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Sample records for intoxicaciones por paraquat

  1. Intoxicaciones advertidas y ocultas por monóxido de carbono en el Área Sanitaria do Salnés

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Lima, Manuel José

    2014-01-01

    El Objetivo general de esta Tesis, titulada "Intoxicaciones advertidas y ocultas por monóxido de carbono en el Área Sanitaria do Salnés", ha sido efectuar un estudio epidemiológico de las intoxicaciones por monóxido de carbono en el Área Sanitaria do Salnés. Para ello se ha investigado la tasa de intoxicaciones del Área y la gravedad de las mismas, así como la eficacia de las medidas preventivas institucionales y la capacidad resolutiva del Servicio de Urgencias del Hospital do...

  2. Mortalidad por intoxicaciones agudas producidas con medicamentos: Cuba, 1995-1996

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    María Luisa González Valiente

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo para determinar la incidencia de intoxicaciones agudas fatales medicamentosas en 1995 y 1996, y los principales factores de riesgo en la población cubana. Ocurrieron 314 defunciones para una tasa de 1,4 por 100 000 habitantes. En edades pediátricas el riesgo superior se encuentra en los menores de 1 a y en los adultos el riesgo aumenta al avanzar la edad, con una mayor afectación del sexo femenino. Las edades de mayor riesgo son a partir de 55 a en las mujeres y en los hombres después de 75 a. Los años de vida potencialmente perdidos fueron 7 430, con predominio de las mujeres (74 %. En los adultos predominaron las circunstancias voluntarias, en especial los suicidios con ingestión de psicofármacos; el diazepam y el fenobarbital se encuentran entre los más elegidos. En segundo término aparecen las reacciones adversas, producidas fundamentalmente por antibióticos, con predominio de las penicilinas. Por último, las circunstancias accidentales originadas por cardiotónicos. En los niños no existió diferencia estadística significativa en las diferentes circunstancias.We undertook a descriptive stuy to determine the incidence of fatal outcomes of acute drug poisoning in 1995 and 1996 and the main risk factors for the Cuban population. There were 314 deaths accounting for 1,4 death per 1000 pop. In pediatric ages, under 1 year-old infants are at the highest risk whereas risk for adults increases with age, being females the most affected ones. The most risky ages for women are from 55 years and over, and for men after 75 years of life. Potential years of life lost amounted to 7 430 with females predominating (74 %. Voluntary poisonings in adults prevailed spcially suicides from psychodrug-taking; diazepam and phenobarbital were the most used drugs for this end. Adverse drug effects was the second cause, which are mainly caused by antibiotics particularly penicilims. Lastly, accidental situations created

  3. Uso de la actividad colinesterasa para el diagnóstico de intoxicaciones por insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos

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    Juan Pérez M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. La medición de la actividad colinesterasa (ChE es una prueba rápida y económica que se emplea en el diagnóstico de intoxicaciones por insecticidas organofosforados y carbamatos. Como la interpretación por el laboratorio requiere valores de referencia para cada especie, en este estudio se establecieron las actividades de ChE normales en sangre, cerebro y retina de varias especies de animales domésticos mediante el método de Ellman. Materiales y métodos. Se obtuvieron encéfalos y globos oculares en el matadero central de Medellín, mientras que las muestras de sangre procedieron de animales remitidos al laboratorio de diagnóstico clínico de la Universidad de Antioquia. Resultados. Las medias (±D.E. de actividad ChE sanguínea, expresada en μmoles de acetiltiocolina iodada hidrolizada/min/mL, fueron de 2.4± 0.2, 1.5±0.3, 1.9±0.3 y 2.5±0.2 para caninos, felinos, equinos y bovinos, respectivamente. En el encéfalo, la actividad ChE (μmol/min/g peso fresco, fue de 4.0±0.4, 5.4 ±0.3 y 4.9±0.3, en bovinos, porcinos y caninos, respectivamente. La retina bovina mostró una actividad de 21.7±2.45 μmol/min/g. Conclusiones. Los valores obtenidos coinciden ampliamente con los reportados por laboratorios certificados por la Asociación Americana de Laboratorios de Diagnostico Veterinarios (AAVLD, corroborando la buena reproducibilidad de la técnica y validando su uso como apoyo al diagnóstico de intoxicaciones por insecticidas inhibidores de la colinesterasa.

  4. Intoxicaciones agudas en pediatría

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    Yalena Prado Vizcaíno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las intoxicaciones han sido en los últimos años una importante causa de aumento de la morbilidad y mortalidad en edades pediátricas. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento clínico de las intoxicaciones agudas en la etapa de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2009 en el Hospital Pediátrico "William Soler". Métodos: el estudio se realizó en el Hospital "William Soler". Se revisaron las historias clínicas, los registros de intoxicaciones agudas y las tarjetas de codificación de egresos hospitalarios por intoxicaciones de los pacientes llegados al hospital en esta etapa. Resultados: se recibieron en el hospital 886 pacientes. El grupo de mayor frecuencia de intoxicaciones fue el de 1 a 5 años, con predominio del sexo masculino, aunque sin diferencias significativas con respecto al sexo femenino. Las intoxicaciones más frecuentes fueron por medicamentos, fundamentalmente psicofármacos y antibióticos, seguido por alimentos y por productos químicos del hogar. El 30,2 % de los casos fueron ingresados. Conclusiones: estos resultados nos hacen pensar en la necesidad de estar alertas y crear acciones encaminadas a proteger o evitar las intoxicaciones en edades tan vulnerables.

  5. Intoxicaciones por drogas de abuso: sustancias emergentes en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Galicia Paredes, Miguel Ángel; Alonso, José Ramón; Nogué Xarau, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    El uso de productos exógenos para modificar el estado de la cociencia ha sido una constante a lo largo de la historia de la humanidad. Inicialmente se utilizaron sustancias derivadas de plantas, pero la evolución tecnológica permitió la elaboración de sustancias sintetizadas de novo o modificadas de otras ya existentes, que actualmente son consumidas por millones de personas con intención experimental o lúdica. Clásicamente se ha asociado el consumo de determinadas drogas con sectores sociale...

  6. Intoxicaciones pediátricas atendidas por consultas telefónicas. Centro Nacional de Toxicología, 2000

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    Mario Oduardo Lorenzo

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de las consultas telefónicas por eventos tóxicos en niños, durante el año 2000, con el objetivo de desarrollar medidas profilácticas. Se estudiaron las variables sexo, edad, agente y circunstancia en la cual ocurrió la intoxicación, así como la atención hospitalaria. Del total de consultas el 61,2 % correspondió a intoxicados. El grupo de mayor riesgo lo formaron los pacientes de 0 a 4 años y del sexo masculino. Las intoxicaciones en el hogar (83,5 % fueron las más frecuentes. Las sustancias más involucradas resultaron ser los medicamentos (52,75 % y los productos químicos (17,63 %. En el momento de la consulta, se le había realizado lavado gástrico al 26,8 % de los niños. A partir de las situaciones detectadas, se sugieren medidas preventivas orientadas en 3 áreas fundamentales: educación sanitaria, capacitación del personal médico en la atención al niño intoxicado y promoción de los servicios que presta el Centro Nacional de Toxicología (CENATOX.A retrospective study of remote consultations by phone to report toxic events in children in the year 2000 was conducted to develop prophylactic measures. Variables such as sex, age, causative agent, circumstances in which the poisoning occurred and hospital care were analyzed. 61.2 % of all the consultations was related to poisoned persons. The highest risk group was 0-4 years-old male patients. Poisonings at home (83,5 % were the most frequent whereas the most important causative substances were drugs (52,75 % and chemicals (17,63 %. At the moment of consultation, 26,8 % of children have undergone gastric lavages. On the basis of the detected situations, preventive measures in 3 fundamental areas are suggested, that is, health education, training of medical staff in charge of the poisoned child and the promotion of services rendered by CENATOX.

  7. Incidencia de las intoxicaciones agudas

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    María Luisa González Valiente

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio de tipo descriptivo longitudinal y prospectivo para conocer la incidencia de intoxicaciones agudas y sus principales características, y para valorar indicadores de morbimortalidad con vistas a proponer medidas para el control y la prevención de esta enfermedad. El universo lo constituyó la totalidad de la población del territorio (Marianao, de donde se obtuvo una muestra representativa probabilística con el método combinado (estratificado y conglomerado. El riesgo de intoxicaciones agudas fue de 363,1 casos por 100 000 habitantes, cifra muy superior a la del país, según notificación del Sistema Estadístico de las Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria. El sexo femenino duplicó el riesgo en relación con el masculino. En las edades pediátricas el riesgo es muy superior al del adulto, ubicándose la mayor frecuencia de casos entre los 5 y los 9 años, mientras que en los adultos la mayor incidencia está entre los más jóvenes (15 a 24 años. Predominó el riesgo de accidentes en general, pero en las mujeres la supremacía se presentó en la causa voluntaria. Los agentes causales más frecuentes de las intoxicaciones agudas fueron los medicamentos, y entre éstos, los psicofármacosA descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was conducted to know the incidence of acute poisonings and their main characteristics, and to assess the morbimortality indicators to propose measures for the control and prevention of this disease. The universe was composed of all the people living in the territory of Marianao. A probabilistic representative sample was obtained by the combined method (stratified and conglomerate. The risk of acute poisonings was 363.1 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, a much higher figure compared with that of the country, according to the report of the Statistical System of Diseases of Compulsory Declaration. Females doubled the risk in comparison with males. The risk at pediatric ages was much more

  8. Intoxicación por paraquat: descripción de un caso clínico Paraquat poisoning: a case report

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    Julieth Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available El paraquat es el herbicida más vendido en todo el mundo. Se absorbe por las vías digestiva e inhalatoria. Si llega a los pulmones, produce congestión, edema alveolar con aumento de macrófagos que progresa a fibrosis y edema pulmonar, los cuales se presentan hasta 14 días después de la exposición si el afectado no recibió tratamiento oportuno y correcto. El paraquat se dirige fundamentalmente a los pulmones y genera allí radicales libres oxidantes; por eso, en los casos de intoxicación aguda está totalmente contraindicado usar oxígeno excepto cuando la presión parcial de oxigeno en sangre arterial sea inferior a 50 mmHg. Se presenta un caso clínico de un paciente quien desarrolló un síndrome de distress respiratorio del adulto (SDRA secundario a ingesta intencional de paraquat. El manejo inicial se realizó con lavado gástrico y tierra de Fuller en solución acuosa al 30%. Posteriormente, el paciente desarrolló compromiso pulmonar y renal, los cuales fueron manejados con pulso de ciclofosfamida a 15 mg/kg/día por 2 días, metilprednisolona 1g/día por 3 días y posteriormente dexametasona 5 mg IV cada 6 horas por 5 días con una evolución clínica satisfactoria.Paraquat is the best-selling herbicide throughout the world, It is absorbed by the digestive and inhalatory routes. If it reaches the lungs, congestion with swelling is developed, increased alveolar macrophages that progresses to fibrosis and pulmonary edema, which occur until 14 days after exposure if not treated timely and correct. Paraquat is directed primarily to the lungs and therefore generates free radicals oxidants, which is why, in cases of acute poisoning is absolutely forbidden to use oxygen except where arterial blood partial pressure of oxygen in is less than 50 mm Hg. A patient who developed an adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS secondary to deliberate ingestion of paraquat is presented. Initial patient management was performed with gastric lavage

  9. Gravidade das intoxicações por inseticidas inibidores das colinesterases no noroeste do estado do Paraná, Brasil Gravedad de las intoxicaciones por insecticidas inhibidores de colinesterasa en el noroeste del estado do Paraná, Brasil Severity of the intoxications by cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides registered in the nothwest of the state of Paraná, Brasil

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    Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva discutir a gravidade de intoxicações por inseticidas inibidores das colinesterases, ocorridas no Noroeste do Paraná, a partir de estudo descritivo exploratório, com análise retrospectiva de fichas epidemiológicas do Centro de Controle de Intoxicações do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, referentes a pacientes intoxicados entre janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 2005. Foram analisados 529 casos, 168 (31,7% por organofosoforados e 167 (31,5% por carbamatos. A tentativa de suicídio representou 257 casos (48,5%, a exposição ocupacional 140 (26,5%, e a acidental 124 (23,5%. Comparando o número de intoxicações severas e óbitos, verificou-se taxa de 100% de óbitos para casos de exposições ocupacionais severas, 20% para a tentativa de suicídio e 7,5% óbitos para as intoxicações acidentais classificadas como severas. A alta incidência de intoxicação grave e mortalidade sugerem estratégias preventivas no que diz respeito à utilização destes inseticidas, objetivando restringir o acesso indiscriminado a estes potentes agentes tóxicos.Este artículo objetiva discutir la gravedad de las intoxicaciones por insecticidas inhibidores de las colinesterasa, ocurridas en el Noroeste de Paraná, a partir de estudio descriptivo exploratorio, con análisis retrospectivo de fichas epidemiológicas del Centro de Control de Intoxicaciones del Hospital Universitario de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, referidas a pacientes intoxicados entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 2005. Fueron analizados 529 casos, 168 (31,7% por organofosforados y 167 (31,5% por carbamatos. El intento de suicidio representó 257 de los casos (48,5%, la exposición ocupacional 140 (26,5%, y la accidental 124 (23,5%. Comparando el número de intoxicaciones severas y óbitos, se verifico una tasa de 100% de óbitos para casos de exposiciones ocupacionales severas, 20% para el intento de suicidio y 7,5% óbitos para las intoxicaciones accidentales

  10. Intoxicaciones agudas con plaguicidas: costos humanos y económicos

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    Jaime E. García

    Full Text Available El uso de los plaguicidas ha producido grandes beneficios agrícolas y, a la vez, graves problemas de salud pública que requieren solución. En algunos estudios de los años ochenta y noventa se informa que anualmente se registran entre medio millón y millón y medio de casos de intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas con un número correspondiente de defunciones que oscila de 3000 a 28000. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo destacar la incidencia de las intoxicaciones agudas por plaguicidas y los costos sociales y económicos atribuibles a estas en diferentes lugares del mundo. Se presentan datos relacionados con la importancia económica de la industria de los plaguicidas y se describe la situación de las intoxicaciones agudas por exposición a plaguicidas y por consumo de alimentos contaminados con ellos. Estos datos revelan que las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas son más frecuentes en los países en desarrollo que en los países industrializados, pese a que su consumo general es menor en los primeros. También se estiman los costos económicos relacionados con las intoxicaciones causadas por estas sustancias y se examinan, por último, algunos aspectos adicionales de la situación descrita, con hincapié en la necesidad de reducir el uso de los plaguicidas.

  11. Aspectos gerais e diagnóstico clinicolaboratorial da intoxicação por paraquat General aspects and clinical laboratorial diagnostic of poisoning by paraquat

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    Gabriela Cristina Schmitt

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O paraquat, herbicida amplamente utilizado na agricultura, é um produto perigoso, pois pode causar intoxicações fatais, principalmente pela falta de antídoto eficaz para reversão do quadro clínico. Fisiopatologia: Os efeitos toxicológicos são decorrentes da indução ao estresse oxidativo. O órgão-alvo principal é o pulmão, que pode apresentar edema, hemorragia, inflamação intersticial e fibrose, culminando com falência respiratória grave e morte. Além disso, é nefrotóxico, hepatotóxico, miotóxico e neurotóxico. TRATAMENTO: Além de visar a diminuição da absorção e estimular a excreção do paraquat absorvido, o tratamento da intoxicação atualmente é baseado em medidas que diminuam o estresse oxidativo utilizando substâncias antioxidantes e, conseqüentemente, revertam o quadro toxicológico instalado, especialmente o pulmonar. MÉTODOS DIAGNÓSTICOS: Entre as metodologias quantitativas disponíveis, os métodos cromatográficos são os mais relatados para materiais biológicos. Porém, a eletroforese capilar e os imunoensaios podem ser utilizados. Os imunoensaios destacam-se pela praticidade laboratorial, pois os cromatográficos e eletroforéticos não são encontrados comumente em laboratórios hospitalares. Por outro lado, uma reação simples e rápida de caracterização urinária com ditionito de sódio é muito realizada, pois é preditiva na suspeita de intoxicações agudas. CONCLUSÃO: Diante do alto potencial de morbimortalidade nas intoxicações por paraquat, a reversão dos danos pulmonares com uso de antioxidantes vem sendo muito estudada, porém não há o estabelecimento de um antídoto específico. No diagnóstico laboratorial, métodos cromatográficos, eletroforéticos e imunológicos são usados para quantificá-lo, contudo a reação urinária com ditionito ainda é valiosa na rotina da toxicologia clínica.INTRODUCTION: Paraquat is a herbicide widely used in agriculture. It is a

  12. Paraquat Dichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraquat dichloride, commonly referred to as “paraquat,” is one of the most widely used herbicides registered in the United States. Paraquat is also often referred to as Gramoxone (a popular end-use product).

  13. Intoxicações por agrotóxicos entre trabalhadores rurais de fruticultura, Bento Gonçalves, RS Intoxicaciones por agrotóxicos entre trabajadores rurales de fruticultura, Bento Gonçalves, Sur de Brasil Poisoning by pesticides among family fruit farmers, Bento Gonçalves, Southern Brazil

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    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2009-04-01

    como os parâmetros oficiais de monitorização, devem ser reavaliados buscando proteger melhor os trabalhadores.OBJETIVO: Describir la exposición ocupacional y la incidencia de intoxicaciones agudas por agrotóxicos, especialmente los organofosforados. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo con 290 agricultores de la fruticultura del municipio Bento Gonçalves (Sur de Brasil, conducido en dos etapas, en el año 2006. Ambas etapas fueron completadas por 241 trabajadores: en el período de bajo uso y de intenso uso de los agrotóxicos. Fueron colectados datos sobre la propiedad, exposición ocupacional a los agrotóxicos, datos sociodemográficos y frecuencia de problemas de salud utilizándose cuestionario estandarizado. Las intoxicaciones fueron caracterizadas por relato de episodios, síntomas relacionados a los agrotóxicos y exámenes de colinesterasa plasmática. Los casos fueron clasificados según la matriz propuesta por la Organización Mundial de Salud (OMS. RESULTADOS: En promedio fueron usados 12 tipos de agrotóxicos en cada propiedad, principalmente glifosato y organofosforados. La mayoría usaba tractor durante la aplicación de pesticidas (87%, entregaba los embalajes para la colecta selectiva (86% y usaba equipos de protección durante las actividades con agrotóxicos (>94%. Entre los trabajadores, 4% relataron intoxicaciones por agrotóxicos en los 12 meses anteriores a la pesquisa y 19% en algún momento de la vida. Según el criterio propuesto por la OMS, 11% fueron clasificados como casos probables de intoxicación aguda. Entre los que habían usado organofosforados en los diez días anteriores al examen, 2,9% presentaron dos o más síntomas relacionados a los agrotóxicos, así como reducción de 20% de la colinesterasa. CONCLUSIONES: La interrupción de la cosecha relució el uso de pesticidas, lo que puede explicar la baja ocurrencia de alteraciones laboratoriales. Los criterios para definición de intoxicación por pesticidas y los par

  14. Intoxicação grave por paraquat: achados clínicos e radiológicos em um sobrevivente Severe paraquat poisoning: clinical and radiological findings in a survivor

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    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O paraquat é um herbicida não seletivo que possui grande importância toxicológica, sendo associado a altas taxas de letalidade, devidas principalmente à insuficiência respiratória. Este é o relato do caso de um homem de 22 anos admitido no departamento de emergência com queixa de dor de garganta, disfagia, hemoptise e dor retroesternal. Ele relatava a ingestão de cerca de 50 mL de uma solução de paraquat quatro dias antes da admissão hospitalar. A TC de tórax exibia opacidades pulmonares, pneumomediastino, pneumotórax e enfisema subcutâneo. O paciente foi submetido a dois ciclos de terapia imunossupressora com ciclofosfamida, metilprednisolona e dexametasona. Os parâmetros gasométricos progressivamente melhoraram, e o paciente recebeu alta hospitalar após quatro semanas. Decorridos quatro meses da alta, o paciente foi submetido a controles clínico e tomográfico, os quais confirmaram a melhora clínica. Apresentamos também uma revisão sucinta da literatura, bem como uma discussão do processo de decisão terapêutica para intoxicação grave por paraquat.Paraquat is a nonselective contact herbicide of great toxicological importance, being associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 22-year-old male admitted to the emergency room with a sore throat, dysphagia, hemoptysis, and retrosternal pain after the ingestion of 50 mL of a paraquat solution, four days prior to admission. Chest CT scans revealed pulmonary opacities, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was submitted to two cycles of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. The pulmonary gas exchange parameters gradually improved, and the patient was discharged four weeks later. The clinical and tomographic follow-up evaluations performed at four months after discharge showed that there had been further clinical improvement. We also

  15. Morbilidad por intoxicaciones agudas en el Hospital Pediátrico de Cienfuegos durante el quinquenio 1996-2000 Morbidity from acute poisonings at the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos from 1996 to 2000

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    Antonio Masot Rangel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, tipo serie de casos, sobre los pacientes menores de 15 años egresados del Hospital Pediátrico de Cienfuegos, con el diagnóstico de intoxicación aguda, con el objetivo de determinar el comportamiento de algunas variables clínicas y epidemiológicas. El universo de estudio lo conformaron los 609 pacientes egresados con este diagnóstico durante el quinquenio 1996-2000. En todos los casos fueron analizadas las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, origen de la intoxicación, lugar de ocurrencia, agente etiológico, vía de entrada, nivel de atención donde recibió primera asistencia médica y complicaciones; obtenidas de las historias clínicas. El 53 % de las intoxicaciones agudas ocurrió en las edades comprendidas hasta 4 años; en este grupo, el 58,2 % perteneció al sexo masculino, mientras que a partir de los 10 años se observó un franco predominio del sexo femenino (78,3 %. Las intoxicaciones accidentales ocurrieron en el 77,8 % del total de pacientes, pero a partir de los 10 años predominó el origen intencional (67,3 %, resultados que fueron estadísticamente significativos. Se comprobó relación entre la edad de la intoxicación, el sexo y el origen intencional o accidental del evento, en la población estudiada.A descriptive, retrospective and serial study was conducted among patients under 15 discharged from the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos with the diagnosis of acute poisoning aimed at determining the behavior of some clinical and epidemiological variables. The sample was composed of 609 patients discharged with this diagnosis from 1996 to 2000. The following variables were taken from the medical histories and analized in all cases: age, sex, origin of the poisoning, place of occurrence, etiological agent, route, level of medical attention received and complications. 53 % of the acute poisonings took place at ages up to 4 years old. In this group, 58.2 % were males. Among

  16. Intoxicaciones agudas graves en un servicio de medicina intensiva durante doce años

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    Palazón Sánchez C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Conocer la epidemiología de las intoxicaciones agudas graves en un servicio de medicina intensiva y evaluar el pronóstico de la PCR y mortalidad asociada a los distintos tóxicos Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo realizado en el servicio de medicina intensiva polivalente de 10 camas, ubicado en un Hospital General de adultos. Período de estudio 12 años. Revisión de las historias clínicas de las personas ingresadas en el servicio de medicina intensiva por intoxicaciones agudas graves. Se recogieron datos demográficos, existencia de PCR al ingreso, necesidad de VM, complicaciones de las intoxicaciones agudas graves y mortalidad de la serie. Se realizó un análisis global y por año de estudio. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos se realizó con el paquete SPSS mediante la "t" de Student o la "chi" cuadrado, considerando valores significativos si p<0,05 Resultados: Se han incluido 233 sujetos, de los que 130 fueron varones. La estancia media fue de 4 días. El 63% de los pacientes fueron menores de 40 años (p<0,05. La intoxicación más frecuente fue la medicamentosa debida a un solo producto (72%. La supervivencia tras la PCR fue del 40% (4/10. La mortalidad global se situó en el 5,6% (n=13, habiendo precisado el 92% de los sujetos que posteriormente murieron, VM en algún momento de su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Conclusiones: En nuestro medio, la intoxicación más frecuente es la medicamentosa. La mortalidad se muestra dependiente del carácter de voluntariedad, pero independiente del tipo de tóxico (medicamentoso o no. La PCR asociada a las intoxicaciones agudas graves tiene, en nuestra serie, un mejor pronostico que la asociada a otras patologías. La VM asociada a las intoxicaciones agudas graves tiene una mortalidad baja (15,7%

  17. Intoxicaciones agudas con plaguicidas: costos humanos y económicos

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    Jaime E. García

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de los plaguicidas ha producido grandes beneficios agrícolas y, a la vez, graves problemas de salud pública que requieren solución. En algunos estudios de los años ochenta y noventa se informa que anualmente se registran entre medio millón y millón y medio de casos de intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas con un número correspondiente de defunciones que oscila de 3000 a 28000. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo destacar la incidencia de las intoxicaciones agudas por plaguicidas y los costos sociales y económicos atribuibles a estas en diferentes lugares del mundo. Se presentan datos relacionados con la importancia económica de la industria de los plaguicidas y se describe la situación de las intoxicaciones agudas por exposición a plaguicidas y por consumo de alimentos contaminados con ellos. Estos datos revelan que las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas son más frecuentes en los países en desarrollo que en los países industrializados, pese a que su consumo general es menor en los primeros. También se estiman los costos económicos relacionados con las intoxicaciones causadas por estas sustancias y se examinan, por último, algunos aspectos adicionales de la situación descrita, con hincapié en la necesidad de reducir el uso de los plaguicidas.The use of pesticides has produced great agricultural benefits and, at the same time, serious public health problems that need to be solved. According to studies performed in the 1980s and 1990s, every year about half a million to one and a half million cases of acute pesticide poisoning are notified, together with 3000 to 28000 deaths. The purpose of this study was to draw attention to the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning and to the social and economic costs that are attributable to pesticides in different parts of the world. We present data on the economic importance of the pesticide industry and describe the situation of acute poisonings from exposure to pesticides and consumption of

  18. Avaliação das intoxicações por domissanitários em uma cidade do Nordeste do Brasil Evaluación de las intoxicaciones por productos domésticos en una ciudad del Nordeste de Brasil Poisoning with household cleaning products in a city in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Bragagnoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa as exposições tóxicas a domissanitários registradas pelo Centro de Informação e Assistência Toxicológica de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil, no período de 2007 a 2010. Os dados foram coletados das fichas de notificação do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN, analisados pelo software SPSS (Versão 17, e a identificação química em amostras de urina foi feita por técnicas cromatográficas de alta resolução (CG-MS e HPLC-UV. Foram registradas 660 intoxicações e, considerando as variáveis de estudo, observados como principais agentes causais os agrotóxicos (42,2%.Os intoxicados por saneantes domésticos na região são predominantemente crianças (30,1%, e/ou do gênero feminino (55,21%, que se expõem ao produto acidentalmente (55,4% pela via oral (82%. Diante desses dados, conclui-se que a intoxicação por domissanitários em Campina Grande e região deve ser tratada com ações específicas de prevenção e controle junto à população, como a avaliação da facilidade de acesso aos venenos agrícolas, para que se consiga atingir as metas estabelecidas pelo Plano Nacional de Saúde, para o quadriênio 2012-2015.Este trabajo analiza las exposiciones tóxicas a productos domésticos registradas por el Centro de Información y Asistencia Toxicológica de Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brasil, durante el periodo de 2007 hasta 2010. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante la información proporcionada por el Sistema de Notificación de Enfermedades (SINAN y analizados por el software SPSS (versión 17. La identificación química en muestras de orina fue realizada mediante alta resolución con técnicas de cromatografía (GC-MS y HPLC-UV. Se registraron 660 intoxicaciones y, teniendo en consideración las variables del estudio, se observó que los principales agentes causales eran los pesticidas (42,2% y que los envenenados por productos domésticos de limpieza en la región eran en su mayor

  19. Paraquat poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraquat (dipyridylium) is a highly toxic weed killer (herbicide). In the past, the United States encouraged Mexico to use it to destroy marijuana plants. Later, research showed this herbicide was dangerous to workers who applied it to the plants. This ...

  20. Estudo eletroanalítico do herbicida paraquat em soluções aquosas por voltametria de onda quadrada utilizando ultramicroeletrodos Electroanalytical study of the paraquat herbicide in aqueous solution by square wave voltammetry using ultramicroelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djenaine de Souza

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of paraquat on Pt, Au and carbon fiber ultramicroelectrodes were studied in laboratory samples by square wave voltammetry at high frequencies. The results showed two reversible peaks for paraquat reduction, in agreement to the literature data. The first peak was associated to the reduction of paraquat molecule in solution, with the further adsorption of the intermediate on the electrode surface. This adsorbed species undergoes to electroreduction in a reaction associated to the second voltammetric peak. The variation in pH and square wave parameters showed the best conditions to reduce paraquat as pH 5.0, frequency as high as 1000 s-1, scan increment of 2 mV and square wave amplitude of 50 mV. At such conditions, a variation of paraquat concentrations from 4.3 x 10-6 to 1.66 x 10-4 mol L-1 presented values for the detection limit equal to 3.9, 6.2 and 20.3 ppb on Pt, Au and carbon, respectively, at 1000 s-1. These values are quite below17 the allowed limit of paraquat in drinking water.

  1. Impact on mormortality of o one conjugated treatment in 10 paraquat intoxicated patients attended at the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín, Colombia, from august 2002 to august 2003 Impacto en la mortalidad de un tratamiento conjugado, en pacientes intoxicados no ocupacionalmente, con paraquat en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín, entre agosto de 2002 y agosto de 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina Quiceno Quiceno

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a frequently used herbicide in Colombia. Its ingestion produces a severe intoxication with a high lethality. Up to now there is not a successful treatment for it. The purpose of this study was to determine if a conjugated treatment with NAcetylcysteine; A, C, and E vitamins, Propranolol, Colchicine and Furosemide increased the survival of ten paraquat intoxicated patients attended at the San Vicente de Paul University Hospital in Medellín, Colombia, based on the predicted probability of survival, Paraquat plasmatic concentration and clinical assessment. Six patients died because of their intoxication severity, three of them due to multisystemic organic failure, and three from acute respiratory failure. The results had statistical significance, showing a direct proportion between the high plasma levels of paraquat and mortality; and the fact that those with a multiorganic involvement died, despite their low Paraquat plasma levels. Based on clinical data it is possible to conclude that the treatment is useful only for patients with mild to moderate intoxication; there is not an exact correlation between the clinical features and the Paraquat plasma levels; and the clinical features are a very good indicator of the prognosis in Paraquat intoxicated patients. Further experimental and clinical trials are needed. En Colombia se utiliza frecuentemente el Paraquat, herbicida que al ser ingerido en cualquier cantidad produce toxicidad grave y alta mortalidad, sin haberse encontrado un tratamiento eficaz para la recuperación de los intoxicados. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer si un tratamiento conjugado con N-acetilcisteína, vitamina A, C, E, propranolol, colchicina y furosemida, disminuye la mortalidad en pacientes, basados en la probabilidad de supervivencia, los niveles plasmáticos y el seguimiento clínico. Resultados: De diez pacientes con intoxicaciones no ocupacionales que ingresaron al Hospital Universitario San Vicente

  2. Methemoglobin formation by paraquat.

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Shinsaku; Ogata, Masana

    1982-01-01

    Paraquat is a broad spectrum herbicide known to be highly lethal to man and animals. Its toxicity is characterized by acute lung injury. Paraquat produces such toxic effects through the generation of the superoxide anion according to one proposed mechanism. The present experiment, methemoglobin formation was demonstrated after incubation of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat. The generation of the superoxide anion through the interaction of oxyhemoglobin with paraquat was suggested by chemiluminesce...

  3. Dicloruro de paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    El dicloruro de paraquat, comúnmente conocido como “paraquat,” es uno de los herbicidas registrados de mayor uso en los Estados Unidos. El paraquat también se conoce como Gramaxone (un producto popular de uso final

  4. A CRISPR screen identifies a pathway required for paraquat-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Colleen R; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Kong, Hyewon; Martínez-Reyes, Inmaculada; Wang, Tim; Gao, Peng; Sabatini, David M; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2017-12-01

    Paraquat, a herbicide linked to Parkinson's disease, generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which causes cell death. Because the source of paraquat-induced ROS production remains unknown, we conducted a CRISPR-based positive-selection screen to identify metabolic genes essential for paraquat-induced cell death. Our screen uncovered three genes, POR (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase), ATP7A (copper transporter), and SLC45A4 (sucrose transporter), required for paraquat-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results revealed POR as the source of paraquat-induced ROS production. Thus, our study highlights the use of functional genomic screens for uncovering redox biology.

  5. Mechanism of cytotoxicity of paraquat

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Tetsuhito; Tanaka, Keiko; Lim, Heejin; Moriyama, Masaki

    2002-01-01

    Acute paraquat poisoning seems to be very complex because many possible mechanisms of paraquat cytotoxicity have been reported. Some may not be the cause of paraquat poisoning but the result or an accompanying phenomenon of paraquat action. The mechanism critical for cell damage is still unknown. Paraquat poisoning is probably a combination of several paraquat actions. Arguing which mechanism is more critical may not be important, and these clarified mechanisms should be connected and utilize...

  6. Paraquat. Specialized Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    A collection of articles about the controversial use of paraquat (a toxic herbicide) in marijuana eradication programs is presented. Using a question-and-answer format, article 1 presents interviews with experts on all sides of the controversy, focusing on the legal, social, physiological, and ecological implications of the paraquat debate.…

  7. Radioimmunoassay for serum paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatori, D.; Hunter, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two variants of a radioimmunoassay for the bipyridylium herbicide Paraquat are described. Both employ antiserum raised to Paraquat-BSA which has been covalently linked to particulate solid-phase support media. The rapid assay for clinical use employs a [ 3 H] Paraquat tracer, requires no agitation and yields results in the range 10-2500 ng/ml serum in 20 min from receipt of sample. The more sensitive assay, designed for research purposes, employs a 125 iodinated tracer, requires 2 h continuous agitation but can detect Paraquat at 0.1 ng/ml in simple aqueous solution or 0.25 ng/ml serum. Results from rapid clinical assay agree well with the existing colorimetric method. (Auth.)

  8. The spectrum of accidental childhood poisoning in the Caribbean Intoxicaciones infantiles accidentales en el Caribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Martin

    2002-11-01

    incidencia, tipos de sustancias implicadas, edad de los niños y desenlaces clínicos. Los resultados obtenidos en este país se compararon con los de otros estudios realizados en diferentes países caribeños de habla inglesa y en los Estados Unidos de América (EE. UU.. Métodos. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de las historias clínicas de todos los pacientes de menos de 13 años de edad ingresados entre marzo de 1989 y marzo de 1999 en la planta de pediatría del Hospital Holberton de Antigua por intoxicación accidental. Los datos obtenidos se compararon con los comunicados en estudios anteriores realizados en Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica y EE. UU. Resultados. Durante este período de 10 años, hubo en Antigua y Barbuda 255 ingresos de niños de menos de 13 años por intoxicación accidental (media de 26 ingresos por año. En una población de aproximadamente 20 000 niños menores de 13 años, esto representa una proporción de 1,3 por 1 000. De estos 255 casos, 115 (45% ocurrieron en niños de 1 año, 69 (27% en niños de 2 años y 26 (10% en niños de 3 años. Esta distribución por edades fue similar a la observada en los demás países. Al comparar los tipos de intoxicación en todos los países estudiados, se verificó que las sustancias implicadas cambiaban a medida que aumentaba el nivel económico: disminuían los hidrocarburos y las plantas y aumentaban los medicamentos y los productos químicos. Conclusiones. A medida que aumenta el nivel económico, también lo hace la complejidad de las sustancias implicadas. Esta tendencia debería llevar al establecimiento de un centro de control de intoxicaciones en los países caribeños de habla inglesa.

  9. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  10. Paraquat: A fatal poison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Shashibhushan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (1, 1′-dimethyl-4, 4′-dipyridylium is a bipyridilium herbicide used widely in our country and is a highly toxic compound. This compound is very notorious to cause rapid development of renal, liver, and respiratory failure with very high mortality due to lack of specific antidote and dearth of high-quality evidence-based treatment. Respiratory system involvement is the most common cause of death in these people. We hereby report a fatal case of a 30-year-old male with a history of paraquat consumption. The patient developed oliguric renal failure, deterioration of liver function, and acute respiratory distress syndrome over next few days. Different treatment modalities were tried to manage patient′s condition. In this case, none of the strategies worked well, and death ensued due to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome.

  11. Paraquat and sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromilow, Richard H

    2004-04-01

    Sustainable agriculture is essential for man's survival, especially given our rapidly increasing population. Expansion of agriculture into remaining areas of natural vegetation is undesirable, as this would reduce biodiversity on the planet. Maintaining or indeed improving crop yields on existing farmed land, whether on a smallholder scale or on larger farms, is thus necessary. One of the limiting factors is often weed control; biological control of weeds is generally of limited use and mechanical control is either often difficult with machinery or very laborious by hand. Thus the use of herbicides has become very important. Minimum cultivation can also be important, as it reduces the power required to work the soil, limits erosion and helps to maintain the organic matter content of the soil. This last aspect helps preserve both the structure of soil and its populations of organisms, and also sustains the Earth's soil as a massive sink for carbon, an important consideration in the light of global warming. The introduction of the bipyridinium herbicide paraquat in the early 1960s greatly facilitated weed control in many crops. Paraquat has the unusual property of being active only by direct spray onto plants and not by uptake from soil in which strong binding deactivates it. Together with its rapid action in light in killing green plant tissue, such properties allow paraquat to be used in many crops, including those grown by low-tillage methods. This paper reviews the ways in which agricultural systems have been and are being developed to make use of these properties, and provides a risk/benefit analysis of the world-wide use of paraquat over nearly 40 years.

  12. Decisiones en reacciones adversas a medicamentos, intoxicaciones y respuestas inesperadas de productos naturales como problema de salud pública

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Álvarez-Falconí

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available En esta revisión se evalúa la información relevante sobre diversas reacciones adversas severas atribuidas a medicamentos de relativa reciente introducción en el mercado mundial, intoxicaciones por medicamentos contaminados, así como respuestas inesperadas adversas de productos naturales, todo lo cual contribuyó a la toma y adopción de decisiones en el pasado y en el presente, por organismos reguladores en medicamentos en diversos países. Se exploran a grandes perfiles las acciones relacionadas con los pilares de las políticas de medicamentos, los sucesos históricos y actuales calificados como desastres o tragedias en salud pública en el uso de medicamentos en el siglo pasado y presente, a fin de ofrecer un panorama básico en este manejo. Se incluyeron efectos que afectaron la salud por el empleo de algunos productos naturales para prestar atención a su implicancia en la práctica médica. Se comentan y discuten las decisiones de los organismos reguladores internacionales, los enormes gastos en salud pública por reacciones adversas, las estrategias que han contribuido a evitar perjuicios en la sociedad por reacciones adversas de medicamentos innovadores y antiguos. Se contribuye en afianzar los conceptos de responsabilidad empresarial y gubernamental, estándares científicos, éticos y seguridad de los medicamentos, la importancia del control de calidad, bioética, buenas prácticas clínicas en la investigación científica en medicamentos, buenas prácticas de manufactura y evitar prácticas corruptas. Se reafirma que el éxito de la medicina moderna se debe en magnitud importante a los medicamentos y dentro de ellos a los innovadores. Las decisiones oportunas de los expertos se orientan a evitar tragedias, sufrimientos y gastos innecesarios por reacciones adversas a medicamentos y consecuentemente eludir problemas en salud pública.

  13. Medical management of paraquat ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawarammana, Indika B; Buckley, Nicholas A

    2011-01-01

    Poisoning by paraquat herbicide is a major medical problem in parts of Asia while sporadic cases occur elsewhere. The very high case fatality of paraquat is due to inherent toxicity and lack of effective treatments. We conducted a systematic search for human studies that report toxicokinetics, mechanisms, clinical features, prognosis and treatment. Paraquat is rapidly but incompletely absorbed and then largely eliminated unchanged in urine within 12–24 h. Clinical features are largely due to intracellular effects. Paraquat generates reactive oxygen species which cause cellular damage via lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-κB, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis in many organs. Kinetics of distribution into these target tissues can be described by a two-compartment model. Paraquat is actively taken up against a concentration gradient into lung tissue leading to pneumonitis and lung fibrosis. Paraquat also causes renal and liver injury. Plasma paraquat concentrations, urine and plasma dithionite tests and clinical features provide a good guide to prognosis. Activated charcoal and Fuller's earth are routinely given to minimize further absorption. Gastric lavage should not be performed. Elimination methods such as haemodialysis and haemoperfusion are unlikely to change the clinical course. Immunosuppression with dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide and methylprednisolone is widely practised, but evidence for efficacy is very weak. Antioxidants such as acetylcysteine and salicylate might be beneficial through free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory and NF-κB inhibitory actions. However, there are no published human trials. The case fatality is very high in all centres despite large variations in treatment. PMID:21615775

  14. UV-ozonation of paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, P.C.; Ruth, J.M.; Zeng, Q.; Mazzocchi, P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of O 2 or O 3 was investigated as a method for degrading paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) prior to soil disposal. A solution of 1500 ppm of formulated paraquat was slowly degraded after 7 h in a unit containing 66 low-pressure mercury vapor lamps with a maximum energy output at 254 nm. Addition of acetone as a photosensitizer accelerated the rate of oxidative cleavage of paraquat in laboratory-scale studies. Loss of 14 C from [methyl- 14 C]-paraquat was observed in paraquat solutions at 150 ppm but 1500 ppm. Reaction products identified from paraquat were 4-carboxy-1-methylpyridinium ion at 1500 ppm by high-pressure liquid chromatography; 4-picolinic acid, hydroxy-4-picolinic acid, succinic acid, N-formylglycine, malic acid, and oxalic acid as their Me 3 Si derivatives; and 4,4'-bipyridyl in dilute solutions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  15. Polyamines and Paraquat Toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina, Kurepa; Jan, Smalle; Marc Van, Montagu; Dirk, Inze; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent; Laboratorium voor Genetica, Department of Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology, Universiteit Gent:Laboratoire Associe de l'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique(France), Universiteit Gent

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between paraquat toxicity and polyamine levels was analyzed in Arabidopsis wild-type and gi-3 plants. Paraquat treatment led to an increase in putrescine, but not of spermidine and spermine content. Additionally, polyamine feeding offered high levels of protection against paraquat toxicity with spermidine being the most effective protectant.

  16. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  17. Multiple resistance of horseweed to glyphosate and paraquat and its control with paraquat and metribuzin combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse and field studies were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to investigate possible multiple-resistance of horseweed to paraquat and glyphosate, and to evaluate the effect of the addition of metribuzin to paraquat on control of paraquat-resistant horseweed. Results indicated that the GR50 (herbicid...

  18. Binding of paraquat to cell walls of paraquat resistant and susceptible biotypes of Hordeum glaucum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh, H.M.; Preston, C.; Powles, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Paraquat is a widely used, non-selective, light activated contact herbicide acting as a photosystem electron acceptor. Resistance to paraquat in weed species has occurred in Australia and world-wide following extensive use of this herbicide. The mechanism of resistance to paraquat in 'Hordeum glaucum' is correlated with reduced herbicide translocation and may be due to sequestration of herbicide away from its site of action by either binding to cell walls or other means. We measured paraquat binding to a cell wall fraction in resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum to determine whether differences in binding of paraquat to cell walls could explain herbicide resistance. The cell wall fraction was isolated from leaves of resistant and susceptible biotypes and incubated with 14 C-labelled paraquat. Of the total paraquat - absorbed by a cell wall preparation, about 80% remains strongly bind to the cell wall and doesn't readily exchange with solution in the absence of divalent cations. Divalent cations (Ca 2+ ,putrescine and paraquat) can competitively exchange for paraquat tightly bound to the cell wall. From kinetic experiments it seems that there are two types of binding sites in the cell wall with different affinities for paraquat. No significant differences between cell wall, characteristics of resistant and susceptible biotypes of H. glaucum have been found in any of our experiments. Therefore, increased binding of paraquat to the cell wall appears not to be a mechanism for exclusion of paraquat in resistant biotype

  19. Aplicaciones del carbón activado y nuevas fibras carbonosas en el manejo de las intoxicaciones pediátricas

    OpenAIRE

    López Ávila, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    [ES]La fase inicial del tratamiento de las intoxicaciones se centra en los aspectos fundamentales del soporte vital básico, como el manejo de la vía aérea, oxigenación y ventilación, la circulación, la termorregulación (el ABCD de la resucitación) y la disponibilidad de sustrato (glucosa). En la mayoría de intoxicaciones no se requiere la descontaminación gastrointestinal y no se realiza de rutina, aunque se considera que el carbón activado es el pilar de la descontaminación gastrointesti...

  20. Mechanisms of resistance to paraquat in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Timothy R

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this brief review is to draw information from studies of the mechanism of evolved resistance in weeds, together with information from laboratory studies of paraquat tolerance in model plants. Plants having mutations that limit paraquat uptake into cytoplasm, that confer various stress tolerances or that have transgenes that co-express two or more of the chloroplast Halliwell-Asada cycle enzymes can all exhibit enhanced tolerance to paraquat. However, none of these mechanisms correspond to the high-level resistances that have evolved naturally in weeds. Most, but not all, of the evidence from studies of paraquat-resistant biotypes of weeds can reasonably be reconciled with the proposal of a single major gene mechanism that sequesters paraquat away from chloroplasts and into the vacuole. However, the molecular details of this putative mechanism remain ill-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi during paraquat (herbicide) degradation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Morales, Reyna L; Gerardo-Gerardo, José Luis; Guillén Navarro, Karina; Sánchez, José E

    Paraquat is a widely used herbicide in agriculture. Its inappropriate use and wide distribution represents a serious pollution problem for soil and water. White rot fungi are capable of degrading pollutants having a similar structure to that of lignin, such as paraquat. This study evaluated the degradation effect of paraquat on the production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungi isolated from the South of Mexico. Six fungal strains showed tolerance to the herbicide in solid culture. Three of the six evaluated strains showed levels of degradation of 32, 26 and 47% (Polyporus tricholoma, Cilindrobasidium laeve and Deconica citrispora, respectively) after twelve days of cultivation in the presence of the xenobiotic. An increase in laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was detected in the strains showing the highest percentage of degradation. Experiments were done with enzyme extracts from the extracellular medium with the two strains showing more degradation potential and enzyme production. After 24hours of incubation, a degradation of 49% of the initial paraquat concentration was observed for D. citrispora. These results suggest that paraquat degradation can be attributed to the presence of extracellular enzymes from white rot fungi. In this work the first evidence of the biodegradation potential of D. citrispora and Cilindrobasidium leave is shown. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Paraquat-induced radiosensitization of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.C.; Fujikura, Toshio; Hiraoka, Toshio; Tenou, Hiromi.

    1983-06-01

    The herbicide, paraquat (methyl viologen, 1-1' dimethy1-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride), stimulates the production of superoxide anion (O 2 sup(-.)) in aerobic cells and therefore mimics some effects of ionizing radiation. In addition, concentrations of cellular glutathione are reduced by reaction with O 2 sup(-.). It is reported here that paraquat, toxic in its own right to aerobic cells, acts as a radiosensitizer when cells are exposed to nontoxic concentrations of the drug prior to and during irradiation. The radiomimetic effect of paraquat, alone and in combination with X-rays, was examined. Paraquat affects aerated cells (hamster lung V79 cells) in a dose-dependent manner. Doses in excess of 1 mM for two hours cause significant cell killing. In combination with radiation, sublethal doses of paraquat, given for two hours prior to irradiation, enhance the lethal effects of radiation. However, if cells are exposed to the same concentration of paraquat following irradiation, no additional lethal effect is observed. Paraquat is a useful tool to study the effects of O 2 sup(-.) and may lead to better understanding of the mechanisms of radiation-induced energy deposition in cells. (author)

  3. Pulmonary damage caused by cytostatics and paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Woeltjen, H.H.; Schauer, A.

    1981-01-01

    Substances which exercise a pulmonary toxic action will first of all produce alveolar and perivascular oedemas followed by fibrosis. Differential diagnosis is explained on the basis of two cases of a fatal mitomycin fibrosis of the lung, as well as the observation of fibrous changes following the administration of Bleomycin and Metothrexat. The course of pulmonary fibroses caused by paraquat is described for two cases of fatal paraquat intoxications. (orig.) [de

  4. Paraquat poisoning in a burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, A J; Ahrenholz, D H; Solem, L D

    2001-01-01

    Paraquat is a bipyridyl compound widely used as a contact herbicide. Since its introduction in 1962, hundreds of deaths have occurred, usually after suicidal or accidental ingestion. Death after dermal absorption of paraquat is uncommon, but has occurred after either contact with undiluted paraquat, disruption of skin integrity, or prolonged exposure. It is the purpose of this case report to describe a patient who had fatal dermal paraquat absorption after a crop-dusting accident in which he sustained 37% TBSA burns. After 9.5 hours of cutaneous exposure, a paraquat level of 0.169 mg/ml was obtained at 20 hours, the standard lethal dose at 16 hours being 0.16 mg/ml. In light of the apparently irreversible pathophysiology of paraquat poisoning with plasma levels as low as 3 mg/L, prevention and early intervention are the best treatments. Our patient may have survived an otherwise routine thermal injury had his wounds been aggressively irrigated in the field.

  5. Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. | Slater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury from Paraquat poisoning: a case report. H. E. Slater, O.C.A. Okoye, O. Okperi, N. Rajora. Abstract. Paraquat is a salt widely used as a herbicide. Although paraquat poisoning is rare in the general population, it may be considered as one of the most toxic poisons frequently used for suicide attempts, and is ...

  6. The autoradiographic localization of paraquat in the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning in mammals results in a characteristic lung lesion manifested principally as progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Paraquat is actively concentrated into the lung but the site of uptake remains undefined. A method is described for the autoradiographic localization of paraquat in rats. Preliminary evidence for the site of uptake implicates the bronchiol. (author)

  7. Early Pulomonary Irradiation in Paraquat (Gramoxone) Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Geol; Kim, Gwi Eon; Suh, Chang Ok

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate whether the early pulmonary irradiation can prevent or decrease the pulmonary damage and contribute to improve ultimate survival in paraquat lung. Materials and Methods : From Jun. 1987 to Aug. 1993, thirty patients with paraquat poisoning were evaluated. Fourteen of these patients were received pulmonary irradiation(RT). All of the patients ere managed with aggressive supportive treatment such as gastric lavage, forced diuresis, antioxidant agents and antifibrosis agents. Ingested amounts of paraquat were estimated into three groups(A: minimal 50cc). Pulmonary irradiation was started within 24 hours after admission(from day 1 to day 11 after ingestion of paraquat). Both whole lungs were irradiated with AP/PA parallel opposing fields using C0-60 teletherapy machine. A total of 10Gy(2Gy/fr. X 5 days)was delivered without correction of lung density. Results : In group A, all patients were alive regardless of pulmonary irradiation and in group C, all of the patients were died due o multi-organ failure, especially pulmonary fibrosis regardless of pulmonary irradiation. However, in group B, six of 7 patients(86%) with no RT were died due to respiratory failure, but 4 of 8 patients with RT were alive and 4 of 5 patients who received pulmonary irradiation within 4 days after ingestion of paraquat were all alive though radiological pulmonary fibrosis. All 3 patients who were received pulmonary irradiation after 4 days after ingestion were died due to pulmonary fibrosis in spite of recovery from renal and hepatic toxicity. Conclusion : It is difficult to find out the effect of pulmonary irradiation on the course of the paraquat lung because the precise plasma and urine paraquat concentration were not available between control and irradiation groups. But early pulmonary irradiation within 4 days after paraquat poisoning with aggressive supportive treatment appears to decrease pulmonary toxicity and contribute survival in patients with mouthful ingestion

  8. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O

    2016-01-01

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation

  9. Chest radiographic findings in acute paraquat poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Gyeong Gyun; Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Hee Jun; Sun, In O [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To describe the chest radiographic findings of acute paraquat poisoning. 691 patients visited the emergency department of our hospital between January 2006 and October 2012 for paraquat poisoning. Of these 691, we identified 56 patients whose initial chest radiographs were normal but who developed radiographic abnormalities within one week. We evaluated their radiographic findings and the differences in imaging features based on mortality. The most common finding was diffuse consolidation (29/56, 52%), followed by consolidation with linear and nodular opacities (18/56, 32%), and combined consolidation and pneumomediastinum (7/56, 13%). Pleural effusion was noted in 17 patients (30%). The two survivors (4%) showed peripheral consolidations, while the 54 patients (96%) who died demonstrated bilateral (42/54, 78%) or unilateral (12/54, 22%) diffuse consolidations. Rapidly progressing diffuse pulmonary consolidation was observed within one week on follow-up radiographs after paraquat ingestion in the deceased, but the survivors demonstrated peripheral consolidation.

  10. Serum Metabolomics in Rats after Acute Paraquat Poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyi; Ma, Jianshe; Zhang, Meiling; Wen, Congcong; Huang, Xueli; Sun, Fa; Wang, Shuanghu; Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Guanyang; Wang, Xianqin

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and is highly toxic to humans and animals. In this study, we developed a serum metabolomic method based on GC/MS to evaluate the effects of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminate analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the level of octadecanoic acid, L-serine, L-threonine, L-valine, and glycerol in the acute paraquat poisoning group (36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of hexadecanoic acid, D-galactose, and decanoic acid decreased. These findings provide an overview of systematic responses to paraquat exposure and metabolomic insight into the toxicological mechanism of paraquat. Our results indicate that metabolomic methods based on GC/MS may be useful to elucidate the mechanism of acute paraquat poisoning through the exploration of biomarkers.

  11. Qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente tratados com paraquat e o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduo do herbicida Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welington Pereira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente (Solanum tuberosum tratados com paraquat e desenvolver uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduos de herbicida. Dois ensaios foram realizados no Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de hortaliças, Brasília, DF. No experimento, tubérculos das cultivares Achat e Baronesa foram submersos em soluções de 0 e 200 ppm de paraquat ou injetados com 0,5 ml de soluções de 0 e 200 ppm do herbicida. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 8 repetições e 12 tubérculos por parcela. Os tubérculos foram colocados em câmara fria, após a aplicação com paraquat, para quebra da dormência. Após a brotação dos tubérculos avaliou-se a qualidade interna dos mesmos, amostrando, posteriormente, 2 tubérculos de cada parcela para o plantio em vasos, sob condições de telado, para verificar possíveis danos no crescimento das plantas oriundas dos tubérculos tratados. Os tratamentos de imersão não provocaram, aparentemente, nenhum dano interno nos tubérculos, ou nem mesmo afetaram a nova geração, entretanto, os tubérculos injetados com paraquat foram severamente deteriorados e carbonizados, originando plantas bastante debilitadas. Esses resultados indicam que quando o paraquat for aplicado sob condições que favoreçam sua penetração ou translocação para o interior do tubérculo, atingindo os vasos e a polpa, pode danificá-lo severamente, prejudicar sua aparência, qualidade de produção e reduzir o desenvolvimento da nova geração de plantas oriundas dos tubérculos contaminados . No segundo experimento, desenvolveu-se uma metodologia simplificada para detectar resíduos de paraquat nos tubérculos através de colorimetria, visto que o paraquat é reduzido a um radical de cor azul na presença de ditionito de sódio (Na2S2O4 a 1% em meio básico, a qual se intensifica à medida que a

  12. Signos Vitales de los CDC-Muertes por intoxicación por alcohol (Alcohol Poisoning Deaths)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-06

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de enero del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. En los Estados Unidos, mueren en promedio seis personas cada día debido a la intoxicación por alcohol. Infórmese sobre lo que puede hacer para prevenir los atracones de alcohol y las intoxicaciones por alcohol.  Created: 1/6/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/6/2015.

  13. Paraquat Resistant1, a Golgi-localized putative transporter protein, is involved in intracellular transport of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyong; Mu, Jinye; Bai, Jiaoteng; Fu, Fuyou; Zou, Tingting; An, Fengying; Zhang, Jian; Jing, Hongwei; Wang, Qing; Li, Zhen; Yang, Shuhua; Zuo, Jianru

    2013-05-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide. In green plants, paraquat targets the chloroplast by transferring electrons from photosystem I to molecular oxygen to generate toxic reactive oxygen species, which efficiently induce membrane damage and cell death. A number of paraquat-resistant biotypes of weeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants have been identified. The herbicide resistance in Arabidopsis is partly attributed to a reduced uptake of paraquat through plasma membrane-localized transporters. However, the biochemical mechanism of paraquat resistance remains poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis paraquat resistant1 (par1) mutant that shows strong resistance to the herbicide without detectable developmental abnormalities. PAR1 encodes a putative l-type amino acid transporter protein localized to the Golgi apparatus. Compared with the wild-type plants, the par1 mutant plants show similar efficiency of paraquat uptake, suggesting that PAR1 is not directly responsible for the intercellular uptake of paraquat. However, the par1 mutation caused a reduction in the accumulation of paraquat in the chloroplast, suggesting that PAR1 is involved in the intracellular transport of paraquat into the chloroplast. We identified a PAR1-like gene, OsPAR1, in rice (Oryza sativa). Whereas the overexpression of OsPAR1 resulted in hypersensitivity to paraquat, the knockdown of its expression using RNA interference conferred paraquat resistance on the transgenic rice plants. These findings reveal a unique mechanism by which paraquat is actively transported into the chloroplast and also provide a practical approach for genetic manipulations of paraquat resistance in crops.

