17 spatio-temporal expression and functional activity has been suggested to contribute to defective OPC maturation, a crucial event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. GRK-β arrestin machinery is the primary actor in the control of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) functional responses and changes in these regulatory protein activities have been demonstrated in several immune/inflammatory diseases. Herein, in order to shed light on the molecular mechanisms controlling GPR17 regulatory events during cell differentiation, the role of GRK/β-arrestin machinery in receptor desensitization and signal transduction was investigated, in transfected cells and primary OPC. Following cell treatment with the two classes of purinergic and cysteinyl-leukotriene (cysLT) ligands, different GRK isoforms were recruited to regulate GPR17 functional responses. CysLT-mediated receptor desensitization mainly involved GRK2; this kinase, via a G protein-dependent mechanism, promoted a transient binding of the receptor to β-arrestins, rapid ERK phosphorylation and sustained nuclear CREB activation. Furthermore, GRK2, whose expression parallels that of the receptor during differentiation process, appeared to be crucial to induce cysLT-mediated maturation of OPCs. On the other hand, purinergic ligand exclusively recruited the GRK5 subtype, and induced, via a G protein-independent/β-arrestin-dependent mechanism, a receptor/β-arrestin stable association, slower and sustained ERK stimulation and marginal CREB activation. These results show that purinergic and cysLT ligands, through the recruitment of specific GRK isoforms, address distinct intracellular pathways, most likely reinforcing the same final response. The identification of these mechanisms and players controlling GPR17 responses during OPC differentiation could be useful to identify new targets in

  11. Functional characterization of acetylcholine receptors and calcium signaling in rat testicular capsule contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, Edilson Dantas; de Souza, Bruno Palmieri; Rodrigues, Juliano Quintela Dantas; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide Hyppolito

    2013-08-15

    The motor activity of mammalian testicular capsule (TC) contributes to male fertility and infertility, but the acetylcholine receptors related to the contractions induced by cholinergic drugs are poorly known. Indeed to characterize the acetylcholine receptors and cellular signaling by Ca(2+) involved in TC motor activity of rats, the potency of agonists (pD₂) and antagonists (pA₂) of acetylcholine receptors, and effects of Ca(2+) cellular transport blockers on the cholinergic contractions were evaluated. pD₂ values of acetylcholine (5.98) were ten-fold higher than that of carbachol (4.99). Efficacy (Emax) of acetylcholine and carbachol to induce contractions corresponded to 95% and 97% of Emax for KCl, but Emax for nicotine was very low (8% of Emax for KCl). Further, physostigmine did not affect the acetylcholine potency. Contractions induced by acetylcholine or carbachol were antagonized by muscarinic but not nicotinic antagonist. The order of pA₂ values obtained for muscarinic antagonists, namely atropine>4-DAMP>AF-DX116>pirenzepine, corresponded to a typical profile of M3 receptors. Contractions induced by acetylcholine or carbachol were inhibited by blockers of Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent calcium channels (nifedipine and Ni(2+)), Ca(2+) reuptake by sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (cyclopiazonic acid) and mitochondria (FCCP). The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine only affected the acetylcholine-induced contraction. These results suggest that TC motor activity of rats are mediated mainly by M₃ receptors followed by the increase of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration regulated by voltage-dependent calcium channels, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Furthermore, the differential effects of chelerythrine in the acetylcholine or carbachol-induced contractions are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of red ginseng saponin fraction-A (RGSF-A) on phagocytosis and intracellular signaling in Brucella abortus infected RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Simborio, Hannah Leah; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Hop, Huynh Tan; Min, WonGi; Lee, Hu Jang; Rhee, Man Hee; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2015-06-01

    This study indicated that RGSF-A caused a marked reduction in the adherence, internalization and intracellular growth of Brucella abortus in RGSF-A-treated cells. Furthermore, a decline in the intensity of F-actin fluorescence was observed in RGSF-A-treated cells compared with untreated B. abortus-infected cells. In addition, an evaluation of phagocytic signaling proteins by Western blot analysis revealed an apparent reduction of ERK and p38α phosphorylation levels in B. abortus-infected RGSF-A-treated cells compared with the control. Upon intracellular trafficking of the pathogen, a higher number of B. abortus-containing phagosomes colocalized with LAMP-1 in RGSF-A-treated cells compared with control cells. These results strongly suggest that inhibition of B. abortus uptake could be mediated by suppression in the activation of MAPKs signaling proteins phospho-ERK 1/2, and p38 levels. On the other hand, inhibition of intracellular replication results from the enhancement of phagolysosome fusion in host macrophages. This study highlights the phagocytic and intracellular modulating effect of RGSF-A and its potential as an alternative remedy to control B. abortus infection. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemková, Hana; Tomič, M.; Kučka, M.; Aguilera, G.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 4 (2016), s. 1576-1589 ISSN 0013-7227 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : action potential * background sodium conductance * bursting activity * cation-conducting channels * cytosolic calcium concentration * resting membrane potential Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 4.286, year: 2016

  14. Integration of Kinase and Calcium Signaling at the Level of Chromatin Underlies Inducible Gene Activation in T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignall, Ruth; Cauchy, Pierre; Bevington, Sarah L; Gorman, Bethany; Pisco, Angela O; Bagnall, James; Boddington, Christopher; Rowe, William; England, Hazel; Rich, Kevin; Schmidt, Lorraine; Dyer, Nigel P; Travis, Mark A; Ott, Sascha; Jackson, Dean A; Cockerill, Peter N; Paszek, Pawel

    2017-10-15

    TCR signaling pathways cooperate to activate the inducible transcription factors NF-κB, NFAT, and AP-1. In this study, using the calcium ionophore ionomycin and/or PMA on Jurkat T cells, we show that the gene expression program associated with activation of TCR signaling is closely related to specific chromatin landscapes. We find that calcium and kinase signaling cooperate to induce chromatin remodeling at ∼2100 chromatin regions, which demonstrate enriched binding motifs for inducible factors and correlate with target gene expression. We found that these regions typically function as inducible enhancers. Many of these elements contain composite NFAT/AP-1 sites, which typically support cooperative binding, thus further reinforcing the need for cooperation between calcium and kinase signaling in the activation of genes in T cells. In contrast, treatment with PMA or ionomycin alone induces chromatin remodeling at far fewer regions (∼600 and ∼350, respectively), which mostly represent a subset of those induced by costimulation. This suggests that the integration of TCR signaling largely occurs at the level of chromatin, which we propose plays a crucial role in regulating T cell activation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors.

