Guillou-Landréat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc
Each addictive disorder has specific characteristics. It is essential to consider them in order to improve the treatment. However, the combination of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders is valid, as showed by the next version of the DSM. During the treatment, it is important to evaluate cross, but also longitudinal, considering the current problematic behavior, but also the problematic behaviors that occurred in the past and that may occur in the future. There is indeed a significant risk of switching addiction. The relapse prevention must consider this risk and be inclusive. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A
Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.
Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.
Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.
Eördögh, Erika; Hoyer, Mária; Szeleczky, Gábor
Aim of review: To overview the new studies on food addiction and highlighting the analogies and differences between food and drug addiction. Recent studies on food addiction have demonstrated that the neurobiological circuits involved in the development of drug addiction also play a role in food consumption, and that the uptake of nutrients by the organism is under the control of numerous complicated peripheral and central signal-transducing networks. In addition, it has also been shown that addiction and/or craving may develop toward certain foods and nutrients, too. The most recent investigations about the neurobiological systems motivating the obtaining behavior have suggested that the acquired drive toward energy rich, rewarding food contributes to the appearance of obesity as an endemic. This report presents the definition of substance use disorders and describes the results of the neurobiological approaches in the study of addiction supporting the concept that food addiction is a real phenomenon. The subsequent description of the central and peripheral signaling pathways of food consumption demonstrates that while both food (nutrients) and drugs with abuse potential exert their effect on the same central neurobiological networks, the action of the peripheral signaling systems make it more difficult to understand the regulation of food intake and thus the treatment of pathological eating behavior. The presentation of the evidences of food addiction obtained in animal experiments and with imaging methods and the subsequent overview of the results achieved in the surveys of pathologic eating patterns and in the new clinical and behavioral assessment of human food addiction point to the conclusion that the pharmacological and behavioral therapy methods applied to the treatment of substance abuse disorders may also prove useful in the management of obesity.
Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Wells, Adrian
Over the last twenty years metacognitive theory has provided a novel framework, in the form of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, for conceptualizing psychological distress (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996). The S-REF model proposes that psychological distress persists because of unhelpful coping styles (e.g. extended thinking and thought suppression) which are activated and maintained as a result of metacognitive beliefs. This paper describes the S-REF model and its application to addictive behaviors using a triphasic metacognitive formulation. Evidence on the components of the triphasic metacognitive formulation is reviewed and the clinical implications for applying metacognitive therapy to addictive behaviors outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Touzeau, Didier; Raynal, Marie-Line
Consumer society creates the emergence of addictive behaviors and environments of the subject "shape" the use of psychoactive substances. The family approach is to search out a guilt of members to understand family dynamics and enable young people to emancipate themselves from the family model. The social environment contributes to the marginalization of drug users "pathologizing" his conduct. Offer help without preconditions and a relationship based on a therapeutic alliance can contribute decisively to the recovery of an addict. The prison is a place of initiation of use and consumption of psychoactive substances despite the offer of specialized treatment. Measures of risk reduction of HCV/HIV infection and alternatives to incarceration should complete it. At workplace, consumption can be considered as a mean of doping to be more "efficient", but also as an attempt to withstand the stresses and changes in working conditions in the context of individualization and a loss of marks related to the new way of organizing work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H
It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.
Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Braverman, Eric R.; Febo, Marcelo; Li, Mona; Gold, Mark S.
Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication. Some research into those harms will be reviewed here and misgivings about the use of Pregnenolone, to treat cannabis addiction and intoxication explained. Pregnenolone considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, has recently been shown to protect the brain from Cannabis intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances Pregnenolone synthesis in the brain via stimulation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. This steroid has been shown to inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee et al., incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. In this hypothesis, we caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718) have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. Blocking CB1 receptors would result in reduced neuronal release of Dopamine by disinhibition of GABA signaling. Long-term blockade of cannabinoid receptors could occur with raising Pregnenolone brain levels, may induce a hypodopaminergic state, and lead to aberrant substance and non-substance (behavioral) addictions. PMID:26306328
Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia
Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)
The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.
Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.
The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.
Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D
Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.
Clinicians working in the field of addictive behaviors cannot afford to ignore the Internet. Psychological advice, help, and treatment for addicts are no exceptions, with both counseling and psychotherapy entering the computer age. This paper reviews the main issues in the area and approaches the discussion acknowledging that online therapy has to be incorporated within the overall framework of the need for clinical assistance. The paper also provides brief overviews of some websites as illustrative examples of what types of online therapy are available.
Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P
In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L
"Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.
The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.
George William H
Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.
Hendershot, Christian S; Witkiewitz, Katie; George, William H; Marlatt, G Alan
The Relapse Prevention (RP) model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010). Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.
Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana
Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes
This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne
The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....
Lobo, Daniela S S; Kennedy, James L
Behavioral addictions are considered as the repetitive occurrence of impulsive behaviors without consideration of their potential negative consequences. These addictions represent an increasing cost to society and are an important new field of research in psychiatric genetics. There has been a growing body of evidence on the familial aggregation and genetic influences on the development of behavioral addictions and mainly on pathological gambling. The aim of this article is to critically review findings of family and molecular genetic studies on behavioral addictions, focusing on pathological gambling and commenting on other disorders where appropriate. This review provides a comprehensive approach to genetic studies on behavioral addiction and points out the necessity of expanding the genetic research in this field. Future directions for genetic studies in this field are also discussed.
Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N
Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral therapy. "Marijuana remains one of the most widely used ...
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C
The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)
The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.
Granero, Roser; Fernández Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Maria Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón Magriñá, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gamb...
Vanderschuren, L.J.M.J.; Minnaard, A.M.; Smeets, J.A.S.; Lesscher, H.M.B.
Substance addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disorder, characterized by loss of control over substance use. In recent years, there has been a lively interest in animal models of loss of control over substance use, using punishment paradigms. We provide an overview of punishment models of
Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999
Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana
Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.
Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.
Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention...
Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M
Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity.
Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.
Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:19874165
Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N
Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors--such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping--bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies.
Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young
This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.
... Preface Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Preface How Science Has Revolutionized the Understanding of Drug Addiction For much of the past century, scientists studying ...
Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kinjo, Aya
Nationwide surveys to clarify the characteristics and trends of the addictive disorders and behaviors including alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, internet addiction and pathological gambling among Japanese adults were carried out in 2003, 2008, and 2013. At the part of the surveys on addictive behaviors in disaster stricken area by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the nationwide survey on benzodiazepine dependence was conducted in 2013. Epidemiological features of prevalent addictive disorders and behaviors were described. We observed large number of estimated patients with addictive disorders or behaviors in Japan, and the considerable proportion of them was not connect to appropriate medical services.
Sangho KIM; Donghyun PARK
It is intuitively plausible that the demand for cinema services may be partly driven by addiction or habit. Yet there is almost no empirical literature which tests for whether cinema demand is addictive. We estimate addiction models for cinema demand using Korean time series data from 1963 to 2004. Our estimation results indicate that (i) addictive behavior characterizes the demand for cinema services, (ii) this behavior is rational, and (iii) habit is one of most important determinants of ci...
Mann, K; Fauth-Bühler, M; Seiferth, N; Heinz, A
The numbers of persons with a prevalence for behavioral addiction are rising especially among the young. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists are still awaiting indications for diagnostic classification and treatment approaches. We discuss the nosological aspects and suggest categorizing gambling and excessive computer and internet use as behavioral addictions. In specific cases the addiction model can also be applied for excessive sexual behavior, compulsive buying and obesity.
Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle
Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.
Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J
The purpose of this study was to examine reward-related genetic risk for addictive behaviors in a healthy community sample (n=217) of men and women. We tested a mediation model predicting that a quantitative multilocus genetic profile score - reflecting the additive effects of alleles known to confer relatively increased dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum - would relate positively to a composite measure of addictive behaviors, and that this association would be mediated by personality traits consistently associated with addiction disorders. Our model was strongly supported by the data, and accounted for 24% of the variance in addictive behaviors. These data suggest that brain reward processes tend to exert their influence on addiction risk by their role in the development of relatively stable personality traits associated with addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.
Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy
Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…
Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton
Purpose of the review To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. Recent findings A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Summary Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students. PMID:28580226
Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Krieger, Heather; Neighbors, Clayton
To provide an overview of studies within the past five years examining the impact of social network factors on addictive behaviors among college students, to discuss gaps, limitations, and controversies in the field, and to summarize with a discussion of future directions and implications for interventions. A review of 13 studies indicated that greater network exposure, centrality, reciprocated ties, and more tightly interconnected networks were associated with greater alcohol use and other addictive behaviors among college students. Greater research is needed that expands beyond alcohol use to other addictive behaviors among college students. Additionally, more studies are needed that longitudinally study the impact of changes in social networks on addictive behaviors and vice versa, as well as studies examining sociocentric (whole) networks. Social network approaches offer innovative perspectives in understanding social influences on addictive behaviors and novel intervention strategies for potentially reducing addictive behaviors among college students.
The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.
Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Callesen, Mette Buhl; Hesse, Morten
Background and aims Impulsivity is a risk factor for addictive behaviors. The UPPS-P impulsivity model has been associated with substance addiction and gambling disorder, but its role in other non-substance addiction-related behaviors is less understood. We sought to examine associations between...... problems to achieve a broad distribution of involvement in addiction-related behaviors. Participants completed the UPPS-P Questionnaire and standardized questionnaires assessing problematic use of substances (alcohol, cannabis, and other drugs) and non-substances (Internet gaming, pornography, and food...
Isaza, Carlos; Henao, Julieta; Beltrán, Leonardo; Porras, Liliana; Gonzalez, Martha; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel
Determine the prevalence and compare some genetic markers involved in addictive behavior in a group of addicts to derivative of coca (cocaine/crack) or heroin and a control group of non-addicted people matched for gender, age and ethnicity. A 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts Colombian male were surveyed and genotyped for 18 polymorphism of the OPRM1, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, ABCB1, DβH and CYP2B6 genes. For the identification of alleles markers were used mini-sequencing and fragment multiplex PCR techniques; ethnicity of cases and controls was analyzed with 61 AIMs. The age of onset use of heroin or coca derivatives (cocaine/crack) was 16.5±6 years and 99.2% of them consume several illicit drugs. It showed that controls and addicts belong to the same ethnic group. Significant differences between addicts and controls in relation to schooling, marital status, social security family history of substance abuse (p T ABCB1 gene (p= 0.001) were found. The present results indicate that the VNTR- 6R polymorphism of the gene SLC6A3 and the genotype 3435CC in the ABCB1 gene, are both associated with addictive behavior to heroin or cocaine.
Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N
To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Konkol? Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J
Background Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data ...
Potenza, Marc N.
Over the past several decades, non-substance-use behaviors like gambling, gaming, and sex have received greater consideration as possible foci of addictions. In this article, I will review the recent history and current status of non-substance or behavioral addictions. A main focus will involve gambling and gambling disorder, given that the latter is currently the sole non-substance addictive disorder described in the main text of the current (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Internet gaming disorder, currently in the DSM-5 section addressing conditions that may need additional research, will also be considered, as will the concept of Internet addiction. Compulsive sexual behaviors (including problematic pornography use) will be considered, particularly with respect to how behavioral addictions may be considered in the forthcoming 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). PMID:29302225
Ma, Hing Keung
Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued ...
Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.
Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.
Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Potenza, Marc N.
Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors—such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping—bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in thi...
Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha
This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…
Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu
The commentary aims to provide clarity to the article "Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research." We provide another viewpoint for the important issues of behavior addiction. The course of behavior addiction should be further studied. The criteria of withdrawal and tolerance of behavior addiction are ill-defined and need to be further evaluated. The etiology, course, presentation, and functional impairment of behavior addiction should be validated by evidence-based data before being defined as a disorder.
Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F
This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their
Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso
This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…
Full Text Available It is well known that regular physical activity helps improve overall health and fitness and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. However, excessive exercise might be harmful. Exercise addiction (EA is a pattern of uncontrolled exercise that involves a craving for overwhelming exercise with addictive attributes. So far, little is known about this unique behavioral addiction. The aim of the current study is to introduce the diagnosis and assessment of EA, and to summarize several developing theoretical models. Eating disorders, body image disorder, low self-esteem, and high narcissism are related to high risk of EA. The paper also discusses the distinction between EA and highly involved physical activity. Keywords: Exercise addiction, Behavior addiction, Physical activity, Theoretical model
Lemieux, Andrine; al'Absi, Mustafa
In this chapter, we briefly review the basic biology of psychological stress and the stress response. We propose that psychological stress and the neurobiology of the stress response play in substance use initiation, maintenance, and relapse. The proposed mechanisms for this include, on the one hand, the complex interactions between biological mediators of the stress response and the dopaminergic reward system and, on the other hand, mediators of the stress response and other systems crucial in moderating key addiction-related behaviors such as endogenous opioids, the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary system, and endocannabinoids. Exciting new avenues of study including genomics, sex as a moderator of the stress response, and behavioral addictions (gambling, hypersexuality, dysfunctional internet use, and food as an addictive substance) are also briefly presented within the context of stress as a moderator of the addictive process. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Højsted, Jette; Ekholm, Ola; Kurita, Geana Paula
The growing body of research showing increased opioid use in patients with chronic pain coupled with concerns regarding addiction encouraged the development of this population-based study. The goal of the study was to investigate the co-occurrence of indicators of addictive behaviors in patients......,281 individuals were analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the association between chronic pain (lasting ⩾6 months), opioid use, health behavior, and body mass index. Six potential addictive behaviors were identified: daily smoking; high alcohol intake; illicit drug use in the past year......; obesity; long-term use of benzodiazepines; and long-term use of benzodiazepine-related drugs. At least 2 of the 6 addictive behaviors were observed in 22.6% of the long-term opioid users with chronic pain compared with 11.5% of the non-opioid users with chronic pain and 8.9% of the individuals without...
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Юлия Владимировна Смирнова
Full Text Available The number of people, suffering from non-chemical addictions - workaholism, gambling, shopaholism etc. - is greatly increased during last decades. Due to the large variety of these addictions, the questions of the reasons of such behavior and its effective prevention became very urgent. Usually, these questions are tried to be solved in the field of special psychology, while the author tries to look at the problem from the position of general psychology. The paper offers the data of workaholics' addictive behavior research from the position of cultural-historical methodology and the theory of play activity's development. The goal of these study was the analysis of relations between problematic development of play in preschool age and later formation of workaholism in adult age. By using the methods of interview and writing of essay, as well as correlation and content analysis of workaholics' and non-addicts' answers, author shows that workaholics had significant underdevelopment of play in child age and also don't able to realize and/or control their play behavior in adult age. Thus, author concludes that the underdevelopment of child's play may lead to the establishment of addictive behavior and formation of addictive personality's features. Acquired data allows to provide the workaholism' prevention by the development of play in preschool age and psychotherapy of work addiction by the development of subject of play activity in adult age.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-57
Nathan, Peter E.
Childhood and adolescent antisocial behavior has been identified as a precursor of alcoholism. Research suggests that substantial numbers of abusers meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for antisocial personality disorder and depression, behaviors symptomatic, respectively, of a disregard for society's rules and of…
Mia Beck Lichtenstein
Full Text Available Background: Fitness exercise is popular and associated with improved health and social status. Taken to extremes, however, exercise can become an addiction. One suggested symptom of exercise addiction is âconflictsâ with family and friends. However, it may be difficult to recognize excessive exercise patterns if they are accepted and encouraged by relatives. The aim of this study was to explore if fitness exercisers with a high risk of addiction experienced the same level of exercise support as exercisers with a low risk of addiction. Furthermore, we wanted to examine if social support affected the subjective reporting of âconflictsâ. Method: A total of 577 fitness exercisers completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI and two questions asking about âexercise support from family and friendsâ and âpresent eating disorderâ. Results: Exercisers at high risk of exercise addiction reported the same level of support from relatives as those at low risk. Exercisers with high levels of exercise support reported significantly fewer conflicts, even if they were at high risk of addiction. If an eating disorder was present, the level of exercise support was significantly reduced. Conclusion: Exercise addiction might be difficult to identify with the general behavioral addiction symptom âconflictâ, since exercise is socially accepted even in subjects with high risk of exercise addiction. If an eating disorder is present, the exercise routines seem to be interpreted as socially undesirable. Screening for exercise addiction with the EAI should take into account that fitness exercisers rarely report conflicts, which could result in false negative cases.
Golden, Sam A; Heins, Conor; Venniro, Marco; Caprioli, Daniele; Zhang, Michelle; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin
Some people are highly motivated to seek aggressive encounters, and among those who have been incarcerated for such behavior, recidivism rates are high. These observations echo two core features of drug addiction: high motivation to seek addictive substances, despite adverse consequences, and high relapse rates. Here we used established rodent models of drug addiction to determine whether they would be sensitive to "addiction-like" features of aggression in CD-1 mice. In experiments 1 and 2, we trained older CD-1 mice to lever press for opportunities to attack younger C57BL6/J mice. We then tested them for relapse to aggression seeking after forced abstinence or punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. In experiment 3, we trained a large cohort of CD-1 mice and tested them for choice-based voluntary suppression of aggression seeking, relapse to aggression seeking, progressive ratio responding, and punishment-induced suppression of aggression self-administration. We then used cluster analysis to identify patterns of individual differences in compulsive "addiction-like" aggressive behavior. In experiments 1 and 2, we observed strong motivation to acquire operant self-administration of opportunities to aggress and relapse vulnerability during abstinence. In experiment 3, cluster analysis of the aggression-related measures identified a subset of "addicted" mice (∼19%) that exhibited intense operant-reinforced attack behavior, decreased likelihood to select an alternative reinforcer over aggression, heightened relapse vulnerability and progressive ratio responding, and resilience to punishment-induced suppression of aggressive behavior. Using procedures established to model drug addiction, we showed that a subpopulation of CD-1 mice demonstrate "addiction-like" aggressive behavior, suggesting an evolutionary origin for compulsive aggression. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.
Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Salama, Mohamed
Although dopaminergic system represents the cornerstone in rewarding, other neurotransmitters can modulate both the reward system and the psychomotor effects of addictive drugs. Many hypotheses have been proposed for a better understanding of the reward system and its role in drug addiction. However, after many years of investigation, no single theory can completely explain the neural basis of drug addiction. Recent reports introduce novel neurotransmitters into the game e.g. dynorphins, orexins, histamine, gheralin and galanin. The interacting functions of these neurotransmitters have shown that the reward system and its role in drug dependence, is far more complicated than was thought before. Individual variations exist regarding response to drug exposure, vulnerability for addiction and the effects of different cues on reward systems. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought to influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. However, the individual variations can not be based mainly on genetics; environmental factors seem to play a role too. Here we discuss the current knowledge about the orquestic regulation of different neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior and their potential effect on drug addiction.
Young, Kimberly S
Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.
Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...
Lende, Daniel H; Smith, E O
Evolutionary theory can inform the biopsychosocial approach to addictive behavior through the use of adaptationist thinking, or how natural selection has shaped the mechanisms and processes underlying addiction. Covering how evolutionary theory relates to biology, psychology and sociality, this paper examines three components to drug use and abuse: a biological mechanism (mesolimbic dopamine), a developmental trajectory (attachment) and a social phylogeny (dominance, submission, social dependence). The paper argues for a salience (or wanting) view of the function of dopamine; outlines how attachment affects time perspective, closure of internal models and self-regulation; and examines how inequality affects drug abuse and how social dependence and manipulative behaviors can play a role in relationships with drugs. The article concludes with an analysis of how the adaptive approach applies to interventions against addictive behavior.
The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder. © 2014 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.
The reclassification of gambling disorder within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) addictions category marks an important step for addiction science. The similarities between gambling disorder and the substance use disorders have been well documented. As gambling is unlikely to exert actively damaging effects on the brain, the cognitive sequelae of gambling disorder may provide insights into addictive vulnerabilities; this idea is critically evaluated in light of recent structural imaging data. The second part of the review analyzes a fundamental question of how a behavior can become addictive in the absence of exogenous drug stimulation. The relative potency of drug and nondrug rewards is considered, alongside evidence that cognitive distortions in the processing of chance (for example, the illusion of control and the gambler's fallacy) may constitute an important added ingredient in gambling. Further understanding of these mechanisms at neural and behavioral levels will be critical for the classification of future behavioral addictions, and I consider the current research data for obesity and binge eating, compulsive shopping, and internet gaming disorder. PMID:25336388
Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson
This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma, Hing Keung
Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.
Hing Keung Ma
Full Text Available Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1 the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2 the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3 the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4 the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.
Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis
Adolescent Internet gambling is associated with concomitant addictive behaviors. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet gambling practices, its impact upon psychosocial development and to evaluate the association between gambling practices and Internet addictive behavior among Cypriot adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample (n = 805) of adolescents attending selected public schools (9th and 10th grades) in Cyprus. Anonymous self-completed questionnaires were used including the Internet Addiction Test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Among the study population (n = 805), approximately one third (n = 28; 34.9%) reported Internet gambling. Internet gamblers were twice as likely to utilize Internet café portals (adjusted odds ratio for gender and age, AOR: 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.56-2.91) for interactive game-playing (AOR: 6.84; 95% CI: 4.23-11.07), chat-rooms (AOR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.31-4.85), and retrieval of sexual information (AOR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.42-2.81). Among Internet gamblers 26.0% (n = 73) reported borderline addictive Internet use and 4.3% (n = 12) addictive behavior. Internet gamblers more often had comprehensive psychosocial and emotional maladjustment (AOR: 4.00; 95% CI: 1.97-8.13), including Abnormal Conduct Problems (AOR: 3.26; 95% CI: 2.00-5.32), Emotional Symptoms (AOR: 1.78; 95% CI: 1.02-3.11), and Peer Problems (AOR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.08-5.48) scores. The multivariate regression analyses indicated that the single independent predictor associated with Internet addictive behavior was Internet gambling (AOR: 5.66; 95% CI: 1.45-22.15). Internet gambling is associated with addictive Internet use, as well as emotional maladjustment and behavioral problems, among Cypriot adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate whether Internet gambling constitutes a risk factor for the development of Internet addictive behavior among adolescents.
Lamb, R J; Ginsburg, Brett C
Addiction is continued drug use despite its harm. As one always has alternatives, addiction can be construed as a decision to allocate behavior to drug use. While decision making is commonly discussed and studied as if it resulted from deliberative, evaluative processes, such processes are actually only rarely involved in behavior allocation. These deliberative processes are too slow, effortful and inefficient to guide behavior other than when necessary. Rather, most actions are guided by faster, more automatic processes, often labeled habits. Habits are mostly adaptive, and result from repeated reinforcement leading to over-learned behavior. Habitual behavior occurs rapidly in response to particular contexts, and the behavior occurring first is that which occurs, i.e., the behavior that is decided upon. Thus, as drug use becomes habitual, drug use is likely to be chosen over other available activities in that particular context. However, while drug use becoming habitual is necessary for addiction to develop, it is not sufficient. Typically, constraints limit even habitual drug use to safer levels. These constraints might include limiting occasions for use; and, almost always, constraints on amount consumed. However, in a minority of individuals, drug use is not sufficiently constrained and addiction develops. This review discusses the nature of these constraints, and how they might fail. These failures do not result from abnormal learning processes, but rather unfortunate interactions between a person and their environment over time. These accumulate in the maladaptive allocation of behavior to drug use. This Behavior Allocation Disorder (BAD) can be reversed; occasionally easily when the environment significantly changes, but more often by the arduous application of deliberative processes generally absent from decision making. These deliberative processes must continue until new more adaptive habits become the most probable behavior in the contexts encountered
Igor Lins Lemos
Full Text Available Background While several benefits are attributed to the Internet and video games, an important proportion of the population presents symptoms related to possible new technological addictions and there has been little discussion of treatment of problematic technology use. Although demand for knowledge is growing, only a small number of treatments have been described. Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature, to establish Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT as a possible strategy for treating Internet and video game addictions. Method The review was conducted in the following databases: Science Direct on Line, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, BVS and SciELO. The keywords used were: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; therapy; treatment; with association to the terms Internet addiction and video game addiction. Given the scarcity of studies in the field, no restrictions to the minimum period of publication were made, so that articles found until October 2013 were accounted. Results Out of 72 articles found, 23 described CBT as a psychotherapy for Internet and video game addiction. The manuscripts showed the existence of case studies and protocols with satisfactory efficacy. Discussion Despite the novelty of technological dependencies, CBT seems to be applicable and allows an effective treatment for this population.
Full Text Available In many countries of the world there are growing phenomena of uncontrolled staying of a young man in the virtual world. Cyberspace created by new technologies has become a real competitor to the elements of the so called traditional world, replacing landline phone and the post, radio, television, print media and books. In recent years, there have been more and more talks about new addictions that are associated with development of modern civilization as well as changing mores. In the publication by Timothy Gray and Aaron Kelly arise questions: "When was the last time you left a house without a phone?", "Can you survive a week without a phone, a day, an hour?" "Can you ever make do without a phone?" (1. Probably the vast majority of us would answer negatively. It is worth to add to these questions one more: "Where is the border line between a reasonable use of a phone and phone dependence?"
Fanello, Serge; Daoud, Sidi; Panici, Jean Yves; Parot, Elsa; Hitoto, Hicombo; Garnier, François
This study of a cohort of drug addicts receiving buprenorphine maintenance treatment in a district in western France focused on changes in their drug use and their social and work lives. It also looked at the health consequences of their drug use before and after maintenance treatment (mean: four years). From the files of an agency providing services to drug addicts, we randomly selected 180 of the 236 patients receiving buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT). Usable questionnaires were returned by 118 subjects (66% response rate). This self-administered questionnaire included 32 items. The respondents accounted for half the population receiving drug maintenance treatment and were representative of the population for age and sex. The mean age was 30 +/- 5 years, mean BMT dose 6,5 mg/day, and mean duration of drug maintenance treatment 47 +/- 27 months. Other drug use diminished during the four years of maintenance treatment: three of every four heroin users had stopped, opiate users dropped from 31% to 5% of the population, and cocaine use followed a similar trend. Benzodiazepine use also fell, but remained relatively frequent (27%, compared with 68% four years earlier). Drinking patterns changed from strongly alcoholic beverages to lower-proof drinks. Arrest rates dropped from 70% to 25%. The percentage of persons seropositive for HIV (4%) and HCV (33%) remained low, but too many subjects had not been screened (35%). Roughly 10% of these subjects had returned to work, mainly those who had cut their drug use most. While our survey reveals some positive points, especially a reduction in illegal drug use, several negative observations appeared, including combined use of cannabis and benzodiazepines, inadequate screening, and misuse of BMD. These results underline how important it is for care providers to focus simultaneously on medical treatment and identification of co-morbidities and to provide social work when necessary. The employment rate remains too low.
Wéry, Aline; Vogelaere, Kim; Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Poudat, François-Xavier; Caillon, Julie; Lever, Delphine; Billieux, Joël; Grall-Bronnec, Marie
Background and aims Research on sexual addiction flourished during the last decade, promoted by the development of an increased number of online sexual activities. Despite the accumulation of studies, however, evidence collected in clinical samples of treatment-seeking people remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics (socio-demographics, sexual habits, and comorbidities) of self-identified "sexual addicts." Methods The sample was composed of 72 patients who consulted an outpatient treatment center regarding their sexual behaviors. Data were collected through a combination of structured interviewing and self-report measures. Results Most patients were males (94.4%) aged 20-76 years (mean 40.3 ± 10.9). Endorsement of sexual addiction diagnosis varied from 56.9% to 95.8% depending on the criteria used. The sexual behaviors reported to have the highest degree of functional impairment were having multiple sexual partners (56%), having unprotected sexual intercourse (51.9%), and using cybersex (43.6%). Ninety percent of patients endorsed a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis, and 60.6% presented at least one paraphilia. Conclusions Results showed highly different profiles in terms of sexual preferences and behaviors, as well as comorbidities involved. These findings highlight the need to develop tailored psychotherapeutic interventions by taking into account the complexity and heterogeneity of the disorder.
Deleuze, Jory; Lucien Rochat, Lucien Rochat; Lucia Romo, Lucia Romo; Linden, Martial Van; Sophia Achab, Sophia Achab; Gabriel Thorens, Gabriel Thorens; Yasser Khazaal, Yasser Khazaal; Daniele Zullino, Daniele Zullino; Pierre Maurage, Pierre Maurage; Stéphane Rothen, Stéphane Rothen; Joël Billieux, Joël Billieux
While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred se...
Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J
Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and
W. Miles Cox
Full Text Available Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance. People who are at such risk are likely to choose to use addictive substances even though doing so entails negative consequences. In the sense of complete freedom from being determined by causal factors, we believe that there is no such thing as free will, but defined as ability to make choices from among multiple options, even though the choices are ultimately governed by natural processes, addicted individuals are free to choose. Although they might appear unable to exercise this kind of free will in decisions about their substance use, addictive behaviors are ultimately always goal-directed and voluntary. Such goal pursuits manifest considerable flexibility. Even some severely addicted individuals can cease their use when the value of continuing the use abruptly declines or when the subjective cost of continuing the use is too great with respect to the incentives in other areas of their lives. Formal treatment strategies (e.g., contingency management, Systematic Motivational Counseling, cognitive training can also be used to facilitate this reversal.
Cox, W Miles; Klinger, Eric; Fadardi, Javad Salehi
Certain people are at risk for using alcohol or other drugs excessively and for developing problems with their use. Their susceptibility might arise from a variety of factors, including their genetic make-up, brain chemistry, family background, personality and other psychological variables, and environmental and sociocultural variables. Moreover, after substance use has become established, there are additional cognitive-motivational variables (e.g., substance-related attentional bias) that contribute to enacting behaviors consistent with the person's motivation to acquire and use the substance. People who are at such risk are likely to choose to use addictive substances even though doing so entails negative consequences. In the sense of complete freedom from being determined by causal factors, we believe that there is no such thing as free will, but defined as ability to make choices from among multiple options, even though the choices are ultimately governed by natural processes, addicted individuals are free to choose. Although they might appear unable to exercise this kind of free will in decisions about their substance use, addictive behaviors are ultimately always goal-directed and voluntary. Such goal pursuits manifest considerable flexibility. Even some severely addicted individuals can cease their use when the value of continuing the use abruptly declines or when the subjective cost of continuing the use is too great with respect to the incentives in other areas of their lives. Formal treatment strategies (e.g., contingency management, Systematic Motivational Counseling, cognitive training) can also be used to facilitate this reversal.
Roller, Cyndi Gale
Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is a pattern of sexual behaviors that cause distress and/or impairment of social functioning. It is marked by obsessive thoughts, compulsive behaviors, and the individual's inability to stop the behaviors despite negative consequences. Women experiencing sexually compulsive/addictive behavior are preoccupied with sex not as a response to desire but rather as a behavior that serves the purpose of anxiety reduction. Sexually compulsive/addictive behavior is associated with a number of health consequences, including sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies, abortions, and violence. It is important for providers to have an understanding of the addiction process, assessment, diagnosis, and interventions for these women.
Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Colman, Ian; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C.; Patten, Scott B.; Schopflocher, Don; Wolfe, Jody; Wild, T. Cameron
Background: Recently, the concept of addiction has expanded to include many types of problematic repetitive behaviors beyond those related to substance misuse. This trend may have implications for the way lay people think about addictions and persons struggling with addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of how the public understands a variety of substance-related and behavioral addictions. Methods: A representative sample of 4,000 individuals from...
Full Text Available While few studies have applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to smoking addiction, existing work suggests that the intervention holds promise for altering the complex system by which environmental cues interact with cravings to drive behavior. Imaging and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS studies suggest that increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activation and integrity may be associated with increased resistance to smoking cues. Anodal tDCS of the DLPFC, believed to boost activation, reduces cravings in response to these cues. The finding that noninvasive stimulation modifies cue induced cravings has profound implications for understanding the processes underlying addiction and relapse. TDCS can also be applied to probe mechanisms underlying and supporting nicotine addiction, as was done in a pharmacologic study that applied nicotine, tDCS, and TMS paired associative stimulation to find that stopping nicotine after chronic use induces a reduction in plasticity, causing difficulty in breaking free from association between cues and cravings. This mini-review will place studies that apply tDCS to smokers in the context of research involving the neural substrates of nicotine addiction.
Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Colman, Ian; el-Guebaly, Nady; Hodgins, David C; Patten, Scott B; Schopflocher, Don; Wolfe, Jody; Wild, T Cameron
Recently, the concept of addiction has expanded to include many types of problematic repetitive behaviors beyond those related to substance misuse. This trend may have implications for the way that lay people think about addictions and about people struggling with addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of how the public understands a variety of substance-related and behavioral addictions. A representative sample of 4000 individuals from Alberta, Canada completed an online survey. Participants were randomly assigned to answer questions about perceived addiction liability, etiology, and prevalence of problems with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (problematic gambling, eating, shopping, sexual behavior, video gaming, and work). Bivariate analyses revealed that respondents considered substances to have greater addiction liability than behaviors and that most risk factors (moral, biological, or psychosocial) were considered as more important in the etiology of behavioral versus substance addictions. A discriminant function analysis demonstrated that perceived addiction liability and character flaws were the two most important features differentiating judgments of substance-related versus behavioral addictions. Perceived addiction liability was judged to be greater for substances. Conversely, character flaws were viewed as more associated with behavioral addictions. The general public appreciates the complex bio-psycho-social etiology underlying addictions, but perceives substance-related and behavioral addictions differently. These attitudes, in turn, may shape a variety of important outcomes, including the extent to which people believed to manifest behavioral addictions feel stigmatized, seek treatment, or initiate behavior changes on their own. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irene Lai Kuen Wong
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. Methods A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12–15 years (mean age = 13.6 years were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young’s (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998 criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Results Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 % could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %. The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. Conclusions The study results throw light on prevention programs.
Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; Lam, Millicent Pui Sze
Game playing is very popular among Hong Kong teenagers. This study aimed to investigate adolescent gaming behavior and addiction at the Internet cafe, and to explore perceived benefits and harms associated with the activity. A convenient sample of 13 male high school students aged 12-15 years (mean age = 13.6 years) were interviewed at two Internet cafes. Young's (Caught in the net, Wiley, New York, 1998) criteria of Internet addiction were modified to assess gaming addiction. Internet cafes were described as a safe and ideal rendezvous for gamers. The benefits of gaming included fun and satisfaction, fostering social support and teamwork, meeting new friends and becoming sociable, boosting cognitive techniques and intellectual agility, improved responsiveness and quick thinking. Perceived harms of gaming addiction were reduced time and interest in other important activities, poor academic performance, physical harms and emotional distress, disrupted friendship with non-gaming peers, risked family relationship and financial problems. Five interviewees (38.5 %) could be categorized as pathological gamers and two were problem gamers (15.4 %). The psychological factors associated with gaming addiction include low self-esteem, a strong desire for aggressive and exciting experiences, reliance on gaming to kill time and to obtain satisfaction, coping with problems and negative emotions, and obsession with achieving higher rankings in games. The social and environmental risk factors are accessibility to the Internet cafés, aggressive promotional activities at the Internet cafes, peer pressure, family influence and early gaming experiences, perceived parental approval, lack of parental supervision, and poor family relationship. The study results throw light on prevention programs.