  14. Alternatieven voor onkruidbestrijding met paraquat in zomerbloemen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulle, A.A.E.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2009-01-01

    In de teelt van zomerbloemen werden voor de bestrijding van onkruid middelen gebruikt op basis van de werkzame stof paraquat-dichloride. Per augustus 2007 is dit middel ingetrokken. Op korte termijn was een noeiuwe methode nodig. PPO Lisse heeft onderzoek gedaan naar de potentiële alternatieve

  15. Toxiciteit van paraquat voor enkele bodemorganismen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven-van Breemen EM; van Gestel CAM; van der Pol JJC; van Straalen NM; Baerselman R; van Beelen P

    1990-01-01

    This report describes a study on the toxicity of paraquat for soil microorganisms, acari (Platynothrus peltifer), collembola (Orchesella cincta), isopods (Porcellio scaber) and earthworms (Eisenia andrei). Acari and collembola were fed with treated algae, whereas the other organisms were tested in

  16. Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with paraquat intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ha Nee; Bae, Eun Jin; Hwang, Kyungo; Kang, Yeojin; Yun, Seongeun; Cho, Hyun Seop; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with paraquat intoxication resulting in the requirement for hemoperfusion, hemodialysis, and plasma exchange. His initial serum paraquat level was 0.24 µg/mL (0.0-0.1 µg/mL). Activated charcoal (50 g) was administered orally, and high-dose N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. In addition, immediate 4 h hemoperfusion was also performed for three consecutive days after admission. Hemodialysis was started on the 4th day after admission because of uremia. On the 9th day after admission, laboratory findings demonstrated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia, elevated reticulocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Plasma exchange was performed three times consecutively. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were improved, and LDH was normalized after plasma exchange. Urine output increased to 2240 mL/day on the 18th day after admission, and hemodialysis was discontinued. He is currently being observed at our follow-up clinic without renal impairment or pulmonary dysfunction for 1.5 years since discharge. We should suspect paraquat-associated HUS when thrombocytopenia and anemia are maintained for a long time after paraquat intoxication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impairment of striatal mitochondrial function by acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniczyniec, Analía; Lanza, E M; Karadayian, A G; Bustamante, J; Lores-Arnaiz, S

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondria are essential for survival. Their primary function is to support aerobic respiration and to provide energy for intracellular metabolic pathways. Paraquat is a redox cycling agent capable of generating reactive oxygen species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in cortical and striatal mitochondrial function in an experimental model of acute paraquat toxicity and to compare if the brain areas and the molecular mechanisms involved were similar to those observed after chronic exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats received paraquat (25 mg/Kg i.p.) or saline and were sacrificed after 24 h. Paraquat treatment decreased complex I and IV activity by 37 and 21 % respectively in striatal mitochondria. Paraquat inhibited striatal state 4 and state 3 KCN-sensitive respiration by 80 % and 62 % respectively, indicating a direct effect on respiratory chain. An increase of 2.2 fold in state 4 and 2.3 fold in state 3 in KCN-insensitive respiration was observed in striatal mitochondria from paraquat animals, suggesting that paraquat redox cycling also consumed oxygen. Paraquat treatment increased hydrogen peroxide production (150 %), TBARS production (42 %) and cardiolipin oxidation/depletion (12 %) in striatal mitochondria. Also, changes in mitochondrial polarization was induced after paraquat treatment. However, no changes were observed in any of these parameters in cortical mitochondria from paraquat treated-animals. These results suggest that paraquat treatment induced a clear striatal mitochondrial dysfunction due to both paraquat redox cycling reactions and impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport, causing oxidative damage. As a consequence, mitochondrial dysfunction could probably lead to alterations in cellular bioenergetics.

  18. Sensitivity to Paraquat Toxicity and Polyamine Synthesis in Eubacterium Paracoccus

    OpenAIRE

    浜名, 康栄; 松崎, 茂

    1992-01-01

    The growth and polyamine synthesis of a eubacterium Paracoccus denitrificans which contains putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, aminopropylcadaverine, spermine and thermospermine were inhibited by 0.1-1mM paraquat in the polyamine-free medium. A halophilic eubacterium Paracoccus halodenitrificans which is devoid of polyamines was more sensitive to paraquat. The growth inhibition by paraquat was not attenuated by the addition of O_2^- radical scavengers into the medium. The exogenous supplemen...

  19. Mechanism of biodegradation of paraquat by Lipomyces starkeyi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.J.; Bilton, R.F.; Atkinson, T.

    1985-01-01

    The biodegradation of ring- 14 C- and methyl- 14 C-labeled paraquat by the soil yeast Lipomyces starkeyi was studied in vitro. It was found that the degradation of paraquat (acting as a sole source of culture nitrogen) resulted in the accumulation in the extracellular medium of radiolabeled acetic acid. The culture also evolved radiolabeled CO 2 . The results suggest that the degradation of paraquat by L. starkeyi is associated with the integrity of the cell wall and that disruption or removal of the wall results in a complete loss of degradative capability. A mechanism for the degradation of paraquat by this organism is postulated

  20. Salicylate activity. 1. Protection of plants from paraquat injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, F Paul; Petracek, Peter D; Fledderman, Christina M; Ju, Zhiguo; Heiman, Daniel F; Warrior, Prem

    2005-12-14

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium; methylviologen) is a widely used, nonselective contact herbicide that rapidly stimulates free radical generation. It has been found that the addition of sodium salicylate (sodium 2-hydroxybenzoate; NaSA) to paraquat spray solutions significantly decreased herbicidal activity. This protection was observed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) regardless of whether NaSA was foliar-applied along with or prior to paraquat application or NaSA was soil-applied prior to paraquat application. Because salicylic acid (SA) is an inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to plant disease, paraquat protection by three SAR inducers (acibenzolar-S-methyl, harpin, and probenazole) and selected salicylate derivatives was assessed. Twenty-two of 24 compounds tested decreased herbicidal activity when foliar-applied with paraquat. Protection from paraquat was greatest with 5-chlorosalicylate, and no protection was observed with benzoic acid. NaSA decreased paraquat activity on npr1-2, an Arabidopsis mutant that is compromised in NaSA-induced SAR, and on ein2-1, an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant. Thus, salicylate protection from paraquat is independent of disease resistance and ethylene perception. This suggests the existence of an NaSA-mediated pathway capable of protecting plants from reactive oxygen stress.

  1. GRAVIDADE DE INTOXICAÇÕES POR SANEANTES CLANDESTINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Adrielle Teixeira Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar las intoxicaciones por saneantes comercializados clandestinamente, reportadas en el Centro de Control de Intoxicaciones del Hospital Universitario Regional de Maringá. Es un estudio cuantitativo, con análisis retrospectivo de registros epidemiológicos de personas intoxicadas por estos agentes, en el período de enero de 2005 a diciembre de 2009. De los 118 casos reportados, la mayoría (74-62,7% se produjeron en varones, 105 (88,9% necesitaron de asistencia en unidades de atención de emergencia y hospitalización de alta complejidad, en 14 casos (11,8% requirieron de Cuidados Intensivos, y se reportaron cinco óbitos, todos por intoxicación intencional. Los resultados demuestran la gravedad y la letalidad de este tipo de intoxicación, sugieren la necesidad de medidas urgentes de fiscalización y control de la Vigilancia Sanitaria, así como de medidas para la educación de los consumidores, haciendo hincapié en el papel educativo de la Enfermería

  2. Melatonin: a protective and detoxifying agent in paraquat toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, M.; Gad, H.; Hanan; Aziz, A.; Nasr, M.

    2002-01-01

    The ability of melatonin as a protective and detoxifying agent against paraquat-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs and liver was examined. Changes in reduced glutathione (OSH) concentration and malonaldehyde (MDA) level were measured. Pathological examination to lungs and liver was done. Paraquat in 2 doses (20,70 mg/kg) was injected I.P. into rats with melatonin (10 mg/kg) I. P. either before and after paraquat intoxication or only after it. Melatonin proved its protective role when given before and after paraquat intoxication more than its detoxifying effect when given only after paraquat. The biochemical improvement following melatonin therapy was more evident than the histopathological one. (author)

  3. Effects of Paraquat Ban on Herbicide Poisoning-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dong Ryul; Chung, Sung Phil; You, Je Sung; Cho, Soohyung; Park, Yongjin; Chun, Byeongjo; Moon, Jeongmi; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyung Woo; Choi, SangChun; Park, Junseok; Park, Jung Soo; Kim, Seung Whan; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Park, Ha Young; Kim, Su Jin; Kang, Hyunggoo; Hong, Dae Young; Hong, Jung Hwa

    2017-07-01

    In Korea, registration of paraquat-containing herbicides was canceled in November 2011, and sales thereof were completely banned in November 2012. We evaluated the effect of the paraquat ban on the epidemiology and mortality of herbicide-induced poisoning. This retrospective study analyzed patients treated for herbicide poisoning at 17 emergency departments in South Korea between January 2010 and December 2014. The overall and paraquat mortality rates were compared pre- and post-ban. Factors associated with herbicide mortality were evaluated using logistic analysis. To determine if there were any changes in the mortality rates before and after the paraquat sales ban and the time point of any such significant changes in mortality, R software, version 3.0.3 (package, bcp) was used to perform a Bayesian change point analysis. We enrolled 2257 patients treated for herbicide poisoning (paraquat=46.8%). The overall and paraquat poisoning mortality rates were 40.6% and 73.0%, respectively. The decreased paraquat poisoning mortality rate (before, 75% vs. after, 67%, p=0.014) might be associated with increased intentionality. The multivariable logistic analysis revealed the paraquat ban as an independent predictor that decreased herbicide poisoning mortality (p=0.035). There were two major change points in herbicide mortality rates, approximately 3 months after the initial paraquat ban and 1 year after complete sales ban. This study suggests that the paraquat ban decreased intentional herbicide ingestion and contributed to lowering herbicide poisoning-associated mortality. The change point analysis suggests a certain timeframe was required for the manifestation of regulatory measures outcomes. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  4. Prediction of patient survival in cases of acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sae-Yong; Lee, Ji-Sung; Sun, In O; Lee, Kwang-Young; Gil, Hyo-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat concentration-time data have been used to predict the clinical outcome following ingestion. However, these studies have included only small populations, although paraquat poisoning has a very high mortality rate. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and reliable model to predict survival according to the time interval post-ingestion in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected for patients who were admitted with paraquat poisoning to Soonchunhyang University Choenan Hospital between January 2005 and December 2012. Plasma paraquat levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. To validate the model we developed, we used external data from 788 subjects admitted to the Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju, Korea, between January 2007 and December 2012. Two thousand one hundred thirty six patients were included in this study. The overall survival rate was 44% (939/2136). The probability of survival for any specified time and concentration could be predicted as (exp(logit))/(1+exp(logit)), where logit = 1.3544+[-3.4688 × log10(plasma paraquat μg/M[Formula: see text])]+[-2.3169 × log10(hours since ingestion)]. The external validation study showed that our model was highly accurate for the prediction of survival (C statics 0.964; 95% CI [0.952-0.975]). We have developed a model that is effective for predicting survival after paraquat intoxication.

  5. Vacuolar Sequestration of Paraquat Is Involved in the Resistance Mechanism in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Hanson, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the low efficacy observed is due to the selection of a paraquat-resistant biotype of LOLMU. Greenhouse dose-response experiments conducted with a susceptible (S) and the putative paraquat-resistant biotype (PRHC) confirmed paraquat resistance in PRHC. Herbicide absorption studies indicated that paraquat is absorbed faster in S than PRHC, although the maximum absorption estimates were similar for the two biotypes. Conversely, translocation of 14C-paraquat under light-manipulated conditions was restricted to the treated leaf of PRHC, whereas herbicide translocation out of the treated leaf was nearly 20 times greater in S. To determine whether paraquat was active within the plant cells, the photosynthetic performance was assessed after paraquat application using the parameter maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). Paraquat reaches the chloroplasts of PRHC, since there was a transitory inhibition of photosynthetic activity in PRHC leaves. However, PRHC Fv/Fm recovered to initial levels by 48 h after paraquat treatment. No paraquat metabolites were found, indicating that resistance is not due to paraquat degradation. LOLMU leaf segments were exposed to paraquat following pretreatments with inhibitors of plasma membrane- and tonoplast-localized transporter systems to selectively block paraquat intracellular movement. Subsequent evaluation of membrane integrity indicated that pre-exposure to putrescine resulted in the resistant biotype responding to paraquat similarly to S

  6. Lethal Hydroxyl Radical Production in Paraquat-treated Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Babbs, Charles F; Pham, Jo Ann; Coolbaugh, Ronald C

    1989-01-01

    Bipyridinium herbicides, including paraquat and diquat, are believed to act by generating highly reactive, oxygen-centered free radicals within chloroplasts when treated plants are exposed to sunlight. This hypothesis has not yet been confirmed by direct chemical measurements of specific free radicals. We studied paraquat-treated plants using a new method able to detect and quantify formation of highly reactive and deleterious hydroxyl radicals (HO*), in which dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is use...

  7. Magnetic Hybrid Nanosorbents for the Uptake of Paraquat from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although paraquat has been banned in European countries, this herbicide is still used all over the world, thanks to its low-cost, high-efficiency, and fast action. Because paraquat is highly toxic to humans and animals, there is interest in mitigating the consequences of its use, namely by implementing removal procedures capable of curbing its environmental and health risks. This research describes new magnetic nanosorbents composed of magnetite cores functionalized with bio-hybrid siliceous shells, that can be used to uptake paraquat from water using magnetically-assisted procedures. The biopolymers κ-carrageenan and starch were introduced into the siliceous shells, resulting in two hybrid materials, Fe3O4@SiO2/SiCRG and Fe3O4@SiO2/SiStarch, respectively, that exhibit a distinct surface chemistry. The Fe3O4@SiO2/SiCRG biosorbents displayed a superior paraquat removal performance, with a good fitting to the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of paraquat for Fe3O4@SiO2/SiCRG biosorbents was 257 mg·g−1, which places this sorbent among the best systems for the removal of this herbicide from water. The interesting performance of the κ-carrageenan hybrid, along with its magnetic properties and good regeneration capacity, presents a very efficient way for the remediation of water contaminated with paraquat.

  8. Paraquat Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.

    1990-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1`dimethyl4,4`bipyridinium) are broad-spectrum contact plant killers and herbage desiccants that were introduced commercially during the past 25 years. Today, they rank among the most widely used herbicides globally and are frequently used in combination with other herbicides. The recommended paraquat field application rates for terrestrial weed control usually range between 0.28 and 1.12 kg/ha (0.25 and 1.0 lb/acre), and for aquatic weed control the range is 0.12.0 mg/l. Paraquat in surface soils generally photodecomposes in several weeks, but paraquat in subsurface soils and sediments may remain bound and biologically unavailablefor many years without significant degradation. Paraquat is not significantly accumulated by earthworms and other species of soil invertebrates and is usually excreted rapidly by higher animals; however, delayed toxic effects including death of birds and mammals are common. At concentrations below the recommended application rate, paraquat is embryotoxic to developing eggs of migratory waterfowl and adversely affects sensitive species of freshwater algae and macrophytes, larvae of crustaceans and frog tadpoles and carp. Sensitive species of birds are negatively affected at daily dose rates of 10 mg/kg body weight or when fed diets containing 20 mg/kg ration or drinking water containing 40 mg/l.

  9. The effects of glyphosate, glufosinate, paraquat and paraquat-diquat on soil microbial activity and bacterial, archaeal and nematode diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Paul G.; Kukulies, Tegan; Forstner, Christian; Orton, Thomas G.; Pattison, Anthony B.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of one-off applications of glyphosate, glufosinate, paraquat, and paraquat-diquat on soil microbial diversity and function. All herbicides were added to soil as pure compounds at recommended dose and were incubated under laboratory conditions for 60 days. High-throughput phylogenetic marker gene sequencing revealed that none of the herbicides significantly influenced the richness, evenness and composition of bacterial and archaeal communities. Likewi...

  10. PARAQUAT RESISTANT1, a Golgi-Localized Putative Transporter Protein, Is Involved in Intracellular Transport of Paraquat1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianyong; Mu, Jinye; Bai, Jiaoteng; Fu, Fuyou; Zou, Tingting; An, Fengying; Zhang, Jian; Jing, Hongwei; Wang, Qing; Li, Zhen; Yang, Shuhua; Zuo, Jianru

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides worldwide. In green plants, paraquat targets the chloroplast by transferring electrons from photosystem I to molecular oxygen to generate toxic reactive oxygen species, which efficiently induce membrane damage and cell death. A number of paraquat-resistant biotypes of weeds and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants have been identified. The herbicide resistance in Arabidopsis is partly attributed to a reduced uptake of paraquat through plasma membrane-localized transporters. However, the biochemical mechanism of paraquat resistance remains poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis paraquat resistant1 (par1) mutant that shows strong resistance to the herbicide without detectable developmental abnormalities. PAR1 encodes a putative l-type amino acid transporter protein localized to the Golgi apparatus. Compared with the wild-type plants, the par1 mutant plants show similar efficiency of paraquat uptake, suggesting that PAR1 is not directly responsible for the intercellular uptake of paraquat. However, the par1 mutation caused a reduction in the accumulation of paraquat in the chloroplast, suggesting that PAR1 is involved in the intracellular transport of paraquat into the chloroplast. We identified a PAR1-like gene, OsPAR1, in rice (Oryza sativa). Whereas the overexpression of OsPAR1 resulted in hypersensitivity to paraquat, the knockdown of its expression using RNA interference conferred paraquat resistance on the transgenic rice plants. These findings reveal a unique mechanism by which paraquat is actively transported into the chloroplast and also provide a practical approach for genetic manipulations of paraquat resistance in crops. PMID:23471133

  11. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. So; E. de Buijzer; D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); U. Kaisers; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractParaquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the

  12. Literatuuronderzoek naar de bepalingsmetboden an paraquat en diquat in groenten, fruit en andere plantaardige produkten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwey, W.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1981-01-01

    De resultaten van de literatuurstudie worden samengevat in een overzicht van de bepalingsmetboden van paraquat en diquat in groenten en fruit e.d. Naast de toepassingsgebieden, chemische en fysische eigenschappen van paraquat en diquat werden de bepalingsmethoden bestudeerd. Spektrofotometrische,

  13. Mechanisms underlying early rapid increases in creatinine in paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahim Mohamed

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is common after severe paraquat poisoning and usually heralds a fatal outcome. The rapid large increases in serum creatinine (Cr exceed that which can be explained by creatinine kinetics based on loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR.This prospective multi-centre study compared the kinetics of two surrogate markers of GFR, serum creatinine and serum cystatin C (CysC, following paraquat poisoning to understand and assess renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning. Sixty-six acute paraquat poisoning patients admitted to medical units of five hospitals were included. Relative changes in creatinine and CysC were monitored in serial blood and urine samples, and influences of non-renal factors were also studied.Forty-eight of 66 patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria, with 37 (56% developing moderate to severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or 3. The 37 patients showed rapid increases in creatinine of >100% within 24 hours, >200% within 48 hours and >300% by 72 hours and 17 of the 37 died. CysC concentration increased by 50% at 24 hours in the same 37 patients and then remained constant. The creatinine/CysC ratio increased 8 fold over 72 hours. There was a modest fall in urinary creatinine and serum/urine creatinine ratios and a moderate increase in urinary paraquat during first three days.Loss of renal function contributes modestly to the large increases in creatinine following paraquat poisoning. The rapid rise in serum creatinine most probably represents increased production of creatine and creatinine to meet the energy demand following severe oxidative stress. Minor contributions include increased cyclisation of creatine to creatinine because of acidosis and competitive or non-competitive inhibition of creatinine secretion. Creatinine is not a good marker of renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning and renal injury should be evaluated using more specific biomarkers of renal injury.

  14. Mechanisms Underlying Early Rapid Increases in Creatinine in Paraquat Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Endre, Zoltan; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Pianta, Timothy; Peake, Philip; Palangasinghe, Chathura; Chathuranga, Umesh; Jayasekera, Kithsiri; Wunnapuk, Klintean; Shihana, Fathima; Shahmy, Seyed; Buckley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after severe paraquat poisoning and usually heralds a fatal outcome. The rapid large increases in serum creatinine (Cr) exceed that which can be explained by creatinine kinetics based on loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Methods and Findings This prospective multi-centre study compared the kinetics of two surrogate markers of GFR, serum creatinine and serum cystatin C (CysC), following paraquat poisoning to understand and assess renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning. Sixty-six acute paraquat poisoning patients admitted to medical units of five hospitals were included. Relative changes in creatinine and CysC were monitored in serial blood and urine samples, and influences of non-renal factors were also studied. Results Forty-eight of 66 patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria), with 37 (56%) developing moderate to severe AKI (AKIN stage 2 or 3). The 37 patients showed rapid increases in creatinine of >100% within 24 hours, >200% within 48 hours and >300% by 72 hours and 17 of the 37 died. CysC concentration increased by 50% at 24 hours in the same 37 patients and then remained constant. The creatinine/CysC ratio increased 8 fold over 72 hours. There was a modest fall in urinary creatinine and serum/urine creatinine ratios and a moderate increase in urinary paraquat during first three days. Conclusion Loss of renal function contributes modestly to the large increases in creatinine following paraquat poisoning. The rapid rise in serum creatinine most probably represents increased production of creatine and creatinine to meet the energy demand following severe oxidative stress. Minor contributions include increased cyclisation of creatine to creatinine because of acidosis and competitive or non-competitive inhibition of creatinine secretion. Creatinine is not a good marker of renal functional loss after paraquat poisoning and renal injury should be evaluated using more specific biomarkers of renal injury

  15. Paraquat poisoning: Acute lung injury - a missed diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntshalintshali, Sipho D; Manzini, Thandekile C

    2017-04-25

    Paraquat is a herbicide of great toxicological importance because it is associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 28-year-old man admitted to the casualty department at Ngwelezana Hospital, Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with a history of vomiting and abdominal pain after ingestion of ~100 mL of an unknown substance, later identified as paraquat, together with an unknown amount of alcohol, in a suicide attempt. He developed respiratory distress associated with lung parenchymal infiltrates that required ventilatory support and later a spontaneous pneumothorax, and died in the intensive care unit. We discuss the importance of a high index of suspicion of paraquat poisoning in rural areas, where paraquat is readily available as a herbicide on farms, in patients with a similar presentation. We further stress the importance of identifying the classic radiological progression after paraquat poisoning, to help avoid a delay in diagnosis if the culprit substance is not known (as happened in our case). Lastly, we look at the importance of avoiding oxygen supplementation, and early administration of immunosuppressive therapy, to improve outcome.

  16. Determination of paraquat in vegetables using HPLC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tingting; He, Pingli; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    A simple, sensitive, reliable and economical method was developed for the determination of paraquat (a widely used herbicide) in four edible vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, spinach and Chinese cabbage) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). The samples were extracted with water under sonication and cleaned up by weak cation exchange solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of paraquat was achieved on a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (2.1 × 100 mm, 3 µm) with a gradient program using 10 mM ammonium acetate in 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The low salt concentration used in the eluting buffer ensured extended LC-MS analysis of paraquat in different matrices without the necessity of frequent source cleaning. The validity of the developed method was evaluated by spiking paraquat in four edible vegetables at 50 and 500 ng g(-1). Recovery ranged from 43.6 to 73.5%. The limit of detection is 0.94 ng g(-1). With the developed method, the kinetic of paraquat entering plant tissue was also evaluated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Eficiência dos dessecantes paraquat e diquat na antecipação da colheita do milho Effectiveness of the desiccants paraquat and diquat in anticipating maize harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Magalhães

    2002-12-01

    evidenciado com a aplicação do paraquat. A produção de grãos verificada nos tratamentos testemunhas se igualou à dos melhores tratamentos com os dessecantes. O uso do paraquat resultou em grãos com maior porcentagem de infecção por Fusarium subglutinans, patógeno causador dos grãos ardidos em milho. Com relação à época de aplicação dos dessecantes, 14 dias antes da MF foi a que tornou o milho mais suscetível ao ataque desse fungo.The use of desiccants on maize crop may benefit farmers, especially by anticipating soil availability for the establishment of a new crop, and for the earlier commercialization of the product. The herbicides Paraquat and Diquat are classified as desiccants and are the most prominent in the market. The objective of this work was to evaluate their effectiveness as desiccants applied before corn harvesting. The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA-Milho e Sorgo, Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil, by using the following treatments: application of Paraquat and Diquat at 14 and 7 days before and 7 days after physiological maturity (PM and application at PM. Both products were sprayed at doses of 400 g ha-1. The cultivar used was BRS 3101 and the parameters were evaluated at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days after application. Thirty maize grains were harvested from 6 ears for evaluation of grain moisture and grain dry matter weight. At harvesting, the parameters evaluated were: plant and ear height, ear index, grain and ear production and grain sanity. The desiccants evaluated did not cause any differential effects for most characteristics, although visually Paraquat was observed to act more rapidly than Diquat in destroying the green leaf tissue. Statistical differences detected between the two desiccants, revealed that Diquat was more efficient than Paraquat. Application of the desiccants at 14 days prior to PM reduced grain yield due to grain dry matter weight decrease. However, PM was anticipated by two days and harvesting by four days. This was more

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-α induced protein 6 attenuates acute lung injury following paraquat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiajun; Zhen, Jiantao; Zhu, Jingfa; Lin, Qingming

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat exposure commonly occurs in the developing countries and the mortality rate is high. However, there is currently no consensus on the efficacy of treatment for paraquat exposure. The study was aimed to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced protein 6 (TSG-6) on acute lung injury (ALI) following paraquat exposure in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the sham group (n = 8), the paraquat group (n = 8), and the paraquat TSG-6-treated group (n = 8). Rats were administered with 50 mg/kg of paraquat intraperitoneally. At 1 h after exposure, rats were treated with 30 μg of recombinant human TSG-6 (rhTSG-6) intraperitoneally. After 6 h of exposure, ALI scores were evaluated by histology and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung was assayed using real-time RT-PCR. ALI scores were significantly lower in the paraquat TSG-6-treated group, compared with the paraquat group (p paraquat TSG-6-treated group, compared with the paraquat group (p paraquat exposure by suppressing inflammatory response.

  19. [Parkinson's disease due to laboral exposition to paraquat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Verastegui, Angel Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is considered a neurodegenerative disorder, which involves environmental factors in the etiology of the disease. Such as chemical agents with neuromolecular effect among which is the MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6 tetra-hydropyridine), MPP (1-methyl-4-phenyl hypyridinium), paraquat, the latter used as a herbicide in the agricultural fields of our country. It has been documented in epidemiological and experimental studies the association of occupational exposure to paraquat and Parkinson's disease. The aim of this paper is to describe a clinical case of occupational medicine in Parkinson's disease in occupationally exposed workers to paraquat, elevating the importance of medical history work, which was the key to the clinical case study.

  20. Severe paraquat poisoning: clinical and radiological findings in a survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Fabio Fernandes; Sousa, Romualdo Barroso; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Cupo, Palmira; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2010-01-01

    Paraquat is a nonselective contact herbicide of great toxicological importance, being associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 22-year-old male admitted to the emergency room with a sore throat, dysphagia, hemoptysis, and retrosternal pain after the ingestion of 50 mL of a paraquat solution, four days prior to admission. Chest CT scans revealed pulmonary opacities, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was submitted to two cycles of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. The pulmonary gas exchange parameters gradually improved, and the patient was discharged four weeks later. The clinical and tomographic follow-up evaluations performed at four months after discharge showed that there had been further clinical improvement. We also present a brief review of the literature, as well as a discussion of the therapeutic algorithm for severe paraquat poisoning. (author)

  1. Severe paraquat poisoning: clinical and radiological findings in a survivor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Fabio Fernandes; Sousa, Romualdo Barroso; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Cupo, Palmira; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique, E-mail: fabioneves@hcrp.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medical School

    2010-07-01

    Paraquat is a nonselective contact herbicide of great toxicological importance, being associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to respiratory failure. We report the case of a 22-year-old male admitted to the emergency room with a sore throat, dysphagia, hemoptysis, and retrosternal pain after the ingestion of 50 mL of a paraquat solution, four days prior to admission. Chest CT scans revealed pulmonary opacities, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was submitted to two cycles of immunosuppressive therapy with cyclophosphamide, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone. The pulmonary gas exchange parameters gradually improved, and the patient was discharged four weeks later. The clinical and tomographic follow-up evaluations performed at four months after discharge showed that there had been further clinical improvement. We also present a brief review of the literature, as well as a discussion of the therapeutic algorithm for severe paraquat poisoning. (author)

  2. Paraquat increases connective tissue growth factor expression and impairs lung fibroblast proliferation and viscoelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Xie, Y-P; Pang, L; Zang, X-X; Wang, J; Shi, D; Wu, Y; Liu, X-L; Wang, G-H

    2014-12-01

    This in vitro study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of paraquat-induced damage using cultured human fetal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells), in order to promote the development of improved therapies for paraquat poisoning. Paraquat's effects on proliferation were examined by flow cytometry, on viscoelasticity by the micropipette aspiration technique, and on connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Paraquat was found to significantly reduce the proliferation index of MRC-5 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (p paraquat led to a significant and time-dependent increase in CTGF expression (p paraquat-induced lung fibrosis but may represent useful targets of improved molecular-based therapies for paraquat poisoning. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Electrochemical Studies of Paraquat Adsorbed onto Crystalline Apatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulay Abderrahim EL MHAMMEDI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The carbon paste electrode (CPE has been used to analyze the electrochemical behavior of paraquat (PQ adsorbed onto synthesized hydroxyapatite phosphocalcique (HAP in K2SO4 (0.1M. The cyclic voltammetry results obtained corrobate with square wave voltammetry. The influence of variables such as the concentration of paraquat adsorbed onto apatite (PQ/HAP, and the potential scan rate was tested.X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP, AES were used for characterization of the apatite.

  4. Paraquat lung: is there a role for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.V.; Webb, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously reported the clinical course of a patient poisoned with paraquat who was treated with whole lung irradiation and who survived severe pulmonary damage. Four further cases are reported who were much more severely poisoned and who died despite early pulmonary irradiation. There is no definite evidence that this or any other form of cytotoxic therapy can influence the course of paraquat lung. As there is no adequate laboratory model, further investigation of such therapy should be in the context of a prospective clinical trial. Treatment of only one lung would allow rapid identification of a therapeutic effect of irradiation. (author)

  5. Quality of seed potato tubers treated with paraquat and the development of a simplified methodology for paraquat residue detection

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Welington; Dantas, Raquel L.

    1995-01-01

    O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade de tubérculos de batatas-semente (Solanum tuberosum) tratados com paraquat e desenvolver uma metodologia simplificada de detecção de resíduos de herbicida. Dois ensaios foram realizados no Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas do Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de hortaliças, Brasília, DF. No experimento, tubérculos das cultivares Achat e Baronesa foram submersos em soluções de 0 e 200 ppm de paraquat ou injetados com 0,5 ml de soluções de 0...

  6. Low-Dose Aronia melanocarpa Concentrate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, A J; Agraz, D; Ahmad, I M; Zimmerman, M C

    2016-01-01

    Herbicides containing paraquat may contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. Paraquat induces reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis in neurons, which is a primary mechanism behind its toxicity. We sought to test the effectiveness of a commercially available polyphenol-rich Aronia melanocarpa (aronia berry) concentrate in the amelioration of paraquat-induced neurotoxicity. Considering the abundance of antioxidants in aronia berries, we hypothesized that aronia berry concentrate attenuates the paraquat-induced increase in reactive oxygen species and protects against paraquat-mediated neuronal cell death. Using a neuronal cell culture model, we observed that low doses of aronia berry concentrate protected against paraquat-mediated neurotoxicity. Additionally, low doses of the concentrate attenuated the paraquat-induced increase in superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and oxidized glutathione levels. Interestingly, high doses of aronia berry concentrate increased neuronal superoxide levels independent of paraquat, while at the same time decreasing hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, high-dose aronia berry concentrate potentiated paraquat-induced superoxide production and neuronal cell death. In summary, aronia berry concentrate at low doses restores the homeostatic redox environment of neurons treated with paraquat, while high doses exacerbate the imbalance leading to further cell death. Our findings support that moderate levels of aronia berry concentrate may prevent reactive oxygen species-mediated neurotoxicity.

  7. Endogenous dopamine is involved in the herbicide paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Ezumi, Masayuki; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2014-06-01

    The herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that may be involved in the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Systemic exposure of mice to paraquat causes a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, although paraquat is not selectively incorporated in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report a contribution of endogenous dopamine to paraquat-induced dopaminergic cell death. Exposure of PC12 cells to paraquat (50μM) caused delayed toxicity from 36 h onward. A decline in intracellular dopamine content achieved by inhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), an enzyme for dopamine synthesis, conferred resistance to paraquat toxicity on dopaminergic cells. Paraquat increased the levels of cytosolic and vesicular dopamine, accompanied by transiently increased TH activity. Quinone derived from cytosolic dopamine conjugates with cysteine residues in functional proteins to form quinoproteins. Formation of quinoprotein was transiently increased early during exposure to paraquat. Furthermore, pretreatment with ascorbic acid, which suppressed the elevations of intracellular dopamine and quinoprotein, almost completely prevented paraquat toxicity. These results suggest that the elevation of cytosolic dopamine induced by paraquat participates in the vulnerability of dopaminergic cells to delayed toxicity through the formation of quinoproteins.

  8. Paraquat Toxicity on The Growth of Rhizobium sp. in A Synthetic Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Martani

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of paraquat on the growth of several strains of Rhizobium sp. in Yeast Extract Mannitol medium was studied. Various concentrations of paraquat 100, ranged from O (control to 100 ppm were applied. Qualitative examination was done using paper disc diffusion technique, and the quantitative examination was conducted based on the change in cell density in medium measured by plate count method.Qualitative data showed that effect or paraquat was species specific. Some strains of Rhizobium sp., namely Rhizobium sp. strain T-37 and QF, were tolerant to paraquat until100 ppm, but other strains were sensitive to paraquat, especially at high concentration.Quantitative examination to the sensitive strains shows that higher concentration of paraquat caused higher toxicity to the growth of Rhizobium. Rhizobium sp. strain G-69 and  G-182.paraquat addition at 100 ppm slightly decreased cell density from 10 to 10 CFU/mL. Rhizobium japonicum strains 143 and KS were tolerant to 20 and 40 ppm of paraquat; their cell density increased from 10^6 to a level of 10&7 or 10^8 CFU/mL depend on the strain. This level was not significantly lower than those in medium without paraquat, in which maximal population density reached to 10^8 or 10^9 CFU/mL. Addition of higher paraquat concentration damaged the cell of these strains, and caused population density increased specifically to a level of 10^1 CFU/mL. The data which showed that paraquat was toxic to Rhizobium sp. were important growth inhibitor, because growth inhibition of these bacteria may influence the formation of root nodule on leguminous plants, and in turn will decrease the yield. Due to widely applied paraquat in agricultural and plantation systems, and the role of Rhizobium in nitrigen fixation, these results are important for minimizing the impact of paraquat application.

  9. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach for Acute Paraquat Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Hyo-wook; Hong, Jung-Rak; Jang, Si-Hyong; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) has known negative human health effects, but continues to be commonly used worldwide as a herbicide. Our clinical data shows that the main prognostic factor is the time required to achieve a negative urine dithionite test. Patient survival is a 100% when the area affected by ground glass opacity is

  10. Paraquat poisoning: Acute lung injury – a missed diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of identifying the classic radiological progression after paraquat poisoning, to help avoid a delay in diagnosis if the culprit substance is not known (as happened in our case). Lastly, we look at the importance of avoiding oxygen supplementation, and early administration of immunosuppressive therapy, to improve outcome.

  11. Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective role of green tea polyphenols against paraquat induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Sabah G El-Banna. Abstract. No Abstract. The Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol. 24(1) 2006: 1-12. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  12. Histopathological changes induced by paraquat on some tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The changes in gills were characterized by hypertrophy, epithelial, epithelium increase of gill filament, edema and secondary gill lamella. The liver showed hypotrophy of liver cells, cloudy swelling and formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the liver tissue of fish treated with 0.15 and 0.3 mg/l concentrations of paraquat.

  13. Effect of Antioxidants on the Outcome of Therapy in Paraquat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of vitamins C and E administration on the outcome of therapy in patients with paraquat intoxication admitted in the Poisoning Emergency. Department (PED) of Noor Teaching General Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: We studied retrospectively medical ...

  14. Tocopherol And Fish Oil On In Vivo Paraquat Induced Oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential protective role of α-tocopherol and fish oil against oxidative damage induced by paraquat were investigated. Forty male albino rats with average body weight of 100-120 gm were housed in 8 groups of 5 rats each. The first group served as control and injected with saline, group 2 was injected with a single dose ...

  15. Endonuclease IV of Escherichia coli is induced by paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, E.; Weiss, B.

    1987-01-01

    The addition of paraquat (methyl viologen) to a growing culture of Escherichia coli K-12 led within 1 hr to a 10- to 20-fold increase in the level of endonuclease IV, a DNase for apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. The induction was blocked by chloramphenicol. Increases of 3-fold or more were also seen with plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate. H 2 O 2 produced no more than a 2-fold increase in endonuclease IV activity. The following agents had no significant effect: streptonigrin, nitrofurantoin, tert-butyl hydroperoxide, γ rays, 260-nm UV radiation, methyl methanesulfonate, mitomycin C, and ascorbate. Paraquat, plumbagin, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate are known to generate superoxide radical anions via redox cycling in vivo. A mutant lacking superoxide dismutase was unusually sensitive to induction by paraquat. In addition, endonuclease IV could be induced by merely growing the mutant in pure O 2 . The levels of endonuclease IV in uninduced or paraquat-treated cells were unaffected by mutations of oxyR, a H 2 O 2 -inducible gene that governs an oxidative-stress regulon. The results indicate that endonuclease IV is an inducible DNA-repair enzyme and that its induction can be mediated via the production of superoxide radicals

  16. Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Chang

    2009-01-01

    PQ+PDTC-treated groups than that of PQ-treated groups (P<.05. The histopathological changes in the PQ+PDTC-treated groups were milder than those of PQ groups. Our results suggested that PDTC treatment significantly attenuated paraquat-induced pulmonary damage.

  17. Translocation of radioactive paraquat in some veld grasses | TD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two pot experiments radioactive paraquat was applied to certain important veld grasses (Experiment I-Aristida junciformis, Themeda triandra, Elyonuris argenteus, Andropogon filifolius, Eragrostis curvula; Experiment II-A. junciformis, E. argenteus) to determine the extent of translocation at a young stage of growth with ...

  18. THE ROLE OF MICROGLIA IN PARAQUAT INDUCED DOPAMINERGIC NEUROTOXICITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript relates oxidative stress conveyed by a widely used pesticide (paraquat) to selective neurodegeneration of the in vitro models of the mouse brain. As such, it represents a provocative link to the conditions of oxidative stress, environmental chemical exposures and...

  19. Anion effects on the cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sissel Stenbæk; Jensen, Morten; Sørensen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Binding studies between the electron accepting host cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) and a series of electron donors in the presence of differently sized counteranions reveal that both the nature and the concentration of the anion have a large impact on the association strength of the resulting host...

  20. ROLE OF LIPID-PEROXIDATION AND DNA DAMAGE IN PARAQUAT TOXICITY AND THE INTERACTION OF PARAQUAT WITH IONIZING-RADIATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; WARTENA, M; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    Since the introduction of paraquat (PQ) as a herbicide in 1963, there have been many speculations concerning the critical lesion in PQ toxicity. Damage to membrane lipids might be an initial event leading to PQ-induced cell killing. The ability of PQ to induce lipid peroxidation was tested in liver

  1. Paraquat Poisoning in Patients With HIV Infection: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jun-Li; Chen, Cheng-Hsu; Wu, Ming-Ju; Tsai, Shang-Feng

    2016-04-01

    Paraquat poisoning is very severe. Most victims, including those who have ingested a small amount, will die from Paraquat poisoning. The cause of death in the majority of such cases is lung fibrosis. Paraquat poisoning in patients with positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status has seldom been reported. Herein, we report a case of an HIV patient with Paraquat poisoning who had an excellent outcome even without standard treatment. Currently, only 3 such cases have been reported in the literature and in each case there was a good outcome, which was not expected according to predictive models. A possible mechanism may involve the relative lack of functional macrophages in HIV patients, which would tend to result in much less severe lung injury. None of the available predictive models of Paraquat poisoning appear to be appropriate for HIV patients.Paraquat poisoning in HIV patients may have better survival due to less lung injury.

  2. Blowfly Larval Tissues as a Secondary Detector for Determining Paraquat-Related Death in Rabbit Carcass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawai, Vannessa; Abdul Rahim, Nor Aliza; Ngaini, Zainab

    2015-11-01

    Paraquat poisoning is commonly associated with suicide or homicide in Malaysia. In a case involving advanced body decomposition, pathological analysis regarding the cause of death may become difficult or almost impossible. Insects serve as common alternative matrix for poison detection in forensic analysis. Paraquat detection via secondary bioaccumulation in fly larvae tissue has never been reported. In this study, tissues from blowfly larvae collected from a rabbit carcass with paraquat poisoning were analyzed for secondary bioaccumulation. Larvae samples were collected and analyzed using liquid-liquid extraction. The detection was performed via reduction of quaternary ammonium presence in paraquat and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring mode (SIM mode). GC-MS showed the elution of reduced paraquat was at retention time 12.8 min. Blowfly larvae tissue has proven useful as a secondary detector in paraquat-related deaths. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Paraquat resistance of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the Ochrobactrum anthropi pqrA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jinki; Won, Sung-Hye; Son, Daeyoung; Lee, Byung-Hyun

    2004-09-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the Ochrobactrum anthropi pqrA gene, which encodes a membrane transporter mediating resistance to paraquat, were generated. Transgenic plants displayed higher resistance against paraquat than wild-type plants, as estimated by plant viability, ion leakage and chlorophyll loss, but no resistance against other active oxygen generators, such as H2O2 and menadione. Moreover, lower levels of paraquat accumulated in transgenic plants, compared to wild-type plants, indicating that the PqrA protein detoxifies paraquat either via increased efflux or decreased uptake of the herbicide, but not by removing active oxygen species. The results collectively demonstrate that the bacterial paraquat resistance gene, pqrA, can be functionally expressed in plant cells, and utilized for the development of paraquat-resistant crop plants.

  4. Vacuolar Sequestration of Paraquat Is Involved in the Resistance Mechanism in Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum

    OpenAIRE

    Brunharo, Caio A. C. G.; Hanson, Bradley D.

    2017-01-01

    Lolium perenne L. spp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot (LOLMU) is a winter annual weed, common to row crops, orchards and roadsides. Glyphosate-resistant populations of LOLMU are widespread in California. In many situations, growers have switched to paraquat or other postemergence herbicides to manage glyphosate-resistant LOLMU populations. Recently, poor control of LOLMU with paraquat was reported in a prune orchard in California where paraquat has been used several times. We hypothesize that the ...

  5. Acute paraquat exposure impairs colonic motility by selectively attenuating nitrergic signalling in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diss, Lucy; Dyball, Sarah; Ghela, Tina; Golding, Jonathan; Morris, Rachel; Robinson, Stephen; Tucker, Rosemary; Walter, Talia; Young, Paul; Allen, Marcus; Fidalgo, Sara; Gard, Paul; Mabley, Jon; Patel, Bhavik; Chatterjee, Prabal; Yeoman, Mark

    2016-02-01

    Paraquat, a common herbicide, is responsible for large numbers of deaths worldwide through both deliberate and accidental ingestion. Previous studies have eluded that the bioavailability of paraquat increases substantially with increasing dose and that these changes may in part be due to the effects that these high concentrations have on the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). To date, the actions of acute, high concentrations (20mM for 60 min) of paraquat on the GI tract, particularly the colon which is a major site of paraquat absorption, are unknown. This study examined the effects of acute paraquat administration on colonic motility in the C57BL/6 mouse. Acute paraquat exposure decreased colonic motility and the amplitude of colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), which are major motor patterns involved in faecal pellet propulsion. In isolated segments of distal colon, paraquat increased resting tension and markedly attenuated electrical field stimulation-evoked relaxations. Pharmacological dissection of paraquat's mechanism of action on both the CMMCs and field stimulated tissue using the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine and direct measurement of NO release from the myenteric plexus, demonstrated that paraquat selectively attenuates nitrergic signalling pathways. These changes did not appear to be due to alterations in colonic oxidative stress, inflammation or complex 1 activity, but were most likely caused by paraquat's ability to act as a redox couple. In summary, these data demonstrate that acute paraquat exposure attenuates colonic transit. These changes may facilitate the absorption of paraquat into the circulation and so facilitate its toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MDR1 transporter protects against paraquat-induced toxicity in human and mouse proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xia; Gibson, Christopher J; Yang, Ill; Buckley, Brian; Goedken, Michael J; Richardson, Jason R; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat is a herbicide that is highly toxic to the lungs and kidneys following acute exposures. Prior studies have demonstrated that the organic cation transporter 2 and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 contribute to the urinary secretion of paraquat in the kidneys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1/Mdr1, ABCB1, or P-glycoprotein) also participates in the removal of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against renal injury. Paraquat transport and toxicity were quantified in human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) that endogenously express MDR1, HEK293 cells overexpressing MDR1, and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. In RPTEC cells, reduction of MDR1 activity using the antagonist PSC833 or siRNA transfection increased the cellular accumulation of paraquat by 50%. Reduced efflux of paraquat corresponded with enhanced cytotoxicity in PSC833-treated cells. Likewise, stable overexpression of the human MDR1 gene in HEK293 cells reduced intracellular levels of paraquat by 50%. In vivo studies assessed the renal accumulation and subsequent nephrotoxicity of paraquat (10 or 30 mg/kg ip) in wild-type and Mdr1a/1b knockout mice. At 4 h after paraquat treatment, renal concentrations of paraquat in the kidneys of Mdr1a/1b knockout mice were 750% higher than wild-type mice. By 72 h, paraquat-treated Mdr1a/1b knockout mice had more extensive tubular degeneration and significantly greater mRNA expression of kidney injury-responsive genes, including kidney injury molecule-1, lipocalin-2, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, MDR1/Mdr1 participates in the elimination of paraquat from the kidneys and protects against subsequent toxicity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Paraquat Toxicity on the Growth of Rhizobium SP. in a Synthetic Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Martani, Erni

    2002-01-01

    Toxicity of paraquat on the growth of several strains of Rhizobium sp. in Yeast Extract Mannitol medium was studied. Various concentrations of paraquat 100, ranged from O (control) to 100 ppm were applied. Qualitative examination was done using paper disc diffusion technique, and the quantitative examination was conducted based on the change in cell density in medium measured by plate count method.Qualitative data showed that effect or paraquat was species specific. Some strains of Rhizobium ...

  8. Directed-spray application of paraquat and diuron in physic nut plants

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,N.V.; Neunfeld,T.H.; Ohland,T.; Piano,J.T.; Klein,J.

    2013-01-01

    There is little information about the selectivity of herbicides in physic nut (Jatropha curcas) in Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the selectivity of different doses and mixtures of paraquat and diuron in direted-spray applications in physic nut plants in greenhouse conditions. The study used a randomized block design, with five replicates. The treatments were: paraquat (200 and 600 g ha-1), diuron (1,000 and 2,000 g ha-1), paraquat + diuron (200 + 1,000 g ha-1), paraquat + di...

  9. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  10. Paraquat Induces Epigenetic Changes by Promoting Histone Acetylation in Cell Culture Models of Dopaminergic Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Kanthasamy, A.; Jin, H.; Anantharam, V.; Kanthasamy, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental neurotoxic exposure to agrochemicals has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The widely used herbicide paraquat is among the few environmental chemicals potentially linked with PD. Since epigenetic changes are beginning to emerge as key mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases, herein we examined the effects of paraquat on histone acetylation, a major epigenetic change in chromatin that can regulate gene expression, chromatin remodeling, cell survival and cell death. Exposure of N27 dopaminergic cells to paraquat induced histone H3 acetylation in a time-dependent manner. However, paraquat did not alter acetylation of another core histone H4. Paraquat-induced histone acetylation was associated with decreased total histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and HDAC4 and 7 protein expression levels. To determine if histone acetylation plays a role in paraquat-induced apoptosis, the novel HAT inhibitor anacardic acid was used. Anacardic acid treatment significantly attenuated paraquat-induced caspase-3 enzyme activity, suppressed proteolytic activation and kinase activity of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) and also blocked paraquat-induced cytotoxicity. Together, these results demonstrate that the neurotoxic agent paraquat induced acetylation of core histones in cell culture models of PD and that inhibition of HAT activity by anacardic acid protects against apoptotic cell death, indicating that histone acetylation may represent key epigenetic changes in dopaminergic neuronal cells during neurotoxic insults. PMID:21777615

  11. Betanin attenuates oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction in kidney of paraquat-treated rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Wang, Yiheng; Bai, Bing; Yang, Xuelian; Han, Junyan

    2015-04-01

    The effects of natural pigment betanin on oxidative stress and inflammation in kidney of paraquat-treated rat were investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally into rats to induce renal damage. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a paraquat group, and two paraquat groups that were treated with betanin at 25 and 100 mg/kg/d three days before and two days after paraquat administration. Treatment with betanin alleviated the paraquat-incurred acute kidney injury, evidenced by histological improvement, reduced serum and urine markers for kidney injury. Betanin antagonized the paraquat-induced inflammation, indicated by reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, blunted activation of nuclear factor kappa B, and diminished lysosomal protease activities. Betanin also decreased oxidative stress elicited by paraquat. In conclusion, betanin may have a protective effect against paraquat-induced acute kidney damage. The mechanisms of the protection appear to be the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ação de minhocas Eisenia foetida sobre a dissipação dos herbicidas simazina e paraquat aplicados no solo Action of earthworms Eisenia foetida on the dissipation of the herbicides simazine and paraquat applied onto soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Papini

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Geralmente, os herbicidas são aplicados diretamente no solo, razão pela qual entram em contato direto com organismos deste ambiente, dentre eles as minhocas, as quais pelo metabolismo podem agir sobre resíduos desses compostos. Tomando minhocas da espécie Eisenia foetida como exemplo, determinaram-se a dissipação dos 14C-herbicidas (simazina e paraquat e a bioacumulação destes compostos em seus tecidos, a partir de solo tratado com as concentrações recomendadas e, no caso do paraquat, também com concentrações superiores. Solo e minhocas foram analisados por extração com solventes e técnicas radiométricas, após 30 ou 90 dias de contato. As minhocas alteraram a dissipação do simazina, visto que houve 100 % de recuperação do radiocarbono na ausência de minhocas e 90 % na presença dos animais. Além disso, elas acumularam resíduos e, ou, metabólitos de simazina em seus tecidos, tendo-se detectado Fator de Bioacumulação (FB de 1,45 e 1,17 após exposição ao solo tratado durante 30 e 90 dias, respectivamente. Por outro lado, a presença de minhocas não alterou o comportamento do herbicida paraquat aplicado ao solo, mas houve bioacumulação crescente de seus resíduos e, ou, metabólitos com o aumento da dose de tratamento (FB de 0,5; 3,2 e 5,5, respectivamente, nas concentrações recomendadas, 10 e 100 vezes superior.Herbicides are normally applied directly onto the soil, where they enter in contact with soil organisms, among these with earthworms, whose metabolism can act on herbicide residues. Focusing on the earthworms Eisenia foetida as model we determined: dissipation of the 14C- herbicides Simazine and Paraquat as well as bioaccumulation in the animal tissues from soil treated with the recommended doses and with 10 and 100 times higher doses for paraquat. Earthworms and soil were analyzed by solvent extraction and radiometric techniques after 30 or 90 days of contact. The earthworms altered the dissipation of

  13. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Bakteri Resisten Herbisida Glifosat Dan Paraquat Dari Rizosfer Tanaman Padi - (Isolation and Identification of Resistant Bacteria to Glyphosate and Paraquat Herbicide From Rhizosphere of Rice Plants)

    OpenAIRE

    Widowati, Tiwit; Ginting, Rohani Cinta Badia; Widyastuti, Utut; Nugraha, Asep; Ardiwinata, Ardiwinata

    2017-01-01

    Glyphosate and paraquat are broad-spectrum herbicides that commonly used in rice fields to control weeds. This study aims to isolate and identificate bacteria from rhizosphere of rice plants which resistant to glyphosate and paraquat herbicides. Thirty bacterial isolates were isolated from rhizosphere of rice plants and screened for their resistance of glyphosate and paraquat herbicides. One isolate was resistant to 4,000 ppm of glyphosate and 1,600 ppm of paraquat. Based on Biolog omniLog id...

  14. A simple and rapid chemiluminescence assay for on-site analysis of paraquat using a portable luminometer

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, Naoya; Higuchi, Sho; Ohyama, Kaname; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat (N,N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) is one of the most widely used herbicides owing to its high efficacy and low environmental persistence. However, because paraquat has significant acute toxicity, fatalities are often caused by accidental or voluntary ingestion of paraquat. In consideration of the strong toxicity and fast-Acting property of paraquat, on-site analysis at accident scenes should be effective in facilitating immediate medical treatment. In this study, a simple ...

  15. Efecto del control de malezas con paraquat y glifosato sobre la erosión y pérdida de nutrimentos del suelo en cafeto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin G\\u00F3mez G\\u00F3mez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Efecto del control de malezas con paraquat y glifosatosobre la erosión y pérdida de nutrimentos del suelo encafeto. En Alajuela, Costa Rica, se realizó un experimento enlos años 2002 y 2003 tendiente a determinar el control de malezas, la dinámica poblacional de las malezas y la erosión ypérdida de nutrimentos del suelo debido a aplicaciones sucesivas de paraquat y glifosato. Dos parcelas de 900 m2dentrode una plantación de café fueron aplicadas con paraquat y dosmás tratadas con glifosato. En el año 2003 una parcela de ca-da tratamiento fue disturbada aplicándole materia orgánica(broza de café y carbonato de calcio. El agua de escorrentía ylos sedimentos provenientes de parcelas de 2x7m fueron recogidos en colectores de 200 litros de capacidad y se midieronlas pérdidas de nutrientes. Al inicio de los tratamientos el control de malezas con ambos herbicidas fue de 90-100%, posteriormente con las continuas aplicaciones de herbicidas, sepresentaron malezas tolerantes, haciendo necesario el controlmecánico y aumentar la dosis del herbicida para controlarlas.Durante el 2002 las pérdidas de suelo de las parcelas tratadascon glifosato fueron el doble (3,956 t/ha comparadas con lasocurridas en las parcelas aplicadas con paraquat (1,936 t/ha.En el 2003, en las parcelas no disturbadas tratadas con paraquat se determinó menos erosión (0,231 t/ha en comparacióncon 0,329 t/ha en aquellas aplicadas con glifosato. Asimismo,en las parcelas disturbadas por enmiendas las pérdidas fueronmenores en las aplicadas con paraquat: 0,170 vs. 0,187 t/ha deglifosato. Los análisis de sedimentos y agua mostraron unapérdida importante de Ca, Mg y K, similar en ambos tratamientos. El rendimiento estimado en el año 2003 fue muy similar en ambos tratamientos

  16. Efeito tóxico dos praguicidas maneb e paraquat sobre a atividade da enzima antioxidante catalase em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Arbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Os radicais livres estão envolvidos em um grande número de enfermidades do ser humano. O cérebro tem níveis baixos de enzimas antioxidantes e um conteúdo lípidico elevado, tornando-se muito susceptível ao ataque de espécies reativas de oxigênio. Neste trabalho avaliou- se a lipoperoxidação em hipocampo e a atividade da enzima catalase em estriado e hipocampo de ratos tratados com o fungicida maneb (30 mg/kg e o herbicida paraquat (10 mg/kg. Não houve alteração na lipoperoxidação nem na atividade enzimática no hipocampo dos animais tratados com ambos os praguicidas, porém foi observada uma inibição da catalase no estriado dos ratos tratados com maneb e com paraquat. Com estes resultados pode-se sugerir, de forma preliminar, uma ação tóxica maior sobre centros dopaminérgicos. Estudos sobre a toxicidade destes compostos são essenciais na compreensão do papel destes praguicidas e dos radicais livres na etiologia das doenças. Palavras-chave: catalase; paraquat; maneb; estriado; hipocampo; radicais livres.

  17. Finding of CT and clinical in paraquat poisoning pulmonary injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zaifang; Li Hongbing; Cheng Shoulin; Li Qixiang; Huang Zhen; Zeng Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT features of pulmonary injury in paraquat poisoning. Methods: The chest CT image of lung injury in 6 cases of paraquat poisoning were analyzed retrospectively. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 types:the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), the late stage of poisoning (>14 d). A comparison between CT signs and the pathological features of patients was made. Results: Among this 6 cases, 3 cases died, 2 cases pulmonary fibrosis was noted, 1 cases recovered. According to different period of poisoning, the 6 cases were divided into 3 stages: in the early stage of poisoning (within 2 d), 3 cases of all patients showed nothing remarkable, 2 cases showed ground-glass opacity, 1 case showed fuzzy lung-marking.In the middle stage of poisoning (3-14 d), all 6 cases showed ground-glass opacity, mosaic attenuation; 6 cases showed pulmonary consolidation; 4 cases showed subpleural lines; 4 cases showed bronchiectasis; 2 cases showed mid-lower pleural effusion. In the late stage of poisoning (>14 d), 4 cases showed pulmonary consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis, 3 cases showed ground-glass opacity and mosaic attenuation, 1 case showed mid-lower pleural effusion; 1 case showed mediastinal emphysema. Conclusion: The clinical pathology process of paraquat poisoning was in line with CT finding which was related with clinical stage and was helpful for clinical assessment of paraquat poisoning promptly and to guide the clinical treatment. (authors)

  18. Emergency estimations of paraquat in plasma. A comparison of the RIA and ion pair/colorimetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.J.; Jarvie, D.R.; Levitt, T.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison was made between the RIA method for paraquat in plasma, and a modified colorimetric method involving ion-pair extraction of paraquat. The comparison was carried out on plasma from patients admitted with paraquat poisoning. The correlation between the methods was good and both were found to be sufficiently rapid for emergency use. (Auth.)

  19. Characterization and comprehension of zeolite NaY/mesoporous SBA-15 composite as adsorbent for paraquat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osakoo, Nattawut, E-mail: natawut.work@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Pansakdanon, Chaianun [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand); Sosa, Narongrit; Deekamwong, Krittanun; Keawkumay, Chalermpan; Rongchapo, Wina [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Chanlek, Narong [Synchrotron Light Research Institute, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Jitcharoen, Juthamas [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34190 (Thailand); Prayoonpokarach, Sanchai [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Wittayakun, Jatuporn, E-mail: jatuporn@g.sut.ac.th [School of Chemistry, Institute of Science, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand)

    2017-06-01

    NaY was synthesized from fumed silica and further modified to form a composite with SBA-15. Textural properties and basicity of the composite NaY-SBA-15 were between those of the parent materials. Paraquat adsorption on NaY was 204.1 mg/g, higher than that on NaY synthesized with rice husk silica from the previous work. SBA-15 was a poor adsorbent for paraquat. Based on the weight of NaY, the adsorption capacity of analytical-grade paraquat on the NaY-SBA-15 composite was 241.5 mg/g-NaY. Moreover, the composite adsorbed blue dye from a commercial grade paraquat. Interaction between the NaY-SBA-15 and paraquat could be from C and N atoms in paraquat with oxygen atom on NaY-SBA-15. - Highlights: • Zeolite NaY/mesoporous SBA-15 composite was synthesized with a simple method. • NaY and SBA-15 coexisted in the composite confirmed by FTIR, CO{sub 2}-TPD and XPS. • Adsorption capacity of paraquat (mg/g-NaY) was improved by NaY and SBA-15 composite. • C and N atoms in paraquat could interact with oxygen atom on NaY-SBA-15 composite.