  15. mGluR-mediated calcium signalling in the thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Christina; Herr, David; Kohmann, Denise; Budde, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian; Coulon, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) plays a major role in modulating the transfer of information from the thalamus to the cortex. GABAergic inhibition via the TRN is differentially regulated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and the effect of mGluRs on the membrane potential, on ion channels, and on the plasticity of electrical coupling of TRN neurons has been studied previously. Although mGluRs are generally known to trigger Ca(2+) transients, mGluR-mediated Ca(2+)-transients in TRN neurons have not yet been investigated. In this study, we show that mGluRs can trigger Ca(2+)-transients in TRN neurons, that these transients depend on intracellular Ca(2+)-stores, and are mediated by IP3 receptors. Ca(2+) transients caused by the group I mGluR agonist DHPG elicit a current that is sensitive to flufenamic acid and has a reversal potential around -40mV. Our results add mGluR-mediated Ca(2+)-signalling in the TRN to the state-dependent modulators of the thalamocortical system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reciprocal Regulation of Mitochondrial Dynamics and Calcium Signaling in Astrocyte Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Joshua G.

    2015-01-01

    to neuronal activity and glutamate uptake. Here, we demonstrate a mechanism by which mitochondria are immobilized in astrocytes subsequent to increases in intracellular [Ca2+] and provide evidence that mitochondria contribute to the compartmentalization of spontaneous Ca2+ signals in astrocyte processes. Immobilization of mitochondria at sites of glutamate uptake in astrocyte processes provides a mechanism to coordinate increases in activity with increases in mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:26558789

  17. Reactive oxygen species released from astrocytes treated with amyloid beta oligomers elicit neuronal calcium signals that decrease phospho-Ser727-STAT3 nuclear content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Yorka; Paula-Lima, Andrea C; Núñez, Marco T

    2018-03-01

    The transcription factor STAT3 has a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. In this work, we treated astrocytes with oligomers of the amyloid beta peptide (AβOs), which display potent synaptotoxic activity, and studied the effects of mediators released by AβOs-treated astrocytes on the nuclear location of neuronal serine-727-phosphorylated STAT3 (pSerSTAT3). Treatment of mixed neuron-astrocyte cultures with 0.5µMAβOs induced in neurons a significant decrease of nuclear pSerSTAT3, but not of phosphotyrosine-705 STAT3, the other form of STAT3 phosphorylation. This decrease did not occur in astrocyte-poor neuronal cultures revealing a pivotal role for astrocytes in this response. To test if mediators released by astrocytes in response to AβOs induce pSerSTAT3 nuclear depletion, we used conditioned medium derived from AβOs-treated astrocyte cultures. Treatment of astrocyte-poor neuronal cultures with this medium caused pSerSTAT3 nuclear depletion but did not modify overall STAT3 levels. Extracellular catalase prevented the pSerSTAT3 nuclear depletion caused by astrocyte-conditioned medium, indicating that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate this response. This conditioned medium also increased neuronal oxidative tone, leading to a ryanodine-sensitive intracellular calcium signal that proved to be essential for pSerSTAT3 nuclear depletion. In addition, this depletion decreased BCL2 and Survivin transcription and significantly increased BAX/BCL2 ratio. This is the first description that ROS generated by AβOs-treated astrocytes and neuronal calcium signals jointly regulate pSerSTAT3 nuclear distribution in neurons. We propose that astrocytes release ROS in response to AβOs, which by increasing neuronal oxidative tone, generate calcium signals that cause pSerSTAT3 nuclear depletion and loss of STAT3 protective transcriptional activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The involvement of calcium and MAP kinase signaling pathways in the production of radiation-induced bystander effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyng, F M

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence now exists regarding radiation-induced bystander effects, but the mechanisms involved in the transduction of the signal are still unclear. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been linked to growth factor-mediated regulation of cellular events such as proliferation, senescence, differentiation and apoptosis. Activation of multiple MAPK pathways such as the ERK, JNK and p38 pathways have been shown to occur after exposure of cells to radiation and a variety of other toxic stresses. Previous studies have shown oxidative stress and calcium signaling to be important in radiation-induced bystander effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate MAPK signaling pathways in bystander cells exposed to irradiated cell conditioned medium (ICCM) and the role of oxidative metabolism and calcium signaling in the induction of bystander responses. Human keratinocytes (HPV-G cell line) were irradiated (0.005-5 Gy) using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. The medium was harvested 1 h postirradiation and transferred to recipient HPV-G cells. Phosphorylated forms of p38, JNK and ERK were studied by immunofluorescence 30 min-24 h after exposure to ICCM. Inhibitors of the ERK pathway (PD98059 and U0126), the JNK pathway (SP600125), and the p38 pathway (SB203580) were used to investigate whether bystander-induced cell death could be blocked. Cells were also incubated with ICCM in the presence of superoxide dismutase, catalase, EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and thapsigargin to investigate whether bystander effects could be inhibited because of the known effects on calcium homeostasis. Activated forms of JNK and ERK proteins were observed after exposure to ICCM. Inhibition of the ERK pathway appeared to increase bystander-induced apoptosis, while inhibition of the JNK pathway appeared to decrease apoptosis. In addition, reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and calcium signaling were found to be important modulators of

  19. Switching of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor-favorite Intracellular Signal Pathways from ERK1/2 Protein to p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Leads to Developmental Changes in NMDA Neurotoxicity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Hu, Chun; Feng, Chunzhi; Chen, Yizhang