Deleuze, J.; Rochat, L.; Romo, L.; Van der Linden, M.; Thorens, G.; Khazaal, Y.; Rothen, S.; Achab, S.; Billieux, J.
Chemical and behavioral addictions are highly prevalent in our societies. Nevertheless, studies investigating a large panel of addictive behaviors in a community sample are lacking from the current literature on the topic. The aim of the current study is to explore addictive behaviors prevalence, characteristics, and interrelations in a sample of French speaking adults from the general population. Both substances (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, drugs) and behaviors (gambling, Internet, buying, s...
Criscitelli, Kristen; Avena, Nicole M
Both cigarette smoking and obesity are significant public health concerns and are associated with increased risk of early mortality. It is well established that the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is an important component of the reward system within the brain and is implicated in the development of addiction. Indeed, nicotine and highly palatable foods are capable of altering dopamine release within this system, engendering addictive like responses in susceptible individuals. Although additional research is warranted, findings from animal and human literature have elucidated many of neuroadaptions that occur from exposure to nicotine and highly palatable foods, leading to a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms contributing to these aberrant behaviors. In this review we present the findings taken from preclinical and clinical literature of the known effects of exposure to nicotine and highly palatable foods on the reward related circuitry within the brain. Further, we compare the neurobiological and behavioral overlaps between nicotine, highly palatable foods and obesity. Lastly, we examine the stigma associated with smoking, obesity and food addiction, and the consequences stigma has on the overall health and wellbeing of an individual. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Vassoler, F M; Sadri-Vakili, G
Genetic factors are implicated in the heritability of drug abuse. However, even with advances in current technology no specific genes have been identified that are critical for the transmission of drug-induced phenotypes to subsequent generations. It is now evident that epigenetic factors contribute to disease heritability and represent a link between genes and the environment. Recently, epigenetic mechanisms have been shown to underlie drug-induced structural, synaptic, and behavioral plasticity by coordinating the expression of gene networks within the brain. Therefore, the epigenome provides a direct mechanism for drugs of abuse to influence the genetic events involved in the development of addiction as well as its heritability to subsequent generations. In this review we discuss the mechanisms underlying intergenerational epigenetic transmission, highlight studies that demonstrate this phenomenon with particular attention to the field of addiction, and identify gaps for future studies. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sandhu, Daya Singh
The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…
Deleuze, Jory; Rochat, Lucien; Romo, Lucia; Van der Linden, Martial; Achab, Sophia; Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Maurage, Pierre; Rothen, Stéphane; Billieux, Joël
While addictions to substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs have been extensively investigated, interest has been growing in potential non-substance-related addictive behaviors (e.g., excessive gambling, buying or playing video games). In the current study, we sought to determine the prevalence and characteristics of a wide range of addictive behaviors in a general population sample and to identify reliable subgroups of individuals displaying addictive behaviors. Seven hundred seventy participants completed an online survey. The survey screened for the presence and characteristics of the main recognized substance and behavioral addictions (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other drugs, gambling, compulsive shopping, intensive exercise, Internet and mobile phone overuse, intensive work involvement, and overeating) in a three-month period. Key aspects of addiction were measured for each reported behavior, including negative outcomes, emotional triggers (positive and negative emotional contexts), search for stimulation or pleasure, loss of control, and cognitive salience. Latent class analysis allowed us to identify three theoretically and clinically relevant subgroups of individuals. The first class groups problematic users, i.e., addiction-prone individuals. The second class groups at-risk users who frequently engage in potentially addictive behaviors to regulate emotional states (especially overinvolvement in common behaviors such as eating, working, or buying). The third class groups individuals who are not prone to addictive behaviors. The existence of different groups in the population sheds new light on the distinction between problematic and non-problematic addiction-like behaviors.
Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Fernández-Fernández, Roberto; Colino, Laura; Fajardo, Lourdes; Perteguer-Barrio, Rosa; de Leon, Jose
Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, Internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse). Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors. This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches in PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and "major repeaters." Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts) represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as "addictions," and the putative mechanisms underlying them. Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual's self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.
Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse. Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behavior (SB can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors.Method: This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches on PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and major repeaters. Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype, and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. Results: The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as addictions, and the putative mechanisms underlying them.Conclusion: Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual’s self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.
Estroff, T W; Schwartz, R H; Hoffmann, N G
Four hundred seventy-nine drug abusing adolescent patients enrolled in seven Straight, Inc. Adolescent Drug-Abuse Treatment Programs in five geographic regions across the United States were studied to determine the severity and patterns of cocaine abuse. Of these, 341 admitted to cocaine use and became part of this survey. Cocaine use was categorized as heavy, intermediate, or light. Areas examined were the addictive spectrum, psychosocial dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms. Intermediate and heavy users of cocaine abused significantly less marijuana and inhalants than light cocaine abusers. Heavy and intermediate users were more likely to use cocaine intravenously and to use crack. They developed tachyphylaxis more frequently, progressed to weekly use in less than 3 months more frequently, and became preoccupied with obtaining and using cocaine significantly more frequently. They used more sedative hypnotics to calm themselves and engaged in more criminal behavior, such as stealing from parents and stores and passing bad checks. They had more arrests for possession of drugs, stole more cars, sold more drugs, and were more likely to trade sexual favors to obtain the drug. Heavy and intermediate users were significantly more psychiatrically disturbed than light users, becoming more suspicious, nervous, aggressive, and demonstrating increased symptoms of fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, and increasing cocaine dysphoria. All of these symptoms could be mistaken for psychiatric disorders. This study suggests that cocaine is as addictive in adolescents as in adults; possibly more so. It also causes psychosocial dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms. Further research into cocaine addiction among adolescents is indicated.
Triffaux, J-M; Desert, J-B; Lakaye, A
The speed of development of new technologies of information and communication (I.C.T.) modified the mode of our intersubjective relations leading certain individuals to develop new forms of behavioral dependence. If the majority of the users consume the Internet with moderation, 1 to 2% of the general population would suffer from "problematic use of the Internet" and /or of "lnternet addiction". These figures are to be taken with caution because of the lack of reliable epidemiologic data. If, beside the classical forms of addictions to the psychoactive substances, the concept of "addictions without drugs" is more and more the subject of scientific works, it is appropriate, however, not to call pathological all these new behaviours. We will approach in this article the clinical reality related to the problematic or abusive use of new technologies with or without the Internet. We will then describe the possible therapeutic approaches that is ambulatory or in the form of day-hospitalization. Lastly, we will conclude with some recommendations to the attention of the relatives or the close friends.
Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Berenguer-Elias, Nuria; Garcia-Vega, Juan Manuel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Monica; Rodriguez-Lomas, Cesar; Gonzalez-Villalobos, Isabel; Iruela-Cuadrado, Luis; de Leon, José
The literature provides support for the hypothesis that some major repeaters (individuals with >=5 lifetime suicide attempts) are addicted to suicidal behavior (SB). This study explores whether major repeaters are addicted to SB or not using 7 criteria: tolerance (Criterion 1), withdrawal (Criterion 2), loss of control (Criterion 3), problems in quitting/cutting down (Criterion 4), much time spent using (Criterion 5), substantial reduction in activities (Criterion 6), and adverse physiological/physical consequences (Criterion 7). Total dependence on SB was indicated by the presence of 3 or more of the 7 criteria in the last 12 months. This cross-sectional study at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital (Madrid, Spain) recruited 118 suicide attempters including 8 major repeaters (7%, 8/118), who were all females. The association between each SB addiction criterion, physiological dependence and total dependence with major repeater status was tested for significance and for effect size with odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. As hypothesized, major repeaters met significantly higher frequency of criteria for total dependence on SB, OR=62.9 (6.4-615). A backward stepwise logistic regression model was used to provide an OR between major repeater status and total dependence status corrected by confounding variables. Age, panic disorder without agoraphobia, borderline personality disorder, history of psychiatric inpatient admission, and total dependence on SB were introduced as independent variables with major repeater status as the dependent variable. The model selected total dependence and age as the remaining significant variables in the last step. Accordingly, major repeaters appear to be addicted to SB.
Full Text Available The administration of dopaminergic medication to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders. Little is known, however, on how PD patients differ from other patients seeking treatments for behavioral addictions. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of behavioral addiction patients with and without PD. N = 2,460 treatment-seeking men diagnosed with a behavioral addiction were recruited from a university hospital. Sociodemographic, impulsivity [Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11], and personality [Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R] measures were taken upon admission to outpatient treatment. Patients in the PD group were older and had a higher prevalence of mood disorders than patients without PD. In terms of personality characteristics and impulsivity traits, PD patients appeared to present a more functional profile than PD-free patients with a behavioral addiction. Our results suggest that PD patients with a behavioral addiction could be more difficult to detect than their PD-free counterparts in behavioral addiction clinical setting due to their reduced levels of impulsivity and more standard personality traits. As a whole, this suggests that PD patients with a behavioral addiction may have different needs from PD-free behavioral addiction patients and that they could potentially benefit from targeted interventions.
Han, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia
Our recent results suggest that cannabinoid exposure induces conditioned place preference (CPP) through facilitated induction of synaptic long-term depression at dopamine circuitry of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we show that chronic nicotine exposure also induces CPP, but facilitates the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation in the VTA. Coadministration of cannabinoid and nicotine leads to a blockade of facilitated long-term depression and long-term potentiation induction in these neurons and elimination of CPP. These findings point to counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior through opposite changes in synaptic plasticity of dopamine circuitry of the VTA.
Merims, Doron; Giladi, Nir
Degeneration of the dopaminergic system in Parkinson's disease and longstanding exposure to dopaminergic drugs may cause reward system malfunction. This may manifest as addiction to l-dopa and behavioral disturbances associated with the impulse control system. These disturbances include: gambling, excessive spending (shopping), hypersexuality and binge eating. We included one such patient's personal story to emphasize the devastating consequences of these potentially reversible phenomena: the patient describes in his own words how gambling induced by an exposure dopamine agonist therapy significantly worsened his disease-related difficulties.
Miller, Kimberly A; Piombo, Sarah E; Cho, Junhan; Higgins, Shauna; Wysong, Ashley; Sussman, Steve; Cockburn, Myles G; Leventhal, Adam M
Evidence indicates that tanning may be addictive and is associated with other behavioral health conditions. Few studies have examined tanning addiction among adolescents. We performed a cross-sectional study to explore the relationship between tanning addiction, substance use, and psychological conditions among ethnoracially diverse 16-17 year-olds. Tanning addiction was assessed using the modified (m) CAGE measure among 11 th grade students in Los Angeles (N=2,637; response rate 78%). Overall, 7.02% of the sample met tanning addiction criteria. Tanning addiction was significantly associated with past 30-day smoking and marijuana use, problem substance use, depression, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and bipolar disorder in regression models. After controlling for all significant substance use and psychological variables, problem marijuana use and OCD remained significantly associated with tanning addiction (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.09; and 2.54, 1.73-3.72, respectively.) Tanning addiction was also significantly associated with multiple problem substance use and behavioral health conditions. Our findings indicate an appreciable prevalence of tanning addiction among multiethnic adolescents, and suggest the importance of addressing tanning addiction in the context of comorbid behavioral conditions to reduce this high-risk behavior among diverse youth. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary
Development of new treatments for drug addiction will depend on high-throughput screening in animal models. However, an addiction biomarker fit for rapid testing, and useful in both humans and animals, is not currently available. Economic models are promising candidates. They offer a structured quantitative approach to modeling behavior that is mathematically identical across species, and accruing evidence indicates economic-based descriptors of human behavior may be particularly useful biomarkers of addiction severity. However, economic demand has not yet been established as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in animals, an essential final step in linking animal and human studies of addiction through economic models. We recently developed a mathematical approach for rapidly modeling economic demand in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. We show here that economic demand, as both a spontaneous trait and induced state, predicts addiction-like behavior, including relapse propensity, drug seeking in abstinence, and compulsive (punished) drug taking. These findings confirm economic demand as a biomarker of addiction-like behavior in rats. They also support the view that excessive motivation plays an important role in addiction while extending the idea that drug dependence represents a shift from initially recreational to compulsive drug use. Finally, we found that economic demand for cocaine predicted the efficacy of a promising pharmacotherapy (oxytocin) in attenuating cocaine-seeking behaviors across individuals, demonstrating that economic measures may be used to rapidly identify the clinical utility of prospective addiction treatments. PMID:25071176
Lingford-Hughes, A R; Davies, S J C; McIver, S; Williams, T M; Daglish, M R C; Nutt, D J
Alcohol and psycho-active substance misuse has far-reaching social, psychological and physical consequences. Advances in neuroimaging technology have allowed neurobiological theories of addiction to become better characterized. We describe the neurobiology of dependence, withdrawal, abstinence and craving states in alcohol, stimulant and opiate misuse. Structural neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI with new analytical approaches such as voxel-based morphometry have shown wide-spread changes in stimulant and opiate abuse and atrophy, particularly in the frontal lobes, in alcoholism. Functional neuroimaging techniques such as PET, SPECT and fMRI reveal altered regional cerebral activity by all drugs of abuse. The neurochemistry of addiction, particularly involving dopamine, serotonin, opiate and GABA, has been studied with PET and SPECT and similarities between all drugs of abuse have been found such as reduced dopaminergic markers. The evidence derived from these advances in neuroimaging is likely to herald the emergence of new biological treatments in this important field.
Müller, K W; Dreier, M; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K
Sensation Seeking has repeatedly been related to substance use. Also, its role as a correlate of Gambling Disorder has been discussed although research has led to heterogeneous results. Likewise, first studies on Internet Addiction have indicated increased Sensation Seeking, to some extent contradicting clinical impression of patients suffering from internet addiction. We assessed Sensation Seeking in a clinical sample of n=251 patients with Gambling Disorder, n=243 patients with internet addiction, n=103 clients with excessive but not addictive internet use, and n=142 healthy controls. The clinical groups were further sub-divided according to the preferred type of addictive behavior (slot-machine gambling vs. high arousal gambling activities and internet gaming disorder vs. other internet-related addictive behaviors). Decreased scores in some subscales of Sensation Seeking were found among male patients compared to healthy controls with no differences between patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction. The type of preferred gambling or online activity was not related to differences in Sensation Seeking. Previous findings indicating only small associations between Sensation Seeking and Gambling Disorder were confirmed. Regarding Internet Addiction our results contradict findings from non-clinical samples. Sensation Seeking might be relevant in initiating contact to the health care system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Plants produce a diversity of secondary metabolites (PSMs that serve as defense compounds against herbivores and microorganisms. In addition, some PSMs attract animals for pollination and seed dispersal. In case of pollinating insects, PSMs with colors or terpenoids with fragrant odors attract pollinators in the first place, but when they arrive at a flower, they are rewarded with nectar, so that the pollinators do not feed on flowers. In order to be effective as defense chemicals, PSMs evolved as bioactive substances, that can interfere with a large number of molecular targets in cells, tissues and organs of animals or of microbes. The known functions of PSMs are summarized in this review. A number of PSMs evolved as agonists or antagonists of neuronal signal transduction. Many of these PSMs are alkaloids. Several of them share structural similarities to neurotransmitters. Evidence for neuroactive and psychoactive PSMs in animals will be reviewed. Some of the neuroactive PSMs can cause addiction in humans and other vertrebrates. Why should a defense compound be addictive and thus attract more herbivores? Some insects are food specialists that can feed on plants that are normally toxic to other herbivores. These specialists can tolerate the toxins and many are stored in the insect body as acquired defense chemicals against predators. A special case are pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs that are neurotoxic and mutagenic in vertebrates. PAs are actively sequestered by moths of the family Arctiidae and a few other groups of arthropods. In arctiids, PAs are not only used for defense, but also serve as morphogens for the induction of male coremata and as precursors for male pheromones. Caterpillars even feed on filter paper impregnated with pure PAs (that modulate serotonin receptors in vertebrates and maybe even in insects and thus show of behavior with has similarities to addiction in vertebrates. Not only PA specialists, but also many monophagous
Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R
Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885
Marilyn E. Carroll
Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.
Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.
Marco Di Nicola
Full Text Available BackgroundThe aims of the study were to assess prevalence and gender differences of addictive behaviors (substance- and non-substance-related in an adolescent population, and their association with psychopathological features and academic performance.Material and methodsA sample of high school Italian students (n = 996; M = 240, F = 756 was examined using a self-report survey concerning sociodemographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, alcohol and substance use, perceived academic performance, activities, and behaviors (Internet use, gambling, and physical exercising. The Internet Addiction Test, the South Oaks Gambling Screen-revised Adolescent, and the Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form were administered to identify problematic behaviors. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for Adolescent, the Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale, the Dissociative Experience Scale for Adolescent, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used to investigate psychopathological dimensions.ResultsFrequent alcohol intake and lifetime substances consumption were more common among males. The occurrence of other addictive behaviors was 22.1% for problematic Internet use (M = F, 9.7% for at-risk/problematic gambling (M > F, and 6.2% for maladaptive physical exercise (M = F. We also found an association between substance-/non-substance-related addictive behaviors and psychopathological dimensions. Addictive behaviors were more frequent among students reporting poor school performance.ConclusionOur study showed a relevant prevalence of addictive behaviors in a sample of Italian high school students, with specific gender differences. We underlined the cooccurrence of substance and non-substance-related addictive behaviors, and their association with worse school performance. Dissociative proneness, anhedonia, alexithymia, and impulsivity were associated with addictive behaviors in adolescents and might represent vulnerability factors for the
Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Perney, Pascal; Ursic-Bedoya, José; Faure, Stéphanie; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe
Liver transplantation (LT) is the gold standard treatment for end-stage liver disease. Whatever the primary indication of LT, substance abuse after surgery may decrease survival rates and quality of life. Prevalence of severe alcohol relapse is between 11 and 26%, and reduces life expectancy regardless of the primary indication of LT. Many patients on waiting lists for LT are smokers and this is a major risk factor for both malignant tumors and cardiovascular events post-surgery. The aim of this review is to describe psychoactive substance consumption after LT, and to assess the impact on liver transplant recipients. This review describes data about alcohol and illicit drug use by transplant recipients and suggests guidelines for behavior management after surgery. The presence of an addiction specialist in a LT team seems to be very important.
Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Perney, Pascal; Ursic-Bedoya, José; Faure, Stéphanie; Pageaux, Georges-Philippe
Liver transplantation (LT) is the gold standard treatment for end-stage liver disease. Whatever the primary indication of LT, substance abuse after surgery may decrease survival rates and quality of life. Prevalence of severe alcohol relapse is between 11 and 26%, and reduces life expectancy regardless of the primary indication of LT. Many patients on waiting lists for LT are smokers and this is a major risk factor for both malignant tumors and cardiovascular events post-surgery. The aim of this review is to describe psychoactive substance consumption after LT, and to assess the impact on liver transplant recipients. This review describes data about alcohol and illicit drug use by transplant recipients and suggests guidelines for behavior management after surgery. The presence of an addiction specialist in a LT team seems to be very important. PMID:28839515
Full Text Available The expanding knowledge about psychology of addictive adolescents allows to develop innovative strategies and to set new accents in prevention activity among students. Now it is reinforcing the trend of individual preventive work, which is differentiated for ages and stages of the educational process. Such work is most relevant to group of risk for involvement –namely, for students, changing living environment, - who are at the first semester of college. Here is an overview of science concepts of individual preventive engagement, primarily in alcoholism, based on recovery of the spiritual realm, psychological well-being, spiritual potential of any age. On the example of concepts about cognitive behavioral strategies and risks of failure it is shown their potential effectiveness for the monitoring of chemical dependence among adolescents.
Menecier, Pascal; Rotheval, Loetita
Acute alcohol intoxication occurs in elderly subjects. Drunkenness appears in banal clinical forms in geriatrics: falls, dizziness or confusion. Elderly people are more vulnerable to alcohol and need less alcohol to become intoxicated. Age does not exclude the possibility of receiving alcohol addiction treatment. Broaching the subject with an elderly person, the day after a drunken episode, is useful and recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.
The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...
Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I
To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.
In American criminal law, actus non facit reum, nisi mens sit rea, "an act does not make one guilty, without a guilty mind." Both actus reus and mens rea are required to justify criminal liability. The Model Penal Code's (MPC) section on culpability has been especially influential on mens rea analysis. An issue of increasing importance in this realm arises when an offensive act is committed while the actor is under the influence of drugs. Several legal doctrines address the effect of intoxication on mental state, including the MPC, limiting or eliminating its relevance to the mens rea analysis. Yet these doctrines do not differentiate between intoxication and addiction. Neuroscience research reveals that drug addiction results in catastrophic damage to the brain resulting in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Methamphetamine addiction is of particular interest to criminal law because it causes extensive neural destruction and is associated with impulsive behavior, violent crime, and psychosis. Furthermore, research has revealed important distinctions between the effects of acute intoxication and addiction. These findings have implications for the broader doctrine of mens rea and, specifically, the intoxication doctrines. This Note argues for the adoption of an addiction doctrine that acknowledges the effect of addiction on mens rea that is distinct from doctrines of intoxication.
Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Byuk; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yun Sook; Kim, Jung-Hyun
We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students' levels of Internet...
Jiang, Qiaolei; Huang, Xiuqin; Tao, Ran
In China, public concern continues to mount regarding the risks of excessive Internet use among adolescents. This study investigated the factors influencing Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. Proposing a conceptual model with a theoretical origin in risk behavior theory and media dependency theory, this study examined the influence of personality traits, online gaming, Internet connectedness (both the overall index and various scopes), and demographics on Internet addiction and risk behaviors (smoking, drinking, gambling, and risky sexual behaviors). Clinical data (N = 467) were retrieved from one of the earliest and largest Internet addiction clinics in China. The findings reveal that certain personality traits are significantly associated with Internet addiction and risk behaviors. Online gaming had a strong impact on both Internet addiction and risk behaviors among excessive Internet users. The study also reveals that various scopes of Internet connectedness, such as site scope, facilitate addictive Internet use, and risk behaviors among adolescents. The findings can contribute to the prevention of and intervention into Internet addiction and adolescent risk behaviors.
Kuss, Daria J; Louws, Jorik; Wiers, Reinout W
Recently, there have been growing concerns about excessive online gaming. Playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) appears to be particularly problematic, because these games require a high degree of commitment and time investment from the players to the detriment of occupational, social, and other recreational activities and relations. A number of gaming motives have been linked to excessive online gaming in adolescents and young adults. We assessed 175 current MMORPG players and 90 nonplayers using a Web-based questionnaire regarding their gaming behavior, problems as consequences of gaming, and game motivations and tested their statistical associations. Results indicated that (a) MMORPG players are significantly more likely to experience gaming-related problems relative to nonplayers, and that (b) the gaming motivations escapism and mechanics significantly predicted excessive gaming and appeared as stronger predictors than time investment in game. The findings support the necessity of using measures that distinguish between different types of online games. In addition, this study proves useful regarding the current discussion on establishing (online) gaming addiction as a diagnosis in future categorizations of psychopathology.
Dong, Guangheng; Hu, Yanbo; Lin, Xiao
Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has raised widespread public health concerns. In this study, we used a gambling task to simulate extreme win/lose situations to find the reward/punishment sensitivities after continuous wins and losses. FMRI data were collected from 16 IAD subjects (21.4±3.1years) and 15 healthy controls (HC, 22.1±3.6years). Group comparisons showed higher superior frontal gyrus activations after continuous wins for IAD subjects than for HC. The brain activities in IAD subjects were not disturbed by their losses. In addition, IAD participants showed decreased posterior cingulate activation compared to HC after continuous losses. These results indicated that IAD participants showed preference to win while neglecting their losses. Therefore they engaged less executive endeavor to control their frustration after continuous losses. Taken together, we concluded that IAD subjects showed enhanced sensitivity to win and decreased sensitivity to lose. This can help us understand why IAD subjects continue playing online even after noticing the severe negative consequences of their behaviors. © 2013.
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia
Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.
Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, David A; Heninger, George R; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this article is to provide a perspective on the relationship between gambling behaviors and substance use disorders, review the data regarding health associations and screening and treatment options for problem and pathological gambling, and suggest a role for generalist physicians in assessing problem and pathological gambling. A rationale for conceptualization of pathological gambling as an addictive disorder and a model proposing stress as a possible mediating factor in the relationship between gambling and health status are presented. More research is needed to investigate directly the biological and health correlates associated with specific types of gambling behaviors and to define the role for generalist physicians in the prevention and treatment of problem and pathological gambling.
Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C
In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
van Rooij, Antonius J.; Zinn, Mieke F.; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; van de Mheen, Dike
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program ("Lifestyle Training") to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates this pilot treatment program by providing…
Hall, Alex S.; Parsons, Jeffrey
Internet Behavior Dependence (IBD), a form of Internet addiction, is a new disorder requiring informed response from addictions clinicians such as mental health counselors. Presents a working definition for IBD, overviews the prevalence rates and demographic profiles of dependent users, and reviews assessment criteria and treatment for IBD.…
Rooij, A.J. van; Zinn, M.F.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de
In 2009, one of the major Dutch addiction care organizations initiated a pilot program to explore the possibility of using an existing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Motivational Interviewing based treatment program (‘Lifestyle Training’) to treat internet addiction. The current study evaluates
Linskiy, Igor V; Minko, Aleksandr I; Artemchuk, Anatoliy Ph; Grinevich, Eugenia G; Markova, Marianna V; Musienko, Georgiy A; Shalashov, Valeriy V; Markozova, Lyubov M; Samoilova, Elena S; Kuzminov, Valeriy N; Shalashova, Ilona V; Ponomarev, Vladimir I; Baranenko, Aleksey V; Minko, Aleksey A; Goltsova, Svetlana V; Sergienko, Oksana V; Linskaya, Ekaterina I; Vyglazova, Olga V; Zhabenko, Nataliya; Zhabenko, Olena
The AUDIT-like tests system was created for complex assessment and evaluation of the addictive status of adolescents in a Ukrainian population. The AUDIT-like tests system has been created from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) developed by the World Health Organization. The AUDIT-like tests were minimally modified from the original AUDIT. Attention was brought to similarities between stages of different addictions (TV, computer games, the Internet, etc.) and alcohol addiction. Seventeen AUDIT-like tests were created to detect the different types of chemical and non-chemical addictions.
Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by the compulsive desire to use drugs and a loss of control over consumption. Cannabidiol (CBD, the second most abundant component of cannabis, is thought to modulate various neuronal circuits involved in drug addiction. The goal of this systematic review is to summarize the available preclinical and clinical data on the impact of CBD on addictive behaviors. MEDLINE and PubMed were searched for English and French language articles published before 2015. In all, 14 studies were found, 9 of which were conducted on animals and the remaining 5 on humans. A limited number of preclinical studies suggest that CBD may have therapeutic properties on opioid, cocaine, and psychostimulant addiction, and some preliminary data suggest that it may be beneficial in cannabis and tobacco addiction in humans. Further studies are clearly necessary to fully evaluate the potential of CBD as an intervention for addictive disorders.
Burkett, James P; Young, Larry J
Love has long been referred to as an addiction in literature and poetry. Scientists have often made comparisons between social attachment processes and drug addiction, and it has been suggested that the two may share a common neurobiological mechanism. Brain systems that evolved to govern attachments between parents and children and between monogamous partners may be the targets of drugs of abuse and serve as the basis for addiction processes. Here, we review research on drug addiction in parallel with research on social attachments, including parent-offspring attachments and social bonds between mating partners. This review focuses on the brain regions and neurochemicals with the greatest overlap between addiction and attachment and, in particular, the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) pathway. Significant overlap exists between these two behavioral processes. In addition to conceptual overlap in symptomatology, there is a strong commonality between the two domains regarding the roles and sites of action of DA, opioids, and corticotropin-releasing factor. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin are hypothesized to integrate social information into attachment processes that is not present in drug addiction. Social attachment may be understood as a behavioral addiction, whereby the subject becomes addicted to another individual and the cues that predict social reward. Understandings from both fields may enlighten future research on addiction and attachment processes.
Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.
Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein
Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents' addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. A sectional and descriptive-analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS) were used for data collection. The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother's literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students ( p =0.009). Concentrating on adolescents' behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents' health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital.
Piquet-Pessôa, Marcelo; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Naltrexone (NTX), a mu-opioid receptor antagonist, has been approved for the treatment of alcoholism and opioid dependence. More recently, however, NTX and a related drug, nalmefene (NMF), have also shown positive results for the treatment of gambling disorders. In this study, we reviewed the trials testing the effect of opioid antagonists (OA) in gambling disorders and in other broadly defined behavioral addictions, including selected DSM-5 disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, eating disorders, and other conditions not currently recognized by official classification schemes. We found six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of OA in gambling disorder, two RCTs of OA in trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), two RCTs of OA in binge eating disorder, and one RCT of OA for kleptomania. We also reviewed case reports on hypersexual disorder, compulsive buying and skin picking disorders. The reviewed data supported the use of OA, namely NTX and NMF, in gambling disorder (both) and kleptomania (NTX). We did not find enough evidence to support the use of NTX or NMF in trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, compulsive buying disorder, hypersexual disorder, or binge eating disorder.
Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344
Vijay Kumar Saini
Full Text Available Context: Internet addiction is less researched entity in developing countries. There has been an explosive growth in the use of internet worldwide including India in the last decade. Aims: To study the relationship of internet addictive behavior with personality characteristics among medical students. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional observational study carried out on 140 medical students. Subjects and Methods: All the students were taken randomly. Assessment of sociodemographic details was done with the help of semi-structured pro forma, and internet addiction test and big five inventory were used to assess internet addictive behavior and personality traits. Statistical Analysis Used: For comparison of dichotomous variables, Chi-square test was used. Correlation and linear regression were applied to see association. Data analysis was done with the help of statistical software SPSS 23. 0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences by IBM Corporation. Results: Mean score of internet addiction scale among medical students was 33.94 (standard deviation 13.592. It was found that higher neuroticism (β =0.242, P = 0.004 and less extroversion (β = −0.210, P = 0.011 displayed significant associations with internet addictive behavior. Conclusions: Neurotic individuals tend to experience increased levels of stress and interpersonal conflict because of this personality trait. Internet addictive behavior was lower on extroversion traits because they are more in social activities, making friend easily, and cheerful.
Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.
Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184
Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.
This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286
Baumeister, Roy F; Vonasch, Andrew J
We apply self-regulation theory to understand addictive behavior. Self-regulation and volition depend on a limited resource, and when that resource has been depleted, self-regulation becomes prone to fail. Moving beyond traditional models that have emphasized the relevance of self-regulation to quitting addiction, we propose that self-regulation is used both to facilitate and resist addictive behaviors. Self-regulation is often needed to overcome initial aversion to drugs and alcohol, as well as to maintain addictive usage patterns despite situational obstacles (e.g., illegality, erratic availability, family disapproval). Sustaining addiction also requires preventing use from spiraling out of control and interfering with other aspects of life. More generally, the automaticity and irresistibility of addictive responses may have been overrated, as indicated by how addictive behaviors respond rationally to incentives and other concerns. Self-regulation does facilitate quitting, and relapse may be especially likely when self-regulatory capabilities are depleted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the behavioral patterns of Internet and drug addiction among urban and rural students in Urmia, Iran. Methods: A sectional and descriptive–analytical approach with stratified sampling method was employed to recruit 385 high school students from urban and rural areas. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS were used for data collection. Results: The total score of Internet addiction among the students was 41.72 ± 17.41. Approximately two-third of the students were not addicted to the Internet. The mean score of the AAS was 1.87 ± 1.23 among boys and 1.75 ± 1.31 among girls. Moreover, 8.31% of the students were prone to abusing substances. A statistically significant relationship was found between mother’s literacy level and Internet addiction behavior of students (p=0.009. Conclusion: Concentrating on adolescents’ behavioral patterns and their tendency toward misusing Internet and drugs is a notable procedure. Therefore, focusing on adolescents’ health and institutionalizing appropriate training programs for adolescents and their families are vital. Keywords: Internet, drug abuse, adolescence, addiction, behavior
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javadinia, Seyed Alireza; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash; Sedghijalal, Homa
Risky sexual behavior (RSB), addiction, and aggression are three important personal and social factors which influence each other. To overview the potential relationship among RSB, addiction, and aggression to conduct an interactive model for the pathology and management of human behavior. This review article was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Ebsco, IEEE, Scopus, Springer, MagIran, and IranMedex databases from the year 1993 to 2013. The search terms were violence, aggression, drug abuse, substance abuse, illicit drug, psychoactive drug, intravenous drug users, addiction and high-risk sexual relationships, unprotected sex, high risk sexual behavior, and sexual risk-taking. In this study, forty-nine studies were accepted for further screening, and met all our inclusion criteria (in English or Persian, full text, and included the search terms). Forty-nine articles were included; 17 out of 26 studies showed a significant correlation between addiction and risky sexual behavior, 15 out of 19 articles indicated a statistically significant correlation between aggression and addiction, and 9 out of 10 articles reported significant correlation between aggression and risky sexual behavior. According to the results, the triangle hypothesis of sex, addiction, and aggression led to the definition of the relationship among the variables of the hypothetical triangle based on the reviewed studies; and the proposed dual and triple relationship based on the conducted literature review was confirmed. This is not a meta-analysis, and there is no analysis of publication bias.
Andrea Maria Franziska Reiter
Full Text Available Addiction shows familial aggregation and previous endophenotype research suggests that healthy relatives of addicted individuals share altered behavioral and cognitive characteristics with individuals suffering from addiction. In this study we asked whether impairments in behavioral control proposed for addiction, namely a shift from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual model-free control, extends toward an unaffected sample (n=20 of adult children of alcohol-dependent fathers as compared to a sample without any personal or family history of alcohol addiction (n=17. Using a sequential decision-making task designed to investigate model-free and model-based control combined with a computational modeling analysis, we did not find any evidence for altered behavioral control in individuals with positive family history of alcohol addiction. Independent of family history of alcohol dependence, we however observed that the interaction of two different risk factors of addiction, namely impulsivity and cognitive capacities, predicts the balance of model-free and model-based behavioral control. Post-hoc tests showed an association of model-based behavior with cognitive capacity in the lower, but not in the higher impulsive group of the original sample. In an independent sample of particularly high vs. low impulsive individuals, we confirmed the interaction effect of cognitive capacities and high vs. low impulsivity on model-based control. In the confirmation sample, a positive association of omega with cognitive capacity was observed in high-impulsive individuals. Due to the moderate sample size of the study, further investigation of the association of risk factors for addiction with model-based behavior in larger sample sizes is warranted.