  20. Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat (N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium) into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of (/sup 14/C)-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric (/sup 3/H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems.

  1. Multiple pathways for uptake of paraquat, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), and polyamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byers, T.L.; Kameji, R.; Rannels, D.E.; Pegg, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The uptake of polyamines, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), and paraquat [N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium] into control Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and a mutant CHO cell line selected for resistance to the toxicity of MGBG was examined. In contrast to control CHO cells, the mutant cells had no detectable uptake of [ 14 C]-MGBG or any of the polyamines. There was no difference between the two cell lines in the uptake of α-aminoisobutyric ( 3 H-AIB), which indicates that there was no general change in membrane transport processes. The mutant cells were also found to be resistant to the toxicity of paraquat and to have a reduced capability to take up the herbicide. This finding confirms that the uptake of paraquat is necessary for the toxicity of this compound and that the paraquat is taken up by a transport system that also transports MGBG. Competition experiments showed that an excess of unlabeled paraquat inhibited uptake of MGBG and, to a lesser extent, uptake of putrescine and spermidine, but no inhibitory action on spermine uptake could be detected. Studies with type II cells isolated from rat lung also demonstrated uptake of paraquat and spermidine, but paraquat was only a weak inhibitor of spermidine uptake in this system. These results suggest that there may be multiple systems for the uptake of MGBG and polyamines and that paraquat is taken up by at least one but not by all of these systems

  2. Paraquat Herbicide in Peat Soil: I. Its Effects on The Dynamics of Microbial Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Margino

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat has been used widely and periodically in peat soil. It is stable in acid environments, therefore its application in peat soil which represents an acid environment, might prolong its persistence. Liming treatment has known to reduce peat soil acidity. This research was conducted to study the effect of paraquat and liming treatments on the dynamics of microbial population in peat soil. Unlimed and limed peat soil were treated with paraquat to a final concentration of 20 ppm, and incubated for 2 months. Microbiological analysis, consisting of counting of bacterial, actinomycetes, and fungal population were done weekly. The changes of pH value and paraquat residue were also measured. The results showed that in unlimed peat soil, paraquat treatment did not influence microbial population. However, when paraquat was added into limed peat soil, the number of microbial population decreased; especially the population of bacteria. Liming treatment increased bacterial population and changed the population dynamics of actinomycetes. No significant difference of fungal population in peat soil treated with paraquat and lime. Additionally, there was no significant difference in paraquat resistance between limed and unlimed peat soil.

  3. Betanin attenuates paraquat-induced liver toxicity through a mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Zhang, Zongju; Yang, Shaobin; Wang, Jun; Yang, Xuelian; Tan, Dehong

    2014-08-01

    We attempted to determine whether betanin (from natural pigments) that has anti-oxidant properties would be protective against paraquat-induced liver injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally into rats to induce liver toxicity. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a paraquat group, and two groups that received betanin at doses of 25 and 100mg/kg/day three days before and two days after they were administered paraquat. We evaluated liver histopathology, serum liver enzymatic activities, oxidative stress, cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A2 mRNA expression, and mitochondrial damage. The rats that were injected with paraquat incurred liver injury, evidenced by histological changes and elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels; paraquat also led to oxidative stress, an increase of cytochrome P450 3A2 mRNA expression, and mitochondrial damage, indicated by mitochondrial membrane swelling, reduced mitochondrial cytochrome C, and apoptosis-inducing factor protein levels. Pathological damage and all of the above mentioned markers were lesser in the animals treated with betanin than in those who received paraquat alone. Betanin had a protective effect against paraquat-induced liver damage in rats. The mechanism of the protection appears to be the inhibition of CYP 3A2 expression and protection of mitochondria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization and comprehension of zeolite NaY/mesoporous SBA-15 composite as adsorbent for paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osakoo, Nattawut; Pansakdanon, Chaianun; Sosa, Narongrit; Deekamwong, Krittanun; Keawkumay, Chalermpan; Rongchapo, Wina; Chanlek, Narong; Jitcharoen, Juthamas; Prayoonpokarach, Sanchai; Wittayakun, Jatuporn

    2017-01-01

    NaY was synthesized from fumed silica and further modified to form a composite with SBA-15. Textural properties and basicity of the composite NaY-SBA-15 were between those of the parent materials. Paraquat adsorption on NaY was 204.1 mg/g, higher than that on NaY synthesized with rice husk silica from the previous work. SBA-15 was a poor adsorbent for paraquat. Based on the weight of NaY, the adsorption capacity of analytical-grade paraquat on the NaY-SBA-15 composite was 241.5 mg/g-NaY. Moreover, the composite adsorbed blue dye from a commercial grade paraquat. Interaction between the NaY-SBA-15 and paraquat could be from C and N atoms in paraquat with oxygen atom on NaY-SBA-15. - Highlights: • Zeolite NaY/mesoporous SBA-15 composite was synthesized with a simple method. • NaY and SBA-15 coexisted in the composite confirmed by FTIR, CO 2 -TPD and XPS. • Adsorption capacity of paraquat (mg/g-NaY) was improved by NaY and SBA-15 composite. • C and N atoms in paraquat could interact with oxygen atom on NaY-SBA-15 composite.

  5. Effect of paraquat as post emergence herbicide on yield of cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment reported herein was undertaken to determine the toxicological effect of paraquat as post emergence herbicide on yield of cowpea. Two rates of paraquat 0.50 kg ai/ha and 1.00kg ai/ha were applied as post emergence herbicide in pot experiment with fallow weed population; which examined the ...

  6. Size Changes in Honey Bee Larvae Oenocytes Induced by Exposure to Paraquat at Very Low Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Marianne; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine; Kretzschmar, André; El Maataoui, Mohamed; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Belzunces, Luc P.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the herbicide Paraquat were investigated in honey bee larvae with attention focused on oenocytes. Honey bee larvae were exposed to Paraquat at different concentrations in the food: 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 µg/kg. In controls, between 24 h and 48 h, oenocytes grew from 630.1 to 1643.8 µm2 while nuclei changed in size from 124.9 to 245.6 µm2. At 24 h, Paraquat induced a slight decrease in the size of oenocytes and nuclei. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant substance, slightly lowered the effects of Paraquat. At 48 h, Paraquat elicited a strong concentration-dependent decrease in the size of oenocytes, even at the lowest concentration. NAC reversed the effect of Paraquat at a concentration of ≥0.01 µg/kg. This reversion suggested different modes of action of Paraquat, with an oxidant action prevalent at concentrations ≥0.01 µg/kg. This study is the first which reports an effect of a pesticide at the very low concentration of 1 ng/kg, a concentration below the detection limits of the most efficient analytic methods. It shows that chemicals, including pesticides, are likely to have a potential impact at such exposure levels. We also suggest that Paraquat could be used as a suitable tool for investigating the functions of oenocytes. PMID:23724149

  7. Direct monitoring of paraquat induced cell death using quartz crystal sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Kang, Hyen-Wook; Kaneko, Seiichi; Kwon, Young-Soo; Muramatsu, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide and pesticide, has been implicated as an environmental toxicity which caused cell death. In order to investigate the influence of paraquat, we used a quartz crystal sensor with a micro CCD camera that measured morphology and resonance characteristics simultaneously. Human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was cultured onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface of quartz crystal modified on a collagen film. After the growth of the cells, paraquat was injected to the chamber and the resonance responses of the quartz crystal were directly monitored with morphology. We analyzed changes of the cells by the resonance frequency (F) and the resonance resistance (R) responses (F-R diagram). With this analysis, we also observed the morphologies during cell culturing. From the data, we could know that paraquat caused the weakening and death of the cells. Namely, paraquat plays an important role in the free radicals production that led to apoptosis and cell death.

  8. Direct monitoring of paraquat induced cell death using quartz crystal sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yun [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840 Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyen-Wook, E-mail: nanokang@bs.teu.ac.j [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kaneko, Seiichi [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan); Kwon, Young-Soo, E-mail: yskwon@dau.ac.k [Department of Electrical Engineering and NTRC, Dong-A University, 840 Hadan 2-dong, Saha-gu, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Muramatsu, Hiroshi, E-mail: muramatu@bs.teu.ac.j [School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide and pesticide, has been implicated as an environmental toxicity which caused cell death. In order to investigate the influence of paraquat, we used a quartz crystal sensor with a micro CCD camera that measured morphology and resonance characteristics simultaneously. Human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was cultured onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface of quartz crystal modified on a collagen film. After the growth of the cells, paraquat was injected to the chamber and the resonance responses of the quartz crystal were directly monitored with morphology. We analyzed changes of the cells by the resonance frequency (F) and the resonance resistance (R) responses (F-R diagram). With this analysis, we also observed the morphologies during cell culturing. From the data, we could know that paraquat caused the weakening and death of the cells. Namely, paraquat plays an important role in the free radicals production that led to apoptosis and cell death.

  9. [A Case of Corneal Injury due to Herbicide Containing Paraquat: Effectiveness of 2% Rebamipide Eye Drops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    Herbicides containing paraquat are widely used and have occasionally been causing ocular damage. The initial ocular injury caused by paraquat tends to worsen within a few days to 1 week. The toxicity of paraquat is based on the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species. An 82-year-old woman who had been exposed to herbicide containing paraquat in her left eye presented at Koumeikan Eye Clinic 2 days after the incident. Moderate corneal erosion was diagnosed and treated with ordinary medication, but the corneal lesion worsened. After administration of topical 2% rebamipide eye drops, the corneal lesion resolved rapidly. Because of its role as a radical scavenger, rebamipide has great potential for treatment of corneal injuries caused by herbicides such as paraquat.

  10. Complexation between Methyl Viologen (Paraquat) Bis(Hexafluorophosphate) and Dibenzo[24]Crown-8 Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasa, Travis B.; Spruell, Jason M.; Dichtel, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Paraquat bis(hexafluorophosphate) undergoes stepwise dissociation in acetone. All three species - the neutral molecule, and the mono- and dications - are represented significantly under the experimental conditions typically used in host-guest binding studies. Paraquat forms at least four host...... of the dicationic 1:1 host-guest complex cannot be excluded on the basis of our experimental data, but neither is it unambiguously confirmed to be present. The two confirmed forms of paraquat that do undergo complexation - the neutral molecule and the monocation - exhibit approximately identical binding affinities...... toward dibenzo[24]crown-8. Thus, the relative abundance of neutral, singly, and doubly charged pseudorotaxanes is identical to the relative abundance of neutral, singly, and doubly charged paraquat unbound with respect to the crown ether in acetone. In the specific case of paraquat/dibenzo[24]crown-8...

  11. Serum paraquat concentration detected by spectrophotometry in patients with paraquat poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang-bin; Li, Xin-hua; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Cheng-hua; Peng, Ai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paraquat (PQ) is a world-wide used herbicide and also a type of common poison for suicide and accidental poisoning. Numerous studies have proved that the concentration of serum PQ plays an important role in prognosis. Spectrophotometry, including common spectrophotometry and second-derivative spectrophotometry, is commonly used for PQ detection in primary hospitals. So far, lack of systematic research on the reliability of the method and the correlation between clinical features of patients with PQ poisoning and the test results has restricted the clinical use of spectrophotometry. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and value of spectrophotometry in detecting the concentration of serum PQ. METHODS: The wavelengths for detecting the concentration of serum PQ by common and second-derivative spectrophotometry were determined. Second-derivative spectrophotometry was applied to detect the concentration of serum PQ. The linear range and precision for detection of PQ concentration by this method were confirmed. The concentration of serum PQ shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry and HPLC were compared in 8 patients with PQ poisoning. Altogether 21 patients with acute poisoning 4 hours after PQ ingestion treated in the period of October 2008 to September 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into higher and lower than 1.8 μg/mL groups based on their concentrations of serum PQ measured by second-derivative spectrophotometry on admission. The severity of clinical manifestations between the two groups were analyzed with Student's t test or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: The absorption peak of 257 nm could not be found when common spectrophotometry was used to detect the PQ concentration in serum. The calibration curve in the 0.4–8.0 μg/mL range for PQ concentration shown by second-derivative spectrophotometry obeyed Beer's law with r=0.996. The average recovery rates of PQ were within a range of 95.0% to 99.5%, relative

  12. Investigating global trends in paraquat intoxication research from 1962 to 2015 using bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2018-03-14

    Paraquat is considered to be the main pesticide involved in accidental and intentional poisoning, and is responsible for a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to present a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of paraquat intoxication-related research. Data was retrieved in March 2017 from the Scopus database. An overview of the research on paraquat intoxication was presented alongside the information related to several bibliometric indicators, such as research trends, countries with their h-index, collaboration, hot issues, top-cited publications, journals, and institutions. There were 1971 publications related to paraquat intoxication in the Scopus database that were published between 1966 and 2015. There was increasing research output in the field of paraquat intoxication during the period 2006-2015. The USA published the highest number of publications (n = 338), followed by Japan with 228 publications, and China with 159 publications. The USA and the UK achieved the greatest h-index values (h-index values of 49 and 31, respectively). The USA also achieved the highest number of publications involving international collaboration, with 55 publications, followed by the UK, with 18 publications. The most prevalent topics in this field were "acute paraquat intoxication," "toxic effects of paraquat to the lung," and "mechanism of paraquat toxicity." Although a substantial amount of research has been produced on paraquat intoxication for most developed countries, there are research gaps regarding the international research agenda in this research area. The findings could be applied for prioritizing and organizing future research efforts related to paraquat toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Using bosentan to treat paraquat poisoning-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paraquat poisoning is well known for causing multiple organ function failure (MODS and high mortality. Acute lung injury and advanced pulmonary fibrosis are the most serious complications. Bosentan is a dual endothelin receptor antagonist. It plays an important role in treating PF. There is no related literature on the use of bosentan therapy for paraquat poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To study the use of bosentan to treat acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis as induced by paraquat. METHOD: A total of 120 adult Wister male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the paraquat poisoning group (rats were intragastrically administered with paraquat at 50 mg/kg body weight once at the beginning; the bosentan therapy group (rats were administered bosentan at 100 mg/kg body weight by intragastric administration half an hour after paraquat was administered, then the same dose was administered once a day; and a control group (rats were administered intragastric physiological saline. On the 3rd, 7th, 14th, and 21st days following paraquat exposure, rats were sacrificed, and samples of lung tissue and venous blood were collected. The levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, and hydroxyproline (HYP in the plasma and lung homogenate were determined. Optical and electronic microscopes were used to examine pathological changes. RESULT: The TGF-β1, ET-1, and HYP of the paraquat poisoning group were significantly higher than in the control group, and they were significantly lower in the 21st day therapy group than in the paraquat poisoning group on the same day. Under the optical and electronic microscopes, lung tissue damage was observed to be more severe but was then reduced after bosentan was administered. CONCLUSION: Bosentan can reduce inflammation factor release. It has a therapeutic effect on acute lung injury as induced by paraquat.

  14. Loss of AtPDR11, a plasma membrane-localized ABC transporter, confers paraquat tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jing; Xu, Ping; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2012-03-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. However, no paraquat transporter has been isolated in plants. Here, we describe paraquat-tolerant mutant pqt24-1, isolated from an activation-tagging library on the basis of its tolerance to 2 μm paraquat in the seedling stage. Molecular analysis revealed that the T-DNA was inserted in the 13th exon of At1g66950, which encodes AtPDR11, a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. As a result, AtPDR11 was knocked out in the mutant. Loss-of-function mutations of AtPDR11 led to reduced paraquat accumulation in plant cells. In addition, the AtPDR11 protein was specifically localized in the plasmalemma, suggesting AtPDR11 as a potential transporter of paraquat. This conclusion was supported by kinetic analysis of paraquat import. Further studies showed that the transcript level of AtPDR11 could be strongly induced by paraquat and other abiotic stresses including H(2) O(2) , indicating possible up-regulation of AtPDR11 expression by oxidative stress signaling. Thus, our data suggest that paraquat is an opportunistic substrate of AtPDR11 and the enhanced paraquat tolerance of pqt24-1 is due to reduced uptake of paraquat into plant cells. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Impact of paraquat regulation on suicide in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Eddleston, Michael; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-04-01

    Ingestion of pesticides (mainly paraquat) accounted for one-fifth of suicides in South Korea in 2006-10. We investigated the effect on suicide mortality of regulatory action, culminating in a ban on paraquat in South Korea in 2011-12. We calculated age-standardized method-specific suicide mortality rates among people aged ≥15 in South Korea (1983-2013) using registered death data. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate changes in the rate and number of pesticide suicides in 2013, compared with those expected based on previous trends (2003-11). Pesticide suicide mortality halved from 5.26 to 2.67 per 100 000 population between 2011 and 2013. Compared with the number expected based on previous trends, the regulations were followed by an estimated 847 [95% confidence interval (CI) -1180 to -533] fewer pesticide suicides, a 37% reduction in rates (rate ratio = 0.63, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.73) in 2013. The decline in pesticide suicides after the regulations was seen in all age/sex/geographical groups. The absolute reduction in the number of suicides was greatest among men, the elderly and in rural areas. The reduction in pesticide suicides contributed to 56% of the decline in overall suicides that occurred between 2011 and 2013. There was no impact of the regulations on crop yield. The regulation of paraquat in South Korea in 2011-12 was associated with a reduction in pesticide suicide. Further legislative interventions to prevent the easy availability of highly lethal suicide methods are recommended for reducing the number of suicides worldwide. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  16. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach for acute paraquat intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Hyo-wook; Hong, Jung-Rak; Jang, Si-Hyong; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Paraquat (PQ) has known negative human health effects, but continues to be commonly used worldwide as a herbicide. Our clinical data shows that the main prognostic factor is the time required to achieve a negative urine dithionite test. Patient survival is a 100% when the area affected by ground glass opacity is preserve kidney function: 1) extracorporeal elimination, 2) intravenous antioxidant administration, 3) diuresis with a fluid, and 4) cytotoxic drugs. In conclusion, this review provides a general overview on the diagnostic procedure and treatment modality of acute PQ intoxication, while focusing on our clinical experience.

  17. Effects of paraquat on Escherichia coli: Differences between B and K-12 strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitzler, J.W.; Minakami, H.; Fridovich, I.

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli B and K-12 are equally susceptible to the bacteriostatic effects of aerobic paraquat, but they differed strikingly when the lethality of paraquat was evaluated. E. coli B suffered an apparent loss of viability when briefly exposed to paraquat, whereas E. coli K-12 did not. This difference depended on the ability of the B-strain, but not the K-12 strain, to retain internalized paraquat; the B strain was killed on aerobic tryptic soy-yeast extract plates during the incubation which preceded the counting of colonies. This difference in retention of paraquat between strains was demonstrated by delayed loss of viability, by growth inhibition, and by cyanide-resistant respiration after brief exposure to paraquat, washing, and testing in fresh medium. This difference was also shown by using [ 14 C]paraquat. This previously unrecognized difference between E. coli B and K-12 has been the cause of apparently contradictory reports and should lead to some reevaluation of the pertinent literature

  18. Consumption of Hydrogen Water Reduces Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to paraquat leads to acute lung injury and oxidative stress is widely accepted as a contributor to paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Recent studies have reported that consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water prevents oxidative stress-induced diseases. Here, we investigated whether consumption of saturated hydrogen saline protects rats against paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control group; hydrogen water-only group (HW group; paraquat-only group (PQ group; paraquat and hydrogen water group (PQ  +  HW group. The rats in control group and HW group drank pure water or hydrogen water; the rats in PQ group and PQ  +  HW group were intraperitonealy injected with paraquat (35 mg/kg and then provided pure water or hydrogen water. Both biochemical and histological lung alterations were measured. The results showed that hydrogen water ameliorated these alterations, demonstrating that hydrogen water alleviated paraquat-induced acute lung injury possibly by inhibition of oxidative damage.

  19. Paraquat and psychological stressor interactions as pertains to Parkinsonian co-morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Rudyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated the non-selective herbicide, paraquat, in the development of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. While preclinical research has focused mainly on elucidating the nigrostriatal effects of paraquat, relatively little data are available concerning non-motor brain systems and inflammatory immune processes (which have been implicated in PD. Hence, in the present study, we sought to take a multi-system approach to characterize the influence of paraquat upon extra-nigrostriatal brain regions, as well ascertain whether the impact of the pesticide might be enhanced in the context of chronic intermittent stressor exposure. Our findings support the contention that paraquat itself acted as a systemic stressor, with the pesticide increasing plasma corticosterone, as well as altering neurochemical activity in the locus coeruleus, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, dorsal striatum, and central amygdala. However, with the important exception striatal dopamine turnover, the stressor treatment did not further augment these effects. Additionally, paraquat altered inter-cytokine correlations and, to a lesser extent, circulating cytokine levels, and concomitant stress exposure modulated some of these effects. Finally, paraquat provoked significant (albeit modest reductions of sucrose preference and weight gain, hinting at possible anhendonic-like or sickness responses. These data suggest that, in addition to being a well known oxidative stress generator, paraquat can act as a systemic stressor affecting hormonal and neurochemical activity, but largely not interacting with a concomitant stressor regimen.

  20. The toxic influence of paraquat on hippocampal neurogenesis in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaikai; Cheng, Xinran; Jiang, Jinhua; Wang, Jiutao; Xie, Jiongfang; Hu, Xinde; Huang, Yingxue; Song, Lingzhen; Liu, Mengmeng; Cai, Leiming; Chen, Liezhong; Zhao, Shanting

    2017-08-01

    Paraquat, a fast-acting non-selective contact herbicide, is considered an etiological factor related to Parkinson's disease. This study investigated its effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition in adult mice as well as possible mechanisms for the effects. We administered paraquat (1.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) and an equal volume of normal saline for 3 weeks to adult male C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory was significantly impaired in paraquat-treated mice. Moreover, paraquat administration inhibited the proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and impaired the survival and altered the fate decision of newly generated cells in the hippocampus. The expression levels of caspase-3 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were significantly higher in paraquat-treated mice than in control mice. Interestingly, paraquat reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, but did not affect the total amount of Akt. In conclusion, our findings suggest that paraquat negatively affected adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognition function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of low doses of herbicide paraquat on antioxidant defense in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krůček, Tomáš; Korandová, Michala; Šerý, Michal; Frydrychová, Radmila Čapková; Krůček, Tomáš; Korandová, Michala; Szakosová, Klára

    2015-04-01

    Despite a high toxicity, paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Our study evaluated the effect of paraquat exposure on antioxidant response and locomotion activity in Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the transcript levels of both enzymes. Flies were exposed to a wide range of paraquat concentrations (0.25 μM to 25 mM) for 12 h. SOD, at both transcript and enzymatic levels, revealed a biphasic dose-response curve with the peak at 2.5 μM paraquat. A similar dose-response curve was observed at transcript levels of catalase. Males revealed higher susceptibility to paraquat exposure, displaying higher lethality, increased levels of SOD activity, and increased peroxide levels than in females. We found that the exposure of females to 2.5 μM paraquat leads to an increase in locomotion activity. Because susceptibility to paraquat was enhanced by mating, the study supports the hypothesis of elevation of stress sensitivity as a physiological cost of reproduction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  3. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Adrienne T.; Gray, Joshua P.; Shakarjian, Michael P.; Laskin, Debra L.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  4. Efeito de doses reduzidas de glyphosate e paraquat simulando deriva na cultura do milho Effect of reduced rates of glyphosate and paraquat simulating drift in corn crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Magalhães

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de herbicidas, seja para a dissecação de culturas ou para o controle de plantas daninhas, vem crescendo, devido a expansão da fronteira agrícola brasileira. Esse fato aumenta os riscos de ocorrência de deriva acidental em culturas vizinhas suscetíveis. As perdas em produtividade são desconhecidas em muitas situações de ocorrência de deriva de herbicidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possível toxicidade causada pela deriva de doses reduzidas de dois herbicidas (glyphosate e paraquat no período inicial de desenvolvimento da cultura do milho. Foram utilizadas cinco doses simulando deriva - 2, 4, 6, 8 e 12% da dose recomendada (1.440 g ha-1 de glyphosate e 400 g ha-1 de paraquat - sobre o cultivar de milho híbrido triplo BRS 3123. No florescimento, foram avaliados altura da planta, área foliar, peso da matéria seca, teor de clorofila e sintomas visuais de injúria. Na colheita, avaliaram-se estande final, peso de espigas, peso de 1.000 grãos e produção de grãos. A altura das plantas, a área foliar e o peso da matéria seca não foram afetados pelo efeito das derivas nos dois anos agrícolas (1996/97 e 1997/98, exceto pela área foliar, que em 1997/98 sofreu redução, sobretudo no tratamento com 12% da dose normal de glyphosate. De maneira geral, os resultados obtidos para as demais características foram semelhantes nos dois anos de condução do ensaio. O teor de clorofila nas folhas e o estande final não foram afetados pelas doses reduzidas. O grau de toxicidade, avaliado por meio de plantas injuriadas pela deriva, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após a aplicação dos herbicidas, apresentou diferenças significativas. Os maiores danos foram observados com a maior subdose simulando deriva dos herbicidas. O peso de 1.000 grãos não foi afetado, ao passo que a produção de espigas e de grãos foi severamente prejudicada. Observou-se que a deriva simulada dos herbicidas em altas concentrações afetou o

  5. Clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection: Towards rapid diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of acute paraquat poisoning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Ngan; Do, Thi Trang; Doan, Thu Ha; Ha, Tran Hung; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Hung Long; Hauser, Peter C; Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2017-08-15

    The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C 4 D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C 4 D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients. The results were used by medical doctors for identification and prognosis of acute paraquat poisoning cases. The objective of the work is the deployment of the developed approach in rural areas in Vietnam as a low-cost solution to reduce the mortality rate due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of paraquat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The effects of glyphosate, glufosinate, paraquat and paraquat-diquat on soil microbial activity and bacterial, archaeal and nematode diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Paul G; Kukulies, Tegan; Forstner, Christian; Orton, Thomas G; Pattison, Anthony B

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of one-off applications of glyphosate, glufosinate, paraquat, and paraquat-diquat on soil microbial diversity and function. All herbicides were added to soil as pure compounds at recommended dose and were incubated under laboratory conditions for 60 days. High-throughput phylogenetic marker gene sequencing revealed that none of the herbicides significantly influenced the richness, evenness and composition of bacterial and archaeal communities. Likewise, the diversity, composition and size of nematode communities were not significantly influenced by any of the herbicides. From a functional perspective, herbicides did not significantly affect fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDA) and beta-glucosidase activities. Furthermore, the ability of soil organisms to utilise 15 substrates was generally unaffected by herbicide application. The only exception to this was a temporary impairment in the ability of soil organisms to utilise three organic acids and an amino acid. Given the global and frequent use of these herbicides, it is important that future studies evaluate their potential impacts on microbial communities in a wider-range of soils and environmental conditions.

  7. Effects of Paraquat on carbon assimilation and transport by sugarcane leaves in white light and darkness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, A.G.; Biddulph, O.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of the quaternary ammonium herbicide Paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-dipyridinium-bis-dimethyl sulfate) on 14 C assimilation and transport by sugarcane leaves were studied in white light and total darkness. Assimilation was almost totally repressed when Paraquat was administered prior to 14 CO 2 . When applied immediately after 14 CO 2 , the subsequent transport of labeled sucrose was partially inhibited in white light and severely inhibited in darkness. The translocation effect is tentatively attributed to a selective repression of dark transport operating in collaboration with light-mediated transport. Transient 14 C declined in sucrose and increased in hexose and raffinose among darkened and Paraquat-treated leaves. The chemical's activity is interpreted within the context of its known restriction of photosynthetic light reactions. A distinction is drawn between transport inhibition in darkness and published phytotoxic effects of Paraquat. (auth.)

  8. Paraquat induces oxidative stress and neuronal cell death; neuroprotection by water-soluble Coenzyme Q10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, S.; Somayajulu, M.; Sikorska, M.; Borowy-Borowski, H.; Pandey, S.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal cell death induced by oxidative stress is correlated with numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and stroke. The causes of sporadic forms of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are still unknown. Recently, a correlation between paraquat exposure and neurodegenerative diseases has been observed. Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide, was once widely used in North America and is still routinely used in Taiwan. We have used differentiated Human Neuroblastoma (SHSY-5Y) cells as an in vitro model to study the mechanism of cell death induced by paraquat. We observed that paraquat-induced oxidative stress in differentiated SHSY-5Y cells as indicated by an increase in the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, apoptosis was evident as indicated by cellular and nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, pretreatment of SHSY-5Y cells with water-soluble Coenzyme Q 10 (CoQ 10 ) before paraquat exposure inhibited ROS generation. Pretreatment with CoQ 10 also significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells and DNA fragmentation. We also analyzed the effect of paraquat and CoQ 10 on isolated mitochondria. Our results indicated that treatment with paraquat induced the generation of ROS from isolated mitochondria and depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane. Pretreatment with CoQ 10 was able to inhibit ROS generation from isolated mitochondria as well as the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. Our results indicate that water-soluble CoQ 10 can prevent oxidative stress and neuronal damage induced by paraquat and therefore, can be used for the prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases caused by environmental toxins

  9. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojae Myung

    Full Text Available The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  10. Complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Kikot'

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives has been studied both in solution and in the solid state. In this paper we studied the influence of the crown ether ring size and the nature of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms of the paraquat derivatives on the composition and stability of these complexes.

  11. Paraquat-poisoning in the rabbit lungs: high resolution computed tomographic findings and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eui Han; Lee, Byoung Ho; Kim, Kun Sang

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of the isolated rabbit lungs with paraquat poisoning, and the findings were correlated with pathologic specimens. The purposes of this study are 1) to obtain the HRCT findings of the normal rabbit lung. 2) to find out if pulmonary pathology can be induced in rabbits by paraquat, and 3) to correlate the HRCT findings to those of pathology. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups: group I included four control rabbits; group II included 16 rabbits given paraquat intraperitoneally (IP group); and group III included 10 rabbits given paraquat intravenously (IV group). The rabbits were sacrificed seven, 10, and 14 days after injection of various amount of paraquat, and then the lungs were isolated for HRCT and pathologic studies. Gross and microscopic findings of the three groups of control and paraquat-injected rabbit lungs were correlated with HRCT findings. Pulmonary congestion, mild thickening of alveolar walls and septae, and multifocal micro-atelectasis were the man pathologic findings of the lungs in both groups of the rabbits. Pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in five (31%) of 16 rabbits of IP group and three (30%) of 10 IV group. Pulmonary edema was seen in one rabbits (6%) of IP and four (40%) of IV group. Typical pulmonary fibrosis was seen in one rabbit of IP (6%) and IV (10%) group, respectively. There was no correlation between the amount of paraquat and frequency of the pulmonary pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis was seen at least one week after the paraquat injection. On HRCT, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema appeared as diffuse air-space consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis as linear or band-like opacities. However, minimal changes such as mild congestion

  12. Paraquat prohibition and change in the suicide rate and methods in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Lee, Geung-Hee; Won, Hong-Hee; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nyer, Maren; Kim, Doh Kwan; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2015-01-01

    The annual suicide rate in South Korea is the highest among the developed countries. Paraquat is a highly lethal herbicide, commonly used in South Korea as a means for suicide. We have studied the effect of the 2011 paraquat prohibition on the national suicide rate and method of suicide in South Korea. We obtained the monthly suicide rate from 2005 to 2013 in South Korea. In our analyses, we adjusted for the effects of celebrity suicides, and economic, meteorological, and seasonal factors on suicide rate. We employed change point analysis to determine the effect of paraquat prohibition on suicide rate over time, and the results were verified by structural change analysis, an alternative statistical method. After the paraquat prohibition period in South Korea, there was a significant reduction in the total suicide rate and suicide rate by poisoning with herbicides or fungicides in all age groups and in both genders. The estimated suicide rates during this period decreased by 10.0% and 46.1% for total suicides and suicides by poisoning of herbicides or fungicides, respectively. In addition, method substitution effect of paraquat prohibition was found in suicide by poisoning by carbon monoxide, which did not exceed the reduction in the suicide rate of poisoning with herbicides or fungicides. In South Korea, paraquat prohibition led to a lower rate of suicide by paraquat poisoning, as well as a reduction in the overall suicide rate. Paraquat prohibition should be considered as a national suicide prevention strategy in developing and developed countries alongside careful observation for method substitution effects.

  13. Paraquat-induced injury of type II alveolar cells. An in vitro model of oxidant injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skillrud, D.M.; Martin, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Paraquat, a widely used herbicide, causes severe, often fatal lung damage. In vivo studies suggest the alveolar epithelial cells (types I and II) are specific targets of paraquat toxicity. This study used 51 Cr-labeled type II cells to demonstrate that paraquat (10-5 M) resulted in type II cell injury in vitro, independent of interacting immune effector agents. With 51 Cr release expressed as the cytotoxic index (Cl), type II cell injury was found to accelerate with increasing paraquat concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-4) M, and 10(-3) M, resulting in a Cl of 12.5 +/- 2.2, 22.8 +/- 1.8, and 35.1 +/- 1.9, respectively). Paraquat-induced cytotoxicity (10(-4) M, with a Cl of 22.8 +/- 1.8) was effectively reduced by catalase 1,100 U/ml (Cl 8.0 +/- 3.2, p less than 0.001), superoxide dismutase, 300 U/ml (Cl 17.4 +/- 1.7, p less than 0.05), alpha tocopherol, 10 micrograms/ml (Cl 17.8 +/- 1.6, p less than 0.05). Paraquat toxicity (10(-3) M) was potentiated in the presence of 95% O2 with an increase in Cl from 31.1 +/- 1.7 to 36.4 +/- 2.3 (p less than 0.05). Paraquat-induced type II cell injury was noted as early as 4 h incubation by electron microscopic evidence of swelling of mitochondrial cristae and dispersion of nuclear chromatin. Thus, this in vitro model indicates that paraquat-induced type II cell injury can be quantified, confirmed by morphologic ultrastructural changes, significantly reduced by antioxidants, and potentiated by hyperoxia

  14. Prediction of paraquat exposure and toxicity in clinically ill poisoned patients: a model based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunnapuk, Klintean; Mohammed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Liu, Xin; Verbeeck, Roger K; Buckley, Nicholas A; Roberts, Michael S; Musuamba, Flora T

    2014-10-01

    Paraquat poisoning is a medical problem in many parts of Asia and the Pacific. The mortality rate is extremely high as there is no effective treatment. We analyzed data collected during an ongoing cohort study on self-poisoning and from a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy in hospitalized paraquat-intoxicated patients. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of paraquat in this population. A non-linear mixed effects approach was used to perform a toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic population analysis in a cohort of 78 patients. The paraquat plasma concentrations were best fitted by a two compartment toxicokinetic structural model with first order absorption and first order elimination. Changes in renal function were used for the assessment of paraquat toxicodynamics. The estimates of toxicokinetic parameters for the apparent clearance, the apparent volume of distribution and elimination half-life were 1.17 l h(-1) , 2.4 l kg(-1) and 87 h, respectively. Renal function, namely creatinine clearance, was the most significant covariate to explain between patient variability in paraquat clearance.This model suggested that a reduction in paraquat clearance occurred within 24 to 48 h after poison ingestion, and afterwards the clearance was constant over time. The model estimated that a paraquat concentration of 429 μg l(-1) caused 50% of maximum renal toxicity. The immunosuppressive therapy tested during this study was associated with only 8% improvement of renal function. The developed models may be useful as prognostic tools to predict patient outcome based on patient characteristics on admission and to assess drug effectiveness during antidote drug development. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Chloroquine attenuates paraquat-induced lung injury in mice by altering inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Wu, Na; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhang, Lichun; Li, Tiegang; Zhao, Min

    2017-05-01

    Paraquat is one of the most extensively used herbicides and has high toxicity for humans and animals. However, there is no effective treatment for paraquat poisoning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chloroquine on paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of paraquat and a daily intraperitoneal injection of the indicated dosages of chloroquine or dexamethasone. The histological changes, inflammation and oxidative stress in the lungs were examined at day 3, and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis was examined at day 28. H&E staining showed that chloroquine markedly attenuated lung injury induced by paraquat. In addition, the inflammatory responses induced by paraquat were inhibited after treatment with chloroquine, as indicated by the decreased number of leukocytes, the reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the reduced NO content, and downregulation of iNOS expression in lung tissues. No different effect was found between high-dose chloroquine and dexamethasone. Additionally, the treatment with chloroquine increased the activity of SOD and decreased the level of MDA in the lung tissues. The expressions of the anti-oxidative proteins, Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1, were also upregulated by chloroquine treatment. The high-dose chloroquine was more effective than dexamethasone in its anti-oxidation ability. Finally, the results of Masson's staining illustrated that chloroquine markedly attenuated fibrosis in the paraquat-exposed lungs. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the expressions of the pro-fibrotic proteins TGF-β and α-SMA were downregulated after treatment with chloroquine. In conclusion, chloroquine effectively attenuated paraquat-induced lung injury in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcriptome Profiling to Discover Putative Genes Associated with Paraquat Resistance in Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Shen, Xuefeng; Ma, Qibin; Yang, Cunyi; Liu, Simin; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Background Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.), a serious annual weed in the world, has evolved resistance to several herbicides including paraquat, a non-selective herbicide. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in weeds is only partially understood. To further study the molecular mechanism underlying paraquat resistance in goosegrass, we performed transcriptome analysis of susceptible and resistant biotypes of goosegrass with or without paraquat treatment. Results The RNA-seq libraries generated 194,716,560 valid reads with an average length of 91.29 bp. De novo assembly analysis produced 158,461 transcripts with an average length of 1153.74 bp and 100,742 unigenes with an average length of 712.79 bp. Among these, 25,926 unigenes were assigned to 65 GO terms that contained three main categories. A total of 13,809 unigenes with 1,208 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 314 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways, and 12,719 unigenes were categorized into 25 KOG classifications. Furthermore, our results revealed that 53 genes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, 10 genes related to polyamines and 18 genes related to transport were differentially expressed in paraquat treatment experiments. The genes related to polyamines and transport are likely potential candidate genes that could be further investigated to confirm their roles in paraquat resistance of goosegrass. Conclusion This is the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing of E. indica using the Illumina platform. Potential genes involved in paraquat resistance were identified from the assembled sequences. The transcriptome data may serve as a reference for further analysis of gene expression and functional genomics studies, and will facilitate the study of paraquat resistance at the molecular level in goosegrass. PMID:24927422

  17. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2–3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  18. Natural antioxidant betanin protects rats from paraquat-induced acute lung injury interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junyan; Ma, Deshun; Zhang, Miao; Yang, Xuelian; Tan, Dehong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of betanin on a rat paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI) model was investigated. Paraquat was injected intraperitoneally at a single dose of 20 mg/kg body weight, and betanin (25 and 100 mg/kg/d) was orally administered 3 days before and 2 days after paraquat administration. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last betanin dosage, and lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. In rats treated only with paraquat, extensive lung injury characteristic of ALI was observed, including histological changes, elevation of lung : body weight ratio, increased lung permeability, increased lung neutrophilia infiltration, increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, reduced claudin-4 and zonula occluden-1 protein levels, increased BALF interleukin (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels, reduced BALF IL-10 levels, and increased lung nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activity. In rats treated with betanin, paraquat-induced ALI was attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results indicate that betanin attenuates paraquat-induced ALI possibly via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, the potential for using betanin as an auxilliary therapy for ALI should be explored further.

  19. Metabolic changes in rat urine after acute paraquat poisoning and discriminated by support vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Congcong; Wang, Zhiyi; Zhang, Meiling; Wang, Shuanghu; Geng, Peiwu; Sun, Fa; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Guanyang; Hu, Lufeng; Ma, Jianshe; Wang, Xianqin

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat is quick-acting and non-selective, killing green plant tissue on contact; it is also toxic to human beings and animals. In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to evaluate the effect of acute paraquat poisoning on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both partial least squares discriminate analysis and principal component analysis revealed that acute paraquat poisoning induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, the levels of benzeneacetic acid and hexadecanoic acid of the acute paraquat poisoning group (intragastric administration 36 mg/kg) increased, while the levels of butanedioic acid, pentanedioic acid, altronic acid decreased. Based on these urinary metabolomics data, support vector machine was applied to discriminate the metabolomic change of paraquat groups from the control group, which achieved 100% classification accuracy. In conclusion, metabonomic method combined with support vector machine can be used as a useful diagnostic tool in paraquat-poisoned rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, June H; Whitehead, Zandri; Van Wilpe, Erna

    2016-11-09

    Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2-3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  1. Paraquat resistance in a Lolium rigidum population is governed by one major nuclear gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Han, Heping; Nguyen, Linh; Forster, John W; Powles, Stephen B

    2009-05-01

    Paraquat resistance in an annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) population (AFLR1) has been attributed to reduced paraquat translocation. Genetic inheritance of paraquat resistance in this population was investigated in the present study. The paraquat dose response of progeny from 8 F(1) families was more similar to that of the resistant than the susceptible parent, while the equivalent data for a further three families were intermediate compared to those of the parental populations. No significant differences in dose response were observed between reciprocal crosses of specific F(1) families. These results suggest that paraquat resistance in AFLR1 is inherited as a dominant or partially dominant nuclear-encoded trait. Pseudo-F(2) (psi-F(2)) generation seedlings were treated with multiple dose rates sufficient to control the susceptible parental population, and observed segregation ratios in all instances conformed to a 3:1 (resistant:susceptible) segregation ratio, and this ratio was further confirmed by individual phenotyping of cloned plant genotypes. A single major nuclear gene is hence apparently responsible for evolved paraquat resistance in AFLR1.

  2. Effects of Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Paraquat on Blood Biochemical Parameters of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Banaee; Behzad Nemadoost Haghi; Somayeh Tahery; Shima Shahafve; Maryam Vaziriyan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Paraquat is a non-selective contact herbicide, widely used to control weeds in agriculture farms and aquatic plants in surface waters. Paraquat can have adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to detect the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial formulations of paraquat. Methods: The fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 mg.L-1) of paraquat for...

  3. Sodium Selenite Prevents Paraquat-Induced Neurotoxicity in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Talise E; Nunes, Mauro E; Menezes, Charlene C; Marins, Aline T; Leitemperger, Jossiele; Gressler, Ana Carolina Lopes; Carvalho, Fabiano B; de Freitas, Catiuscia Molz; Quadros, Vanessa A; Fachinetto, Roselei; Rosemberg, Denis B; Loro, Vania L

    2018-03-01

    Considering the antioxidant properties of sodium selenite (Na 2 SeO 3 ) and the involvement of oxidative stress events in paraquat-induced neurotoxicity, this study investigated the protective effect of dietary Na 2 SeO 3 on biochemical and behavioral parameters of zebrafish exposed to paraquat (PQ). Fish were pretreated with a Na 2 SeO 3 diet for 21 days and then PQ (20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally with six injections for 16 days. In the novel tank test, the Na 2 SeO 3 diet prevented the locomotor impairments, as well as the increase in the time spent in the top area of the tank, and the exacerbation of freezing episodes. In the preference for conspecifics and in the mirror-induced aggression (MIA) tasks, Na 2 SeO 3 prevented the increase in the latency to enter the area closer to conspecifics and the agonistic behavior of PQ-treated animals, respectively. Na 2 SeO 3 prevented the increase of carbonylated protein (CP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, as well as the decrease in non-protein thiols (NPSH) levels. Regarding the antioxidant enzymatic defenses, Na 2 SeO 3 prevented the increase in catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities caused by PQ. Altogether, dietary Na 2 SeO 3 improves behavioral and biochemical function impaired by PQ treatment in zebrafish, by modulating not only redox parameters, but also anxiety- and aggressive-like phenotypes in zebrafish.

  4. Magnitude and characteristics of acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US: 1998–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Gamola Z.; Beckman, John; Schwartz, Abby; Prado, Joanne Bonnar; Graham, Lucia S.; Higgins, Sheila; Lackovic, Michelle; Mulay, Prakash; Bojes, Heidi; Waltz, Justin; Mitchell, Yvette; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Oriel, Michel S.; Evans, Elizabeth; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Objectives Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US Methods Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). Cases identified by the National Poison Data System (NPDS) were reviewed for the years 1998–2003 and 2006–2013. Results A total of 300 paraquat- and 144 diquat-related acute illnesses were identified by SENSOR, PISP, and IDS. NPDS identified 693 paraquat- and 2128 diquat-related acute illnesses. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, illnesses were commonly low severity (paraquat=41%; diquat=81%); however, SENSOR/PISP/IDS identified 24 deaths caused by paraquat and 5 deaths associated with diquat. Nineteen paraquat-related deaths were due to ingestion, seven of which were unintentional, often due to improper storage in beverage bottles. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, paraquat and diquat-related acute illnesses were work-related in 68% (n=203) and 29% (n=42) of cases, respectively. When herbicide application site was known, the vast majority of acute paraquat-related illnesses (81%) arose from agricultural applications. Common root causes of illness were failure to use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), application equipment failure, and spill/splash of herbicide. Conclusions Although the magnitude of acute paraquat/diquat-related illnesses was relatively low, several fatalities were identified. Many illnesses could be prevented through stricter compliance with label requirements (e.g. ensuring proper herbicide storage and PPE use), and through enhanced training of certified applicators. PMID:26775000

  5. QTc prolongation as a useful prognostic factor in acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chuan; Liao, Shu-Chen; Shih, Chia-Pang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung

    2014-10-01

    Acute paraquat poisoning has a high mortality rate. Several prognostic factors have been proposed to predict the mortality risk of paraquat-poisoned patients. However, these prognostic factors are complex and some require a laboratory. Corrected QT (QTc) has been used as a prognostic factor in several clinical conditions, such as acute organophosphate poisoning. In addition, the measurement can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time. This study's objective was to investigate whether QTc can predict mortality in paraquat-poisoned patients. This was a retrospective study. Potential prognostic factors such as QTc, vital signs at admission, and certain biochemistry variables were analyzed with Cox regression analyses for their ability to predict a patient's survival from paraquat poisoning. Sixty acute paraquat-poisoned patients were admitted to the emergency department during the study period. The QTc of the survival group ranged from 0.35 to 0.48 s, whereas the nonsurvivor group ranged from 0.32 to 0.63 s. The nonsurvivor group contained a higher percentage of patients with QTc prolongation (≥0.45 s) compared with the survivor group (p = 0.04). The hazard ratio of QTc prolongation for a patient's death was found to be 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-5.67) in patients with a lower potassium level (paraquat-poisoned patients. Cardiovascular collapse may occur in some paraquat-poisoned patients. Physicians can use QTc as an indicator of a patient's severity of poisoning and mortality risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ISOLASI DAN IDENTIFIKASI BAKTERI RESISTEN HERBISIDA GLIFOSAT DAN PARAQUAT DARI RIZOSFER TANAMAN PADI - (ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANT BACTERIA TO GLYPHOSATE AND PARAQUAT HERBICIDE FROM RHIZOSPHERE OF RICE PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiwit Widowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate and paraquat are broad-spectrum herbicides that commonly used in rice fields to control weeds. This study aims to isolate and identificate bacteria from rhizosphere of rice plants which resistant to glyphosate and paraquat herbicides. Thirty bacterial isolates were isolated from rhizosphere of rice plants and screened for their resistance of glyphosate and paraquat herbicides. One isolate was resistant to 4,000 ppm of glyphosate and 1,600 ppm of paraquat. Based on Biolog omniLog identification system, isolate 4.2 was identified as Ensifer meliloti.Keywords: bacteria, herbicide, resistant, rhizosphere  ABSTRAKGlifosat dan paraquat adalah herbisida berspektrum luas yang biasanya digunakan untuk mengendalikan gulma. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengisolasi dan mengidentifikasi bakteri dari rizosfer padi sawah yang resisten terhadap herbisida glifosat dan paraquat. Tiga puluh isolat bakteri telah diisolasi dari rizosfer padi sawah dan diseleksi resistensinya terhadap herbisida glifosat dan paraquat. Terdapat satu isolat yang resisten terhadap 4.000 ppm glifosat dan 1.600 ppm paraquat. Berdasarkan sistem identifikasi Biolog omniLog, isolat 4,2 merupakan Ensifer meliloti.Kata kunci: bakteri, herbisida, resisten, rizosfer

  7. APACHE score, Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning, and serum lactic acid concentration in the prognosis of paraquat poisoning of Chinese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuyun; Hu, Hai; Jiang, Zhen; Tang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Yuangao; Sheng, Jie; Chen, Jinggang; Cao, Yu

    2015-02-01

    Many prognostic indictors have been studied to evaluate the prognosis of paraquat poisoning. However, the optimal indicator remains unclear. To determine the value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, the Severity Index of Paraquat Poisoning (SIPP), and serum lactate levels in the prognosis of paraquat poisoning, we performed a prospective study that enrolled 143 paraquat patients. Data were collected from patients (161) at West China Hospital in Chengdu, China, including details about the patients' general conditions, laboratory examinations, and treatment. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting inpatient mortality based on APACHE II score, SIPP, and lactate levels were generated. To analyze the best cutoff values for lactate levels, APACHE II scores, and SIPP in predicting the prognosis of paraquat poisoning, the initial parameters on admission and 7-day survival curves of patients with lactate levels greater than or equal to 2.95 mmol/L, APACHE II score greater than or equal to 15.22, and SIPP greater than or equal to 5.50 h · mg/L at the time of arrival at West China Hospital were compared using the 1-way analysis of variance and the log-rank test. The APACHE II score (5.45 [3.67] vs 11.29 [4.31]), SIPP (2.78 [1.89] vs 7.63 [2.46] h · mg/L), and lactate level (2.78 [1.89] vs 7.63 [2.46] mmol/L) were significantly lower in survivors (77) after oral ingestion of paraquat, compared with nonsurvivors (66). The APACHE II score, SIPP, and lactate level had different areas under the curve (0.847, 0.789, and 0.916, respectively) and accuracy (0.64, 0.84, and 0.89, respectively). Respiratory rate, serum creatinine level, Paco2, and mortality rate at 7 days after admission in patients with lactate levels greater than or equal to 2.95 mmol/L were markedly different compared with those of other patients (P paraquat poisoning.

  8. AMP-activated protein kinase deficiency rescues paraquat-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction through an autophagy-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiurong; Yang, Lifang; Hua, Yinan; Nair, Sreejayan; Xu, Xihui; Ren, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Paraquat, a quaternary nitrogen herbicide, is a highly toxic prooxidant resulting in multi-organ failure including the heart although the underlying mechanism still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the cellular fuel sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury. Wild-type and transgenic mice with overexpression of a mutant AMPK α2 subunit (kinase dead, KD), with reduced activity in both α1 and α2 subunits, were administered with paraquat (45 mg/kg) for 48 h. Paraquat elicited cardiac mechanical anomalies including compromised echocardiographic parameters (elevated left ventricular end-systolic diameter and reduced factional shortening), suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, reduced cell survival, and overt mitochondrial damage (loss in mitochondrial membrane potential). In addition, paraquat treatment promoted phosphorylation of AMPK and autophagy. Interestingly, deficiency in AMPK attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) derangement. The beneficial effect of AMPK inhibition was associated with inhibition of the AMPK-TSC-mTOR-ULK1 signaling cascade. In vitro study revealed that inhibitors for AMPK and autophagy attenuated paraquat-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Taken together, our findings revealed that AMPK may mediate paraquat-induced myocardial anomalies possibly by regulating the AMPK/mTOR-dependent autophagy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Atorvastatin protected from paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in alveolar macrophages via down-regulation of TLR-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh-Tabrizi, Nazli; Malekinejad, Hassan; Varasteh, Soheil; Cheraghi, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    The current study designed to clarify the mechanism of paraquat-induced cytotoxicity and protective effects of Atorvastatin on freshly isolated alveolar macrophages (AMs). AMs were collected via bronchoalveolar lavage and exposed to various concentrations of paraquat in the presence and absence of

  10. Paraquat Toxicity on Root Nodule Formation on Macroptiliuma tropurpureum Urb. and Its Corelation with Population of Rhizobium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Martani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the paraquat toxicity toward root nodulation by Rhizobium on Macroptilium atropurpureum as an indicator plant. The legume was grown in Thornton medium treated with several concentrations of paraquat and inoculated with R.japonicum 143 (Rj-143 or Rhizobium sp. C-1.1. These bacteria represent cross-inoculation of soybean and cover-crops legumes, respectively. Nodule formation and Rhizobium population were measured periodically. At the end of planting time, nitrogenase activity of the nodules was analysis based on ARA (Acethylene Reduction Analysis method. The results showed that nodules in plants inoculated with Rhizobium without addition paraquat, were formed within four weeks. There was no nodulation when paraquat was added. Paraquat was toxic to the plant, causing chlorosis, stunting, drying of the plant tissues, and death. The symptoms were detected at the second week after planting time. Paraquat also decreased Rhizobium population from 10^6 to 10^2 or 10^1 CFU/mL at 40 and 100 pp, respectively. These results depicted that paraquat disturbed the plant before nodulation, and at the same time Rhizobium populatin decreased until below minimal population required for nodulation. Therefore, the process of nodulation was disturbed, and in some treatments there was nodulation. It was concluded that paraquat was toxic to both plant and the Rhizobium, which cause nodulation failure.

  11. Absence of P-Glycoprotein Transport in the Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of the Herbicide Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Sarah E.; Gremaud, Julia N.; Skagen, Kasse; Steed, Emily; Dalton, Rachel; Sugden, Kent D.; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variation in the multidrug resistance gene ABCB1, which encodes the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been associated with Parkinson disease. Our goal was to investigate P-gp transport of paraquat, a Parkinson-associated neurotoxicant. We used in vitro transport models of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, transepithelial permeability, and rhodamine-123 inhibition. We also measured paraquat pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Friend leukemia virus B-type (FVB) wild-type and P-gp-deficient (mdr1a−/−/mdr1b−/−) mice following 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg oral doses. In vitro data showed that: 1) paraquat failed to stimulate ATPase activity; 2) resistance to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity was unchanged in P-gp-expressing cells in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] and verapamil—37.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2–41.4], 46.2 (42.5–50.2), and 34.1 µM (31.2–37.2)—respectively; 3) transepithelial permeability ratios of paraquat were the same in P-gp-expressing and nonexpressing cells (1.55 ± 0.39 and 1.39 ± 0.43, respectively); and 4) paraquat did not inhibit rhodamine-123 transport. Population pharmacokinetic modeling revealed minor differences between FVB wild-type and mdr1a−/−/mdr1b−/− mice: clearances of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.52] and 0.78 l/h (0.58–0.98), respectively, and volume of distributions of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.50–2.04) and 3.36 liters (2.39–4.33), respectively; however, the change in clearance was in the opposite direction of what would be expected. It is noteworthy that paraquat brain-to-plasma partitioning ratios and total brain accumulation were the same across doses between FVB wild-type and mdr1a−/−/mdr1b−/− mice. These studies indicate that paraquat is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, the association between

  12. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Silva, Mariana dos; Sgarbi Cocenza, Daniela; Grillo, Renato; Silva de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira; Tonello, Paulo Sergio; Camargo de Oliveira, Luciana; Lopes Cassimiro, Douglas; Rosa, Andre Henrique; Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 ± 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 ± 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat.

  13. Paraquat poisoning: an experimental model of dose-dependent acute lung injury due to surfactant dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.R. Silva

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the most characteristic feature of paraquat poisoning is lung damage, a prospective controlled study was performed on excised rat lungs in order to estimate the intensity of lesion after different doses. Twenty-five male, 2-3-month-old non-SPF Wistar rats, divided into 5 groups, received paraquat dichloride in a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 1, 5, 25, or 50 mg/kg body weight 24 h before the experiment. Static pressure-volume (PV curves were performed in air- and saline-filled lungs; an estimator of surface tension and tissue works was computed by integrating the area of both curves and reported as work/ml of volume displacement. Paraquat induced a dose-dependent increase of inspiratory surface tension work that reached a significant two-fold order of magnitude for 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05, ANOVA, sparing lung tissue. This kind of lesion was probably due to functional abnormalities of the surfactant system, as was shown by the increase in the hysteresis of the paraquat groups at the highest doses. Hence, paraquat poisoning provides a suitable model of acute lung injury with alveolar instability that can be easily used in experimental protocols of mechanical ventilation

  14. Neuroprotective effects of Cassia tora against paraquat-induced neurodegeneration: relevance for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sunil K; Narasingappa, Ramesh B; Joshi, Chandrashekar G; Girish, Talakatta K; Vincent, Bruno

    2017-07-16

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether Cassia tora extracts could reverse the oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration in a Parkinson's disease in vitro model. The leaves were treated with ethyl acetate (CtEA) or methanol (CtME). The extracts were first analysed by HPLC for their phenolic content and then tested for their neuroprotective effects in human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of extracts followed by incubation with paraquat (14 μM). Firstly, pre-treatment of SK-N-SH cells with 100 μg/mL of CtEA or CtME significantly reduced the paraquat-induced production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, both CtEA and CtME reduced the paraquat-induced apoptosis. Moreover, there was a significant reduction of paraquat-induced DNA damage in SK-N-SH cells pre-treated with CtEA or CtME. Finally, both extracts significantly inhibited paraquat-dependent lipid peroxidation. Altogether, these in vitro data establish C. tora as a possible anti-Parkinson natural remedy.