    2011-01-01

    Excitotoxicity mediated by overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in a variety of neuropathological conditions in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) neurotoxicity is developmentally regulated, but the definite pattern of the regulation has been controversial, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that NMDA treatment leads to significant cell death in mature (9 and 12 days in vitro) hippocampal neurons or hippocampi of young postnatal day 12 and adult rats but not in immature (3 and 6 days in vitro) neurons or embryonic day 18 and neonatal rat hippocampi. In contrast, NMDA promotes survival of immature neurons against tropic deprivation. Interestingly, it is found that NMDA preferentially activates p38 MAPK in mature neuron and adult rat hippocampus, but it favors ERK1/2 activation in immature neuron and postnatal day 0 rat hippocampus. Moreover, it is shown that NMDA neurotoxicity in mature neuron is mediated via p38 MAPK activation, and neuroprotection in immature neuron is mediated via ERK1/2 activation, whereas all these effects are NR2B-containing NMDAR-dependent, as well as Ca2+-dependent. We also revealed that mature and immature neurons showed no difference in the amplitude of NMDA-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) increase. However, the basal level of [Ca2+]i is shown to elevate with the maturation of neuron, and this elevation is attributable to the changes in NMDA neurotoxicity but not to the switch of the NMDAR signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that a switch of NMDA receptor-favorite intracellular signal pathways from ERK1/2 to p38 MAPK and the elevated basal level of [Ca2+]i with age might be critical for the developmental changes in NMDA neurotoxicity in the hippocampal neuron. PMID:21474451

  20. Switching of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-favorite intracellular signal pathways from ERK1/2 protein to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase leads to developmental changes in NMDA neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Hu, Chun; Feng, Chunzhi; Chen, Yizhang

    2011-06-10

    Excitotoxicity mediated by overactivation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) has been implicated in a variety of neuropathological conditions in the central nervous system (CNS). It has been suggested that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) neurotoxicity is developmentally regulated, but the definite pattern of the regulation has been controversial, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that NMDA treatment leads to significant cell death in mature (9 and 12 days in vitro) hippocampal neurons or hippocampi of young postnatal day 12 and adult rats but not in immature (3 and 6 days in vitro) neurons or embryonic day 18 and neonatal rat hippocampi. In contrast, NMDA promotes survival of immature neurons against tropic deprivation. Interestingly, it is found that NMDA preferentially activates p38 MAPK in mature neuron and adult rat hippocampus, but it favors ERK1/2 activation in immature neuron and postnatal day 0 rat hippocampus. Moreover, it is shown that NMDA neurotoxicity in mature neuron is mediated via p38 MAPK activation, and neuroprotection in immature neuron is mediated via ERK1/2 activation, whereas all these effects are NR2B-containing NMDAR-dependent, as well as Ca(2+)-dependent. We also revealed that mature and immature neurons showed no difference in the amplitude of NMDA-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase. However, the basal level of [Ca(2+)](i) is shown to elevate with the maturation of neuron, and this elevation is attributable to the changes in NMDA neurotoxicity but not to the switch of the NMDAR signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that a switch of NMDA receptor-favorite intracellular signal pathways from ERK1/2 to p38 MAPK and the elevated basal level of [Ca(2+)](i) with age might be critical for the developmental changes in NMDA neurotoxicity in the hippocampal neuron.

  1. β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca2+release by tentacle extract from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Bo; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Liming

    2017-07-25

    Intracellular Ca 2+ overload induced by extracellular Ca 2+ entry has previously been confirmed to be an important mechanism for the cardiotoxicity as well as the acute heart dysfunction induced by jellyfish venom, while the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Under extracellular Ca 2+ -free or Ca 2+ -containing conditions, the Ca 2+ fluorescence in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes pre-incubated with tentacle extract (TE) from the jellyfish Cyanea capillata and β blockers was scanned by laser scanning confocal microscope. Then, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration and protein kinase A (PKA) activity in primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes were determined by ELISA assay. Furthermore, the effect of propranolol against the cardiotoxicity of TE was evaluated in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. The increase of intracellular Ca 2+ fluorescence signal by TE was significantly attenuated and delayed when the extracellular Ca 2+ was removed. The β adrenergic blockers, including propranolol, atenolol and esmolol, partially inhibited the increase of intracellular Ca 2+ in the presence of 1.8 mM extracellular Ca 2+ and completely abolished the Ca 2+ increase under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition. Both cAMP concentration and PKA activity were stimulated by TE, and were inhibited by the β adrenergic blockers. Cardiomyocyte toxicity of TE was antagonized by β adrenergic blockers and the PKA inhibitor H89. Finally, the acute heart dysfuction by TE was antagonized by propranolol in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts and intact rats. Our findings indicate that β adrenergic receptor/cAMP/PKA signaling contributes to the intracellular Ca 2+ overload through intracellular Ca 2+ release by TE from the jellyfish C. capillata.

  2. LH and hCG Action on the Same Receptor Results in Quantitatively and Qualitatively Different Intracellular Signalling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarini, Livio; Lispi, Monica; Longobardi, Salvatore; Milosa, Fabiola; La Marca, Antonio; Tagliasacchi, Daniela; Pignatti, Elisa; Simoni, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Human luteinizing hormone (hLH) and chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor (LHCGR) but it is not known whether they elicit the same cellular and molecular response. This study compares for the first time the activation of cell-signalling pathways and gene expression in response to hLH and hCG. Using recombinant hLH and recombinant hCG we evaluated the kinetics of cAMP production in COS-7 and hGL5 cells permanently expressing LHCGR (COS-7/LHCGR, hGL5/LHCGR), as well as cAMP, ERK1/2, AKT activation and progesterone production in primary human granulosa cells (hGLC). The expression of selected target genes was measured in the presence or absence of ERK- or AKT-pathways inhibitors. In COS-7/LHCGR cells, hCG is 5-fold more potent than hLH (cAMP ED50: 107.1±14.3 pM and 530.0±51.2 pM, respectively). hLH maximal effect was significantly faster (10 minutes by hLH; 1 hour by hCG). In hGLC continuous exposure to equipotent doses of gonadotropins up to 36 hours revealed that intracellular cAMP production is oscillating and significantly higher by hCG versus hLH. Conversely, phospho-ERK1/2 and -AKT activation was more potent and sustained by hLH versus hCG. ERK1/2 and AKT inhibition removed the inhibitory effect on NRG1 (neuregulin) expression by hLH but not by hCG; ERK1/2 inhibition significantly increased hLH- but not hCG-stimulated CYP19A1 (aromatase) expression. We conclude that: i) hCG is more potent on cAMP production, while hLH is more potent on ERK and AKT activation; ii) hGLC respond to equipotent, constant hLH or hCG stimulation with a fluctuating cAMP production and progressive progesterone secretion; and iii) the expression of hLH and hCG target genes partly involves the activation of different pathways depending on the ligand. Therefore, the LHCGR is able to differentiate the activity of hLH and hCG. PMID:23071612