Reiter, Andrea M. F.; Deserno, Lorenz; Wilbertz, Tilmann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian
Addiction shows familial aggregation and previous endophenotype research suggests that healthy relatives of addicted individuals share altered behavioral and cognitive characteristics with individuals suffering from addiction. In this study we asked whether impairments in behavioral control proposed for addiction, namely a shift from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free control, extends toward an unaffected sample (n = 20) of adult children of alcohol-dependent fathers as compared to a sample without any personal or family history of alcohol addiction (n = 17). Using a sequential decision-making task designed to investigate model-free and model-based control combined with a computational modeling analysis, we did not find any evidence for altered behavioral control in individuals with a positive family history of alcohol addiction. Independent of family history of alcohol dependence, we however observed that the interaction of two different risk factors of addiction, namely impulsivity and cognitive capacities, predicts the balance of model-free and model-based behavioral control. Post-hoc tests showed a positive association of model-based behavior with cognitive capacity in the lower, but not in the higher impulsive group of the original sample. In an independent sample of particularly high- vs. low-impulsive individuals, we confirmed the interaction effect of cognitive capacities and high vs. low impulsivity on model-based control. In the confirmation sample, a positive association of omega with cognitive capacity was observed in highly impulsive individuals, but not in low impulsive individuals. Due to the moderate sample size of the study, further investigation of the association of risk factors for addiction with model-based behavior in larger sample sizes is warranted. PMID:27013998
Singer, Bryan F; Fadanelli, Monica; Kawa, Alex B; Robinson, Terry E
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit," and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, to procure such drugs as cocaine, addicts often require considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits. To better model drug-seeking behavior in addicts, we first developed a novel cocaine self-administration procedure [puzzle self-administration procedure (PSAP)] that required rats to solve a new puzzle every day to gain access to cocaine, which they then self-administered on an intermittent access (IntA) schedule. Such daily problem-solving precluded the development of S-R seeking habits. We then asked whether prolonged PSAP/IntA experience would nevertheless produce "symptoms of addiction." It did, including escalation of intake, sensitized motivation for drug, continued drug use in the face of adverse consequences, and very robust cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, especially in a subset of "addiction-prone" rats. Furthermore, drug-seeking behavior continued to require dopamine neurotransmission in the core of the nucleus accumbens (but not the dorsolateral striatum). We conclude that the development of S-R seeking habits is not necessary for the development of cocaine addiction-like behavior in rats. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Substance-use disorders are often characterized as "habitual" behaviors aimed at obtaining and administering drugs. Although the actions involved in consuming drugs may involve a rigid repertoire of habitual behaviors, evidence suggests that addicts must be very creative and flexible when trying to procure drugs, and thus
Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Chung, Tammy
Research on mechanisms of behavior change provides an innovative method to improve treatment for addictive behaviors. An important extension of mechanisms of change research involves the use of translational approaches, which examine how basic biological (i.e., brain-based mechanisms) and behavioral factors interact in initiating and sustaining positive behavior change as a result of psychotherapy. Articles in this special issue include integrative conceptual reviews and innovative empirical research on brain-based mechanisms that may underlie risk for addictive behaviors and response to psychotherapy from adolescence through adulthood. Review articles discuss hypothesized mechanisms of change for cognitive and behavioral therapies, mindfulness-based interventions, and neuroeconomic approaches. Empirical articles cover a range of addictive behaviors, including use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and pathological gambling and represent a variety of imaging approaches including fMRI, magneto-encephalography, real-time fMRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. Additionally, a few empirical studies directly examine brain-based mechanisms of change, whereas others examine brain-based indicators as predictors of treatment outcome. Finally, two commentaries discuss craving as a core feature of addiction, and the importance of a developmental approach to examining mechanisms of change. Ultimately, translational research on mechanisms of behavior change holds promise for increasing understanding of how psychotherapy may modify brain structure and functioning and facilitate the initiation and maintenance of positive treatment outcomes for addictive behaviors. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Grassi, Giacomo; Figee, Martjin; Stratta, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Pallanti, Stefano
In our recently published article, we investigated the behavioral addiction model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), by assessing three core dimensions of addiction in patients with OCD healthy participants. Similar to the common findings in addiction, OCD patients demonstrated increased
Amlung, Michael; Vedelago, Lana; Acker, John; Balodis, Iris; MacKillop, James
Aims To synthesize continuous associations between delayed reward discounting (DRD) and both addiction severity and quantity-frequency (QF); to examine moderators of these relationships; and to investigate publication bias. Methods Meta-analysis of published studies examining continuous associations between DRD and addictive behaviors. Published, peer-reviewed studies on addictive behaviors (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants, opiates, and gambling) were identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and PsycInfo. Studies were restricted to DRD measures of monetary gains. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted using Pearson’s r as the effect size. Publication bias was evaluated using fail-safe N, Begg-Mazumdar and Egger’s tests, meta-regression of publication year and effect size, and imputation of missing studies. Results The primary meta-analysis revealed a small magnitude effect size that was highly significant (r = 0.14, p addictive behavior (p = 0.30) or DRD assessment (p = 0.90). Indices of publication bias suggested a modest impact of unpublished findings. Conclusions Delayed reward discounting is robustly associated with continuous measures of addiction severity and quantity-frequency. This relation is generally robust across type of addictive behavior and delayed reward discounting assessment modality. PMID:27450931
MacLaren, Vance V; Best, Lisa A
The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ; Christo, Jones, Haylett, Stephenson, Lefever & Lefever, 2003) is a multidimensional self report that measures 16 addictive behaviors. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SPQ and collected normative data from 948 students at two Canadian universities. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of two categories of addictive behavior, which Haylett and her colleagues (2004) labelled hedonistic and nurturant. The hedonistic categories included behaviors such as the use of prescription drugs, gambling, caffeine, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco and compulsive sex. The nurturant group included behaviors such as compulsive helping, work, relationships, shopping, disordered eating and exercise. Men (N=250) scored higher than women on dominant relationships, exercise, gambling, illegal drugs, alcohol, tobacco and sex. Women (N=698) scored higher on compulsive shopping, food binging and starving. These results suggest that the SPQ may be a useful index of multiple addictive behaviors in college-age people. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baker, Erich J; Walter, Nicole A R; Salo, Alex; Rivas Perea, Pablo; Moore, Sharon; Gonzales, Steven; Grant, Kathleen A
The Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is a repository and analytics platform for detailed data derived from well-documented nonhuman primate (NHP) alcohol self-administration studies. This macaque model has demonstrated categorical drinking norms reflective of human drinking populations, resulting in consumption pattern classifications of very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD) individuals. Here, we expand on previous findings that suggest ethanol drinking patterns during initial drinking to intoxication can reliably predict future drinking category assignment. The classification strategy uses a machine-learning approach to examine an extensive set of daily drinking attributes during 90 sessions of induction across 7 cohorts of 5 to 8 monkeys for a total of 50 animals. A Random Forest classifier is employed to accurately predict categorical drinking after 12 months of self-administration. Predictive outcome accuracy is approximately 78% when classes are aggregated into 2 groups, "LD and BD" and "HD and VHD." A subsequent 2-step classification model distinguishes individual LD and BD categories with 90% accuracy and between HD and VHD categories with 95% accuracy. Average 4-category classification accuracy is 74%, and provides putative distinguishing behavioral characteristics between groupings. We demonstrate that data derived from the induction phase of this ethanol self-administration protocol have significant predictive power for future ethanol consumption patterns. Importantly, numerous predictive factors are longitudinal, measuring the change of drinking patterns through 3 stages of induction. Factors during induction that predict future heavy drinkers include being younger at the time of first intoxication and developing a shorter latency to first ethanol drink. Overall, this analysis identifies predictive characteristics in future very heavy drinkers that optimize intoxication, such as having
Davis, Caroline; Mackew, Laura; Levitan, Robert D; Kaplan, Allan S; Carter, Jacqueline C; Kennedy, James L
While there is good evidence that binge eating disorder (BED) is linked to higher-than-expected use of a broad range of addictive behaviors, mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups - overweight/obese adults with ( n = 42) and without ( n = 104) BED, and normal-weight control participants ( n = 73) - we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. We also anticipated that the relationship between BED and addictive behaviors would be mediated by a high-risk personality profile. The predicted mediation effect was strongly supported. Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. However, both overweight/obese groups did have significantly higher scores than the normal-weight group. The relationships among personality risk, elevated body mass index (BMI), and addictive behaviors have important clinical implications, especially for treatments that target psycho-behavioral intervention for compulsive overeating and substance-use disorders.
Full Text Available While there is good evidence that binge eating disorder (BED is linked to higher-than-expected use of a broad range of addictive behaviors, mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. Using a mediation-analytical approach with three age- and gender-matched groups – overweight/obese adults with (n = 42 and without (n = 104 BED, and normal-weight control participants (n = 73 – we tested the hypothesis that adults with BED would engage in more addictive behaviors and have higher scores on a personality-risk index than the two control groups. We also anticipated that the relationship between BED and addictive behaviors would be mediated by a high-risk personality profile. The predicted mediation effect was strongly supported. Contrary to expectation, BED participants did not engage in more addictive behaviors or have higher personality-risk scores than their weight-matched counterparts. However, both overweight/obese groups did have significantly higher scores than the normal-weight group. The relationships among personality risk, elevated body mass index (BMI, and addictive behaviors have important clinical implications, especially for treatments that target psycho-behavioral intervention for compulsive overeating and substance-use disorders.
Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Garivani, Asieh; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh
Internet addiction is a typical use of the internet that causes the psychological, social, educational, or occupational problems for the people. Students need the internet more than other people due to their educational or research needs. The rate and type of the internet use may affect their information-seeking behavior too. This study aims to investigate the effect of the internet addiction on the information-seeking behavior of the postgraduate students. This applied study that uses the correlation method. The research population composed of 1149 postgraduate students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, of which 284 were selected using the stratified random sampling as the sample. Yang's internet addiction questionnaire and the researcher-developed questionnaire of the information-seeking behavior were used as the data collection instruments. Instrument validity was confirmed by the specialists of librarianship and medical sciences and its reliability was confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.86). Research data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent-t tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, and variance analysis). Based on the findings, there was no sign of internet addiction among the 86.6% of the students. However, 13% of the students were exposed to the internet addiction and only 0.4% of internet addiction was observed among the students. There was no significant difference between the information-seeking behavior of the male and female respondents. There was no sign of the internet addiction in any dimension of the information-seeking behavior of the students. This study showed that there is no relationship between the information-seeking behavior of the students and the age and the rate of the internet use. Promoting the network infrastructures and increasing the internet speed as well as facilitating the use of electronic resources should be prioritized by
Provides helping professionals with an overview of treatment issues referred to as spiritual by those recovering from alcohol and drug addictions through 12-step programs. Reviews conflicts between academically trained helping professionals and researchers, and those advocating spiritually oriented treatment programs. Discusses spiritual…
Full Text Available Binge eating disorder (BED and seasonal affective disorder (SAD were first described as clinically-relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders (22-24 for reviews, it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n=412 of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the
Mancino, Samantha; Burokas, Aurelijus; Gutiérrez-Cuesta, Javier; Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Martín-García, Elena; Pucci, Mariangela; Falconi, Anastasia; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro; Maldonado, Rafael
An increasing perspective conceptualizes obesity and overeating as disorders related to addictive-like processes that could share common neurobiological mechanisms. In the present study, we aimed at validating an animal model of eating addictive-like behavior in mice, based on the DSM-5 substance use disorder criteria, using operant conditioning maintained by highly palatable chocolate-flavored pellets. For this purpose, we evaluated persistence of food-seeking during a period of non-availability of food, motivation for food, and perseverance of responding when the reward was associated with a punishment. This model has allowed identifying extreme subpopulations of mice related to addictive-like behavior. We investigated in these subpopulations the epigenetic and proteomic changes. A significant decrease in DNA methylation of CNR1 gene promoter was revealed in the prefrontal cortex of addict-like mice, which was associated with an upregulation of CB1 protein expression in the same brain area. The pharmacological blockade (rimonabant 3 mg/kg; i.p.) of CB1 receptor during the late training period reduced the percentage of mice that accomplished addiction criteria, which is in agreement with the reduced performance of CB1 knockout mice in this operant training. Proteomic studies have identified proteins differentially expressed in mice vulnerable or not to addictive-like behavior in the hippocampus, striatum, and prefrontal cortex. These changes included proteins involved in impulsivity-like behavior, synaptic plasticity, and cannabinoid signaling modulation, such as alpha-synuclein, phosphatase 1-alpha, doublecortin-like kinase 2, and diacylglycerol kinase zeta, and were validated by immunoblotting. This model provides an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying the vulnerability to develop eating addictive-like behavior.
Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT system for romantic love and drug addiction. These indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial
Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu
Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It
Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Harrop, Erin N; Douglas, Haley; Enkema, Matthew; Sedgwick, Carly
Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.
Yao, Mike Z.; Ko, Deborah M.; Pang, Kaichung
Abstract A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet. PMID:24003966
Ko, Chih-Hung; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu
The aim of the study is to compare the reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline interaction. The effect of gender, Internet addiction, depression, and online gaming on the difference of reinforcement sensitivity between online and offline were also evaluated. The subjects were 2,258 college students (1,066 men and 1,192 women). They completed the Behavior Inhibition Scale and Behavior Approach Scale (BIS/BAS) according to their experience online or offline. Internet addiction, depression, and Internet activity type were evaluated simultaneously. The results showed that reinforcement sensitivity was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. College students with Internet addiction decrease fewer score on BIS and BAS after getting online than did others. The higher reward and aversion sensitivity are associated with the risk of Internet addiction. The fun seeking online might contribute to the maintenance of Internet addiction. This suggests that reinforcement sensitivity would change after getting online and would contribute to the risk and maintenance of Internet addiction. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young
This study was conducted to develop a gambling addictive behavior scale for adolescents. The process involved construction of a conceptual framework, initial item search, verification of content validity, selection of secondary items, and extraction of final items. The participants were 299 adolescents from two middle schools and four high schools. Item analysis, factor analysis, criterion validity, internal consistency, and ROC curve were used to analyze the data. For the final scale, 25 items were selected, and categorized into 4 factors which accounted for 54.9% of the total variance. The factors were labeled as loss of control, life dysfunction from gambling addiction, gambling experience, and social dysfunction from problem gambling. The scores for the scale were significantly correlated with addictive personality, irrational gambling belief, and adolescent's gambling addictive behavior. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 25 items was .94. Scale scores identified adolescents as being in a problem gambling group, a non-problem gambling group, and a non-gambling group by the ROC curve. The above findings indicate that the gambling addictive behavior scale has good validity and reliability and can be used with adolescents in Korea.
A. A. Kotlyarova
Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock
Cilia, Roberto; Benfante, Roberta; Asselta, Rosanna; Marabini, Laura; Cereda, Emanuele; Siri, Chiara; Pezzoli, Gianni; Goldwurm, Stefano; Fornasari, Diego
Impulse control disorders and compulsive medication intake may occur in a minority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We hypothesize that genetic polymorphisms associated with addiction in the general population may increase the risk for addictive behaviors also in PD. Sixteen polymorphisms in candidate genes belonging to five neurotransmitter systems (dopaminergic, catecholaminergic, serotonergic, glutamatergic, opioidergic) and the BDNF were screened in 154 PD patients with addictive behaviors and 288 PD control subjects. Multivariate analysis investigated clinical and genetic predictors of outcome (remission vs. persistence/relapse) after 1 year and at the last follow-up (5.1 ± 2.5 years). Addictive behaviors were associated with tryptophan hydroxylase type 2 (TPH2) and dopamine transporter gene variants. A subsequent analysis within the group of cases showed a robust association between TPH2 genotype and the severity of addictive behaviors, which survived Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. At multivariate analysis, TPH2 genotype resulted the strongest predictor of no remission at the last follow-up (OR[95%CI], 7.4[3.27-16.78] and 13.2[3.89-44.98] in heterozygous and homozygous carriers, respectively, p medication dose reduction was not a predictor. TPH2 haplotype analysis confirmed the association with more severe symptoms and lower remission rates in the short- and the long-term (p addictive behaviors in PD, modulating the severity of symptoms and the rate of remission at follow-up. If confirmed in larger independent cohorts, TPH2 genotype may become a useful biomarker for the identification of at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grant, Jon E; Chamberlain, Samuel R
Substance use disorders are prevalent and debilitating. Certain behavioral syndromes ('behavioral addictions') characterized by repetitive habits, such as gambling disorder, stealing, shopping, and compulsive internet use, may share clinical, co-morbid, and neurobiological parallels with substance addictions. This review considers overlap between substance and behavioral addictions with a particular focus on impulsive action (inability to inhibit motor responses), and impulsive choice (preference for immediate smaller rewards to the detriment of long-term outcomes). We find that acute consumption of drugs with abuse potential is capable of modulating impulsive choice and action, although magnitude and direction of effect appear contingent on baseline function. Many lines of evidence, including findings from meta-analyses, show an association between chronic drug use and elevated impulsive choice and action. In some instances, elevated impulsive choice and action have been found to predate the development of substance use disorders, perhaps signifying their candidacy as objective vulnerability markers. Research in behavioral addictions is preliminary, and has mostly focused on impulsive action, finding this to be elevated versus controls, similar to that seen in chronic substance use disorders. Only a handful of imaging studies has explored the neural correlates of impulsive action and choice across these disorders. Key areas for future research are highlighted along with potential implications in terms of neurobiological models and treatment. In particular, future work should further explore whether the cognitive deficits identified are state or trait in nature: i.e. are evident before addiction perhaps signaling risk; or are a consequence of repetitive engagement in habitual behavior; and effects of novel agents known to modulate these cognitive abilities on various addictive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A
Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.
Full Text Available Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physicians and then to psychiatrists. Although emerging and applying non-medical and non-pharmaceutical approaches models is not too old, arising various addictive drugs and increasing the number of drug addicts as well as individual/social destructive consequences of drug addiction have caused that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to represent various non-pharmaceutical theories, models, methods and guidelines based on the conditions of their clients and their clinical experiences. The present article attempts to identify the reasons of drug addiction tendency, consumption patterns, models, theories of addiction to substances changing the mood and behavior, various methods of drug treatment, effective methods in drug addiction counseling and non-medical and non-pharmaceutical methods to give up drug addiction by using recent research findings. On this basis, the most effective methods to help those who suffer from alcohol and other drugs abuse and dependency are studied.
Yip, Sarah W; Worhunsky, Patrick D; Xu, Jiansong; Morie, Kristen P; Constable, R Todd; Malison, Robert T; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N
Alterations in neural structure have been reported in both cocaine-use disorder and gambling disorder, separately, suggesting similarities across addiction diagnoses. Individual variation in neural structure has also been associated with impulsivity, a dimensional construct implicated in addictions. This study combines categorical (diagnosis-based) and dimensional (transdiagnostic) approaches to identify neural structural alterations linked to addiction subtypes and trait impulsivity, respectively, across individuals with gambling disorder (n = 35), individuals with cocaine-use disorder (n = 37) and healthy comparison individuals (n = 37). High-resolution T1-weighted data were analyzed using modulated voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Statistical analyses were conducted using whole-brain general-linear models, corrected for family-wise error (pFWE gambling disorder and an illicit substance-use disorder. They further indicate dissociable effects of diagnostic groupings and trait impulsivity on neural structure among individuals with behavioral and drug addictions. Study findings highlight the importance of considering both categorical and dimensional (e.g. Research Domain Criteria; RDoC) analysis approaches within the context of addictions research. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
... 2014:chap 162. Lank PM, Kusin S. Ethanol and opioid intoxication and withdrawal. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 154. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opioids. National Institute on Drug Abuse Web site. Updated ...
Brevers, Damien; Noel, Xavier
Background This paper is a commentary to a debate article entitled: “Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research”, by Billieux et al. (2015). Methods and aim This brief response focused on the necessity to better characterize psychological and related neurocognitive determinants of persistent deleterious actions associated or not with substance utilization. Results A majority of addicted people could be driven by psychological functional reasons to keep using drugs, gambling or buying despite the growing number of related negative consequences. In addition, a non-negligible proportion of them would need assistance to restore profound disturbances in basic learning processes involved in compulsive actions. Conclusions The distinction between psychological functionality and compulsive aspects of addictive behaviors should represent a big step towards more efficient treatments. PMID:26551899
Kurt, Holly; Ronel, Natti
An exploratory, qualitative, phenomenological study focused on the experience of pain while participating in sexual masochistic acts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine individuals (four female, five male) who regularly participate in sexually masochistic acts and point to pain as central to their experience. Qualitative analysis of the data revealed several key characteristics of the participant's experience: the first time, intoxication, craving and withdrawal, tolerance, pain as control, and the pain inducing partner. The findings indicate that the way pain is experienced while mitigated through masochistic behavior creates an addictive process that coincides with a chronic behavioral spin contextualization. This article presents a preliminary model of addiction to physical pain in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) definition of substance-related and addictive disorders and the behavioral spin theory.
Full Text Available : This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on aggression among addicts. Method: A quasi-experimental design along with pre-posttest stages, control group, and follow-up was employed for the conduct of this study. The number of 24 addicts referring to rehabilitation clinics in Tehran was selected as the sample size of this study via convenience sampling method in accordance with the inclusion criteria. These participants were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. In this study, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used for data collection purposes. Results: Data analysis showed that group cognitive-behavioral therapy reduces verbal and physical aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. However, this therapy only led to the reduction of verbal aggression, anger, and hostility in addicted people. Conclusion: Since aggression has a high comorbidity with substance abuse, this factor can be as an obstacle to withdrawal. Therefore, it must be considered in addiction treatment.
Di Nicola, Marco; Tedeschi, Daniela; De Risio, Luisa; Pettorruso, Mauro; Martinotti, Giovanni; Ruggeri, Filippo; Swierkosz-Lenart, Kevin; Guglielmo, Riccardo; Callea, Antonino; Ruggeri, Giuseppe; Pozzi, Gino; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi
The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. 28.4% (n=27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n=21) of controls (χ(2)=6.27; p=.014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (pimpulsivity traits (BIS-11 scores; OR=1.08; p=.012) and higher craving levels (VASc scores; OR=2.48; pimpulsivity and craving for alcohol seem to be associated with other addictive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zeleeva, Vera P.; Shubnikova, Ekaterina G.
The relevance of the study is due to the development of a new stage of prevention and the need to justify new educational goals and objectives of the pedagogical prevention of addictive behavior in the educational environment. The purpose of this article is to examine the totality of the necessary and sufficient individual resources, that are…
Frölich, Jan; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Döpfner, Manfred
Playing computer games has become one of the main leisure activities in children and adolescents and increasingly replaces traditional playing and interactional activities. There might exist developmental benefits or positive effects of computer games that can be used for educational or therapeutic purposes. More important several studies have well demonstrated that excessive computer game playing is associated with behavior that features all components of non-chemical addiction and the prevalences across all age groups seem to be impressingly high. This overview relies on a Medline research. Its objective is to describe motivational and developmental characteristics attributed to computer games as well as the prevalences of computer playing in children and adolescents to better understand the risks for addictive use. We especially focus on the relations of excessive computer playing with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and aggressive behavior. The results demonstrate that children with ADHD are especially vulnerable to addictive use of computer games due to their neuropsychological profile. Moreover excessive violent computer game playing might be a significant risk variable for aggressive behavior in the presence of personality traits with aggressive cognitions and behavior scripts in the consumers. The increasing clinical meaning of addictive computer games playing urgently necessitates the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for clinical practice as well as the cooperation with allied disciplines.
Karajibani, Mansour; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dashipour, Alireza; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Abery, Maryam; Salari, Sajedeh
Background: There are many factors which affect nutritional status of addicted such as lack o f knowledge, incorrect attitude toward modification of food pattern, and careless to food intake. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational program on nutritional behavior in addicts referring to Baharan hospital in Zahedan. Patients and Methods: Thirty-six addict patients were selected randomly. After recording general demographic data of patients, nutrition...
Full Text Available Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use.
Montag, Christian; Błaszkiewicz, Konrad; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Andone, Ionut; Trendafilov, Boris; Markowetz, Alexander
Psychologists and psychiatrists commonly rely on self-reports or interviews to diagnose or treat behavioral addictions. The present study introduces a novel source of data: recordings of the actual problem behavior under investigation. A total of N = 58 participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring problematic mobile phone behavior featuring several questions on weekly phone usage. After filling in the questionnaire, all participants received an application to be installed on their smartphones, which recorded their phone usage for five weeks. The analyses revealed that weekly phone usage in hours was overestimated; in contrast, numbers of call and text message related variables were underestimated. Importantly, several associations between actual usage and being addicted to mobile phones could be derived exclusively from the recorded behavior, but not from self-report variables. The study demonstrates the potential benefit to include methods of psychoinformatics in the diagnosis and treatment of problematic mobile phone use.
Comings, D E; Gade, R; Wu, S; Chiu, C; Dietz, G; Muhleman, D; Saucier, G; Ferry, L; Rosenthal, R J; Lesieur, H R; Rugle, L J; MacMurray, P
Abnormalities in the dopaminergic reward pathways have frequently been implicated in substance abuse and addictive behaviors. Recent studies by Self and coworkers have suggested an important interaction between the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in cocaine abuse. To test the hypothesis that the DRD1 gene might play a role in addictive behaviors we examined the alleles of the Dde I polymorphism in three independent groups of subjects with varying types of compulsive, addictive behaviors-Tourette syndrome probands, smokers and pathological gamblers. In all three groups there was a significant in the frequency of homozygosity for the DRD1 Dde I 1 or 2 alleles in subjects with addictive behaviors. The DRD1 11 or 22 genotype was present in 41.3% of 63 controls and 57.3% of 227 TS probands (P = 0.024). When 23 quantitative traits were examined by ANOVA those carrying the 11 genotype consistently had the highest scores. Based on these results, we examined the prevalence of the 11 genotype in controls, TS probands without a specific behavior, and TS probands with a specific behavior. There was a progressive, linear increase, significant at alpha compulsive shopping. Problems with three additional behaviors, drug use, compulsive eating and smoking were significant at alpha < or = 0.05. All six variables were related to addictive behaviors. In a totally separate group of controls and individuals attending a smoking cessation clinic, and smoking at least one pack per day, 39.3% of the controls versus 66.1% of the smokers carried the 11 or 22 genotype (P = 0.0002). In a third independent group of pathological gamblers, 55.8% carried the 11 or 22 genotype (P = 0.009 vs the combined controls). In the TS group and smokers there was a significant additive effect of the DRD1 and DRD2 genes. The results for both the DRD1 and DRD2 genes, which have opposing effects on cyclic AMP, were consistent with negative and positive heterosis, respectively. These results support a role for
Taş, Filiz; Güngörmüş, Zeynep; Seviğ, Emine Ümit
Smoking addiction is an important problem and disease for public health. Researches show that transtheoretical model which is used as a guide to make behavior change easy is one of guide model which would provide that individuals would understand better the reasons of changing and/or not changing with motivational interviews focused on change steps and would make behavior change easy. The goal of this article is to present sample interview plans as to make core knowledge for researchers/nurse...
King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael
Excessive and potentially addictive use of the Internet among children and adolescents has emerged as a major concern in recent times. Internet addiction is often conceptualized as an impulse control disorder, with features similar to pathological gambling. However, there remains considerable debate about the core components, etiological processes, course, and maintaining factors of the disorder. This article presents a case study of a 16-year-old male with generalized pathological Internet use. Critical issues relevant to case conceptualization, assessment, and choice of therapy are examined. Although the evidence base is limited in this emerging area of clinical psychology, we provide a summary of empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques for Internet addiction. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lee, Grace P; Storr, Carla L; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Martins, Silvia S
Adverse life events have been associated with gambling and substance use as they can serve as forms of escapism. Involvement in gambling and substance use can also place individuals in adversely stressful situations. To explore potential male-female differences in the association between addictive behavior and adverse life events among an urban cohort of adolescents. The study sample comprised of 515 adolescent participants in a randomized prevention trial. With self-reported data, four addictive behavior groups were created: nonsubstance users and nongamblers, substance users only, gamblers only, and substance users and gamblers. Multinomial logistic regression analyses with interaction terms of sex and adverse life events were conducted. Adverse life events and engaging in at least one addictive behavior were common for both sexes. Substance users and gamblers had more than twice the likelihood of nonsubstance users and nongamblers to experience any event as well as events of various domains (ie, relationship, violence, and instability). Neither relationship nor instability events' associations with the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling significantly differed between sexes. Conversely, females exposed to violence events were significantly more likely than similarly exposed males to report the co-occurrence of substance use and gambling. Findings from the current study prompt future studies to devote more attention to the development of effective programs that teach adaptive coping strategies to adolescents, particularly to females upon exposure to violence. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Gür, Kamer; Yurt, Seher; Bulduk, Serap; Atagöz, Sinem
The aim of this study was to determine secondary school students' levels of Internet addiction and the physical and psychosocial behavior problems they face while using the Internet. This descriptive study was conducted in three state secondary schools in a rural area in the western part of Turkey. This study's sample consisted of 549 students who agreed to participate, with the consent of their families, and who had an Internet connection at home. The data were evaluated using t-tests and variance analyses. In this study the students' score of Internet addiction was at medium level (mean addiction score 44.51 ± 17.90). There were significant differences between the students' Internet addiction scores and the presence of physical behavior problems (going to bed late, skipping meals, eating meals in front of the computer) and psychosocial behavior problems (suffering from conditions such as restlessness, anger, heart palpitations, or tremors when they could not connect to the Internet, decreased relationships with family and friends, feelings of anger, arguing with parents, and finding life boring and empty without an Internet connection). © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J
Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.
Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine
Inquiry regarding the relationship between passionate love and addiction has long been a topic of intense debate. Recent advances in neurobiology now allow for an examination between these two states. After describing the clinical distinctions between "love passion," "love addiction," and "sex addiction," we compare clinical, neuropsychological, neurobiological, and neuroimaging data on love, passion, pathological gambling (PG) and substance dependence. There are no recognized definitions or diagnostic criteria for "love addiction," but its phenomenology has some similarities to substance dependence: euphoria and unrestrained desire in the presence of the love object or associated stimuli (drug intoxication); negative mood, anhedonia, and sleep disturbance when separated from the love object (drug withdrawal); focussed attention on and intrusive thoughts about the love object; and maladaptive or problematic patterns of behavior (love relation) leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with pursuit despite knowledge of adverse consequences. Limited animal and human studies suggest that brain regions (e.g., insula, anterior cingulated [ACC], orbitofrontal [OFC]) and neurotransmitters (dopamine) that mediate substance dependence may also be involved with love addiction (as for PG). Ocytocin (OT), which is implicated in social attachment and mating behavior, may also be involved in substance dependence. There are no data on the epidemiology, genetics, co-morbidity, or treatment of love addiction. There are currently insufficient data to place some cases of "love passion" within a clinical disorder, such as "love addiction," in an official diagnostic nomenclature or to firmly classify it as a behavioral addiction or disorder of impulse control. Further clinical and scientific studies are needed to improve our understanding and treatment of this condition. For these studies, we propose new criteria for evaluating addiction to love.
It has been argued that food cannot be “addictive”, unlike conventional drugs of abuse, because it is an essential part of life. In this paper, evidence is reviewed, largely from an evolutionary psychobiological perspective, that plant-based psychoactive drugs (such as those derived from the opium poppy and the coca leaf) and gambling-related behaviors were once adaptive for human health and survival in a similar manner as energy-based foods were for nourishment. “Evolutionary mismatch” viewpoints contend that certain behaviors were enhanced during the hunter-gatherer lifestyle – from which our genetic endowment had its origins – because they bestowed both survival and reproductive advantages to the species. However, in the context of advanced technology and other rapid environmental changes, these same behaviors have tended to become maladaptive and greatly overexpressed. Similar to the manufactured purification of psychotropic plant-based substances, the reward impact of processed and hyperpalatable foods, with their high levels of sugar, fat, and salt, is much increased from foods produced in nature. It is concluded therefore that what was once beneficial and necessary for our survival has been altered and ultraprocessed into edible products that may be disadvantageous and potentially addictive. PMID:25540603
Gorwood, Philip; Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas
The majority of addictive disorders have a significant heritability-roughly around 50%. Surprisingly, the most convincing association (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster in nicotine dependence), with a unique attributable risk of 14%, was detected through a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer, although lung cancer has a low heritability. We propose some explanations of this finding, potentially helping to understand how a GWAS strategy can be successful. Many endophenotypes were also assessed as potentially modulating the effect of nicotine, indirectly facilitating the development of nicotine dependence. Challenging the involved phenotype led to the demonstration that other potentially overlapping disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson disease, could also be involved, and further modulated by parent monitoring or the existence of a smoking partner. Such a complex mechanism of action is compatible with a gene-environment interaction, most clearly explained by epigenetic factors, especially as such factors were shown to be, at least partly, genetically driven.
Full Text Available Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students (n = 967, ages 18–25, female 72.7%, white 74.8% enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Regard, Marianne; Knoch, Daria; Gütling, Eva; Landis, Theodor
Gambling is a form of nonsubstance addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. Pathologic gamblers are considered healthy with respect to their cognitive status. Lesions of the frontolimbic systems, mostly of the right hemisphere, are associated with addictive behavior. Because gamblers are not regarded as "brain-lesioned" and gambling is nontoxic, gambling is a model to test whether addicted "healthy" people are relatively impaired in frontolimbic neuropsychological functions. Twenty-one nonsubstance dependent gamblers and nineteen healthy subjects underwent a behavioral neurologic interview centered on incidence, origin, and symptoms of possible brain damage, a neuropsychological examination, and an electroencephalogram. Seventeen gamblers (81%) had a positive medical history for brain damage (mainly traumatic head injury, pre- or perinatal complications). The gamblers, compared with the controls, were significantly more impaired in concentration, memory, and executive functions, and evidenced a higher prevalence of non-right-handedness (43%) and, non-left-hemisphere language dominance (52%). Electroencephalogram (EEG) revealed dysfunctional activity in 65% of the gamblers, compared with 26% of controls. This study shows that the "healthy" gamblers are indeed brain-damaged. Compared with a matched control population, pathologic gamblers evidenced more brain injuries, more fronto-temporo-limbic neuropsychological dysfunctions and more EEG abnormalities. The authors thus conjecture that addictive gambling may be a consequence of brain damage, especially of the frontolimbic systems, a finding that may well have medicolegal consequences.
Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W; Dansereau, Donald F; Flynn, Patrick M
For more than 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequential epochs-the first era dealt mainly with client assessment and its role in treatment outcome and evaluation (1969-89), the second focused upon modeling the treatment process and the importance of conceptual frameworks (1989-2009) in explaining the relationships among treatment environment, client attributes, treatment process and outcome, and the third (and current) era has expanded into studying tactical deployment of innovations and implementation. Recent projects focus upon adapting and implementing innovations for improving early engagement in adolescent residential treatment settings and drug-dependent criminal justice populations. Related issues include the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases, organizational and systems functioning, treatment costs and process related to implementation of evidence-based practices. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Yu, Zhiping; Tan, Michael
Evidence of whether nutrition students are free from food-related issues or at higher risk for eating disorders is inconsistent. This study aimed to assess disordered eating behaviors and food addiction among nutrition and non-nutrition major college students. Students ( n = 967, ages 18-25, female 72.7%, white 74.8%) enrolled at a public university completed online demographic characteristics surveys and validated questionnaires measuring specific disordered eating behaviors. Academic major category differences were compared. Additionally, high risk participants were assessed by weight status and academic year. Overall, 10% of respondents were a high level of concern for developing eating disorders. About 10.3% of respondents met criteria for food addiction. In addition, 4.5% of respondents had co-occurrence of eating disorder risk and food addiction risk out of total respondents. There were no significant differences in level of concern for developing an eating disorder, eating subscales, or food addiction among academic majors. The percentage of high risk participants was lower in the underweight/normal weight group than in the overweight/obese group in health-related non-nutrition major students but not in nutrition students. Early screening, increasing awareness, and promoting healthy eating habits could be potential strategies to help treat and prevent the development of disorders or associated health conditions in nutrition as well as non-nutrition students.