  15. Influence of substrate on bioaccumulation of 14C-paraquat in compost worms Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Solange; Langenbach, Tomaz; Luchini, Luiz C; de Andréa, Mara M

    2006-01-01

    Contamination of soil with pesticides can be evaluated using toxicity tests with worms because their ecological niche makes them good bioindicators. Bioaccumulation in compost worms of [methyl-14C] paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) was measured after three-month exposure in two substrates with differing physicochemical characteristics, in particular their organic matter and clay contents. The treatments were 1.2, 12, and 120 microg paraquat g(-1) substrate. The action of the worms did not influence the loss of 14C from the substrates, as the 14C-recovered was essentially quantitative at the end of the study in both the presence and absence of the worms. The organic matter and clay contents of the substrates determined the extent of the paraquat uptake by the worms; worms from the substrate with smaller amounts of clay and organic matter had the higher values of the bioconcentration factor (BCF), these being about 5 (fresh-weight basis) and independent of the application rate. The BCF values in the substrate containing more organic matter and clay were smaller but increased from 1.1 to 3.8 with the increasing rates of application. However, in both substrates the amounts of paraquat bioaccumulated in the worms was always less than 1% of that applied, indicating the very strong binding of paraquat to the substrates and hence low availability to the worms.

  16. Paraquat Poisoning of the Lung: HRCT Findings According to the Amount of Ingestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Lim; Song, Sun Wha; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Su Lim; Ahn, Myeong Im; Park, Seog Hee [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat as determined with the use of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The study included 15 patients exposed to paraquat based on a positive urine assay and the presence of pulmonary abnormalities as detected on HRCT scans. The pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat was evaluated. Patients were classified into five groups based on the amount of paraquat that was ingested. The groups were designated as indirect exposure, minimum exposure (the patient spat out the agent after swallowing), low exposure (<= 30 cc), medium exposure (31-60 cc) and high exposure (61-100 cc). Abnormal lung parenchymal patterns as depicted on HRCT images consisted of ground glass opacity (n = 9), consolidation (n = 9), irregular lines (n = 9) and the presence of nodules (n = 2). The most common distribution was in the lower and subpleural lung zone with no relation to the amount of ingestion. The most common patterns were the presence of irregular lines in the indirect exposure group and ground glass opacity in the high exposure group. The mean number of involved lobes increased in relation to the amount of ingestion. For paraquat poisoning, the pattern and extent of pulmonary abnormalities were related to the amount of ingestion, but the distribution of pulmonary abnormalities was not related to the amount of ingestion

  17. Predictors of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Patients with Paraquat Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Paraquat poisoning is characterized by acute lung injury, pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure, and multi-organ failure, resulting in a high rate of mortality and morbidity. The objectives of this study were to identify predictors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in cases of paraquat poisoning and determine the association between these parameters. Materials and Methods In total, 187 patients were referred for management of intentional paraquat ingestion between 2000 and 2010. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) scores were collected, and predictors of ARDS were analyzed. Results The overall mortality rate for the entire population was 54% (101/187). Furthermore, the mortality rate was higher in the ARDS patients than in the non-ARDS patients (80% vs. 43.80%, Pparaquat concentrations (Pparaquat concentrations (P=0.01) for predicting ARDS. Conclusions The analytical results indicate that SOFA48-h scores, blood paraquat concentrations, and steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies are significantly associated with ARDS complications after paraquat intoxication. PMID:24349340

  18. High-resolution CT in paraquat poisoning of the lung : role of prognosis prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Suk; Kim, Young Tong; Kwon, Eun Joo; Choi, Choung Sik; Im, Han Heag; Park, Jai Soung; Kim, Il Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognosis of patients with paraquat poisoning by measuring the extent of lung involvement, as seen on HRCT. Forty-one patients with paraquat poisoning were treated according to our hospital's routine protocol and underwent HRCT scanning 1-21 (mean 7-8) days after. In 31, the results were abnormal, and these were retrospectively analysed. Differences in the extent of lung involvement, patient age, ingested amount of paraquat, and blood WBC count were compared between the group of survivors and those who had died. Among the 31 patients with abnormal HRCT findings, 11 died and 20 patient survived. The extent of lung involvement among the group of survivors was 14.8 ± 14.8 %; among the decreased group, it was 72.3 ± 16.3 %. The age of the survivors was 37.5 ± 13.5 (11-67) years, while that of the deceased was 25 ± 8.9 (16-41) years. Those who died showed a significantly higher significant difference in blood WBC count and ingested amount of paraquat between the two groups (p>0.05). In paraquat poisoning, the extent of lung involvement on HRCT, useful for prediction of the prognosis and severity of poisoning. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Physiological effects of paraquat in juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchel 1822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Didigwu Nwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the physiological effects of paraquat in African freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus. Methods: Two sublethal test concentrations of paraquat (1.37 and 2.75 mg/L were chosen based on the 96 h LC50 value (27.46 mg/L. Some experimental fish were exposed to these concentrations and control group for 15 d. Peripheral blood samplings were taken at intervals for assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results: Exposure to paraquat affected behaviour and morphology of Clarias gariepinus. There were significant decreases (P<0.05 in the mean values of hemoglobin, red blood cells, packed cell volume, cellular hemoglobin, and cellular hemoglobin concentration. The levels of white blood cells, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase significantly increased (P<0.05 while protein levels declined. However, no definite pattern of changes was observed in the number and type of leucocytes. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that paraquat is toxic and has the potential to impair on the physiological activities in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. The use of paraquat should be strongly controlled and carefully monitored to avoid the possible damage done to the environment.

  20. Adsorption of Paraquat Dichloride by Graphitic Carbon Nitride Synthesized from Melamine Scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharenwong, A.; Kaeokan, A.; Rammaroeng, R.; Upama, P.; Kajitvichyanukul, P.

    2017-07-01

    In this research, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) was synthesized from useless melamine scraps. Mixture of melamine powder and urea was directly burned in the muffle furnace at 550 °C. Later as-synthesized g-C3N4 was modified with hydrochloric acid. The g-C3N4 powder was characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and specific surface area analyser. Adsorption of the herbicide paraquat from an aqueous solution to suspended particles of g-C3N4 was investigated, taking into consideration several parameters such as initial concentration of paraquat, initial pH, and dosage of g-C3N4. The results showed that with the same amount of g-C3N4, the increase in the paraquat concentration caused the reduction in the removal efficiency and the higher the amount of g-C3N4, the less residual paraquat remained in the bulk solution. G-C3N4 showed better adsorption behaviour in the basic condition. Finally, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were also evaluated. Paraquat adsorption by g-C3N4 was in accordance with Langmuir more than Freundlich adsorption isotherm.

  1. Paraquat Poisoning of the Lung: HRCT Findings According to the Amount of Ingestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Lim; Song, Sun Wha; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Su Lim; Ahn, Myeong Im; Park, Seog Hee

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat as determined with the use of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The study included 15 patients exposed to paraquat based on a positive urine assay and the presence of pulmonary abnormalities as detected on HRCT scans. The pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat was evaluated. Patients were classified into five groups based on the amount of paraquat that was ingested. The groups were designated as indirect exposure, minimum exposure (the patient spat out the agent after swallowing), low exposure (≤ 30 cc), medium exposure (31-60 cc) and high exposure (61-100 cc). Abnormal lung parenchymal patterns as depicted on HRCT images consisted of ground glass opacity (n = 9), consolidation (n = 9), irregular lines (n = 9) and the presence of nodules (n = 2). The most common distribution was in the lower and subpleural lung zone with no relation to the amount of ingestion. The most common patterns were the presence of irregular lines in the indirect exposure group and ground glass opacity in the high exposure group. The mean number of involved lobes increased in relation to the amount of ingestion. For paraquat poisoning, the pattern and extent of pulmonary abnormalities were related to the amount of ingestion, but the distribution of pulmonary abnormalities was not related to the amount of ingestion

  2. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Silva, Mariana dos; Sgarbi Cocenza, Daniela [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Grillo, Renato; Silva de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tonello, Paulo Sergio [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Camargo de Oliveira, Luciana [Department of Chemistry, UFSCAr, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Lopes Cassimiro, Douglas [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 {+-} 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 {+-} 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat.

  3. Paraquat toxicity is increased in Escherichia coli defective in the synthesis of polyamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minton, K.W.; Tabor, H.; Tabor, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have shown that toxicity of paraquat for Escherichia coli is increased over 1-fold in strains defective in the biosynthesis of spermidine compared to isogenic strains containing spermidine. The increased sensitivity of these spermidine-deficient mutants to paraquat is eliminated by growth in medium containing spermidine or by endogenous supplementation of spermidine by the use of a speE + D + plasmid. No paraquat toxicity is seen in the absence of oxygen, even in amine-deficient strains, indicating that superoxide is the agent responsible for the increased toxicity. However, the specific mechanisms responsible for the increased paraquat toxicity in the spermidine-deficient mutants remain to be determined. The marked sensitivity to paraquat of E. coli deficient in spermidine is of particular interest, since such mutants have no other phenotypic properties that can be easily assayed. This increased sensitivity has been used as the basis of a convenient method for scoring for mutants in polyamine biosynthesis and for the detection of plasmids containing the biosynthetic genes

  4. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-11-25

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication.

  5. Toll-like receptor 9 mediates paraquat-induced acute lung injury: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Wu, Na; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lichun; Hu, Xiao; Chen, Zhiguang; Zhao, Min

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 in paraquat-induced acute lung injury (ALI). For in vivo study,C57BL mice were randomly assigned into the vehicle control group, paraquat group, paraquat + TLR9 antagonist (ODN2088) group, and TLR9 antagonist (ODN2088) group (n=36 per group). After paraquat 30mg/kg ip for 2, 24 and 48h, serum samples and lung tissues were collected to evaluate ALI and TLR9 signaling by lung injury score, protein levels of TLR9, MyD88, p-IRAK4, p-p65, and serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels. As for in vitro research A549 cells were randomly divided into the control group, paraquat group, paraquat + TLR9 siRNA group, and TLR9 siRNA group. After paraquat treatment for 24h, the cells and supernatant were collected to measureTLR9, TNF-α, IL-1 mRNA expression, and detect activation of NF-κB, caspase-3. In vivo, the lung injury score, the TLR9, MyD88, p-IRAK4 and p-p65 protein levels, and cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β levels in paraquat group were significantly higher than that in the control group;TLR9 blocker ODN2088 pretreatment attenuated lung injury, inhibited MyD88 and NF-κB activation, and reduced TNF-α and IL-1β in serum. In vitro result shows that the gene silencing of TLR9 reduced the mRNA expression of TLR9, TNF-α and IL-1, inhibited NF-κB and caspase-3 activation, attenuated cell apoptosis. TLR9 mediates paraquat-induced ALI, antagonizing TLR9 or silencing TLR9gene may attenuate paraquat-induced ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Elimination of Young Erythrocytes from Blood Circulation and Altered Erythropoietic Patterns during Paraquat Induced Anemic Phase in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice. PMID:24945144

  7. Effects of Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Paraquat on Blood Biochemical Parameters of Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat is a non-selective contact herbicide, widely used to control weeds in agriculture farms and aquatic plants in surface waters. Paraquat can have adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to detect the alterations in the blood biochemical parameters of common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of commercial formulations of paraquat. Methods: The fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (0.2 and 0.4 mg.L-1 of paraquat for 21 days. Biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine phosphokinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT activities were measured. Results: A significantly increase was observed in AST activity in fish exposed to 0.4 mg.L-1 paraquat. Paraquat caused a significant (P < 0.05 increase in plasma ALT, LDH and CPK activities and plasma creatinine levels. Although ALP activity significantly (P < 0.05 increased in fish exposed to 0.2 mg.L-1 paraquat, the fish exposed to 0.4mg.L-1 paraquat exhibited a significant (P < 0.05 decrease in ALP activity. A significant (P < 0.05 decrease in GGT activity, total protein, albumin and globulin levels as well as cholesterol and triglyceride levels was observed in fish exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of paraquat. Conclusion: Exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of paraquat may cause changes in blood biochemical parameters in common carp.

  8. Differential effects of paraquat on oxidative stress parameters and polyamine levels in two freshwater invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochón, A C; Della Penna, A B; Kristoff, G; Piol, M N; San Martín de Viale, L C; Verrengia Guerrero, N R

    2007-10-01

    Paraquat is still a widely used herbicide in several countries. Its toxic action on plants occurs through a one-electron reduction interfering with the photosynthesis process. By a similar reaction, the herbicide may induce peroxidation processes in non-target animal species. Furthermore, paraquat may interfere with the cellular transport of polyamines. The aim of this work was to investigate some aspects related to paraquat-induction of oxidative stress (lipoperoxidation, enzymatic activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase) and also the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) in two species of freshwater invertebrates, the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus and the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata. The results showed that both organisms elicited differential responses. In addition, the data suggested that polyamines may play an important role against lipoperoxidation processes.

  9. Paraquat and temperature affect nonspecific immune response of Colossoma macropomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Estrella, América; Oliveros, Aridays; Rojas-Villarroel, Evelyn; Villalobos de B, Luz; Lemus, Mairin

    2009-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of paraquat (PQ) and temperature on hematological parameters and nonspecific immune system of fish Colossoma macropomum (Cachama). Juveniles were used for all experiments. Fish were exposed to three temperatures (18, 28, 35°C) and 10mg/L PQ during 21 days (PQ LC(50) 96h was of 48.05mg/L). Hematological (Hb, Ht, VCM, HCM and CHCM and RBC) and immunological parameters (WBC, differential count of white cells, phagocytes, and bacterial killing by phagocytes) were analyzed for 7, 14 and 21 days. Fishes PQ exposed at 18°C decreased Hb, MCH and MCHC; we observed sickle erythrocytes in control group at 18°C, and in PQ-exposed groups at 18 and 35°C. Immunological parameters were not affected by temperature. Neutrophils decreased significantly in all PQ-exposed groups. Bacterial killing by phagocytes decreased in 18 and 35°C PQ-groups; a synergistic interaction was shown between PQ and temperature on WBC and lymphocytes. These results indicate that PQ affected neutrophils counts independently of temperature exposure; the temperature exerted a synergistic effect on PQ toxicity in lymphocyte counts and phagocytic response and besides nonspecific immune response, PQ and temperature affects hematological parameters such as Hb, MCH, MCHC and erythrocytes morphology. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Traumatic brain injury, paraquat exposure, and their relationship to Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Yvette; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increased risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in many but not all epidemiologic studies, giving rise to speculations about modifying factors. A recent animal study suggested that the combination of TBI with subthreshold paraquat exposure increases dopaminergic neurodegeneration. The objective of our study was to investigate PD risk due to both TBI and paraquat exposure in humans. Methods: From 2001 to 2011, we enrolled 357 incident idiopathic PD cases and 754 population controls in central California. Study participants were asked to report all head injuries with loss of consciousness for >5 minutes. Paraquat exposure was assessed via a validated geographic information system (GIS) based on records of pesticide applications to agricultural crops in California since 1974. This GIS tool assesses ambient pesticide exposure within 500 m of residences and workplaces. Results: In logistic regression analyses, we observed a 2-fold increase in risk of PD for subjects who reported a TBI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28–3.14) and a weaker association for paraquat exposures (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02–1.81). However, the risk of developing PD was 3-fold higher (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.51–6.01) in study participants with a TBI and exposure to paraquat than those exposed to neither risk factor. Conclusions: While TBI and paraquat exposure each increase the risk of PD moderately, exposure to both factors almost tripled PD risk. These environmental factors seem to act together to increase PD risk in a more than additive manner. PMID:23150532

  11. Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 chemokine receptors modulates paraquat-induced intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Kesiane M; Maciel, Izaque S; Kist, Luiza W; Campos, Maria M; Bogo, Maurício R

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is an agrochemical agent commonly used worldwide, which is allied to potential risks of intoxication. This herbicide induces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ends up compromising various organs, particularly the lungs and the brain. This study evaluated the deleterious effects of paraquat on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripherally, with special attempts to assess the putative protective effects of the selective CXCR2 receptor antagonist SB225002 on these parameters. PQ-toxicity was induced in male Wistar rats, in a total dose of 50 mg/kg, and control animals received saline solution at the same schedule of administration. Separate groups of animals were treated with the selective CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 (1 or 3 mg/kg), administered 30 min before each paraquat injection. The major changes found in paraquat-treated animals were: decreased body weight and hypothermia, nociception behavior, impairment of locomotor and gait capabilities, enhanced TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the striatum, and cell migration to the lungs and blood. Some of these parameters were reversed when the antagonist SB225002 was administered, including recovery of physiological parameters, decreased nociception, improvement of gait abnormalities, modulation of striatal TNF-α and IL-1β expression, and decrease of neutrophil migration to the lungs and blood. Taken together, our results demonstrate that damage to the central and peripheral systems elicited by paraquat can be prevented by the pharmacological inhibition of CXCR2 chemokine receptors. The experimental evidence presented herein extends the comprehension on the toxicodynamic aspects of paraquat, and opens new avenues to treat intoxication induced by this herbicide.

  12. Histopathological changes induced by paraquat on some tissues of gourami fish (Trichogaster trichopterus

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    M. Banaee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a contact and non-selective herbicide which is used for controlling a wide range of terrestrial weeds and aquatic plants. A long-term contact with this xenobiotic can potentially lead to injuries in fishes as live non-target organisms. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of sub-lethal toxicity of paraquat on the pathology of gill, liver, and spleen tissues in gourami fish (Trichogaster trichopterus. In this study, sub-lethal concentration is determined based on lethal concentration (LC50 : 7.16±0.69, 4.46±0.43, 2.19±0.27 and 1.41±0.17 mg/l of paraquat within 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The experiment was done with four varied concentrations of paraquat (0.0, 0.07, 0.15, and 0.3 mg/l equal 0.0%, 5%, 10% and 20% of nominal value of 96 h LC50 during 3 weeks. The exposed fish displayed erratic swimming and became lethargic. The changes in gills were characterized by hypertrophy, epithelial, epithelium increase of gill filament, edema and secondary gill lamella. The liver showed hypotrophy of liver cells, cloudy swelling and formation of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the liver tissue of fish treated with 0.15 and 0.3 mg/l concentrations of paraquat. Disorder in the ellipsoid cell and hemosiderin accumulation in melano-macrophage centers was observed in the spleen tissue of fish exposed to 0.15 and 0.3 mg/l of paraquat.

  13. Reaction of paraquat radical cations with oxygen. A pulse radiolysis and laser photolysis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, L.K.; Small, R.D. Jr.; Scaiano, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The reaction of paraquat radical cations, PQ + , with oxygen has been examined in methanol-water mixtures and in a number of other alcohols. The oxidation of PQ + by oxygen follows the kinetic expression k 1 [O 2 ][PQ + ], supporting the idea that the superoxide anion is an important intermediary in the biological behavior of paraquat and related herbicides. Changes in k 1 with variations in the methanol-water solvent mixtures were found to be largely consistent with the behavior predicted by a simple electrostatic model relating rate constants of ionization to solvent dielectric constant

  14. HFE Genotype Restricts the Response to Paraquat in a Mouse Model of Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Anne M; Meadowcroft, Mark D; Neely, Elizabeth B; Snyder, Amanda M; Purnell, Carson J; Wright, Justin; Lamendella, Regina; Nandar, Wint; Huang, Xuemei; Connor, James R

    2018-01-08

    Parkinson's disease is marked clinically by motor dysfunction and pathologically by dopaminergic cell loss in the substantia nigra and iron accumulation in the substantia nigra. The driver underlying iron accumulation remains unknown and could be genetic or environmental. The HFE protein is critical for the regulation of cellular iron uptake. Mutations within this protein are associated with increased iron accumulation including in the brain. We have focused on the commonly occurring H63D variant of the HFE gene as a disease modifier in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate the role of H63D HFE genotype, we generated a mouse model in which the wild-type (WT) HFE gene is replaced by the H67D gene variant (mouse homolog of the human H63D gene variant). Using paraquat toxicity as the model for Parkinson's disease, we found that WT mice responded as expected with significantly greater motor function, loss of tyrosine hydroxylase staining and increase microglial staining in the substantia nigra, and an increase in R 2 relaxation rate within the substantia nigra of the paraquat-treated mice compared to their saline-treated counterparts. In contrast, the H67D mice showed a remarkable resistance to paraquat treatment; specifically differing from the WT mice with no changes in motor function or changes in R 2 relaxation rates following paraquat exposure. At baseline, there were differences between the H67D HFE mice and WT mice in gut microbiome profile and increased L-ferritin staining in the substantia nigra that could account for the resistance to paraquat. Of particular note, the H67D HFE mice regardless of whether or not they were treated with paraquat had significantly less tyrosine hydroxylase immunostaining than WT. Our results clearly demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra, the gut microbiome and the response to paraquat providing additional support that the HFE genotype is a disease

  15. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recovery after radiotherapy from severe interstitial pneumonia due to paraquat poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahama, Masashi; Sakemi, Takanobu; Osato, Shinichiro; Sanai, Toru; Rikitake, Osamu; Wada, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted 3 hours after ingesting approximately 50 ml of mixture of paraquat and organophosphate insecticide. His arterial oxygen pressure fell progressively to 44.6 mmHg. Diagnosed was paraquat-induced interstitial pneumonia. No improvement was observed after treatment with corticosteroid. The pneumonia, however, resolved after irradiation of both lungs and arterial oxygen pressure showed marked improvement. Radiotherapy to the lungs should be considered only in patients who showed progressive deterioration of respiratory function. (author)

  17. Efeito do dessecante paraquat na qualidade da fração lipídica da soja Effects of paraquat on the quality of lipidic fraction of soybean

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    José Carlos Gomes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Para se determinar a qualidade da fração lipídica de grãos de soja submetidas à aplicação do dessecante bipiridílio (paraquat, foram estudados a composição química e os índices químicos de 3 (três amostras de óleo bruto e 1 (uma amostra de óleo refinado. Os óleos analisados no presente trabalho foram provenientes da região de Itumbiara - GO, extraídos de grãos de soja submetidos ou não à aplicação de paraquat. Utilizaram-se também amostras de óleo bruto extraídas por solvente, em laboratório, provenientes de grãos de soja sujeitos ou não à aplicação de dessecante. Nenhum resíduo do dessecante foi detectado, sensibilidade de 0,01 µg/g. O perfil de ácidos graxos, medido pelos teores dos ácidos palmítico, esteárico, oléico, linoléico e linolênico, encontrara-se dentro das faixas convencionais do óleo de soja de 9 a 4,5, 2,5 a 5,0, 18 a 34, 45 a 60 e 3,5 a 8,0%, respectivamente. No entanto, os índices de saponificação (de 161 a 171 ficaram abaixo dos valores estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira (189 a 198. Já os ácidos graxos livres, matéria insaponificável dos óleos brutos, e o índice de iodo do óleo refinado estão dentro desses padrões, máximos de 2,0%, 1,5% e 120 a 143, respectivamente. Os teores de ferro e de cadmio de 1,45 e 0,39 µg/g, respectivamente, de óleo refinado, atendem à legislação. Não se detectou chumbo, à sensibilidade de 0,01 µg/g. Esses metais foram analisados por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica.In order to determine the quality of lipidic fraction of soybean seeds from plants submitted to paraquat application, the composition and chemical indices of three crude extracts and one refined oil were studied. All samples were from Itumbiara-GO , Brazil. No residues of bipiridyls were detected, sensitivity less than 0.01µg/g. Fat acids profile, measured through palmitic, estearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were as espected for soybean oils

  18. The effect of paraquat on the incorporation of radiolabelled proline into acid-extractable lung proteins and collagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, F.M.; Windt, M.-L.; Maree, E.; Nienaber, M.W.P.

    1982-01-01

    In this comparative study we describe the influence of paraquat on the rate of L-2,3- 3 H-proline incorporation into the acid-extractable proteins and into newly synthesized protropocollagen molecules from the lungs of rats and rabbits. Exposure to paraquat took two forms: (a) addition of paraquat in vitro to lung tissue taken from rats and rabbits, and (b) intraperitoneal injection of paraquat prior to death. Paraquat (0,5 - 1,0 mM) added in vitro significantly slowed the rates of 3 H-proline incorporation into the acid-extractable proteins and into newly synthesized protropocoilagen in both rat and rabbit lung tissue. Paraquat administered intraperitoneally (27mg/kg) to rabbits did not markedly influence the rate of 3 H-proline incorporation into acid-extractable proteins and collagen assessed in vitro 24, 48 and 96 hours after injection. Paraquat injected intraperitoneally into rats induced no significant difference in synthesis rates of acid-soluble proteins up to 48 hours after injection. During the same period, the collagen synthesis rate of rat lung tissue was reduced. At 96 hours an increase was found when the rate of synthesis was expressed as cpm/mg DNA and as cpm/μg hydroxyproline

  19. Compensatory role of the Nrf2–ARE pathway against paraquat toxicity: Relevance of 26S proteasome activity

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    Yasuhiko Izumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and the ubiquitin–proteasome system play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. Although the herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that is involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease, the role of 26S proteasome in paraquat toxicity remains to be determined. Using PC12 cells overexpressing a fluorescent protein fused to the proteasome degradation signal, we report here that paraquat yielded an inhibitory effect on 26S proteasome activity without an obvious decline in 20S proteasome activity. Relative low concentrations of proteasome inhibitors caused the accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2, which is targeted to the ubiquitin–proteasome system, and activated the antioxidant response element (ARE-dependent transcription. Paraquat also upregulated the protein level of Nrf2 without increased expression of Nrf2 mRNA, and activated the Nrf2–ARE pathway. Consequently, paraquat induced expression of Nrf2-dependent ARE-driven genes, such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, catalase, and hemeoxygenase-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 or inhibition of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and catalase exacerbated paraquat-induced toxicity, whereas suppression of hemeoxygenase-1 did not. These data indicate that the compensatory activation of the Nrf2–ARE pathway via inhibition of 26S proteasome serves as part of a cellular defense mechanism to protect against paraquat toxicity.

  20. Compensatory role of the Nrf2-ARE pathway against paraquat toxicity: Relevance of 26S proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Matsushima, Sayaka; Yamamoto, Takamori; Takada-Takatori, Yuki; Akaike, Akinori; Kume, Toshiaki

    2015-11-01

    Oxidative stress and the ubiquitin-proteasome system play a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. Although the herbicide paraquat is an environmental factor that is involved in the etiology of Parkinson disease, the role of 26S proteasome in paraquat toxicity remains to be determined. Using PC12 cells overexpressing a fluorescent protein fused to the proteasome degradation signal, we report here that paraquat yielded an inhibitory effect on 26S proteasome activity without an obvious decline in 20S proteasome activity. Relative low concentrations of proteasome inhibitors caused the accumulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and activated the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent transcription. Paraquat also upregulated the protein level of Nrf2 without increased expression of Nrf2 mRNA, and activated the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Consequently, paraquat induced expression of Nrf2-dependent ARE-driven genes, such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, catalase, and hemeoxygenase-1. Knockdown of Nrf2 or inhibition of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and catalase exacerbated paraquat-induced toxicity, whereas suppression of hemeoxygenase-1 did not. These data indicate that the compensatory activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway via inhibition of 26S proteasome serves as part of a cellular defense mechanism to protect against paraquat toxicity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Paraquat, but not maneb, induces synucleinopathy and tauopathy in striata of mice through inhibition of proteasomal and autophagic pathways.

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    Jonathan Wills

    Full Text Available SNCA and MAPT genes and environmental factors are important risk factors of Parkinson's disease [PD], the second-most common neurodegenerative disease. The agrichemicals maneb and paraquat selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms. In the current studies we have analyzed the ability of maneb and paraquat, separately and together, to induce synucleinopathy and tauopathy in wild type mice. Maneb was ineffective in increasing α-synuclein [α-Syn] or p-Tau levels. By contrast, paraquat treatment of mice resulted in robust accumulation of α-Syn and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in striata, through activation of p-GSK-3β, a major Tau kinase. Co-treatment with maneb did not enhance the effects of paraquat. Increased hyperacetylation of α-tubulin was observed in paraquat-treated mice, suggesting cytoskeleton remodeling. Paraquat, but not maneb, inhibited soluble proteasomal activity on a peptide substrate but this was not associated with a decreased expression of 26S proteasome subunits. Both paraquat and maneb treatments increased levels of the autophagy inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, suggesting impaired axonal autophagy, despite increases in certain autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1 and Agt12. Autophagic flux was also impaired, as ratios of LC3 II to LC3 I were reduced in treated animals. Increased mTOR was also observed in postmortem human PD striata, where there was a reduction in the LC3 II to LC3 I ratio. Heat shock proteins were either increased or unchanged upon paraquat-treatment suggesting that chaperone-mediated autophagy is not hampered by the agrichemicals. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms of action of these agrichemicals, which indicate that paraquat is much more toxic than maneb, via its inhibitory effects on proteasomes and autophagy, which lead to accumulation of α-Syn and p-Tau.

  2. Paraquat, but Not Maneb, Induces Synucleinopathy and Tauopathy in Striata of Mice through Inhibition of Proteasomal and Autophagic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jonathan; Credle, Joel; Oaks, Adam W.; Duka, Valeriy; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Jones, Jessica; Sidhu, Anita

    2012-01-01

    SNCA and MAPT genes and environmental factors are important risk factors of Parkinson's disease [PD], the second-most common neurodegenerative disease. The agrichemicals maneb and paraquat selectively target dopaminergic neurons, leading to parkinsonism, through ill-defined mechanisms. In the current studies we have analyzed the ability of maneb and paraquat, separately and together, to induce synucleinopathy and tauopathy in wild type mice. Maneb was ineffective in increasing α-synuclein [α-Syn] or p-Tau levels. By contrast, paraquat treatment of mice resulted in robust accumulation of α-Syn and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in striata, through activation of p-GSK-3β, a major Tau kinase. Co-treatment with maneb did not enhance the effects of paraquat. Increased hyperacetylation of α-tubulin was observed in paraquat-treated mice, suggesting cytoskeleton remodeling. Paraquat, but not maneb, inhibited soluble proteasomal activity on a peptide substrate but this was not associated with a decreased expression of 26S proteasome subunits. Both paraquat and maneb treatments increased levels of the autophagy inhibitor, mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, suggesting impaired axonal autophagy, despite increases in certain autophagic proteins, such as beclin 1 and Agt12. Autophagic flux was also impaired, as ratios of LC3 II to LC3 I were reduced in treated animals. Increased mTOR was also observed in postmortem human PD striata, where there was a reduction in the LC3 II to LC3 I ratio. Heat shock proteins were either increased or unchanged upon paraquat-treatment suggesting that chaperone-mediated autophagy is not hampered by the agrichemicals. These studies provide novel insight into the mechanisms of action of these agrichemicals, which indicate that paraquat is much more toxic than maneb, via its inhibitory effects on proteasomes and autophagy, which lead to accumulation of α-Syn and p-Tau. PMID:22292029

  3. Efeitos de misturas de bentazon e paraquat no controle de plantas daninhas e na cultura do feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. (nota prévia Effect of bentazon and paraquat mixtures on weed control and on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Rodrigues

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi estudar a seletividade da mistura bentazon (3-isopropil-2,1, 3-benzothiodiazinona-(4-2,2-dióxido com paraquat (1,1' -dimetil-4,4'-bipiridilio dicloreto para as cultivares de feijão 'Carioca' e 'Moruna'; alêm do efeito dessa mistura no controle de algumas plantas daninhas e possíveis efeitos sinergisticos resultantes das diferentes misturas. O experimento está sendo conduzido em condições de campo na área experimental do Departamento de Agricultura e Horticultura da ESALQ em Piracicaba-SP, como tambêm em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. O critério de avaliação adotado foi o de "percentagem de injúria", às cultivares e às espécies de plantas daninhas, através de avaliação visual. A verificação de sinergismo foi feita utilizando-se a fórmula de Gowing citada por Colby (1. De acordo com ess e método, ve rificou -se que, para ambas as cultivares de feijão, a injúria observada foi menor que a esperada, o que caracterizou um evidente antagonismo entre as misturas desses herbicidas, em relação à cultura. Em relação ao capim-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L . Scop. todas as misturas ensaiadas foram também antagonísticas. O sinergismo entre esses produtos ficou bastante caracterizado no controle da guanxuma (Sida glaziovii K. Sch. e beldroega (Portulacca oleracea L. principalmente nas doses de 0,48 + 0,05 kg/ha de bentazon + paraquat, respectivamente, notadamente ao 6.º e 8.º dia após a aplicação. Quanto ao fedegoso (Cassia tora L. a mistura que mostrou antagonismo significativo foi 0,96 kg/ha de bentazon + 0,10 Kg/ha de paraquat.The present research was carried out to study the selectivity of the mixture bentazon (3-isopropil-1H-2,1,3-benzothiadiazin-4(3H-one 2,2-dioxide plus paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl -4-4' -bipyridinium ion on the bean varieties 'Carioca' and 'Moruna', the effect of the mixture on weed control

  4. Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine paraquat residues in milk, beef, and potatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Emon, J.; Seiber, J.; Hammock, B.

    1987-01-01

    The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) has included paraquat on its list of compounds to be considered for monitoring in foods. However, present methods do not easily accommodate the processing of large numbers of samples, thus limiting routine monitoring of the compound. The conventional method, based on spectrophotometry of reduced paraquat solutions, requires time-consuming sample preparation. Although the advantages of immunoassays for pesticide residue analysis have been pointed out, the reported immunoassays for paraquat have only been applied to cases of clinical poisoning or human exposure assessment. In this study, spiked milk, potato, and beef were analyzed directly, without prior cleanup, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

  5. Paraquat inhibits progesterone synthesis in human placental mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Ryszard; Sokołowska, Ewa; Rybakowska, Iwona; Kaletha, Krystian; Klimek, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    Human placenta mitochondria produces huge amounts of progesterone necessary for maintaining the pregnancy. Lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria inhibits progesterone synthesis and that inhibition can be reversed by superoxide dismutase and other antioxidants. Paraquat (PQ) a highly toxic herbicide generates superoxide radical inside cells and induces lipid peroxidation. Hence, it is supposed to stimulate lipid peroxidation in human placental mitochondria and in consequence to inhibit a placental mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Placentas were obtained from normal pregnancies. All experiments were done using isolated human placental mitochondria. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation was determined as tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). A conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone or pregnenolone to progesterone was measured using radiolabeled steroids and thin layer chromatography. PQ enhanced the iron-dependent lipid peroxidation as also PQ heightened the inhibitory action of this process on progesterone synthesis in isolated human placental mitochondria. Paradoxically, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) reversed the inhibition of progesterone synthesis only minimally although it strongly inhibited PQ stimulated iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. When iron was absent, PQ stimulated only negligible lipid peroxidation but strongly inhibited progesterone synthesis. SOD had no effect on inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ. PQ strongly inhibited of the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone but had not got any influence on the enzymatic activity of mitochondrial 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. PQ strongly decreased the efficiency of NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reduction as well as it promoted the rapid oxidation of the pre-reduced mitochondrial cytochrome P450. However PQ has not inhibited combined activity of adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin. We conclude that the most important reason of the inhibition of progesterone synthesis by PQ

  6. Reactivity of paraquat with sodium salicylate: formation of stable complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Ferreira, António César Silva; Silva, Artur M S; Afonso, Carlos; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando; Duarte, José Alberto; Carvalho, Félix

    2008-07-30

    Sodium salicylate (NaSAL) has been shown to be a promising antidote for the treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisonings. The modulation of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, as well as the anti-thrombogenic properties of NaSAL are probably essential features for the healing effects provided by this drug. Nevertheless, a possible direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL is also a putative pathway to be considered, this hypothesis being the ground of the present study. In accordance, it is shown, for the first time that PQ and NaSAL react immediately in aqueous medium and within 2-3 min in the solid state. Photographs and scanning electron photomicrographs indicated that a new chemical entity is formed when both compounds are mixed. This assumption was corroborated by the evaluation of the melting point, and through several analytical techniques, namely ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and infrared spectroscopy, which revealed that stable charge-transfer complexes are formed when PQ is mixed with NaSAL. LC/ESI/MS/MS allowed obtaining the stoichiometry of the charge-transfer complexes. In order to increase resolution, single value decomposition, acting as a filter, showed that the charge-transfer complexes with m/z 483, 643 and 803 correspond to the pseudo-molecular ions, respectively 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (PQ:NaSAL). In conclusion, these results provided a new and important mechanism of action of NaSAL against the toxicity mediated by PQ.

  7. Reactivity of paraquat with sodium salicylate: Formation of stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Ferreira, Antonio Cesar Silva; Silva, Artur M.S.; Afonso, Carlos; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remiao, Fernando; Duarte, Jose Alberto; Carvalho, Felix

    2008-01-01

    Sodium salicylate (NaSAL) has been shown to be a promising antidote for the treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisonings. The modulation of the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, as well as the anti-thrombogenic properties of NaSAL are probably essential features for the healing effects provided by this drug. Nevertheless, a possible direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL is also a putative pathway to be considered, this hypothesis being the ground of the present study. In accordance, it is shown, for the first time that PQ and NaSAL react immediately in aqueous medium and within 2-3 min in the solid state. Photographs and scanning electron photomicrographs indicated that a new chemical entity is formed when both compounds are mixed. This assumption was corroborated by the evaluation of the melting point, and through several analytical techniques, namely ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS), liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) and infrared spectroscopy, which revealed that stable charge-transfer complexes are formed when PQ is mixed with NaSAL. LC/ESI/MS/MS allowed obtaining the stoichiometry of the charge-transfer complexes. In order to increase resolution, single value decomposition, acting as a filter, showed that the charge-transfer complexes with m/z 483, 643 and 803 correspond to the pseudo-molecular ions, respectively 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4 (PQ:NaSAL). In conclusion, these results provided a new and important mechanism of action of NaSAL against the toxicity mediated by PQ

  8. Multiwall carbon nanotubes modulate paraquat toxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaoji; Xu, Jiahui; Lavoie, Michel; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Zhu, Youchao; Lu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei; Zhu, Tingheng; Qian, Haifeng

    2018-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes can be either toxic or beneficial to plant growth and can also modulate toxicity of organic contaminants through surface sorption. The complex interacting toxic effects of carbon nanotubes and organic contaminants in plants have received little attention in the literature to date. In this study, the toxicity of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 50 mg/L) and paraquat (MV, 0.82 mg/L), separately or in combination, were evaluated at the physiological and the proteomic level in Arabidopsis thaliana for 7-14 days. The results revealed that the exposure to MWCNT had no inhibitory effect on the growth of shoots and leaves. Rather, MWCNT stimulated the relative electron transport rate and the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII value as compared to the control by around 12% and lateral root production up to nearly 4-fold as compared to the control. The protective effect of MWCNT on MV toxicity on the root surface area could be quantitatively explained by the extent of MV adsorption on MWCNT and was related to stimulation of photosynthesis, antioxidant protection and number and area of lateral roots which in turn helped nutrient assimilation. The influence of MWCNT and MV on photosynthesis and oxidative stress at the physiological level was consistent with the proteomics analysis, with various over-expressed photosynthesis-related proteins (by more than 2 folds) and various under-expressed oxidative stress related proteins (by about 2-3 folds). This study brings new insights into the interactive effects of two xenobiotics (MWCNT and MV) on the physiology of a model plant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of age on the passage of paraquat through the blood-brain barrier in rats: a distribution and pathological examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdowson, P.S.; Farnworth, M.J.; Simpson, M.G.; Lock, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the extent of paraquat entry into the brain of neonatal and elderly rats, as compared with adult rats, which may be dependent on the efficacy of the blood-brain barrier. A single, median lethal dose (20 mg/kg s.c.) of paraquat containing [14C]paraquat was administered to neonatal (10 day old), adult (3 month old) and elderly (18 month old) rats. In contrast to the adult and elderly rats where paraquat levels fell over the 24 h post-dosing period to negligible levels, paraquat concentrations in neonatal brains did not decrease with time between 0.5 and 24 h following dosing. The distribution of [14C]paraquat was measured in selective brain regions using quantitative autoradiography in all three age groups of rats, 30 min and 24 h following dosing. Autoradiography demonstrated that brain paraquat distributions were similar in the rat age groups. Most of the paraquat was confined to regions outside the blood-brain barrier and to brain regions that lack a complete blood-brain barrier e.g. dorsal hypothalamus, area postrema and the anterior olfactory bulb. Between 0.5 h and 24 h following dosing, paraquat concentrations in deeper brain structures, some distance away from the sites of entry, began to slowly increase in all the rat age groups. By 24 h following dosing, a majority of brain regions examined using quantitative autoradiography revealed significantly higher paraquat concentrations in neonatal brains as compared to brain regions of adult and elderly rats. Despite increased paraquat entry into neonatal brain, we could find no evidence for paraquat-induced neuronal cell damage following a detailed histopathological examination of perfused-fixed brains. In conclusion, impaired blood-brain barrier integrity in neonatal brain thus permitting more paraquat to enter than in adult brain, did not result in neuronal damage

  10. Parameters affecting the determination of paraquat at silver rotating electrodes using differential pulse voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical determination of aqueous paraquat PQ(II by differential pulse voltammetry at a solid rotating silver electrode (RSE is described. The aim of this work is to optimize all factors that can influence this determination. Potential wave forms, potential scan parameters and deposition time were examined for their effect on the paraquat peak shape and intensity. The best responses were obtained with differential pulse voltammetry in 0.1 mol L−1 Na2SO4 as supporting electrolyte using amplitude 50 mV, scan increment 5 mV, deposition time 120 s, frequency 50 s−1 and step amplitude 0.05 V. Electrochemical and mechanical surface cleaning, aimed at removing the amount of paraquat deposited onto the silver surface, were necessary for obtaining a good performance of the electrode. Response linearity, repeatability, accuracy and detection limit were also evaluated. The obtained detection limits were 7.1 × 10−9 mol L−1 and 2.8 × 10−9 mol L−1 for peak 1 and peak 2 respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD was found to be 1.19% in 1.0 × 10−4 mol L−1 paraquat. The applicability of the RSE for PQ(II determination in milk samples, without any sample pretreatment, was successfully demonstrated.

  11. Survival, growth, and histopathological effects of paraquat ingestion in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.; Bunck, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of paraquat as a herbicide is becoming more extensive with the increasing popularity of no tillage agriculture, increasing the possibility of exposure for wildlife species. American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily with 5 ?l/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) in distilled water from day 1 through day 10. Forty-four percent of the nestlings given 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Significant differences in growth rates occurred between controls and all paraquat-dosed groups. Reduced skeletal growth occurred in the humerus and femur in the 25 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg groups, and in the radius-ulna and tibiotarsus in the 60 mg/kg group. Skeletons were otherwise normal in appearance. Histopathological examination revealed localized focal necrosis in the liver of one nestling in the 60 mg/kg group and tubular cell degeneration and focal tubular dilation in the kidneys of another. The brain and lungs were unremarkable histologically. These findings suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  12. Depuration Technique of Xenobiotics with Reference to Accumulation and Elimination of Paraquat Dichloride in Clarias Gariepinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ikpesu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat dichloride is a highly toxic herbicide which is still used in many developing countries. African cat fish (Clarias gariepinus is a commercially important species in many countries and was selected assess accumulation and elimination of paraquat dichloride in its tissues.Methods: Groups of ten fish with equal lengths and weights were exposed to varying concentrations of Paraquat dichloride for 28 days. After the exposure, the fish were transferred to uncontaminated water. Two fish were sampled for pesticide residue at the end of exposure period (28days and 1, 7 and 14 days post exposure. Results: In pesticide treated fish, the accumulation of paraquat increased with increases in the concentration of the toxicant and varied significantly between the treatments (p < 0.05. The herbicide depurated gradually with cessation of exposure and no pesticide was observed after 14 days. Conclusion: Xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms especially fishes and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This novel approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poisons in sea food.

  13. Degradation of Paraquat in Gramoxone Pesticide with Addition of ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrina Arfi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is the most toxic herbicide, the main agricultural crops and plantations that use them are cloves, cocoa, oil palm, rubber, coffee, and pepper. Therefore, it is necessary to study to degrade paraquat compounds by photolysis method with using ZnO. Photolysis is a process of UV irradiation with a wavelength of 200-400 nm. In this study Photolysis method used UV light with λ = 365 nm. Degradation of paraquat compound was done with the influence of variation of time without the addition ZnO, the influence of ZnO additional variations, and the effect of combination between variations of time and optimization of ZnO addition. The result of the study shows that photolysis degradation product without the addition of ZnO for 120 minutes has been degraded by 12.56%. While the optimum addition of 0.1 grams ZnO increased the percentage of degradation which is about 57.64%. This is proved that the addition of ZnO with photolysis method can degrade more paraquat compounds.

  14. DNA damage in grasshopper Chorthippus brunneus (Orthoptera) hatchlings following paraquat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, M; Nocoń, Ł; Kędziorski, A; Łaszczyca, P; Sawczyn, T; Tarnawska, M; Zawisza-Raszka, A

    2015-04-01

    Comet assay was applied to study genotoxic damage induced by paraquat (PQ) in brain cells of Chorthippus brunneus (Insecta: Orthoptera) hatchlings. Percentage of the comet fluorescence in the tail (TDNA), length of the comet tail (TL) and Olive tail moment (OTM) were used for quantitative assessment of the DNA damage. Multiple regression analysis supplemented standard statistical elaboration of the results. Increasing PQ concentrations applied either directly to the brain cells suspension (10, 50, and 250 μM PQ final concentration--in vitro protocol) or indirectly (50, 250, and 1250 μM PQ final concentration--in vivo protocol) provoked significant increase of oxidative damage to DNA (higher median TDNA and OTM values). The damage increased with time of exposure (0, 5, 15, and 30 min) following in vitro application, but decreased in longer interval (3 vs 24 h) after in vivo administration of paraquat. On contrary, median TL values did not correlate with paraquat concentration irrespectively of the exposure protocol. Possible reason of this discrepancy in light of paraquat toxicity is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A cautionary note on the resolution of paraquat lung damage after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, C.S.; Fowler, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have been able to model the lung damage caused by paraquat in mice and have found a dose-related increase in lung damage after PQ. They have not found a radiation dose or optimum time for x-irradiation which shows a reduction of the PQ lung damage. (author)

  16. Synergic lung changes in rats receiving combined exposure to paraquat and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salovsky, P.; Shopova, V.

    1993-01-01

    Experiment was carried out on a total of 160 male Wistar rats. Paraquat was instilled per os intragastrically by a metal probe, in aqueous solution, at a daily dose of 0.46 mg/kg body wt given five times a week for 4 months. Directly upon termination of paraquat intake the animals received a single external whole-body exposure to 4 Gy of ionizing radiation. Changes in the parameters studied were recorded on Post-treatment Days 1, 5, 10, and 30. In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), paraquat treatment alone was found to elevate lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and content of thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reactants; lung homogenate from this treatment group showed diminution in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and in content of nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) on Days 1 and 5. Irradiation alone produced less substantial changes. With combined exposure to paraquat and radiation, there was more marked and more prolonged depression of the three parameters (SOD, CAT, and NPSH) of lung antioxidant defense and synergic increase in BALF content of TBA reactants and LDH activity. 29 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Dierexperimentele behandeling van paraquat- toxiciteit met desferrioxamine, gewassen erythrocyten of erythrocyten-cytosol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen; H.C.M.*; Hillen; F.C.; Jong; Y.de; Timmerman; A.; Dormans; J.A.M.A.; Asbeck; B.S.van*

    1986-01-01

    Een paraquat intoxicatie bij de rat kon met de ijzerchelator desferrioxiamine via een chronisch infuus worden tegengegaan: het overlevingspercentage bleek tot 66,6% te stijgen na een desferrioxamine infuus van 100 mg/kg/24uur. Gewassen erythrocyten en cytosol hadden na intratracheale toediening

  18. Early haemoperfusion with continuous venovenous haemofiltration improves survival of acute paraquat-poisoned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanxia; Zhang, Xiaofan; Yang, Yanjie; Li, Wenlu

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether haemoperfusion (HP) with continuous venovenous haemofiltration (CVVH) improves the survival of patients with acute paraquat poisoning, compared with those treated using HP alone. Medical records of patients with acute paraquat poisoning were analysed. Patients were randomised to undergo HP or HP + CVVH within 24 h of paraquat ingestion. Mortality rate, survival duration and cause of death were recorded. There were no significant differences in mortality rate between the HP group (n = 458) and the HP + CVVH group (n = 226) (57.4% and 58.4%, respectively). The mean survival duration was significantly longer in the HP + CVVH group than the HP group (8.6 ± 3.1 and 5.1 ± 2.3 days, respectively). Early circulatory collapse was a major cause of death in the HP group. The major cause of death in the HP + CVVH group was late respiratory failure. Combined therapy with HP and CVVH can prevent early death and prolong survival duration following acute paraquat poisoning, providing the opportunity for further treatment. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Paraquat Exposure of Knapsack Spray Operators on Banana Plantations in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wendel de Joode BN, [No Value; De Graaf IA, [No Value; Wesseling, B; Kromhout, S.B.; de Graaf, Inge

    1996-01-01

    A study of occupational exposure to paraquat was performed among 11 knapsack spray operators at banana plantations in Costa Rica. External and internal exposures were quantified and determinants of exposure identified by measurements, observations, and interviews. Dermal exposure was measured with

  20. Effect of prohibiting the use of Paraquat on pesticide-associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinyong; Shin, Sang Do; Jeong, Seungmin; Suh, Gil Joon; Kwak, Young Ho

    2017-11-02

    Paraquat is associated with a high rate of fatalities in acute poisoning. This study aimed to examine the association between the national public health policy that banned the use of paraquat and the incidence of pesticide-associated mortality. All external causes of death from 2009 to 2013 of Korea were analyzed. The intervention was a national public health policy that annulled the authorized use (2011) and banned the purchase of paraquat (2012). Two periods were compared as follows: before (2009-2010) and after (2012-2013) the intervention period. The main outcome was pesticide-associated death coded on the death certificate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis adjustment for gender, age, season and weekday of death, province, education level, marital status, and occupation was performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for pesticide-associated mortality. The effect sizes of the intervention across all intents (Accident, Suicide, Homicide, and Undetermined) were compared by adding an interaction term (intervention*intent group) to the above model. A total of 127,866 deaths from for all external causes were analyzed, including 65,538 from 2009 to 2010 and 62,373 from 2012 to 2013. Pesticide-associated mortality decreased from 9.7% (2009-2010) to 6.5% (2012-2013) (p paraquat resulted in a significant decrease in pesticide-associated mortality.

  1. Paraquat and radiation effects on mouse C3H 10T1/2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geard, C.R.; Shea, C.M.; Georgsson, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The dipyridilium compound, paraquat, has been used in conjunction with mouse C 3 H 10T1/2 cells to determine if this superoxide (O 2 - ) generating agent acts to oncogenically transform, chromosomally alter or influence cytokinetics or cellular survival. Paraquat alone is a cytotoxic agent and is additionally a weak radiosensitizer. A 0.1 mM 24 hour treatment results in about 30% cell survival and enhances the cell killing effects of 137 Cs gamma rays by a factor of about 1.2. The drug appears to function lethally by initiating an interphase cell death, and additionally slows the movement of cycling cells through the cell cycle. It is a poor inducer of SCE's and combined effects with radiation are strictly additive. Paraquat oncogenically transforms cells but not in a dose-dependent manner, yet combined treatments with 3 Gy result in transformation frequencies greater than expected for additive effects. Depending on the endpoint examined, which may be related to the degree of nuclear involvement, paraquat either acts additively (SCE's) or with greater than an additive effect (cell survival and oncogenic transformation)

  2. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score Can Predict Mortality in Patients with Paraquat Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lin-Tan, Dan-Tzu; Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yen, Tzung-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Paraquat poisoning is characterized by multi-organ failure and pulmonary fibrosis with respiratory failure, resulting in high mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of mortality in cases of paraquat poisoning. Furthermore, we sought to determine the association between these parameters. Methods A total of 187 patients were referred for management of intentional paraquat ingestion between January 2000 and December 2010. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute kidney injury network (AKIN) scores were collected, and predictors of mortality were analyzed. Results Overall hospital mortality for the entire population was 54% (101/187). Using a multivariate logistic regression model, it was found that age, time to hospitalization, blood paraquat level, estimated glomerular filtration rate at admission (eGFR first day), and the SOFA48-h score, but not the AKIN48-h score, were significant predictors of mortality. For predicting the in-hospital mortality, SOFA48-h scores displayed a good area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) (0.795±0.033, Pparaquat level, and this new score also demonstrated a better AUROC (0.848±0.029, Pparaquat poisoning. PMID:23272154

  3. Evaluation of antimony microparticles supported on biochar for application in the voltammetric determination of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaerd, Ava; de Oliveira, Paulo R; Mangrich, Antonio S; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz H

    2016-05-01

    This work describes the construction and application of carbon paste electrodes modified with biochar and antimony microparticles (SbBCPE) for voltammetric determination of paraquat using a simple and sensitive procedure based on voltammetric stripping analysis. Some parameters such as amount of biochar and antimony used in the composition of the carbon paste and instrumental parameters were examined in detail. Under optimized conditions, an analytical curve was obtained for paraquat determination employing SbBCPE, which showed a linear response ranging from 0.2 to 2.9 μmol L(-1), with limit of detection and quantification of 34 nmol L(-1) and 113 nmol L(-1), respectively, after paraquat pre-concentration of 120 s. The repeatability study presented a RSD=2.0% for 10 consecutive measurements using the same electrode surface and the reproducibility study showed a RSD=2.7% for measurements with 10 different electrode surfaces. The proposed sensor was successfully applied for paraquat determination in tap water and citric fruit juice spiked samples and good recoveries were obtained without any sample pre-treatment, showing its promising analytical performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dopamine and paraquat enhance α-synuclein-induced alterations in membrane conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li Rebekah; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that α-synuclein overexpression increases the membrane conductance of dopaminergic-like cells. Although α-synuclein is thought to play a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy and diffuse Lewy body disease the mechanism of action is not completely understood. In this study we sought to determine whether multiple factors act together with α-synuclein to engender cell vulnerability through an augmentation of membrane conductance. Here we employed a cell model that mimics dopaminergic neurons coupled with α-synuclein overexpression and oxidative stressors. We demonstrate an enhancement of α-synuclein-induced toxicity in the presence of combined treatment with dopamine and paraquat, two molecules known to incite oxidative stress. In addition we show that combined dopamine and paraquat treatment increases the expression of heme oxygenase-1, an antioxidant response protein. Finally, we demonstrate for the first time that combined treatment of dopaminergic cells with paraquat and dopamine enhances α-synuclein-induced leak channel properties resulting in increased membrane conductance. Importantly, these increases are most robust when both paraquat and dopamine are present suggesting the need for multiple oxidative insults to augment α-synuclein-induced disruption of membrane integrity. PMID:21735318

  5. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTRA OF THE HERBICIDES PARAQUAT AND DIQUAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The positive ion electrospray mass spectra of the quaternary ammonium salt herbicides paraquat and diquat are examined by on-line separation with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and by direct infusion of the analytes. The analytes are separated by CE in 7-10 min at pH 3.9 in 50% m...

  6. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Longterm melatonin administration alleviates paraquat mediated oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Leendertz, Shirley; Paz, Milagros; Mora, Marylú; Bonilla, Ernesto; Bravo, Yanauri; Arcaya, José Luis; Terán, Raikelin; Villalobos, Virginia

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effect of melatonin (MEL) in the activities of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase as well as in the levels of H2O2 and mitochondrial malondialdehyde (MDA) in paraquat-intoxicated Drosophila melanogaster. Paraquat (40 mM) was administrated for 36 h. Three groups of flies intoxicated with paraquat were used: PQ (exposed during 36h to paraquat), PQ-MEL (exposed during 36h to paraquat and then treated with MEL [0.43 mM] for 12 days) and PQ-Control (maintained in standard corn meal for 12 days). Two additional groups without pre-intoxication with PQ were added: Control (maintained in standard corn meal) and MEL (treated with MEL for 12 days). Immediately after PQ intoxication the concentration of MDA (17.240 +/- 0.554 nmoles MDA/mg protein) and H2O2 (3.313 +/- 0.086 nmol hydrogen peroxide/mg protein) and the activities of SOD and catalase (419.667 + 0.731 and 0.216 +/- 0.009 Units/mg of protein, respectively) in the PQ group were significantly increased with respect to Control. After 12 days of intoxication with PQ, the PQ-Control flies showed in- creases in H2O2 (4.336 +/- 0.108) and MDA levels (8.620 +/- 0.156), and in the activities of SOD and catalase (692.570 +/- 0.433 and 0.327 +/- 0.003, respectively) as compared to PQ-MEL (pparaquat was observed even after 12 days and that melatonin mitigates this damage.

  8. [Comparative study of different methods of blood purification treatment of paraquat intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yadong; Shi, Jixue; Yang, Ling; Tang, Qingbin; Cheng, Yuelei; Zhang, Xianjing

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the different effect of three methods of blood purification for paraquat poisoning patients:hemoperfusion (HP), hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis (HP + HD), hemoperfusion combined with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (HP + CVVH). 72 cases of paraquat poisoning patients were divided into three groups after giving conventional therapy HP group, HP + HD group, HP + CVVH group. Compared the rate of decline concentrations of paraquat in blood, the liver and the kidney damage between before and after blood purification and contrast the mortality in three groups after different method of blood purification. The rate of decline concentrations of paraquat in blood of the HP + HD group and HP + CVVH group were both significantly greater than the HP group, but this result of HP + HD group has no significant difference compared with HP + CVVH group; Among the three groups of patients after 72 hours, the degree of dysfunction of liver of the HP + HD group and HP + CVVH group were both significantly lower than the HP group, whilely the degree of dysfunction of kidney of the HP + HD group was significantly lower than the HP group and the HP + CVVH group. The survival time of the HP + HD group and the HP + CVVH group were significant linger than the HP group, but the comparison among the three groups had no significant difference in mortality. Three blood purification methods can effectively remove paraquat absorbed into the blood, and the hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis or continuous veno-venous hemofiltration can effectively reduce the degree of damage of liver and kidney and also can prolong survival time, but did not significantly improve the survival rate of patients.

  9. A comparative study of plant and animal mitochondria exposed to paraquat reveals that hydrogen peroxide is not related to the observed toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Vicente, Joaquim; Madeira, Vítor M C

    2004-12-01

    Rat liver mitochondria are much more susceptible to protein oxidation induced by paraquat than plant mitochondria. The unsaturated index and the peroxidizability index are higher in rat than in potato tuber. The levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase are concurrent with the different sensitivities to paraquat, with higher activities in plant mitochondria. However, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities are higher in rat mitochondria. Paraquat (10 mM) inhibited all the enzymatic activities; excluding catalase all the other activities were inhibited to a similar degree. The differential sensitivities of plant and animal mitochondria to paraquat correlate with fatty acid composition of mitochondrial lipids and a similar correlation was also established for some antioxidant enzymes. At the mitochondrial level, H(2)O(2) is not a major factor of paraquat toxicity since rat liver mitochondria which exhibit higher activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase are however more susceptible to paraquat.