  3. A clinically relevant model of osteoinduction: a process requiring calcium phosphate and BMP/Wnt signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyckmans, J; Roberts, S J; Schrooten, J; Luyten, F P

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we investigated a clinically relevant model of in vivo ectopic bone formation utilizing human periosteum derived cells (HPDCs) seeded in a Collagraft carrier and explored the mechanisms by which this process is driven. Bone formation occurred after eight weeks when a minimum of one million HPDCs was loaded on Collagraft carriers and implanted subcutaneously in NMRI nu/nu mice. De novo bone matrix, mainly secreted by the HPDCs, was found juxta-proximal of the calcium phosphate (CaP) granules suggesting that CaP may have triggered the 'osteoinductive program'. Indeed, removal of the CaP granules by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid decalcification prior to cell seeding and implantation resulted in loss of bone formation. In addition, inhibition of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein and Wnt signalling by overexpression of the secreted antagonists Noggin and Frzb, respectively, also abrogated osteoinduction. Proliferation of the engrafted HPDCs was strongly reduced in the decalcified scaffolds or when seeded with adenovirus-Noggin/Frzb transduced HPDCs indicating that cell division of the engrafted HPDCs is required for the direct bone formation cascade. These data suggest that this model of bone formation is similar to that observed during physiological intramembranous bone development and may be of importance when investigating tissue engineering strategies.

  4. Preeclampsia serum-induced collagen I expression and intracellular calcium levels in arterial smooth muscle cells are mediated by the PLC-γ1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhen; Teng, Yincheng; Huang, Yajuan; Gu, Jinghong; Ma, Li; Li, Ming; Zhou, Yuedi

    2014-09-26

    In women with preeclampsia (PE), endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction can lead to altered secretion of paracrine factors that induce peripheral vasoconstriction and proteinuria. This study examined the hypothesis that PE sera may directly or indirectly, through human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs), stimulate phospholipase C-γ1-1,4,5-trisphosphate (PLC-γ1-IP3) signaling, thereby increasing protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) activity, collagen I expression and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs). HUASMCs and HUVECs were cocultured with normal or PE sera before PLC-γ1 silencing. Increased PLC-γ1 and IP3 receptor (IP3R) phosphorylation was observed in cocultured HUASMCs stimulated with PE sera (P<0.05). In addition, PE serum significantly increased HUASMC viability and reduced their apoptosis (P<0.05); these effects were abrogated with PLC-γ1 silencing. Compared with normal sera, PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i in cocultured HUASMCs (P<0.05), which was inhibited by PLC-γ1 and IP3R silencing. Finally, PE sera-induced PKC-α activity and collagen I expression was inhibited by PLC-γ1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) (P<0.05). These results suggest that vasoactive substances in the PE serum may induce deposition in the extracellular matrix through the activation of PLC-γ1, which may in turn result in thickening and hardening of the placental vascular wall, placental blood supply shortage, fetal hypoxia-ischemia and intrauterine growth retardation or intrauterine fetal death. PE sera increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced PKC-α activation and collagen I expression in cocultured HUASMCs via the PLC-γ1 pathway.

  5. The effect of TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition on the expression of intracellular calcium-handling proteins in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Shah H A; Cheng, Huanyi; Li, Jinfeng; Feng, Renqing

    2015-10-01

    The contribution of Ca(2+) in TGF-β-induced EMT is poorly understood. We aimed to confirm the effect of TGF-β on the gene expression of intracellular calcium-handling proteins and to investigate the potential underlying mechanisms in TGF-β-induced EMT. T47D and MCF-7 cells were cultured in vitro and treated with TGF-β. The mRNA expression of EMT marker genes and intracellular calcium-handling proteins were quantified by qRT-PCR. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis results verified the changes of EMT marker gene expression. Furthermore, we found that TGF-β induced cell morphological changes significantly with an increase of cell surface area and cell length. These results indicated that TGF-β induced EMT. The mRNA expression levels of SPCA1, SPCA2 and MCU were not influenced by TGF-β treatment, while NCX1 expression was decreased in T47D cells. In addition, the mRNA levels of SERCAs and IP3Rs were significantly changed due to TGF-β-induced EMT. The TGF-β-treated T47D cells exhibited markedly greater response to ATP than the control cells, and the descent velocity of cytosolic calcium concentration was faster in TGF-β-treated cells than in control cells. This is the first report to demonstrate that TGF-β-induced EMT in human breast cancer cells is associated with alterations in endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracellular salicylic acid is involved in signal cascade regulating low ammonium-induced taxoid biosynthesis in suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2011-05-01

    It was previously reported that low initial ammonium (2 mM) in medium had significant stimulating effects on the biosynthesis of taxuyunnanine C (Tc) by Taxus chinensis cells. However, the secondary metabolism induction mechanism of the low initial ammonium is yet unknown in plant cells. To provide an insight into the defense signals response to the low initial ammonium, oxidative burst and intracellular salicylic acid (SA) were detected, and their influences on the expression of important genes in taxoid biosynthetic pathway were examined in the cell cultures of T. chinensis. Induced H(2)O(2) production, elevated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, and enhanced SA biosynthesis were observed. Interestingly, inhibition of SA biosynthesis by paclobutrazol and (BOC-aminooxy) acetic acid significantly depressed the Tc stimulation and up-regulation of Tc biosynthetic genes of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase and taxadiene synthase. The role of intracellular SA in regulating Tc biosynthesis was further confirmed by applying exogenous SA in normal ammonium (20 mM) medium. The results indicated that SA acted as a signal in low initial ammonium-induced Tc biosynthesis. A signal transduction cascade from defense signal response to activated transcription of taxoid biosynthetic genes and enhanced Tc production is proposed.