Gendreau, Katherine E; Potenza, Marc N
Studies have reported higher prevalences of four behavioral addictions (binge eating, compulsive shopping, hypersexuality, and pathological gambling) in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson's disease relative to non-dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson's. However, recent case-control and epidemiological studies suggest that prevalences of behavioral addictions in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson's may be similar to background population rates. This study tests that hypothesis by examining the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) for evidence of these associations, taking into account the potential impact of publicity on reporting rates. FAERS reports in 2004 (pre-publicity for all but pathological gambling) and 2007 (post-publicity for all four behaviors) were analyzed. A threshold consisting of ≥3 cases, proportional reporting ratio ≥2, and χ (2) with Yates' correction ≥4 was used to detect signals (drug-associated adverse reactions) involving any of five dopamine agonists and any of four behavioral addictions. No reports containing compulsive shopping and no signal for binge eating and dopamine agonists were found in either year. A weak signal was found for hypersexuality in 2004, with a stronger signal in 2007. A robust signal was found for pathological gambling in 2004, with a more robust signal in 2007. These results suggest that publicity may increase reporting rates in the FAERS. Findings for binge eating, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality suggest that prevalences of these behaviors among those treated with dopamine agonists may be similar to background population rates and thus may not reflect an adverse safety signal. Further investigation of the relationship between dopamine agonists and behavioral addictions is warranted.
Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis
Internet addictive behaviors are associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial correlates associated with Internet addictive behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n=805) of Cypriot adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including Internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized. Among the study population, the prevalence rates of borderline addictive Internet use (BIU) and addictive Internet use (AIU) were 18.4% and 2%, respectively. Adolescents with BIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with abnormal peer relations (AOR: 5.28; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.37-23.38), conduct problems (AOR: 4.77; 95% CI: 2.82-8.08), hyperactivity (AOR: 5.58; 95% CI: 2.58-12.10) and emotional symptoms (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.53-5.32). Adolescent AIU was significantly associated with abnormal conduct (AOR: 22.31; 95% CI: 6.90-72.19), peer problems (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 1.36-37.50), emotional symptoms (AOR: 19.06; 95% 6.06-60.61), and hyperactivity (AOR: 9.49, 95% CI: 1.87-48.19). The determinants of BIU and AIU included accessing the Internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information (AOR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.17-3.23) and participating in games with monetary awards (AOR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.15-3.14). Both BIU and AIU were adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents.
K. W. Müller
Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.
Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K
Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.
Peter, Samuel C; Li, Qian; Pfund, Rory A; Whelan, James P; Meyers, Andrew W
The negative psychological effects of public stigma on disordered gamblers have been well documented. Public stigma deters treatment-seeking and other help-seeking behaviors, and negatively impacts individuals' view of themselves. Different types of disordered gambling activities may attract different degrees of stigma. One increasingly popular form of gambling involves placing bets on the outcomes of competitive video games, also called eSports gambling. This activity shares characteristics with Internet gaming and gambling. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of public stigma held towards traditional casino gamblers, eSports gamblers, and Internet gamers, as compared to an individual experiencing comparable levels of impairment and distress due to a financial crisis. Using an experimental between-groups vignette study design, we found that all three types of behavioral addictions were more heavily stigmatized than the control condition. The three behavioral addictions were seen as being highly controllable, engendered a significant amount of anger and blame, and resulted in higher levels of desired social distance. Traditional casino gamblers were seen as significantly more dangerous to be around and created a higher level of desired social distance than the Internet gamer. Differences between the Internet gamer and eSports better were less pronounced. These findings underscore the importance of reducing public stigma for gambling and other behavioral addictions, and provide information that can be used when developing interventions to impact stigma.
Leskauskas, Darius; Gudaitytė, Rima; Kiudulaitė, Inga; Adomaitienė, Virginija
The aim of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of Lithuanian secondary school children toward addictive behaviors, their promoting and preventive factors with regard to the age. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The study sample consisted of all 5th-, 9th-, and 12th-grade schoolchildren of 6 secondary schools in Kaunas and Šakiai (N=856). Schoolchildren were surveyed with a questionnaire consisting of the questions about their attitudes and experience regarding addictive behaviors and factors promoting and preventing such behaviors. RESULTS. Smoking (82.8%), use of illegal drugs (81.0%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (80.6%) were most often indicated as addictive behaviors. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages and computer gaming were least often indicated as addictive behaviors: by 67.2% and 57.1% of respondents, respectively. Less than one-third (32.7%) of respondents answered that they had one or more of potentially addictive behaviors: computer gaming (27.8%), consumption of light alcoholic beverages (24.6%), smoking (16.3%), and consumption of strong alcoholic beverages (12.1%). The most significant difference was observed between the answers of schoolchildren of 5th and 9th grades. Friends (38.4%), TV (37.9%), and Internet (24.6%) were most often mentioned as influencing a wish to try and abstain from addictive behaviors. Fear for one's health (74.4%) and possible impediment for the life (71.4%) were the most frequently mentioned reasons for abstaining from addictive behaviors. CONCLUSIONS. Involvement in potentially addictive behaviors and acknowledgement of their risks were found to increase with the age of schoolchildren, most significantly from 5th to 9th grades. Consumption of light alcoholic beverages was the second most prevalent behavior among respondents, highly noticed in advertising, but least often acknowledged as addictive behavior. TV and Internet were most often mentioned by respondents as mass media influencing their wish to try
Lin, Y-H; Lin, Y-C; Lin, S-H; Lee, Y-H; Lin, P-H; Chiang, C-L; Chang, L-R; Yang, C C H; Kuo, T B J
Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. To develop a smartphone use/non-use pattern by mobile application (App) in order to identify problematic smartphone use, a total of 79 college students were monitored by the App for 1 month. The App-generated parameters included the daily use/non-use frequency, the total duration and the daily median of the duration per epoch. We introduced two other parameters, the root mean square of the successive differences (RMSS...
Singer, Bryan F.; Fadanelli, Monica; Kawa, Alex B.; Robinson, Terry E.
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a “drug habit”, and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, for addicts to procure drugs, like cocaine, of...
Potenza, Marc N; Fiellin, David A; Heninger, George R; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Mazure, Carolyn M
Over the past several decades, and particularly during the last 10 to 15 years, there has been a rapid increase in the accessibility of legalized gambling in the United States and other parts of the world. Few studies have systematically explored the relationships between patterns of gambling and health status. Existing data support the notion that some gambling behaviors, particularly problem and pathological gambling, are associated with nongambling health problems. The purpose of this arti...
Full Text Available Aim: In the last decade, the prevalence of injecting drugs has been increasing rapidly. Injecting drug use puts one at the risk of risky behaviors that affect the health of individual and society. The present study aims at evaluating and comparing risky behaviors of injecting and non-injecting drug users. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 4400 addicts referred to public, private and drop-in-centers (DICs in 2014 were enrolled. The addicts were divided into injecting and non-injecting drug users. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and the pattern of drug use and risky behavior. Data were analyzed by SPSSV21, chi-square test and ANOVA. A significance level of less than 0.05 was considered. Results: Among the addicts, 4% were injecting drug users (IDUs and 96% non-injecting drug addicts (non-IDUs. The age of the first injection was 24.68 ± 6.45 years old. The age of onset of drug use in IDUs was significantly lower than in non-IDUs (P<0.001. Risky behaviors including the use of shared needles, risky sexual relations, a history of sexually transmitted infections and a history of imprisonment and suicide were significantly higher in IDUs. Addiction relapse and slip during treatment were higher in IDUs (P<0.001. Conclusion: Injecting drug addiction significantly increases the risk of relapse and risky behaviors. Priority should be given to risky behavior prevention programs.
Meisel, Matthew K; Clifton, Allan D; MacKillop, James; Goodie, Adam S
The current study applied egocentric social network analysis (SNA) to investigate the prevalence of addictive behavior and co-occurring substance use in college students' networks. Specifically, we examined individuals' perceptions of the frequency of network members' co-occurring addictive behavior and investigated whether co-occurring addictive behavior is spread evenly throughout networks or is more localized in clusters. We also examined differences in network composition between individuals with varying levels of alcohol use. The study utilized an egocentric SNA approach in which respondents ("egos") enumerated 30 of their closest friends, family members, co-workers, and significant others ("alters") and the relations among alters listed. Participants were 281 undergraduates at a large university in the Southeastern United States. Robust associations were observed among the frequencies of gambling, smoking, drinking, and using marijuana by network members. We also found that alters tended to cluster together into two distinct groups: one cluster moderate-to-high on co-occurring addictive behavior and the other low on co-occurring addictive behavior. Lastly, significant differences were present when examining egos' perceptions of alters' substance use between the networks of at-risk, light, and nondrinkers. These findings provide empirical evidence of distinct clustering of addictive behavior among young adults and suggest the promise of social network-based interventions for this cohort. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bessman, S.P.; Pal, N.
Data is presented which shows that there is a relation between ammonia concentration in the blood and state of consciousness. The concentrations of GTP and ATP also relate both to the ammonia concentration in blood and the state of consciousness. The rate of protein synthesis in the brain as measured by the percent of intracellular counts that are incorporated into protein is also related to ammonia concentration. These findings of energy depletion and depressed synthesis resulting from energy depletion suggest that the primary lesion in ammonia intoxication involves the Krebs cycle. The greater effect of ammonia on GTP than on ATP metabolism supports the view that the primary site of action of ammonia is at the glutamate dehydrogenase-ketoglutarate reduction step - and is consistent with previous work on this subject. (H.K.)
Full Text Available Eric L Garland,1,2 Matthew O Howard,3 Sarah E Priddy,1 Patrick A McConnell,4 Michael R Riquino,1 Brett Froeliger4 1College of Social Work, 2Hunstsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA Abstract: Dual-process models from neuroscience suggest that addiction is driven by dysregulated interactions between bottom-up neural processes underpinning reward learning and top-down neural functions subserving executive function. Over time, drug use causes atrophy in prefrontally mediated cognitive control networks and hijacks striatal circuits devoted to processing natural rewards in service of compulsive seeking of drug-related reward. In essence, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs can be conceptualized as mental training programs for exercising, strengthening, and remediating these functional brain networks. This review describes how MBIs may remediate addiction by regulating frontostriatal circuits, thereby restoring an adaptive balance between these top-down and bottom-up processes. Empirical evidence is presented suggesting that MBIs facilitate cognitive control over drug-related automaticity, attentional bias, and drug cue reactivity, while enhancing responsiveness to natural rewards. Findings from the literature are incorporated into an integrative account of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness-based therapies for effecting positive behavior change in the context of addiction recovery. Implications of our theoretical framework are presented with respect to how these insights can inform the addiction therapy process. Keywords: mindfulness, frontostriatal, savoring, cue reactivity, hedonic dysregulation, reward, addiction
Spinola, Suzanne; Maisto, Stephen A; White, Corey N; Huddleson, Tani
Alcohol consumption may lead to deficits in the executive functions that govern self-regulation. These deficits could lead to risk-taking behaviors; therefore, it is important to determine the magnitude of these deficits on executive functioning. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the acute effects of alcohol on three of the executive functions that are hypothesized to affect self-regulation, which are inhibition, set shifting, and working memory, using a mixed-methods study design. The participants were 75 moderate or heavy drinkers between the ages of 21 and 35 who were randomized into one of three beverage conditions (control, placebo, or 0.65-g alcohol dose/kg body weight). Performance on working memory, set shifting, and inhibition were measured pre- and post-beverage consumption. The results showed only a significant interaction in the working memory data, as there was an increase in performance post-beverage relative to pre-beverage for the control participants as compared to the alcohol and placebo participants. It was concluded that the dose of alcohol (BAC = 0.063%) given to moderate to heavy drinkers was not sufficient to cause significant impairment in the executive functions tested. The results were further discussed and methodological concerns were considered, such as the low BAC achieved, practice effects, and insensitivity of tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between specific sexual attitudes and Internet addiction scores. Method: Participants were 115 men and 163 women recruited from the University of Messina; sexual behavior was assessed by the Sex and the Average Woman (or Man Scale whereas Internet addiction was measured by the Internet Addiction Test. Results: The results of the study showed that higher Internet addiction scores were associated with low levels of sexual satisfaction and high levels of sexual nervousness, sexual shyness and sexual detachment. Conclusions: It is suggested that specific sexual attitudes may act as one of the different factors predisposing to the development of Internet addiction symptoms.
Orr, Suezanne Tangerose; Blazer, Dan G; Orr, Caroline A
Maternal smoking is a key preventable cause of poor pregnancy outcomes, such as low birthweight. In many areas of the United States, including Eastern North Carolina, rates of prenatal smoking are high. Prenatal depressive symptoms are associated with maternal smoking, but there remains much to learn about this relationship, especially among Black women, who have double the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes of White women. In the study reported in this paper, we investigated the relationship between maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with smoking behaviors, beliefs and attitudes, environmental factors which promote smoking and nicotine addiction. Pregnant women were enrolled in the study at the first prenatal visit to the clinics of the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Family Medicine of the Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University. An interviewer administered a questionnaire to each woman about smoking, smoking-related attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviors, nicotine addiction, and home environmental factors that encourage smoking. The CES-D was used to measure depressive symptoms. We used the cut-point score of 23 or greater to indicate elevated depressive symptoms, which is thought to represent major depressive disorder. The sample consisted of 810 Black women, of whom 18% were smokers. CES-D score was associated with nicotine addiction, not thinking of quitting smoking, and not expecting support from family and friends if they decided to quit. Prenatal depressive symptoms may be a barrier to smoking cessation.
Full Text Available This case report draws attention to the potential relevance of undetected autism spectrum symptoms in a bipolar patient with high work functioning showing a peculiar addictive profile with impulsive and antisocial behaviors. A 23-year-old man with a diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD and Substance Use Disorder (SUD was hospitalized at the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Pisa for diuretics and β-2 adrenergic agonist abuse in a remission phase of benzodiazepines and substance abuse. He reported a history of behavioral addictions in the framework of a global high work functioning with particular skills in computer science. When assessed for adult autism spectrum symptoms, despite not fulfilling a DSM-5 diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, he reported a score of 93/240 at the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS-r and of 88/160 at the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum, both indicative of ASD. We argue the possible role of adult subthreshold autism spectrum features, generally disregarded in adult psychiatry, in the peculiar addictive profile developed by this patient with BD that may deserve appropriate treatment.
Biederman, J; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Rosenbaum, J F; Perenick, S G; Wood, J; Faraone, S V
"Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" has been proposed as a precursor to anxiety. A recent study proposed that it may also be a precursor to alcoholism. The authors sought to replicate the latter finding through a secondary analysis of data from a large study of young children (age 2-6 years)-offspring of parents with panic and depressive disorders-who had been assessed for behavioral inhibition through laboratory-based observations. The offspring were stratified on the basis of presence or absence of parental lifetime history of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence (N=115 versus N=166, respectively) or drug dependence (N=78 versus N=203). The rates of behavioral inhibition were then compared between groups. Despite adequate power to detect associations, neither parental alcohol dependence nor drug dependence was associated with a higher risk for behavioral inhibition in the offspring. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis linking behavioral inhibition to addictions.
Hilderbrand, Elisa R; Lasek, Amy W
Animal models are essential for understanding the biological factors that contribute to drug and alcohol addiction and discovering new pharmacotherapies to treat these disorders. Alcohol (ethanol) is the most commonly abused drug in the world, and as the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) increases, so does the need for effective pharmacotherapies. In particular, treatments with high efficacy in the growing number of female AUD sufferers are needed. Female animals remain underrepresented in biomedical research and sex differences in the brain's response to alcohol are poorly understood. To help bridge the gender gap in addiction research, this Review discusses strategies that researchers can use to examine sex differences in the context of several common animal models of AUD. Self-administration, two-bottle choice, drinking in the dark, and conditioned place preference are discussed, with a focus on the role of estrogen as a mediator of sex differences in alcohol-related behaviors.
James, Richard J E; Tunney, Richard J
In their position paper, Aarseth et al. (2016) bring to light several timely issues concerning the categorization of gaming disorder as a form of addiction and as a discrete mental disorder. In our commentary, we welcome their caution toward this move and their discussion of the equivocal scientific data in its support and the potential negative consequences for gamers. We suggest that a more heterogeneous approach is required for understanding any behavioral addiction, as concepts from gambling appear to be more relevant for aspects of mobile gaming than for video games more generally. In addition to a greater need for clinical research, we argue that studying gaming at a different level of analysis than the epidemiological study is required to gain a meaningful understanding of the harm video games may or may not entail.
Egervari, Gabor; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Jentsch, J David; Hurd, Yasmin L
Substance use disorders continue to impose increasing medical, financial and emotional burdens on society in the form of morbidity and overdose, family disintegration, loss of employment and crime, while advances in prevention and treatment options remain limited. Importantly, not all individuals exposed to abused substances effectively develop the disease. Genetic factors play a significant role in determining addiction vulnerability and interactions between innate predisposition, environmental factors and personal experiences are also critical. Thus, understanding individual differences that contribute to the initiation of substance use as well as on long-term maladaptations driving compulsive drug use and relapse propensity is of critical importance to reduce this devastating disorder. In this paper, we discuss current topics in the field of addiction regarding individual vulnerability related to behavioral endophenotypes, neural circuits, as well as genetics and epigenetic mechanisms. Expanded knowledge of these factors is of importance to improve and personalize prevention and treatment interventions in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanna D. Zolotova
Full Text Available The subjects of the system of prevention of children’s addictive behavior include leading, accompanying, and mediated subjects. The macrolevel subjects are gromadas (units of local government and their leadership, institutions of higher learning that prepare social pedagogues, institutes of post-diploma education, the Center of Social Services for Families, Children, and Youth, and social service non-governmental organizations. The mesolevel subjects are institutions of learning and out-of-school and specialized institutions. The microlevel subjects are social pedagogues, form masters, curators, instructors, social workers, and children volunteers. The leading subject of social-pedagogical influence is the social pedagogue, who must act as a conscientious carrier of the idea of renouncing addictions.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Addiction is one of the problems in world threating the social, economic and culture factors. It is essential to have an accurate knowledge about the characteristics of drug users in order to diminish the high-risk behaviors of intravenous drug addicts. This research has been done to assess relationship between individual characteristics and high risk behavior in intravenous drug addicts. Method: In this descriptive-analytic research, 360 drug users were selected from different places in Ardabil city and interviewed by a prepared questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical tests including t-test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA with SPSS statistical software. Results: The results showed that the age, gender, material status, job position, age of addiction start, age of injection start, injection frequency, injection frequency per day, syringe supply place and the partner’s gender during recent few months had no significant difference compared to drug users with needle sharing and without needle sharing. The educational level of drug users with needle sharing was lower (P=0.037 and the number of new syringe usage per month was also lesser (P=0.001. They predicted to be more likely infected with AIDS (P=0.001 and had a less argument with their partner about using condom, also mostly have not used condom at their last sexual relationship (P=0.001. The average number of their partners during last three months was high (P=0.003 and there was a meaningful relationship between true sense of peril and using condom in drug users with needle sharing group (p=0.001. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between the true sense of danger and the using condom. It is necessary to have an appropriate advertising to increase using condoms among injecting drug users.
Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Hodgins, David C; Wild, T Cameron
Background and aims The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of single versus multiple addiction problems in a large representative sample and (b) to identify distinct subgroups of people experiencing substance-related and behavioral addiction problems. Methods A random sample of 6,000 respondents from Alberta, Canada, completed survey items assessing self-attributed problems experienced in the past year with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (gambling, eating, shopping, sex, video gaming, and work). Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to classify patterns of co-occurring addiction problems on an analytic subsample of 2,728 respondents (1,696 women and 1032 men; M age = 45.1 years, SD age = 13.5 years) who reported problems with one or more of the addictive behaviors in the previous year. Results In the total sample, 49.2% of the respondents reported zero, 29.8% reported one, 13.1% reported two, and 7.9% reported three or more addiction problems in the previous year. Cluster-analytic results suggested a 7-group solution. Members of most clusters were characterized by multiple addiction problems; the average number of past year addictive behaviors in cluster members ranged between 1 (Cluster II: excessive eating only) and 2.5 (Cluster VII: excessive video game playing with the frequent co-occurrence of smoking, excessive eating and work). Discussion and conclusions Our findings replicate previous results indicating that about half of the adult population struggles with at least one excessive behavior in a given year; however, our analyses revealed a higher number of co-occurring addiction clusters than typically found in previous studies.
Kawa, Alex B; Bentzley, Brandon S; Robinson, Terry E
Contemporary animal models of cocaine addiction focus on increasing the amount of drug consumption to produce addiction-like behavior. However, another critical factor is the temporal pattern of consumption, which in humans is characterized by intermittency, both within and between bouts of use. To model this, we combined prolonged access to cocaine (∼70 days in total) with an intermittent access (IntA) self-administration procedure and used behavioral economic indicators to quantify changes in motivation for cocaine. IntA produced escalation of intake, a progressive increase in cocaine demand (incentive-sensitization), and robust drug- and cue-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. We also asked whether rats that vary in their propensity to attribute incentive salience to reward cues (sign-trackers [STs] vs. goal-trackers [GTs]) vary in the development of addiction-like behavior. Although STs were more motivated to take cocaine after limited drug experience, after IntA, STs and GTs no longer differed on any measure of addiction-like behavior. Exposure to large quantities of cocaine is not necessary for escalation of intake, incentive-sensitization, or other addiction-like behaviors (IntA results in far less total cocaine consumption than 'long access' procedures). Also, the ST phenotype may increase susceptibility to addiction, not because STs are inherently susceptible to incentive-sensitization (perhaps all individuals are at risk), but because this phenotype promotes continued drug use, subjecting them to incentive-sensitization. Thus, the pharmacokinetics associated with the IntA procedure are especially effective in producing a number of addiction-like behaviors and may be valuable for studying associated neuroadaptations and for assessing individual variation in vulnerability.
Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi
Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.
Abu-Taweel, Gasem Mohammad
Cadmium (Cd) exposure can induce acute lethal health-related threats in humans since it has an exceptional ability to accumulate in living organism tissues and cause toxicological effects. Curcumin (Cur) on the other hand has a wide variety of biological activities and several studies have suggested its potential therapeutic or protective effects against several ailments and infections. To study the effect of Cur on the toxicity of Cd, Swiss-Webster strain male and female mice (sixty each) were divided into 6 groups of ten each at random. Group-1 served as the naïve control and received no treatment. Group-2, 3 and 4 were the experimental controls and were administered once a day with a single oral dose of 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Cur (300 mg/kg) or Cd (100 mg/kg) respectively, for 2 weeks. Group-5 and 6 received Cur and Cd in combination once a day orally for 2 weeks except that Cur in a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg to group 5 and 6 respectively, was administered one hour before Cd administration to both groups. After treatment period, the male animals were subjected to social standard opponent test and females were subjected to the tube restraint tests and thereafter, their blood was collected to measure the blood composition indices and level of reproductive hormones. The animals were sacrificed to collect their brain for the estimation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Results indicated that Cd significantly increased nonsocial activities in males and latency to first bite in females, whereas the social activities in males and the number of bites in females were significantly decreased. All measured indices of blood composition and levels of progesterone (female) and testosterone (male) in blood and AChE in their brain tissues were significantly decreased due to Cd treatment. However, administration of Cur along with Cd had an ameliorating effect on all the behavioral and biochemical parameters studied herein and reduced the toxicity of Cd significantly
Full Text Available BackgroundEmotion (dysregulation as well as the interventions for improving these difficulties are receiving a growing attention in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to conduct a systematic review about the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs in both substance and behavioral addictions (BAs.MethodA literature search was conducted using Cochrane, PubMed, and Web of Science. Fifty-four randomized controlled trials published in English since 2009 to April 2017 were included into a narrative synthesis.ResultsMindfulness-based interventions were applied in a wide range of addictions, including substance use disorders (from smoking to alcohol, among others and BAs (namely, gambling disorder. These treatments were successful for reducing dependence, craving, and other addiction-related symptoms by also improving mood state and emotion dysregulation. The most commonly used MBI approaches were as follows: Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention, Mindfulness Training for Smokers, or Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement, and the most frequent control group in the included studies was Treatment as Usual (TAU. The most effective approach was the combination of MBIs with TAU or other active treatments. However, there is a lack of studies showing the maintenance of the effect over time. Therefore, studies with longer follow-ups are needed.ConclusionThe revised literature shows support for the effectiveness of the MBIs. Future research should focus on longer follow-up assessments as well as on adolescence and young population, as they are a vulnerable population for developing problems associated with alcohol, drugs, or other addictions.
Noohi, Sima; Azar, Mahyar; Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzade; Sedaghati, Mahsa; Panahi, Sepideh Akbari; Dehghan, Nasir; Honarbakhsh, Yasamin; Akasheh, Amirpoya; Tahoori, Armin; Wilson, Denis
Iran ranks first per capita in the use of opiates, but we have little information about possible differences regarding the 2 most commonly used illicit drugs, namely opium and its dross (residue). This is a cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study about drug abuse and drug dependence in Iran was conducted from April 2006 to August 2008 in the prisons of 28 Iranian provinces, in the treatment centers, and in the streets. To pursue the objectives of this research, participants included 2979 opiate addicts including opium users (n = 2636) and dross users (n = 343), who were not significantly different by gender (P = 0.269) or age (P = 0.452). An anonymous questionnaire was completed through an interview that gathered sociodemographic characteristics and information about some high-risk behaviors. : By the end of the study, we concluded that dross addicts, in comparison with opium addicts, were mostly immigrants from rural areas to urban areas (P = 0.031 χ test, 95% confidence interval [CI]), mostly uneducated, illiterate, or semiliterate (P = 0.04 χ test, 95% CI), had illegal occupations (P = 0.048 χ test, 95% CI), were cigarette smokers (P < 0.000 χ test, 95% CI), and had experienced drug injections (P = 0.032 χ test, 95% CI) and drug overdose (P = 0.007 χ test, 95% CI). They also had a history of hospital admission within the preceding year because of drug overdose (P < 0.000) and a record of being arrested and jailed in the past year (P = 0.028 χ test, 95% CI). These results indicated the need for more intensive and effective care for the opioid addicts in Iran.
Torres, Ana; Catena, Andrés; Megías, Alberto; Maldonado, Antonio; Cándido, Antonio; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Perales, José C.
Impulsivity is tightly linked to addiction. However, there are several pathways by means of which impulsive individuals are more prone to become addicts, or to suffer an addiction more intensely and for a longer period. One of those pathways involves an inadequate appraisal or regulation of positive and negative emotions, leading to lack of control over hazardous behaviors, and inappropriate decisions. In the present work, we assessed cocaine-dependent individuals (CDI; n = 20), pathological gamblers (PG; n = 21), and healthy controls (HC; n = 23) in trait impulsivity measures (UPPS-P model's dimensions), and decision-making tasks (Go/No-go; delay-discounting task). During the Go/No-go task, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded, and Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials (ERP) were extracted. Theory-driven ERP analyses focused on the No-go > Go difference in the N2 ERP. Our results show that negative urgency is one of the several psychological features that distinguish addicts from HC. Nevertheless, among the dimensions of trait impulsivity, negative urgency is unique at independently covarying with gambling over-pathologization in the PG sample. Cocaine-dependent individuals performed more poorly than gamblers in the Go/No-go task, and showed abnormal Go/No-go stimuli-evoked potentials. The difference between the No-go stimulus-evoked N2, and the Go one was attenuated by severity and intensity of chronic cocaine use. Emotional dimensions of impulsivity, however, did not influence Go/No-go performance. PMID:23441001
Peter G Osborne
Full Text Available Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm and elevated face temperature (0.7°C (P<0.001 above the effects observed in response to chewing gum (max 12 bpm and 0.3°C in 12 subjects. Gross behavioral indices of working memory such as numerical or character digit span in 8 subjects, or simple visual-motor performance such as reaction speed or accuracy in a two choice scenario in 8 subjects were not affected by betel quid intoxication. Betel quid intoxication strongly influenced the psychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (P<0.05 and perceived increased arousal (P<0.01 and perceived decreased ability to think (P<0.05 in 31 subjects. The EEG spectral profile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05 relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.
El Mhamdi, Sana; Lemieux, Andrine; Bouanene, Ines; Ben Salah, Arwa; Nakajima, Motohiro; Ben Salem, Kamel; al'Absi, Mustafa
Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been linked to a variety of addictive behaviors. The recent adaptation of the ACE measure by the World Health Organization (WHO) allows for the assessment of the negative role of additional adverse experiences, such as extra-familial violence. To date, the relationship between extra-familial violence and addictive behaviors has not been assessed. We report the contribution of ACEs, including the new scales for extra-familial violence, on the risk for mental health problems and addictive behaviors by gender in a sample of young adults in Tunisia. We conducted a cross sectional study in Tunisia during 2014, where we recruited 1200 young university adults who completed the validated Arabic version of the WHO ACE questionnaire in a university setting. Results indicated that intra-familial adversities were associated with increased risk for addictive behaviors, particularly in males. ACEs were also associated with increased risk for mental health problems with women showing more difficulties than men. Exposure to peer, community and collective violence was higher in males than in females and logistic regression confirms that exposure to extra-familial violence increased the risk for addictive behaviors both in male and females by two to three-fold. Mental health problems were associated with peer violence and substance abuse in males, but not in females. Results demonstrate for the first time the contribution of exposure to extra-familial violence on risk for addictive behaviors. Results highlight the need for addressing mental health and addiction in a community with high burden of adversity and violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Baclofen is a β-(ρ-chlorophenyl derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and is usually prescribed for spasticity of spinal cord origin, intractable hiccup, trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and tardive dyskinesia. The usual recommended daily dose ranges from 40-80 mg, and the total dose should not exceed 80 mg per day. A 41 year old woman using baclofen for migraine therapy intended suicide after a bitter headache attack by taking 37 tablets, 10 mg in each. On arrival to emergency room, she was conscious and co-operable, but somnolent, her pupils were normoisocoric and light reflex was intact bilaterally. On her follow up, respiratory insufficiency and unconsciousness was observed so she was entubated orotracheally and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU for advanced tests and therapy. No pathology was determined on cranial CT. On ICU follow up, she was unconscious and mechanically ventilated, her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3/15 (E1M1VE and pupils were mid-dilated with no light reflex. Since she was again conscious, oriented and co-operable on 19th hour of arrival to ICU and 20th hour of arrival to emergency room, spontaneous breathing trials was started. Extubation was carried out on her 31th hour of arrival to ICU and 32th hour of arrival to emergency room. In conclusion; since baclofen overdose may cause deep coma, it should also be included in differential diagnosis. According to our opinion, performing diagnostic toxicological tests is not always possible that’s why history and physical examination is fundamental in case of baclofen intoxication and we can get good results by giving frequent neurological examination, supportive and extracorporeal therapy in such a case.
Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam
Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Godier, Lauren R.; Park, Rebecca J.
The characteristic relentless self-starvation behavior seen in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) has been described as evidence of compulsivity, with increasing suggestion of parallels with addictive behavior. This study used a thematic qualitative analysis to investigate the parallels between compulsive behavior in AN and Substance Use Disorders (SUD). Forty individuals currently suffering from AN completed an online questionnaire reflecting on their experience of compulsive behavior in AN. Eight main themes emerged from thematic qualitative analysis; compulsivity as central to AN, impaired control, escalating compulsions, emotional triggers, negative reactions, detrimental continuation of behavior, functional impairment, and role in recovery. These results suggested that individuals with AN view the compulsive nature of their behavior as central to the maintenance of their disorder, and as a significant barrier to recovery. The themes that emerged also showed parallels with the DSM-V criteria for SUDs, mapping onto the four groups of criteria (impaired control, social impairment, risky use of substance, pharmacological criteria). These results emphasize the need for further research to explore the possible parallels in behavioral and neural underpinnings of compulsivity in AN and SUDs, which may inform novel treatment avenues for AN. PMID:26539148
Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Dansereau, Donald F.; Flynn, Patrick M.
For over 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services, and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequential epochs – the first era dealt mainly with client assessment and its role in treatment outcome and evaluation (1969-1989), the second focused on modeling the treatment process and the importance of conceptual frameworks (1989-2009) in explaining the relationships among treatment environment, client attributes, treatment process, and outcome, and the third (and current) era has expanded into studying tactical deployment of innovations and implementation. Recent projects focus on adapting and implementing innovations for improving early engagement in adolescent residential treatment settings and drug-dependent criminal justice populations. Related issues include the spread of HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases, organizational and systems functioning, treatment costs, and process related to implementation of evidence-based practices. PMID:20840168
Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Crucitti, Manuela; Conti, Claudio; Quattrone, Diego; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna
Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students. The possible effect of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression was also taken into account. Methods Participants were 115 men and 163 women (mean age = 23.62 ± 4.38 years); AIB was measured via the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), and IA severity by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Results The most powerful IBQ factor predicting IA severity scores was disease conviction. Irritability was the only emotional IBQ factor associated with IA severity. Nevertheless, disease conviction and alexithymia remained the only significant predictors of IAT scores when hierarchical regression analysis was executed. Discussion and conclusions Our results support previous findings showing that those characterized by health anxiety are more prone to an excessive and maladaptive use of Internet. Moreover, this study showed that irritability was the only emotional aspect of AIB predicting IA severity. This finding is consistent with the cognitive model of hypochondria, which states that cognitive factors (dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions) play a major role in the explanation of this psychopathological condition.
van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Bolle, Colin L.; Hegner, Sabrina M.; Hegner, Sabrina; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that habitual smartphone use is an important contributor to addictive smartphone behavior. Process related smartphone use is a strong determinant for both developing habitual and addictive smartphone beh...
Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel
The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.
Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J
Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW) - similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions - show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.
Full Text Available Millions of people regularly play so-called Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs. Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW-players and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed 1 trait sensitivity to reward, 2 BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum and 3 ventral-striatal resting state dynamics. We find a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state. On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait sensitivity to reward, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.
Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T
Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64 % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.