  10. Effects of paraquat on photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiguo; Liu, Min; Zhang, Peiliang; Yu, Fugen; Lu, Shan; Li, Pengfu; Zhou, Junying

    2014-11-01

    Only limited information is available on herbicide toxicity to algae under mixotrophic conditions. In the present study, we studied the effects of the herbicide paraquat on growth, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant enzymes, and gene expression in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic compared with autotrophic conditions. The mean measured exposure concentrations of paraquat under mixotrophic and autotrophic conditions were in the range of 0.3-3.4 and 0.6-3.6 μM, respectively. Exposure to paraquat for 72 h under both autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions induced decreased growth and chlorophyll (Chl) content, increased superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities, and decreased transcript abundances of three photosynthesis-related genes (light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit, photosystem II protein D1, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit [rbcL]). Compared with autotrophic conditions, the inhibition percentage of growth rate under mixotrophic conditions was lower at 0.8 μM paraquat, whereas it was greater at 1.8 and 3.4 μM paraquat. With exposure to 0.8-3.4 μM paraquat, the inhibition rates of Chl a and b content under mixotrophic conditions (43.1-52.4% and 54.6-59.7%, respectively) were greater compared with autotrophic conditions, whereas the inhibition rate of rbcL gene transcription under mixotrophic conditions (35.7-44.0%) was lower. These data showed that similar to autotrophic conditions, paraquat affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased Chl synthesis and transcription of photosynthesis-related genes in C. pyrenoidosa under mixotrophic conditions, but a differential susceptibility to paraquat toxicity occurred between autotrophically versus mixotrophically grown cells.

  11. Comparative effects of the herbicides dicamba, 2,4-D and paraquat on non-green potato tuber calli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Franciso P; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Vicente, Joaquim A; Madeira, Victor M C

    2008-07-31

    The effects of the herbicides 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium dichloride (paraquat), 3,6-dichloro-2-metoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on cell growth of non-green potato tuber calli are described. We attempted to relate the effects with toxicity, in particular the enzymes committed to the cellular antioxidant system. Cell cultures were exposed to the herbicides for a period of 4 weeks. Cellular integrity on the basis of fluorescein release was strongly affected by 2,4-D, followed by dicamba, and was not affected by paraquat. However, the three herbicides decreased the energy charge, with paraquat and 2,4-D being very efficient. Paraquat induced catalase (CAT) activity at low concentrations (1 microM), whereas at higher concentrations, inhibition was observed. Dicamba and 2,4-D stimulated CAT as a function of concentration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was strongly stimulated by paraquat, whereas dicamba and 2,4-D were efficient only at higher concentrations. Glutathione reductase (GR) activity was induced by all the herbicides, suggesting that glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes are putatively involved in the detoxification of these herbicides. Paraquat slightly inhibited glutathione S-transferase (GST), whereas 2,4-D and dicamba promoted significant activation. These results indicate that the detoxifying mechanisms for 2,4-D and dicamba may be different from the mechanisms of paraquat detoxification. However, the main cause of cell death induced by paraquat and 2,4-D is putatively related with the cell energy charge decrease.

  12. Paraquat Toxicity on Root Nodule Formation on Macroptiliuma Tropurpureum Urb. and Its Corelation with Population of Rhizobium SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Martani, Erni; Margino, Sebastian; Magdalena, Medhina

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the paraquat toxicity toward root nodulation by Rhizobium on Macroptilium atropurpureum as an indicator plant. The legume was grown in Thornton medium treated with several concentrations of paraquat and inoculated with R.japonicum 143 (Rj-143) or Rhizobium sp. C-1.1. These bacteria represent cross-inoculation of soybean and cover-crops legumes, respectively. Nodule formation and Rhizobium population were measured periodically. At the end of planting time...

  13. Enhanced Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activities of Co-Doped TiO2 Immobilized on Silica for Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, Nguyen Manh; Negishi, Nobuaki; Hue, Nguyen Thi

    2018-01-01

    We studied the adsorption and photocatalysis of paraquat in an aqueous solution with cobalt-doped TiO2 supported on mesoporous silica gel. With Co concentration increasing from 0% to 9%, it was found that the TiO2 anatase phase remained unchanged and the Co was uniformly distributed, while the band gap energy decreased from 3.32 eV to 2.64 eV. The drop in band gap energy leads to the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst oxidation of paraquat to NH4 + and NO3 - products under visible light. Relative to TiO2, the incorporation of Co into TiO2 led to an increase in the adsorption ability against the paraquat. A possible mechanism of the paraquat degradation may be that the paraquat was selectively adsorbed onto the Co-TiO2/silica gel photocatalyst before light irradiation and after that the paraquat was continuously photodecomposed.

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity and its impact on mortality in patients who attempted suicide by paraquat poisoning during 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chemin; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lee, Shwu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning is a lethal method of suicide used around the world. Although restricting its accessibility had been widely discussed, the underlying psychopathological mechanism of paraquat self-poisoning and its association with mortality have not yet been explicitly evaluated. We included all patients admitted to a tertiary general hospital in Taiwan between 2000 and 2010 following a suicide attempt by paraquat self-administration. Diagnoses were made upon psychiatric consultation based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The risk of mortality was calculated by logistic regression with various psychiatric or medical covariates. The consultation-liaison psychiatry team assessed 157 patients who attempted suicide by paraquat poisoning. Mood disorders (54.0%), including dysthymic (26.7%) and major depressive disorders (24.7%), were the most common psychiatric diagnoses among the self-poisoning patients. Among those who attempted suicide, 87 patients (58.0%) died and dysthymic disorder (OR = 5.58, 95% CI: 1.13-27.69; p paraquat poisoning (SIPP), and risk for respiratory failure. Awareness of comorbid psychiatric illnesses, especially dysthymic disorder, is vital in the prevention and treatment of suicide by paraquat poisoning.

  15. Paraquat Poisoning Induces TNF-α-Dependent iNOS/NO Mediated Hyporesponsiveness of the Aorta to Vasoconstrictors in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Rosária D.; Capettini, Luciano S. A.; Silva, Josiane F.; Rodrigues-Machado, Maria da Glória; Pinho, Vanessa; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Cortes, Steyner F.; Lemos, Virginia S.

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a toxic herbicide that may induce acute lung injury, circulatory failure and death. The present work aimed at investigating whether there is systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction after paraquat exposure and whether these parameters were related. There was neutrophilia and accumulation of neutrophils in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage of animals given paraquat. This was associated with an increase in serum levels of TNF-α. In rats given paraquat, the relaxant response of aortic rings to acetylcholine was not modified but the contractile response to phenylephrine was greatly reduced. Endothelium removal or treatment with non-selective (L-NAME) or selective (L-NIL) inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) restored contraction of aortas. There was greater production of nitric oxide (NO), which was restored to basal level by L-NIL, and greater expression of iNOS in endothelial cells, as seen by Western blot analyses and confocal microscopy. Blockade of TNF-α reduced pulmonary and systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Together, our results clearly show that paraquat causes pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and vascular dysfunction in rats. Vascular dysfunction is TNF-α dependent, associated with enhanced expression of iNOS in aortic endothelial cells and greater NO production, which accounts for the decreased responsiveness of aortas to vasoconstrictors. Blockers of TNF-α may be useful in patients with paraquat poisoning. PMID:24039983

  16. [Determination of paraquat residue in plant-derived foodstuffs by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Haibo

    2011-02-01

    A sensitive and selective method is presented for the determination of paraquat residue in fruits, vegetables, beans and grain by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Paraquat in samples was extracted with water and cleaned-up with a weak cation exchange (WCX) column to obtain an extract suitable for analysis using HPLC-MS/MS. The paraquat was separated by a CAPCELL PAK ST column (150 mm x 2.0 mm) and with acetonitrile-10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (adjusted to pH 4.0 by formic acid) as the mobile phase, and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used with electrospray ionization in the positive ion mode. The calibration curve was linear between the peak area and the mass concentration of paraquat from 0.01 to 0.1 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.993. Recoveries of paraquat spiked in samples at three levels ranged from 84.0% to 106.0% with the relative standard deviations of 7.8% - 18.8%. The limits of detection (LODs) of paraquat were 0.01 mg/kg in fruits and vegetables and 0.05 mg/kg in beans and grain. The LODs can meet the requirements of international maximum residue limit.

  17. EFECTO DEL GLIFOSATO Y PARAQUAT SOBRE EL PROCESO DE NITRIFICACION EN UN SUELO DEL CORREGIMIENTO DE RÍO FRÍO (MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dary Luz Mendoza M.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron ensayos in vitro para determinar el efecto tóxico de los herbicidas glifosato y paraquat sobre el proceso de nitrificación con suelo franco-arenoso (pH: 5.8, Humedad: 13.05%, en el corregimiento de Río Frío, Magdalena. Los experimentos se realizaron por cuantificación espectrofométrica (método del ácido fenoldisulfonico de la concentración de nitratos producidos durante un periodo de incubación de 30 días usando el producto comercial y el principio activo grado estándard, en concentraciones de 10, 100 y 1000 ppm de cada uno de los herbicidas. Se observó una reducción de la nitrificación y un incremento en el período de retardo al aumentar las concentraciones, sin embargo, solamente con altas dosis del glifosato comercial (100 y 1000 ppm de Round Up y paraquat comercial (1000 ppm de Gramoxone hubo inhibición de la nitrificación. Tanto el paraquat comercial como el estándard, a 10 y 100 ppm, causaron leves disturbios sobre la nitrificación, la cual retornó a una normalidad relativa después de 30 días de incubación. Se observó una diferencia significativa (p<0,00\\ entre el glifosato comercial (concentración máxima de nitrato 55,0pg/g y el glifosato estándar (510,12pg/g NO3' a una concentración de 1000 ppm, lo cual sugiere que los adyuvantes en el producto comercial contribuyen a aumentar el efecto tóxico del herbicida. Estos datos son de interés para desarrollar técnicas de utilización de plaguicidas que permitan la recuperación de las poblaciones microbianas importantes para la fertilidad de los suelos.

  18. Enfoque del paciente con intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas organosfoforados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Hurtado Clavijo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Un gran número de insecticidas organofosforados se usan en todo el mundo a diario. Las intoxicaciones ocurren generalmente de forma accidental por exposición laboral, o intencional, con fines suicidas. Los organofosforados producen sus efectos tóxicos a través de la inhibición de la acetilcolinesterasa, la enzima responsable de la hidrólisis del neurotransmisor acetilcolina, produciendo ácido acético y colina, productos químicamente inertes. La unión entre los organofosforados y la acetilcolina es una unión irreversible espontáneamente, sin embargo, puede ser reversible con el uso de antídotos específico llamados oximas. La administración temprana de pralidoxima es crucial y muy útil si se inicia en las primeras seis horas luego de la intoxicación aguda. La atropina produce un beneficio clínico dramático para los síntomas muscarínicos del síndrome colinérgico. Pueden ocurrir complicaciones importantes en los pacientes por intoxicación con organofosforados, como hipotensión, arritmias cardíacas fatales, síndrome intermedio, distres respiratorio, neumonía y aún disfunción cerebral severa.

  19. Predictive values of urine paraquat concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in the prognosis of patients with acute paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Wei; Ma, Tao; Li, Lu-Lu; Qu, Bo; Liu, Zhi

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated the predictive values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score in the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. A total of 194 patients with acute PQ poisoning, hospitalized between April 2012 and January 2014 at the First Affiliated Hospital of P.R. China Medical University (Shenyang, China), were selected and divided into survival and mortality groups. Logistic regression analysis, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and Kaplan-Meier curve were applied to evaluate the values of urine paraquat (PQ) concentration, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and (APACHE) II score for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Initial urine PQ concentration (C0), dose of poison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score of patients in the mortality group were significantly higher compared with the survival group (all Ppoison and arterial blood lactate correlated with mortality risk of acute PQ poisoning (all Ppoison, arterial blood lactate and APACHE II score in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.921, 0.887, 0.808 and 0.648, respectively. The AUC of C0 for predicting early and delayed mortality were 0.890 and 0.764, respectively. The AUC values of urine paraquat concentration the day after poisoning (Csec) and the rebound rate of urine paraquat concentration in predicting the mortality of patients within 28 days were 0.919 and 0.805, respectively. The 28-day survival rate of patients with C0 ≤32.2 µg/ml (42/71; 59.2%) was significantly higher when compared with patients with C0 >32.2 µg/ml (38/123; 30.9%). These results suggest that the initial urine PQ concentration may be the optimal index for predicting the prognosis of patients with acute PQ poisoning. Additionally, dose of poison, arterial blood lactate, Csec and rebound rate also have referential significance.

  20. Synthesis, solid and solution studies of paraquat dichloride calixarene complexes. Molecular modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, I.; Ramirez, F. M., E-mail: flor.ramirez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The interaction of the herbicide paraquat dichloride (P Q, substrate) with p-tert-butylcalix arenas (L, receptor) was investigated in both the solution and solid states. The isolated paraquat calixarene complexes were characterised by UV-visible, {sup 1}H NMR, ESI-Ms, Luminescence and IR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stoichiometry of complexes 1 and 2 was 1:1 (1 herbicide: 1 calixarene) and both revealed a biexponential luminescence decay with lifetimes depending on the size and the conformational particularity of the calixarenes. Molecular modelling suggested that both calixarenes interact with the herbicide through cation-{pi} interaction. P Q in included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity, a situation favoured by its pinched conformation in polar solvent while it is partially included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity because of its in-out cone conformation. The theoretical results, in particular using Mopac procedures, were in agreement with the experimental findings. (Author)

  1. Synthesis, solid and solution studies of paraquat dichloride calixarene complexes. Molecular modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, I.; Ramirez, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the herbicide paraquat dichloride (P Q, substrate) with p-tert-butylcalix arenas (L, receptor) was investigated in both the solution and solid states. The isolated paraquat calixarene complexes were characterised by UV-visible, 1 H NMR, ESI-Ms, Luminescence and IR spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stoichiometry of complexes 1 and 2 was 1:1 (1 herbicide: 1 calixarene) and both revealed a biexponential luminescence decay with lifetimes depending on the size and the conformational particularity of the calixarenes. Molecular modelling suggested that both calixarenes interact with the herbicide through cation-π interaction. P Q in included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity, a situation favoured by its pinched conformation in polar solvent while it is partially included in the p-tert butylcalix a rene cavity because of its in-out cone conformation. The theoretical results, in particular using Mopac procedures, were in agreement with the experimental findings. (Author)

  2. Removal of herbicide paraquat from an aqueous solution by adsorption onto spent and treated diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, W T; Hsien, K J; Chang, Y M; Lo, C C

    2005-04-01

    A spent diatomaceous earth from the beer brewery has been tentatively activated by sodium hydroxide at about 100 degrees C. The resulting product was used as a novel adsorbent for the adsorption of herbicide paraquat from an aqueous solution in a continuously stirred adsorber and batch flasks, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption process could be well described by the pseudo-second-order reaction model. From the view of the negatively charged surface of diatomaceous earth and cationic property of paraquat, the results were also reasonable to be explained by physical adsorption in the ion-exchange process under the effects of pH and temperature. Further, it was found that the Freundlich model appeared to fit the isotherm data better than the Langmuir model.

  3. Effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function in patients with paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Yan, Peng-Bo; Zhang, Yin; Wei, Lu-Qing; Li, Guo-Qiang

    2018-03-01

    The present study retrospectively analyzed 19 patients diagnosed with paraquat (PQ) poisoning with the aim to investigate the effect of activated charcoal hemoperfusion on renal function and PQ elimination. The results indicated that 7 patients died and 12 survived. Non-oliguric renal failure occurred in all of the 7 patients who died. Among the 12 surviving patients, 10 had normal renal function and 2 developed non-oliguric renal failure. There was a linear correlation between plasma and urine paraquat concentration prior to and during activated charcoal hemoperfusion. The equation parameters together with the correlation coefficient on admission were as follows: Y=0.5820+1.7348X (R 2 =0.678; F=35.768; Pactivated charcoal hemoperfusion: Y=0.6827+1.2649X (R 2 =0.626; F=50.308; PActivated charcoal hemoperfusion had little effect on avoiding acute kidney injury in patients with severe PQ poisoning.

  4. Changes in pulmonary antioxidant defence mechanisms during separate and combined treatment with paraquat and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylovski, P.; Rachin, E.; Nechev, Kh.; Shopova, V.; Rachina, V.; Gylybova, V.; Grozeva, M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-hundred-fifty white male Wistar rats were poisoned with a daily dose of 1/100 LD 50 paraquat water solution, five days weekly, over a period of 4 months. Immediately after that the animals were exposed to a single whole-body irradiation with a dose rate of 2 and 4 Gy on a linear accelerator with photon energy 9 MeV and radiation power 2 Gy/min. The biological effects of the isolated and combined two factors on the pulmonary antioxidant defence mechanisms were studied from the 1st up to the 60th post-irradiation days. It was established that paraquat and ionizing radiation inhibited the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased the content of non-protein weight groups in lung homogenate at an early stage. The combined application of both factors had a significant synergic effect

  5. Removal of paraquat and linuron from water by continuous flow adsorption/ ultrafiltration membrane processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic activated carbon (MAC) was prepared, characterized and compared with powdered activated carbon (PAC) for its adsorptive parameters. Both adsorbents were then used in combination ultrafiltration (UF) membrane as pretreatment for the removal of paraquat and linuron from water. The comparison of membrane parameters like percent retention, permeate flux and backwash times for PAC/UF and MAC/UF hybrid processes showed that percent retention of paraquat and linuron was high for PAC due to its high surface area. However due to cake formation over membrane surface the decline permeate fluxes and long backwash times for PAC were observed. PAC also caused blackening of pipes and flow meter. MAC (an iron oxide and PAC composite) was removed from slurry through magnet thus no cake formation and secondary problems observed for PAC was not encountered. Also the backwash times were minimum for MAC/UF process. (author)

  6. Effect of Brief Exposure to Paraquat on Some Blood Parameters of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus (mean weight, 100.34 ± 8.13g SD; mean total length, 19.02 ± 4.32 cm SD) were exposed (four fish/tank) to 0, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 mgl-1 paraquat solution in triplicate in rectangular glass aquaria (60.9 x 30.4 x 30.4 cm3) under a static condition for 72 hours to determine the effect of exposure on the ...

  7. Unveiling the role of the pesticides paraquat and rotenone on α-synuclein fibrillation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturana, Maurício Guilherme Valente; Pinheiro, Anderson Sá; de Souza, Theo Luiz Ferraz; Follmer, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological data have suggested that exposure to environmental toxins might be associated with the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this context, certain agrochemicals are able to induce Parkinsonism in different animal models via the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, which leads to an increase in both oxidative stress and the death of nigrostriatal neurons. Additionally, in vitro experiments have indicated that pesticides are capable of accelerating the fibrillation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (aS) by binding directly to the protein. However, the molecular details of these interactions are poorly understood. In the present work we demonstrate that paraquat and rotenone, two agrochemicals that lead to a Parkinsonian phenotype in vivo, bind to aS via solvent effects rather than through specific interactions. In fact, these compounds produced no significant effects on aS fibrillation under physiological concentrations of NaCl. NMR data suggest that paraquat interacts with the C-terminal domain of the disordered aS monomer. This interaction was markedly reduced in the presence of NaCl, presumably due to the disruption of electrostatic interactions between the protein and paraquat. Interestingly, the effects produced by short-term incubation of paraquat with aS on the protein conformation resembled those produced by incubating the protein with NaCl alone. Taken together, our data indicate that the effects of these agrochemicals on PD cannot be explained via direct interactions with aS, reinforcing the idea that the role of these compounds in PD is limited to the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I and/or the up-regulation of aS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of oxygen and paraquat on the 14C-glucose oxidation of rabbit alveolar macrophages and lung slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussouw, D.J.; Engelbrecht, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    In this study, we measured the effects of different concentrations of paraquat (0,01 mM and 1,0 mM) on the 1- 14 CO 2 and 6- 14 CO 2 production of rabbit lung slices and isolated alveolar macrophages, in 20% and 95% oxygen phases respectively. A 95% oxygen phase induced an increase in the 6- 14 C-glucose oxidation of control lung slices over a 3-hour period, while the increased activity of the pentose pathway over the first 2 hours started to decline during the third hour of incubation. Paraquat (1,0mM) in 20% oxygen caused a consistent increase in the 6- 14 CO 2 production by lung slices, but in a 95% oxygen phase gradually inhibited the 6- 14 C-glucose oxidation over a period of 3 hours. The pentose phosphate pathway was highly significantly stimulated by 1,0 mM paraquat in 20% and 95% oxygen over 3 hours. When isolated alveolar macrophages (viability 95%) were incubated in a 20% and 95% oxygen phase respectively, both the 6- 14 C-glucose and 1- 14 C-glucose oxidation rates were significantly inhibited by 1,0 mM paraquat after 1 hour. Our results confirmed the initial increase in glycolytic metabolism induced by paraquat, but also indicated that the 6- 14 CO 2 production was significantly inhibited by paraquat when lung slices were incubated in a 95% oxygen phase. The fact that the glucose metabolism in alveolar macrophages is more sensitive to paraquat exposure than that of cells in lung slices may be related to the genesis of the intra-alveolar pulmonary lesions described in the literature

  9. Toxicity of paraquat in nestling birds: effects on plasma and tissue biochemistry in American kestrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Daivd J.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.; Bunck, Christine M.; Murray, Helen C.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed daily for 10 days with 5 μL/g of distilled water (controls), 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg of paraquat dichloride (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride) in distilled water. Forty-four percent of the nestlings receiving 60 mg/kg died after 4 days. Plasma LDH activity and total protein concentration were elevated, and plasma alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in survivors of the 60 mg/kg group at 10 days. Lung total sulfhydryl (TSH) and protein-bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) concentrations were significantly higher in the 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg, or 60 mg/kg groups. Lung DNA, RNA, protein, and hydroxyproline (collagen) concentrations were not significantly affected by treatment. Liver NPSH was lower in the 60 mg/kg group while liver glycogen concentration was not affected by treatment. Kidney DNA, RNA, and RNA to protein concentration ratio were higher in the 25 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg groups. These findings in combination with recently reported effects on growth and histopathology suggest that altricial nestling kestrels are more sensitive to paraquat exposure than young or adult birds of precocial species. From a comparative viewpoint, lungs of nestling kestrels are less sensitive to paraquat than mammalian lungs.

  10. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong, E-mail: xiegh@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-05-16

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury.

  11. ADSORPTION OF PARAQUAT DICHLORIDE TO KAOLIN PARTICLES AND TO MIXTURES OF KAOLIN AND HEMATITE PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alexandra Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate contamination with pesticides is a potential risk to water security, due to the availability of these contaminants and the fact that they do not need special expertise to handle or apply. Adsorption of the herbicide paraquat from an aqueous solution to suspended particles of kaolin and kaolin/hematite mixture was investigated by kinetic and equilibrium assays, taking into consideration several parameters such as initial pH, sorbent dosage and agitation speed. The results showed that the adsorption process is quite fast, reaching an 18% reduction in paraquat concentration in a very short period of time. The addition of hematite particles to kaolin suspension had no apparent effect on the maximum amount of paraquat adsorbed. Kinetic parameters were determined by fitting the pseudo-second order model to the experimental data (correlation coefficients close to 1. Isotherm studies indicate an inhibitory effect, promoted by hematite particles, that was not detected in the adsorption assays. Equilibrium data was best adjusted using the Langmuir model which yielded higher correlation coefficient values and smaller normalized standard deviations.

  12. Paraquat exposure and Sod2 knockdown have dissimilar impacts on the Drosophila melanogaster carbonylated protein proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Suresh K.; Simpson, David C.; Martin, Ian; Grotewiel, Mike; Gronert, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to Paraquat and RNA interference knockdown of Mn or mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2) are known to result in significant lifespan reduction, locomotor dysfunction, and mitochondrial degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. Both perturbations increase the flux of the progenitor ROS, superoxide, but the molecular underpinnings of the resulting phenotypes are poorly understood. Improved understanding of such processes could lead to advances in the treatment of numerous age-related disorders. Superoxide toxicity can act through protein carbonylation. Analysis of carbonylated proteins is attractive since carbonyl groups are not present in the twenty canonical amino acids and are amenable to labeling and enrichment strategies. Here, carbonylated proteins were labeled with biotin hydrazide and enriched on streptavidin beads. On-bead digestion was used to release carbonylated protein peptides, with relative abundance ratios versus controls obtained using the iTRAQ MS-based proteomics approach. Western blotting and biotin quantitation assay approaches were also investigated. By both western blotting and proteomics, Paraquat exposure, but not Sod2 knockdown, resulted in increased carbonylated protein relative abundance. For Paraquat exposure versus control, the median carbonylated protein relative abundance ratio (1.53) determined using MS-based proteomics was in good agreement with that obtained using a commercial biotin quantitation kit (1.36). PMID:25091824

  13. Study of the removal of paraquat from aqueous solution by biosorption onto Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Peguy; Dedzo, Gustave Kenne [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Ngameni, Emmanuel, E-mail: engameni@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812 Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2010-07-15

    This study concerns the batch biosorption of paraquat on Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust; the study centers on the evolution of biosorption parameters during the process. It appears that paraquat forms a monolayer on the sawdust surface as evidenced by the good correlation between the experimental data and the Langmuir model. The biosorption which is rather fast (the equilibrium was reached after ten minutes) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and does not obey to the intra-particle diffusion model. According to the mathematical kinetic modeling, pore and surface mass transfer well describe the phenomenon. NaCl reduces the adsorption capacity of the material but has no significant effect on the kinetics. Alkaline solutions enhance the accumulation of the pollutant, the reverse being observed for acidic media. According to the thermodynamic data, this biosorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. From these results we concluded that the adsorption of the pollutant is mainly due to cation exchange as indicated by the adsorption energy determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model (E = 12.0736 kJ mol{sup -1}); some other interactions resulting from the affinity through organophilic interactions between paraquat and sawdust have also been pointed out. Desorption experiments conducted in HCl and HNO{sub 3} solutions confirmed the proposed mechanism.

  14. Prenatal Paraquat exposure induces neurobehavioral and cognitive changes in mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Bali, Yassine; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treated mice, but from the 6th day of pregnancy, an alteration in fertility and reproductive parameters was observed. In offspring, the PQ was responsible for an overall delay of innate reflexes and a deficit in motor development. All exposed animals showed a decrease in the level of locomotor activity, increased levels of anxiety-like behavior and pronounced cognitive impairment in adulthood. These results demonstrated that Paraquat led to the onset of many behavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes in prenatally exposed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Paraquat induced lung injury: long-term follow-up of HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young; Im, Han Hyek

    2004-01-01

    To determine the long-term follow-up CT findings of paraquat-induced lung injury. Six patients who ingested paraquat underwent sequential follow-up CT scanning during a period of at least six months, and the results were analysed. Scans were obtained 1-6 (mean, 3.3) time during a 7-84 (mean, 25.7) months period, and the findings at 1-2 months, 3-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and more than above 7 years after poisoning were analyzed. We observed irregular-shaped areas of consolidation with traction bronchiectasis at 1-2 months (5/5), irregular-shaped consolidation and ground-glass opacity (5/5) at 3-12 months, and irregular-shaped consolidations/ground-glass opacity (4/5) and focal honeycombing (1/5) one year later. In the same patients, follow-up CT scans showed that some areas of focal consolidation could not be visualized and the radio-opacity of the lesions had decreased. The HRCT findings of paraquat-induced lung injury were irregular shaped areas of consolidation 1-2 months after ingestion, and irregular-shaped consolidation and ground-glass opacity or focal honeycombing 3-12 months later. At this thim slight improvement was observed

  16. Study of the removal of paraquat from aqueous solution by biosorption onto Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles Peguy; Dedzo, Gustave Kenne; Ngameni, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This study concerns the batch biosorption of paraquat on Ayous (Triplochiton schleroxylon) sawdust; the study centers on the evolution of biosorption parameters during the process. It appears that paraquat forms a monolayer on the sawdust surface as evidenced by the good correlation between the experimental data and the Langmuir model. The biosorption which is rather fast (the equilibrium was reached after ten minutes) follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model and does not obey to the intra-particle diffusion model. According to the mathematical kinetic modeling, pore and surface mass transfer well describe the phenomenon. NaCl reduces the adsorption capacity of the material but has no significant effect on the kinetics. Alkaline solutions enhance the accumulation of the pollutant, the reverse being observed for acidic media. According to the thermodynamic data, this biosorption is a spontaneous and exothermic process. From these results we concluded that the adsorption of the pollutant is mainly due to cation exchange as indicated by the adsorption energy determined by the Dubinin-Radushkevich model (E = 12.0736 kJ mol -1 ); some other interactions resulting from the affinity through organophilic interactions between paraquat and sawdust have also been pointed out. Desorption experiments conducted in HCl and HNO 3 solutions confirmed the proposed mechanism.

  17. Protective effects of exogenous β-hydroxybutyrate on paraquat toxicity in rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Teng; Tian, Wulin; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits paraquat-induced toxicity in rat kidney. • β-Hydroxybutyrate inhibits lipid peroxidation and caspase-mediated apoptosis. • β-Hydroxybutyrate increases the activities of SOD and CAT. • The study describes a novel finding for the renoprotective ability of β-hydroxybutyrate. - Abstract: In this study, we demonstrated the protective effects of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) against paraquat (PQ)-induced kidney injury and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. By histological examination and renal dysfunction specific markers (serum BUN and creatinine) assay, β-HB could protect the PQ-induced kidney injury in rat. PQ-induced kidney injury is associated with oxidative stress, which was measured by increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and decreased intracellular anti-oxidative abilities (SOD, CAT and GSH). β-HB pretreatment significantly attenuated that. Caspase-mediated apoptosis pathway contributed importantly to PQ toxicity, as revealed by the activation of caspase-9/-3, cleavage of PARP, and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax, which were also effectively blocked by β-HB. Moreover, treatment of PQ strongly decreased the nuclear Nrf2 levels. However, pre-treatment with β-HB effectively suppressed this action of PQ. This may imply the important role of β-HB on Nrf2 pathway. Taken together, this study provides a novel finding that β-HB has a renoprotective ability against paraquat-induced kidney injury

  18. [Enhanced Resistance of Pea Plants to Oxidative: Stress Caused by Paraquat during Colonization by Aerobic Methylobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, N V; Doronina, N Y; Trotsenko, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    The influence of colonization of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) by aerobic methylobacteria of five different species (Methylophilus flavus Ship, Methylobacterium extorquens G10, Methylobacillus arboreus Iva, Methylopila musalis MUSA, Methylopila turkiensis Sidel) on plant resistance to paraquat-induced stresses has been studied. The normal conditions of pea colonization by methylobacteria were characterized by a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases) and in the concentrations of endogenous H2O2, proline, and malonic dialdehyde, which is a product of lipid peroxidation and indicator of damage to plant cell membranes, and an increase in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (the content of chlorophylls a, b and carotenoids). In the presence of paraquat, the colonized plants had higher activities of antioxidant enzymes, stable photosynthetic indices, and a less intensive accumulation of the products of lipid peroxidation as compared to noncolonized plants. Thus, colonization by methylobacteria considerably increased the adaptive protection of pea plants to the paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Paraquat induced lung injury: long-term follow-up of HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young; Im, Han Hyek [Soonchunhyang Univ., Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-01

    To determine the long-term follow-up CT findings of paraquat-induced lung injury. Six patients who ingested paraquat underwent sequential follow-up CT scanning during a period of at least six months, and the results were analysed. Scans were obtained 1-6 (mean, 3.3) time during a 7-84 (mean, 25.7) months period, and the findings at 1-2 months, 3-12 months, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and more than above 7 years after poisoning were analyzed. We observed irregular-shaped areas of consolidation with traction bronchiectasis at 1-2 months (5/5), irregular-shaped consolidation and ground-glass opacity (5/5) at 3-12 months, and irregular-shaped consolidations/ground-glass opacity (4/5) and focal honeycombing (1/5) one year later. In the same patients, follow-up CT scans showed that some areas of focal consolidation could not be visualized and the radio-opacity of the lesions had decreased. The HRCT findings of paraquat-induced lung injury were irregular shaped areas of consolidation 1-2 months after ingestion, and irregular-shaped consolidation and ground-glass opacity or focal honeycombing 3-12 months later. At this thim slight improvement was observed.

  20. [The prevention and therapeutics effect of sodium bicarbonate with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection on the patients with paraquat poisoning and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ainong; Ren, Siqing; Jian, Xiangdong; Zhang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    To observe the prevention effects of patients with lung exudation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat poisoning in sodium bicarbonate (SB) with gastric lavage, atomization inhalation and intravenous injection. To collect 38 patients with paraquat poisoning in hospital, after poison immediately with gastric lavage of 1.5% SB, and atomization inhalation of 5% SB 10~15 ml twice daily and intravenous injection of 5% SB twice a day, continuous application of 5~7 days. and the HRCT score and liver and kidney function was performed on patients with lung after treatment. And the extraction of 38 SB patients with previously untreated with SB for comparison. Lung HRCT average score in 72 h, 7 d, 30 d on patients with paraquat poisoning untreated with SB reached 2.87, 3.12, 2.13, HRCT display shows that the appearance of the wear glass shadow, grid shadow, honeycomb shadow, and other signs of fibrosis. Average HRCT reached 1.95, 2.20, 1.67 on patients treated with SB,signs of lung exudation and fibrosis was significantly reduced,compare two groups,there was statistically significance (Pparaquat poisoning with triple application of SB, the level of serum urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) significantly decreased, the difference is statistically significant (Pparaquat poisoning,and protective effect on the function of liver and kidney is obvious, suggesting that the method for treatment of paraquat poisoning, prevention of paraquat lung and improve survival rate has the exact effect.

  1. Impact of sod on the expression of stress-related genes in Listeria monocytogenes 4b G with/without paraquat treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that causes listeriosis. Paraquat can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, which results in oxidative stress. It was firstly shown that 1 mM of paraquat inhibited the growth rate of a superoxide dismutase (sod)-deletion mutant (delta sod) g...

  2. Inhibition of c-Src protects paraquat induced microvascular endothelial injury by modulating caveolin-1 phosphorylation and caveolae mediated transcellular permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; He, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The mechanisms underlying paraquat induced acute lung injury (ALI) is still not clear. C-Src plays an important role in the regulation of microvascular endothelial barrier function and the pathogenesis of ALI. In the present study, we found that paraquat induced cell toxicity and an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in endothelium. Paraquat exposure also induced significant increase of caveolin-1 phosphorylation, caveolae trafficking and albumin permeability in endothelial monolayers. C-Src depletion by siRNA significantly attenuate paraquat induced cell toxicity, caveolin-1 phosphorylation, caveolae formation and endothelial hyperpermeability. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) failed to protect endothelial monolayers against paraquat induced toxicity. Thus, our findings suggest that paraquat exposure increases paracellular endothelial permeability by increasing caveolin-1 phosphorylation in a c-Src dependant manner. The depletion of c-Src might protect microvascular endothelial function by regulating caveolin-1 phosphorylation and caveolae trafficking during paraquat exposure, and might have potential therapeutic effects on paraquat induced ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A pqr2 mutant encodes a defective polyamine transporter and is negatively affected by ABA for paraquat resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuchao; Hu, Huizhen; Wang, Youmei; Xu, Zhengdan; Zha, Yi; Cai, Xiwen; Peng, Liangcai; Feng, Shengqiu

    2016-09-01

    Despite the paraquat-resistant mutants that have been reported in plants, this study identified a novel A. thaliana mutant (pqr2) from an XVE inducible activation library based on its resistance to 2 μM paraquat. The pqr2 mutant exhibited a termination mutation in the exon of AT1G31830/PAR1/PQR2, encoded a polyamine uptake transporter AtPUT2/PAR1/PQR2. The PQR2 mutation could largely reduce superoxide accumulation and cell death in the pqr2 plants under paraquat treatment. Moreover, compared with wild type, the pqr2 mutant exhibited much reduced tolerance to putrescine, a classic polyamine compound, which confirmed that PQR2 encoded a defective polyamine transporter. Notably, co-treated with ABA and paraquat, both pqr2 mutant and wild type exhibited a lethal phenotype from seed germination, but the wild type like pqr2 mutant, could remain paraquat-resistance while co-treated with high dosage of Na2WO4, an ABA synthesis inhibitor. Gene expression analysis suggested that ABA signaling should widely regulate paraquat-responsive genes distinctively in wild type and pqr2 mutant. Hence, this study has for the first time reported about ABA negative effect on paraquat-resistance in A. thaliana, providing insight into the ABA signaling involved in the oxidative stress responses induced by paraquat in plants.

  4. Mitigating effects of pollen during paraquat exposure on gene expression and pathogen prevalence in Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Igor Medici; Soares, Ademilson E E; Tarpy, David R

    2018-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations have been experiencing notable mortality in Europe and North America. No single cause has been identified for these dramatic losses, but rather multiple interacting factors are likely responsible (such as pesticides, malnutrition, habitat loss, and pathogens). Paraquat is one of the most widely used non-selective herbicides, especially in developing countries. This herbicide is considered slightly toxic to honey bees, despite being reported as a highly effective inducer of oxidative stress in a wide range of living systems. Here, we test the effects of paraquat on the expression of detoxification and antioxidant-related genes, as well as on the dynamics of pathogen titers. Moreover, we tested the effects of pollen as mitigating factor to paraquat exposure. Our results show significant changes in the expression of several antioxidant-related and detoxification-related genes in the presence of paraquat, as well as an increase of pathogens titers. Finally, we demonstrate a mitigating effect of pollen through the up-regulation of specific genes and improvement of survival of bees exposed to paraquat. The presence of pollen in the diet was also correlated with a reduced prevalence of Nosema and viral pathogens. We discuss the importance of honey bees' nutrition, especially the availability of pollen, on colony losses chronically reported in the USA and Europe.

  5. Cytoplasmic membrane is the target organelle for transition metal mediated damage induced by paraquat in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohen, R.; Chevion, M.

    1988-01-01

    Bacterial survival indicates that copper or iron is an essential mediator in paraquat toxicity in Escherichia coli. In this study the authors have identified the cytoplasmic membrane as a target organelle in metal-mediated paraquat toxicity and have demonstrated the complete correlation of the membrane damage with the levels of adventitious copper (or iron). The extent of membrane damage was related by use of four parameters: (a) the level of cellular ATP, (b) the level of cellular potassium, (c) the cellular capacity to accumulate and retain radiolabeled leucine, and (d) the cellular integrity as reflected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Exposure of bacterial cells to a combination of paraquat and copper caused a marked decline in parameters a, b, and c. This decline was found to occur in parallel with, or even to precede, the sharp loss of survival of E. coli under the same conditions. Likewise, TEM micrographs clearly indicated alternations in cellular structure that possibly reflect sites of detachment of the cytoplasmic membrane from the bacterial capsule. In contradistinction, copper alone or paraquat alone could not bring about similar changes in cellular structure. These findings are in accord with the suggested site-specific metal-mediated Haber-Weiss mechanism for paraquat toxicity and support our notion that specific chelators of transition metals could reduce or prevent the biological deleterious effects of this herbicide

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidity and Its Impact on Mortality in Patients Who Attempted Suicide by Paraquat Poisoning during 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chemin; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lee, Shwu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Paraquat poisoning is a lethal method of suicide used around the world. Although restricting its accessibility had been widely discussed, the underlying psychopathological mechanism of paraquat self-poisoning and its association with mortality have not yet been explicitly evaluated. Methods We included all patients admitted to a tertiary general hospital in Taiwan between 2000 and 2010 following a suicide attempt by paraquat self-administration. Diagnoses were made upon psychiatric consultation based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The risk of mortality was calculated by logistic regression with various psychiatric or medical covariates. Results The consultation-liaison psychiatry team assessed 157 patients who attempted suicide by paraquat poisoning. Mood disorders (54.0%), including dysthymic (26.7%) and major depressive disorders (24.7%), were the most common psychiatric diagnoses among the self-poisoning patients. Among those who attempted suicide, 87 patients (58.0%) died and dysthymic disorder (OR = 5.58, 95% CI: 1.13–27.69; pparaquat poisoning (SIPP), and risk for respiratory failure. Conclusions Awareness of comorbid psychiatric illnesses, especially dysthymic disorder, is vital in the prevention and treatment of suicide by paraquat poisoning. PMID:25386676

  7. Modeling, kinetic, and equilibrium characterization of paraquat adsorption onto polyurethane foam using the ion-pairing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lage, Mateus R; Carneiro, José Walkimar M; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2015-06-01

    We studied the adsorption of paraquat onto polyurethane foam (PUF) when it was in a medium containing sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). The adsorption efficiency was dependent on the concentration of SDS in solution, because the formation of an ion-associate between the cationic paraquat and the dodecylsulfate anion was found to be a fundamental step in the process. A computational study was carried out to identify the possible structure of the ion-associate in aqueous medium. The obtained data demonstrated that the structure is probably formed from four units of dodecylsulfate bonded to one paraquat moiety. The results showed that 94% of the paraquat present in 45 mL of a solution containing 3.90 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) could be retained by 300 mg of PUF, resulting in the removal of 2.20 mg of paraquat. The experimental data were reasonably adjusted to the Freundlich isotherm and to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Also, the application of Morris-Weber and Reichenberg models indicated that both film-diffusion and intraparticle-diffusion processes were active during the control of the adsorption kinetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative analysis of paraquat in vegetation by stable isotope dilution and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaner, Angela; Hickes, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    The method presented is a suitable approach for routine testing of paraquat in difficult sample types, such as winter wheat and alfalfa plant tissue, typically found with accidental spray drift. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography and ultra-performance LC is utilized with tandem quadrupole MS in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Three precursor-product ion transitions are measured in the multiple reaction monitoring mode, and paraquat d8 is added as an internal standard at the beginning of the extraction procedure to correct for losses in recovery and/or matrix effects in instrument response. A 5 g portion is digested with 6 M HCl in a 100°C water bath for 1 h. An aliquot is removed and adjusted to pH 7-8 prior to loading on a mixed mode weak cation-exchange SPE cartridge, and paraquat is eluted with formic acid-acetonitrile (10 + 90, v/v). Average recoveries of paraquat fortified at 0.020-0.080 ppm in winter wheat and alfalfa ranged from 80 to 114% (RSD 12-30%). Result data from naturally incurred paraquat (0.027-0.51 ppm) in composite garden plants, potato leaves, tree leaves, and alfalfa are presented. The LOQ is 0.020 ppm.

  9. Treatment Outcome of Combined Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration and Hemoperfusion in Acute Paraquat Poisoning: A Prospective Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changbin; Hu, Dayong; Xue, Wen; Li, Xinhua; Wang, Zhen; Ai, Zisheng; Song, Yaxiang; Liu, Xinying; Cheng, Jiafeng; Fan, Shuling; Zhao, Limin; Wang, Liya; Mohan, Chandra; Peng, Ai

    2018-01-01

    To investigate whether combined continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemoperfusion among paraquat-poisoned patients would improve survival. Prospective, controlled interventional study over 4 years. Single, tertiary, academic medical center. We recruited patients admitted to Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital within 48 hours after paraquat ingestion. Exclusions were under 14 years old, ingestion of paraquat with other toxicants, pregnant, a history of chronic pulmonary disease, psychosis, hyperthyroidism, or diabetes with impaired liver or renal function. All patients were assigned to receive continuous venovenous hemofiltration with hemoperfusion therapy (continuous venovenous hemofiltration group) and to receive conventional therapy (conventional group). The study outcomes were death from any cause within 90 days after paraquat ingestion and the frequencies of hypoxia, acute kidney injury, or adverse events. Of the 110 enrolled patients, 59 were assigned to continuous venovenous hemofiltration group and 51 to conventional group. The two groups had similar baseline demographics and clinical features. At 90 days after paraquat ingestion, 19 of 59 patients (32.2%) in the continuous venovenous hemofiltration group and 29 of 51 patients (56.9%) in the conventional group had died (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.24-0.76; p = 0.004). In multivariable Cox proportional hazard models controlling for baseline characteristics, combined continuous venovenous hemofiltration and hemoperfusion was independently associated with reduced risk of death compared with conventional therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.64; p = 0.001). Patients in the continuous venovenous hemofiltration group, as compared to the conventional group, had a reduced occurrence rate of hypoxia (40.7% vs 72.5%; p = 0.001) and of acute kidney injury (59.3% vs 78.4%; p = 0.03). Hypophosphatemia and thrombocytopenia were more common in the continuous venovenous hemofiltration group (p paraquat

  10. JNK Inhibitor SP600125 Attenuates Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury: an In Vivo and In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Haitao; Wu, Na; Wang, Yu; Han, Xinfei; Zheng, Qiang; Cai, Xue; Zhang, Honglei; Zhao, Min

    2017-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major complication soon after paraquat poisoning and rapidly progresses with high mortality. However, the specific mechanism underlying paraquat-induced ALI is still unclear. In this study, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of SP600125 on paraquat-induced ALI was investigated according to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. The rats were randomly assigned into the control group (CON), the paraquat poisoning group (PQ), and the PQ + SP600125 group (SP). A549 cells were divided into the Con group, Pq group, and Sp group. H&E staining and detection of lung wet/dry ratio were employed to evaluate lung injury. Annexin V-PI staining was done to evaluate A549 cell apoptosis. Dihydroethidium fluorescence was used to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lungs and A549 cells. ELISA was performed to detect TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and A549 cells. RT-qPCR was done to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the lungs and A549 cells. Western blotting assay was performed to detect the protein expression of phospho-JNK, total JNK, and cleaved caspase-3. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was employed to detect the DNA binding activities of AP-1 and P-p65. JNK inhibitor SP600125 reduced JNK phosphorylation, downregulated cleaved caspase-3 protein level, decreased AP-1 transcriptional activity and ROS level, and reduced the transcription and expression of TNF-α and IL-6, which improved ALI and cell apoptosis after paraquat poisoning. Our results indicate that JNK/AP-1 mediates ALI as well as oxidative stress and inflammation deterioration secondary to paraquat poisoning.

  11. [Effect of thalidomide in a mouse model of paraquat-induced acute lung injury and the underlying mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangju; Cai, Xiaoxia; She, Xingrong; Li, Dong; Hong, Guangliang; Wu, Bin; Li, Mengfang; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effects of thalidomide in a mouse model of paraquat-induced acute lung injury and the mechanisms underlying the properties of thalidomide. Male ICR mice were randomly allocated into four groups: nomal control group (n = 30), thalidomide control group (n = 30), paraquat poisioning group (n = 30) and thalidomide treatment group (n = 90). Mice were sacrificed at 1d, 3d and 7d after paraquat poisioning. The level of (MDA) malondialdehyde, Superoxidedi-smutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in the lung tissue were measuerd by chemical colorimetry. The expression of Nrf2 mRNA was determined by RT-PCR; Nuclear protein Nrf2 was abserved by Western blotting; Pathological changes of lung tissue were observed under light microscope by HE stain; the lung apoptosis cells were detected by TUNEL. The levels of MDA, SOD and the expressions Nrf2 mRNA and protein Nrf2 in lung tissue were all markedly increased in mice of paraquat poisioning group than those in nomal group at 1 d, 3 d, 7 d. In contrast, the levels of GSH were decreaseel (Pparaquat poisioning group, the pulmonary SOD, Nrf2 mRNA and protein were increased and the lung wet dry ratio were all significantly decreased in mice of THD treatment group at 1 d, 3 d, 7 d (Pparaquat poisioning. The apoptosis index was markedly decreased in THD treatment groups comparing to paraquat piosioning group (Pparaquat poisioning, thalidomide could attenuate paraquat-induced acute lung injury and its mechanism may be activating the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway to protect mouse from Lipid peroxide damage.

  12. NLRP3 inflammasome activation regulated by NF-κB and DAPK contributed to paraquat-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenning; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Min

    2017-06-01

    Paraquat can result in dysfunction of multiple organs after ingestion in human. However, the mechanisms of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in acute kidney injury have not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its regulation by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and death-associated protein kinase (DAPK). Male Wistar rats were treated with intraperitoneal injection of paraquat at 20 mg/kg, and NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 was pretreated at 10 mg/kg 1 h before paraquat exposure. Additionally, rat renal tubular epithelial cells (NRK-52E) were transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against DAPK to evaluate its role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. DAPK and NLRP3 inflammasome were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining or Western blot; the pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were measured via ELISA. The results showed that NF-κB, DAPK, and NLRP3 inflammasome were activated in paraquat (PQ)-treated rat kidney; the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly increased. These toxic effects were attenuated by NF-κB inhibitor. Besides, the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in paraquat-treated rat renal tubular epithelial cells were inhibited by siRNA against DAPK. In conclusion, NLRP3 inflammasome activation regulated by NF-κB and DAPK played an important role in paraquat-induced acute kidney injury.

  13. Protective effect of Xuebijing injection on paraquat-induced pulmonary injury via down-regulating the expression of p38 MAPK in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-wei; Su, Mei-xian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yan-qiong; Chen, Mei; Wang, Li; Qian, Chuan-yun

    2014-12-16

    Exposure to paraquat results in acute lung injury. A systemic inflammatory response has been widely established as a contributor to paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Recent studies have reported that consumption of Xuebijing prevents inflammatory response-induced diseases. This study investigated whether consumption of Xuebijing protected rats against paraquat-induced acute lung injury. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group; paraquat group; paraquat + Xuebijing group; and paraquat + dexamethasone group. Rats in the paraquat, paraquat + Xuebijing and paraquat + dexamethasone groups were intraperitoneally injected with paraquat (30 mg/kg) or administered paraquat and Xuebijing at 8 mL/kg or dexamethasone at 5 mg/kg, respectively, via an injection into the tail vein. Lung p38 MAPK, NF-κB65, IkB, p-IκB-α, HIF-1α, Nrf2 and TGF-β1 expression were essayed using western blotting. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, TGF-β1 and PIIIP were measured using ELISA. ROS, oxidised glutathione and glutathione activity were measured. After inducing acute lung injury with paraquat for 24 h, Xuebijing was observed to block lung p-p38 MAPK, NF-κB65, HIF-1α, p-IκB-α and TGF-β1 expression, and increased Nrf2 and IkB expression. The numbers of neutrophils and lymphocytes and total number of cells were significantly lower in the Xuebijing group compared with the control group. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1 and PIIIP levels were significantly decreased in the Xuebijing group. ROS and oxidised glutathione activity were markedly inhibited by Xuebijing. Histological evaluation showed attenuation of the effects of Xuebijing on paraquat-induced lung injury. Compared with the paraquat + dexamethasone group, the Xuebijing + paraquat group showed no significant differences. Inhibiting the expression of p38 MAPK and NF-κB65 was crucial for the protective effects of Xuebijing on paraquat-induced acute lung injury. The

  14. [Analysis of risk factors for prognosis of patients with acute paraquat intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengjun, Jiao; Wen, Zhu; Taoning, Wang; Yaying, Yuan; Kai, Kang; Liu, Minlong

    2015-11-01

    To explore the risk factors influencing the prognosis by analyzing clinical data of patients with acute paraquat intoxication, and to assess the prognostic values of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) stage. The clinical data of patients with acute paraquat intoxication admitted into the First People's Hospital of Xianyang City during October 2005 to May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into death group and survival group according to 28-day outcome after poisoning. The gender, age, body weight index, toxin dose, time elapsed from poisoning to gastric lavage, time elapsed from poisoning to hemoperfusion (HP), times of HP treatment, white blood cell count (WBC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (TBil), serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatine kinase (CK) were determined at admission. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO₂), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO₂), arterial lactate (Lac), and APACHE II score, SOFA score and AKIN stage were recorded and compared between two groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted for APACHE II score, SOFA score and AKIN stage to analyze the prognostic value for patients with acute paraquat intoxication. There were 118 cases in total, with 64 survivors and 54 deaths in 28 days, and the fatality rate was 45.76%. Compared with survival group, the toxic dose (mL: 66.29 ± 27.40 vs. 29.16 ± 19.40), time elapsed from poisoning to gastric lavage (minutes: 60.37 26.68 vs. 41.17 ± 14.82), WBC count ( X 10⁹/L: 16.86 ± 2.77 vs. 10.25 ± 2.60), ALT (U/L: 53.94 ± 10.85 vs. 36.40 ± 9.21), SCr (μmol/L: 159.69 ± 42.85 vs. 81.73 ± 34.40) at admission as well as Lac (mmol/L: 3.06 ± 1.33 vs. 1.71 ± 0.88), APACHE II score (6.46 ± 2.38 vs. 3.31 ± 1.51), SOFA score (3.31 ± 1.06 vs

  15. Effect of low doses of herbicide paraquat on antioxidant defense in Drosophila

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krůček, Tomáš; Korandová, Michala; Szakosová, K.; Šerý, Michal; Čapková Frydrychová, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2015), s. 235-248 ISSN 0739-4462 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-07172S Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 038/2014/P; GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P; European Union Seventh Framework Programme(CZ) 316304 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Drosophila * oxidative stress * paraquat Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.357, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/arch.21222/epdf

  16. NLRP3 inflammasome activation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species plays a key role in long-term cognitive impairment induced by paraquat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuji; Na, Ren; Boldt, Erin; Ran, Qitao

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins such as pesticides is implicated in increasing Alzheimer's disease risk. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of paraquat exposure on cognition of Alzheimer's disease animal model APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Our results showed that APP/PS1 mice had exacerbated cognition impairment and elevated Aβ levels at 5 months after paraquat exposure, and that WT mice had cognition impairment at 5 and 16 months after paraquat exposure. In addition, increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and augmented brain inflammation were observed in both paraquat-exposed APP/PS1 mice and WT mice. Interestingly, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, which triggers inflammation in response to mitochondrial stress, was enhanced in paraquat-exposed mice. Moreover, transgenic mice overexpressing Prdx3, a key enzyme in detoxifying mitochondrial H2O2, had suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, reduced brain inflammation, and attenuated cognition impairment after paraquat exposure. Together, our results indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species plays a key role in mediating paraquat-induced long-term cognition decline by elevating brain inflammation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Wld(S reduces paraquat-induced cytotoxicity via SIRT1 in non-neuronal cells by attenuating the depletion of NAD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiujing Yu

    Full Text Available Wld(S is a fusion protein with NAD synthesis activity, and has been reported to protect axonal and synaptic compartments of neurons from various mechanical, genetic and chemical insults. However, whether Wld(S can protect non-neuronal cells against toxic chemicals is largely unknown. Here we found that Wld(S significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of bipyridylium herbicides paraquat and diquat in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but had no effect on the cytotoxicity induced by chromium (VI, hydrogen peroxide, etoposide, tunicamycin or brefeldin A. Wld(S also slowed down the death of mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat. Further studies demonstrated that Wld(S markedly attenuated mitochondrial injury including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, structural damage and decline of ATP induced by paraquat. Disruption of the NAD synthesis activity of Wld(S by an H112A or F116S point mutation resulted in loss of its protective function against paraquat-induced cell death. Furthermore, Wld(S delayed the decrease of intracellular NAD levels induced by paraquat. Similarly, treatment with NAD or its precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide attenuated paraquat-induced cytotoxicity and decline of ATP and NAD levels. In addition, we showed that SIRT1 was required for both exogenous NAD and Wld(S-mediated cellular protection against paraquat. These findings suggest that NAD and SIRT1 mediate the protective function of Wld(S against the cytotoxicity induced by paraquat, which provides new clues for the mechanisms underlying the protective function of Wld(S in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, and implies that attenuation of NAD depletion may be effective to alleviate paraquat poisoning.

  18. WldS Reduces Paraquat-Induced Cytotoxicity via SIRT1 in Non-Neuronal Cells by Attenuating the Depletion of NAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiujing; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Xuexia; Wu, Jingxia; Chen, Xingmiao; Liu, Yang; Wu, Dongmei; Zhai, Qiwei

    2011-01-01

    WldS is a fusion protein with NAD synthesis activity, and has been reported to protect axonal and synaptic compartments of neurons from various mechanical, genetic and chemical insults. However, whether WldS can protect non-neuronal cells against toxic chemicals is largely unknown. Here we found that WldS significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of bipyridylium herbicides paraquat and diquat in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but had no effect on the cytotoxicity induced by chromium (VI), hydrogen peroxide, etoposide, tunicamycin or brefeldin A. WldS also slowed down the death of mice induced by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat. Further studies demonstrated that WldS markedly attenuated mitochondrial injury including disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, structural damage and decline of ATP induced by paraquat. Disruption of the NAD synthesis activity of WldS by an H112A or F116S point mutation resulted in loss of its protective function against paraquat-induced cell death. Furthermore, WldS delayed the decrease of intracellular NAD levels induced by paraquat. Similarly, treatment with NAD or its precursor nicotinamide mononucleotide attenuated paraquat-induced cytotoxicity and decline of ATP and NAD levels. In addition, we showed that SIRT1 was required for both exogenous NAD and WldS-mediated cellular protection against paraquat. These findings suggest that NAD and SIRT1 mediate the protective function of WldS against the cytotoxicity induced by paraquat, which provides new clues for the mechanisms underlying the protective function of WldS in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, and implies that attenuation of NAD depletion may be effective to alleviate paraquat poisoning. PMID:21750730

  19. Tendencias de mortalidad por traumatismos y envenenamientos en adolescentes: México, 1979-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las causas externas de la mortalidad por traumatismos y envenenamientos, así como la tendencia que estas causas han mostrado entre adolescentes en México, de 1979 a 1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para la realización de este estudio descriptivo de la mortalidad se utilizaron las bases de datos de mortalidad registrada en México de 1979 a 1997. Los datos son recabados, codificados y capturados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, y se obtuvieron a través del Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Los datos fueron tabulados durante el último semestre de 2000, en Jalisco, en la Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud del Adolescente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. RESULTADOS: Los traumatismos y envenenamientos ocuparon el primer lugar en la mortalidad del grupo adolescente (tasa de 13.35/100 000 con una tendencia descendente de -41.4% durante el periodo 1979-1997, no obstante el incremento de homicidios y suicidios (9.5% y 104.0% respectivamente. Los mecanismos más frecuentes fueron los vehículos de tráfico de motor, las armas de fuego, las intoxicaciones, las sofocaciones y las asfixias por inmersión. CONCLUSIONES: Los traumatismos y envenenamientos que experimenta la población de países en desarrollo muestran frecuencias diferentes a lo registrado en los más desarrollados, haciendo necesario el estudio de los mismos para implantar las medidas preventivas acordes con las condiciones socioculturales y ambientales de cada entorno.