  7. Low-concentration hydrogen peroxide can upregulate keratinocyte intracellular calcium and PAR-2 expression in a human keratinocyte-melanocyte co-culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tang, Lu-Yan; Fu, Wen-Wen; Yuan, Jin; Sheng, You-Yu; Yang, Qin-Ping

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) may have a biphasic effect on melanin synthesis and melanosome transfer. High H 2 O 2 concentrations are involved in impaired melanosome transfer in vitiligo. However, low H 2 O 2 concentration promotes the beneficial proliferation and migration of melanocytes. The aim of this study was to explore low H 2 O 2 and its mechanism in melanosome transfer, protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) expression and calcium balance. Melanosomes were fluorescein-labeled for clear visualization of their transfer. The expression of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in keratinocytes was determined by western blot analysis. Flow cytometry was employed to evaluate the effects of H 2 O 2 on calcium levels in keratinocytes. Fluorescence microscopy showed the upregulation of melanosome transfer into keratinocytes following 0.3 mM H 2 O 2 treatment in the co-cultures rather than in the untreated control groups, which was associated with higher expression of PAR-2 protein and increased calcium concentration. The addition of a PAR-2 antagonist inhibited the positive activity of H 2 O 2 and calcium flow in keratinocytes. When calcium flow was blocked by a calcium chelator, the addition of H 2 O 2 did not increase the PAR-2 expression level in keratinocytes, therefore, inhibiting dendrite formation and melanosome transfer. Low H 2 O 2 concentration promotes melanosome transfer with increased PAR-2 expression level and calcium concentration in keratinocytes. In addition, the interaction between melanocytes and keratinocytes is more beneficial to enhance calcium levels in keratinocytes which mediate melanin transfer. Moreover, low H 2 O 2 concentration promotes dendrite formation, in which extracellular calcium and Par-2 were involved.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of intracellular ions in perfused from heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, D.; Fossel, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular sodium, potassium, and lithium were observed in a perfused frog heart by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A perfusate buffer containing the shift reagent, dysprosium tripolyphosphate, was used in combination with mathematical filtering or presaturation of the extracellular resonance to separate the intra- and extracellular sodium NMR signals. Addition of 10 μM ouabain to the perfusate, perfusion with a zero potassium, low-calcium buffer, and replacement of 66% of the perfusate sodium with lithium resulted in changes in the intracellular sodium levels. An increase of 45% in the intracellular sodium was observed when changing the pacing rate from 0 to 60 beats/min (with proportional changes for intermediate pacing rates). The ratio of intracellular potassium to sodium concentration was determined to be 2.3 by NMR, indicating that a substantial amount of the intracellular potassium is undetectable with these NMR method. In addition, intracellular lithium was observed during perfusion with a lithium-containing perfusate

  9. Neuron class-specific requirements for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in critical period development of calcium signaling in learning and memory circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Caleb A; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-05-01

    Neural circuit optimization occurs through sensory activity-dependent mechanisms that refine synaptic connectivity and information processing during early-use developmental critical periods. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), the gene product lost in Fragile X syndrome (FXS), acts as an activity sensor during critical period development, both as an RNA-binding translation regulator and channel-binding excitability regulator. Here, we employ a Drosophila FXS disease model to assay calcium signaling dynamics with a targeted transgenic GCaMP reporter during critical period development of the mushroom body (MB) learning/memory circuit. We find FMRP regulates depolarization-induced calcium signaling in a neuron-specific manner within this circuit, suppressing activity-dependent calcium transients in excitatory cholinergic MB input projection neurons and enhancing calcium signals in inhibitory GABAergic MB output neurons. Both changes are restricted to the developmental critical period and rectified at maturity. Importantly, conditional genetic (dfmr1) rescue of null mutants during the critical period corrects calcium signaling defects in both neuron classes, indicating a temporally restricted FMRP requirement. Likewise, conditional dfmr1 knockdown (RNAi) during the critical period replicates constitutive null mutant defects in both neuron classes, confirming cell-autonomous requirements for FMRP in developmental regulation of calcium signaling dynamics. Optogenetic stimulation during the critical period enhances depolarization-induced calcium signaling in both neuron classes, but this developmental change is eliminated in dfmr1 null mutants, indicating the activity-dependent regulation requires FMRP. These results show FMRP shapes neuron class-specific calcium signaling in excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in developing learning/memory circuitry, and that FMRP mediates activity-dependent regulation of calcium signaling specifically during the early

  10. Redox-Dependent Calcium-Mediated Signaling Networks that Control the Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Akshaya

    Cellular senescence has evolved as a protective mechanism to arrest growth of cells with oncogenic potential. While senescent cells have lost the ability to divide, they remain metabolically active and adapt a deleterious senescence associated secretory phenotype (SASP) central to the progression of several age-associated disease pathologies. The SASP is mechanistically regulated by the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1alpha) whose expression and activity is responsive to the senescence associated (SA) oxidant production and the accompanying disruption of calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. Using primary IMR-90 human fetal lung fibroblasts as a model of replicative senescence, we explored the molecular underpinnings driving Ca2+ dysregulation in senescent cells. We establish that the redox-responsive Transient Receptor Potential TRPC6 channel is compromised due to desensitization owing to SA increases in steady state hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production. SA dysregulation of Ca2+ is also accompanied by loss of response to H2O2-induced Ca2+ influx that can be rescued with catalase pre-treatments. Senescent cells are also insensitive to Ca2+ entry induced by hyperforin, a specific activator of TRPC6, that can be restored by catalase pre-treatments, further suggesting redox regulation of TRPC6 in senescence. Inhibition of TRPC6 channel activity restores the ability of senescent cells to respond to peroxide-induced Ca2+ in addition to suppressing SASP gene expression. Furthermore, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling regulates SASP by means of modulating TRPC6 channel expression. Together, our findings provide compelling evidence that redox and mTOR-mediated regulation of TRPC6 channel modulate SASP gene expression. Further, the gain-of-function mutation of TRPC6 has pathological implications in several chronic pathologies and renders it a viable target in age-associated diseases.

  11. The pleiotropic vegetative and sexual development phenotypes of Neurospora crassa arise from double mutants of the calcium signaling genes plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Ananya; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2017-10-01

    We investigated phenotypes of the double mutants of the calcium (Ca 2+ ) signaling genes plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 encoding for a phospholipase C1 (PLC-1), a secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 ), and a Ca 2+ /H + exchanger (CPE-1), respectively, to understand the cell functions regulated by their genetic interactions. Mutants lacking plc-1 and either splA2 or cpe-1 exhibited numerous defects including reduced colonial growth, stunted aerial hyphae, premature conidiation on plates with delayed germination, inappropriate conidiation in submerged culture, and lesser mycelial pigmentation. Moreover, the ∆plc-1; ∆splA2 and ∆plc-1; ∆cpe-1 double mutants were female-sterile when crossed with wild type as the male parent. In addition, ∆plc-1, ∆splA2, and ∆cpe-1 single mutants displayed higher carotenoid accumulation and an increased level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the pleiotropic phenotype of the double mutants of plc-1, splA2, and cpe-1 suggested that the genetic interaction of these genes plays a critical role for normal vegetative and sexual development in N. crassa.