Yu, X D; Yu, J C; Wu, Q F; Chen, J Y; Wang, Y C; Yan, D; Teng, S W; Zhao, Y T; Cao, J P; Li, S Q; Yan, Y Q; Gong, J; Yao, K; Zhou, H; Wang, Z Z
Objective: To investigate the relationship among depression, anxiety, stress and addictive substance use behavior in secondary vocational students. Methods: Cluster sampling method and the Adolescent Health-related Behaviors Questionnaire were used to collect demographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, and addictive substance usage among 5 935 students in nine vocational schools in Chongqing, Zhaoqing, Ningbo, and Taiyuan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the addictive substance use behavior and psychological factors. Results: The detection rates of depression, anxiety and stress were 46.5% ( n= 2 762), 58.7% ( n= 3 483), and 29.8% ( n= 1 770), respectively. The prevalence of addictive substances was 74.8% ( n =4 440), traditional drugs was 0.8% ( n= 50), new drugs was 2.8% ( n= 166), other addictive drugs was 4.1% ( n= 241). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with the normal psychological states of secondary vocational students, the OR value of mild depression tendency alcohol and tobacco use behavior of secondary vocational students was 1.45; the OR values of mild anxiety, moderate anxiety, severe anxiety and very serious anxiety were 1.46, 1.46, 1.71, and 1.83, respectively; the traditional drugs use behaviors were 5.51, and 2.61, respectively, for the severe anxiety and very serious anxiety. Compared with the normal psychological state of secondary vocational students, the OR values of the severe anxiety and very severe anxiety were 2.56, and 2.66, respectively, for severe anxiety and very serious anxiety. Compared with normal psychological status of secondary vocational students, the OR values of mild, moderate, severe, and very severe anxiety were 2.14, 2.47, 2.39, and 3.45, respectively; all P values students; severe and above anxiety were the risk factors of drug use in secondary vocational students; anxiety was the risk factor for other addictive drug use in
Di Lodovico, Laura; Dubertret, Caroline; Ameller, Aurely
Excessive exercise is frequently associated with eating disorders and may degenerate into exercise addiction. We still don't know whether runners at risk for eating disorders are at risk for exercise addiction. Our aim is to assess: 1) risk for exercise addiction in runners at risk for eating disorders and 2) socio-demographic, behavioral and psychological characteristics distinguishing runners at-risk from not-at-risk for eating disorders. We assessed risk for eating disorders and exercise addiction using the SCOFF questionnaire and the Exercise Addiction Inventory personality traits with the Big-Five Inventory Test, socio-demographic data, eating and training habits in a sample of 154 healthy runners. Twenty five subjects had a score of ≥2 at the SCOFF and were included in the group "at risk for eating disorders". In this group, we found a higher percentage of subjects at risk for exercise addiction (p=0.01) and higher average scores at the Exercise Addiction Inventory (p=0.01) than runners not at risk (N=136). Runners at risk were statistically younger (p=0.03), women (p=0.001), started running to lose weight more often (p=0.03), lost more kilos since affiliation in their running club (p=0.04), and were characterized by neurotic traits using the Big-Five-Inventory Test (p=3.10 -6 ). Screening for exercise addiction and mood disorders could lead to a more accurate management of runners at risk for eating disorders. Identifying vulnerable individuals will facilitate the prevention of eating disorders and preserve the benefits of sport practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Rommel, Niklas; Rohleder, Nils H; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Haertel-Petri, Roland; Kesting, Marco R
Chronic methamphetamine abuse can lead to multiple health hazards. In particular, the substance is associated with devastating effects on oral health including symptoms such as rampant caries, gingiva inflammation, and xerostomia, whereby the term "Meth Mouth" occurs in the current literature. However, "Meth Mouth" pathology is primarily described on the basis of individual cases or has been evaluated without consideration of the mass of potential influencing factors. Therefore, we have conducted a systematic study to investigate the effects of accompanying factors and circumstances on oral health in cases of chronic methamphetamine abuse. In cooperation with two centers for addiction medicine, we assessed the data of 100 chronic methamphetamine users and 100 matched-pair controls between March 2012 and November 2013. We investigated their socioeconomic status, details of methamphetamine consumption behavior, collateral consumption of sugar beverages, nicotine alcohol, and other addictive substances including cannabis, opioids, other stimulants, and hallucinogens, and dental care. We found considerably greater unstable social circumstances, a high collateral consumption of substances with pathogenic potential for the stomatognathic system, and significantly poorer dental care in the methamphetamine-user group. Various factors have to be considered with regard to methamphetamine use and its influence on oral health. These factors can trigger potential damage by the drug methamphetamine possibly leading to the symptoms of "Meth Mouth", and should be considered in prevention and therapy strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alc...
Perry, Adam N; Westenbroek, Christel; Becker, Jill B
Cocaine dependence is characterized by compulsive drug taking that supercedes other recreational, occupational or social pursuits. We hypothesized that rats vulnerable to addiction could be identified within the larger population based on their preference for cocaine over palatable food rewards. To validate the choice self-administration paradigm as a preclinical model of addiction, we examined changes in motivation for cocaine and recidivism to drug seeking in cocaine-preferring and pellet-preferring rats. We also examined behavior in males and females to identify sex differences in this "addicted" phenotype. Preferences were identified during self-administration on a fixed-ratio schedule with cocaine-only, pellet-only and choice sessions. Motivation for each reward was probed early and late during self-administration using a progressive-ratio schedule. Reinstatement of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was examined following exposure to their cues and non-contingent delivery of each reward. Cocaine preferring rats increased their drug intake at the expense of pellets, displayed increased motivation for cocaine, attenuated motivation for pellets and greater cocaine and cue-induced reinstatement of drug seeking. Females were more likely to develop cocaine preferences and recidivism of cocaine- and pellet-seeking was sexually dimorphic. The choice self-administration paradigm is a valid preclinical model of addiction. The unbiased selection criteria also revealed sex-specific vulnerability factors that could be differentiated from generalized sex differences in behavior, which has implications for the neurobiology of addiction and effective treatments in each sex.
Wilhelm, C J; Hashimoto, J G; Roberts, M L; Sonmez, M K; Wiren, K M
Ethanol abuse can lead to addiction, brain damage and premature death. The cycle of alcohol addiction has been described as a composite consisting of three stages: intoxication, withdrawal and craving/abstinence. There is evidence for contributions of both genotype and sex to alcoholism, but an understanding of the biological underpinnings is limited. Utilizing both sexes of genetic animal models with highly divergent alcohol withdrawal severity, Withdrawal Seizure-Resistant (WSR) and Withdrawal Seizure-Prone (WSP) mice, the distinct contributions of genotype/phenotype and of sex during addiction stages on neuroadaptation were characterized. Transcriptional profiling was performed to identify expression changes as a consequence of chronic intoxication in the medial prefrontal cortex. Significant expression differences were identified on a single platform and tracked over a behaviorally relevant time course that covered each stage of alcohol addiction; i.e., after chronic intoxication, during peak withdrawal, and after a defined period of abstinence. Females were more sensitive to ethanol with higher fold expression differences. Bioinformatics showed a strong effect of sex on the data structure of expression profiles during chronic intoxication and at peak withdrawal irrespective of genetic background. However, during abstinence, differences were observed instead between the lines/phenotypes irrespective of sex. Confirmation of identified pathways showed distinct inflammatory signaling following intoxication at peak withdrawal, with a pro-inflammatory phenotype in females but overall suppression of immune signaling in males. Combined, these results suggest that each stage of the addiction cycle is influenced differentially by sex vs. genetic background and support the development of stage- and sex-specific therapies for alcohol withdrawal and the maintenance of sobriety. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Discussion: The results show that psychological interventions in cognitive behavioral approach played a very crucial role in reducing depression in the addict's resident at the therapeutic community. Therefore, depression, that is one of the relapse risk factors, could be obviated and more success gained.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving coping strategies and symptoms of drug addiction patients. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, the number of 90drug-dependent patients referring to clinics to stop taking drugs existing in the city of Urmia were divided into two experimental (n=45 groups and control (n=45 using random sampling. The experimental group received 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment in Carroll style while the control group received only methadone and the physical pills. All the participants completed coping strategies questionnaire at the beginning, during (after three months, and three months after treatment (follow-up. As well, they were assessed for the rate of improvement in symptoms of addiction and process of addiction treatment using by Madzly’s addiction profile questionnaire. Findings: The results proved the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and its survival. Conclusion: Cognitive behavioral therapy is very influential in the boost of coping strategies and the improvement of mental and physical health in drug-dependent patients.
Karajibani, Mansour; Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Dashipour, Alireza; Lashkaripour, Kobra; Abery, Maryam; Salari, Sajedeh
There are many factors which affect nutritional status of addicted such as lack o f knowledge, incorrect attitude toward modification of food pattern, and careless to food intake. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of educational program on nutritional behavior in addicts referring to Baharan hospital in Zahedan. Thirty-six addict patients were selected randomly. After recording general demographic data of patients, nutritional behaviors were determined. To determine the effectiveness of nutritional educational program, pre and post-tests were performed. Evaluation of nutritional behavior was determined as poor, fair and satisfactory levels. Statically analysis was performed by SPSS software. Most addict patients had a medium level of education. Improvement in knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients after intervention was observed as follows; decreasing KAP in poor level (2.8% vs. 30.6%), (3% vs. 50%), (25% vs. 80.6%), respectively; also, increasing KAP in fair level (7% vs. 55.6 %), (15% vs. 15%), (19% vs. 7%), respectively and increasing KAP in satisfactory levels (77.8% vs. 13.8%), (50% vs. 8.3%), and (22.2% vs. 0%), respectively (P education level after education (P nutritional KAP was improved in addicts. After intervention, there was a significant difference in the score of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores in patients in the current study. KAP was improved in patients after intervention including; decreased KAP in poor level and increased KAP in fair and satisfactory levels. This finding indicates that addict patients would like to modify their life style.
Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James
Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP. Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854 aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52; participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS, the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII, and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS. In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use. We analyzed the data in three steps: (1 identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2 deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN, and (3 computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female, weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.
Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Cho, Hyun; Jung, Dong-Jin; Kwak, Minjung; Rho, Mi Jung; Yu, Hwanjo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, In Young
The purpose of this study was to identify personality factor-associated predictors of smartphone addiction predisposition (SAP). Participants were 2,573 men and 2,281 women (n = 4,854) aged 20-49 years (Mean ± SD: 33.47 ± 7.52); participants completed the following questionnaires: the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (K-SAPS) for adults, the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System questionnaire (BIS/BAS), the Dickman Dysfunctional Impulsivity Instrument (DDII), and the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS). In addition, participants reported their demographic information and smartphone usage pattern (weekday or weekend average usage hours and main use). We analyzed the data in three steps: (1) identifying predictors with logistic regression, (2) deriving causal relationships between SAP and its predictors using a Bayesian belief network (BN), and (3) computing optimal cut-off points for the identified predictors using the Youden index. Identified predictors of SAP were as follows: gender (female), weekend average usage hours, and scores on BAS-Drive, BAS-Reward Responsiveness, DDII, and BSCS. Female gender and scores on BAS-Drive and BSCS directly increased SAP. BAS-Reward Responsiveness and DDII indirectly increased SAP. We found that SAP was defined with maximal sensitivity as follows: weekend average usage hours > 4.45, BAS-Drive > 10.0, BAS-Reward Responsiveness > 13.8, DDII > 4.5, and BSCS > 37.4. This study raises the possibility that personality factors contribute to SAP. And, we calculated cut-off points for key predictors. These findings may assist clinicians screening for SAP using cut-off points, and further the understanding of SA risk factors.
As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.
Majuri, Joonas; Joutsa, Juho; Johansson, Jarkko; Voon, Valerie; Alakurtti, Kati; Parkkola, Riitta; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Hirvonen, Jussi; Arponen, Eveliina; Forsback, Sarita; Kaasinen, Valtteri
Although behavioral addictions share many clinical features with drug addictions, they show strikingly large variation in their behavioral phenotypes (such as in uncontrollable gambling or eating). Neurotransmitter function in behavioral addictions is poorly understood but has important implications in understanding its relationship with substance use disorders and underlying mechanisms of therapeutic efficacy. Here, we compare opioid and dopamine function between two behavioral addiction phenotypes: pathological gambling (PG) and binge eating disorder (BED). Thirty-nine participants (15 PG, 7 BED and 17 controls) were scanned with [11C]carfentanil and [18F]fluorodopa positron emission tomography using a high-resolution scanner. Binding potentials relative to non-displaceable binding (BPND) for [11C]carfentanil and influx rate constant (Ki) values for [18F]fluorodopa were analyzed with region-of-interest and whole-brain voxel-by-voxel analyses. BED subjects showed widespread reductions in [11C]carfentanil BPND in multiple subcortical and cortical brain regions and in striatal [18F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In PG patients, [11C]carfentanil BPND was reduced in the anterior cingulate with no differences in [18F]fluorodopa Ki compared with controls. In the nucleus accumbens, a key region involved in reward processing, [11C]Carfentanil BPND was 30-34% lower and [18F]fluorodopa Ki was 20% lower in BED compared with PG and controls (p<0.002). BED and PG are thus dissociable as a function of dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission. Compared with PG, BED patients show widespread losses of mu-opioid receptor availability together with presynaptic dopaminergic defects. These findings highlight the heterogeneity underlying the subtypes of addiction and indicate differential mechanisms in the expression of pathological behaviors and responses to treatment. PMID:27882998
Pentz, Mary Ann; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Chou, Chih Ping; Riggs, Nathaniel R
Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.
Huo, Y; Lam, W; Chen, Z
Prior literature on humor primarily documents its positive effects on employees’ attitudes and behaviors, though increasing research on aggressive humor suggests some conflicting viewpoints. This article proposes a model based on social comparison and attribution theories to examine the influence of supervisors’ aggressive humor on employees’ strain and addictive behaviors. The tests of the research model entailed a two-wave study with 243 frontline employees from four manufacturing companies...
H BrockieMilan; H Kamarzarrin; H Zare
Objective: This study was carried out to determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy in improving coping strategies and symptoms of drug addiction patients. Method: In a quasi-experimental study, the number of 90drug-dependent patients referring to clinics to stop taking drugs existing in the city of Urmia were divided into two experimental (n=45) groups and control (n=45) using random sampling. The experimental group received 12 sessions of cognitive-behavioral treatment in C...
Flagel, Shelly B; Robinson, Terry E; Clark, Jeremy J; Clinton, Sarah M; Watson, Stanley J; Seeman, Phillip; Phillips, Paul E M; Akil, Huda
Rats selectively bred based on high or low reactivity to a novel environment were characterized for other behavioral and neurobiological traits thought to be relevant to addiction vulnerability. The two lines of animals, which differ in their propensity to self-administer drugs, also differ in the value they attribute to cues associated with reward, in impulsive behavior, and in their dopamine system. When a cue was paired with food or cocaine reward bred high-responder rats (bHRs) learned to...
The past decade has witnessed revolutionary changes to the delivery of health services, ushered in to a great extent by the introduction of electronic health record systems. More recently, a new class of technological advancements-technology-based behavioral health interventions, which involve the delivery of evidence-informed practices via computers, web-based applications, mobile phones, wearable sensors, or other technological platforms-has emerged and is primed to once again radically shift current models for behavioral healthcare. Despite the promise and potential of these new therapeutic approaches, a greater understanding of the impact of technology-based interventions on cornerstone issues of mental health and addiction services-namely access, quality, and cost -is needed. The current review highlights 1) relevant conceptual frameworks that guide this area of research, 2) key studies that inform the relevance of technology-based interventions for behavioral healthcare access, quality, and cost, 3) pressing methodological issues that require attention, 4) unresolved questions that warrant further investigation, and 5) practical implications that underscore important new directions for this emerging area of research.
Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive
A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, pInternet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.
Hariri, Aytul Gursu; Karadag, Figen; Gokalp, Peykan; Essizoglu, Altan
Risky sexual behavior associated with such sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as hepatitis B and C, herpes, Treponema pallidum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, is more frequent among psychiatric patients and parenteral drug abusers than the general population. The aim of this study was to investigate risky sexual behavior in psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia (SCH), bipolar disorder, and heroin addiction (HA), and to compare them with those observed in healthy controls. The study group (N = 485; 234 females and 251 males) consisted of patients that consecutively presented to Bakırkoy State and Training Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases in Istanbul and normal healthy controls. The chi-squared test was used for comparisons between groups and categorical variables. One-way analysis of variance (post-hoc Bonferroni test) was used for demographic data. A 22-item questionnaire for collecting demographic, illness history, and sexual activity data, and a structured 23-item form for collecting data on risky sexually behavior were administered to the participants. In all, 10% of the participants had a positive history for STIs. The majority of risky sexual behaviors was observed among the HA patients. The frequency of being sexually assaulted and having homosexual acts among the SCH group were higher. None of the patients had a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test result. The frequency of positivity for hepatitis B and C markers was highest among the HA patients. The provision of information and training about all STIs and risky sexual behavior should become routine in the treatment of mentally ill patients, especially those that abuse drugs. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health behaviors in women with addiction history. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in women drug treatment centers under the supervision of Welfare Organization of Tehran province in Iran. Data collection process was conducted in three centers including a questionnaire with an interview format, clinical examination, and Chi-Square test and MANOVA for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of 95 women participating in this study was less than forty, whereas the age of starting drugs was twenty two. A majority of the patients were unemployed (71% and more than that of two-third did not have a diploma education. Almost half of dentate participants had never or rarely brushed their teeth. Most of them had never used dental floss, while more than half had three or more times snacks or sweet drinks and more than three-fourth were daily smokers. The MANOVA analysis showed that the type of clinic to be visited, age, used stimulant, drug dependency length, the last time a dentist being visited and the brushing period had a statistically significant relationship with Decayed Teeth (DT, Missing Teeth (MT and Filled Teeth (FT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Women with the prior drug addiction history had an unpromising oral health status which was obvious in their self-perceived oral health. Taking the appropriate preventive and therapeutic actions aiming for promoting oral health status of them seems to be necessary.
Delayed reward discounting is a behavioral economic index of impulsivity, referring to how much an individual devalues a reward based on its delay in time. As a behavioral process that varies considerably across individuals, delay discounting has been studied extensively as a model for self-control, both in the general population and in clinical…
Ross, Edward A; Reisfield, Gary M; Watson, Mary C; Chronister, Chris W; Goldberger, Bruce A
Abuse of the psychoactive "designer drug" methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) has become a serious international public health concern because of the severity of its physical and behavioral toxicities. MDPV is the primary ingredient in so-called "bath salts," labeled as such to avoid criminal prosecution and has only been classified recently as a controlled substance in the United States and some other countries. However, it remains a danger because of illegal sources, including the Internet. MDPV is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant and is taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Administered via oral ingestion, nasal insufflation, smoking, intravenous or intramuscular methods, or the rectum, the intoxication lasts 6 to 8 hours and has high addictive potential. Overdoses are characterized by profound toxicities, causing increased attention by emergency department and law enforcement personnel. Physical manifestations range from tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, and seizures to those as severe as stroke, cerebral edema, cardiorespiratory collapse, myocardial infarction, and death. Behavioral effects include panic attacks, anxiety, agitation, severe paranoia, hallucinations, psychosis, suicidal ideation, self-mutilation, and behavior that is aggressive, violent, and self-destructive. Treatment is principally supportive and focuses on counteracting the sympathetic overstimulation, including sedation with intravenous benzodiazepines, seizure-prevention measures, intravenous fluids, close (eg, intensive care unit) monitoring, and restraints to prevent harm to self or others. Clinical presentation is often complicated by coingestion of other psychoactive substances that may alter the treatment approach. Clinicians need to be especially vigilant in that MDPV is not detected by routine drug screens and overdoses can be life-threatening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights
Crews, Fulton T; Walter, T Jordan; Coleman, Leon G; Vetreno, Ryan P
Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e.g., toll-like receptors [TLRs], high-mobility group box 1 [HMGB1]) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study reviews the relevant research regarding the relationship between the innate immune system and addiction. Emerging evidence indicates that TLRs in brain, particularly those on microglia, respond to endogenous innate immune agonists such as HMGB1 and microRNAs (miRNAs). Multiple TLRs, HMGB1, and miRNAs are induced in the brain by stress, alcohol, and other drugs of abuse and are increased in the postmortem human alcoholic brain. Enhanced TLR-innate immune signaling in brain leads to epigenetic modifications, alterations in synaptic plasticity, and loss of neuronal cell populations, which contribute to cognitive and emotive dysfunctions. Addiction involves progressive stages of drug binges and intoxication, withdrawal-negative affect, and ultimately compulsive drug use and abuse. Toll-like receptor signaling within cortical-limbic circuits is modified by alcohol and stress in a manner consistent with promoting progression through the stages of addiction.
[Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].
Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa
The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit.
Gendreau, Katherine E.; Potenza, Marc N.
Background/Aims: Studies have reported higher prevalences of four behavioral addictions (binge eating, compulsive shopping, hypersexuality, and pathological gambling) in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s disease relative to non-dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s. However, recent case-control and epidemiological studies suggest that prevalences of behavioral addictions in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s may be similar to background population rates. This study tests that hypothesis by examining the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) for evidence of these associations, taking into account the potential impact of publicity on reporting rates. Methods: FAERS reports in 2004 (pre-publicity for all but pathological gambling) and 2007 (post-publicity for all four behaviors) were analyzed. A threshold consisting of ≥3 cases, proportional reporting ratio ≥2, and χ2 with Yates’ correction ≥4 was used to detect signals (drug-associated adverse reactions) involving any of five dopamine agonists and any of four behavioral addictions. Results: No reports containing compulsive shopping and no signal for binge eating and dopamine agonists were found in either year. A weak signal was found for hypersexuality in 2004, with a stronger signal in 2007. A robust signal was found for pathological gambling in 2004, with a more robust signal in 2007. Discussion/Conclusions: These results suggest that publicity may increase reporting rates in the FAERS. Findings for binge eating, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality suggest that prevalences of these behaviors among those treated with dopamine agonists may be similar to background population rates and thus may not reflect an adverse safety signal. Further investigation of the relationship between dopamine agonists and behavioral addictions is warranted. PMID:25215211
Malik, Sadia; Khan, Maheen
To investigate the relationship between Facebook addiction, narcissism and self-esteem and to see if gender played any role in this equation. The correlational study was conducted from February to March 2013 at the Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Using convenient sampling, two equal groups of male and female students were enrolled from different departments of the university. Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale were used for evaluation. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 200 subjects in the study, 100(50%) each were males and females. Facebook addiction was positively correlated with narcissism(r=0.20; p0.05). Facebook addiction was a significant predictor of narcissistic behaviour (b=0.202; p0.05 each). Facebook addiction was a significant predictor of narcissistic behaviour and low levels of self-esteem among students.
Steinbüchel, Toni Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Külpmann, Ina; Kehyayan, Aram; Dieris-Hirche, Jan; Te Wildt, Bert Theodor
Background Internet addiction (IA) is associated with a high rate of co-morbid mental disorders, especially depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD and personality disorders and a considerable level of psychological strain. In terms of risk assessment, the present work investigates the current research literature on suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in 14 databases on title and abstract level for the most common keywords for IA, NSSI and suicidality. After deduction of multiple items, 2334 articles remained. They were filtered per inclusion and exclusion criteria. We identified studies that examined the relationship between IA, NSSI and suicidality, which were assessed by validated psychometric instruments. This allowed a total of 15 studies to be included. Results The relationship between IA and suicidality was examined in 10 studies, four studies examined the relationship of IA, suicidality, and NSSI, and one study exclusively focused on IA and NSSHB. All studies showed higher prevalence for NSSI and respectively suicidality of the subjects with an IA compared to subjects without IA, with point prevalence varying considerably between 1.6-18.7%. Discussion The results of the included publications suggest that Internet dependency is associated with an increased rate of non-suicidal self-harming behavior and increased suicidality, with suicidal ideation being more closely related to IA than suicidal actions. In order to develop a better understanding of causal relationships between IA, NSSI and suicidality, further longitudinal studies are required. Conclusion Against the background of the presented studies NSSHB and suicidality need to be explicitly addressed within the assessment and treatment of IA patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ardila, A; Moreno, C
In Colombia (South America) during recent decades the administration of scopolamine, extracted from plants belonging to the Datura or Brugmansia genus, has become an important neurologic and toxicologic phenomenon. These extracts have been popularly known as "Burundanga." Chemical characteristics and clinical features of scopolamine intoxication are described. Anterograde amnesia and submissive behavior found in patients intoxicated with scopolamine are analyzed. Burundanga intoxication is related to other toxic phenomena found in different countries and similitudes with transient global amnesia are emphasized.
Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N
The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bourdier, L; Orri, M; Carre, A; Gearhardt, A N; Romo, L; Dantzer, C; Berthoz, S
There is now a large body of evidence suggesting a significant association between emotional discomfort management, disordered eating behaviors and weight status. In the field of overweight and obesity, emotionally driven eating habits that resemble addictive behaviors are considered as a risk factor. This study aimed to investigate in a large sample of French university students 1) the associations between self-reported levels of psychological distress (PD), emotional eating (EE), food addiction (FA) and Body Mass Index (BMI); and 2) the potential mediation effect of eating behaviors (EE and FA) between PD and BMI. The responses of 1051 students (76.3% females) to self-reports assessing PD (Perceived Stress Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), EE (Intuitive Eating Scale-2) and FA (modified Yale Food Addiction Scale) were analysed. Associations between variables (Spearman correlation) and group comparisons by sex and BMI categories (Student's t tests/ANOVA) were tested, followed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) by sex. Among females and males, EE and FA scores were positively inter-related and correlated with PD scores and BMI. Moreover, among females and males, SEM showed that both EE and FA acts as mediators between PD and BMI. Hence, among educated young adults, using food consumption for down-regulating negative mood places the individual at risk for overweight and obesity. This study further emphasizes the necessity to take into account emotionally driven and addictive-like eating behaviors in interventions for promoting healthy eating and weight management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Y-H; Lin, Y-C; Lin, S-H; Lee, Y-H; Lin, P-H; Chiang, C-L; Chang, L-R; Yang, C C H; Kuo, T B J
Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. To develop a smartphone use/non-use pattern by mobile application (App) in order to identify problematic smartphone use, a total of 79 college students were monitored by the App for 1 month. The App-generated parameters included the daily use/non-use frequency, the total duration and the daily median of the duration per epoch. We introduced two other parameters, the root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD) and the Similarity Index, in order to explore the similarity in use and non-use between participants. The non-use frequency, non-use duration and non-use-median parameters were able to significantly predict problematic smartphone use. A lower value for the RMSSD and Similarity Index, which represent a higher use/non-use similarity, were also associated with the problematic smartphone use. The use/non-use similarity is able to predict problematic smartphone use and reach beyond just determining whether a person shows excessive use. PMID:28195570
Lin, Y-H; Lin, Y-C; Lin, S-H; Lee, Y-H; Lin, P-H; Chiang, C-L; Chang, L-R; Yang, C C H; Kuo, T B J
Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. To develop a smartphone use/non-use pattern by mobile application (App) in order to identify problematic smartphone use, a total of 79 college students were monitored by the App for 1 month. The App-generated parameters included the daily use/non-use frequency, the total duration and the daily median of the duration per epoch. We introduced two other parameters, the root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD) and the Similarity Index, in order to explore the similarity in use and non-use between participants. The non-use frequency, non-use duration and non-use-median parameters were able to significantly predict problematic smartphone use. A lower value for the RMSSD and Similarity Index, which represent a higher use/non-use similarity, were also associated with the problematic smartphone use. The use/non-use similarity is able to predict problematic smartphone use and reach beyond just determining whether a person shows excessive use.
Full Text Available The Price of Eternal Vigilance: Women and Intoxication by Michelle McClellan. The author argues that the “cultural meaning of intoxication is shaped profoundly by the reality that we seem to only hear about it from women who have given it up.” This is a problem when it obscures the reasons why women seek out alcohol. Resisting the seemingly inevitable trajectory of addiction and recovery narratives, McClellan introduces the concepts of “dry” and “wet” feminism to draw attention to both the cultural expectations women face and the ways that intoxication might serve as a form of resistance. By refusing to see intoxication as a sort of false consciousness from which women must awake, McClellan demonstrates that it reflects female ambivalence about mothering, sexuality, and pleasure itself.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.
de Kort, W L; Sangster, B
Information on acute intoxications during work in the Netherlands has been gathered from 4 sources during a 1-year period: 1. The registration of occupational accidents of the Directorate-General of Labour, by reviewing reports on accidents involving chemicals; 2. The Netherlands Poison Control Centre of the National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Hygiene, by tracing back consulting physicians; 3. The Dutch Centre for Health Care Information, by searching their data base for hospital admissions with relevant admission diagnoses and 4. A large Occupational Health Service, which for this purpose recorded incident cases in the population under care. During the period of investigation 5 deaths were reported: 1 case of hydrogen cyanide intoxication, 1 case of carbon dioxide intoxication, and 3 cases of hydrogen sulfide intoxication in combination with oxygen deficiency (nearby a liquid manure tank). At least 690 (supposed) acute intoxications during work occurred, which in 84 cases resulted in hospital admission. The total number of hospital admissions for supposed unintentional acute intoxications by chemicals, usually encountered in workplaces, in the Netherlands in 1984 was at least 477. Substances most often involved belonged to the groups of pesticides, lung and/or skin irritant liquids/vapors/gases and asphyxiants. The working branches most often involved were agriculture and market gardening sectors, (chemical) industries, repair and retail trade and some governmental services (police, fire brigade, defense personnel). The results show considerable underreporting in official statistics on acute intoxications during work.
Nemati, Zeinab; Matlabi, Hossein
Zeinab Nemati, Hossein Matlabi Department of Health Education and Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Background: Internet addiction and drug abuse isolate adolescents from their family and friends and cause damage to their health, relations, emotions, and spirit. In the society, adolescents’ addiction extracts high cost on health care, educational failure and mental health services. Objectives: The aim of this study wa...
Afsar Khalili S
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was developing the healthy behavior to change the attitude of students in order to decrease their tendency towards substance abuse and Reduction of Addiction Vulnerability Level. Method: This research was carried out by two methods of descriptive-analytic and quasi experimental design. First, 60 students of Shahid Beheshti University were selected randomly (of 2000 students from the University dormitory. Then, half of the students received the developing healthy behavior training program. The efficacy of this program was evaluated by the scales of “attitude towards substance abuse” and "addiction vulnerability". The data was analyzed by Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The result showed significant difference attitude towards substance abuse total scores and addiction vulnerability subscales between experiential and control group. Conclusion: The result of this research indicated that healthy behavior training program develops the negative attitude towards substance abuse and Reduce the Addiction Vulnerability Level.
Full Text Available The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit and non-addict-like (0crit rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges. Compared to cocaine-naïve control rats, 0crit animals showed higher glucose uptake in the caudate putamen (CPu and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC respect to naïve controls. 3crit animals did not show this adaptive higher glucose utilization, but had lower uptake in several cortical areas. Both cocaine and yohimbine challenges affected glucose uptake in control rats in several brain sites, but not in 0crit and 3crit rats, indicating that impaired glucose mobilization in response to these challenges is not specifically associated with addictive behavior. Compared to 0crit, 3crit rats showed higher reinstatement responses, which were negatively associated with glucose uptake in the ventral tegmental area. Data indicate that cocaine non-addict- and addict-like phenotypes are associated with several potential biomarkers. Specifically, we propose that increased glucose uptake in the CPu and mPFC is a function of controlled drug use, whereas a loss of striatal and prefrontal metabolic activity and reduced uptake in cortical areas are indicative of addictive behavior.
Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Atroszko, Paweł A
Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM. Results Using the empirical literature to date, it is demonstrated that there is evidence to counter each of the 10 myths. Conclusion It appears that the field is far from unified and that there are different theoretical constructs underpinning different strands of research.
Koball, Afton M; Clark, Matthew M; Collazo-Clavell, Maria; Kellogg, Todd; Ames, Gretchen; Ebbert, Jon; Grothe, Karen B
Food addiction (FA) may be related to poor weight loss outcomes; however, the literature on food addiction in bariatric surgery-seeking populations is limited. The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of FA in a bariatric surgery-seeking population and its association with mood, problematic eating behaviors, and substance use. The relationship between prebariatric surgery food addiction screening and postsurgical outcomes was assessed. Academic medical center. Adult outpatients (n = 923) seeking bariatric surgery underwent psychological evaluation between January 2012 and May 2014. Patients were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess FA. Of the original sample, 195 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients returned for medical follow-up at 6 (n = 169) and 12 (n = 113) months postsurgery; 26 (13%) patients at 6 months and 82 (42%) patients at 12 months were lost to follow-up or had not reached 1 year postsurgery. Fourteen percent of patients met FA criteria. Patients positive for FA were more likely to endorse greater levels of depression, anxiety, binge eating episodes, nighttime eating syndrome, and low eating self-efficacy. No relationship was observed between FA and current substance use. FA did not predict postoperative outcomes including weight loss, rehospitalization, or attendance at follow-up medical appointments. FA is related to psychological distress and eating disordered behaviors among bariatric patients. However, FA was not predictive of short-term (6-12 mo) bariatric surgery outcomes. Future research should determine how FA affects long-term postoperative outcomes and mood stability. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McGovern, Mark P; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Alterman, Arthur I; Xie, Haiyi; Meier, Andrea
OBJECTIVE: Co-occurring posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and substance use disorders provide clinical challenges to addiction treatment providers. Interventions are needed that are effective, well-tolerated by patients, and capable of being delivered by typical clinicians in community settings. This is a randomized controlled trial of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. METHODS: Fifty-three participants sampled from seven community addiction treatment programs were randomized to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy plus standard care or individual addiction counseling plus standard care. Fourteen community therapists employed by these programs delivered both manual-guided therapies. Primary outcomes were PTSD symptoms, substance use symptoms and therapy retention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: Integrated cognitive behavioral therapy was more effective than individual addiction counseling in reducing PTSD re-experiencing symptoms and PTSD diagnosis. Individual addiction counseling was comparably effective to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy in substance use outcomes and on other measures of psychiatric symptom severity. Participants assigned to individual addiction counseling with severe PTSD were less likely to initiate and engage in the therapy than those assigned to integrated cognitive behavioral therapy. In general, participants with severe PTSD were more likely to benefit from integrated cognitive behavioral therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the promise of efficacy of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy in improving outcomes for persons in addiction treatment with PTSD. Community counselors delivered both interventions with satisfactory adherence and competence. Despite several limitations to this research, a larger randomized controlled trial of integrated cognitive behavioral therapy appears warranted.
The goals of present article are three – fold: In the first step, it introduces a brief form of motivational Interviewing for addictive behaviors. Its primary basis is the idea that most substance abusers seek medical treatment without being ready to change addictive behaviors. As a result, attempts the addicts to change often lead to their resistance. Therefore, the use of motivational interviewing (MI in which clients are directed towards realizing their own reasons and arguments for changing their behavior, seems to be most oppropriate to motivate and prepare them for change. In the second step, the article tries to discuss advantages of motivational interviewing approach to often opproaches (e.g, skills training approach, Indirect approach and confrontational – denial approach and suggests that (MI is the most appropriate strategy for the substance abusers, according to their degree of readiness for change. Finally in the third step, the article attempts to indicate the current dominant strategies of addiction treatment in Iran and concludes that due to dominance and commonality of medicine – based treatment strategies of addictive behaviors, (MI could be introduced as an alternative and appropriate treatment strategy for drug addicts in Iran.
The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans. During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits. As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.
The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans. During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits. As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.