  20. Cellular Senescence Is Induced by the Environmental Neurotoxin Paraquat and Contributes to Neuropathology Linked to Parkinson's Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinta, Shankar J; Woods, Georgia; Demaria, Marco; Rane, Anand; Zou, Ying; McQuade, Amanda; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Limbad, Chandani; Madden, David T; Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie K

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ) is associated with an increased risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Therapies based on PQ's presumed mechanisms of action have not, however, yielded effective disease therapies. Cellular senescence is an anticancer mechanism that arrests proliferation

  1. Changes in the concentrations of creatinine, cystatin C and NGAL in patients with acute paraquat self-poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M.; Wilks, Martin F.; Roberts, Michael S.; Swaminathan, Ramasamyiyer; Mohamed, Fahim; Dawson, Andrew H.; Buckley, Nick A.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in creatinine >3 μmol/L/h has been suggested to predict death in patients with paraquat self-poisoning and the value of other plasma biomarkers of acute kidney injury has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to validate the predictive value of serial creatinine concentrations and to study the utility of cystatin C and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as predictors of outcome in patients with acute paraquat poisoning. The rate of change of creatinine (dCr/dt) and cystatin C (dCyC/dt) concentrations were compared between survivors and deaths. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the best threshold for predicting death. Paraquat was detected in 20 patients and 7 of these died between 18 h and 20 days post-ingestion. The dCr/dt ROC curve had an area of 0.93 and the cut-off was >4.3 μmol/L/h (sensitivity 100%, specificity 85%, likelihood ratio 7). The dCyC/dt ROC curve had an area of 0.97 and the cutoff was >0.009 mg/L/h (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91%, likelihood ratio 11). NGAL did not separate survivors from deaths. Death due to acute paraquat poisoning is associated with changes in creatinine and cystatin concentrations. Further validation of these measurements is needed before they can be adopted in guiding intensive treatments. PMID:21291964

  2. Use of Cdse/ZnS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of paraquat in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durán, Gema M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); IRICA (Regional Institute of Applied Scientific Research), Avenida Camilo José Cela, s/n., 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Contento, Ana M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Ríos, Ángel, E-mail: Angel.Rios@uclm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Food Technology, University of Castilla – La Mancha, Avenida Camilo José Cela, 10, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical use of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. •Methodology for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs. •Sensitive and selective reaction with paraquat herbicide. •Application to water samples. -- Abstract: Based on the highly sensitive fluorescence change of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QD) by paraquat herbicide, a simple, rapid and reproducible methodology was developed to selectively determine paraquat (PQ) in water samples. The methodology enabled the use of simple pretreatment procedure based on the simple water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), using microwave irradiation. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 596 nm with a high and reproducible photostability. The proposed analytical method thus satisfies the need for a simple, sensible and rapid methodology to determine residues of paraquat in water samples, as required by the increasingly strict regulations for health protection introduced in recent years. The sensitivity of the method, expressed as detection limits, was as low as 3.0 ng L{sup −1}. The lineal range was between 10–5 × 10{sup 3} ng L{sup −1}. RSD values in the range of 71–102% were obtained. The analytical applicability of proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing water samples from different procedence.

  3. Use of Cdse/ZnS quantum dots for sensitive detection and quantification of paraquat in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán, Gema M.; Contento, Ana M.; Ríos, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Analytical use of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. •Methodology for water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs. •Sensitive and selective reaction with paraquat herbicide. •Application to water samples. -- Abstract: Based on the highly sensitive fluorescence change of water-soluble CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots (QD) by paraquat herbicide, a simple, rapid and reproducible methodology was developed to selectively determine paraquat (PQ) in water samples. The methodology enabled the use of simple pretreatment procedure based on the simple water solubilization of CdSe/ZnS QDs with hydrophilic heterobifunctional thiol ligands, such as 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), using microwave irradiation. The resulting water-soluble QDs exhibit a strong fluorescence emission at 596 nm with a high and reproducible photostability. The proposed analytical method thus satisfies the need for a simple, sensible and rapid methodology to determine residues of paraquat in water samples, as required by the increasingly strict regulations for health protection introduced in recent years. The sensitivity of the method, expressed as detection limits, was as low as 3.0 ng L −1 . The lineal range was between 10–5 × 10 3 ng L −1 . RSD values in the range of 71–102% were obtained. The analytical applicability of proposed method was demonstrated by analyzing water samples from different procedence

  4. Resistance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat correlates well with both decreased and increased lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Van De Zande, L; Bijlsma, R

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing support for the notion that genetic variation for lifespan, both within and between species, is correlated with variation in the efficiency of the free radical scavenging system and the ability to withstand oxidative stress. In Drosophila, resistance to dietary paraquat, a free

  5. Removal of paraquat pesticide from aqueous solutions using a novel adsorbent material based on polyacrylamide and methylcellulose hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research studied the characteristics of poly(acrylamide) and methylcellulose (PAAm-MC) hydrogels as a novel adsorbent material for removal of pesticide paraquat, from aqueous solution, with potential applications in curbing environmental risk from such herbicides. PAAm-MC hydrogels with differe...

  6. The Arabidopsis PARAQUAT RESISTANT2 gene encodes an S-nitrosoglutathione reductase that is a key regulator of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruiqiang; Sun, Shulan; Wang, Chun; Li, Yansha; Liang, Yan; An, Fengying; Li, Chao; Dong, Haili; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jian; Zuo, Jianru

    2009-12-01

    Metabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a major biologically active nitric oxide (NO) species, is catalyzed by the evolutionally conserved GSNO reductase (GSNOR). Previous studies showed that the Arabidopsis GSNOR1/HOT5 gene regulates salicylic acid signaling and thermotolerance by modulating the intracellular S-nitrosothiol level. Here, we report the characterization of the Arabidopsis paraquat resistant2-1 (par2-1) mutant that shows an anti-cell death phenotype. The production of superoxide in par2-1 is comparable to that of wild-type plants when treated by paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride), suggesting that PAR2 acts downstream of superoxide to regulate cell death. PAR2, identified by positional cloning, is shown to be identical to GSNOR1/HOT5. The par2-1 mutant carries a missense mutation in a highly conserved glycine, which renders the mutant protein unstable. Compared to wild type, par2-1 mutant has a higher NO level, as revealed by staining with 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate. Consistent with this result, wild-type plants treated with an NO donor display resistance to paraquat. Interestingly, the GSNOR1/HOT5/PAR2 protein level, other than its steady-state mRNA level, is induced by paraquat, but is reduced by NO donors. Taken together, these results suggest that GSNOR1/HOT5/PAR2 plays an important role in regulating cell death in plant cells through modulating intracellular NO level.

  7. Antioxidant effects of selenium on lung injury in paraquat intoxicated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.S.; Suh, G.J.; Kwon, W.Y.; Kwak, Y.H.; Lee, Kenneth; Lee, H.J.; Jeong, K.Y.; Lee, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Paraquat (PQ) causes lethal intoxication by inducing oxidant injury to the lung. Selenium is a cofactor for glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is one of the major endogenous antioxidant enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether selenium post-treatment activates GPx, decreases lung injury, and improves survival in PQ intoxicated rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Spraque-Dawley rats were categorized into three groups: sham (n = 6), PQ (n = 12), and PQ + Se (n = 12). In the PQ and PQ + Se groups, 50 mg/kg of PQ was administered intraperitoneally. After 10 minutes, 60 μg/kg of Se (PQ + Se) or saline (PQ) was administered via the tail vein. Six rats per group were euthanized 6 hours or 24 hours later. Lung tissues were harvested for the measurement of GPx activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and for histological analysis. Using separated set of rats, survival of PQ (n = 10) and PQ + Se (n = 10) were observed for 72 hours. RESULTS: GPx activity in the PQ group at the 6-hour and 24-hour time points was lower than in the sham group (p CONCLUSION: Single dose of selenium post-treatment activates GPx and attenuates lipid peroxidation and lung injury early after paraquat intoxication, but does not improve 72 hours of survival.

  8. Protective Effects of Liposomal N-Acetylcysteine against Paraquat-Induced Cytotoxicity and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Mitsopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a herbicide that preferentially accumulates in the lung and exerts its cytotoxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. There is no specific treatment for paraquat poisoning. Attempts have been made to increase the antioxidant status in the lung using antioxidants (e.g., superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, N-acetylcysteine but the outcome from such treatments is limited. Encapsulation of antioxidants in liposomes improves their therapeutic potential against oxidant-induced lung damage because liposomes facilitate intracellular delivery and prolong the retention of entrapped agents inside the cell. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of conventional N-acetylcysteine (NAC and liposomal-NAC (L-NAC against PQ-induced cytotoxicity and examined the mechanism(s by which these antioxidant formulations conferred cytoprotection. The effects of NAC or L-NAC against PQ-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells were assessed by measuring cellular PQ uptake, intracellular glutathione content, ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular gene expression, inflammatory cytokine release and cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with L-NAC was significantly more effective than pretreatment with the conventional drug in reducing PQ-induced cytotoxicity, as indicated by the biomarkers used in this study. Our results suggested that the delivery of NAC as a liposomal formulation improves its effectiveness in counteracting PQ-induced cytotoxicity.

  9. Protective Effects of Liposomal N-Acetylcysteine against Paraquat-Induced Cytotoxicity and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Suntres, Zacharias E

    2011-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is a herbicide that preferentially accumulates in the lung and exerts its cytotoxicity via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is no specific treatment for paraquat poisoning. Attempts have been made to increase the antioxidant status in the lung using antioxidants (e.g., superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, N-acetylcysteine) but the outcome from such treatments is limited. Encapsulation of antioxidants in liposomes improves their therapeutic potential against oxidant-induced lung damage because liposomes facilitate intracellular delivery and prolong the retention of entrapped agents inside the cell. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of conventional N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and liposomal-NAC (L-NAC) against PQ-induced cytotoxicity and examined the mechanism(s) by which these antioxidant formulations conferred cytoprotection. The effects of NAC or L-NAC against PQ-induced cytotoxicity in A549 cells were assessed by measuring cellular PQ uptake, intracellular glutathione content, ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular gene expression, inflammatory cytokine release and cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with L-NAC was significantly more effective than pretreatment with the conventional drug in reducing PQ-induced cytotoxicity, as indicated by the biomarkers used in this study. Our results suggested that the delivery of NAC as a liposomal formulation improves its effectiveness in counteracting PQ-induced cytotoxicity.

  10. Rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis: Activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiheng; Tai, Wenlin; Qu, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Wenjuan; Li, ZhenKun; Deng, Shuhao; Vongphouttha, Chanthasone; Dong, Zhaoxing

    2017-08-19

    Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used herbicide indeveloping countries worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most typical features of PQ poisoning. The molecular mechanism of PQ toxicity especially how to treat PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis is still largely unknown. In animal model of pulmonary fibrosis, we used HE staining, western blotting assay and Real-time PCR assay to analyze the effects of rapamycin on the PQ-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that PQ induced the pulmonary fibrosis using HE staining and Masson's staining, and up-regulated the activity of HYP and the mRNA expressions of Collagen I and III (COL-1and COL-3) in pulmonary tissues. We also found that rapamycin down-regulated the mesenchymal cell marker Vimentin and up-regulated the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin both in mRNA and protein levels compared with PQ group. And the EMT associated transcription factor Snail was decreased by rapamycin treatment compared with PQ group. And PQ decreased the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels, and rapamycin inhibited these effects of PQ. SFN, a activator of Nrf2, could inhibit the EMT and the expression of Snail. And knockdowon of Nrf2 could abolish the inhibitory effects of rapamycin of PQ-induced EMT. In conclusion, rapamycin protects against paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by activation of Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of decreased dopamine transporter levels on nigrostriatal neurons and paraquat/maneb toxicity in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Franziska; Gabby, Lauryn; McDowell, Kimberly A.; Mulligan, Caitlyn K.; De La Rosa, Krystal; Sioshansi, Pedrom C.; Mortazavi, Farzad; Cely, Ingrid; Ackerson, Larry C.; Tsan, Linda; Murphy, Niall P.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2016-01-01

    How genetic variations in the dopamine transporter (DAT) combined with exposure to environmental toxins modulate the risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remains unclear. Using unbiased stereology in DAT knock-down mice (DAT-KD) and wild-type (WT) littermates we found that decreased DAT caused a loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (dopaminergic) neurons in subregions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) at 3–4 days, 5 weeks, and 18 months of age. Both genotypes lost dopaminergic neurons with age and remaining neurons at 11 months were resilient to paraquat/maneb. In 5 weeks old mice, the toxins decreased SNc dopaminergic neurons in both genotypes but less in DAT-KD. Regional analysis revealed striking differences in the subsets of neurons affected by low DAT, paraquat/maneb, and aging. In particular, we show that a potentially protective effect of low DAT against toxin exposure is not sufficient to reduce death of all nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Thus, different regional vulnerability of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons may contribute to an increased risk of developing PD when multiple factors are combined. PMID:28038352

  12. Foliar Desiccators Glyphosate, Carfentrazone, and Paraquat Affect the Technological and Chemical Properties of Cowpea Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Igor da Silva; Lang, Gustavo Heinrich; Hoffmann, Jessica Fernanda; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; de Oliveira, Maurício; Elias, Moacir Cardoso; Vanier, Nathan Levien

    2017-08-16

    The effects of the use of glyphosate (GLY), glyphosate plus carfentrazone (GLY/CAR), and paraquat (PAR) as plant desiccators on the technological and chemical properties of cowpea grains were investigated. All studied desiccants provided lower cooking time to freshly harvested cowpea. However, the coat color of PAR- and GLY/CAR-treated cowpea was reddish in comparison to the control treatment. Principal component analysis (PCA) from liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data sets showed a clear distinction among cowpea from the different treatments. Catechin-3-glucoside and epicatechin significantly contributed for discriminating GLY-treated cowpea, while citric acid was responsible for discriminating GLY/CAR-treated cowpea. Quercetin derivative and gluconic acid were responsible for discriminating control treatment. Residual glyphosate and paraquat content was higher than the maximum limits allowed by Codex Alimentarius and the European Union Commission. Improvements in the technological and chemical properties of cowpea may not be overlapped by the risks that those desiccants exhibit when exceeding the maximum limits of tolerance in food.

  13. Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Rats Causes Progressive Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Cell Loss and Enhanced Vulnerability to the Pesticide Paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Che Brown; Lazo, Carlos R.; Mortazavi, Farzad; Giza, Christopher C.; Hovda, David

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the accumulation of alpha-synuclein. Both traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pesticides are risk factors for PD, but whether TBI causes nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss in experimental models and whether it acts synergistically with pesticides is unknown. We have examined the acute and long-term effects of TBI and exposure to low doses of the pesticide paraquat, separately and in combination, on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in adult male rats. In an acute study, rats received moderate TBI by lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury, were injected with saline or paraquat (10 mg/kg IP) 3 and 6 days after LFP, were sacrificed 5 days later, and their brains processed for immunohistochemistry. TBI alone increased microglial activation in the substantia nigra, and caused a 15% loss of dopaminergic neurons ipsilaterally. Paraquat increased the TBI effect, causing a 30% bilateral loss of dopaminergic neurons, reduced striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity more than TBI alone, and induced alpha-synuclein accumulation in the substantia nigra pars compacta. In a long-term study, rats received moderate LFP, were injected with saline or paraquat at 21 and 22 weeks post-injury, and were sacrificed 4 weeks later. At 26 weeks post injury, TBI alone induced a 30% bilateral loss of dopaminergic neurons that was not exacerbated by paraquat. These data suggest that TBI is sufficient to induce a progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, TBI and pesticide exposure, when occurring within a defined time frame, could combine to increase the PD risk. PMID:21644813

  14. Photosynthetic 14C fixation in leaves and isolated chloroplasts of some scrub species under the influence of paraquat and 2,4,5-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudana Rao, I.; Swamy, P.M.; Rama Das, V.S.

    1980-01-01

    The diurnal course of carbon dioxide uptake in the leaves of six nonsucculent semiarid scrub species was investigated. Five nonsucculent scrub species, Carissa spinarum, Maba buxifolia, Flacourtia sepiaria, Gymnosporia emerginata and Dodonaea viscosa exhibited nocturnal carbon assimilation while day time CO 2 uptake was predominant in Chomelia asiatica. Foliar application of paraquat (100 mg 1sup(-1)) or 2,4,5-T (2000 mg 1sup(-1)) caused a marked inhibition in the dark uptake of CO 2 . On the other hand, carbon uptake during day was slightly reduced. Studies on the carbon assimilation of isolated chloroplasts under the influence of paraquat or 2,4,5-T revealed that paraquat is more effective than 2,4,5-T in the suppression of carbon assimilation of in vivo and in vitro chloroplasts. The data suggested that the process of nocturnal carbon assimilation is far more sensitive to paraquat than the light dependent carbon fixation during day. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the defense system in chloroplasts to photooxidative stress caused by paraquat using transgenic tobacco plants expressing catalase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Y; Tamoi, M; Shigeoka, S

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the defense system in chloroplasts to photooxidative stress imposed by paraquat treatment under illumination in transgenic tobacco plants with increased tolerance to drought stress at a high light intensity produced by catalase from Escherichia coli targeted to chloroplasts [Shikanai et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 428: 47]. At 24 h after the paraquat application, Chl was destroyed in the wild-type plants, but not in transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activities monitored by CO2 fixation and Chl fluorescence were much less affected by the paraquat treatment in transgenic lines. The activities of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) isoenzymes decreased in parallel with the depletion of ascorbate (AsA) in leaves in both lines. Paraquat treatment had no effect on the transcript level of chloroplastic APX isoenzymes, while it significantly lowered the level of their proteins. These data suggest that the depletion of AsA in chloroplasts under severe stress conditions inactivates and degrades chloroplastic APX isoenzymes.

  16. Prospects for treatment of paraquat-induced lung fibrosis with immunosuppressive drugs and the need for better prediction of outcome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, M; Wilks, M F; Buckley, N A

    2003-11-01

    Acute paraquat self-poisoning is a significant problem in parts of Asia, the Pacific and the Caribbean. Ingestion of large amounts of paraquat results in rapid death, but smaller doses often cause a delayed lung fibrosis that is usually fatal. Anti-neutrophil ('immunosuppressive') treatment has been recommended to prevent lung fibrosis, but there is no consensus on efficacy. To review the evidence for the use of immunosuppression in paraquat poisoning, and to identify validated prognostic systems that would allow the use of data from historical control studies and the future identification of patients who might benefit from immunosuppression. Systematic review. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases for 'paraquat' together with 'poisoning' or 'overdose'. We cross-checked references and contacted experts, and searched on [www.google.com] and [www.yahoo.com] using 'paraquat', 'cyclophosphamide', 'methylprednisolone' and 'prognosis'. We found ten clinical studies of immunosuppression in paraquat poisoning. One was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Seven used historical controls only; the other two were small (n = 1 and n = 4). Mortality in controls and patients varied markedly between studies. Three of the seven non-RCT controlled studies measured plasma paraquat; analysis using Proudfoot's or Hart's nomograms did not suggest that immunosuppression increased survival in these studies. Of 16 prognostic systems for paraquat poisoning, none has been independently validated in a large cohort. The authors of the RCT have performed valuable and difficult research, but their results are hypothesis-forming rather than conclusive; elsewhere, the use of historical controls is problematic. In the absence of a validated prognostic marker, a large RCT of immunosuppression using death as the primary outcome is required. This RCT should also prospectively test and validate the available prognostic methods, so that future patients can be selected for this and other

  17. Mechanical stretch exacerbates the cell death in SH-SY5Y cells exposed to paraquat: mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Franco, Rodrigo; Skotak, Maciej; Hu, Gang; Chandra, Namas

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) and pesticide exposure increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Using an in vitro model of TBI, we evaluated the role of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by stretch on dopaminergic cell death upon paraquat exposure. Human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells grown on silicone membrane were stretched at mild (25%) and moderate (50%) strain prior to paraquat exposure. We observed that moderate stretch (50% strain) increased the vulnerability of cells to paraquat demonstrated by the loss of plasma membrane integrity (propidium iodide-uptake) and decreased mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Mitochondrial depolarization occurred immediately after stretch, while mitochondrial ROS increased rapidly and remained elevated for up to 4h after the stretch injury. Intracellular glutathione (GSH) stores were also transiently decreased immediately after moderate stretch. Cells treated with paraquat, or moderate stretch exhibited negligible mitochondrial depolarization at 48h post treatment, whereas in cells stretched prior to paraquat exposure, a significant mitochondrial depolarization occurred compared to samples exposed to either paraquat or stretch. Moderate stretch also increased mitochondrial ROS formation, as well as exacerbated intracellular GSH loss induced by paraquat. Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) markedly diminished the deleterious effects of stretch in paraquat neurotoxicity. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress induced by mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the synergistic toxic effects of stretch (TBI) and pesticide exposure. Mitigation of oxidative stress via mitochondria-targeted antioxidants appears an attractive route for treatment of neurodegeneration mediated by TBI. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. [Observation on the best dose of methylprednisolone improving lung injury in swine with paraquat intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chao; Li, Haina; Li, Li; Wang, Jinzhu; Pei, Hui; Li, Lu; Liu, Lanping; Di, Min

    2015-01-01

    To observe the best dose of methylprednisolone improving lung injury in swine with paraquat intoxication. Acute lung injury (ALI/ARDS) model was made by an intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of 20%PQ solution20 millilitres in swine. Then 24 swine were randomly divided into 4 groups: exposed PQ control group, 5 mg/kg of methylprednisolone group, 15 mg/kg of methylprednisolone group, 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone group. All groups were based on the conventional rehydration for intervention, Arterial blood samples were collected before modeling and 0, 12, 24, 36 hours after different processing for blood gas analysis. At the same time heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were measured by using PICCO (pulse indicator continuous cardiac output), lung tissue was obtained by punctureneedle to produce lung biopsy, then observe the pathological changes of lung tissue in the microscope. 1. Comparison between groups: there is no significant difference about extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and semi-quantitative score of lung tissue pathology in four groups (P > 0.05) before modeling, so is t0, there is significant difference at about extravascular lung water index and semi-quantitative score of lung tissue pathology 12 h, 24 h and 36 h after different processing (P Lung tissue pathology in four groups significantly increased when the model was made (P Lung tissue pathology in exposed PQ control group kept going up, in other three groups, EVLWI and semi-quantitative score of lung tissue pathology went down first and then went up, there is significant difference compared with t0 (P 0.05) before modeling, so is t0, there is significant difference about oxygenation at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h after different processing (P Lung tissue pathology (r = 0.903, P = 0.034). Methylprednisolone can obviously relieve lung injury caused by paraquat poisoning and improve oxygenation

  19. [Change of JNK and c-Jun in lung injury associated with paraquat poisoning of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hui; Sun, Zhi-Ping; Ma, Yu-Teng

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the change of JNK and c-Jun in lung injury associated with paraquat poisoning of rats. 46 Rats were randomly divided into four groups: PQ group (n = 12), control group (n = 10), PQ + ZnPP group (n = 12) and PQ + Hm group (n = 12). The rats were injected with 2% PQ (25 mg/kg, ip) in PQ group. ZnPP and Hemin (10 mg/kg, 10 mg/ml) were injected through inguinal vein before intraperitoneal administration of 2% paraquat in PQ + ZnPP group and PQ + Hm group respectively. The rats were injected NS (1 ml/kg, ip) in control group. HE dyeing of lung tissue and MDA content of plasma were used for estimating the injury of lung tissue. The content of CO in the lung tissue was determined. The expression of HO-1 mRNA of the lung tissue was detected by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun was evaluated by Western blot analysis. The degree of lung injury in PQ group and PQ + ZnPP group was higher than that in control group and PQ + Hm group. But in PQ + Hm group the degree of lung injury was lower. The content of MDA in PQ group and PQ + ZnPP group was higher than that in control group and PQ + Hm group (P ZnPP group and PQ + Hm group was and (1.08 +/- 0.15 mg/L) respectively, and higher than that in control group (P ZnPP group (P ZnPP group and PQ + Hm group. Those in PQ + Hm group were higher significantly than PQ group and PQ + ZnPP group (P ZnPP group were lower than PQ group (P < 0.05). The increase of CO of lung tissue in rats at the lung injury associated with paraquat poisoning reduces the acute lung injury of rats. The level of JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation increases obviously, especially after Hemin is utilized.

  20. Retrospective case series of suspected intentional paraquat poisonings: diagnostic findings and risk factors for death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Carrie M; DeBess, Emilio E; Scott, Marilyn; Stone, David

    2004-12-01

    We investigated a cluster of canine poisonings around the 4th of July weekend in 2003 in dogs that visited a local park. Medical records review and personal interviews were performed on 17 suspect cases; 14 dogs met the case definition criteria. The 13/14 dogs were allowed off-leash at some point during their visit to the park; 7 owners noted their dog had either eaten something at the park or vomited up meat-like material within 1 h after their walk. Eleven of the 14 dogs died or were euthanized. Urine samples from 4 dogs were positive for trace amounts of paraquat and 1 vomitus sample tested positive. Tachypnea was a significant risk factor for death of the dogs. Oral or gastrointestinal ulcers were significantly correlated with recovery.

  1. Comparative studies of the mechanisms of paraquat and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Monte, D.; Sandy, M.S.; Ekstroem, G.; Smith, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP + ) is the putative toxic metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and is structurally similar to the herbicide paraquat (PQ ++ ). The authors have therefore compared the effects of MPP + and PQ ++ on isolated rat hepatocytes. PQ ++ generates reactive oxygen species within cells by redox cycling and its toxicity to hepatocytes was potentiated by pretreatment with 1,3-bis(2-chlorethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU), an inhibitor of glutathione reductase. In BCNU-treated cells, PQ ++ caused GSH depletion, lipid peroxidation and cell death. These cytotoxic effects were prevented by the antioxidant N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and the iron-chelating agent desferrioxamine. MPP + also caused GSH depletion in BCNU-treated hepatocytes but its cytotoxicity was not markedly affected by BCNU, nor was it accompanied by significant lipid peroxidation. DPPD and desferrioxamine also failed to prevent MPP + -induced cell death

  2. Triptolide suppresses paraquat induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting TGFB1-dependent epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Qun; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Shi, Guang-Yue; Sui, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Li-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Ying; Liu, Li; Su, Yu-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Li, Zhen-Zi; Fu, Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and tumor are highly similar to abnormal cell proliferation that damages the body. This malignant cell evolution in a stressful environment closely resembles that of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As a popular EMT-inducing factor, TGFβ plays an important role in the progression of multiple diseases. However, the drugs that target TGFB1 are limited. In this study, we found that triptolide (TPL), a Chinese medicine extract, exerts an anti-lung fibrosis effect by inhibiting the EMT of lung epithelial cells. In addition, triptolide directly binds to TGFβ and subsequently increase E-cadherin expression and decrease vimentin expression. In in vivo studies, TPL improves the survival state and inhibits lung fibrosis in mice. In summary, this study revealed the potential therapeutic effect of paraquat induced TPL in lung fibrosis by regulating TGFβ-dependent EMT progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effect of paraquat on the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 in A549 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W Y; Lin, C W; Wang, B F; Feng, S G

    2018-01-20

    Objective: Construct a paraquat (PQ) cell fibrosis model in vitro, observe the effect of PQ on the expression of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-17 (ADAM17) in A549 cells, and explore the role of ADAM17 in the pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Methods: A549 cells are divided into normal control group, different concentration of PQ groups, CCK-8 is used to detect cell viability, screening concentration and time of PQ, cell morphology is observed under microscope; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detectes fibrosis markers of collagen type I (Col I) and fibronectin (FN) expression. Establishment of cell model of fibrosis; distribution by immunocytochemical detection of ADAM17 in A549 cells, Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot are used to detect the expression of ADAM17 mRNA and protein. Results: 1. With the increase of PQ concentration and the prolongation of the action time, the activity of A549 cells decreased ( P A549 cells fusion is paving stone growth and arranged more closely. After PQ induction, the cell arrangement was loose, the intercellular connection became loose, and some cells dissolved and died. 3.ELISA showed that with the increase of PQ concentration, the expression of Col I and FN increased ( P A549 cells. 5. RT-PCR and Western blot showed that the expression of ADAM17 mRNA and protein increased significantly with the increase of PQ concentration ( P A549 cells. ADAM17 is overexpressed in the A549 cells induced by PQ and may be involved in the process of pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

  4. Assessment of occurrence and concentrations of paraquat dichloride in water, sediments and fish from Warri River Basin, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpesu, Thomas Ohwofasa

    2015-06-01

    The distribution of Paraquat dichloride in different matrices of Warri River, Western Niger Delta, Nigeria was examined. The samplings and physicochemical parameters of the river were carried out during the dry and wet seasons, and stations were visited on monthly basis. The downstream stations had significant (p water, the pesticide level was higher in the dry season than in wet season, and there was no significant difference between the seasons (p > 0.05). The reverse was the case for sediments and fish. The physicochemical parameters of the river's water were within the recommended limits accepted by Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria. The observed Paraquat dichloride concentrations were above ecological bench, an observation that calls for regular monitoring and strict law enforcement to develop a strategy to manage environmental hazards and to improve environmental protection of this area.

  5. Traditional chinese medicine Xuebijing treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Gong

    Full Text Available Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days plus conventional therapy (XBJ group. Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02 compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001 compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all P<0.05, but these values were significant improved in the XBJ group (all P<0.05. Only one patient had skin rash with itch within 30 minutes after injection and no severe adverse events were found in the XBJ group. In conclusion, XBJ treatment is associated with decreased mortality risk of patients with moderate paraquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events.

  6. Addition of immunosuppressive treatment to hemoperfusion is associated with improved survival after paraquat poisoning: a nationwide study.

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    Wen-Pyng Wu

    Full Text Available Paraquat poisoning associates very high mortality rate. Early treatment with hemoperfusion is strongly suggested by animal and human studies. Although the survival benefit of additional immunosuppressive treatment (IST in combination with hemoperfusion is also reported since 1971, the large-scale randomized control trials to confirm the effects of IST is difficult to be executed. Therefore, we designed this nationwide large-scale population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcome of paraquat poisoning with hemoperfusion and the additional effects of IST combined with hemoperfusion. This nationwide retrospective cohort study utilized data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. A total of 1811 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of paraquat poisoning who received hemoperfusion between 1997 and 2009 were enrolled. The mean age of all 1811 study subjects was 47.3 years. 70% was male. The overall survival rate was only 26.4%. Respiratory failure and renal failure were diagnosed in 56.2% and 36% patients. The average frequency of hemoperfusion was twice. IST was added in 42.2% patients. IST significantly increases survival rate (from 24.3% to 29.3%, P<0.001. The combined IST with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone associates with the highest survival rate (48%, P<0.001. Moreover, patients younger than 45 years of age in the IST group had the best survival (41.0% vs. 33.7%, p<0.001. Our results support the use of IST with hemoperfusion for paraquat-poisoned patients. The best survival effect of IST is the combination of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and daily dexamethasone, especially in patients with younger age.

  7. Paraquat-induced pulmonary lesions : HRCT findings in long-term follow-up : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Tong; Hong, Sae Yong; Kim, Il Young

    1997-01-01

    We illustrate serial HRCT findings over a 16-month period in a 35-year-old woman who had ingested paraquat. Initial areas of ground-glass opacity changed into areas of multiple air cysts on follow up scan obtained five months after ingestion. A further follow-up scan obtained 16 months after ingestion showed improvement, with increased lung volume and normalized lung architecture

  8. Catalytic activity of bimetallic Zn/TiO2 catalyst for degradation of herbicide paraquat: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakee, Uthai; Wanchanthuek, Ratchaneekorn

    2017-11-01

    The preparation and characterization of Zn/TiO2 catalysts were performed and the photocatalytic properties of the resulting catalysts were tested using the paraquat degradation reaction under UV and solar light irradiation. The effect of the preparation method, amount of Zn loading, the calcination temperature and the thermal annealing during the autoclave aging were studied as well as the light irradiation during the testing reaction. The initial concentration of paraquat was 400 ppm, the pH during the catalytic testing was seven and the reaction temperature was 30 °C. The characterization information were obtained from XRD, XPS, UV-vis diffuse reflectance, FTIR, TEM and BET techniques. They were used to explain the expressed catalytic activity of Zn/TiO2. The results showed that the Zn/TiO2 catalyst from the hydrothermal method could remove about 80% of the paraquat from the solution (using 4 g l-1 of catalyst). The characterization data showed that the surface area, porous structure and dispersion of Zn species could affect the ability of the paraquat removal rather than the crystallnity of the TiO2 in the catalyst. The XPS spectra suggested that the preparation method, between the sol gel and hydrothermal, could not affect the state of the Zn and Ti, which presented in the Zn2+ and Ti4+ forms. This primary result will lead us to further study to elucidate the main active site by the XPS technique. Moreover, it clearly showed that the lowering of the band gap energy in the Zn/TiO2 was achieved (compared to bare TiO2), and this phenomena was one of the factors that gave the higher photocatalytic activity of the Zn/TiO2 catalyst.

  9. Successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy as a bridge to sequential bilateral lung transplantation for a patient after severe paraquat poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Sun, Bing; He, Hangyong; Li, Hui; Hu, Bin; Qiu, Zewu; Li, Jie; Zhang, Chunyan; Hou, Shengcai; Tong, Zhaohui; Dai, Huaping

    2015-11-01

    Paraquat is a widely used herbicide that can cause severe to fatal poisoning in humans. The irreversible and rapid progression of pulmonary fibrosis associated with respiratory failure is the main cause of death in the later stages of poisoning. There are infrequent reports of successful lung transplants for cases of severe paraquat poisoning. We expect that this successful case will provide a reference for other patients in similar circumstances. A 24-year-old female was sent to the hospital approximately 2 hours after ingesting 50 ml of paraquat. She experienced rapidly aggravated pulmonary fibrosis and severe respiratory failure. On the 34th day after ingestion, she underwent intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation. The patient was evaluated for lung transplantation, and veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was established as a bridge to lung transplantation on the 44th day. On the 56th day, she successfully underwent a bilateral sequential lung transplantation. Through respiratory and physical rehabilitation and nutrition support, the patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated on the 66th day. On the 80th day, she was discharged. During the 1-year follow-up, the patient was found to be in good condition, and her pulmonary function improved gradually. We suggest that lung transplantation may be an effective treatment in the end stages of paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis and consequential respiratory failure. For patients experiencing a rapid progression to a critical condition in whom lung transplantation cannot be performed immediately (e.g., while awaiting a viable donor or toxicant clearance), ECMO should be a viable bridge to lung transplantation.

  10. Developmental exposure to paraquat and maneb can impair cognition, learning and memory in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; He, Xi; Sun, Yan; Li, Baixiang

    2016-10-20

    Paraquat and maneb are identified environmental pollutants. Combined exposure to paraquat and maneb is a latent risk factor for many diseases, particularly those of the central nervous system, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampus is the key structure in memory formation and babies are more sensitive to environmental stimuli than adults, so we investigated the neurotoxicity of paraquat and maneb on the hippocampi of rat pups. Female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were mated (female : male = 2 : 1) every night for a week. The gravid rats were randomly divided into three groups (one control and two experimental groups). A mixed solution of paraquat-maneb was administered twice a week by lavage at a dose of 10 or 15 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (containing 30 or 45 mg kg(-1) bodyweight maneb, respectively) from day 6 after pregnancy till ablactation. Maternal weight gain and offspring bodyweights were not affected by the drugs. However, behavioral tests showed that reaction latency and mistake frequency increased after treatment. Intuitively, we found significant changes in the hippocampal neurons in the morphological observation. Taking into account the interaction of the related genes in the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway, we used a variety of methods to detect the gene and protein levels. Reduced expression of cAMP and related genes and proteins in the hippocampus and serum was also observed. These results indicate that PQ-MB stimulates cAMP to reduce the production of PKA, thus reducing the phosphorylation of CREB and inhibiting the activation of other elements (BDNF, C-JUN, and C-FOS). These changes lead to hippocampal damage and impaired abilities (learning, cognition, and memory). Our results demonstrate that PQ-MB induces hippocampal toxicity in the early life of rats, and they thus provide a theoretical foundation for further investigation of the bathypelagic mechanism involved and measures that can be taken to avoid PQ-MB neurotoxicity.

  11. Brote epidémico por consumo de pez mantequilla: keriorrea e intoxicación histamínica

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    Mª Azucena Fariñas Cabrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El consumo de pez mantequilla se está extendiendo en nuestro país. Si no se cumplen unas adecuadas normas de conservación y preparación de este tipo de alimento puede producir intoxicaciones. El objetivo del trabajo fue describir un brote de doble intoxicación por histamina y ésteres cerosos tras el consumo de pez mantequilla. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de la doble intoxicación producida en un banquete celebrado en julio de 2013 en Valladolid. Se estudió mediante la cumplimentación de una encuesta específica telefónica o desde los centros asistenciales que atendieron a los comensales. La base de datos y posterior análisis estadístico descriptivo se realizaron con el programa Microsoft Excel Professional Plus 2010. Resultados. De los 27 casos declarados,en 24 se obtuvo información sobre los síntomas. La tasa de ataque fue 22,5%, con un cuadro clínico en el que predominó la diarrea (75%, la cefalea (46%, el dolor abdominal (38% y la sudoración (38%, destacando por su especificidad el picor/ardor de boca (29%. Cuatro pacientes presentaron heces anaranjadas y oleosas (keriorrhea. El tiempo medio transcurrido, desde el inicio de la cena hasta la aparición de los síntomas, fue de dos horas. La duración media de la sintomatología fue de 14 horas. La analítica del pescado servido mostró niveles de histamina superiores a 2.000 mg/kg. Conclusiones. Se produjo una doble intoxicación (histamina y ésteres cerosos por consumo de pez mantequilla. El cuadro fue leve y autolimitado.

  12. Autoradiography of [14C]paraquat or [14C]diquat in frogs and mice: accumulation in neuromelanin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, N.G.; Larsson, B.S.; Lyden-Sokolowski, A.

    1988-01-01

    The herbicide paraquat has been suggested as a causative agent for Parkinson's disease because of its structural similarity to a metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which may induce a parkinsonism-like condition. MPTP as well as its metabolite 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine have melanin affinity, and the parkinsonism-inducing potency of MPTP is much stronger in species with melanin in the nerve cells. Autoradiography of [ 3 H]MPTP in experimental animals has shown accumulation in melanin-containing tissues, including pigmented neurons. In the present whole body autoradiographic study accumulation and retention was seen in neuromelanin in frogs after i.p. injection of [ 14 C]paraquat or[ 14 C]diquat. By means of whole body autoradiography of [ 14 C]diquat in mice (a species with no or very limited amounts of neuromelanin) a low, relatively uniformly distributed level of radioactivity was observed in brain tissue. Accumulation of toxic chemical compounds, such as paraquat, in neuromelanin may ultimately cause lesions in the pigmented nerve cells, leading to Parkinson's disease

  13. Viral-toxin interactions and Parkinson’s disease: poly(I:C priming enhanced the neurodegenerative effects of paraquat

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    Bobyn Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson’s disease (PD has been linked with exposure to a variety of environmental and immunological insults (for example, infectious pathogens in which inflammatory and oxidative processes seem to be involved. In particular, epidemiological studies have found that pesticide exposure and infections may be linked with the incidence of PD. The present study sought to determine whether exposure to a viral mimic prior to exposure to pesticides would exacerbate PD-like pathology. Methods Mice received a supra-nigral infusion of 5 μg of the double-stranded RNA viral analog, polyinosinic: polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C, followed 2, 7 or 14 days later by administration of the pesticide, paraquat (nine 10 mg/kg injections over three weeks. Results As hypothesized, poly(I:C pre-treatment enhanced dopamine (DA neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta elicited by subsequent paraquat treatment. The augmented neuronal loss was accompanied by robust signs of microglial activation, and by increased expression of the catalytic subunit (gp91 of the NADPH oxidase oxidative stress enzyme. However, the paraquat and poly(I:C treatments did not appreciably affect home-cage activity, striatal DA terminals, or subventricular neurogenesis. Conclusions These findings suggest that viral agents can sensitize microglial-dependent inflammatory responses, thereby rendering nigral DA neurons vulnerable to further environmental toxin exposure.

  14. Early exposure to paraquat sensitizes dopaminergic neurons to subsequent silencing of PINK1 gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongxia; Huang, Cao; Tong, Jianbin; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    Environmental exposure, genetic modification, and aging are considered risky for Parkinson's disease (PD). How these risk factors cooperate to induce progressive neurodegeneration in PD remains largely unknown. Paraquat is an herbicide commonly used for weed and grass control. Exposure to paraquat is associated with the increased incidence of PD. In contrast to familial PD, most sporadic PD cases do not have genetic mutation, but may suffer from partial dysfunction of neuron-protective genes as aging. Using conditional transgenic RNAi, we showed that temporal silencing of PINK1 expression in adult mice increased striatal dopamine, the phenotype that could not be induced by constitutive gene silencing. Moreover, early exposure to paraquat sensitized dopaminergic neurons to subsequent silencing of PINK1 gene expression, leading to a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons. Our findings suggest a novel pathogenesis of PD: exposure to environmental toxicants early in the life reduces the threshold of developing PD and partial dysfunction of neuron-protective genes later in the life initiates a process of progressive neurodegeneration to cross the reduced threshold of disease onset.

  15. Paraquat increases superoxide dismutase activity and radiation resistance in two mouse lymphoma L5178Y cell strains of different radiosensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworska, A.; Rosiek, O.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that paraquat treatment (1 h, 1 x 10 -5 mol/l) increases the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in L5178Y (LY) R and S cells by about three times. When combined with X-irradiation, 0.5 h of treatment preceding irradiation increased the SOD activity two-fold and the α/β ratio three-fold, as estimated from the X-ray survival curves. LY-S cells were more sensitive than LY-R cells to treatment with paraquat alone. These results indicate that SOD may be a radioprotective enzyme in LY strains and that LY-S cells are particularly sensitive to superoxide radicals as a result of a relatively low SOD activity. This explains their sensitivity to paraquat, which generates O 2 - , and to X-rays. The low SOD level may also explain the higher initial DNA damage in X-irradiated LY-S than LY-R cells. (author)

  16. Produtividade de feijoeiro de inverno submetido à dessecação com paraquat na pré-colheita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Kappes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da época e da dose de aplicação de dessecante, em pré-colheita do feijoeiro, é de extrema importância para se evitarem perdas na produtividade da cultura. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade de feijoeiro de inverno, após aplicação do dessecante paraquat em diferentes épocas (30; 35; 40 e 45 dias após o início do florescimento - DAF e das doses (0; 200; 400 e 600 g ha-1, em pré-colheita. O experimento foi conduzido no período de outono/inverno de 2010, em Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 (épocas de aplicação x doses do herbicida, com quatro repetições. O aumento das doses de paraquat, até os 35 DAF, aumentou de forma linear o percentual de sementes defeituosas, enquanto as sementes tiveram sua massa reduzida linearmente, até os 40 DAF. A produtividade do feijoeiro não foi afetada pela aplicação de paraquat a partir dos 35 DAF, ao contrário do incremento da dose, que provocou redução linear desse parâmetro.

  17. Preparation of methacrylic acid-modified rice husk improved by an experimental design and application for paraquat adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Shih-Tong; Chen, Lung-Chuan; Lee, Cheng-Chieh; Pan, Ting-Chung; You, Bing-Xuan; Yan, Qi-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) grafted rice husk was synthesized using graft copolymerization with Fenton's reagent as the redox initiator and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The highest grafting percentage of 44.3% was obtained using the traditional kinetic method. However, a maximum grafting percentage of 65.3% was calculated using the central composite design. Experimental results based on the recipes predicted from the statistical analysis are consistent with theoretical calculations. A representative polymethacrylic acid-g-rice husk (PMAA-g-rice husk) copolymer was hydrolyzed to a salt type and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The adsorption equilibrium data correlate more closely with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husk is 292.5 mg/g-adsorbent. This value exceeds those for Fuller's earth and activated carbon, which are the most common binding agents used for paraquat. The samples at various stages were characterized by solid-state 13 C NMR spectroscopy.

  18. Addition of Immunosuppressive Treatment to Hemoperfusion Is Associated with Improved Survival after Paraquat Poisoning: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Pyng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Li, Yu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning associates very high mortality rate. Early treatment with hemoperfusion is strongly suggested by animal and human studies. Although the survival benefit of additional immunosuppressive treatment (IST) in combination with hemoperfusion is also reported since 1971, the large-scale randomized control trials to confirm the effects of IST is difficult to be executed. Therefore, we designed this nationwide large-scale population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcome of paraquat poisoning with hemoperfusion and the additional effects of IST combined with hemoperfusion. This nationwide retrospective cohort study utilized data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A total of 1811 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of paraquat poisoning who received hemoperfusion between 1997 and 2009 were enrolled. The mean age of all 1811 study subjects was 47.3 years. 70% was male. The overall survival rate was only 26.4%. Respiratory failure and renal failure were diagnosed in 56.2% and 36% patients. The average frequency of hemoperfusion was twice. IST was added in 42.2% patients. IST significantly increases survival rate (from 24.3% to 29.3%, Pparaquat-poisoned patients. The best survival effect of IST is the combination of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and daily dexamethasone, especially in patients with younger age. PMID:24475310

  19. Preparation of methacrylic acid-modified rice husk improved by an experimental design and application for paraquat adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Shih-Tong, E-mail: shihtong@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Chen, Lung-Chuan, E-mail: lcchen@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Lee, Cheng-Chieh, E-mail: etmediagoing@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City 710, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ting-Chung, E-mail: tcpan@mail.ksu.edutw [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City 710, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); You, Bing-Xuan, E-mail: kp2681@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China); Yan, Qi-Feng, E-mail: rsrs0938@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, No. 949 Da-Wan Rd., Yung-Kang City, Tainan Hsien, Taiwan (China)

    2009-11-15

    Methacrylic acid (MAA) grafted rice husk was synthesized using graft copolymerization with Fenton's reagent as the redox initiator and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The highest grafting percentage of 44.3% was obtained using the traditional kinetic method. However, a maximum grafting percentage of 65.3% was calculated using the central composite design. Experimental results based on the recipes predicted from the statistical analysis are consistent with theoretical calculations. A representative polymethacrylic acid-g-rice husk (PMAA-g-rice husk) copolymer was hydrolyzed to a salt type and applied to the adsorption of paraquat. The adsorption equilibrium data correlate more closely with the Langmuir isotherm than with the Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of modified rice husk is 292.5 mg/g-adsorbent. This value exceeds those for Fuller's earth and activated carbon, which are the most common binding agents used for paraquat. The samples at various stages were characterized by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy.

  20. Inhibitory activity of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) in paraquat-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation - a mechanism of protective effects of EGCg against paraquat toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Akihiro; Yonemitsu, Kosei; Koreeda, Ako; Tsunenari, Shigeyuki

    2003-01-01

    Recently we have reported that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), a major component of Japanese green tea, significantly increased the survival rate of paraquat (Pq) poisoned mice. This paper describes two biochemical activities of EGCg, which relate to its protective effects against Pq toxicity. EGCg inhibited Pq-induced microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA) productions in rat liver microsome system containing 40 μM FeSO 4 . Forty micromolar EGCg inhibited MDA production significantly. EGCg may inhibit the Pq-induced MDA production by at least two mechanisms. One may be iron-chelating activity as the inhibition disappeared when excess amounts of FeSO 4 were added to the reaction mixture, which indicated that EGCg reduced iron driven lipid peroxidation by pulling out available irons in the reaction mixture. The other is radical scavenging activity. EGCg scavenged DMPO-OOH spin adducts generated by the microsome-Pq system. The dose response curve of EGCg was similar to that obtained by ascorbic acid which is a typical water-soluble radical scavenger. Although ascorbic acid had a potential activity of scavenging superoxide radicals, it can not be recommended to use for the treatment of Pq poisoning, because ascorbic acid acts as a pro-oxidant in the presence of free transition metal ions by accelerating the Fenton reaction (Fe 2+ +H 2 O 2 →Fe 3+ +OH - +OH·), which is responsible for lipid peroxidation. On the contrary, EGCg inhibited iron-driven lipid peroxidation presumably not only by chelating to Fe ions but also by scavenging superoxide radicals, which are responsible for the reduction of ferric (Fe 3+ ) to ferrous (Fe 2+ ) that catalyzes the Fenton reaction. Chelating and radical scavenging activity of EGCg can be expected simultaneously in the occurrence of Pq toxicity, which may explain the protective effects of EGCg against Pq toxicity

  1. Intoxicación alimentaria por consumo de carne de caimán negro (Melanosuchus niger en el internado indígena de Nazareth, Amazonas, abril de 1997

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    Martha C. Suárez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones alimentarias son ocasionadas por consumo de alimentos en malas condiciones de preparación o de conservación o que han sufrido contaminación con agentes quimicos, fisicos o biológicos. La reciente incorporación de la vigilancia de este evento en el sistema de vigilancia intensificado de la Secretaria de Salud del Amazonas, ha permitido identificar la presencia de brotes de intoxicación alimentaria en el departamento. En abril de 1997, se informó a la Oficina de Epidemiologia de la Secretaria de Salud del Amazonas, la llegada de 30 pacientes al Hospital Empresa Social del Estado San Rafael de Leticia, con un cuadro clinico de dolor abdominal, vómito y cefalea. Las pacientes eran estudiantes adolescentes del internado indígena femenino de Nazareth, que presentaban como antecedente común la ingestión de pescado recalentado el día anterior a su consulta. En la investigación del presente brote de intoxicación alimentaria se comprobó por laboratorio que el alimento implicado era la carne de caimán negro, Melanosuchusniger, contaminada con Bacillus cereus. Esta carne iba a ser vendida como 'pescado seco' en Bogotá, por la gran demanda que tiene este alimento en la época de Semana Santa.

  2. Paraquat induces oxidative stress, neuronal loss in substantia nigra region and Parkinsonism in adult rats: Neuroprotection and amelioration of symptoms by water-soluble formulation of Coenzyme Q10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar TS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, for which currently there is no cure, develops as a result of progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the brain; thus, identification of any potential therapeutic intervention for disease management is of a great importance. Results Here we report that prophylactic application of water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 could effectively offset the effects of environmental neurotoxin paraquat, believed to be a contributing factor in the development of familial PD. In this study we utilized a model of paraquat-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in adult rats that received three weekly intra-peritoneal injections of the herbicide paraquat. Histological and biochemical analyses of rat brains revealed increased levels of oxidative stress markers and a loss of approximately 65% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. The paraquat-exposed rats also displayed impaired balancing skills on a slowly rotating drum (rotorod evidenced by their reduced spontaneity in gait performance. In contrast, paraquat exposed rats receiving a water-soluble formulation of coenzyme Q10 in their drinking water prior to and during the paraquat treatment neither developed neurodegeneration nor reduced rotorod performance and were indistinguishable from the control paraquat-untreated rats. Conclusion Our data confirmed that paraquat-induced neurotoxicity represents a convenient rat model of Parkinsonian neurodegeneration suitable for mechanistic and neuroprotective studies. This is the first preclinical evaluation of a water-soluble coenzyme Q10 formulation showing the evidence of prophylactic neuroprotection at clinically relevant doses.

  3. Transcription of putative tonoplast transporters in response to glyphosate and paraquat stress in Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis and selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Marcelo L; Alárcon-Reverte, Rocio; Pearce, Stephen; Morran, Sarah; Hanson, Bradley D

    2017-01-01

    Herbicide resistance is a challenge for modern agriculture further complicated by cases of resistance to multiple herbicides. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are invasive weeds of field crops, orchards, and non-cropped areas in many parts of the world. In California, USA, Conyza populations resistant to the herbicides glyphosate and paraquat have recently been described. Although the mechanism conferring resistance to glyphosate and paraquat in these species was not elucidated, reduced translocation of these herbicides was observed under experimental conditions in both species. Glyphosate and paraquat resistance associated with reduced translocation are hypothesized to be a result of sequestration of herbicides into the vacuole, with the possible involvement of over-expression of genes encoding tonoplast transporters of ABC-transporter families in cases of glyphosate resistance or cationic amino acid transporters (CAT) in cases of paraquat resistance. However, gene expression in response to herbicide treatment has not been studied in glyphosate and paraquat resistant populations. In the current study, we evaluated the transcript levels of genes possibly involved in resistance using real-time PCR. First, we evaluated eight candidate reference genes following herbicide treatment and selected three genes that exhibited stable expression profiles; ACTIN, HEAT-SHOCK-PROTEIN-70, and CYCLOPHILIN. The reference genes identified here can be used for further studies related to plant-herbicide interactions. We used these reference genes to assay the transcript levels of EPSPS, ABC transporters, and CAT in response to herbicide treatment in susceptible and resistant Conyza spp. lines. No transcription changes were observed in EPSPS or CAT genes after glyphosate or paraquat treatment, suggesting that these genes are not involved in the resistance mechanism. Transcription of the two ABC transporter genes increased following glyphosate treatment in all Conyza spp. lines

  4. Exogenic poisoning in children assisted in a pediatric emergency unit Intoxicaciones exógenas en niños atendidos en una unidad de emergencia pediátrica Intoxicações exógenas em crianças atendidas em uma unidade de emergência pediátrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lourenço

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of all exogenic poisoning cases in children assisted in a pediatric emergency unit in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, from April to September 2006. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of exogenic poisoning in 0-12 aged children treated at Centro de Assistência Toxicológica de Pernambuco (Pernambuco Toxicological Assistance Center. The data were collected through interviews and by consulting patients' records. RESULTS: 26 cases of accidental exogenic poisoning were registered, mainly males (65.4%. Regarding age, children under five years old were the most affected (65.4%. Medication was involved in 50.0% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Accidental exogenic poisoning affecting children younger than five years of age stands out as a significant public health problem. As a member of a multiprofessional health team, the nurse plays an important role in health education and in the measures to prevent child poisoning.OBJETIVO: Describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos de intoxicaciones exógenas en niños atendidos en una unidad de emergencia pediátrica de Recife (PE, en el período de abril a setiembre del 2006. MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo de los casos de intoxicaciones exógenas ocurridos en niños del grupo etáreo de 0 a 12 años de edad notificados en el Centro de Asistencia Toxicológica de Pernambuco. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas y consultas a las fichas de atención hospitalaria. RESULTADOS: Fueron registrados 26 casos de intoxicación exógena accidental. Predominó el sexo masculino (65,4% siendo el grupo etáreo de menores de cinco años de edad el más afectado (65,4%. Los medicamentos estaban involucrados en el 50,0% de los casos. CONCLUSIÓN: La intoxicación exógena accidental de niños, sobre todo en menores de cinco años es un problema de salud pública que requiere medidas preventivas para evitar que ocurra en

  5. Regulator of G protein signaling-1 modulates paraquat-induced oxidative stress and longevity via the insulin like signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingyu; Kang, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Chunyu; Mohan, Chandra; Peng, Ai

    2017-05-05

    Insulin or insulin like signaling (IIS) pathway is a crucial pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans associated with mediating longevity, and stress resistance. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) also modulate stress resistance and longevity in multiple in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism underlying RGS mediating stress resistance and longevity remains largely unclear. Here we report that rgs-1, an important member of rgs family, is a novel modulator of IIS pathway in C. elegans. We found that the loss of rgs-1 dramatically promoted paraquat resistance in C. elegans. Further genetic analyses demonstrated that rgs-1 acted downstream of daf-2 and upstream of age-1, pdk-1, daf-16. Instead of affecting those IIS-associated genes in transcriptional process, loss of rgs-1 promoted DAF-16's nucleus translocation and subset genes' expression in paraquat-induced oxidative status. By this way, rgs-1 mutant worms exhibited lower ROS damage and longer survival time than wild type worms when both exposed to paraquat. Other than paraquat exposure, rgs-1 mutant also promoted lifespan and cadmium resistance relying on daf-16. As rgs is evolutionarily conserved, our findings open a new insight into rgs family and its role in paraquat-induced oxidative stress and longevity in C. elegans or even mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclen dithiocarbamate-functionalized silver nanoparticles as a probe for colorimetric sensing of thiram and paraquat pesticides via host-guest chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Jigneshkumar V.; Kailasa, Suresh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a simple and rapid colorimetric method for on-site analysis of thiram and paraquat using cyclen dithiocarbamate-functionalized silver nanoparticles (CN-DTC-Ag NPs) as a colorimetric probe. The synthesized CN-DTC-Ag NPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The CN-DTC molecules provide good supramolecular self assembly on the surfaces of Ag NPs to encapsulate thiram and paraquat selectively via "host-guest" chemistry, resulting in red-shift in surface plasmon resonance peak of CN-DTC-Ag NPs from 396 to 530 nm and 510 nm and color change from yellow to pink for thiram and to orange for paraquat, which can be naked-eye detected. The present method shows good linearity in the range of 10.0-20.0 µM and of 50.0-250 µM with limits of detection 2.81 × 10-6 M and 7.21 × 10-6 M for thiram and paraquat, respectively. This method was proved as a promising tool for on-site and real-time monitoring of thiram and paraquat in environmental water, potato, and wheat samples.