  12. The 20kDa and 22kDa forms of human growth hormone (hGH) exhibit different intracellular signalling profiles and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao-Xia, Liu; Jing-Yan, Chen; Xia-Lian, Tang; Ping, Chen; Min, Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Human Growth Hormone (hGH) includes two main variants. The first is 22kDa GH (22K-GH), which is predominant in the blood circulation. The second most abundant variant is 20K-GH, which makes up 5-10% of the blood circulation. Both bind and activate the same receptor, called the human growth hormone receptor (GHR). However, the reason why 22K-GH and 20K-GH exhibit similar, but not identical physiological activities remains poorly understood. In this article, the intracellular signalling profiles between these two hormones were examined. Western blot analyses were performed in 3T3-F442A and CHO cells transfected with GHR (CHO-GHR). The results revealed that both 22K-GH and 20K-GH can activate Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, 3 and 5 (STATs 1/3/5). Both induced tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT/1/3/5 in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. However, there were significant differences in the intracellular signalling properties between 22K-GH and 20K-GH. In particular, the kinetics of signalling shown by 22K-GH and 20K-GH is different. In addition, we found that the 20K-GH-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of signalling proteins was weaker than that of 22K-GH. Together, these observations indicate that the levels and kinetics of phosphorylation mediated by the main signalling proteins triggered by 22K-GH or 20K-GH were not exactly the same. This may provide a possible explanation for the different biological activities exhibited by 22K-GH and 20K-GH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Curcumin inhibits apoptosis by regulating intracellular calcium release, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial depolarization levels in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Öz, Ahmi; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    Neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are incurable progressive neurological disorders caused by the degeneration of neuronal cells and characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Curcumin, a turmeric product, is an anti-inflammatory agent and an effective reactive oxygen and nitrogen species scavenging molecule. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the main source of oxidative stress, which is claimed to be the major source of neurological disorders. Hence, in this study we aimed to investigate the effect of curcumin on Ca(2+) signaling, oxidative stress parameters, mitochondrial depolarization levels and caspase-3 and -9 activities that are induced by the H2O2 model of oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were divided into four groups namely, the control, curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups. The dose and duration of curcumin and H2O2 were determined from published data. The cells in the curcumin, H2O2, and curcumin + H2O2 groups were incubated for 24 h with 5 µM curcumin and 100 µM H2O2. Lipid peroxidation and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentrations were higher in the H2O2 group than in the control group; however, their levels were lower in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group alone. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) values were lower in the H2O2 group although they were higher in the curcumin and curcumin + H2O2 groups than in the H2O2 group. Caspase-3 activity was lower in the curcumin group than in the H2O2 group. In conclusion, curcumin strongly induced modulator effects on oxidative stress, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and the caspase-3 and -9 values in an experimental oxidative stress model in SH-SY5Y cells.

  14. Binding of alphaherpesvirus glycoprotein H to surface α4β1-integrins activates calcium-signaling pathways and induces phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Walid; Gramatica, Andrea; Herrmann, Andreas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2015-10-20

    Intracellular signaling connected to integrin activation is known to induce cytoplasmic Ca(2+) release, which in turn mediates a number of downstream signals. The cellular entry pathways of two closely related alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), are differentially regulated with respect to the requirement of interaction of glycoprotein H (gH) with α4β1-integrins. We show here that binding of EHV-1, but not EHV-4, to target cells resulted in a rapid and significant increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. EHV-1 expressing EHV-4 gH (gH4) in lieu of authentic gH1 failed to induce Ca(2+) release, while EHV-4 with gH1 triggered significant Ca(2+) release. Blocking the interaction between gH1 and α4β1-integrins, inhibiting phospholipase C (PLC) activation, or blocking binding of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) to its receptor on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) abrogated Ca(2+) release. Interestingly, phosphatidylserine (PS) was exposed on the plasma membrane in response to cytosolic calcium increase after EHV-1 binding through a scramblase-dependent mechanism. Inhibition of both Ca(2+) release from the ER and scramblase activation blocked PS scrambling and redirected virus entry to the endocytic pathway, indicating that PS may play a role in facilitating virus entry directly at the plasma membrane. Herpesviruses are a large family of enveloped viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, causing a variety of diseases. These viruses have developed a number of strategies for successful entry into different cell types. We and others have shown that alphaherpesviruses, including EHV-1 and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), can route their entry pathway and do so by manipulation of cell signaling cascades to ensure viral genome delivery to nuclei. We show here that the interaction between EHV-1 gH and cellular α4β1-integrins is necessary to induce emptying of ER calcium stores, which induces phosphatidylserine exposure on the plasma membrane

  15. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hostrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs...... exercise than at rest in all protocols, and higher (P stress determines the magnitude of PGC-1α mRNA response in human muscle. Furthermore, higher exercise-induced changes in AMPK, p38, and CREB...

  16. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion.

  17. Calcium-calmodulin kinase I cooperatively regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of CCTα by accessing a nuclear export signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agassandian, Marianna; Chen, Bill B; Pulijala, Roopa; Kaercher, Leah; Glasser, Jennifer R; Mallampalli, Rama K

    2012-07-01

    We identified a new calmodulin kinase I (CaMKI) substrate, cytidyltransferase (CCTα), a crucial enzyme required for maintenance of cell membranes. CCTα becomes activated with translocation from the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane, resulting in increased membrane phospholipids. Calcium-activated CCTα nuclear import is mediated by binding of its C-terminus to 14-3-3 ζ, a regulator of nuclear trafficking. Here CaMK1 phosphorylates residues within this C-terminus that signals association of CCTα with 14-3-3 ζ to initiate calcium-induced nuclear entry. CaMKI docks within the CCTα membrane-binding domain (residues 290-299), a sequence that displays similarities to a canonical nuclear export signal (NES) that also binds CRM1/exportin 1. Expression of a CFP-CCTα mutant lacking residues 290-299 in cells results in cytosolically retained enzyme. CRM1/exportin 1 was required for CCTα nuclear export, and its overexpression in cells was partially sufficient to trigger CCTα nuclear export despite calcium stimulation. An isolated CFP-290-299 peptide remained in the nucleus in the presence of leptomycin B but was able to target to the cytoplasm with farnesol. Thus CaMKI vies with CRM1/exportin 1 for access to a NES, and assembly of a CaMKI-14-3-3 ζ-CCTα complex is a key effector mechanism that drives nuclear CCTα translocation.