Robinson, M J F; Fischer, A M; Ahuja, A; Lesser, E N; Maniates, H
The motivation to seek out and consume rewards has evolutionarily been driven by the urge to fulfill physiological needs. However in a modern society dominated more by plenty than scarcity, we tend to think of motivation as fueled by the search for pleasure. Here, we argue that two separate but interconnected subcortical and unconscious processes direct motivation: "wanting" and "liking." These two psychological and neuronal processes and their related brain structures typically work together, but can become dissociated, particularly in cases of addiction. In drug addiction, for example, repeated consumption of addictive drugs sensitizes the mesolimbic dopamine system, the primary component of the "wanting" system, resulting in excessive "wanting" for drugs and their cues. This sensitizing process is long-lasting and occurs independently of the "liking" system, which typically remains unchanged or may develop a blunted pleasure response to the drug. The result is excessive drug-taking despite minimal pleasure and intense cue-triggered craving that may promote relapse long after detoxification. Here, we describe the roles of "liking" and "wanting" in general motivation and review recent evidence for a dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" in drug addiction, known as the incentive sensitization theory (Robinson and Berridge 1993). We also make the case that sensitization of the "wanting" system and the resulting dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" occurs in both gambling disorder and food addiction.
Nathaniel R. Riggs
Full Text Available Little is known about the co-occurrence of health risk behaviors in childhood that may signal later addictive behavior. Using a survey, this study evaluated high calorie, low nutrient HCLN intake and video gaming behaviors in 964 fourth grade children over 18 months, with stress, sensation-seeking, inhibitory control, grades, perceived safety of environment, and demographic variables as predictors. SEM and growth curve analyses supported a co-occurrence model with some support for addiction specificity. Male gender, free/reduced lunch, low perceived safety and low inhibitory control independently predicted both gaming and HCLN intake. Ethnicity and low stress predicted HCLN. The findings raise questions about whether living in some impoverished neighborhoods may contribute to social isolation characterized by staying indoors, and HCLN intake and video gaming as compensatory behaviors. Future prevention programs could include skills training for inhibitory control, combined with changes in the built environment that increase safety, e.g., implementing Safe Routes to School Programs.
Nazeri, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Arezoo; Aghaei, Iraj; Ghotbi Ravandi, Samaneh; Shabani, Mohammad
Prenatal stress could have great influence on development of offspring and might alter cognitive function and other physiological processes of children. The current study was conducted to study the effect of physical or psychological prenatal stress on addictive and anxiety-like behavior of male and female offspring during their adolescence period (postnatal day (PND) 40). Adult female rats were exposed to physical (swimming) or psychological (observing another female rat swimming) stress from day six of gestation for 10 days. Male and female offspring were assayed for anxiety-like behavior, motor and balance function and morphine conditioned place preference using the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), rotarod and wire grip assay and conditioned place preference. Offspring in both physical and psychological prenatal stress groups demonstrated significant increase in anxiety-like behavior in EPM paradigm, but no alterations were observed in motor and balance function of animals. Offspring in the psychological prenatal stress group had an increased preference for morphine in comparison to control and physical prenatal stress groups. Results of the current study demonstrated that animals exposed to psychological stress during fetal development are at a higher risk of developing addictive behaviors. Further research might elucidate the exact mechanisms involved to provide better preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Laporte, Audrey; Karimova, Alfia; Ferguson, Brian
The time path of consumption from a rational addiction (RA) model contains information about an individual's tendency to be forward looking. In this paper, we use quantile regression (QR) techniques to investigate whether the tendency to be forward looking varies systematically with the level of consumption of cigarettes. Using panel data, we find that the forward-looking effect is strongest relative to the addiction effect in the lower quantiles of cigarette consumption, and that the forward-looking effect declines and the addiction effect increases as we move toward the upper quantiles. The results indicate that QR can be used to illuminate the heterogeneity in individuals' tendency to be forward looking even after controlling for factors such as education. QR also gives useful information about the differential impact of policy variables, most notably workplace smoking restrictions, on light and heavy smokers. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available AbstractDrug addiction is viewed as a maladaptive memory induced by contextual cues even in the abstinent state. However, the variations of hedonia and appetite induced by the context during the abstinence have been neglected. To distinguish the representative behaviors between hedonia and appetite, micro-behaviors in abstinent animal such as psycho-activity and drug seeking behaviors were observed in morphine conditioned place preference (CPP. To confirm the different effects of reward between drug and natural reward, a palatable food CPP paradigm was compared in current work. After a 10-day training in CPP with morphine or food, the preference was tested on day 1, 14, 28, and the changes of micro-behaviors were analyzed further. Our data showed that tree shrews treated with morphine performed more jumps on day 1 and more visits to saline paired side on day 28, which indicated a featured behavioral transition from psycho-activity to seeking behavior during drug abstinence. Meanwhile, food-conditioned animals only displayed obvious seeking behaviors in the three tests. The results suggest that the variations of micro-behaviors could imply such a transition from hedonic response to appetitive behaviors during morphine abstinence, which provided a potential behavioral basis for further neural mechanism studies.
Blum, Kenneth; Downs, B.W.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R.; Fried, Lyle; Waite, Roger; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.
DNA Customization of nutraceutical products is here. In the truest sense, “Gene Guided Precision Nutrition™” and KB220 variants (a complex mixture of amino–acids, trace metals, and herbals) are the pioneers and standard-bearers for a state of the art DNA customization. Findings by both, Kenneth Blum, Ph.D. and Ernest Noble, Ph.D. concerning the role of genes in shaping cravings and pleasure- seeking, opened the doors to comprehension of how genetics control our actions and effect our mental and physical health. Moreover, technology that is related to KB220 variants in order to reduce or eradicate excessive cravings by influencing gene expression is a cornerstone in the pioneering of the practical applications of nutrigenomics. Continuing discoveries have been an important catalyst for the evolution, expansion, and scientific recognition of the significance of nutrigenomics and its remarkable contributions to human health. Neuro-Nutrigenomics is now a very important field of scientific investigation that offers great promise to improving the human condition. In the forefront is the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™), which unlike 23andMe, has predictive value for the severity of drug and alcohol abuse as well as other non-substance related addictive behaviors. While customization of neuronutrients has not yet been commercialized, there is emerging evidence that in the future, the concept will be developed and could have a significant impact in addiction medicine. PMID:28066828
Blum, Kenneth; Downs, B W; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Braverman, Eric R; Fried, Lyle; Waite, Roger; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D
DNA Customization of nutraceutical products is here. In the truest sense, "Gene Guided Precision Nutrition ™ " and KB220 variants (a complex mixture of amino-acids, trace metals, and herbals) are the pioneers and standard-bearers for a state of the art DNA customization. Findings by both, Kenneth Blum, Ph.D. and Ernest Noble, Ph.D. concerning the role of genes in shaping cravings and pleasure- seeking, opened the doors to comprehension of how genetics control our actions and effect our mental and physical health. Moreover, technology that is related to KB220 variants in order to reduce or eradicate excessive cravings by influencing gene expression is a cornerstone in the pioneering of the practical applications of nutrigenomics. Continuing discoveries have been an important catalyst for the evolution, expansion, and scientific recognition of the significance of nutrigenomics and its remarkable contributions to human health. Neuro-Nutrigenomics is now a very important field of scientific investigation that offers great promise to improving the human condition. In the forefront is the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS ™ ), which unlike 23andMe, has predictive value for the severity of drug and alcohol abuse as well as other non-substance related addictive behaviors. While customization of neuronutrients has not yet been commercialized, there is emerging evidence that in the future, the concept will be developed and could have a significant impact in addiction medicine.
Hormes, Julia M; Kearns, Brianna; Timko, C Alix
To assess disordered online social networking use via modified diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, and to examine its association with difficulties with emotion regulation and substance use. Cross-sectional survey study targeting undergraduate students. Associations between disordered online social networking use, internet addiction, deficits in emotion regulation and alcohol use problems were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance. A large University in the Northeastern United States. Undergraduate students (n = 253, 62.8% female, 60.9% white, age mean = 19.68, standard deviation = 2.85), largely representative of the target population. The response rate was 100%. Disordered online social networking use, determined via modified measures of alcohol abuse and dependence, including DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) screen, along with the Young Internet Addiction Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, White Bear Suppression Inventory and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Disordered online social networking use was present in 9.7% [n = 23; 95% confidence interval (5.9, 13.4)] of the sample surveyed, and significantly and positively associated with scores on the Young Internet Addiction Test (P addictive. Modified measures of substance abuse and dependence are suitable in assessing disordered online social networking use. Disordered online social networking use seems to arise as part of a cluster of symptoms of poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to both substance and non-substance addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Hamid Kamarzarin; Hosin Zaree; Hosin Brouki, M
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects) and witness groups (45 subjects) randomly. The members of experimental group were unde...
Schumm, Sophie; Sebban, Claude; Cohen-Salmon, Charles; Callebert, Jacques; Launay, Jean-Marie; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Boussicault, Lydie; Petropoulos, Isabelle; Hild, Audrey; Rousselet, Estelle; Prigent, Annick; Friguet, Bertrand; Mariani, Jean; Hirsch, Etienne C
1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication of mice is a standard model of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it does not reproduce functionally PD. Given the occurrence of PD during aging, symptoms might only be detected in MPTP-intoxicated mice after aging. To address this, mice injected with MPTP at 2.5 months were followed up to a maximum age of 21 months. There was no loss of dopamine cells with aging in control mice; moreover, the initial post-MPTP intoxication decrease in dopamine cell was no longer significant at 21 months. With aging, striatal dopamine level remained constant, but concentrations of the dopamine metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were markedly reduced in both groups. There was also a late impairment of fine motor skills. After MPTP intoxication, hyperactivity was immediately detected and it became greater than in control mice from 14 months of age; fine motor skills were also more impaired; both these symptoms were correlated with striatal dopamine, DOPAC and HVA concentrations. In bothgroups, neither motor symptoms nor dopamine changes worsened with age. These findings do not support the notion that PD develops with age in mice after MPTP intoxication and that the motor deficits seen are because of an aging process. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects and witness groups (45 subjects randomly. The members of experimental group were under 12 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by Carol method, and control group only have taken Methadone and other physical drugs. All participants at the beginning of research, during the study (after three months and three months after treatment completed self-efficacy questionnaire and Maudsley addiction profile (Map by a psychologist were assessed. The symptoms of addiction recovery and addiction treatment process. Results: Analysis of covariance indicated the treatment effectiveness and its maintenance on increasing of efficacy and reducing of the symptoms of Maudsley addiction profile. Conclusion: Cognitive behavior therapy is effective to increase self-efficacy and improve symptoms in substance abusers.
Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina
Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions.
SK Alavi Langroodi
Results: Results showed that cognitive - behavioral therapy, was effective in reducing the recurrence rate of drug addicted students. Conclusion: With regard to the effective use of effective, cognitive - behavioral therapy in reducing drug relapse and increase the motivation of individuals, Education program aimed at reducing drug relapse and increase the incentive for progress must be made. Keywords: Cognitive – Behavioral Therapy, addiction, achievement motivation.
I. V. Aleksandrova
Full Text Available RELEVANCE. Sepsis is always accompanied by endogenous intoxication (EI. It is very important to study EI in the patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.MATERIAL AND METHODS. Twenty seven patients with severe sepsis and thirteen with septic shock in the postoperative period were enrolled into the study. EI was assessed using the measurements of total and effective albumin concentrations (EAC, middle-molecular-weight proteins (MMWP and EI index (Kei=MMWP/ EACx1000.RESULTS. The use of the EI index in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock leads to improvement of diagnostic and therapy monitoring.
Chodkiewicz, Jan; Hauk, Mateusz
The aim of this research was to analyze the relationship between workaholism (defined as an addiction and a behavioral tendency) and intensity of work/family conflict (WFC/FWC). A group of 178 employees was surveyed three times in one year: six months before the annual leave, just after its termination and six months after annual leave. The Scale of Being Absorbed by Work (Skala Zaabsorbowania Praca - SZAP) by Golińska was applied to measure workaholism defined as an addiction, and the Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton to measure workaholism defined as a behavioral tendency. In addition, the Scale of Work-Family Conflict by Netemayer was used as another diagnostic tool. The results of the survey showed statistically significant positive relationship between workaholism measured by SZAP and the intensity of work-family conflict (WFC/FWC) at each stage of the study, while workaholism measured by SWBT did not reveal such a relationship. The results indicate a significant role of the applied Scale of Being Absorbed by Work in understanding the effects of workaholism.
Oberle, Crystal D; Watkins, Ryan S; Burkot, Andrew J
This research explored the exercise tendencies and motivations of individuals varying in orthorexia symptomatology. Participants were 411 university students, who completed the Eating Habits Questionnaire alongside measures of exercise activity and addiction in Study 1 (a modified version of the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Exercise Addiction Inventory, and the Compulsive Exercise Test) and various exercise motivations in Study 2 (the Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire and the Exercise Motivations Inventory-2). Orthorexia symptomatology was positively correlated with aerobic and strength-training exercise levels; all measures of exercise addiction; all measures of internal exercise motivation; and nearly all measures of exercise motivation for the purposes of psychological, social, health, and body improvement. Symptomatology was not significantly related to either measure that specifically assessed external motivation to exercise. Individuals high in orthorexia symptomatology are internally driven to exercise for the purposes of improving their physical and mental health, but these strong motivations also lead to exercise addiction characterized by a compulsive need to follow a rigid schedule of intensive exercise even in the face of injury, illness, or other problems. Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.
Full Text Available Recent studies show the similarity of reward-related neurocircuitry and behavioral patterns between pathological gamblers and substance addictive patients. Evidences proved that pathological gambling (PG and Substance Use Disorders (SUD are associated with deficits in frontal lobe function and that they show similar behaviors to that of patients with bilateral VMPFC lesions. The present article aimed to compare the results of two studies concerning the relationship between the Behavioral Activation System (BAS and the hemispheric lateralisation effect that supports the gambling behavior in addiction disease. In the two studies we considered a group of Cocaine Addictive (CA patients and high-BAS healthy subjects who were tested using the Iowa Gambling Task. Also metacognitive questionary and alpha band modulation were considered. It was found that the “left hemisphere unbalance” may be considered as a critical marker of dysfunctional decision-making in addictive behaviors (drug addiction and gambling behaviours and a factor able to explain the tendency to opt in favor of more reward-related conditions.
Kam Lun Hon
Full Text Available Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state. In contrast, neonates with ethanol intoxication may present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptomatology. Urgent exclusion of sepsis, electrolyte imbalance, drug intoxication, and surgical abdominal condition is critical. Using these illustrated cases, we performed a narrative literature review on issues of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children. In conclusion, a high level of suspicion and interrogation on ethanol or substance use are essential particularly in the lactating mother for an accurate and timely diagnosis of ethanol intoxication to be made.
Fedotov, I A; Shustov, D I
To determine the role of phenomenon of attachment to parents in the formation of therapeutic remission and the relationship between attachment styles and autoaggressive behavior in patients with alcohol addiction (AA). Sixty-two patients with AA and 30 controls were examined. Insecure attachment styles were most frequents in AA patients that indicated a role of attachment pathology in the development of the disease. Higher frequency of secure and preoccupied styles were noted in patients with AA with the duration of therapeutic remissions more than one year compared to those with shorter duration. No effect of duration of therapeutic remission on autoaggressive behavior was found in patients who did not receive special treatment. In AA patients, avoidant style was correlated with autoaggression in family and professional spheres, and high-anxious style was correlated with classical autoaggression in the form of antisocial behavior.
Hewitt, S M; Winter, R J
The case of a fit young man who developed rhabdomyolysis after a short period of immobilization following acute alcohol intoxication is described. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered in an intoxicated patient presenting with muscle tenderness, particularly after immobilization.
Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Stacy, A.W.
Extensive recent research has begun to unravel the more implicit or automatic cognitive mechanisms in addiction. This effort has increased our understanding of some of the perplexing characteristics of addictive behaviors. The problem, often, is not that substance abusers do not understand that the
Full Text Available Colchicine is an alkaloid extracted from autumnal Colchicum plant which is used primarily for its anti-inflammatory therapy effect. Acute intoxication with colchicine is uncommon but often severe and results in multiple visceral organ dysfunctions. The intoxication severity and mortality are directly depending on the ingested dose. The treatment is manly symptomatic. However, the development of specific anti-colchicine immunotherapy would offer a new therapeutic perspective. Authors report a case of a young patient that ingested 40 tablets colchicine, which caused a multiple organ failure and with fatal outcome.
Sojáková, Michaela; Žigrai, Miroslav; Karaman, Andrej; Plačková, Silvia; Klepancová, Petra; Hrušovský, Štefan
We report a rare case of serious voluntary intoxication by laboratory thallium monobromate combined with alcohol intake by a 24-years old man. The diagnosis of thallium intoxication was based on history, nonspecific but typical clinical symptoms including gastrointestinal complaints, painful polyneuropathy, alopecia, and confirmed by the finding of increased thallium concentration in the urine. The treatment, performed at the due time, consisted of decontamination of the stomach by irrigation, administration of active charcoal and Prussian blue, correction of water and mineral dysbalance, symptomatic treatment, and led to complete recovery.
Hatching the behavioral addiction egg: Reward Deficiency Solution System (RDSS)™ as a function of dopaminergic neurogenetics and brain functional connectivity linking all addictions under a common rubric.
Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; McLaughlin, Thomas; Cronjé, Frans J; Han, David; Gold, S Mark
Following the first association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism and severe alcoholism, there has been an explosion of research reports in the psychiatric and behavioral addiction literature and neurogenetics. With this increased knowledge, the field has been rife with controversy. Moreover, with the advent of Whole Genome-Wide Studies (GWAS) and Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), along with Functional Genome Convergence, the multiple-candidate gene approach still has merit and is considered by many as the most prudent approach. However, it is the combination of these two approaches that will ultimately define real, genetic allelic relationships, in terms of both risk and etiology. Since 1996, our laboratory has coined the umbrella term Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) to explain the common neurochemical and genetic mechanisms involved with both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. This is a selective review of peer-reviewed papers primary listed in Pubmed and Medline. A review of the available evidence indicates the importance of dopaminergic pathways and resting-state, functional connectivity of brain reward circuits. Importantly, the proposal is that the real phenotype is RDS and impairments in the brain's reward cascade, either genetically or environmentally (epigenetically) induced, influence both substance and non-substance, addictive behaviors. Understanding shared common mechanisms will ultimately lead to better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of relapse. While, at this juncture, we cannot as yet state that we have "hatched the behavioral addiction egg", we are beginning to ask the correct questions and through an intense global effort will hopefully find a way of "redeeming joy" and permitting homo sapiens live a life, free of addiction and pain.
Vorob'eva, T M
Two stages of alcohol intoxication were detected in an experiment on 21 rats during formation of addiction to alcohol. It has been shown that the emotiogenic hypothalamic zones may play the part of trigger mechanisms with infolvement of limbic and neocortical apparatuses. At the same time a different type of integration of addiction to alcohol food is possible, in which the emotiogenic zones do not play the principal part. The late stages of formation of addiction to alcohol are characterized by EEG hypersynchronia with a qualitatively different structure in the periods of abstinence and "saturation" with alcohol. A close connection has been recorded between the mechanisms of emotion, hypersynchronia and behavioral epileptic phenomena.
In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.
Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.
Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…
Full Text Available Background: Given the importance of adolescent period and impact of internet and virtual communication tools on high risk behaviors, this research was conducted to examine the relationship between addiction to internet and adolescent’s tendency toward opposite sex, sexual behaviors, alcohol, aggression, chatting and hacking. Methods: The population of this study included all (n=40597 junior and senior high school students (boys and girls in academic year 2014-2015 in Ardabil, Iran. 380 subjects were selected as the study sample by multistage cluster sampling. The instruments for data collection in this research were addiction to internet questionnaire, Iranian adolescent's risk-taking scale and the researcher-made tendency to chat and hacking questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS-22 software using correlation coefficient and simultaneous regression analysis. Results: The results showed a significantly positive correlation between addiction to internet and sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking (P<0.001, but there was no significant relationship between addiction to internet and alcohol. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that addiction to internet was able to significantly predict sexual behavior, tendency toward opposite sex, aggression, chatting and hacking.
Jenney, Christopher B; Petko, Jessica; Ebersole, Brittany; Njatcha, Christian V Nzinkeu; Uzamere, Teddy O; Alexander, Danielle N; Grigson, Patricia S; Levenson, Robert
The ability to predict individual vulnerability to substance abuse would allow for a better understanding of the progression of the disease and development of better methods for prevention and/or early intervention. Here we use drug-induced devaluation of a saccharin cue in an effort to predict later addiction-like behavior in a model akin to that used by Deroche-Gamonet et al. (2004) and seek to link such vulnerability to changes in expression of various mu opioid receptor and D2 receptor-interacting proteins in brain. The results show that the greatest heroin-induced suppression of intake of a saccharin cue is associated with the greatest vulnerability to later addiction-like behavior and to differences in the expression of WLS, β-catenin, and NCS-1 in brain compared to rats that exhibited the least suppression of intake of the heroin-paired cue and/or saline controls. Finally, because the self-administration model employed produced no significant differences in drug intake between groups, overall, the resultant changes in protein expression can be more closely linked to individual differences in motivation for drug. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huang, C.C.; Chu, N.S.; Lu, C.S.; Wang, J.D.; Tsai, J.L.; Tzeng, J.L.; Wolters, E.C.; Calne, D.B. (Chang Gung Medical College Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China))
We report six cases of chronic manganese intoxication in workers at a ferromanganese factory in Taiwan. Diagnosis was confirmed by assessing increased manganese concentrations in the blood, scalp, and pubic hair. In addition, increased manganese levels in the environmental air were established. The patients showed a bradykinetic-rigid syndrome indistinguishable from Parkinson's disease that responded to treatment with levodopa.
Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet
This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of
Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet
This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of
Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…
Balfour, David J K
This chapter considers the neurobiological mechanisms that are thought to mediate the reinforcing or rewarding properties of nicotine. It focuses on the data (derived principally from studies with experimental animals) showing that nicotine, like other drugs of dependence, stimulates the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurones that project to the nucleus accumbens and that these effects play a pivotal role in the biology underlying nicotine dependence. The reinforcing or rewarding properties of nicotine are thought to be associated particularly with the increase in DA overflow evoked in the shell subdivision of the accumbens. However, behavioural studies suggest that these properties of nicotine in experimental animals do not seem to be sufficiently potent to explain the powerful addiction to tobacco experienced by most habitual smokers. This chapter also considers the biological mechanisms that mediate the effects of cues and stimuli associated with the presentation of nicotine, which are thought to contribute significantly to the powerful addictive properties of tobacco smoke.
Ferreri, Florian; Bourla, Alexis; Mouchabac, Stephane; Karila, Laurent
New technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping , a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence-can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past. Remote or automated interventions (web-based or smartphone-based apps), as well as virtual reality and neurofeedback, are already available or under development. These recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners' beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals' practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine. Using the keywords [e-health], [m-health], [computer], [mobile], [smartphone], [wearable], [digital], [machine learning], [ecological momentary assessment], [biofeedback] and [virtual reality], we searched the PubMed database for the most representative articles in the field of assessment and interventions in substance use disorders. We screened 595 abstracts and analyzed 92 articles, dividing them into seven categories: e-health program and web-based interventions, machine learning, computerized adaptive testing, wearable devices and digital phenotyping, ecological momentary assessment, biofeedback, and virtual reality. This overview shows that new technologies can improve assessment and interventions in the field of addictive disorders. The precise role of connected devices, artificial
Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Addiction and its complications is one of the major problems in the world and various types of psychotherapy approaches are used for its treatment. Among these approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapies have been widely used for the treatment of addiction in recent decades. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapies on the treatment of addicts in Iran by systematic review and meta-analysis method. Methods: Meta-analysis method was used, without limitation, to investigate all internal databases as well as Medlib, Sid, Magiran, Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopuse, Iranmedex, and ISI. Finally, 12 out of 63 articles were entered into the meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate the heterogeneity of the studies. Results: In this study, 12 articles were investigated, which increased to 25 studies, including therapeutic approaches. In 6 studies, no significant difference was observed in the experimental group before and after intervention, and in the remaining 19 studies the difference was significant. Combination of the results of 25 studies and using a random effects model of meta-analysis showed that cognitive-behavioral therapy was effective in the treatment of addiction (p<0.001. The standardized effect size in the experimental group before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy, was estimated to be -2.08 and its 95% confidence interval was -1.57 to -2.58. The standardized effect size in control and experimental groups after cognitive-behavioral therapy was estimated 0.40 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.10 to 0.70. Conclusion: Given that cognitive-behavioral therapy is effective in reducing addiction and its symptoms, this method can be used as a common treatment of addiction.
Full Text Available Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD, and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905, and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.
Roncero, Carlos; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Palma-Álvarez, Raúl Felipe; Abad, Alfonso Carlos; Fadeuilhe, Christian; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara
Episodes of agitation are frequent in intoxicated patients who have a substance use disorder, a psychiatric disorder or both (dual diagnosis). For managing the agitation, it is necessary to act promptly in a safe environment and addressing any underlying etiology. Inhaled loxapine improves symptoms of agitation in adults with psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia) within 10 minutes of administration. Recently, some reports have documented the usefulness of loxapine in dual diagnoses patients with agitation. However, the efficacy of loxapine in intoxicated patients has not been deeply addressed. This report describes a case series of 12 patients (with addiction or dual disorder) who received inhaled loxapine for symptoms of psychomotor agitation during intoxication with different substances (eg, alcohol, cannabis, or cocaine) at 1 center in Spain. Data from 12 patients were reviewed, 5 patients were attended at the emergency room, 4 at the addiction and dual diagnosis unit, and 3 were treated during hospitalization for detoxification. All patients were under effects of substances. They had substance use disorder (including cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, hypnotics, and hallucinogens), and almost all (90%) presented 1 or more psychiatric disorders. One dose of inhaled loxapine was effective in 9 patients (75%), and in 3 patients, a second dose was required. Only mild dizziness was reported in 1 patient after the second dose. The acute agitation was effectively and quickly managed with inhaled loxapine in all intoxicated patients and enabled the appropriate clinical evaluation of the agitated state and the patient's management.
Kari A Johnson
Full Text Available Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses, and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that have slower neuromodulatory actions. The GPCRs represent a large proportion of neurotransmitter receptors involved in almost all facets of nervous system function. In addition, these receptors are targets for many pharmacotherapeutic agents. Drugs of abuse directly or indirectly affect neuromodulation mediated by GPCRs, with important consequences for intoxication, drug taking and responses to prolonged drug exposure, withdrawal and addiction. Among the GPCRs are several subtypes involved in presynaptic inhibition, most of which are coupled to the Gi/o class of G protein. There is increasing evidence that these presynaptic Gi/o-coupled GPCRs have important roles in the actions of drugs of abuse, as well as behaviors related to these drugs. This topic will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on receptors for three neurotransmitters, dopamine (D1- and D2-like receptors, endocannabinoids (CB1 receptors and glutamate (group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu receptors. The focus is on recent evidence from laboratory animal models (and some evidence in humans implicating these receptors in the acute and chronic effects of numerous abused drugs, as well as in the control of drug seeking and taking. The ability of drugs targeting these receptors to modify drug seeking behavior has raised the possibility of using compounds targeting these receptors for addiction pharmacotherapy. This topic is also discussed, with emphasis on
Full Text Available Objectives.Behavioral addictions (BA are complex disorders for which pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments have shown their limits. Non-invasive brain stimulation, among which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, has opened up new perspectives in addiction treatment. The purpose of this work is to conduct a critical and systematic review of tDCS efficacy, and of technical and methodological considerations in the field of BA.Methods.A bibliographic search has been conducted on the Medline and ScienceDirect databases until December 2014, based on the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and BA (namely eating disorders, compulsive buying, Internet addiction, pathological gambling, sexual addiction, sports addiction, video games addiction. Study selection, data analysis and reporting were conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines.Results.Out of 402 potential articles, seven studies were selected. So far focusing essentially on abnormal eating, these studies suggest that tDCS (right prefrontal anode / left prefrontal cathode reduces food craving induced by visual stimuli.ConclusionsDespite methodological and technical differences between studies, the results are promising. So far, only few studies of tDCS in BA have been conducted. New research is recommended on the use of tDCS in BA, other than eating disorders.
A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657
Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.
Full Text Available Tree shrews represent a suitable animal model to study the pathogenesis of human diseases as they are phylogenetically close to primates and have a well-developed central nervous system that possesses many homologies with primates. Therefore, in our study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used to explore the addictive behaviors induced by morphine. Firstly, to investigate the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, the number of jumping and shuttling, which represent the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity respectively, was examined following the injection of different dosage of morphine. Our results showed intramuscular (IM injection of morphine (5 or 10 mg/kg significantly increased the locomotor activity of tree shrews 30-60 min post-injection. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference in the morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitated withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. We evaluated the craving for morphine drinking by assessing the break point that reflects the maximum effort animals will expend to get the drug. Our data showed the break point was significantly increased when compared to the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after the abstinence. Moreover, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever after training. These results suggest that tree shrew may be a potential candidate for study the addictive behaviors and the underling neurological mechanisms.
Full Text Available BackgroundNew technologies can profoundly change the way we understand psychiatric pathologies and addictive disorders. New concepts are emerging with the development of more accurate means of collecting live data, computerized questionnaires, and the use of passive data. Digital phenotyping, a paradigmatic example, refers to the use of computerized measurement tools to capture the characteristics of different psychiatric disorders. Similarly, machine learning–a form of artificial intelligence–can improve the classification of patients based on patterns that clinicians have not always considered in the past. Remote or automated interventions (web-based or smartphone-based apps, as well as virtual reality and neurofeedback, are already available or under development.ObjectiveThese recent changes have the potential to disrupt practices, as well as practitioners’ beliefs, ethics and representations, and may even call into question their professional culture. However, the impact of new technologies on health professionals’ practice in addictive disorder care has yet to be determined. In the present paper, we therefore present an overview of new technology in the field of addiction medicine.MethodUsing the keywords [e-health], [m-health], [computer], [mobile], [smartphone], [wearable], [digital], [machine learning], [ecological momentary assessment], [biofeedback] and [virtual reality], we searched the PubMed database for the most representative articles in the field of assessment and interventions in substance use disorders.ResultsWe screened 595 abstracts and analyzed 92 articles, dividing them into seven categories: e-health program and web-based interventions, machine learning, computerized adaptive testing, wearable devices and digital phenotyping, ecological momentary assessment, biofeedback, and virtual reality.ConclusionThis overview shows that new technologies can improve assessment and interventions in the field of addictive
Atroszko, PA; Andreassen, CS; Griffiths, MD; Pallesen, S
Recent empirical studies investigating “study addiction” have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction,\\ud defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related v...
van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Bolle, Colin L.; Hegner, Sabrina M.; Hegner, Sabrina; Kommers, Petrus A.M.
The present study investigates the role of process and social oriented smartphone usage, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, gender, and age in relation to habitual and addictive smartphone behavior. We conducted an online survey among 386 respondents. The results revealed that
Bucurescu, I.; Stan, T.
The changes in the particular number of animals in two groups of 40 rats each subjected to intoxication experiments with beryllium sulphate was investigated. The two investigations had very different characteristics. In the case of chronic intoxication there was a marked lethality over given time intervals. In the case of subacute intoxication the number of animals decreased with time. It was found empirically that this change can be described by an exponential relationship which lends itself to statistical interpretation. (author)
Tserkovnikova, N. G.; Shchipanova, D. Y.; Uskova, B. A.; Puzyrev, V. V.; Fedotovskih, O. A.
The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to Internet addiction, as well as with their parents. The purpose of the article is to study empirically the inclination to Internet addiction in the context ...
... more confident as a nonsmoker, dealing with your nicotine addiction is easier. Some prescription medicines help people stop ... tobacco. Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gambling Addiction KidsHealth / For Teens / Gambling Addiction What's in ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...
Full Text Available Background: Drug addiction is one of the social health problems at the present century. The high risk sexual behaviors as well as drug abusing are factors of sexually transmitted infections. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and high risk behaviors among women who have referred to a de-addiction center. Methods: In this descriptive study, 76 women who have referred to Niloofar de-addiction center in Kermanshah-Western Iran, were recruited using convenience sampling method. Questionnaire was completed by all subjects and blood sample were taken to determine Hepatitis B, Syphilis, and Herpes simplex virus infection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t- test, Chi-2 and the Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of women was 35.22±0.99 year. 51.3% of subjects were illiterate and 48.7% were supported by social welfare system. There were not common needle using and multiple sexual contacts in the subjects. None of the subjects had positive test for hepatitis B and syphilis but HSV antibody was determined in 91.6% of subjects.Conclusion: In this study, high-risk behaviors and sexually transmitted diseases were less than expected. This study was carried out in a state governmental clinic, future studies in different populations of addicted women referred to prison and private sectors are recommended.
Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok
Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.
Blum, K; Braverman, E R; Holder, J M; Lubar, J F; Monastra, V J; Miller, D; Lubar, J O; Chen, T J; Comings, D E
The dopaminergic system, and in particular the dopamine D2 receptor, has been implicated in reward mechanisms. The net effect of neurotransmitter interaction at the mesolimbic brain region induces "reward" when dopamine (DA) is released from the neuron at the nucleus accumbens and interacts with a dopamine D2 receptor. "The reward cascade" involves the release of serotonin, which in turn at the hypothalmus stimulates enkephalin, which in turn inhibits GABA at the substania nigra, which in turn fine tunes the amount of DA released at the nucleus accumbens or "reward site." It is well known that under normal conditions in the reward site DA works to maintain our normal drives. In fact, DA has become to be known as the "pleasure molecule" and/or the "antistress molecule." When DA is released into the synapse, it stimulates a number a DA receptors (D1-D5) which results in increased feelings of well-being and stress reduction. A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the brain reward cascade, which could be caused by certain genetic variants (polygenic), especially in the DA system causing a hypodopaminergic trait, the brain of that person requires a DA fix to feel good. This trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behavior. This is so because alcohol, cocaine, heroin, marijuana, nicotine, and glucose all cause activation and neuronal release of brain DA, which could heal the abnormal cravings. Certainly after ten years of study we could say with confidence that carriers of the DAD2 receptor A1 allele have compromised D2 receptors. Therefore lack of D2 receptors causes individuals to have a high risk for multiple addictive, impulsive and compulsive behavioral propensities, such as severe alcoholism, cocaine, heroin, marijuana and nicotine use, glucose bingeing, pathological gambling, sex addiction, ADHD, Tourette's Syndrome, autism, chronic violence, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizoid/avoidant cluster, conduct disorder and antisocial
Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Morená; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia
The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient's life. This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (Paddiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (Panxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. This study is the first research into IA treatment of a Brazilian population. The improvement was remarkable due to the complete engagement of patients in therapy, which contributed to the success of the
Liang, Qiongdan; Lin, Jia; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yijiang; Meng, Xianxin; Yuan, Jiajin
Behavioral adjustment plays an important role in the treatment and relapse of drug addiction. Nonetheless, few studies have examined behavioral adjustment and its plasticity following error commission in methamphetamine (METH) dependence, which is detrimental to human health. Thus, we investigated the behavioral adjustment performance following error commission in long-term METH addicts and how it varied with the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-nine male long-term METH addicts (for > 3 years) were randomly assigned to high-frequency (10 Hz, n = 15) or sham (n = 14) rTMS of the left DLPFC during a two-choice oddball task. Twenty-six age-matched, healthy male adults participated in the two-choice oddball task pretest to establish normal performance for comparison. The results showed that 10 Hz rTMS over the left DLPFC significantly decreased the post-error slowing effect in response times of METH addicts. In addition, the 10 Hz rTMS intervention remarkably reduced the reaction times during post-error trials but not post-correct trials. While the 10 Hz rTMS group showed a more pronounced post-error slowing effect than the healthy participants during the pretest, the post-error slowing effect in the posttest of this sample was similar to that in the healthy participants. These results suggest that high-frequency rTMS over the left DLPFC is a useful protocol for the improvement of behavioral adjustment after error commission in long-term METH addicts.