  7. Magnetic single-walled carbon nanotubes-dispersive solid-phase extraction method combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of paraquat in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao-Lin; Qiu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Chuan; Huang, Tao; Meng, Rui-Bo; Lai, Yong-Qiang

    2014-08-15

    In this study, magnetic single-walled carbon nanotubes (MSWCNTs) were prepared by impregnating magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles onto the surfaces of carboxylic single-walled carbon nanotubes based on electrostatic interactions. The prepared MSWCNTs were used as the adsorbent for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) of paraquat from human urine. After adsorption, the paraquat was quantitatively desorbed with 5%TFA in acetonitrile and determined by HPLC-MS. Extraction parameters such as the type of CNT adsorbent, extraction time, sample volume, wash solvent, and the type and volume of desorption solvent were optimized to obtain high DSPE recoveries and extraction efficiencies. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range 3.75-375.0 μg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 45. The LOD (S/N=3) and LOQ (S/N=10) were 0.94 and 2.82 μg/L, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 92.89 to 108.9% for spiked real urine samples with RSDs below 3.21%. Finally, the new method was successfully used to determine paraquat in urine samples of suspected paraquat poisoning patients. The MSWCNTs exhibited suitable properties and a high adsorption capacity for the extraction of paraquat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute paraquat poisoning: report of a survival case following intake of a potential lethal dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo J; Sarmento, António; Reis, Paulo; Amaro, Augusta; Remião, Fernando; Bastos, Maria L; Carvalho, Felix

    2006-07-01

    When properly used, paraquat (PQ) is a widely used bipyridil herbicide with a good safety record. Most cases of PQ poisoning result from intentional ingestion, with death resulting from hypoxemia secondary to lung fibrosis in moderate to severe poisonings. With high ingestion volumes (>50 mL of a 20% wt/vol formulation), death results from multiple organ failure and cardiovascular collapse within 1 week after intoxication. The present report describes a successful clinical case regarding the intoxication of a 15-year-old girl by a presumed lethal dose of PQ. The adolescent ingested approximately 50 mL of a commercialized concentrate (20% wt/vol of dichloride salt) formulation of PQ. High serum and urinary levels of PQ confirmed the bad prognosis. However, the therapeutic protocol followed in the present clinical case led to a positive outcome. Besides the measures for decreasing PQ absorption and increasing its elimination, other protective procedures were applied in aiming to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), to scavenge ROS, to repair ROS-induced lesions, and to reduce inflammation. The status-of-the-art concerning the biochemical and toxicological aspects of PQ poisoning and the pharmacologic basis of the respective treatment is also presented.

  9. Chlorophyll photobleaching and ethane production in dichlorophenyldimethylurea- (DCMU) or paraquat-treated Euglena gracilis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elstner, E F; Osswald, W

    1980-01-01

    Light dependent (35 Klux) chlorophyll bleaching in autotrophically grown Euglena gracilis cells at slightly acidic pH (6.5-5.4) is stimulated by the photosystem II blockers DCMU and DBMIB (both 10(-5) M) as well as by the autooxidizable photosystem I electron acceptor, paraquat (10(-3) M). Chlorophyll photobleaching is accompanied by the formation of thiobarbituric acid -- sensitive material ("malondialdehyde") and ethane. Both chlorophyll photobleaching and light dependent ethane formation are partially prevented by higher concentrations (10(-4) M) of the autooxidizable photosystem II electron acceptor DBMIB or by sodium bicarbonate (25 mM). In vitro studies with cell free extracts (homogenates) from E. gracilis suggest that alpha-linolenic acid oxidation by excited (reaction center II) chlorophyll represents the driving force for both ethane formation and chlorophyll bleaching. Ethane formation thus appears to be a sensitive and non-destructive "in vivo" marker for both restricted energy dissipation in photosystem II and, conditions yielding reactive oxygen species at the reducing side of photosystem I.

  10. Determination of paraquat in water samples using a sensitive fluorescent probe titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feihu; Liu, Hailong; Wang, Guangquan; Du, Liming; Yin, Xiaofen; Fu, Yunlong

    2013-06-01

    Paraquat (PQ), a nonselective herbicide, is non-fluorescent in aqueous solutions. Thus, its determination through direct fluorescent methods is not feasible. The supramolecular inclusion interaction of PQ with cucurbit[7]uril was studied by a fluorescent probe titration method. Significant quenching of the fluorescence intensity of the cucurbit[7]uril-coptisine fluorescent probe was observed with the addition of PQ. A new fluorescent probe titration method with high selectivity and sensitivity at the ng/mL level was developed to determine PQ in aqueous solutions with good precision and accuracy based on the significant quenching of the supramolecular complex fluorescence intensity. The proposed method was successfully used in the determination of PQ in lake water, tap water, well water, and ditch water in an agricultural area, with recoveries of 96.73% to 105.77%. The fluorescence quenching values (deltaF) showed a good linear relationship with PQ concentrations from 1.0 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-5) mol/L with a detection limit of 3.35 x 10(-9) mol/L. In addition, the interaction models of the supramolecular complexes formed between the host and the guest were established using theoretical calculations. The interaction mechanism between the cucurbit[7]uril and PQ was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Prognosis and survival analysis of paraquat poisoned patients based on improved HPLC-UV method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guangliang; Hu, Lufeng; Tang, Yahui; Zhang, Tao; Kang, Xiaowen; Zhao, Guangju; Lu, Zhongqiu

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) has caused deaths of numerous people around the world. In order to assess the lethal plasma concentration, the patients who acquired acute PQ intoxication were analyzed by plasma concentration monitoring. The plasma PQ concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which used 5-bromopyrimidine as internal standard and trichloroacetic acid-methanol (1:9) as protein precipitant. The liver, kidney and coagulation function were determined by automatic biochemical analyzer. According to plasma PQ concentration, 90 patients were divided into four groups: trace PQ group (5000ng/mL). The clinical data from the four groups was statistically analyzed. The results showed the developed HPLC methods exhibited a high degree of accuracy and good linearity within 50-25000ng/mL (R=0.9998). The Spearman's correlation analysis showed PQ concentration had a strong relationship to total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartic transaminase, urea nitrogen, prothrombin time, prothrombin activity, and international normalized ratio (PParaquat (PubChem CID: 15938), 5-bromopyrimidine (PubChem CID: 78344), acetonitrile (PubChem CID: 6342), sodium dihydrogen phosphate (PubChem CID: 23672064), sodium heptanesulfonate (PubChem CID: 23672332), methylprednisolone (PubChem CID: 6741), cyclophosphamide (PubChem CID: 2907). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tualang Honey Protects the Rat Midbrain and Lung against Repeated Paraquat Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk Peng Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a dopaminergic neurotoxin and a well-known pneumotoxicant that exerts its toxic effect via oxidative stress-mediated cellular injuries. This study investigated the protective effects of Tualang honey against PQ-induced toxicity in the midbrain and lungs of rats. The rats were orally treated with distilled water (2 mL/kg/day, Tualang honey (1.0 g/kg/day, or ubiquinol (0.2 g/kg/day throughout the experimental period. Two weeks after the respective treatments, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline (1 mL/kg/week or PQ (10 mg/kg/week once per week for four consecutive weeks. After four weekly exposures to PQ, the glutathione peroxidase activity and the number of tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive neurons in the midbrain were significantly decreased in animals from group PQ (p<0.05. The lungs of animals from group PQ showed significantly decreased activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase. Treatment with Tualang honey ameliorated the toxic effects observed in the midbrain and lungs. The beneficial effects of Tualang honey were comparable to those of ubiquinol, which was used as a positive control. These findings suggest that treatment with Tualang honey may protect against PQ-induced toxicity in the rat midbrain and lung.

  13. Application of silver nanodendrites deposited on silicon in SERS technique for the trace analysis of paraquat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao Dao, Tran; Quynh Ngan Luong, Truc; Cao, Tuan Anh; Kieu, Ngoc Minh; Le, Van Vu

    2016-03-01

    In order to detect trace concentrations of organic or biological molecules by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique, the SERS-active substrates with high enhancement factor are required. The silver nanodendrites (AgNDs) are a growing class of such SERS-active substrates. This report presents the preliminary results of the trace detection of paraquat (PQ), a commonly used herbicide, with the use of SERS-active substrates, which have been made from AgNDs deposited on silicon. The AgNDs were produced either by electroless deposition, or by electrodeposition onto a silicon wafer, using aqueous solution of HF and AgNO3. It was observed that the silver dendrites are formed only when AgNO3 concentration is high enough. Next, it was found that with the additional assistance of an electric potential in the electrodeposition, the dendrites have grown up with the more perfect ramification. The AgNDs with more perfect branching gave the Raman spectrum of PQ with higher enhancement factor. More specifically, while the SERS-active substrates prepared from electrodeposited AgNDs were able to detect PQ with concentration as low as 0.01 ppm, the ones made from electroless deposited AgNDs could only detect PQ at concentration of hundreds times higher.

  14. Adsorbent from Waste and Natural Deposits for Paraquat Removal in Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Fatin Zakaria; Zaiton Abdul Majid; Zainab Ramli

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the removal of frequently used herbicide for controlling broad-leafed weeds, Paraquat Dichloride (PQ) has been carried out intensively. Waste from steelmaking industries (Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) slag) and natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) were used as the starting materials. Preparation of an adsorbent involved two steps, namely extraction iron oxide (IO) from slag and precipitation of IO onto clinoptilolite. Characterization of NZIC were done using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), single-point Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area analysis, Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and pH at zero point charge (pHzpc). The NZIC showed a lower magnetic saturation at 8.13 emu/ g compared to maghemite at 29.5 emu/ g. The BET surface area of NZIC was 146.29 m 2 / g, larger compared to the individual surface area of clinoptilolite and maghemite which are 37.84 and 17.84 m 2 / g respectively. Adsorption of PQ onto clinoptilolite and NZIC were investigated using a batch experiment. Surface characteristic of NZIC was investigated by pHzpc experiment showing that at pH 8.2 its electric surface charge is zero. Optimum parameters for adsorption of PQ in water were found at pH 12 with 0.01 g/ 10 mL of NZIC and equilibrium time of 20 minutes. Desorption experiment revealed that NZIC have a good recovery in repetitive usage for PQ removal in water. (author)

  15. Decreasing the toxicity of paraquat through the complexation with sodium salicylate: Stoichiometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Luís; Amorim, Ricardo; Afonso, Carlos Manuel M; Carvalho, Félix; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2015-10-02

    Over the last decades, paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridilium dichloride; PQ) has been involved in numerous fatalities especially attributed to suicide attempts. Previously, it was shown that salicylates, namely sodium salicylate (NaSAL) and lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) may form complexes with PQ, which may contribute to prevent its toxicity. The direct chemical reactivity between PQ and NaSAL was previously studied by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, showing the formation of complexes, though reported data was not fully conclusive. In the present study, the structure of the complex of PQ with NaSAL is fully characterized by crystallography. It was observed that PQ is complexed with 4 NaSAL molecules. Since formulations containing PQ and salicylates have been proposed, these results point that the stoichiometry of 1:4 (PQ:salicylates) should be considered to optimize prevention of PQ-mediated toxic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An intelligent prognostic system for analyzing patients with paraquat poisoning using arterial blood gas indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lufeng; Lin, Feiyan; Li, Huaizhong; Tong, Changfei; Pan, Zhifang; Li, Jun; Chen, Huiling

    The arterial blood gas (ABG) test is used to assess gas exchange in the lung, and the acid-base level in the blood. However, it is still unclear whether or not ABG test indexes correlate with paraquat (PQ) poisoning. This study investigates the predictive value of ABG tests in prognosing patients with PQ poisoning; it also identifies the most significant indexes of the ABG test. An intelligent machine learning-based system was established to effectively give prognostic analysis of patients with PQ poisoning based on ABG indexes. In the proposed system, an enhanced support vector machine combined with a feature selection strategy was developed to predict the risk status from a pool of 103 patients (56 males and 47 females); of these, 52 subjects were deceased and 51 patients were alive. The proposed method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the risk status. The results demonstrated that there were significant differences in ABG indexes between deceased and alive subjects (p-value <0.01). According to the feature selection, we found that the most important correlated indexes were associated with partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ). This study discovered the relationship between ABG test and poisoning degree to provide a new avenue for prognosing PQ poisoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescence detecting of paraquat using host-guest chemistry with cucurbit[8]uril

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiguo; Li, Fusheng; Liu, Fengyu; Wang, Jitao; Peng, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world, which has a good occupational safety record when used properly. While, it presents high mortality index after intentional exposure. Accidental deaths and suicides from PQ ingestion are relatively common in developing countries with an estimated 300,000 deaths occurring in the Asia-Pacific region alone each year, and there are no specific antidotes. Good predictors of outcome and prognosis may be plasma and urine testing within the first 24 h of intoxication. A fluorescence enhancement of approximately 30 times was seen following addition of PQ to a solution of the supramolecular compound 2MB@CB[8], which comprised two methylene blue (MB) molecules within one cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) host molecule. The fluorescence intensity was linearly proportional to the amount of PQ added over the concentration range 2.4 × 10-10 M-2.5 × 10-4 M. The reaction also occurred in living cells and within live mice.

  18. Identification of polyamine transporters in plants: paraquat transport provides crucial clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Miki; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Polyamine (PA) transport as well as PA biosynthesis, degradation and conjugation plays a vital role in the regulation of intracellular PA levels, which are essential for cell growth. Generally, PA uptake activity is elevated in rapidly proliferating cells. Previous studies showed that PA uptake in plant cells occurred via energy-dependent, protein-mediated transport systems. Numerous lines of evidence suggest that paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is transported by the PA transport system in diverse organisms including plants. The PA/PQ transport interactions are proposed to be due to specific structural similarities between PA and PQ. The understanding of PA transport mechanisms has progressed in parallel with that of PQ transport, but the molecular identity of the plant PA/PQ transporter has remained an enigma. Recently, independent studies identified the L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family transmembrane proteins as transporters of both PA and PQ. Arabidopsis LAT family proteins showed different subcellular localization properties, which suggested that these transporters were involved in intracellular PA trafficking and PA uptake across the plasma membrane. The identification of plant PA transporters is an important step in understanding the mechanism of PA homeostasis in plant cells. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of PA transport systems that are linked to the understanding of PQ translocation.

  19. Neurobehavioral effects of concurrent exposure to cesium-137 and paraquat during neonatal development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luis; Bellés, Montserrat; Llovet, Maria Isabel; Domingo, Jose L; Linares, Victoria

    2015-03-02

    As a result of nuclear power plants accidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima, some people were exposed to external and internal ionizing radiation (IR). Human brain is highly sensitive to IR during fetal and postnatal period when the molecular processes are not completely finished. Various studies have shown that exposure to low doses of IR causes a higher incidence of cognitive impairment. On the other hand, in industrialized countries, people are daily exposed to a number of toxicant pollutants. Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as paraquat (PQ), may potentiate the toxic effects induced by radiation on brain development. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation ((137)Cs) and PQ during neonatal brain development. At the postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to (137)Cs (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or PQ (7 mg/kg). To investigate the spontaneous behavior, learning, memory capacities and anxiety, behavioral tests were conducted in the offspring at two months of age. The results showed that cognitive functions were not significantly affected when (137)Cs or PQ were administered alone. However, alterations in the working memory and anxiety were detected in mice exposed to (137)Cs combined with PQ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Bcl-xL transformed peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) exhibits paraquat tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y; Deng, X Y; Faustinelli, P; Ozias-Akins, P

    2008-01-01

    The human Bcl-xL gene was transformed into peanut cultivar Georgia Green via microprojectile bombardment. Following selection on hygromycin-containing medium and regeneration, eighty hygromycin-resistant callus clusters were recovered. Southern blot analysis of ten fertile lines revealed multiple insertions of the Bcl-xL transgene in most lines. Western blot analysis of primary plants and T1 progenies demonstrated detectable levels of Bcl-xL expression in four transgenic lines. We could not detect Bcl-xL protein in other tested lines even though transcripts were identified by RT-PCR and northern blot. Three of the western-positive transgenic lines either were sterile or the progenies lost the expressive copy of Bcl-xL. Only T1 progenies from line BX25-4-2a-19 continued to express an intermediate level of Bcl-xL. This line demonstrated paraquat tolerance at the 5 microM level. Tolerance to salt of T1 and T2 seeds from seven other transgenic lines also was tested, but no tolerance was found in these lines. A high level of Bcl-xL transgene expression may be deleterious to plant growth and development even though the gene may confer tolerance to other abiotic and biotic stresses such as drought and pathogens.

  1. Water extracts of Brassica oleracea var. costata potentiate paraquat toxicity to rat hepatocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C; Pontes, H; Carmo, H; Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Valentão, P; Andrade, P B; Remião, F; Bastos, M L; Carvalho, F

    2009-09-01

    Tronchuda cabbage extracts have been proven to have antioxidant potential against various oxidative species in cell free systems, though its antioxidant potential in cellular models remained to be demonstrated. In the present study, we used primary cultures of rat hepatocytes for the cellular assay system and paraquat PQ exposure as a pro-oxidant model agent, to test whether tronchuda cabbage hydrolysed water extracts provide protective or aggravating effects towards PQ-induced oxidative stress and cell death. For this purpose cellular parameters related to oxidative stress were measured, namely the generation of superoxide anion, glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ATP levels, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), activity of antioxidant enzymes, and cell death. The obtained results demonstrated that the studied hydrolysed water extracts of tronchuda cabbage, especially rich in kaempferol (84%) and other polyphenols, namely hydroxycinnamic acids and traces of quercetin, can potentiate the toxicity of PQ in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. These results highlight that prospective antioxidant effects of plant extracts, observed in vitro, using non-cellular systems, are not always confirmed in cellular models, in which the concentrations required to scavenge pro-oxidant species may be highly detrimental to the cells.

  2. Natural variation in a polyamine transporter determines paraquat tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Miki; Fujita, Yasunari; Iuchi, Satoshi; Yamada, Kohji; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Urano, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2012-04-17

    Polyamines (PAs) are ubiquitous, polycationic compounds that are essential for the growth and survival of all organisms. Although the PA-uptake system plays a key role in mammalian cancer and in plant survival, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we identified an Arabidopsis L-type amino acid transporter (LAT) family transporter, named RMV1 (resistant to methyl viologen 1), responsible for uptake of PA and its analog paraquat (PQ). The natural variation in PQ tolerance was determined in 22 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions based on the polymorphic variation of RMV1. An RMV1-GFP fusion protein localized to the plasma membrane in transformed cells. The Arabidopsis rmv1 mutant was highly resistant to PQ because of the reduction of PQ uptake activity. Uptake studies indicated that RMV1 mediates proton gradient-driven PQ transport. RMV1 overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to PA and PQ and showed elevated PA/PQ uptake activity, supporting the notion that PQ enters plant cells via a carrier system that inherently functions in PA transport. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polymorphic variation in RMV1 controls PA/PQ uptake activity. Our identification of a molecular entity for PA/PQ uptake and sensitivity provides an important clue for our understanding of the mechanism and biological significance of PA uptake.

  3. Neurobehavioral effects of concurrent exposure to cesium-137 and paraquat during neonatal development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heredia, Luis; Bellés, Montserrat; Llovet, Maria Isabel; Domingo, Jose L.; Linares, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plants accidents such as Chernobyl or Fukushima, some people were exposed to external and internal ionizing radiation (IR). Human brain is highly sensitive to IR during fetal and postnatal period when the molecular processes are not completely finished. Various studies have shown that exposure to low doses of IR causes a higher incidence of cognitive impairment. On the other hand, in industrialized countries, people are daily exposed to a number of toxicant pollutants. Exposure to environmental chemicals, such as paraquat (PQ), may potentiate the toxic effects induced by radiation on brain development. In this study, we evaluated the cognitive effects of concomitant exposure to low doses of internal radiation ( 137 Cs) and PQ during neonatal brain development. At the postnatal day 10 (PND10), two groups of mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 137 Cs (4000 and 8000 Bq/kg) and/or PQ (7 mg/kg). To investigate the spontaneous behavior, learning, memory capacities and anxiety, behavioral tests were conducted in the offspring at two months of age. The results showed that cognitive functions were not significantly affected when 137 Cs or PQ were administered alone. However, alterations in the working memory and anxiety were detected in mice exposed to 137 Cs combined with PQ

  4. Efeito protetor da melatonina sobre intoxicações por herbicidas

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    Lécio L. de Almeida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O uso inadequado de herbicidas pode resultar em intoxicações agudas e, às vezes, crônicas por exposição em longo prazo a baixos níveis desses agentes tóxicos, podendo o herbicida atuar também como agentes teratogênicos, mutagênicos, cancerígenos e desreguladores endócrinos, com o aparecimento de doenças neurodegenerativas e distúrbios reprodutivos. Estudos têm revelado que a melatonina tem propriedades antioxidantes, anti-inflamatórias e imunomoduladoras e atua na reprodução. Essa indolamina está entre os agentes que têm se mostrado benéfico em intoxicações por herbicidas, porém não há relatos do uso de melatonina contra intoxicações por Glifosato-Roundup®, muito menos em associação com o Paraquat. Dessa forma, o maior interesse no tratamento das intoxicações por herbicidas, tem-se concentrado em medidas que impeçam ou minimizem as lesões celulares provocadas nos diversos sistemas biológicos. Assim, a melatonina, como antioxidante conhecido, pode ser mais uma alternativa contra as intoxicações por herbicidas associados e/ou individuais.

  5. On the methodological limitations of detecting oxidative stress: effects of paraquat on measures of oxidative status in greenfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Richard; Sild, Elin; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Hõrak, Peeter

    2013-07-15

    Oxidative stress (OS) is widely believed to be responsible for the generation of trade-offs in evolutionary ecology by means of constraining investment into a number of components of fitness. Yet, progress in understanding the true role of OS in ecology and evolution has remained elusive. Interpretation of current findings is particularly hampered by the scarcity of experiments demonstrating which of the many available parameters of oxidative status respond most sensitively to and are relevant for measuring OS. We addressed these questions in wild-caught captive greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) by experimental induction of OS by administration of the pro-oxidant compound paraquat with drinking water. Treatment induced 50% mortality, a significant drop in body mass and an increase in oxidative DNA damage and glutathione levels in erythrocytes among the survivors of the high paraquat (0.2 g l(-1) over 7 days) group. Samples taken 3 days after the end of paraquat treatment showed no effect on the peroxidation of lipids (plasma malondialdehyde), carbonylation of proteins (in erythrocytes), parameters of plasma antioxidant protection (total antioxidant capacity and oxygen radical absorbance), uric acid or carotenoids. Our findings of an increase in one marker of damage and one marker of protection from the multitude of measured variables indicate that detection of OS is difficult even under the most stringent experimental induction of oxidative insult. We hope that this study highlights the need for reconsideration of over-simplistic models of OS and draws attention to the limitations of detection of OS due to time-lagged and hormetic upregulation of protective mechanisms. This study also underpins the diagnostic value of measurement of oxidative damage to DNA bases and assessment of erythrocyte glutathione levels.

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine Xuebijing Treatment Is Associated with Decreased Mortality Risk of Patients with Moderate Paraquat Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Xing, Jing; Wang, Na

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning causes multiple organ injury and high mortality due to severe toxicity and lack of effective treatment. Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine preparation of five Chinese herbs (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Flos Carthami, Angelica Sinensis and Radix Paeoniae Rubra), has an anti-inflammatory effect and is widely used in the treatment of sepsis. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effects of XBJ combined with conventional therapy on mortality risk of patients with acute paraquat poisoning. Out of 68 patients, 27 were treated with conventional therapy (control group) and 41 were treated with intravenous administration of XBJ (100 ml, twice a day, up to 7 days) plus conventional therapy (XBJ group). Vital organ function, survival time within 28 days and adverse events during the treatment were reviewed. Results indicated that XBJ treatment significantly increased median survival time among patients ingesting 10-30 ml of paraquat (P=0.02) compared with the control group. After adjustment for covariates, XBJ treatment was associated significantly with a lower mortality risk (adjusted HR 0.242, 95% CI 0.113 to 0.516, P=0.001) compared with the control group. Additionally, compared with Day 1, on Day 3 the value of PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased, and the values of serum alanine aminotransferase, creatinine and troponin T were significantly increased in the control group (all Pparaquat poisoning, which may be attributed to improved function of vital organs with no severe adverse events. PMID:25923333

  7. Degradation studies on Paraquat and Malathion using TiO2/ ZnO based photo catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusmidah Ali; Siti Habsah Hassan

    2008-01-01

    Paraquat, a herbicide and malathion, an insecticide are pesticides that are always polluting our water system. Thus a lot of efforts has been conducted to treat the polluted water. The latest technology proposed is using photo catalyst. In this study, ZnO and TiO 2 were used as photo catalysts to degrade the pesticide in the presence of UV light (λ=354 nm). The photodegradation rate was measured using UV-Visible spectrophotometer and TOC analyzer. Malathion showed the absorption peak at λ=210 nm while for paraquat at λ=258 nm. The best coupled photo catalyst for degrading malathion solution is ZnO/ TiO 2 with % weight ratio 1:0.05 and the best coupled photo catalyst in degrading paraquat solution is TiO 2 / ZnO with % weight ratio 1:0.03. The result shows that Fe 2+ ion present in the reaction mixture was better than Fe 3+ ion present as a dopant (which is added during the catalyst preparation). The optimum photo catalyst calcination temperature for degrading paraquat and malathion were 550 degree Celsius for TiO 2 and 500 degree Celsius for ZnO. The physical properties of the best catalyst were characterized using SEM, XRD, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and ellipsometers. By increasing the calcination temperature up to 600 degree Celsius, XRD data showed the transformation of TiO 2 anatase to rutile phase while for ZnO, the increment of the intensity of ZnO catalyst was observed, indicating that, the quality of ZnO wurtzite crystal was improved. The thicknesses for ZnO, ZnO/ TiO 2 1:0.05 and ZnO/ TiO 2 doping with Fe 3+ thin film were 130.57 nm, 150.68 nm and 153.84 nm respectively. The band gap energy values measured using UV-Vis NIR were in the range of 2.95 to 3.09 eV. (author)

  8. How important is the dispersion interaction for cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene)-based molecular "shuttles"? A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Carlos; Fomina, Lioudmila; Fomine, Serguei

    Inclusion complexes of cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) and various aromatic molecules in their neutral and oxidized form were studied at the LMP2/6-311+G**//BHandHLYP/6-31G* level of theory, which represents the highest level theoretical study to date for these complexes. The results show that it is dispersion interaction that contributes most to the binding energy. One electron oxidation of a guest molecule leads to complete dissociation of inclusion complex generating strong repulsion potential between guest and host molecules. Electrostatic interactions also can play an important role, provided the guest molecule has a dipole moment; however, dispersion interactions always dominate in binding energy.

  9. Características de la mortalidad por causa tóxica en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca durante el periodo 1986-2001

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    Alfonso Apellániz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Las intoxicaciones agudas son una frecuente causa de mortalidad, dando lugar a altas cifras de Años Potenciales de Vida Perdidos. Los objetivos de la investigación son conocer la evolución de la mortalidad por causa tóxica aguda en la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca y su variación en función de diferentes variables. Método: Se analizan los datos de mortalidad por causa tóxica del Registro de Mortalidad de la Comunidad Autónoma Vasca entre los años 1986 a 2001, en conjunto, en función de diversas variables demográficas y según causa de muerte (CIE-9 y CIE-10. El análisis incluye tasas brutas de mortalidad y tasas estandarizadas por población europea. Se calculan los años potenciales de vida perdidos. Resultados: Durante el periodo estudiado se registraron 1.207 defunciones por causa tóxica aguda, lo que significa el 045% del total de fallecimientos, con una tasa bruta de 3,58 muertes por 100.000 habitantes. La media de Años Potenciales de Vida Perdidos fue de 2.226,33 por año, con una tasa de 1,12 por 1.000. Un 75,97% de los fallecidos eran hombres, y la edad media de muerte fue de 40,29 años (36,09 en hombres y 52,64 en mujeres. La etiología accidental fue la más frecuente (82,19%, seguida de la intencional (12,43%, y la indeterminada (5,38%-. El envenenamiento accidental por otros fármacos (E-850 en CIE-9, X44 en CIE-10 fue la primera causa de muerte (42,30% y 34,75% respectivamente. Conclusiones: A lo largo del periodo estudiado se ha producido un incremento en las muertes por causa tóxica aguda, predominando la etiología accidental por fármacos, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas según sexo y edad.

  10. A narrow quantitative trait locus in C. elegans coordinately affects longevity, thermotolerance, and resistance to paraquat

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    Anthony eVertino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available By linkage mapping of quantitative trait loci, we previously identified at least 11 natural genetic variants that significantly modulate C. elegans lifespan, many of which would have eluded discovery by knockdown or mutation screens. A region on chromosome IV between markers stP13 and stP35 had striking effects on longevity in three interstrain crosses (each P < 1E–9. In order to define the limits of that interval, we have now constructed two independent lines by marker-based selection during 20 backcross generations, isolating the stP13–stP35 interval from strain Bergerac-BO in a CL2a background. These congenic lines differed significantly from CL2a in lifespan, assayed in two environments (each P<0.001. We then screened for exchange of flanking markers to isolate recombinants that partition this region, because fine mapping the boundaries for overlapping heteroallelic spans can greatly narrow the implicated interval. Recombinants carrying the CL2a allele at stP35 were consistently long-lived compared to those retaining the Bergerac-BO allele (P<0.001, and more resistant to temperature elevation and paraquat (each ~1.7-fold, P<0.0001, but gained little protection from ultraviolet or peroxide stresses. Two rounds of recombinant screening, followed by fine-mapping of break-points and survival testing, narrowed the interval to 0.18 Mb (13.35–13.53 Mb containing 26 putative genes and 6 small-nuclear RNAs – a manageable number of targets for functional assessment.

  11. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Rong; Cao, Yu; He, Ya-rong; Lau, Wayne Bond; Zeng, Zhi; Liang, Zong-an

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ) poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN) may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR). Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR) 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8) and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (ppulmonary fibrosis in a dose-dependent manner, via suppression of lung fibroblast activation. Functional AdipoR1 are expressed by human WI-38 lung fibroblasts, suggesting potential future clinical applicability of APN against pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Cytotoxicity and gene array analysis of alveolar epithelial A549 cells exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsopoulos, Panagiotis; Suntres, Zacharias E

    2010-12-05

    Paraquat (PQ), a commonly used herbicide, is highly toxic to humans and animals. The primary injury occurs in the lung, where PQ is actively taken up by alveolar epithelial cells and consequently produces damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) via redox cycling. ROS have also been shown to induce expression of several early response genes and to activate transcription factors, which may contribute to the inflammatory response associated with PQ injury. In order to further elucidate the mechanism(s) of PQ injury, we investigated its effects on the cellular status and gene expression profile of immortalized human alveolar epithelial A549 cells in vitro. Incubation of cells with PQ resulted in concentration- and time-dependent PQ uptake, which correlated with increases in intracellular ROS levels and decreases in intracellular glutathione content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cell viability. Gene array analysis showed differential expression in response to PQ exposure over time, particularly increases in: (i) the expression of growth arrest and cell cycle-related genes (e.g. CDKN1A, DDIT3 GADD45A, GDF15, MDM2, EGR1, CASP10, CASP8) and (ii) the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (e.g. IL1A, IL6, IL18, NFKB1, SERPINE1), which correlated with increases in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-8, IL-6). These data suggest that uptake of PQ by A549 cells altered the cellular redox status and the expression of several early response genes, including the inflammatory response, all of which might contribute to the overall cytotoxicity of PQ. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mineral uptake by taro (colocasla esculenta) in swamp agroecosystem following gramoxone paraquat herbicide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Mazleha Maskin; Abdul Khalik Wood

    2006-01-01

    Mineral elemental uptake by Colocasia esculenta growing in swamp agroecosystem was studied following 14, 18 or 28 months of field spraying (MAT, months after treatment) with herbicide Gramoxone paraquat. In overall, Al (68226.67 ± 24066.56 μ/g dw) was the major element in riverine alluvial swamp soil, followed by micronutrient Fe (22280.00 ± 6328.87 μ/g dw). Concentration of macronutrient K (20733.33 ± 7371.82, μ/g dw) was the highest in swamp taro leaf followed by macronutrient Ca (7050.00 ± 3767.26 μ/g dw). In overall, the order of importance of the average mineral concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Na > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. However at 14 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Al > Na > Mn > Fe > Zn > Br > Co. At 18 MAT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Al > Fe > Na > Zn > Br > Co. At 28 AMT, the order of importance of mineral content concentration in swamp taro leaf was K > Ca > Mn > Fe > Al > Zn > Na > Br > Co. In overall, the average order of importance of mineral elemental uptake or the soil plant transfer coefficient was Mn > K > Na > Zn > Co > Fe > Al; similar with the order at 28 MAT However, at 14 MAT the order of importance of the soil plant transfer coefficient was different at Mn > K > Na > Co > Zn > Al > Fe. (Author)

  14. Effects of hemoperfusion and continuous renal replacement therapy on patient survival following paraquat poisoning.

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    Yadong Wang

    Full Text Available Mortality in patients with paraquat (PQ poisoning is related to plasma PQ levels. Concentrations lower than 5,000 ng/mL are considered critical but curable. This study assessed the effects of hemoperfusion (HP and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on the survival of PQ-poisoned patients with plasma PQ levels below 5,000ng/mL. We analyzed the records of 164 patients with PQ poisoning who were treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University in China between January 2011 and May 2015. We divided these patients into six sub-groups based on baseline plasma PQ levels and treatment, compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed their survival rates. Patient sub-groups did not differ in terms of age, sex, time between poisoning and hospital admission, or time to first gavage. Biochemical indicators improved over time in all sub-groups following treatment, and the combined HP and CRRT treatment yielded better results than HP or CRRT alone. Fatality rates in the three treatment sub-groups did not differ among patients with baseline plasma PQ levels of 50-1,000 ng/mL, but in patients with 1,000-5,000 ng/mL levels, the mortality rate was 59.2% (HP treatment group, 48% (CRRT treatment group, and 37.9% (combined treatment group. Mortality rates were higher 10-30 days after hospitalization than in the first 10 days after admission. In the early stages of PQ poisoning, CRRT is effective in reducing patient fatality rates, particularly when combined with HP. Our data could be useful in increasing survival in acute PQ poisoning patients.

  15. Medical Management and Outcome of Paraquat Poisoning in Ahvaz, Iran: A Hospital-Based Study

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    Ali Hasan Rahmani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraquat (PQ poisoning is highly fatal; and therefore, clinicians should be familiar with prompt approach to and poor prognostic features of this type of poisoning. Hence, in this study, clinical profile, management and outcome of a series of patients with PQ poisoning are presented. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of patients poisoned with PQ who were treated at Clinical Toxicology Department of Razi Hospital in Ahwaz, Iran during 2005 to 2008 was performed.  Results: Forty-two patients (66.7% men were studied. Majority of them (83.3% were between 15-29 years of age. Most of PQ poisonings occurred following suicidal ideation (39 patients; 92.9%. The most common on-admission clinical findings of the patients were vomiting (69% and respiratory distress (47.6%. Activated charcoal was given to 35 patients (83.3%. N-acetyl cysteine (100 mg/kg IV stat, vitamin E (100 IU daily IV and vitamin C (500 mg daily IV were given to all patients. Exploratory endoscopy for plausible mucosal ulcers was carried out for 23 patients (54.8%. Pantoprazole (40 mg twice daily was given to all patients and for 7 patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI irritation and GI bleeding, higher doses of pantoprazole (8 mg/hour was administered. All patients received pulse therapy with methyl prednisolone (1g daily for three days and cyclophosphamide (15 mg/kg daily for two days. Twenty patients died. Comparing death and survival, death was significantly higher in patients with respiratory distress (100 vs. 0.0 %, P < 0.001, renal dysfunction (85.0 vs. 9.1 %, P < 0.001 and hepatic dysfunction (75.0 vs. 4.5 %, P < 0.001. Conclusion: PQ poisoning creates a life-threatening clinical situation, which requires quick and proper treatment. Based on this research, mortality rate is greater in the presence of renal, hepatic and respiratory dysfunction.

  16. Photoprotective mechanism of the non-target organism Arabidopsis thaliana to paraquat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaka, Julietta; Moustakas, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The response of photosystem II (PSII), of the non-target organism Arabidopsis thaliana, to paraquat (Pq) exposure was studied by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Effects of 1mM Pq application by spray on A. thaliana leaves were monitored as soon as 20min after application at the deposit areas of the droplets. A decline in the effective quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PSII (ΦPSII) was accompanied by an increase in the quantum yield for dissipation by down regulation in PSII (ΦNPQ). The concomitant decrease in the quantum yield of non-regulated energy loss in PSII (ΦNO) pointed out a quick effective photoprotection mechanism to Pq exposure. Even 1h after Pq spray, when the maximum Pq effect was observed, the decrease of electron transport rate (ETR) and the increase in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) resulted to maintain almost the same redox state of quinone A (QA) as control plants. Thus, maximal photoprotection was achieved since NPQ was regulated in such a way that PSII reaction centers remained open. Arabidopsis plants were protected from Pq exposure, by increasing NPQ that dissipates light energy and decreases the efficiency of photochemical reactions of photosynthesis (down regulation of PSII) via the "water-water cycle". PSII photochemistry began to recover 4h after Pq exposure, and this was evident from the increase of ΦPSII, the simultaneous decrease of ΦNPQ, and the concomitant decrease of ΦNO. Yet, ETR began to increase, as well as the fraction of open PSII reaction centers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-wide transcriptional and physiological responses of Bradyrhizobium japonicum to paraquat-mediated oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Andrew J; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Sangurdekar, Dipen; So, Jae-Seong; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2011-06-01

    The rhizobial bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum functions as a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the soybean plant (Glycine max). Plants are capable of producing an oxidative burst, a rapid proliferation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as a defense mechanism against pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria. Therefore, B. japonicum must be able to resist such a defense mechanism to initiate nodulation. In this study, paraquat, a known superoxide radical-inducing agent, was used to investigate this response. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles were created for both prolonged exposure (PE) and fulminant shock (FS) conditions. These profiles revealed that 190 and 86 genes were up- and downregulated for the former condition, and that 299 and 105 genes were up- and downregulated for the latter condition, respectively (>2.0-fold; P < 0.05). Many genes within putative operons for F(0)F(1)-ATP synthase, chemotaxis, transport, and ribosomal proteins were upregulated during PE. The transcriptional profile for the FS condition strangely resembled that of a bacteroid condition, including the FixK(2) transcription factor and most of its response elements. However, genes encoding canonical ROS scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were not detected, suggesting constitutive expression of those genes by endogenous ROS. Various physiological tests, including exopolysaccharide (EPS), cellular protein, and motility characterization, were performed to corroborate the gene expression data. The results suggest that B. japonicum responds to tolerable oxidative stress during PE through enhanced motility, increased translational activity, and EPS production, in addition to the expression of genes involved in global stress responses, such as chaperones and sigma factors.

  18. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for analytical determination of paraquat in meconium samples using an immunosensor modified with fullerene, ferrocene and ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiulan; Li Zaijun; Cai, Yan; Wei, Zhilei; Fang Yinjun; Ren Guoxiao; Huang Yaru

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports a highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of paraquat. The immunosensor bases on glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite made from fullerene, ferrocene and the ionic liquid. The components were immobilized on the electrode surface by chitosan. The antibody of paraquat was covalently conjugated to the surface which was then blocked with bovine serum albumin. Analytical characteristics of the immunosensor were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It offers good repeatability (RSD = 1.5%), a stability of more than 150 days, an impedimetric response to paraquat in the range from 3.89 x 10 -11 to 4.0 x 10 -8 mol L -1 , and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 9.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 . The effects of omitting fullerene and the ionic liquid were well tested. The results indicated that sensitivity of the immunosensor is 3.7-fold better if fullerene and ionic liquid are used. This demonstrates that fullerene facilitates electron transfer on surface of the electrode due to unique electrochemical properties, while the ionic liquid provides biocompatible microenvironment for the antibody, which results in the enhanced sensitivity and stability. Moreover, surface morphology feature and electrochemical properties of the electrode were also examined. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of paraquat in meconium.

  19. Evaluation of the possible side-effects of paraquat on man and the environment, as a consequence of its persistence in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apeldoorn ME van; Gestel CAM van; Loch JPG

    1989-01-01

    In dit rapport worden de mogelijke blootstellingsroutes en -concentraties voor de mens en voor groepen van terrestrische organismen (vertebraten, invertebraten en microflora) aan paraquat als gevolg van de persistentie van deze stof in de bodem en de mogelijke effecten van deze blootstelling

  20. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for analytical determination of paraquat in meconium samples using an immunosensor modified with fullerene, ferrocene and ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Xiulan [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li Zaijun, E-mail: zaijunli@263.ne [School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122 (China); Cai, Yan; Wei, Zhilei [School of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Jiangnan University, Lihu Road 1800, Wuxi 214122 (China); Fang Yinjun; Ren Guoxiao; Huang Yaru [Zhejiang Zanyu Technology Limited Corporation, Hangzhou 311215 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports a highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of paraquat. The immunosensor bases on glassy carbon electrode modified with a composite made from fullerene, ferrocene and the ionic liquid. The components were immobilized on the electrode surface by chitosan. The antibody of paraquat was covalently conjugated to the surface which was then blocked with bovine serum albumin. Analytical characteristics of the immunosensor were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It offers good repeatability (RSD = 1.5%), a stability of more than 150 days, an impedimetric response to paraquat in the range from 3.89 x 10{sup -11} to 4.0 x 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}, and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 9.0 x 10{sup -12} mol L{sup -1}. The effects of omitting fullerene and the ionic liquid were well tested. The results indicated that sensitivity of the immunosensor is 3.7-fold better if fullerene and ionic liquid are used. This demonstrates that fullerene facilitates electron transfer on surface of the electrode due to unique electrochemical properties, while the ionic liquid provides biocompatible microenvironment for the antibody, which results in the enhanced sensitivity and stability. Moreover, surface morphology feature and electrochemical properties of the electrode were also examined. The method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of paraquat in meconium.

  1. Electrochemical Behavior of Paraquat on a Highly Ordered Biosensor Based on an Unmodified DNA-3D Gold Nanoparticle Composite and Its Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Ling Mei; Liu, Fei; Wang, Wei; Lian, Kao Qi; Ma, Li; Shi, Hong Mei; Kang, Wei Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Construction of unmodified DNA-3D gold nanoparticle composite was investigated. • Fabrication of hairpin DNA on GNPs was studied. • Redox mechanism of paraquat on the modified electrode was elucidated. • Determination method of paraquat on the modified electrode was established. - Abstract: DNA usually adsorbs gold nanoparticle by virtue of mercapto or amino group at one end of a DNA molecule. However, in this study, we report a highly ordered biosensor constructed using unmodified DNA molecules with consecutive adenines and three-dimensional gold nanoparticles (3D GNPs). The unmodified DNA-3D GNP composite was fabricated on gold electrodes and characterized through the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electrochemical methods. Using an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), the mechanism by which the unmodified DNA and GNPs combined was also studied. The modified electrode exhibited an ultrasensitive response to paraquat. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to study the linear relationships between the concentrations and the reduction peak currents. The linear relationship for DPV is 7.0 × 10 −9 M to 1.5 × 10 −6 M with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10 −10 M. The redox mechanism of paraquat on this modified electrode was also elucidated. The feasibility of the proposed assay for use in human serum, human urine, and natural samples was investigated, and satisfactory results were obtained

  2. Leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide associated with paraquat or glyphosate in a no-tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luis Nunes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The combined use of desiccant and residual herbicides is a common management practice under no-tillage systems. However, the effect of desiccant herbicides and mulch on the leaching of residual herbicide is unknown. This study aimed at assessing the leaching of the S-metolachlor herbicide applied to ryegrass sequentially or in association with paraquat or glyphosate. A randomized blocks design was used, with four repetitions and treatments distributed over split-plots. The desiccant herbicides paraquat (600 g ha-1 or glyphosate (720 g ha-1 were used in the main plot, while S-metolachlor (2,800 g ha-1 was applied sequentially or in association with the desiccant herbicides in the subplots. There was also a control containing only desiccant herbicide, with no application of residual herbicide. The type of desiccant did not affect the leaching of the residual herbicide. In addition, the chosen method to apply the residual herbicide, sequentially or in association with the desiccant, did not impact the S-metolachlor behavior in the soil. The bioavailable concentration in the soil, 25 days after the application, was 90 g a.i. ha-1, at a depth of 18 cm.

  3. Increased tolerance to photoinhibitory light in paraquat-resistant Conyza bonariensis measured by photoacoustic spectroscopy and 14CO2-fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.A.K.; Shaaltiel, Y.; Kazzes, D.; Canaani, O.; Malkin, S.; Gressel, J.

    1989-01-01

    Tolerance to photoinhibition was compared between a paraquat-resistant and a sensitive biotype of Conyza bonariensis (L.). Cronq. Photoinhibitory damage was measured as a decrease in oxygen evolution or energy storage using photoacoustic spectroscopy, or as a decrease of 14 CO 2 -fixation. Prior to exposure to high fluence rates, both biotypes had similar quantum yields of oxygen evolution and energy storage. After exposure to high intensity light, the resistant biotype continued to evolve oxygen and to store energy with a high quantum yield while both energy storage and oxygen evolution were severely reduced in the sensitive biotype. CO 2 -fixation was less rapidly inhibited in the resistant biotype compared to the sensitive one. The data show that the paraquat resistant biotype with its high constitutive levels of the chloroplast localized enzymes of the oxygen detoxification pathway, is also partially protected from photoinhibition. This supports the theory that an enhanced radical scavenging system can give temporary protection against photooxidative damage from a variety of sources

  4. Persistence of paraquat in the soil and observations with other herbicides relevant to the theme of bound residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, R.J.; Byast, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Results from three separate experiments that have some relevance to bound residues are reported. In the first, 14 C-labelled paraquat was lost when applied to soil in the field, about 26% of the radioactivity disappearing in 15 months, whereas in laboratory incubation studies there was no loss of radioactivity in one year. Two possible explanations are (i) that there was photolytic decomposition in the field, (ii) the preparation of the soil for the laboratory study upset the microbial ecology of the soil to the detriment of organisms that can degrade paraquat. In an experiment with 14 C-labelled isoproturon, there was an indication that there was slightly more 14 C in the unextractable humin fraction in soil in which wheat plants were grown than in bare soil. Work in the UK, Federal Republic of Germany and in Switzerland has shown that the phytotoxicity of residues of atrazine, carbetamide, chloridazone, propyzamide, simazine, lenacil, monolinuron, linuron, propachlor and methabenzthiazuron can be satisfactorily predicted on the basis of the amount that is extractable with water. This implies that bound residues of these compounds, if they exist, are unlikely to be phytotoxic. (author)

  5. The Role of Paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium chloride and Glyphosate (n-phosphonomethyl glycine in Translocation of Metal Ions to Subsurface Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda O. Mbuk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of paraquat (1,1’-Dimethyl-4,4’-bipyridinium dichloride and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine, on the translocation of some metals (K, Mg(II, Mn(II, Fe(II, Pb(II, Cu(II and Cd(II in soil, using a topsoil (Aquic Ustifluvent: USDA Soil Taxonomy, 2000 sampled at the University of Agriculture Makurdi Crop Farm, in Central Nigeria (7o 47’N, 8o 32’E. Employing column leaching experiments with water only on native soil and soil spiked with the metals and different levels of glyphosate or paraquat treatment, leachates were collected and analyzed for their metal contents. Results showed that in the presence of paraquat the transport of Fe(II and Mn(II by leaching in the soil was suppressed while that of Cu(II, K and Pb(II was enhanced. Glyphosate, similarly suppressed Mn(II and to some extent Fe(II translocation in the soil; however, it enhanced the mobility of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mg(II, Pb(II and K under similar treatment. While paraquat seemed to enhance the translocation of Mg(II at low application rates of the herbicide, glyphosate promoted its transport only at high application rates; there was no evidence that paraquat affected the movement of Cd(II in the soil. Our results show that the long-term use of these pesticides in the field may result in the depletion of Cu(II, K and Mg(II in agricultural soils, and that the use of glyphospate may present the additional risk of possible groundwater contamination with Cd(II and Pb(II.

  6. The role of paraquat (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridinium chloride) and glyphosate (n-phosphonomethyl glycine) in translocation of metal ions to subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuk, R.O.; Sha'Ato, R.; Nkpa, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the role of paraquat (1,1'-Dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium dichloride) and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine), on the translocation of some metals (K, Mg(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II)) in soil, using a topsoil (Aquic Ustifluvent: USDA Soil Taxonomy, 2000) sampled at the University of Agriculture Makurdi Crop Farm, in Central Nigeria (7 degree 47'N, 8 degree 32'E). Employing column leaching experiments with water only on native soil and soil spiked with the metals and different levels of glyphosate or paraquat treatment, leachates were collected and analyzed for their metal contents. Results showed that in the presence of paraquat the transport of Fe(II) and Mn(II) by leaching in the soil was suppressed while that of Cu(II), K and Pb(II) was enhanced. Glyphosate, similarly suppressed Mn(II) and to some extent Fe(II) translocation in the soil; however, it enhanced the mobility of Cd(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Pb(II) and K under similar treatment. While paraquat seemed to enhance the translocation of Mg(II) at low application rates of the herbicide, glyphosate promoted its transport only at high application rates; there was no evidence that paraquat affected the movement of Cd(II) in the soil. Our results show that the long term use of these pesticides in the field may result in the depletion of Cu(II), K and Mg(II) in agricultural soils, and that the use of glyphosate may present the additional risk of possible groundwater contamination with Cd(II) and Pb(II). (author)

  7. Combined exposure to agriculture pesticides, paraquat and maneb, induces alterations in the N/OFQ-NOPr and PDYN/KOPr systems in rats: Relevance to sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Di Benedetto, Manuela; D'Addario, Claudio; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Despite several years of research, the aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is quite far from being solved. In PD, as well as in other neurodegenerative disorders, it has been proposed that the combination of multiple factors might contribute to the onset of the disease. Indeed, several authors have suggested that environmental factors, such as pollutants and chemicals, might be associated with the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders. On the other hand, several studies have described that the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP opioid systems are implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Considering the nonrestricted commercial availability and common use of several pesticides, such as paraquat and maneb, in agriculture of less developed countries, the aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP systems in a chronic paraquat and maneb animal model of Parkinson's disease. Our results showed that after paraquat/maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) treatment, a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was observed. Also, the association of paraquat and maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) induced an increase in nociceptin/orphanin and a decrease of prodynorphin gene expression levels in the substantia nigra with a down-regulation of NOP and KOP receptors after both treatments in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen. These data further confirm that paraquat and maneb toxicity can modulate gene expression of the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP receptor and prodynorphin-KOP receptor systems in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, offering further support to the hypothesis that chronic exposure to these agrochemicals might be implicated in the mechanisms underlying sporadic Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 656-663, 2015. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effects of microcystin and complex cyanobacterial samples on growth and oxidative stress paramaters in green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and comparison with the effects of model oxidative stressor, herbicide paraquat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Kateřina; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2011), s. 641-648 ISSN 1520-4081 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : microcystin * paraquat * oxidative stress Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.407, year: 2011

  9. Adiponectin attenuates lung fibroblasts activation and pulmonary fibrosis induced by paraquat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yao

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the most common complications of paraquat (PQ poisoning, which demands for more effective therapies. Accumulating evidence suggests adiponectin (APN may be a promising therapy against fibrotic diseases. In the current study, we determine whether the exogenous globular APN isoform protects against pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-treated mice and human lung fibroblasts, and dissect the responsible underlying mechanisms. BALB/C mice were divided into control group, PQ group, PQ + low-dose APN group, and PQ + high-dose APN group. Mice were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after PQ treatment. We compared pulmonary histopathological changes among different groups on the basis of fibrosis scores, TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA pulmonary content via Western blot and real-time quantitative fluorescence-PCR (RT-PCR. Blood levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were determined by ELISA. Human lung fibroblasts WI-38 were divided into control group, PQ group, APN group, and APN receptor (AdipoR 1 small-interfering RNA (siRNA group. Fibroblasts were collected 24, 48, and 72 hours after PQ exposure for assay. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined via Kit-8 (CCK-8 and fluorescein Annexin V-FITC/PI double labeling. The protein and mRNA expression level of collagen type III, AdipoR1, and AdipoR2 were measured by Western blot and RT-PCR. APN treatment significantly decreased the lung fibrosis scores, protein and mRNA expression of pulmonary TGF-β1, CTGF and α-SMA content, and blood MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Pretreatment with APN significantly attenuated the reduced cell viability and up-regulated collagen type III expression induced by PQ in lung fibroblasts, (p<0.05. APN pretreatment up-regulated AdipoR1, but not AdipoR2, expression in WI-38 fibroblasts. AdipoR1 siRNA abrogated APN-mediated protective effects in PQ-exposed fibroblasts. Taken together, our data suggests APN protects against PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a

  10. Early hemoperfusion may improve survival of severely paraquat-poisoned patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wei Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thousands of paraquat (PQ-poisoned patients continue to die, particularly in developing countries. Although animal studies indicate that hemoperfusion (HP within 2-4 h after intoxication effectively reduces mortality, the effect of early HP in humans remains unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the records of all PQ-poisoned patients admitted to 2 hospitals between 2000 and 2009. Patients were grouped according to early or late HP and high-dose (oral cyclophosphamide [CP] and intravenous dexamethasone [DX] or repeated pulse (intravenous methylprednisolone [MP] and CP, followed by DX and repeated MP and/or CP PQ therapy. Early HP was defined as HP <4 h, and late HP, as HP ≥ 4 h after PQ ingestion. We evaluated the associations between HP <4 h, <5 h, <6 h, and <7 h after PQ ingestion and the outcomes. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were analyzed. RESULTS: The study included 207 severely PQ-poisoned patients. Forward stepwise multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis showed that early HP <4 h (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.16-0.86; P = 0.020 or HP <5 h (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.92; P = 0.019 significantly decreased the mortality risk. Further analysis showed that early HP reduced the mortality risk only in patients treated with repeated pulse therapy (n = 136, but not high-dose therapy (n = 71. Forward stepwise multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis showed that HP <4.0 h (HR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.05-0.79; P = 0.022 or <5.0 h (HR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24-0.98; P = 0.043 after PQ ingestion significantly decreased the mortality risk in repeated pulse therapy patients, after adjustment for relevant variables. CONCLUSION: The results showed that early HP after PQ exposure might be effective in reducing mortality in severely poisoned patients, particularly in those treated with repeated pulse therapy.

  11. Intoxicación aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas. Guatemala, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Enrique Pla Acevedo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas en edades pediátricas en Guatemala, que abarcó el  período de enero hasta diciembre del 2011. La muestra estuvo comprendida por 457 pacientes en edades pediátricas. Se analizaron las variables: edad y sexo, actividad que realizaba en el momento de la intoxicación, tipo de plaguicida, severidad, utilización de equipos de protección y lugar de asistencia médica. Las variables para el análisis de los indicadores fueron obtenidas por el Centro Nacional de Epidemiología. Como resultados fundamentales se observó que la Intoxicación Aguda por plaguicidas afectó principalmente al grupo de edades entre 17 y 19 años. El sexo masculino fue el más perjudicado, el mayor porciento de afectados, según causa, fue accidente de trabajo, con un 68% del total de casos; el tipo de plaguicida más utilizado que provocó intoxicación fue el paraquat; predominó la forma severa en los que no usaron medios de protección y el  lugar de atención médica y de notificación correspondió al hospital.

  12. The effect of paraquat inhalation on parkinsonism, organ morphology and anatomy of mice and its recovery with the application of etliringea hemisphaerica (blume, r.m. smith) crude extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Choirul; Nurul Kamila, Santi

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to understand the effect of paraquat herbicide inhalation on Parkinsonism, morphology and anatomy change in mice, and its recovery with Etliringea hemisphaerica crude extract application. Sixty mice were placed into three following groups: group R0 were mice receiving standard food ransom, R1 were a group of mice receiving the regular food ransom plus inhalation of 1% paraquat, and R2 were a group of R1 plus obtaining 0,39mg/bw extract E. hemisphaerica (Bl.) R.M. Smith). After 2 X 7 days of sub-sequential application of both paraquat and “helani tulip” extract, we observed the effects. The examination included bradikinesia attitude, postural instability and rigidity, morphology and anatomy of brain, liver, blood, lung, and kidney. The data were tabulated and analyzed qualitative and semi quantitative description on the behavioural disorder, the alteration of morphology and anatomy, and their remedy based on Sander 2004, Junqueira and Carneiro, 2007. The results showed that the application of paraquat caused strong bradikinesia, postural instability and rigidity. The treatment of the extract was only resulting in the bradikinesia removal but was minor improving the consequence of postural instability and rigidity. Paraquat was not affecting the morphology of neural brain but was altering the morphology and anatomy of lung, liver, blood, and the kidney. In general, the negative impact of the paraquat was weakly eliminated by the treatment of “helani tulip” extract.

  13. Effect of paraquat and 2,4,5-T on biosynthesis of epicuticular wax in some semiarid shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, J.V.S.; Reddy, K.R.; Devi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The formation of epicuticular wax and cuticle of some semiarid scrub leaves was reduced by foliar application of either paraquat (1, 1', 4', 4,-bipyridilium ion) at 100 mgl -1 or 2,4,5-T(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid) at 2000 mg 1 -1 . Studies on the biosynthesis of epicuticular wax using acetate-1- 14 C revealed that the two classes of herbicides significantly decreased the synthesis of alcohols, aldehydes and mixture of hydrocarbons, esters and ketone fractions, while increasing the synthesis of fatty acid components. The substantial increase observed in cuticular transpiration with these herbicide treatments may be attributed to the altered pattern of biosynthesis of different wax components. (author). 15 refs., 2 figs

  14. Fabrication of polypyrrole-grafted nitrogen-doped graphene and its application for electrochemical detection of paraquat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ji; Lei, Wu; Xu, Yujuan; Zhang, Yuehua; Xia, Mingzhu; Wang, Fengyun

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Polypyrrole-grafted nitrogen-doped graphene (PPY-g-NGE) was successfully synthesized by simultaneous modification of graphene through nitrogen doping and polymeric grafting for an efficient detection of paraquat (PQ). - Abstract: Polypyrrole-grafted nitrogen-doped graphene (PPY-g-NGE) was successfully synthesized by simultaneous modification of graphene through nitrogen doping and polymeric grafting, and used for the detection of paraquat (PQ). The chemical structure, morphology and interaction of the obtained PPY-g-NGE were verified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The PPY-g-NGE modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated to investigate its electrochemical behavior and sensitive detection of PQ by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that the novel PPY-g-NGE modified GCE exhibited excellent electrochemical performance and electrocatalytic activity to the redox reaction of PQ, with comparison to NGE and non-grafted composite of PPY-NGE. The two reduction DPV peaks of PQ at −0.60 V and −1.00 V were significantly enhanced at the PPY-g-NGE modified electrode. Under the optimized condition, the reduction peak currents of PQ at the PPY-g-NGE modified electrode were linear over the concentration range from 5.00 × 10 −8 to 2.00 × 10 −6 M with detection limits of 41 nM and 58 nM for Peak 1 and Peak 2, respectively. Besides the good sensitivity, the sensor also exhibited fine stability and strong anti-interference ability due to the well-combination and synergistic effect of polypyrrole and nitrogen doped graphene

  15. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid leads to increased antioxidant capacity in leaves of barley plants exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananieva, Elitsa Antonova; Christov, Kaloyan Nikolov; Popova, Losanka Petrova

    2004-03-01

    Our previous study suggests that salicylic acid mediates tolerance in barley plants to paraquat (Ananieva et al. 2002). To further define the role of SA in paraquat induced responses, we analysed the capacity of the antioxidative defence system by measuring the activities of several antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), and guaiacol peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7). Twelve-day-old barley seedlings were supplied with 500 micromol/L SA or 10 micromol/L Pq via the transpiration stream and kept in the dark for 24 h. Then they were exposed to 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PAR and samples were taken 6 h after the light exposure. Treatment of seedlings with 10 micromol/L Pq reduced the activity of APX and GR, did not affect the activity of POX and DHAR but caused over a 40% increase in the activity of CAT. Pre-treatment with 500 micromol/L SA for 24 h in the dark before Pq application increased the activities of the studied enzymes in both the chloroplasts (SOD activity) and the other compartments of the cell (POX, CAT activity). The effect of SA pre-treatment was highly expressed on DHAR and POX activity. The data suggest that SA antagonizes Pq effects, via elicitation of an antioxidative response in barley plants.