  18. The Aer protein and the serine chemoreceptor Tsr independently sense intracellular energy levels and transduce oxygen, redox, and energy signals for Escherichia coli behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Johnson, Mark S.; Harding, Gordon P.; Zuccarelli, Anthony J.; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Zhulin, Igor B.; Taylor, Barry L.

    1997-01-01

    We identified a protein, Aer, as a signal transducer that senses intracellular energy levels rather than the external environment and that transduces signals for aerotaxis (taxis to oxygen) and other energy-dependent behavioral responses in Escherichia coli. Domains in Aer are similar to the signaling domain in chemotaxis receptors and the putative oxygen-sensing domain of some transcriptional activators. A putative FAD-binding site in the N-terminal domain of Aer shares a consensus sequence with the NifL, Bat, and Wc-1 signal-transducing proteins that regulate gene expression in response to redox changes, oxygen, and blue light, respectively. A double mutant deficient in aer and tsr, which codes for the serine chemoreceptor, was negative for aerotaxis, redox taxis, and glycerol taxis, each of which requires the proton motive force and/or electron transport system for signaling. We propose that Aer and Tsr sense the proton motive force or cellular redox state and thereby integrate diverse signals that guide E. coli to environments where maximal energy is available for growth. PMID:9380671

  19. Two different mechanosensitive calcium responses in Müller glial cells of the guinea pig retina: Differential dependence on purinergic receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Silke; Pannicke, Thomas; Ulbricht, Elke; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Tractional forces or mechanical stimulation are known to induce calcium responses in retinal glial cells. The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of calcium responses in Müller glial cells of the avascular guinea pig retina induced by focal mechanical stimulation. Freshly isolated retinal wholemounts were loaded with Mitotracker Deep Red (to fill Müller cells) and the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4/AM. The inner retinal surface was mechanically stimulated with a micropipette tip for 10 ms. Stimulation induced two different cytosolic calcium responses in Müller cells with different kinetics in dependence on the distance from the stimulation site. Müller cells near the stimulation site displayed an immediate and long-lasting calcium response with high amplitude. This response was mediated by calcium influx from the extracellular space likely triggered by activation of ATP-insensitive P2 receptors. More distant Müller cells displayed, with a delay of 2.4 s, transient calcium responses which propagated laterally in a wave-like fashion. Propagating calcium waves were induced by a calcium-independent release of ATP from Müller cells near the stimulation site, and were mediated by a release of calcium from internal stores triggered by ATP, acting in part at P2Y 1 receptors. The data suggest that mechanically stimulated Müller cells of the guinea pig retina release ATP which induces a propagating calcium wave in surrounding Müller cells. Propagating calcium waves may be implicated in the spatial regulation of the neuronal activity and homeostatic glial functions, and may transmit gliosis-inducing signals across the retina. Mechanical stimulation of guinea pig Müller cells induces two calcium responses: an immediate response around the stimulation site and propagating calcium waves. Both responses are differentially mediated by activation of purinergic receptors. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2017;65:62-74. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  1. Achillolide A Protects Astrocytes against Oxidative Stress by Reducing Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species and Interfering with Cell Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmann, Anat; Telerman, Alona; Erlank, Hilla; Ofir, Rivka; Kashman, Yoel; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2016-03-02

    Achillolide A is a natural sesquiterpene lactone that we have previously shown can inhibit microglial activation. In this study we present evidence for its beneficial effects on astrocytes under oxidative stress, a situation relevant to neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. Viability of brain astrocytes (primary cultures) was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, intracellular ROS levels were detected using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, in vitro antioxidant activity was measured by differential pulse voltammetry, and protein phosphorylation was determined using specific ELISA kits. We have found that achillolide A prevented the H₂O₂-induced death of astrocytes, and attenuated the induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These activities could be attributed to the inhibition of the H₂O₂-induced phosphorylation of MAP/ERK kinase 1 (MEK1) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and to the antioxidant activity of achillolide A, but not to H₂O₂ scavenging. This is the first study that demonstrates its protective effects on brain astrocytes, and its ability to interfere with MAPK activation. We propose that achillolide A deserves further evaluation for its potential to be developed as a drug for the prevention/treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries where oxidative stress is part of the pathophysiology.

  2. The effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on nicotinic receptors: Intracellular calcium increase, calpain/caspase 3 activation, and functional upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rates, Sara; Camarasa, Jordi; Sanchez-Garcia, Ana I.; Gandia, Luis; Escubedo, Elena; Pubill, David

    2010-01-01

    Previous work by our group demonstrated that homomeric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) play a role in the neurotoxicity induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), as well as the binding affinity of this drug to these receptors. Here we studied the effect of MDMA on the activation of nAChR subtypes, the consequent calcium mobilization, and calpain/caspase 3 activation because prolonged Ca 2+ increase could contribute to cytotoxicity. As techniques, we used fluorimetry in Fluo-4-loaded PC12 cells and electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes. MDMA produced a rapid and sustained increase in calcium without reaching the maximum effect induced by ACh. It also concentration-dependently inhibited the response induced by ACh, nicotine, and the specific α7 agonist PNU 282987 with IC 50 values in the low micromolar range. Similarly, MDMA induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes transfected with human α7 but not with α4β2 nAChR and inhibited ACh-induced currents in both receptors in a concentration-dependent manner. The calcium response was inhibited by methyllycaconitine (MLA) and α-bungarotoxin but not by dihydro-β-erythroidine. These results therefore indicate that MDMA acts as a partial agonist on α7 nAChRs and as an antagonist on the heteromeric subtypes. Subsequently, calcium-induced Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and entry through voltage-operated calcium channels are also implicated as proved using specific antagonists. In addition, treatment with MDMA for 24 h significantly increased basal Ca 2+ levels and induced an increase in α-spectrin breakdown products, which indicates that calpain and caspase 3 were activated. These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with MLA. Moreover, pretreatment with MDMA induced functional upregulation of calcium responses to specific agonists of both heteromeric and α7 nAChR. Sustained calcium entry and calpain activation could favor the activation of Ca 2+ -dependent enzymes such as