Sussman, Steve; Pokhrel, Pallav; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Recent work has studied addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. This is the first longitudinal study using a matrix measure. We investigated the use of this approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years at baseline; longitudinal n = 538) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, hard drugs, shopping, gambling, Internet, love, sex, eating, work, and exercise). These were examined at two time-points one year apart. Latent class and latent transition analyses (LCA and LTA) were conducted in Mplus. Prevalence rates were stable across the two time-points. As in the cross-sectional baseline analysis, the 2-class model (addiction class, non-addiction class) fit the data better at follow-up than models with more classes. Item-response or conditional probabilities for each addiction type did not differ between time-points. As a result, the LTA model utilized constrained the conditional probabilities to be equal across the two time-points. In the addiction class, larger conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.40-0.49) were found for love, sex, exercise, and work addictions; medium conditional probabilities (i.e., 0.17-0.27) were found for cigarette, alcohol, other drugs, eating, Internet and shopping addiction; and a small conditional probability (0.06) was found for gambling. Persons in an addiction class tend to remain in this addiction class over a one-year period.
Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.
... attempt to stop taking the drug Recognizing unhealthy drug use in family members Sometimes it's difficult to ... sold to support drug use Recognizing signs of drug use or intoxication Signs and symptoms of drug ...
Full Text Available Autorki poruszają kwestię zmian w kryteriach diagnostycznych dotyczących zaburzeń związanych z hazardem oraz uzależnień chemicznych i czynnościowych w literaturze przedmiotu. Prezentują też krótki przegląd kolejnych edycji podręczników międzynarodowych klasyfikacji, zarówno Diagnostics and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – DSM, jak i The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems – ICD. W artykule przedstawiona jest również dyskusja badaczy na temat umiejscowienia zaburzeń związanych z hazardem w klasyfikacjach diagnostycznych. DSM-V umiejscawia zaburzenie hazardowe w kategorii „zaburzenia używania substancji i nałogów” (ang. Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders, DSM-V, w podkategorii „zaburzenia niezwiązane z substancjami” (ang. Non-Substace Related Disorders, DSM-V. Natomiast według nadal obowiązującego ICD-10, zaburzenie hazardowe pozostaje w obszarze zaburzeń kontroli i impulsów, pod nazwą „hazard patologiczny”.
Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang
The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...
Drgonova, Jana; Walther, Donna; Wang, Katherine J; Hartstein, G Luke; Lochte, Bryson; Troncoso, Juan; Uetani, Noriko; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Uhl, George R
The receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase D (PTPRD) gene encodes a cell adhesion molecule likely to influence development and connections of addiction-, locomotion- and sleep-related brain circuits in which it is expressed. The PTPRD gene harbors genome wide association signals in studies of restless leg syndrome (Willis-Ekbom/RLS; p p > 10 -8 associations in several reports). We now report work that seeks a) association between PTPRD genotypes and expression of its mRNA in postmortem human brains and b) RLS-related, addiction-related and comparison behavioral phenotypes in hetero- and homozygous PTPRD knockout mice. We identify associations between PTPRD SNPs and levels of PTPRD mRNA in human brain samples that support validity of mouse models with altered PTPRD expression. Knockouts display less behaviorally-defined sleep at the end of their active periods. Heterozygotes move more despite motor weakness/impersistence. Heterozygotes display shifted dose-response relationships for cocaine reward. They display greater preference for places paired with 5 mg/kg cocaine and less preference for places paired with 10 or 20 mg/kg. The combined data provide support for roles for common, level-of-expression PTPRD variation in locomotor, sleep and drug reward phenotypes relevant to RLS and addiction. Taken together, mouse and human results identify PTPRD as a novel therapeutic target for RLS and addiction phenotypes.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.
Filip, Małgorzata; Gołda, Anna; Zaniewska, Magdalena; McCreary, Andrew C; Nowak, Ewa; Kolasiewicz, Wacław; Przegaliński, Edmund
A lot of evidence indicate that endocannabinoids and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors are implicated in drug addiction. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist/partial agonist rimonabant on the cocaine-maintained reinforcement and relapse to cocaine seeking as well as on the cocaine challenge-induced hyperactivity in sensitized rats and on discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine in rats. We found that endocannabinoids were not involved in maintenance of cocaine reinforcement and its subjective effects since pharmacological blockade of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors altered neither self-administration nor discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. On the other hand, withdrawal from repeated access or exposure to cocaine and then a reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior or a sensitized locomotor response to a single cocaine challenge, respectively, was potently reduced by pretreatment with rimonabant. The latter observations may show that repeated cocaine treatment and the drug withdrawal produce--apart from behavioral effects--also different neural consequences in the endocannabinoid systems in rats.
Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith
To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare the effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy and logotherapy therapy in Reducing Depression and Increasing Life Expectancy in Drug Addicts. Method: This was an experimental study along with pretest/posttest and control group. All the addicts referring to one of the methadone addiction treatment centers in Qorveh City (Naikoo Salamat Center in 2013 constituted the population of the study. Initially, 60 students were selected by simple random sampling. Then, 30 participants were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group based on their scores on Beck Depression Inventory and Snyder’s Life Expectancy Test. One of the experimental groups received 10 logotherapy sessions and the second experimental group received 13 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy. This is so while the control group received no intervention. Results: The results showed that there was not any significant difference between group cognitive behavioral therapy and logotherapy in reducing depression. However, group cognitive behavioral therapy was found to be more effective in increased life expectancy than logotherapy. Conclusion: The results contain practical implications.
Li, Wendi; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Lin; Nie, Jia
The aims of this study were to test the associations of the Internet addiction symptoms with impulsiveness, loneliness, novelty seeking and behavioral inhibition systems among adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adults with non-ADHD. A total of 146 adults aged between 19 and 33 years involved in this study. Participants were assessed with the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report scale (ASRS), the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11), the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), the UCLA loneliness scale, and the Behavioral Inhibition System and Behavioral Activation System Scale (BIS/BAS Scale). The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that impulsiveness, loneliness, and behavioral inhibition system were significant predictors of Internet addition among adults with ADHD. Higher loneliness was significantly associated with more severe Internet addition symptoms among the non-ADHD group. Adults with high impulsiveness, loneliness, and BIS should be treated with caution for preventing Internet addiction. In addition, adults with and without ADHD should be provided with different preventative strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dávid, Balázs; Körmendi, Attila
Among behavioural addictions, addiction towards social media sites are identified, which are subtypes of compulsive internet usage. Among these, the most significant is the so-called Facebook addiction. Scientific experts agree, that this new phenomenon hasn't been known in detail yet, so it needs intensified scientific exploration. Different aspects of the personality are inclined to raise the probability of developing Facebook addiction. Neurotic and narcissistic traits of the personality are modifying the characteristic of Facebook use, and by this tendency, risk the individual for developing addiction. Our study aimed at measuring Facebook addiction properly, moreover to identifiy the maladaptive characteristics of Facebook use which are salient in the addiction. Our sample consisted of 117 secondary school students. To measure Facebook addiction we used the Hungarian translated version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale. To examine the special neurotic and narcissistic signs of Facebook usage we have developed our own questionniare. We measured neurotic personality traits with the MMPI "Psychasthenia" scale and we measured narcissism with the NPI-16. According to our results, narcissism and neurotic personality traits influence the use of Facebook and the maladaptive usage mediates the addiction.
A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH
Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...
Hasan Bozkurt; Serkan sahin; Salih Zoroglu
Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5), but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior....
Hardy, Raven; Fani, Negar; Jovanovic, Tanja; Michopoulos, Vasiliki
Food addiction is characterized by poorly controlled intake of highly-palatable, calorically-dense, foods. While previous studies indicate that risk factors for food addiction are similar to substance use disorders (SUD), these studies have looked at food addiction and SUD in independent samples, limiting the ability to directly compare food addiction to SUD. The present study was conducted to assess rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, childhood and adult trauma exposure, as well as presence and severity of emotion dysregulation, in a sample of women (N = 229) who either meet criteria for no addiction, food addiction only or SUD only. The prevalence of food addiction was 18.3% and the prevalence of SUD was 30.6% in this sample. Women with food addiction and women with SUD endorsed more depression and PTSD symptoms when compared with individuals with no addiction. Individuals with food addiction and SUD had higher total emotion dysregulation scores, specifically with difficulties in goal directed behaviors, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity, when compared to individuals with no addiction (all p's 0.05). However, women with SUD endorsed higher levels of total childhood (p < 0.01) and adulthood trauma (p < 0.01) as compared with women with no addiction or food addiction. These results suggest that women with food addiction and those with SUD share similar psychological characteristics and risk factors, with the exception of trauma histories. These findings have implications for the detection of risk for and treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work is to prove the relation between the personality traits and computer addicting. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2008 among the students of High School of Information Technology in Katowice. Material and methods: Research methods: Scale of Emotional Intelligens at Work, Social Competences Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Kimberly S. Young Test, Questionnaire to Assess the Level of Crises of Values, Directivity Scale and a questionnaire of 23 questions prepared for the research purposes. Results: 12.70% of the examined population met the criteria for computer addiction. In the own view, 76.34% considered themselves addicted to this medium. Conclusions: Personality traits such as emotional intelligence at work, inclination to authoritative behaviors as well as the value system may have influence on the addicting to a computer. No such relation was proven with reference to self – efficacy and anxious personality.
Swaran J.S. Flora
Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.
Zheng, Wei; Fu, Sherleen X; Dydak, Ulrike; Cowan, Dallas M
Manganese (Mn), upon absorption, is primarily sequestered in tissue and intracellular compartments. For this reason, blood Mn concentration does not always accurately reflect Mn concentration in the targeted tissue, particularly in the brain. The discrepancy between Mn concentrations in tissue or intracellular components means that blood Mn is a poor biomarker of Mn exposure or toxicity under many conditions and that other biomarkers must be established. For group comparisons of active workers, blood Mn has some utility for distinguishing exposed from unexposed subjects, although the large variability in mean values renders it insensitive for discriminating one individual from the rest of the study population. Mn exposure is known to alter iron (Fe) homeostasis. The Mn/Fe ratio (MIR) in plasma or erythrocytes reflects not only steady-state concentrations of Mn or Fe in tested individuals, but also a biological response (altered Fe homeostasis) to Mn exposure. Recent human studies support the potential value for using MIR to distinguish individuals with Mn exposure. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in combination with noninvasive assessment of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), provides convincing evidence of Mn exposure, even without clinical symptoms of Mn intoxication. For subjects with long-term, low-dose Mn exposure or for those exposed in the past but not the present, neither blood Mn nor MRI provides a confident distinction for Mn exposure or intoxication. While plasma or erythrocyte MIR is more likely a sensitive measure, the cut-off values for MIR among the general population need to be further tested and established. Considering the large accumulation of Mn in bone, developing an X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy or neutron-based spectroscopy method may create yet another novel non-invasive tool for assessing Mn exposure and toxicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paweł Andrzej Atroszko; Ståle Pallesen; Mark D. Griffiths; Cecilie Schou Andreassen
Background:\\ud Work addiction has been recognized as a potential behavioral addiction, and studies have consistently shown its negative relationship with psychosocial functioning. However, in many countries, such as Poland, very few work addiction studies are based on measures developed using an addiction framework. Against this backdrop, the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) was adapted for use in Polish samples and its relationship with psychopathology was investigated.\\ud Participants and...
Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask
Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...
Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Fukushiro, Daniela F.; Hollais, Andr? W.; Santos-Baldaia, Renan; M?ri-Kawamoto, Elisa; Berro, La?s F.; Yokoyama, Tha?s S.; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B.; Bizerra, Carolina S.; Proc?pio-Souza, Roberta; Hashiguchi, Debora; Figueiredo, Lilian A.; Costa, Jose L.; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Longo, Beatriz M.
There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of dru...
Payer, Doris E; Behzadi, Arian; Kish, Stephen J; Houle, Sylvain; Wilson, Alan A; Rusjan, Pablo M; Tong, Junchao; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P; McCluskey, Tina; Boileau, Isabelle
The dopamine system is a primary treatment target for cocaine dependence (CD), but research on dopaminergic abnormalities (eg, D2 receptor system deficiencies) has so far failed to translate into effective treatment strategies. The D3 receptor system has recently attracted considerable clinical interest, and D3 antagonism is now under investigation as a novel avenue for addiction treatment. The objective here was to evaluate the status and behavioral relevance of the D3 receptor system in CD, using the positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer [11C]-(+)-PHNO. Fifteen CD subjects (many actively using, but all abstinent 7–240 days on scan day) and fifteen matched healthy control (HC) subjects completed two PET scans: one with [11C]-(+)-PHNO to assess D3 receptor binding (BPND; calculated regionally using the simplified reference tissue model), and for comparison, a second scan with [11C]raclopride to assess D2/3 binding. CD subjects also completed a behavioral battery to characterize the addiction behavioral phenotype. CD subjects showed higher [11C]-(+)-PHNO BPND than HC in the substantia nigra, which correlated with behavioral impulsiveness and risky decision making. In contrast, [11C]raclopride BPND was lower across the striatum in CD, consistent with previous literature in ⩾2 week abstinence. The data suggest that in contrast to a D2 deficiency, CD individuals may have heightened D3 receptor levels, which could contribute to addiction-relevant traits. D3 upregulation is emerging as a biomarker in preclinical models of addiction, and human PET studies of this receptor system can help guide novel pharmacological strategies for treatment. PMID:23921256
Full Text Available Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.
Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Dreier, M; Müller, K W
Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.
Fletcher, Richard Ribón; Tam, Sharon; Omojola, Olufemi; Redemske, Richard; Kwan, Joyce
We present a wearable sensor platform designed for monitoring and studying autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity for the purpose of mental health treatment and interventions. The mobile sensor system consists of a sensor band worn on the ankle that continuously monitors electrodermal activity (EDA), 3-axis acceleration, and temperature. A custom-designed ECG heart monitor worn on the chest is also used as an optional part of the system. The EDA signal from the ankle bands provides a measure sympathetic nervous system activity and used to detect arousal events. The optional ECG data can be used to improve the sensor classification algorithm and provide a measure of emotional "valence." Both types of sensor bands contain a Bluetooth radio that enables communication with the patient's mobile phone. When a specific arousal event is detected, the phone automatically presents therapeutic and empathetic messages to the patient in the tradition of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). As an example of clinical use, we describe how the system is currently being used in an ongoing study for patients with drug-addiction and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Hunter, Sarah B; Paddock, Susan M; Zhou, Annie; Watkins, Katherine E; Hepner, Kimberly A
The study goal was to determine whether client attributes were associated with outcomes from group cognitive behavioral therapy for depression (GCBT-D) as delivered in community-based addiction treatment settings. Data from 299 depressed residential clients assigned to receive either usual care (N = 159) or usual care plus GCBT-D (N = 140) were examined. Potential moderators included gender, race/ethnicity, education, referral status, and problem substance use. Study outcomes at 6 months post-baseline included changes in depressive symptoms, mental health functioning, negative consequences from substance use, and percentage of days abstinent. Initial examination indicated that non-Hispanic Whites had significantly better outcomes than other racial/ethnic groups on two of the four outcomes. After correcting for multiple testing, none of the examined client attributes moderated the treatment effect. GCBT-D appears effective; however, the magnitude and consistency of treatment effects indicate that it may be less helpful among members of racial/ethnic minority groups and is worthy of future study.
Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Berner, Laura A.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.
Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets...
Chen, Xinguang; Lau, Maggie; Kan, Ming Yue; Chiang, I-Chyun; Hu, Yih-Jin; Gong, Jie; Li, Lue; Ngok, King-Lun
This study aimed at assessing the differences in prevalence rates of common health behavior among adolescents in the five Chinese cities and the influential factors at the contextual and individual levels. We compared the standardized rates of three lifestyle behaviors (sedentary, dietary, and physical activity) and three addictive behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and participation in gambling) among a sample of 13,950 adolescents. The sample was randomly selected from five cities, including Hong Kong, Macau, Taipei, Zhuhai, and Wuhan. Population size, GDP per capita, and literacy at the city level as well as parental monitoring and school performance at the student's level were assessed. Multi-level mixed effect models were used to examine the interaction of individual level factors with study sites. The six health behaviors differed significantly across sites with the highest rates of alcohol consumption in Hong Kong (39.5 %), of cigarette smoking in Macau (9.8 %), and of gambling in Taipei (37.1 %) and Hong Kong (35.9 %). The city-level measures were associated with only a few behavioral measures. Relative to Hong Kong, parental monitoring had stronger association with the three addictive behaviors in the other sites. Findings suggest that although the study sites share similar Chinese culture, students in the five cities differed from each other with regard to levels of health behaviors. Relative to the broad socioeconomic development, differences in parental monitoring played a significant role in explaining the observed difference.
Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M
Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches.
Full Text Available The possibilities offered by the use of the Internet increasingly intensify the problem of Internet addiction, which has become more prevalent in the last decade, marked by the growing availability of mobile devices and new media and their exacerbation of the problem. Research on Internet addiction, initiated by Kimberly Young at the end of the twentieth century, usually appears in the literature in the context of young people who have been found to be most vulnerable. The phenomenon is known as Adolescent Internet Addiction. Compulsive use of the Internet is a complex phenomenon, its effects being visible in almost all aspects of a young person’s social life. It is manifested in a variety of pathological behaviors and emotional states grouped into several major psycho-physical and social effects that may appear simultaneously, e.g. anger, depression, loneliness or anxiety associated with the lack of access to the network, the weakening of social ties, withdrawal from real life, lack of educational achievement, chronic fatigue or deteriorating health. The authors of this study aim to assess the level of Internet addiction among adolescents in Poland and indicate its main behavioral manifestations, in the students surveyed, which influence their pathological use of the Internet. Our study involved a total of 505 students from three high schools located in Rzeszow (N = 505 and was carried out by questionnaires, including, among others, The Problematic Use of the Internet (PUI which is the Polish adaptation of Kimberly Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT (Cronbach’s α = 0.89. Statistical analysis of responses from the PUI test allowed us to determine (1 the level of Internet addiction among these adolescents, whereas the univariate (ANOVA analysis enabled us (2 to verify the hypothesis of the existence of differences in the level of Internet addiction among the investigated groups as far as gender, place of residence or grade are concerned
Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247
Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal
"addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... "video game addiction" exists. The chapter highlights potential problems that arise when psychiatric disorders are transferred across cultures. The dissertation concludes that there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the notion that "Internet gaming disorder" is an addictive disorder....
George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T.S.
Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment. PMID:29540923
George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S
Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment.
Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.
The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026
Kim, Hyoun S; Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Bertoni, Daniela; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Medeiros; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano
We examined the association between kleptomania and addictive disorders, including behavioral addictions. Fifty-three individuals with a diagnosis of kleptomania completed measures of kleptomania severity, semi-structured clinical interviews to assess co-morbid diagnosis of addictive disorders, and the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) assessing an array of addictive behaviors. 20.75% of the sample met criteria for an addictive disorder; four for a substance use disorder and four for a behavioral addiction. Kleptomania severity was significantly associated with compulsive work and shopping measured by the SPQ. The results suggest the need to assess a wide array of addictive behaviors in individuals with kleptomania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tserkovnikova, Nataliya G.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Uskova, Bella A.; Puzyrev, Viktor V.; Fedotovskih, Olga ?.
The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to…
... evidence-based treatment. Medications developed to treat opioid addiction work through the same opioid receptors as the addictive drug, but are safer and less likely to produce the harmful behaviors that characterize addiction. Three types of medications include: (1) agonists, which ...
Yuan Fei; Yuan Yi; Liu Yinshe; Zhao Jun; Weng Xuchu
Objective: To identify the neural mechanisms of impulsivity and the response inhibition deficits of the chronic heroin users using event-related functional MRI (stop-signal task). Methods: Seventeen individuals with heroin dependence and 17 healthy control subjects underwent fMRI scan while executing stop -signal task after anatomical scanning in 3.0 T scanner. The AFNI package was used for fMRI data preprocessing and statistical analysis. Results: The behavioral data showed that the stop signal reaction rime (SSRT) of heroin users was significantly longer than that of the control group. There was no significant difference in activation of the primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area between two groups. Comparing to the control group, heroin users had weaker activation in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulated cortex, but stronger activation in bilateral striatum and amygdala while behavioral inhibition needed. Conclusion: The results suggest that heroin users have significant changes within impulsivity and inhibitory network, where the right prefrontal cortex is considered as main region for inhibition, while the anterior cingulated cortex is associated with error monitoring, and the amygdale controls impulsivity and emotion. (authors)
Vallée, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Bellocchio, Luigi; Hébert-Chatelain, Etienne; Monlezun, Stéphanie; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Kasanetz, Fernando; Baillie, Gemma L; Panin, Francesca; Cathala, Adeline; Roullot-Lacarrière, Valérie; Fabre, Sandy; Hurst, Dow P; Lynch, Diane L; Shore, Derek M; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Spampinato, Umberto; Revest, Jean-Michel; Maldonado, Rafael; Reggio, Patricia H; Ross, Ruth A; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo
Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, and its potential functional effects have been largely uninvestigated. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via activation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling-specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negative feedback mediated by pregnenolone reveals a previously unknown paracrine/autocrine loop protecting the brain from CB1 receptor overactivation that could open an unforeseen approach for the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction.
Grobosch, Thomas; Angelow, Boris; Schönberg, Lena; Lampe, Dagmar
A 55-year-old man came to the hospital with a bleeding wound on his tongue. The coating of his tongue was green, and his sputum was red. Because an increased international normalized ratio-value was measured, a blood sample was sent to our laboratory with the suspicion of coumarin intoxication. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis confirmed the poisoning was by bromadiolone, with its maximum serum concentration at 440 microg/L. The analysis of further samples resulted in a calculated elimination half-life of 140 h. The analytical method described was developed for the determination and quantitation of bromadialone using LC-MS. This method is suitable for the simultaneous identification and quantitation of 10 indirect anticoagulants in human serum, which include five superwarfarins (brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, difethialone, and flocoumafen) as rodenticides licenced in Germany and five other vitamin K antagonists (acenocoumarol, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, phenprocoumon, and warfarin). The method is based on an acidic (pH 4.2) liquid-liquid extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS analysis. Analytical separation was carried out using an Atlantis C18 column (2.1 x 20 mm, 3 microm). The mobile phase consisted of methanol/0.1% formic acid; the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min, and the time needed for analysis was 5 min. The lower limit of quantitation was 5 microg/L (signal-to-noise > 10).
Steers, Mai-Ly N; Moreno, Megan A; Neighbors, Clayton
Social media has become a primary way for college students to communicate aspects of their daily lives to those within their social network. Such communications often include substance use displays (e.g., selfies of college students drinking). Furthermore, students' substance use displays have been found to robustly predict not only the posters' substance use-related outcomes (e.g., consumption, problems) but also that of their social networking peers. The current review summarizes findings of recent literature exploring the intersection between social media and substance use. Specifically, we examine how and why such substance use displays might shape college students' internalized norms surrounding substance use and how it impacts their substance use-related behaviors. Additional social media-related interventions are needed in order to target reduction of consumption among this at-risk group. We discuss the technological and methodological challenges inherent to conducting research and devising interventions in this domain.
Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C
More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders.
Spears, Claire Adams; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Liang; Wu, Cai; Anderson, Natalie K; Houchins, Sean C; Vinci, Christine; Hoover, Diana Stewart; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Cinciripini, Paul M; Waters, Andrew J; Wetter, David W
To examine cognitive and affective mechanisms underlying mindfulness-based addiction treatment (MBAT) versus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and usual care (UC) for smoking cessation. Participants in the parent study from which data were drawn (N = 412; 54.9% female; 48.2% African American, 41.5% non-Latino White, 5.4% Latino, 4.9% other; 57.6% annual income <$30,000) were randomized to MBAT (n = 154), CBT (n = 155), or UC (n = 103). From quit date through 26 weeks postquit, participants completed measures of emotions, craving, dependence, withdrawal, self-efficacy, and attentional bias. Biochemically confirmed 7-day smoking abstinence was assessed at 4 and 26 weeks postquit. Although the parent study did not find a significant treatment effect on abstinence, mixed-effects regression models were conducted to examine treatment effects on hypothesized mechanisms, and indirect effects of treatments on abstinence were tested. Participants receiving MBAT perceived greater volitional control over smoking and evidenced lower volatility of anger than participants in both other treatments. However, there were no other significant differences between MBAT and CBT. Compared with those receiving UC, MBAT participants reported lower anxiety, concentration difficulties, craving, and dependence, as well as higher self-efficacy for managing negative affect without smoking. Indirect effects of MBAT versus UC on abstinence occurred through each of these mechanisms. Whereas several differences emerged between MBAT and UC, MBAT and CBT had similar effects on several of the psychosocial mechanisms implicated in tobacco dependence. Results help to shed light on similarities and differences between mindfulness-based and other active smoking cessation treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong
Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.
Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu
Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.
Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.
Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.
Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju
Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.
Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju
Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658
Ray, Suchismita; Mun, Eun-Young; Buckman, Jennifer F; Udo, Tomoko; Bates, Marsha E
Memory affects behavior by allowing events to be anticipated and goals to be planned based on previous experiences. Emotional memory, in particular, is thought to play a central role in behavior in general and in drinking behavior in particular. Alcohol intoxication has been shown to disrupt intentional, conscious memory, but not unintentional, implicit memory for neutral stimuli; however, its effects on emotional memory are not well understood. This study examined whether alcohol intoxication affected memory for emotionally valenced stimuli by testing explicit recall and implicit repetition priming of emotional picture cues. Participants were 36 young adults (21-24 years old, 16 women) who received an alcohol, placebo, or no-alcohol beverage. Both cue exposure and memory testing occurred after beverage consumption (i.e., during intoxication for the alcohol group). Alcohol intoxication impaired explicit recall of all cue types but did not impair implicit repetition priming. Emotionally negative and positive cues were more often recalled compared with neutral cues across all beverage groups, and emotionally negative cues demonstrated more priming than emotionally positive or neutral cues in all beverage groups. Alcohol intoxication disrupted effortful recall of all cues, although the relative memory advantage of emotionally valenced over-neutral stimuli remained even after drinking. The effects of alcohol on unintentional memory priming were not statistically significant, but the effects of emotionally negative cues were. Further research is needed to better understand alcohol intoxication and emotional valence effects on memory processes during implicit memory tasks and the possibility that negative mood facilitates memory priming of negative emotional stimuli.
We used animal model of neurotoxicity in rats, which provided the possibility of studying biological pathophysiological phenomena in vivo and afterwards in vitro conditions. The analysis of electrocortical brain activity using mathematical methods can describe the changes induced by aluminum intoxication in rat as an animal model. In physiological and pathophysiological conditions, on experimental models, mechanisms related to changes in behavior, plasticit...
... to your doctor about dosage. What is drug dependence? Drug dependence is when the way your body works ... medicine. What is the difference between drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction? Drug tolerance and dependence are a normal part of ...
Yau, Yvonne H. C.; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.
Internet use and video-game playing are experiencing rapid growth among both youth and adult populations. Research suggests that a minority of users experience symptoms traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. Mental health professionals, policy makers and the general public continue to debate the issue of Internet addiction (IA) and problematic video-game playing (PVG). This review identifies existing studies into the clinical and biological characteristics of these disorders that may help guide decisions as to whether or not IA and PVG should be grouped together with substance use disorders (SUDs). PMID:24288435
Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.
Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks.
Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke
To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Prabhu, Poornima; Srinivas, Raju; Vishwanathan, Kashi; Raavi, Abhilash
Introduction: Alcohol and tobacco consumption are highly correlated behaviors. Aim: To assess the factors influencing alcohol and tobacco addiction and their impact on personal, family, and social life among patients attending the Spandana Nursing Home and De-addiction Centre, Bangalore. The objectives are to assess the various factors leading to alcohol and tobacco addiction, to assess the influence of addiction on personal, family, and social life, and also to create awareness among the com...
Bisschops, L.L.; Bisschops, W.A.; Vroegop, M.P.; Rossum, L.K. van; Kramers, C.
As paracetamol is widely used and easily available acetaminophen auto-intoxication is frequently seen. In the majority of patients no complications will occur, but in a small group it may lead to liver damage and death. Children are less susceptible to complications than adults. Cornerstone of
Antonio, Nelson; Diehl, Alessandra; Niel, Marcelo; Pillon, Sandra; Ratto, Lilian; Pinheiro, Maria Carolina; Silveira, Dartiu; Otani, Thais Zelia; Otani, Victor; Cordeiro, Quirino; Ushida, Ricardo
To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71) and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91). The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02) and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25). We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012), but not in the alcohol group. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.
Full Text Available Summary Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. Results: A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71 and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91. The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02 and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25. We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012, but not in the alcohol group. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.
Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.
An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.
Kuss, Daria J
In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that
Kuss, Daria J
In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that
Gearhardt, Ashley N.; White, Marney A.; Potenza, Marc N.
Binge eating disorder (BED) shares many characteristics with addictive behaviors (e.g., diminished control, continued use despite negative consequences), and a body of scientific literature is building to support addiction conceptualizations of problematic eating. Despite similarities, BED and “food addiction” may represent unique yet overlapping conditions. Although the exploration of food addiction is relatively new, understanding the relationship between food addiction and BED may be informative in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of problematic eating. In the following paper, we 1) examine the theoretical similarities and differences between BED and addiction, 2) review recent empirical evidence that speak to the relationship between BED and food addiction and 3) discuss the implications of associations between BED and food addiction with respect to clinical interventions. PMID:21999695
Mohammad Mehdi Rahmati
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and analyse some background factors that has some effect on the formation and continuity of addictive behavior among a sample of 1500 addicted persons on the 10 provinces of Iran. The article explores the processes under which the addictive behavior occures. Based on the findings of a survey research on a sample of 1500 drug abusers, it is concluded that factors such as addiction to cigarettes, alcohol, drug type, and methods and situations of approaching and access to drugs are effective in beginning of addiction. At last , the article pays special attention to addiction among women as the drug abusers.
Tavolacci, Marie Pierre; Ladner, Joel; Grigioni, Sebastien; Richard, Laure; Villet, Herve; Dechelotte, Pierre
University students face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers as well as concerns about the future. Stress should not be considered on its own, but should be associated with potential risk behaviors leading to onset of substance use and related problems heightened during the university period. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of main substance use and behavioral addictions among students in higher education in France and to examine the relationship with perceived stress. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by university student volunteers from Upper Normandy (France) either by anonymous online questionnaire or by paper questionnaire. Data collected included socio-economic characteristics, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis) and hazardous behaviors: alcohol abuse problems, smoking, consumption of cannabis, eating disorders, and cyber addiction. A total of 1876 students were included. Mean PSS score was 15.9 (standard deviation = 7.2). Highly stressed students (4th quartile) were compared with lesser stressed students (1st quartile). A positive relation was observed between female gender, regular smokers, alcohol abuse problems, risk of cyberaddiction and especially eating disorders (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI = 3.42-8.69), and increasing PSS score. PSS score however, was not significantly related to the curriculum, regular alcohol use, drunkenness or binge drinking even after additional controlling for use of other substances. We found a significant negative association between stress and practice of sport: students with the most physical activity were less likely to report perceived stress (4th quartile: AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39-0.80). This cross-sectional study among university students in France revealed that perceived stress was associated not only with known risks such as alcohol misuse, but also with new risks
Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.
Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried
The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.
Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin
Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further
Full Text Available This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addiction, this paper uses the four phases of addiction to examine the attributes of exercise that define it as a healthy habit distinct from an addiction. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these topics for effective assessment and treatment.
Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III
Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.
Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël; Khazaal, Yasser; Khan, Riaz; Pivin, Edward; Gupta, Vishal; Zullino, Daniel
Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collection of data on socio-demographics, method of referral, specific Internet usage, psychiatric diagnosis, and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) scores. Treatment consisted of individual psychotherapeutic sessions. Of these patients, 98% were male and 37% were 18 years or younger. Most patients were online gamers (46% playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games). The mean IAT score was 52.9 (range 20-90). Sixty-eight percent of patients had a co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, with social phobia being the most prevalent (17.8%). Patients who remained in treatment (dropout rate 24%) showed an overall improvement of symptoms: 38.6% showed significant or average improvement on their CGI score, 26.3% showed minimal improvement, and 14% showed no change. Our results support the hypothesis that there are specific types of Internet use, with online gaming mainly affecting young male patients. As Internet addiction is not yet an official diagnosis, better instruments are needed to screen patients and to avoid false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Successful care should integrate the treatment of co-morbid symptoms and involve families and relatives in the therapeutic process.
Jong, J.W. de
Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...
Yamamoto, Dorothy J.; Nelson, Anna M.; Mandt, Bruce H.; Larson, Gaynor A.; Rorabaugh, Jacki M.; Ng, Christopher M.C.; Barcomb, Kelsey M.; Richards, Toni L.; Allen, Richard M.; Zahniser, Nancy R.
Individual differences are a hallmark of drug addiction. Here, we describe a rat model based on differential initial responsiveness to low dose cocaine. Despite similar brain cocaine levels, individual outbred Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit markedly different magnitudes of acute cocaine-induced locomotor activity and, thereby, can be classified as low or high cocaine responders (LCRs or HCRs). LCRs and HCRs differ in drug-induced, but not novelty-associated, hyperactivity. LCRs have higher basal numbers of striatal dopamine transporters (DATs) than HCRs and exhibit marginal cocaine inhibition of in vivo DAT activity and cocaine-induced increases in extracellular DA. Importantly, lower initial cocaine response predicts greater locomotor sensitization, conditioned place preference and greater motivation to self-administer cocaine following low dose acquisition. Further, outbred Long-Evans rats classified as LCRs, versus HCRs, are more sensitive to cocaine’s discriminative stimulus effects. Overall, results to date with the LCR/HCR model underscore the contribution of striatal DATs to individual differences in initial cocaine responsiveness and the value of assessing the influence of initial drug response on subsequent expression of addiction-like behaviors. PMID:23850581
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was the survey of social skills training by cognitive behavioral group in the increase of girls’ self-esteem and assertiveness with addicted parents in Isfahan. Method: 20 students with addicted parents who had the lowest rate of assertiveness were selected by semi-experimental method in third to fifth grades. Randomly research projects pre-test-post-test control group. Questionnaire to measure assertiveness and assertiveness Gmbryl and Richie Esteem Questionnaire to measure students' self-esteem was used. After the pre-test training program assertiveness over 10 weeks, each week, one session, lasting from one hour and half and at the end of the test was performed after 40 days in both groups re-testing were results using software spss case were analyzed by descriptive statistical methods and two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor was used. Results: The results showed that participants in the program and self-assertiveness therapy increased. These results were confirmed in a follow up phase. Conclusion: the training of social skills speeds up assertiveness and self-esteem of students.
Full Text Available We used animal model of neurotoxicity in rats, which provided the possibility of studying biological pathophysiological phenomena in vivo and afterwards in vitro conditions. The analysis of electrocortical brain activity using mathematical methods can describe the changes induced by aluminum intoxication in rat as an animal model. In physiological and pathophysiological conditions, on experimental models, mechanisms related to changes in behavior, plasticity and accumulation of aluminum in nervous tissue of the rat brain were observed. Animal models of rats used in the experiments described changes in the group of neuronal activity in the brain of rats in different modes of intoxication aluminum. This study describes ECoG activity in the brain of rats under anesthesia in both the control and aluminum treated animals. Fractal and spectral analysis was used to present qualitative and quantitative changes in the conditions of neurotoxicity. Changes in neurotransmission, as well as the structure and function of the neural network are connected to the molecular-physiological mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Aluminium toxicity was monitored through changes in glutamatergic activity and calcium channel activity. By spectrum analysis neurotoxicity was described through changes in spectral power in the corresponding frequency ranges. By comparing the FD of intoxicated and control individuals there was obtained the range of the change in correlation with the corresponding pathophysiological conditions of intoxication. The shange in FD might be an indication of neurotoxicity.
Full Text Available Among all the different types of behavioral addictions, the one related to sexual activity is probably the most difficult to treat as we are reluctant to discuss issues related to sex. From innocuous viewing of pornographic content in adolescence, a 34-year-old married male for 6 years becomes addicted to it. The case highlights the importance of recognizing pornographic addiction as a disorder and the difficulties encountered in its management.
Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan
Background Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. Methods We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each parti...
Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis
While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.
Awad, A George; Voruganti, Lakshmi L N P
Persons with schizophrenia are at a high risk, almost 4.6 times more likely, of having drug abuse problems than persons without psychiatric illness. Among the influential proposals to explain such a high comorbidity rate, the 'self-medication hypothesis' proposed that persons with schizophrenia take to drugs in an effort to cope with the illness and medication side effects. In support of the self-medication hypothesis, data from our earlier clinical study confirmed the strong association between neuroleptic dysphoria and negative subjective responses and comorbid drug abuse. Though dopamine has been consistently suspected as one of the major culprits for the development of neuroleptic dysphoria, it is only recently our neuroimaging studies correlated the emergence of neuroleptic dysphoria to the low level of striatal dopamine functioning. Similarly, more evidence has recently emerged linking low striatal dopamine with the development of vulnerability for drug addictive states in schizophrenia. The convergence of evidence from both the dysphoria and comorbidity research, implicating the role of low striatal dopamine in both conditions, has led us to propose that the person with schizophrenia who develops dysphoria and comorbid addictive disorder is likely to be one and the same.
Greenfield, David N
Internet and video game addiction has been a steadily developing consequence of modern living. Behavioral and process addictions and particularly Internet and video game addiction require specialized treatment protocols and techniques. Recent advances in addiction medicine have improved our understanding of the neurobiology of substance and behavioral addictions. Novel research has expanded the ways we understand and apply well-established addiction treatments as well as newer therapies specific to Internet and video game addiction. This article reviews the etiology, psychology, and neurobiology of Internet and video game addiction and presents treatment strategies and protocols for addressing this growing problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L
Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.
Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias
This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.
Full Text Available Introduction & Purpose: Cognitive-behavioral stress management therapy refers to a family of stress management interventions that are based on cognitive-behavioral approach. The stress management increases the ability of people to reduce stress and cope with stress-eliciting situations. The present study tries to explain the effectiveness of group-based stress management cognitive-behavioral therapy in the improvement of life quality among the women whose husbands take methadone in their treatments. Methods: The present study is a semi-empirical intervention that uses a pre- and- post- test design with a control group. The statistical universe in the present study consisted of all the women whose husbands were receiving methadone treatment in Tasmim Addiction Treatment Center in Khoramabad City in 2013. Among the women who came to this center to take weekly classes for instructions useful in family interactions, 24 were selected on the basis of availability sampling and in accordance with the criteria assumed in this study, that is, the women who had the lowest scores on the scale of life quality. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (N=12 and the control group (N=12. The instrument used in this study was the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL, 1996, which was completed by subjects in two per-test and post- test phases. The project (the stress management cognitive-behavioral therapy was implemented on the basis of the Antony et al Manual in ten two-hour sessions with a group technique and with an interval of one session per week for the participants in the experimental group, without any intervention for the control group. At the end of therapeutic sessions, the two groups were again evaluated (the post- test phase. The data of the present study were analyzed by means of the univariate covariance analysis test (ANCOVA and the statistical software SPSS18. Results: Results indicated that the life
Joseph M. Gabriel
Full Text Available In “Afterword: Intoxication as a Zone of Exception,” Joseph M. Gabriel turns our eye to what lies past intoxication: getting trashed or wasted. Even as he concedes that intoxication at its extreme marks the impossible boundary beyond the articles collected in this issue, he refuses to throw out the excess with the trash of its own terminology. Taken in the context of Michel Foucault and Giorgio Agamben’s theories, extreme intoxication represents a user’s resistance to the ways that enlightenment rationality comes up against and frames individual agency.
Miller, Mary Beth; Borsari, Brian; Fernandez, Anne C; Yurasek, Ali M; Hustad, John T P
Both drinking location and pregaming have been associated with heavy alcohol use among college students, yet the manner by which they uniquely contribute to alcohol intoxication remains unclear. The current study examined the unique utility of drinking location and pregaming in predicting alcohol intoxication among college students who violated campus alcohol policy. Between 2011 and 2012, mandated college students who reported drinking prior to their referral events (N = 212, 41% female, 80% White, Mage = 19.4 y) completed a computerized assessment of drinking location and related behaviors as part of larger research trial. Chi-squared statistics, t-tests, one-way analyses of covariance, and regression were used to examine study aims. Participants were most likely (44%) to report drinking in off-campus housing prior to the referral event, and approximately half (47%) reported pregaming. Alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral event differed significantly as a function of both drinking location and pregaming, but pregaming did not moderate the association between drinking location and alcohol intoxication among mandated students. Female birth sex, pregaming, and drinking at either fraternities or off-campus housing predicted greater levels of alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral incident, while drinking in a residence hall/dorm predicted lower intoxication. Drinking location and pregaming are distinct predictors of alcohol intoxication among mandated college students. Future interventions may benefit from targeting both where and how college students consume alcohol.
Evans, Christopher J; Cahill, Catherine M
Opioid drugs are potent modulators of many physiological and psychological processes. When given acutely, they can elicit the signature responses of euphoria and analgesia that societies have coveted for centuries. Repeated, or chronic, use of opioids induces adaptive or allostatic changes that modify neuronal circuitry and create an altered normality - the "drug-dependent" state. This state, at least that exhibited by those maintained continuously on long-acting opioid drugs such as methadone or buprenorphine, is generally indistinguishable from the drug-naïve state for most overt behaviors. The consequences of the allostatic changes (cellular, circuit, and system adaptations) that accompany the drug-dependent state are revealed during drug withdrawal. Drug cessation triggers a temporally orchestrated allostatic re-establishment of neuronal systems, which is manifested as opposing physiological and psychological effects to those exhibited by acute drug intoxication. Some withdrawal symptoms, such as physical symptoms (sweating, shaking, and diarrhea) resolve within days, whilst others, such as dysphoria, insomnia, and anxiety, can linger for months, and some adaptations, such as learned associations, may be established for life. We will briefly discuss the cellular mechanisms and neural circuitry that contribute to the opioid drug-dependent state, inferring an emerging role for neuroinflammation. We will argue that opioid addictive behaviors result from a learned relationship between opioids and relief from an existing or withdrawal-induced anxiogenic and/or dysphoric state. Furthermore, a future stressful life event can recall the memory that opioid drugs alleviate negative affect (despair, sadness, and anxiety) and thereby precipitate craving, resulting in relapse. A learned association of relief of aversive states would fuel drug craving in vulnerable people living in an increasingly stressful society. We suggest that this route to addiction is contributive to
The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors.
van Kalmthout, A
This article deals with the question in how far an offence committed in the Netherlands under the influence of alcohol or other drugs can be imputed to the offender. Unlike many other countries the Dutch Penal Code does not contain specific provisions with respect to the criminal liability of addicted or intoxicated offenders. In principle, they are held responsible for their offences, even when the dolus or culpa is absent at the moment they commit their offence. Doctrine and jurisprudence found this liability on the principle of 'culpa/dolus in causa', by accepting an anterior dolus or culpa, which is situated at the moment the offender takes alcohol or other drugs. As is shown in this article, the - nondogmatic - interpretation of this culpa in causa doctrine leaves hardly any space for a claim to impunity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.
Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive
... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...
de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Breindahl, Torben; Harboe, Kirstine Moll
GHB intoxication must be considered in children with coma and a suspicion of drug intoxication. Furthermore, mixed intoxication with several substances and the possibility of unpredictable symptom profiles should be anticipated to ensure optimal symptomatic treatment of patients....
Full Text Available The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC, underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake. We examine how the magnitude of the reward affects goal-directed processes in healthy control (HC subjects and abstinent cocaine dependent (ACD patients by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a counting Stroop task with blocked levels of monetary incentives of different magnitudes (€0, €0.01, €0.5, €1 or €1.5. Our results showed that increasing reward magnitude enhances (1 performance facilitation in both groups; (2 left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC activity in HC and left superior occipital cortex activity in ACD; and (3 left DLPFC and left putamen connectivity in ACD compared to HC. Moreover, we observed that (4 dorsal striatal and pallidum activity was associated with craving and addiction severity during the parametric increases in the monetary reward. In conclusion, the brain response to gradients in monetary value was different in HC and ACD, but both groups showed improved task performance due to the possibility of obtaining greater monetary rewards.
Spekman, MLC; Konijn, EA; Roelofsma, PHMP; Griffiths, MD
Aims: Although the general public appears to have embraced the term 'video game addiction', the scientific debate as to whether 'gaming addiction' can actually be considered an addiction similar to substance addictions of DSM-IV is still unsettled. To date, research on gaming addiction has focused on problematic behavior from the gaming activity itself and there has been little empirical research related to pathological personality patterns that usually are associated with substance addiction...
Atroszko, Pawe? Andrzej; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, St?le
Background and aims: "Study addiction" has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction and defined within the framework of work addiction. Using a newly developed measure to assess this construct, the Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the present study examined the 1-year stability of study addiction and factors related to changes in this construct over time, and is the first longitudinal investigation of study addiction thus far. \\ud Methods: The BStAS and the Ten Item Persona...
Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne
There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.
Nalberczak, Maria; Radwanska, Kasia
Our understanding of the neuronal and molecular basis of alcohol addiction is still not satisfactory. As a consequence we still miss successful therapy of alcoholism. One of the reasons for such state is the lack of appropriate animal models which would allow in-depth analysis of biological basis of addiction. Here we will present our efforts to create the animal model of alcohol addiction in the automated learning device, the IntelliCage setup. Applying this model to optogenetically modified mice with remotely controlled regulation of selected neuronal populations by light may lead to very precise identification of neuronal circuits involved in coding addiction-related behaviors.
Kruse, James A
Accidental or intentional ingestion of substances containing methanol and ethylene glycol can result in death, and some survivors are left with blindness, renal dysfunction, and chronic brain injury. However, even in large ingestions, a favorable outcome is possible if the patient arrives at the hospital early enough and the poisoning is identified and appropriately treated in a timely manner. This review covers the common circumstances of exposure, the involved toxic mechanisms, and the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol intoxication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199
Mansvelder, H.D.; McGehee, D.S.
The tragic health effects of nicotine addiction highlight the importance of investigating the cellular mechanisms of this complex behavioral phenomenon. The chain of cause and effect of nicotine addiction starts with the interaction of this tobacco alkaloid with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Earp, Brian D.; Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Foddy, Bennett; Savulescu, Julian
Recent research suggests that romantic love can be literally addictive. Although the exact nature of the relationship between love and addiction has been described in inconsistent terms throughout the literature, we offer a framework that distinguishes between a narrow view and a broad view of love addiction. The narrow view counts only the most extreme, harmful forms of love or love-related behaviors as being potentially addictive in nature. The broad view, by contrast, counts even basic social attachment as being on a spectrum of addictive motivations, underwritten by similar neurochemical processes as more conventional addictions. We argue that on either understanding of love-as-addiction, treatment decisions should hinge on considerations of harm and well-being rather than on definitions of disease. Implications for the ethical use of anti-love biotechnology are considered. PMID:28381923
Osborne, Peter G; Chou, Tung-Shan; Shen, Tsu-Wang
Betel quid use and abuse is wide spread in Asia but the physiological basis of intoxication and addiction are unknown. In subjects naïve to the habit of betel quid intoxication, the psychological and physiological profile of intoxication has never been reported. We compared the effect of chewing gum or chewing betel quid, and subsequent betel quid intoxication, on psychological assessment, prospective time interval estimation, numerical and character digit span, computerized 2 choice tests and mental tasks such as reading and mathematics with concurrent monitoring of ECG, EEG and face temperature in healthy, non-sleep deprived, male subjects naïve to the habit of chewing betel quid. Betel quid intoxication, dose dependently induced tachycardia (max 30 bpm) and elevated face temperature (0.7°C) (Ppsychological aspects of perception such as slowing of the prospective perception of passage of a 1 minute time interval in 8 subjects (Pprofile recorded from mental states associated with open and closed eyes, and mental tasks such as reading and eyes closed mental arithmetic were significantly modified (P<0.05) relative to chewing gum by betel quid intoxication in 10 subjects. The prevalence of betel quid consumption across a range of social and work settings warrants greater investigation of this widespread but largely under researched drug.
Elsalhy, Muhammad; Muramatsu, Taro; Higuchi, Susumu; Mimura, Masaru
The Internet now plays a very important role in our lives. However, for some people, Internet use can lead to a state that appears to meet the DSM definition for a mental disorder. In this review, we briefly discuss definition, symptoms, risk factors, prevalence, comorbidities, and personality traits of people who are susceptible to becoming addicts. In the second section of the article, various types of Internet addiction are discussed, focusing mainly on Internet Gaming Disorder and social networking survices (SNS) addiction. Regarding Internet Gaming Disorder, we discuss various types of the newly emerged Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMO), as well as theories about why people become addicted to them. We do the same for the SNS Addiction for sites like Facebook and LINE; again, different types, as well as theories about why some people become addicts to such sites are discussed. Finally, preventive measures are introduced, focusing on a number of commonly used treatment methods, perticulary cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy.
Weinstein, Aviv; Lejoyeux, Michel
Problematic Internet addiction or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use and Internet access that lead to impairment or distress. Currently, there is no recognition of internet addiction within the spectrum of addictive disorders and, therefore, no corresponding diagnosis. It has, however, been proposed for inclusion in the next version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM). To review the literature on Internet addiction over the topics of diagnosis, phenomenology, epidemiology, and treatment. Review of published literature between 2000-2009 in Medline and PubMed using the term "internet addiction. Surveys in the United States and Europe have indicated prevalence rate between 1.5% and 8.2%, although the diagnostic criteria and assessment questionnaires used for diagnosis vary between countries. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients report high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several factors are predictive of problematic Internet use, including personality traits, parenting and familial factors, alcohol use, and social anxiety. Although Internet-addicted individuals have difficulty suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for Internet addiction. Due to the lack of methodologically adequate research, it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of Internet addiction.
Moazezi, Zoleika; Abedi, Seyed Hassan
Background: Aluminum Phosphide or rice tablet is one of the most common pesticides which leads to accidental or intentional acute intoxication and finally death. In this paper, we describe a successful management of intoxication with rice tablet in a young girl.
Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong
Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of the patients was 27.45±10.26 years (males: 28.70±9.86 years, females: 26.80±10.43 years. There were only 4 patients over 65 years of age. 275 patients had drug intoxication (antidepressant drug, pain killer, antibiotic, etc. and 33 patients had other causes of intoxication. When analyzing the prognosis; a total of 234 patients were discharged after initial treatment and 57 patients were discharged due to treatment refusal. 15 patients were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment, 1 patient to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center (AMATEM and 1 patient was referred to İstanbul University Medical Faculty due to acute hepatic failure. Conclusion: The patients admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxications were mainly females (65.9% and individuals of young age (median age: 27.45 years. Female patients had used antidepressants for suicide attempts and males had used antiflu-acetaminophen combinations. No mortality was observed. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2014; 52:153-7
Oggins, Jean; Sammis, Jeffrey
In this study, 438 players of the online video game, World of Warcraft, completed a survey about video game addiction and answered an open-ended question about behaviors they considered characteristic of video game addiction. Responses were coded and correlated with players' self-reports of being addicted to games and scores on a modified video…
Burrows, T; Skinner, J; Joyner, M A; Palmieri, J; Vaughan, K; Gearhardt, A N
Food addiction research in children is limited, and to date addictive-like eating behaviors within families have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to understand factors associated with addictive-like eating in children. The association between food addiction in children with obesity, parental food addiction, and parental feeding practices (i.e., restriction, pressure to eat, monitoring) was investigated. Parents/primary caregivers (aged≥18years) of children aged 5-12years, recruited and completed an online cross-sectional survey including demographics, the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Parents, reporting on themselves and one of their children, were given a food addiction diagnosis and symptom score according to the YFAS predefined criteria. The total sample consisted of 150 parents/primary caregivers (48% male) and 150 children (51% male). Food addiction was found to be 12.0% in parents and 22.7% in children. In children, food addiction was significantly associated with higher child BMI z-scores. Children with higher food addiction symptoms had parents with higher food addiction scores. Parents of FA children reported significantly higher levels of Restriction and Pressure to eat feeding practices, but not Monitoring. Children with elevated YFAS-C scores may be at greater risk for eating-related issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle
Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Can people become addicted to using their smart phones? To explore this possibility, this literature review summarizes previous research on smart-phone addiction, nomophobia, and addictive personality disorders. Specifically, this review defines smart-phone addiction and its symptoms along with comorbid disorders and uses disciplines from a cognitive, behavioral, neurobiological, and anthropological disciplines as evidence of its existence. Although this review also found that there is little...
Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun
Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Full Text Available Efforts to improve the health of the population are now focused on promoting healthy lifestyle, improve living conditions and to reduce mortality. Health education activities include regular physical activity, optimal nutrition, reduce addictions and stress. The purpose of the survey conducted among 672 first-year female students at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland was to determine the attitudes of young women towards a healthy lifestyle. Using anonymous survey questionnaire asked students about the form of physical activity, nutrition, the presence of stressful situations, the use of drugs, such as alcohol and cigarettes, and the interest in deepening knowledge of public health. The majority of students have participated only in obligatory physical education classes in high school and college. They considered that physical activity during the studies should be voluntary. Only 4.24% of students were total abstinence from alcohol, but 79.10% was non-smoking. Many of the women declared the need to change the diet, reducing alcohol intake and give up smoking habit. The students felt that stress connected with attending university is unavoidable, and thus revealed an interest in reducing and limiting mental tension. Despite their young age, students expressed interest in topics such as: first aid course, nutrition, sexuality, and pregnancy problems.
Wieland, Diane M
Nurse psychotherapists will encounter the impact of today's technology on the daily lives of people including computer addiction. Computer addiction may also present with comorbidities such as depression, gambling, substance abuse, and marital infidelity and divorce. This overview article presents what is currently documented in the literature regarding the incidence, symptomatology, and nursing psychotherapy interventions relevant to computer addiction and its treatment. Issues presented include computer addiction, virtual relationships, online marital infidelity, and compulsive online sexual behavior. Review of literature from Medline, Psychoinfo, CINAHL, and current texts. Given the increased use of computers in today's society, there is the potential for overuse of technology and neglect of others and self as a result of computer addiction. Computer disorders also present themselves as marital or couple discord with the potential for online extramarital affairs and compulsive sexual online behavior. A summary and an assessment tool are provided to guide the nurse psychotherapist in practice.
Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA, a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD, −1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI, −1.89 to −0.85; CBT: SMD, −1.88; 95% CI, −2.53 to −1.23; sports intervention: SMD, −1.70; 95% CI, −2.14 to −1.26. For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.
Goldstein, Stephanie P; Evans, Brittney C; Flack, Daniel; Juarascio, Adrienne; Manasse, Stephanie; Zhang, Fengqing; Forman, Evan M
Lapses are strong indicators of later relapse among individuals with addictive disorders, and thus are an important intervention target. However, lapse behavior has proven resistant to change due to the complex interplay of lapse triggers that are present in everyday life. It could be possible to prevent lapses before they occur by using m-Health solutions to deliver interventions in real-time. Just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) is an intervention design framework that could be delivered via mobile app to facilitate in-the-moment monitoring of triggers for lapsing, and deliver personalized coping strategies to the user to prevent lapses from occurring. An organized framework is key for successful development of a JITAI. Nahum-Shani and colleagues (2014) set forth six core elements of a JITAI and guidelines for designing each: distal outcomes, proximal outcomes, tailoring variables, decision points, decision rules, and intervention options. The primary aim of this paper is to illustrate the use of this framework as it pertains to developing a JITAI that targets lapse behavior among individuals following a weight control diet. We will detail our approach to various decision points during the development phases, report on preliminary findings where applicable, identify problems that arose during development, and provide recommendations for researchers who are currently undertaking their own JITAI development efforts. Issues such as missing data, the rarity of lapses, advantages/disadvantages of machine learning, and user engagement are discussed.
Liu, Jun; Nie, Jing; Wang, Yafeng
To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA), a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD), -1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.89 to -0.85; CBT: SMD, -1.88; 95% CI, -2.53 to -1.23; sports intervention: SMD, -1.70; 95% CI, -2.14 to -1.26). For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.
Savage, Matthew W; Menegatos, Lisa; Roberto, Anthony J
Despite the risks involved when mixing alcohol with casual sexual activity, the majority of college students engage in hookups, and the majority of those hookups involve alcohol. This study focused on the protective role college students' peers can play and the situational factors that might influence their willingness to intervene when a close friend is about to hook up intoxicated. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study investigated differences in students' (N = 1270) attitudes, norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions to persuade a close friend not to engage in a hypothetical drunken hookup using a 2 (friend sex) × 2 (participant sex) × 2 (sober/intoxicated) factorial design. Results indicated significant differences in the TPB variables. Participants intended to intervene with female friends, but not male friends, and women were more likely to intervene than men. Participants in the sober condition had stronger intentions to intervene than those in the intoxicated condition, but this effect was driven by increases in men's intentions when sober. Implications for theory and prevention programming are discussed.
Naranjo, C A; Bremner, K E
Alcohol is used in most cultures despite knowledge of the physical, psychological and social problems associated with its abuse. Behavioural impairment is a function of several factors, including blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the rate of alcohol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system. Their availability and activity depend upon alcohol use history, ethnicity, other drug use and gender. Adverse social consequences related to alcohol intoxication include impaired driving, acts of aggression and violence towards self and others, and various types of accidents. About 40% of all fatal traffic accidents in Canada and the US in 1986-1987 were alcohol-related. Similar statistics have been reported in the UK and Europe (e.g. Sweden). The risk of a fatal car accident increases exponentially with a driver's BAC, prompting recommendations to lower the legal BAC limit for driving and piloting aircraft. Risks of falls, drownings, and fires and burns may also be increased by alcohol intoxication. At least 22% of work-related accidents may have involved alcohol use. These data are probably conservative estimates as under-reporting of alcohol use is likely. Alcohol facilitates aggressive behaviours, but it is difficult to separate the pharmacological effect from psychosocial effects or some other common factor (e.g. low CSF levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-H1AA have been reported in alcoholics, suicide attempters, violent offenders). In addition, alcohol interacts with other drugs to increase or decrease their behavioural and therapeutic effects. An acutely high BAC inhibits the metabolism of other CNS depressants (e.g. benzodiazepines), but long-term alcohol use increases the metabolism of most drugs. A potential amethystic agent, to block or reverse alcohol's effects, has been identified in preclinical studies (Ro15-4513, an imidazobenzodiazepine). Some clinical studies indicated that naloxone, lithium, ibuprofen, zimeldine and
Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Santos-Baldaia, Renan; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Berro, Laís F; Yokoyama, Thaís S; Lopes-Silva, Leonardo B; Bizerra, Carolina S; Procópio-Souza, Roberta; Hashiguchi, Debora; Figueiredo, Lilian A; Costa, Jose L; Frussa-Filho, Roberto; Longo, Beatriz M
There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration) has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of drug abuse and the neuroplastic changes that occur quickly after drug administration that ultimately lead to drug abuse. Our aim was to investigate the possible development of rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to modafinil and bidirectional rapid-onset cross-sensitization with cocaine in male Swiss mice. A priming injection of a high dose of modafinil (64 mg/kg) induced rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to challenge injections of modafinil at the doses of 16, 32, and 64 mg/kg, administered 4 h later. Furthermore, rapid-onset cross-sensitization was developed between modafinil and cocaine (64 mg/kg modafinil and 20 mg/kg cocaine), in a bidirectional way. These results were not due to residual levels of modafinil as the behavioral effects of the priming injection of modafinil were no longer present and modafinil plasma concentration was reduced at 4 h post-administration. Taken together, the present findings provide preclinical evidence that modafinil can be reinforcing per se and can enhance the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine within hours after administration.
Full Text Available There is substantial controversy about the addictive potential of modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, proposed as pharmacotherapy for cocaine abuse, and used indiscriminately by healthy individuals due to its positive effects on arousal and cognition. The rapid-onset type of behavioral sensitization (i.e., a type of sensitization that develops within a few hours from the drug priming administration has been emerged as a valuable tool to study binge-like patterns of drug abuse and the neuroplastic changes that occur quickly after drug administration that ultimately lead to drug abuse. Our aim was to investigate the possible development of rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to modafinil and bidirectional rapid-onset cross-sensitization with cocaine in male Swiss mice. A priming injection of a high dose of modafinil (64 mg/kg induced rapid-onset behavioral sensitization to challenge injections of modafinil at the doses of 16 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg, and 64 mg/kg, administered 4h later. Furthermore, rapid-onset cross-sensitization was developed between modafinil and cocaine (64 mg/kg modafinil and 20 mg/kg cocaine, in a bidirectional way. These results were not due to residual levels of modafinil as the behavioral effects of the priming injection of modafinil were no longer present and modafinil plasma concentration was reduced at 4h post-administration. Taken together, the present findings provide preclinical evidence that modafinil can be reinforcing per se and can enhance the reinforcing effects of stimulants like cocaine within hours after administration.
Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura
Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.
de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G
Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Bostwick, J Michael; Bucci, Jeffrey A
Malfunctioning of the brain's reward center is increasingly understood to underlie all addictive behavior. Composed of mesolimbic incentive salience circuitry, the reward center governs all behavior in which motivation has a central role, including acquiring food, nurturing young, and having sex. To the detriment of normal functioning, basic survival activities can pale in importance when challenged by the allure of addictive substances or behaviors. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter driving both normal and addictive behavior. Other neurotransmitters modulate the amount of dopamine released in response to a stimulus, with the salience determined by the intensity of the dopamine pulse. Opiates (either endogenous or exogenous) exemplify such modulators. Prescribed for treating alcoholism, naltrexone blocks opiates' capacity to augment dopamine release. This article reviews naltrexone's mechanism of action in the reward center and describes a novel use for naltrexone in suppressing a euphorically compulsive and interpersonally devastating addiction to Internet pornography.
Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle
Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.
Penton, Rachel E.; Lester, Robin A.J.
In the twenty-five years since the observation that chronic exposure to nicotine could regulate the number and function of high affinity nicotine binding sites in the brain there has been a major effort to link alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to nicotine-induced behaviors that drive the addiction to tobacco products. Here we review the proposed roles of various nAChR subtypes in the addiction process, with emphasis on how they are regulated by nicotine and the implic...
Nestler, Eric J
DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.
Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan
Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.
Full Text Available Opioid intoxications and overdose are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Opioid overdose may occur in the setting of intravenous or intranasal heroin use, illicit use of diverted opioid medications, intentional or accidental misuse of prescription pain medications, or iatrogenic overdose. In this review, we focused on the epidemiology of illict opioid use in the United States and on the mechanism of action of opioid drugs. We also described the signs and symptoms, and diagnoses of intoxication and overdose. Lastly, we updated the reader about the most recent recommendations for treatment and prevention of opioid intoxications and overdose.
Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.
Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine
Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.
Albayrak, Ozgür; Wölfle, Sebastian Mathias; Hebebrand, Johannes
The relationship between overeating, substance abuse and (behavioral) addiction is controversial. Medically established forms of addiction so far pertain to substance use disorders only. But the preliminary Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders V (DSM V) suggests replacing the previous category 'Substance-Related Disorders' with 'Addiction and Related Disorders', thus for the first time allowing the diagnosis of behavioral addictions. In the past psychiatrists and psychologists have been reluctant to systematically delineate and classify the term behavioral addiction. However, there is a broad overlap between chemical and behavioral addiction including phenomenological, therapeutic, genetic, and neurobiological aspects. It is of interest to point out that the hormone leptin in itself has a pronounced effect on the reward system, thus suggesting an indirect link between overeating and 'chemical' addiction. Thus, leptin-deficient individuals could be classified as fulfilling criteria for food addiction. In our overview we first review psychological findings in chemical (substance-based) and subsequently in behavioral addiction to analyze the overlap. We discuss the diagnostic validity of food addiction, which in theory can be chemically and/or behaviorally based. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A
Nicotine is the principal addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users' knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the α4 and β2 subunits, often in combination with the α6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the α5, α2, and β4 (and likely α3) nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal.
Full Text Available Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and Problem Gambling Severity Index. The participant's gambling urges were not caused by any “trigger” incident, were independent of mood disorder, and were so severe to lead him to deliberate self-harm. Even after adequate trial of two mood stabilizers from different classes including lithium, the patient neither showed improvement in mood symptoms nor his gambling behavior; however, patient's gambling behavior and mood symptoms both showed marked improvement following start of naltrexone up to a dose of 100 mg/day and were maintained at 6-month follow-up with gradual decline in craving for gambling as monitored on Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling addiction appears to be a very serious problem and can cause significant problems in the lives of people it affects and their family members.
Becker, Jill B
Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.
Hung, C I; Liu, C Y; Chen, C Y; Yang, C H; Yeh, E K
There have been few studies of the psychiatric characteristics of analgesics addiction. The physician's perceptions that patients were addicted to analgesics might be partially attributable to frustration with poor response to treatment. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of 20 subjects (15 male and 5 female) who were perceived as having addiction to meperidine by general physicians. The most common medical diagnosis among these patients was chronic pancreatitis (7/20). Among them, five had a past history of suicide attempt and three had self-injury behavior during the index admission. The fact that subjects were perceived as being addicted might be attributable to a vicious cycle of the following factors: 1) chronic intractable pain; 2) poor staff-patient relationship; 3) lower pain threshold or tolerance due to anxiety or depression; 4) patients with a history or tendency of substance abuse; 5) placebo use and inadequate analgesics regimen. The findings of this study suggest that the importance of the following diagnostic and treatment procedures in these patients: 1) suicide risk should be evaluated; 2) comorbid psychiatric diseases should be treated; 3) factors that cause a vicious cycle in pain control should be identified; 4) misconceptions of opiate analgesics among medical staff should be discussed; 5) poor staff-patient relationship should be managed aggressively; and 6) "addiction" is a critical diagnosis that should be avoided if possible.
Jason C. Northrup
Full Text Available The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.
Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C; Guarino, Honoria; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia
A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-month trial with patients (N=160) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to either standard MMT treatment or a model in which half of standard counseling sessions were replaced with a computer-based intervention, called Therapeutic Education System (standard+TES). Four treatment history factors at baseline, the number of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, detoxification episodes, and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes were categorized into three levels based on their tertile points, and analyzed as moderators. Dependent variables were urine toxicology results for opioid and cocaine abstinence for 52-weeks. The standard+TES condition produced significantly better opioid abstinence than standard treatment for participants with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, and 2) those with all three levels (low, moderate and high) of detoxification and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes, pspeople with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, 2) a high level of detoxification episodes, and 3) a moderate or high level of inpatient treatment history, pstechnology-based behavioral therapy as part of treatment can be more effective than MMT alone, even among patients with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toro-Alfonso, Jose; Rodriguez-Madera, Sheilla
Domestic violence (DV) is a pattern of behaviors in the context of an intimate relationship, which can be manifested in emotional, physical, or sexual abuse. DV currently represents a social and a public health issue. This study is an effort to foster a better understanding of DV among same-sex couples. In it, the authors included the…
Keith C. Russell; John C. Hendee; Dianne Phillips-Miller
This paper summarizes findings from a detailed study of the processes employed by four leading wilderness therapy programs focusing on how wilderness therapy works, the kinds of behavioral problems to which it is commonly applied, expected outcomes and the role of wilderness in the intervention and treatment process (Russell, 1999). Wilderness therapy is an emerging...
Claus, Melissa A; Jandrey, Karl E; Poppenga, Robert H
To describe the clinical course, treatment, and outcome of a dog with propylene glycol intoxication. An adult castrated male Australian cattle dog presented to an emergency clinic for an acute onset of ataxia and disorientation after roaming a construction site unsupervised. He tested positive for ethylene glycol using a point-of-care test kit. Treatment for ethylene glycol intoxication included intermittent intravenous boluses of 20% ethanol and hemodialysis. Predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were submitted to the toxicology lab to assess for both ethylene and propylene glycol. The patient tested negative for ethylene glycol and positive for propylene glycol at 1100 mg/dL predialysis and 23 mg/dL postdialysis. The dog made a full recovery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of documented propylene glycol intoxication in a dog, as well as the first report to describe hemodialysis as treatment for propylene glycol intoxication in a dog. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.
Li, Xuan; Wolf, Marina E
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been found to play roles in many types of plasticity including drug addiction. Here, we focus on rodent studies over the past two decades that have demonstrated diverse roles of BDNF in models of cocaine addiction. First, we will provide an overview of studies showing that cocaine exposure alters (and generally increases) BDNF levels in reward-related regions including the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. Then we will review evidence that BDNF contributes to behavioral changes in animal models of cocaine addiction, focusing on conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization, maintenance and reinstatement of self-administration, and incubation of cocaine craving. Last, we will review the role of BDNF in synaptic plasticity, particularly as it relates to plasticity of AMPA receptor transmission after cocaine exposure. We conclude that BDNF regulates cocaine-induced behaviors in a highly complex manner that varies depending on the brain region (and even among different cell types within the same brain region), the nature of cocaine exposure, and the "addiction phase" examined (e.g., acquisition vs maintenance; early vs late withdrawal). These complexities make BDNF a daunting therapeutic target for treating cocaine addiction. However, recent clinical evidence suggests that the serum BDNF level may serve as a biomarker in cocaine addicts to predict future relapse, providing an alternative direction for exploring BDNF's potential relevance to treating cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.