  3. Nuclear calcium signaling controls expression of a large gene pool: identification of a gene program for acquired neuroprotection induced by synaptic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng-Jia; Zou, Ming; Lu, Li; Lau, David; Ditzel, Désirée A W; Delucinge-Vivier, Celine; Aso, Yoshinori; Descombes, Patrick; Bading, Hilmar

    2009-08-01

    Synaptic activity can boost neuroprotection through a mechanism that requires synapse-to-nucleus communication and calcium signals in the cell nucleus. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons nuclear calcium is one of the most potent signals in neuronal gene expression. The induction or repression of 185 neuronal activity-regulated genes is dependent upon nuclear calcium signaling. The nuclear calcium-regulated gene pool contains a genomic program that mediates synaptic activity-induced, acquired neuroprotection. The core set of neuroprotective genes consists of 9 principal components, termed Activity-regulated Inhibitor of Death (AID) genes, and includes Atf3, Btg2, GADD45beta, GADD45gamma, Inhibin beta-A, Interferon activated gene 202B, Npas4, Nr4a1, and Serpinb2, which strongly promote survival of cultured hippocampal neurons. Several AID genes provide neuroprotection through a common process that renders mitochondria more resistant to cellular stress and toxic insults. Stereotaxic delivery of AID gene-expressing recombinant adeno-associated viruses to the hippocampus confers protection in vivo against seizure-induced brain damage. Thus, treatments that enhance nuclear calcium signaling or supplement AID genes represent novel therapies to combat neurodegenerative conditions and neuronal cell loss caused by synaptic dysfunction, which may be accompanied by a deregulation of calcium signal initiation and/or propagation to the cell nucleus.

  4. Nuclear calcium signaling controls expression of a large gene pool: identification of a gene program for acquired neuroprotection induced by synaptic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jia Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic activity can boost neuroprotection through a mechanism that requires synapse-to-nucleus communication and calcium signals in the cell nucleus. Here we show that in hippocampal neurons nuclear calcium is one of the most potent signals in neuronal gene expression. The induction or repression of 185 neuronal activity-regulated genes is dependent upon nuclear calcium signaling. The nuclear calcium-regulated gene pool contains a genomic program that mediates synaptic activity-induced, acquired neuroprotection. The core set of neuroprotective genes consists of 9 principal components, termed Activity-regulated Inhibitor of Death (AID genes, and includes Atf3, Btg2, GADD45beta, GADD45gamma, Inhibin beta-A, Interferon activated gene 202B, Npas4, Nr4a1, and Serpinb2, which strongly promote survival of cultured hippocampal neurons. Several AID genes provide neuroprotection through a common process that renders mitochondria more resistant to cellular stress and toxic insults. Stereotaxic delivery of AID gene-expressing recombinant adeno-associated viruses to the hippocampus confers protection in vivo against seizure-induced brain damage. Thus, treatments that enhance nuclear calcium signaling or supplement AID genes represent novel therapies to combat neurodegenerative conditions and neuronal cell loss caused by synaptic dysfunction, which may be accompanied by a deregulation of calcium signal initiation and/or propagation to the cell nucleus.

  5. Calcium wave propagation in networks of endothelial cells: model-based theoretical and experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juexuan Long

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the propagation of calcium signals in multicellular structures composed of human endothelial cells. We consider multicellular structures composed of a single chain of cells as well as a chain of cells with a side branch, namely a "T" structure. In the experiments, we investigate the result of applying mechano-stimulation to induce signaling in the form of calcium waves along the chain and the effect of single and dual stimulation of the multicellular structure. The experimental results provide evidence of an effect of architecture on the propagation of calcium waves. Simulations based on a model of calcium-induced calcium release and cell-to-cell diffusion through gap junctions shows that the propagation of calcium waves is dependent upon the competition between intracellular calcium regulation and architecture-dependent intercellular diffusion.

  6. Integrin binding and MAPK signal pathways in primary cell responses to surface chemistry of calcium silicate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Ming-You; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2013-09-01

    Cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation on different materials depend largely on the surface properties of the materials. This study sheds light on the mechanism by which the modulation of the chemical composition of calcium silicate cements with different Si/Ca molar ratios could produce different cell responses. Two primary cell types (human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human dental pulp cells (hDPCs)) were used to elicit the changes in total DNA content, integrin subunit levels, phosphor-focal adhesion kinase (pFAK) levels, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activity at the cell attachment stage. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting collagen type I (COL I) and fibronectin (FN) was also evaluated. The results indicated that increased total DNA content, pFAK and total integrin levels were observed upon an increase in cement Si content. Cements with different Si/Ca ratios did not cause the variations of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) ligands. The Si-rich cement facilitated COL I and α2β1 subintegrin expression, while Ca-rich cement promoted FN and αvβ3 subintegrin expression. Si component of the calcium silicates stimulated cell adhesion via activation of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways more effectively than did by Ca component, but it did not affect c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. Inhibition of MAPK/ERK and MAPK/p38 signaling pathways in hMSCs and hDPCs significantly attenuated adhesion, proliferation and differentiation as assessed according to total DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activity. hMSCs and hDPCs from the three different donors exhibited a similar preference for cell behaviors. The results of the current study suggest that calcium silicate cements with a higher Si content have the potential to serve as excellent supports for primary cells. Unraveling the

  7. Intercellular calcium signaling and nitric oxide feedback during constriction of rabbit renal afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Torben Rene; Schjerning, J; Vanhoutte, Paul M. G.

    2007-01-01

    vasoconstriction which was converted into a sustained response by N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Depolarization increased smooth muscle cell [Ca(2+)](i) from 162 +/- 15 nmol/l to a peak of 555 +/- 70 nmol/l (n = 7), and this response was inhibited by 80% by the l-type calcium channel blocker...

  8. Calcium Electroporation