  16. Incidencia de las intoxicaciones: un caso en hospital de Ecuador

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    Segura-Osorio, Marisela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intoxication is a public health problem and one of the main causes of admission in emergency rooms nationwide and internationally. An exploratory, descriptive, and cross-sectional research of a directed observation was conducted to determine the incidence of intoxication in patients of General Teófilo Dávila Hospital in El Oro Province, Ecuador, in 2012; patients were classified by age, sex, origin, and the most frequent toxicant in this area. The highest incidence was February (16.35%, in the sample of 104 intoxicated males predominated (66.35%, urban origin (88.46% and the age group of 20-49 years (60.58%. The circumstances were: accidental (78.85%, intentional (16, 35 % and employment (4.81%. The most important mechanism is the intake (84.62 %, the agent types are food / beverages (29.81 % and substance abuse (25%.

  17. Proteja a sus seres queridos de las intoxicaciones

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-12-10

    Este podcast, que forma parte de la iniciativa Proteja a sus seres queridos, aborda las medidas que pueden tomar los padres de familia para ayudar a proteger a sus niños de una intoxicación, una de las principales causas de lesiones infantiles.  Created: 12/10/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 4/1/2009.

  18. Celulitis por citomegalovirus

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    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.

  19. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Gómez Santa María; Mauro García Aurelio; Yanina Castillo Costa; Víctor Mauro; Carlos Barrero

    2009-01-01

    Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003) y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato...

  20. Multiple resistance to glyphosate, paraquat and ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Italian ryegrass populations from California: confirmation and mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranchian, Parsa; Nandula, Vijay; Jugulam, Mithila; Putta, Karthik; Jasieniuk, Marie

    2018-04-01

    Glyphosate, paraquat and acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides are widely used in California annual and perennial cropping systems. Recently, glyphosate, paraquat, and ACCase- and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor resistance was confirmed in several Italian ryegrass populations from the Central Valley of California. This research characterized the possible mechanisms of resistance. Multiple-resistant populations (MR1, MR2) are resistant to several herbicides from at least three modes of action. Dose-response experiments revealed that the MR1 population was 45.9-, 122.7- and 20.5-fold, and the MR2 population was 24.8-, 93.9- and 4.0-fold less susceptible to glyphosate, sethoxydim and paraquat, respectively, than the susceptible (Sus) population. Accumulation of shikimate in Sus plants was significantly greater than in MR plants 32 h after light pretreatments. Glyphosate resistance in MR plants was at least partially due to Pro106-to-Ala and Pro106-to-Thr substitutions at site 106 of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). EPSPS gene copy number and expression level were similar in plants from the Sus and MR populations. An Ile1781-to-Leu substitution in ACCase gene of MR plants conferred a high level of resistance to sethoxydim and cross-resistance to other ACCase-inhibitors. Radiolabeled herbicide studies and phosphorimaging indicated that MR plants had restricted translocation of 14 C-paraquat to untreated leaves compared to Sus plants. This study shows that multiple herbicide resistance in Italian ryegrass populations in California, USA, is due to both target-site and non-target-site resistance mechanisms. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Acute Effects of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or Paraquat on Core Temperature in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Dou, Yuchen; Lockwood, Georgina; Pani, Amar; Jay Smeyne, Richard

    2015-01-01

    MPTP and paraquat are two compounds that have been used to model Parkinson's disease in mice. Previous studies in two non-traditional strains of mice have shown that a single dose of MPTP can induce changes in body temperature, while the effects of paraquat have not been examined. Examination of body temperature is important since small fluctuations in an animal's core temperature can significantly affect drug metabolism, and if significant enough can even culminate in an animal's death. To determine how external heating can alter the survival of C57BL/6J mice following MPTP administration. In this study, we examine the effects of MPTP (4×20 mg/kg, 2 hours apart) and paraquat (2×10 mg/kg/week for 3 weeks) on core temperature of C57BL/6J mice. Correlations of purine and catecholamine levels were also done in mice treated with MPTP. We find that MPTP induces a significant hypothermia in C57BL/6J mice that reduces their core temperature below the limit of fatal hypothermia. Unlike MPTP, paraquat did not induce a significant hypothermia. Placement of animals on heating pads significantly abrogates the loss of core temperature. In both heated and non-heated conditions, mice treated with MPTP showed a significant depletion of ATP within 2 hours of administration in both striatum and SN that started to recover 2 hours after MPTP administration was complete. Striatal DA and DOPAC are significantly reduced starting 4-6 hours after MPTP. The fatal hypothermic effects of MPTP can be abrogated through use of external heating.

  2. Alterations in Energy/Redox Metabolism Induced by Mitochondrial and Environmental Toxins: A Specific Role for Glucose-6-Phosphate-Dehydrogenase and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway in Paraquat Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder with a complex etiology including genetic risk factors, environmental exposures, and aging. While energy failure and oxidative stress have largely been associated with the loss of dopaminergic cells in PD and the toxicity induced by mitochondrial/environmental toxins, very little is known regarding the alterations in energy metabolism associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and their causative role in cell death progression. In this study, we investigated the alterations in the energy/redox-metabolome in dopaminergic cells exposed to environmental/mitochondrial toxins (paraquat, rotenone, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium [MPP+], and 6-hydroxydopamine [6-OHDA]) in order to identify common and/or different mechanisms of toxicity. A combined metabolomics approach using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and direct-infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DI-ESI-MS) was used to identify unique metabolic profile changes in response to these neurotoxins. Paraquat exposure induced the most profound alterations in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) metabolome. 13C-glucose flux analysis corroborated that PPP metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, glucono-1,5-lactone, and erythrose-4-phosphate were increased by paraquat treatment, which was paralleled by inhibition of glycolysis and the TCA cycle. Proteomic analysis also found an increase in the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which supplies reducing equivalents by regenerating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels. Overexpression of G6PD selectively increased paraquat toxicity, while its inhibition with 6-aminonicotinamide inhibited paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death. These results suggest that paraquat “hijacks” the PPP to increase NADPH reducing equivalents and stimulate paraquat redox cycling, oxidative stress, and cell death. Our study clearly demonstrates that alterations

  3. Embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Gómez Santa María

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los primeros registros de embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato se publicaron recientemente (2003 y desde entonces se describieron no más de 15 casos. Se presenta el caso de un paciente joven a quien dos meses antes de la consulta se le había efectuado una vertebroplastia percutánea con polimetilmetacrilato. Por síntomas pleuríticos se le realizó una radiografía de tórax, que evidenció múltiples imágenes radioopacas en ambos campos pulmonares. La embolia pulmonar por polimetilmetacrilato es una complicación muy poco frecuente de ese procedimiento y un diagnóstico diferencial para tener en cuenta en pacientes con el antecedente y que consulten por dolor precordial o disnea.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:129-130.

  4. Increased expression of SVCT2 in a new mouse model raises ascorbic acid in tissues and protects against paraquat-induced oxidative damage in lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Edith Harrison

    Full Text Available A new transgenic mouse model for global increases in the Sodium Dependent Vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2 has been generated. The SVCT2-Tg mouse shows increased SVCT2 mRNA levels in all organs tested and correspondingly increased ascorbic acid (ASC levels in all organs except liver. The extent of the increase in transporter mRNA expression differed among mice and among organs. The increased ASC levels did not have any adverse effects on behavior in the SVCT2-Tg mice, which did not differ from wild-type mice on tests of locomotor activity, anxiety, sensorimotor or cognitive ability. High levels of SVCT2 and ASC were found in the kidneys of SVCT2-Tg mice and urinary albumin excretion was lower in these mice than in wild-types. No gross pathological changes were noted in kidneys from SVCT2-Tg mice. SVCT2 immunoreactivity was detected in both SVCT2 and wild-type mice, and a stronger signal was seen in tubules than in glomeruli. Six treatments with Paraquat (3x10 and 3x15 mg/kg i.p. were used to induce oxidative stress in mice. SVCT2-Tg mice showed a clear attenuation of Paraquat-induced oxidative stress in lung, as measured by F(2-isoprostanes. Paraquat also decreased SVCT2 mRNA signal in liver, lung and kidney in SVCT2-Tg mice.

  5. Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres treated paraquat-induced acute lung injury by resisting oxidative stress

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    Zhu Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yong Zhu,1,* Guoying Deng,2,* Anqi Ji,2 Jiayi Yao,1 Xiaoxiao Meng,1 Jinfeng Wang,1 Qian Wang,2 Qiugen Wang,2 Ruilan Wang1 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, 2Trauma Center, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Acute paraquat (PQ poisoning is one of the most common forms of pesticide poisoning. Oxidative stress and inflammation are thought to be important mechanisms in PQ-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Selenium (Se can scavenge intracellular free radicals directly or indirectly. In this study, we investigated whether porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres could alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation in PQ-induced ALI. Male Sprague Dawley rats and RLE-6TN cells were used in this study. Rats were categorized into 3 groups: control (n=6, PQ (n=18, and PQ + Se@SiO2 (n=18. The PQ and PQ + Se@SiO2 groups were randomly and evenly divided into 3 sub-groups according to different time points (24, 48 and 72 h after PQ treatment. Porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres 1 mg/kg (in the PQ + Se@SiO2 group were administered via intraperitoneal injection every 24 h. Expression levels of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, reactive oxygen species (ROS, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were detected, and a histological analysis of rat lung tissues was performed. The results showed that the levels of ROS, malondialdehyde, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were markedly increased after PQ treatment. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels were reduced. However, treatment with porous Se@SiO2 nanospheres markedly alleviated PQ-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Additionally, the results from histological examinations and wet-to-dry weight ratios of rat lung

  6. Changes in the Xanthophyll Cycle and Fluorescence Quenching Indicate Light-Dependent Early Events in the Action of Paraquat and the Mechanism of Resistance to Paraquat in Erigeron canadensis (L.) Cronq1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Gyula; Darkó, Éva; Lehoczki, Endre

    2000-01-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidation, chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic O2 evolution in the presence of paraquat (Pq) were studied in intact attached leaves of Pq-susceptible, and Pq-resistant (PqR) biotypes of Erigeron canadensis under different light conditions. Initially, similar changes were induced in the two biotypes, but the effects relaxed only in the PqR plants, indicating a Pq elimination process. The penetration of Pq into the chloroplasts of PqR plants proved to be somewhat restricted and highly light-dependent, as revealed by both the light response curves of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and fluorescence quenching and the short-term high-light pre-illumination experiments. An irregular down-regulation of the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching processes was observed, reflected by lower steady-state zeaxanthin and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching levels as compared with the corresponding non-treated high-light controls. It is concluded that light is essential not only for the initiation of the mechanism of resistance to Pq, but also for the penetration of Pq into the chloroplasts in the PqR E. canadensis. Also, the Pq elimination process may cause a modification to the regulation of the non-radiative energy dissipation in PqR plants in the presence of Pq. PMID:10938362

  7. Electrochemical determination of paraquat in citric fruit based on electrodeposition of silver particles onto carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfettah Farahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon paste electrodes (CPEs modified with silver particles present an interesting tool in the determination of paraquat (PQ using square wave voltammetry. Metallic silver particle deposits have been obtained via electrochemical deposition in acidic media using cyclic voltammetry. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the silver particles are deposited onto carbon surfaces in aggregate form. The response of PQ with modified electrode (Ag-CPE related to Ag/CP loading, preconcentration time, and measuring solution pH was investigated. The result shows that the increase in the two cathodic peak currents (Peak 1 and Peak 2, under optimized conditions, was linear with the increase in PQ concentration in the range 1.0 × 10−7 mol/L to 1.0 × 10−3 mol/L. The detection limit and quantification limit were 2.01 × 10−8 mol/L and 6.073 × 10−8 mol/L, respectively for Peak 1. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation for the concentration level 1.0 × 10−5 mol/L (n = 8 was found to be 1.45%. The methodology was satisfactorily applied for the determination of PQ in citric fruit cultures.

  8. Testing the effect of paraquat exposure on genomic recombination rates in queens of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Kurt; Phillips, Matthew; Rueppell, Olav

    2018-04-01

    The rate of genomic recombination displays evolutionary plasticity and can even vary in response to environmental factors. The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has an extremely high genomic recombination rate but the mechanistic basis for this genome-wide upregulation is not understood. Based on the hypothesis that meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair share common mechanisms in honey bees as in other organisms, we predicted that oxidative stress leads to an increase in recombination rate in honey bees. To test this prediction, we subjected honey bee queens to oxidative stress by paraquat injection and measured the rates of genomic recombination in select genome intervals of offspring produced before and after injection. The evaluation of 26 genome intervals in a total of over 1750 offspring of 11 queens by microsatellite genotyping revealed several significant effects but no overall evidence for a mechanistic link between oxidative stress and increased recombination was found. The results weaken the notion that DNA repair enzymes have a regulatory function in the high rate of meiotic recombination of honey bees, but they do not provide evidence against functional overlap between meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair in honey bees and more mechanistic studies are needed.

  9. Connective tissue growth factor stimulates the proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts during paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhizhou; Sun, Zhaorui; Liu, Hongmei; Ren, Yi; Shao, Danbing; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Jinfeng; Wolfram, Joy; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shinan

    2015-07-01

    It is well established that paraquat (PQ) poisoning can cause severe lung injury during the early stages of exposure, finally leading to irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an essential growth factor that is involved in tissue repair and pulmonary fibrogenesis. In the present study, the role of CTGF was examined in a rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ poisoning. Histological examination revealed interstitial edema and extensive cellular thickening of interalveolar septa at the early stages of poisoning. At 2 weeks after PQ administration, lung tissue sections exhibited a marked thickening of the alveolar walls with an accumulation of interstitial cells with a fibroblastic appearance. Masson's trichrome staining revealed a patchy distribution of collagen deposition, indicating pulmonary fibrogenesis. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples demonstrated that CTGF expression was significantly upregulated in the PQ-treated group. Similarly, PQ treatment of MRC-5 human lung fibroblast cells caused an increase in CTGF in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the addition of CTGF to MRC-5 cells triggered cellular proliferation and migration. In addition, CTGF induced the differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, as was evident from increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen. These findings demonstrate that PQ causes increased CTGF expression, which triggers proliferation, migration and differentiation of lung fibroblasts. Therefore, CTGF may be important in PQ-induced pulmonary fibrogenesis, rendering this growth factor a potential pharmacological target for reducing lung injury.

  10. Heterologous expression of predicted promoter site for paraquat-inducible genes of the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum is increased by plumbagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Eyre Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate functionally the effect of plumbagin on the heterologous expression of a predicted promoter region of open reading frames of paraquat-inducible (pqi genes revealed during genome annotation analyses of the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. First, the promoter of interest was amplified using specific primers and cloned into a conjugative vector carrying the Escherichia coli lacZ gene without a promoter. The heterologous expression of the predicted promoter region was then examined in the presence of 50 µg/mL plumbagin by β-galactosidase expression assays. Significant differences were detected in the levels of β-galactosidase as a result of the activation of the promoter region of interest in response to plumbagin at the concentration tested. On the other hand, no growth of the wild strain of C. violaceum was found during its incubation in nutrient broth medium containing different concentrations of plumbagin compared to control group. The findings described herein demonstrate that the heterologous expression of a predicted promoter site of pqi genes of C. violaceum is induced by plumbagin in a fusion strain, giving insights into the functional characterization of intrinsic regulatory DNA motifs annotated in this bacterial genome.

  11. Theoretical binding affinities and spectroscopy of complexes formed by cyclobis(paraquat- p-anthrancene) with some pharmaceutical molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xin; Luo, Zhouyang; Du, Jinpei; Wu, Shi

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical investigation on the stabilities and spectroscopic properties of the complexes formed by cyciobis(paraquat- p-anthracene) with pharmaceutical molecules were performed using the semi-empirical PM3 and B3LYP/3-21G methods. Based on the B3LYP/3-21G optimized geometries, the energies of the complexes were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G( d) level. The binding energies of the complexes were computed after the correction of basis set superposition error (BSSE). The energy gaps of the complexes are decreased due to the formation of the hydrogen bonds. The stretching vibrations of the C-H bonds adjacent to the hydrogen bonds in the IR spectra of the complexes calculated with PM3 method are red-shifted compared with those of the host. The chemical shifts of α-C and β-C atoms in the complexes calculated at B3LYP/3-21G level are shifted downfield due to the formation of the hydrogen bonds and the electron-withdrawing effect of the nitrogen atoms. The aromaticities of the complexes are improved because of the enlargement of the conjugation system and the overlap of electron cloud based on the nuclear independent chemical shifts (NICS) calculated at B3LYP/3-21G level.

  12. Clathrin-Dependent Uptake of Paraquat into SH-SY5Y Cells and Its Internalization into Different Subcellular Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengrui; Tian, Xiaofei; Zhan, Xiaoni; Wang, Baojie; Ding, Mei; Pang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is an exogenous toxin that allows the selective activation of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon to induce injury and also causes its apoptosis in vitro. However, uptake mechanisms between PQ and neurons remain elusive. To address this issue, we undertook a study of PQ endocytosis in a dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line as well as explored the subsequent subcellular location and potential functional analysis of PQ. The PQ was found to bind the SH-SY5Y cell membrane and then became internalized via a clathrin-dependent pathway. PQ was internalized by many subcellular organelles in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the taken up PQ and secretogranin III (SCG3), which became dysregulated with PQ treatment that induced SH-SY5Y apoptosis in our previous study, colocalized in cytoplasmic vesicles. Taken together, our findings indicate that PQ is endocytosed by SH-SY5Y cells and that its multiple, subcellular localizations indicate PQ may potentially be involved in subcellular-level functions. More importantly, PQ distributing preferentially into SCG3-positive vesicles demonstrates its selective targeting which may affect SCG3 and cargoes carried by SCG3-positive vesicles. Therefore, it is reasonable to infer that PQ toxic insults may potentially interfere with neurotransmitter storage and transport associated with secretory granules.

  13. Heterologous expression of predicted promoter site for paraquat-inducible genes of the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum is increased by plumbagin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Eyre Gabriel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p1 The aim of this study was to evaluate functionally the effect of plumbagin on the heterologous expression of a predicted promoter region of open reading frames of paraquat-inducible (pqi genes revealed during genome annotation analyses of the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. First, the promoter of interest was amplified using specific primers and cloned into a conjugative vector carrying the Escherichia coli lacZ gene without a promoter. The heterologous expression of the predicted promoter region was then examined in the presence of 50 µg/mL plumbagin by β-galactosidase expression assays. Significant differences were detected in the levels of β-galactosidase as a result of the activation of the promoter region of interest in response to plumbagin at the concentration tested. On the other hand, no growth of the wild strain of C. violaceum was found during its incubation in nutrient broth medium containing different concentrations of plumbagin compared to control group. The findings described herein demonstrate that the heterologous expression of a predicted promoter site of pqi genes of C. violaceum is induced by plumbagin in a fusion strain, giving insights into the functional characterization of intrinsic regulatory DNA motifs annotated in this bacterial genome.

  14. DNaseI Protects against Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis Mediated by Mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraquat (PQ poisoning is a lethal toxicological challenge that served as a disease model of acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanism is undetermined and no effective treatment has been discovered. Methods and Findings. We demonstrated that PQ injures mitochondria and leads to mtDNA release. The mtDNA mediated PBMC recruitment and stimulated the alveolar epithelial cell production of TGF-β1 in vitro. The levels of mtDNA in circulation and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF were elevated in a mouse of PQ-induced lung injury. DNaseI could protect PQ-induced lung injury and significantly improved survival. Acute lung injury markers, such as TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6, and marker of fibrosis, collagen I, were downregulated in parallel with the elimination of mtDNA by DNaseI. These data indicate a possible mechanism for PQ-induced, mtDNA-mediated lung injury, which may be shared by other causes of lung injury, as suggested by the same protective effect of DNaseI in bleomycin-induced lung injury model. Interestingly, increased mtDNA in the BALF of patients with amyopathic dermatomyositis-interstitial lung disease can be appreciated. Conclusions. DNaseI targeting mtDNA may be a promising approach for the treatment of PQ-induced acute lung injury and pulmonary fibrosis that merits fast tracking through clinical trials.

  15. Reactive oxygen species formation and cell death in catalase-deficient tobacco leaf discs exposed to paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannone, María Florencia; Rosales, Eliana Paola; Groppa, María Daniela; Benavides, María Patricia

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, the response of tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum L.) wild-type SR1 and transgenic CAT1AS plants (with a basal reduced CAT activity) was evaluated after exposure to the herbicide paraquat (PQ). Superoxide anion (O (2) (.-) ) formation was inhibited at 3 or 21 h of exposure, but H(2)O(2) production and ion leakage increased significantly, both in SR1 or CAT1AS leaf discs. NADPH oxidase activity was constitutively 57% lower in non-treated transgenic leaves than in SR1 leaves and was greatly reduced both at 3 or 21 h of PQ treatment. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was significantly reduced by PQ after 21 h, showing a decrease from 70% to 55%, whereas catalase (CAT) activity decreased an average of 50% after 3 h of treatment, and of 90% after 21 h, in SR1 and CAT1AS, respectively. Concomitantly, total CAT protein content was shown to be reduced in non-treated CAT1AS plants compared to control SR1 leaf discs at both exposure times. PQ decreased CAT expression in SR1 or CAT1AS plants at 3 and 21 h of treatment. The mechanisms underlying PQ-induced cell death were possibly not related exclusively to ROS formation and oxidative stress in tobacco wild-type or transgenic plants.

  16. Ilex paraguariensis Extract Increases Lifespan and Protects Against the Toxic Effects Caused by Paraquat in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maria E; Colpo, Ana C; Salgueiro, Willian G; Sardinha, Guilherme E; Avila, Daiana S; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2014-09-26

    Recent studies have shown that phenolic compounds present in yerba mate have antioxidant defense properties. To verify whether Ilex paraguariensis extracts are capable of increasing the lifespan of an organism, we have used the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Notably, this is the first study that analyzes the effects of the extracts of yerba mate obtained from an extraction method that mimics the manner that the plant is consumed by the population by using a live organism. Yerba mate was purchased from commercial markets from Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. Ilex paraguariensis extracts significantly increased the life span of C. elegans. Moreover, the extracts reduced the ROS levels per se, and protected from the reduced survival and reproduction rate induced by paraquat exposure. Considering molecular aspects, we observed that the worms pretreated with the extracts depicted higher translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16::GFP to the nucleus. However, there was no increase in the levels of the DAF-16 target genes, SOD-3 and catalase. Our results suggest that the increase of lifespan caused by the different extracts is associated to the antioxidant potential of yerba mate, however this effect is not completely mediated by daf-16.

  17. The activities of antioxidant enzymes in response to oxidative stresses and hormones in paraquat-tolerant Rehmannia glutinosa plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dong Geun; Yoo, Nam Hee; Yu, Chang Yeon; de Los Reyes, Benildo; Yun, Song Joong

    2004-09-30

    All members of R. glutinosa show the unique characteristic of intrinsic tolerance to paraquat (PQ). Antioxidant enzymes have been proposed to be the primary mechanism of PQ resistance in several plant species. Therefore, the antioxidant enzyme systems of R. glutinosa were evaluated by comparatively analyzing cellular antioxidant enzyme levels, and their responses of oxidative stresses and hormones. The levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), non-specific peroxidase (POX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were 7.3-, 4.9-, 2.7- and 1.6-fold higher in PQ-tolerant R. glutinosa than in PQ-susceptible soybeans. However, the activity of catalase (CAT) was about 12-fold higher in the soybeans. The activities of antioxidant enzymes reduced after PQ treatment in the two species, with the exception of POX and SOD in R. glutinosa, which increased by about 40 %. Interestingly, the activities of APX, SOD and POX in R. glutinosa, relative to those in soybeans, were further increased by 49, 67 and 93 % after PQ treatment. The considerably higher intrinsic levels, and increases in the relative activities of antioxidant enzymes in R. glutinosa under oxidative stress support the possible role of these enzymes in the PQ tolerance of R. glutinosa. However, the relatively lower levels of SOD versus PQ tolerance, and the mixed responses of antioxidant enzymes to stresses and hormones, suggest a possible alternative mechanism(s) for PQ tolerance in R. glutinosa.

  18. Histopathological changes in gill, liver and kidney of neotropical fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to paraquat at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Lugo, Raquel; Mata, Claunis; Oliveros, Aridays; Rojas, Luz Marina; Lemus, Mairin; Rojas-Villarroel, Evelin

    2011-05-01

    This work focused on the histological alterations in gill, liver and kidney of fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to different temperatures (18°C, 29°C, 35°C) with 10mg/L of herbicide Paraquat (PQ), during 21 days. The fish exhibited histopathological changes in these tissues; the most important alteration in gills was telangiectasis. Liver showed debris accumulation inside cytoplasm hepatocytes, karyolysis, karyohesis and a decrease in the size of sinusoids. Hyperplasia of melanomacrophagic centers (MMC) and an increase in basophils were observed in kidney. The lesion inducing by PQ and the damage in tissue depended of temperature exposure fish. The severity of lesions clearly differed among organs with the liver showing the most extensive damages followed in order by the kidney and gills. In PQ/18°C group it was observed the changes in the pattern of lesions, with kidney showing higher damage followed gills and liver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Julietta Moustaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP. Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA.

  20. Osteomielitis por salmonella

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    Alicia Velázquez Pérez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de color blanco y dos años de edad, con diagnóstico prenatal de sicklemia, que desde edades tempranas tiene problemas de la enfermedad. Ingresó en esta ocasión por una de las complicaciones infecciosas que ocasiona este padecimiento, una osteomielitis del húmero izquierdo, aislándose el germen en el hemocultivo realizado, una salmonella. Necesitó de tratamiento enérgico y prolongado; se obtuvo un resultado satisfactorio en la evolución de la enfermedad y se sigue sistemáticamente por consulta externa en la actualidad

  1. Apendicitis por Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Ana Beatriz MUÑOZ URRIBARRI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis es la micosis más prevalente en Sudamérica. La forma aguda afecta el sistema fagocítico mononuclear de niños y personas inmunocomprometidas. El compromiso gastrointestinal es frecuente y su patogenia implica diseminación hematógena y linfática. La linfadenomegalia abdominal causa obstrucción intestinal y abdomen agudo. En este artículo damos a conocer el caso de un niño con compromiso gastrointestinal por apendicitis. Este es el primer caso reportado de apendicitis por esta patología. (Rev Med Hered 2006;17:58-60.

  2. Miotoxicidade por organofosforados

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    Cavaliere Maria J.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os organofosforados são um grupo de compostos químicos amplamente utilizados em agropecuária como inseticidas, ocasionando intoxicações acidentais em animais e humanos, e mesmo sendo utilizados em tentativas de suicídio. A toxicidade desses produtos decorre sobretudo de insuficiência cárdio-respiratória por compromentimento do sistema nervoso autônomo. Sabe-se que alguns destes compostos induzem em animais de experimentação e em humanos, uma miopatia caracterizada por degeneração de células musculares, comprometendo sobretudo a musculatura respiratória. Baseado no fato de que este comprometimento contribui para a piora da função respiratória, propõe-se um protocolo de avaliação rotineira de miotoxicidade por compostos organofosforados, através de uma bateria mínima e suficiente de colorações e reações histoquímicas para quantificação da necrose muscular. Utilizaram-se como modelo experimental, grupos de ratos albinos (Wistar intoxicados com o organofosforado paraoxon, com e sem antídotos (atropina ou pralidoxima. Verificou-se nos grupos tratados com paraoxon e paraoxon mais atropina, necrose de fibras musculares no diafragma, que atingia em determinadas áreas até 15% das fibras. No grupo tratado com paraoxon mais pralidoxima, a necrose foi mínima, evidenciando o papel mioprotetor deste último antídoto.

  3. Por mil devaluados pesos

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    Annie Rodríguez Collázos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de lo popular y lo urbano hasta ahora se ha centrado en el comportamiento y en algunas relaciones de los habitantes con su entorno. “Por mil devaluados pesos. Publicidad popular y urbana”, pretende explorar las formas de publicidad, dispersas en diferentes espacios populares y urbanos en Bogotá, identificando esquemas y formas características de sus propios códigos comunicativos; se centran en un objeto de estudio consistente en las estrategias publicitarias y los códigos comunicativos en los mensajes publicitarios populares en las subculturas de San Victorino, 7 de Agosto y Sanandresito de San José.

  4. Infecciones por citomegalovirus

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    Ana Gloria Díaz Martínez

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece una revisión actualizada sobre la infección por citomegalovirus a partir de la consulta de artículos referidos de 1990 a 1996 en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, Literatura Cubana de Medicina y Noticias de Salud. Se revisaron 37 artículos. Se abordan los aspectos más importantes de las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico, el tratamiento, así como la prevención y los métodos de control para evitar las enfermedades citomegálicas

  5. Photochemical changes and oxidative damage in the aquatic macrophyte Cymodocea nodosa exposed to paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustakas, Michael; Malea, Paraskevi; Zafeirakoglou, Aristi; Sperdouli, Ilektra

    2016-01-01

    The non-selective herbicide paraquat (Pq) is being extensively used for broad-spectrum weed control. Through water runoff and due to its high water solubility it contaminates aquatic environments. Thus, the present study was carried out to investigate the photochemical changes and oxidative damage in the aquatic macrophyte Cymodocea nodosa to short- (2h) and long-term (24h) exposure to 2, 20, 200 and 1000μM paraquat (Pq) toxicity by using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and H2O2 real-time imaging. The effective quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII) show a tendency to increase at 2μM Pq after 2h exposure, and increased significantly at 20 and 200μM Pq. Τhe maximum oxidative effect on C. nodosa leaves was observed 2h after exposure to 200μM Pq concentration when the highest increases of ΦPSII due to high electron transport rate (ETR) resulted in a significant increase of H2O2 production due to the lowest non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) that was not efficient to serve as a protective mechanism, resulting in photooxidation. Prolonged exposure (24h) to 200μM Pq resulted in a decreased ΦPSII not due to an increase of the photoprotective mechanism NPQ, but due to high quantum yield of non-regulated energy loss in PSII (ΦNO), resulting to the lowest fraction of open PSII reaction centers (qp). This decreased ΦPSII has resulted to less Pq radicals to be formed, with a consequence of a small increase of H2O2 production compared to control C. nodosa leaves, but substantial lower than that of 2h exposure to 200μM Pq. Exposure of C. nodosa leaves to 1000μM Pq toxicity had lower effects on the efficiency of photochemical reactions of photosynthesis under both short- (2h) and long-term (24h) exposure than 200μM Pq. This was evident by an almost unchanged ΦPSII and qp, that remained unchanged even at a longer exposure time (48h), compared to control C. nodosa leaves. Thus, the response of C. nodosa leaves to Pq toxicity fits the "Threshold for Tolerance Model", with a

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Jun Young, E-mail: junyoung3@gmail.com [Brainscience Institute, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Gi Ryang, E-mail: mitochondria@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Infection Signaling Network Research Center, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid prevents paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species production in dopaminergic neurons via enhancement of glutathione homeostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyoung Jun; Han, Jeongsu; Jang, Yunseon; Kim, Soo Jeong; Park, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kang Sik; Jeong, Soyeon; Shin, Soyeon; Lim, Kyu; Heo, Jun Young; Kweon, Gi Ryang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DHA prevents PQ-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss via decreasing of excessive ROS. • DHA increases GR and GCLm derivate GSH pool by enhancement of Nrf2 expression. • Protective mechanism is removal of PQ-induced ROS via DHA-dependent GSH pool. • DHA may be a good preventive strategy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. - Abstract: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are reduced in the substantia nigra area in Parkinson’s disease patients and animal models, implicating docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a potential treatment for preventing Parkinson’s disease and suggesting the need for investigations into how DHA might protect against neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neuron loss. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) induces dopaminergic neuron loss through the excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We found that treatment of dopaminergic SN4741 cells with PQ reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, but pretreatment with DHA ameliorated the toxic effect of PQ. To determine the toxic mechanism of PQ, we measured intracellular ROS content in different organelles with specific dyes. As expected, all types of ROS were increased by PQ treatment, but DHA pretreatment selectively decreased cytosolic hydrogen peroxide content. Furthermore, DHA treatment-induced increases in glutathione reductase and glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLm) mRNA expression were positively correlated with glutathione (GSH) content. Consistent with this increase in GCLm mRNA levels, Western blot analysis revealed that DHA pretreatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels. These findings indicate that DHA prevents PQ-induced neuronal cell loss by enhancing Nrf2-regulated GSH homeostasis

  8. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress on gene expression and aging of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina

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    Matthias Wiemer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ. This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control.

  9. The in vivo antioxidant effect of vitamin C on hemogram in Paraquat treated male rats (rattus norvegicus

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    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is one of the most used herbicide globally; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on hemograms [hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV and total white blood cells count] of rats under these toxic insults. The animals grouped (A-D, comprising subgroups without vitamin C (A1, B1, C1, D1 and subgroups on vitamin C (A2, B2, C2, D2, received different sub-lethal doses of PQ administered intraperitoneally monthly to the animals over a period of three months. The Hb values obtained were significantly reduced (P≤0.05 at month 1 and (P≤0.001 at months 2 and 3. These changes became more pronounced with increased dose and time. Vitamin C treated subgroups (B2, C2 and D2 had better Hb values than those without it (B1, C1 and D1 but the values were still significantly low when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. This same trend was observed in the PCV results obtained. The Control subgroups showed that vitamin C treated subgroup (A2 had a more improved hemogram values than subgroup on water only (A1, but they were all higher than that of the test subgroups. These PQ induced anaemia were ameliorated by the subsequent administration of vitamin C, and continuous treatment with vitamin C restored the health status of the animals so treated.

  10. Genome-Wide Transcriptional and Physiological Responses of Bradyrhizobium japonicum to Paraquat-Mediated Oxidative Stress▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Andrew J.; Jeon, Jeong-Min; Sangurdekar, Dipen; So, Jae-Seong; Chang, Woo-Suk

    2011-01-01

    The rhizobial bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum functions as a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of the soybean plant (Glycine max). Plants are capable of producing an oxidative burst, a rapid proliferation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as a defense mechanism against pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria. Therefore, B. japonicum must be able to resist such a defense mechanism to initiate nodulation. In this study, paraquat, a known superoxide radical-inducing agent, was used to investigate this response. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles were created for both prolonged exposure (PE) and fulminant shock (FS) conditions. These profiles revealed that 190 and 86 genes were up- and downregulated for the former condition, and that 299 and 105 genes were up- and downregulated for the latter condition, respectively (>2.0-fold; P < 0.05). Many genes within putative operons for F0F1-ATP synthase, chemotaxis, transport, and ribosomal proteins were upregulated during PE. The transcriptional profile for the FS condition strangely resembled that of a bacteroid condition, including the FixK2 transcription factor and most of its response elements. However, genes encoding canonical ROS scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase, were not detected, suggesting constitutive expression of those genes by endogenous ROS. Various physiological tests, including exopolysaccharide (EPS), cellular protein, and motility characterization, were performed to corroborate the gene expression data. The results suggest that B. japonicum responds to tolerable oxidative stress during PE through enhanced motility, increased translational activity, and EPS production, in addition to the expression of genes involved in global stress responses, such as chaperones and sigma factors. PMID:21498770

  11. Standardized Bacopa monnieri extract ameliorates acute paraquat-induced oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity in prepubertal mice brain.

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    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2016-12-01

    Bacopa monnieri (BM), an ayurvedic medicinal plant, has attracted considerable interest owing to its diverse neuropharmacological properties. Epidemiological studies have shown significant correlation between paraquat (PQ) exposure and increased risk for Parkinson's disease in humans. In this study, we examined the propensity of standardized extract of BM to attenuate acute PQ-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, and neurotoxicity in the different brain regions of prepubertal mice. To test this hypothesis, prepubertal mice provided orally with standardized BM extract (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks) were challenged with an acute dose (15 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) of PQ after 3 hours of last dose of extract. Mice were sacrificed after 48 hours of PQ injection, and different brain regions were isolated and subjected to biochemical determinations/quantification of central monoamine (dopamine, DA) levels (by high-performance liquid chromatography). Oral supplementation of BM for 4 weeks resulted in significant reduction in the basal levels of oxidative markers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydroperoxides (HP) in various brain regions. PQ at the administered dose elicited marked oxidative stress within 48 hours in various brain regions of mice. However, BM prophylaxis significantly improved oxidative homeostasis by restoring PQ-induced ROS, MDA, and HP levels and also by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction. Interestingly, BM supplementation restored the activities of cholinergic enzymes along with the restoration of striatal DA levels among the PQ-treated mice. Based on these findings, we infer that BM prophylaxis renders the brain resistant to PQ-mediated oxidative perturbations and thus may be better exploited as a preventive approach to protect against oxidative-mediated neuronal dysfunctions.

  12. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor attenuates paraquat-induced lung fibrosis in a human MRC-5 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Yang, Huifang; Zhu, Lingqin; Li, Honghui; Zhou, Jian; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-11-01

    Chronic exposure to Paraquat (PQ) may result in progressive pulmonary fibrosis and subsequent chronic obstructive pulmonary malfunction. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been proposed as a key determinant in the development of lung fibrosis. We investigated thus whether knock down of CTGF can prevent human lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) activation and proliferation with the subsequent inhibition of PQ-induced fibrosis. MRC-5 was transfected with CTGF-siRNAs and exposed to different concentrations of PQ. The siRNA-silencing efficacy was evaluated using western blotting analyses, qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. Next, the viability and migration of MRC-5 was determined. MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 accumulation were quantified to evaluate the lung fibrosis exposure to PQ. Over expression of CTGF mRNA was observed in human MRC-5 cell as early as 6 h following PQ stimulation. CTGF gene expression in MRC-5 cells was substantially reduced by RNAi, which significantly suppressed the expression of the lung fibrosis markers such as tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) that were stimulated by PQ. Inhibition of CTGF expression suppressed impeded the proliferation and migration ability of MRC-5 cells and resulted in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) protein accumulation in cells. Our results suggest that CTGF promoted the development of PQ-induced lung fibrosis in collaboration with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Furthermore, the observed arresting effects of CTGF knock down during this process suggested that CTGF is the potential target site for preventing PQ-induced pulmonary fibrosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1620-1626, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Electronic absorption spectroscopic studies on charge-transfer interactions in a biologically important molecule: N, N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium chloride (paraquat or methyl viologen) as an electron acceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, A. S. N.; Bhardwaj, A. P.

    The charge-transfer spectra of N, N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridylium chloride (paraquat, PQ 2+) with a wide range of electron donors has been investigated and the thermodynamic data determined. An estimate of the empirical energy parameters has been made using the spectroscopic and thermodynamic data, using Mulliken's theory.

  14. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b.

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    Chao Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3 as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance.

  15. Antioxidative response in variegated Pelargonium zonale leaves and generation of extracellular H2O2 in (peri)vascular tissue induced by sunlight and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Marija; Morina, Filis; Prokić, Ljiljana; Milić-Komić, Sonja; Živanović, Bojana; Jovanović, Sonja Veljović

    2016-11-01

    In this study we exposed variegated leaves of Pelargonium zonale to strong sunlight (>1100μmolm -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation) with and without paraquat (Pq), with the aim to elucidate the mechanisms of H 2 O 2 regulation in green and white tissues with respect to the photosynthetically-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sunlight induced marked accumulation of H 2 O 2 in the apoplast of vascular and (peri)vascular tissues only in green sectors. This effect was enhanced by the addition of Pq. In the presence of diphenyl iodide, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, H 2 O 2 accumulation was abolished. Distinct light-induced responses were observed: in photosynthetic cells, sunlight rapidly provoked ascorbate (Asc) biosynthesis and an increase of glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase activities, while in non-photosynthetic cells, early up-regulation of soluble ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and GR activities was observed. Paraquat addition stimulated DHAR and GR activities in green sectors, while in white sectors activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase, DHAR and class III peroxidases, as well as Asc content rapidly increased. Differential antioxidative responses in the two tissues in the frame of their contrasting metabolisms, and the possible role of (peri)vascular H 2 O 2 in signaling were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Induction of protection against paraquat-induced oxidative damage by abscisic acid in maize leaves is mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hai-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Xu, Shu-Cheng; Sun, Li-Li; Jiang, Ming-Yi; Zhang, A-Ying; Jin, Yin-Gen

    2009-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade has been shown to be important components in stress signal transduction pathway. In the present study, protection of maize seedlings (Zea mays L.) against paraquat-generated oxidative toxicity by abscisic acid (ABA), its association with MAPK and ZmMPK5, a candidate for MAPK were investigated. Treatment of maize leaves with exogenous ABA led to significant decreases in the content of malondialdehyde, the percentage of ion leakage and the level of protein oxidation (in terms of carbonyl groups) under paraquat (PQ) stress. However, such decreases were blocked by the pretreatment with two MAPK kinase inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. The damage caused by PQ was further aggravated by inhibitors. Two inhibitors also suppressed the total activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2). Besides, treatment with PQ stimulated the activation of a 46 kDa MAPK, which was identified as ZmMPK5 by in-gel kinase assay with immunoprecipitation. These results reveal that ABA-induced protection against PQ-generated oxidative damage is mediated through MAPK cascade in maize leaves, in which ZmMPK5, a candidate for MAPK, is demonstrated to be involved.

  17. Hydrogen gas acts as a novel bioactive molecule in enhancing plant tolerance to paraquat-induced oxidative stress via the modulation of heme oxygenase-1 signalling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qijiang; Zhu, Kaikai; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie; Han, Bin; Shen, Wenbiao

    2013-05-01

    Hydrogen gas (H2) was recently proposed as a novel antioxidant and signalling molecule in animals. However, the physiological roles of H2 in plants are less clear. Here, we showed that exposure of alfalfa seedlings to paraquat stress increased endogenous H2 production. When supplied with exogenous H2 or the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-inducer hemin, alfalfa plants displayed enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress induced by paraquat. This was evidenced by alleviation of the inhibition of root growth, reduced lipid peroxidation and the decreased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion radical levels. The activities and transcripts of representative antioxidant enzymes were induced after exposure to either H2 or hemin. Further results showed that H2 pretreatment could dramatically increase levels of the MsHO-1 transcript, levels of the protein it encodes and HO-1 activity. The previously mentioned H2-mediated responses were specific for HO-1, given that the potent HO-1-inhibitor counteracted the effects of H2. The effects of H2 were reversed after the addition of an aqueous solution of 50% carbon monoxide (CO). We also discovered enhanced tolerance of multiple environmental stresses after plants were pretreated with H2 . Together, these results suggested that H2 might function as an important gaseous molecule that alleviates oxidative stress via HO-1 signalling. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. A cell type-specific view on the translation of mRNAs from ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benina, Maria; Ribeiro, Dimas Mendes; Gechev, Tsanko S; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Schippers, Jos H M

    2015-02-01

    Oxidative stress causes dramatic changes in the expression levels of many genes. The formation of a functional protein through successful mRNA translation is central to a coordinated cellular response. To what extent the response towards reactive oxygen species (ROS) is regulated at the translational level is poorly understood. Here we analysed leaf- and tissue-specific translatomes using a set of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing a FLAG-tagged ribosomal protein to immunopurify polysome-bound mRNAs before and after oxidative stress. We determined transcript levels of 171 ROS-responsive genes upon paraquat treatment, which causes formation of superoxide radicals, at the whole-organ level. Furthermore, the translation of mRNAs was determined for five cell types: mesophyll, bundle sheath, phloem companion, epidermal and guard cells. Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells showed the strongest response to paraquat treatment. Interestingly, several ROS-responsive transcription factors displayed cell type-specific translation patterns, while others were translated in all cell types. In part, cell type-specific translation could be explained by the length of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Our analysis reveals insights into the translational regulation of ROS-responsive genes, which is important to understanding cell-specific responses and functions during oxidative stress. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 Is an E3 Ligase That Switches off Activated Oxidative Response by Targeting Histone-Modifying PROTEIN METHYLTRANSFERASE4b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jin; Zhao, Tao-Lan; Wang, Peng-Fei; Zhao, Ping-Xia; Xie, Qi; Cao, Xiao-Feng; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is unavoidable for aerobic organisms. When abiotic and biotic stresses are encountered, oxidative damage could occur in cells. To avoid this damage, defense mechanisms must be timely and efficiently modulated. While the response to oxidative stress has been extensively studied in plants, little is known about how the activated response is switched off when oxidative stress is diminished. By studying Arabidopsis mutant paraquat tolerance3, we identified the genetic locus PARAQUAT TOLERANCE3 (PQT3) as a major negative regulator of oxidative stress tolerance. PQT3, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is rapidly down-regulated by oxidative stress. PQT3 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in ubiquitination assay. Subsequently, we identified PRMT4b as a PQT3-interacting protein. By histone methylation, PRMT4b upregulates the expression of APX1 and GPX1, encoding two key enzymes against oxidative stress. On the other hand, PRMT4b is recognized by PQT3 for targeted degradation via 26S proteasome. Therefore, we have identified PQT3 as an E3 ligase that acts as a negative regulator of activated response to oxidative stress and found that histone modification by PRMT4b at APX1 and GPX1 loci plays an important role in oxidative stress tolerance. PMID:27676073

  20. Oxidative stress response of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease in banana plants, to hydrogen peroxide and paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Manzo-Sanchez, Gilberto; Guzmán-González, Salvador; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Avila-Miranda, Martin; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2009-07-01

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease in banana and plantain. This fungus is usually attacked by reactive oxygen species secreted by the plant or during exposure to fungicide, however, little is known about the antioxidant response of the fungus. In this study, mycelia were observed to totally decompose 30 mmol/L of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) within 120 min, liberating oxygen bubbles, and also to survive in concentrations as high as 100 mmol/L H2O2. The oxidative stress responses to H2O2, paraquat, and hydroquinone were characterized in terms of the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Two active catalase bands were seen in native PAGE induced by H2O2. Band I had monofunctional activity and band II had bifunctional catalase-peroxidase activity. Two isozymes of SOD, distinguishable by their cyanide sensitivity, were found; CuZnSOD was the main one. The combination of H2O2 and 3-aminotriazole reduced the accumulation of biomass up to 40% compared with exposure to H2O2 alone, suggesting that catalase is important for the rapid decomposition of H2O2 and has a direct bearing on cell viability. The results also suggest that the superoxide anion formed through the redox of paraquat and hydroquinone has a greater effect than H2O2 on the cellular viability of M. fijiensis.

  1. Pasos por la salud

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Rojas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Pasos por la Salud surge como un proyecto (mismo que derivara una estrategia de atención) que establece el Departamento de Educación Física Valle de México, para fortalecer la aplicación del programa de Educación Física en Educación Básica, fomentará la práctica del ejercicio físico hacia la promoción de la salud, brindará a los alumnos elementos teóricos y bases metodológicas que le ayuden a comprender los beneficios de salud que producen la práctica del ejercicio, concientizar al alumno de ...

  2. Sepsis por shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabrera C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.

  3. Por uma arquitetura engajada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Encarnação Beltrão Spósito

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Arquitetura é vista, neste texto, como uma possibilidade de se compreender o mundo contemporâneo e, sobretudo, de repensá-lo, se queremos contribuir para a construção de um futuro com maior equidade, nele incluído o respeito às diferenças. Nessa perspectiva, uma Arquitetura engajada teria que considerar sempre o Urbanismo, no sentido de compreender a cidade, como nível de determinação do movimento da Sociedade e não apenas como um cenário em que múltiplas linguagens se expressem. Por seu caráter de ensaio, o texto tem mais o papel de levantar questões e estimular o debate, do que apresentar resultados ou respostas.

  4. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, O.D.; Keller, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage

  5. Control Multivariable por Desacoplo

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    Fernando Morilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La interacción entre variables es una característica inherente de los procesos multivariables, que dificulta su operación y el diseño de sus sistemas de control. Bajo el paradigma de Control por desacoplo se agrupan un conjunto de metodologías, que tradicionalmente han estado orientadas a eliminar o reducir la interacción, y que recientemente algunos investigadores han reorientado con objetivos de solucionar un problema tan complejo como es el control multivariable. Parte del material descrito en este artículo es bien conocido en el campo del control de procesos, pero la mayor parte de él son resultados de varios años de investigación de los autores en los que han primado la generalización del problema, la búsqueda de soluciones de fácil implementación y la combinación de bloques elementales de control PID. Esta conjunción de intereses provoca que no siempre se pueda conseguir un desacoplo perfecto, pero que sí se pueda conseguir una considerable reducción de la interacción en el nivel básico de la pirámide de control, en beneficio de otros sistemas de control que ocupan niveles jerárquicos superiores. El artículo resume todos los aspectos básicos del Control por desacoplo y su aplicación a dos procesos representativos: una planta experimental de cuatro tanques acoplados y un modelo 4×4 de un sistema experimental de calefacción, ventilación y aire acondicionado. Abstract: The interaction between variables is inherent in multivariable processes and this fact may complicate their operation and control system design. Under the paradigm of decoupling control, several methodologies that traditionally have been addressed to cancel or reduce the interactions are gathered. Recently, this approach has been reoriented by several researchers with the aim to solve such a complex problem as the multivariable control. Parts of the material in this work are well known in the process control field; however, most of them are

  6. [Evaluation of adsorption effect of activated charcoal on oral paraquat poisoning: an experimental study on large animal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baisheng; He, Yuezhong; Pei, Yuhao; Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Xigang; Yang, Zhan

    2017-03-01

    To study the adsorption effect of activated charcoal suspension on paraquat (PQ) in gastrointestinal tract of beagles exposed to PQ. Twenty healthy male beagles were randomly divided into experimental group and control group, with 6 beagles in each group. 20% PQ solution (a dose of 30 mg/kg) was prescribed through stomach for beagles in both groups. After exposure to PQ for 30 minutes, the beagles in experimental group were given activated charcoal suspension (1.0 g/kg of type I activated charcoal powder mixed with 100 mL of normal saline) by gavage, while the control group was only given equal volume of normal saline. After exposure to PQ for 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours, blood was collected from hepatic portal veins and peripheral veins to detect the PQ concentration change in the plasma. The toxicokinetics software DAS 2.1.1 was applied to analyze PQ concentration and compare the change in toxicokinetics parameters between the both groups. The change in vital signs including heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) was dynamically monitored 10 minutes before exposure, 4 hours and each day from the 1st to the 7th day after exposure. After exposure to PQ, the poison concentration in the plasma of hepatic portal veins and peripheral veins in the control group rose quickly and reached peak 4 hours later. It fell quickly at first, and fell slowly 8 hours later. But in the experimental group, the increase rate to the peak was significantly slow. Besides, PQ peak fell more obviously than that in the control group and it was about 50% of the control group (μg/L: 123.50±11.67 vs. 255.18±12.29 in blood from hepatic portal veins, 122.35±11.72 vs. 250.86±11.15 in blood from peripheral veins). After 8 hours it fell much more quickly than that of the control group. After exposure to PQ for 48 hours, PQ concentration in the plasma was still lower than that of the control group (μg/L: 0.53±0.18 vs. 15.98

  7. Glucose Metabolism and AMPK Signaling Regulate Dopaminergic Cell Death Induced by Gene (α-Synuclein)-Environment (Paraquat) Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Lei, Shulei; Levytskyy, Roman; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I; Cerny, Ronald L; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Powers, Robert; Franco, Rodrigo

    2017-07-01

    While environmental exposures are not the single cause of Parkinson's disease (PD), their interaction with genetic alterations is thought to contribute to neuronal dopaminergic degeneration. However, the mechanisms involved in dopaminergic cell death induced by gene-environment interactions remain unclear. In this work, we have revealed for the first time the role of central carbon metabolism and metabolic dysfunction in dopaminergic cell death induced by the paraquat (PQ)-α-synuclein interaction. The toxicity of PQ in dopaminergic N27 cells was significantly reduced by glucose deprivation, inhibition of hexokinase with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), or equimolar substitution of glucose with galactose, which evidenced the contribution of glucose metabolism to PQ-induced cell death. PQ also stimulated an increase in glucose uptake, and in the levels of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and Na + -glucose transporters isoform 1 (SGLT1) proteins, but only inhibition of GLUT-like transport with STF-31 or ascorbic acid reduced PQ-induced cell death. Importantly, while autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)/unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1)-dependent autophagy protected against PQ toxicity, the inhibitory effect of glucose deprivation on cell death progression was largely independent of autophagy or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. PQ selectively induced metabolomic alterations and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in the midbrain and striatum of mice chronically treated with PQ. Inhibition of AMPK signaling led to metabolic dysfunction and an enhanced sensitivity of dopaminergic cells to PQ. In addition, activation of AMPK by PQ was prevented by inhibition of the inducible nitric oxide syntase (iNOS) with 1400W, but PQ had no effect on iNOS levels. Overexpression of wild type or A53T mutant α-synuclein stimulated glucose accumulation and PQ toxicity, and this toxic synergism was reduced by inhibition of glucose metabolism

  8. Aplicação de misturas de diuron com MSMA, e com paraquat, no controle de plantas daninhas de folhas largas em cultura de algodão (Gossypium hirsutum L. Mixture of diuron whit MSMA and with paraquat for broadleaved weeds control in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. P. Cruz

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio de campo conduzido em 1975/76 procurou-se avaliar a ação de misturas de MSMA com diuron e de paraquat com diuron, aplicadas em pós-emergência, em jato dirigido, em duas épocas diferentes, no controle de algumas plantas daninhas de folhas largas em algodão: carrapicho- do-campo (Acanthospermum australe (Loef O. Kuntze , falsa-poaia (Borreria ala ta (Aubl DC, poaia-branca (Richardia brasiliensis Gomez e guanxuma (Sida spp . A vegetação natural da área do ensaio era formada ainda pela gramínea capim-de-colchão (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. Scop . Os resultados mostraram que as misturas de 2,00 kg e 2,70 kg/ha de MSMA com, respectivamente 0,30 kg e 0,40 kg/ha de diuron, e a mistura de 0.60 kg/ha de paraquat com 0,60 kg/ ha de diuron, foram eficientes no co ntro le daquelas dicotiledôneas, e também no da gramínea. Todos os tratamentos provocaram leves sintomas de fitotoxicidade nos algodoeiros, mas desapareceram depois e não prejudicaram o desenvolvimento vegetativo das plantas, assim como a produção de algodão em caroço.In a field trial carried out in 1975/76, a diuron mixtu re with MSMA and another with paraquat was tested on broadleaved weeds in cotton crops. The applications were done in postemergence, directed-spray, in two different periods. The broadleaved weeds observed in the trial were Acanthospermum australe , Borreria alata, Richardia brasiliensis, and Sida spp, also the grass Digitaria sanguinalis. Best results were obtained with the mixture of 0,60 kg/ha of paraquat with 0,60 kg/ha of diuron, and 2,70 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,40 kg/ ha of diuron, or 2,00 kg/ha of MSMA with 0,30 kg/ha of diuron. All the treatments caused sl ight symptons of toxic ity in cotton, which disappeared later and did not damage the production.

  9. El recuerdo viaja por Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Madrid Malo

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available Espero que mis lectores puedan acompañarme en este viaje del recuerdo por Italia, en esta travesía restrospectiva por el cuerpo duradero, por el dorso sustantivo - vertebrado dulcemente, ásperamente, por el vasto cinturón apenínico- de un país donde la vida tiene una manera tan suya de ser grata, de transcurrir en todo momento significativamente. Y donde cada instante, cada sitio, está signado de plenitudes inefables, de expresivos modos de mostrársenos e insinuársenos, hasta hacerse todos ellos, por siempre, memorables e insistentes habitantes de nuestros mejores sueños y vigilias.

  10. Sol-gel synthesis of TiO2nanoparticles: effect of Pluronic P123 on particle's morphology and photocatalytic degradation of paraquat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Cédric B D; Marchal, Clément; Koch, Alain; Robert, Didier; Drogui, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    We report a facile method to tune TiO 2 nanoparticles' morphology by modifying and an acid-catalyzed sol-gel synthesis with Pluronic P123. Synthesized particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, BET analysis, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a high anatase content while BET measurements showed that porous volume strongly depends on the amount of P123. We demonstrate that high amounts of P123 increase particle's aspect-ratio from spherical to rod-shape morphology. We evaluated the photocatalytic performances for the removal of methyl viologen (paraquat) and found that best performances are obtained for the following weight ratio P123/TiO 2  = 7.5. Furthermore, P25 is less active than synthesized nanoparticles.

  11. Antisense reduction of thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase in Arabidopsis enhances paraquat-induced photooxidative stress and nitric oxide-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Delia; Vannini, Candida; Bracale, Marcella; Campa, Manuela; Soave, Carlo; Murgia, Irene

    2005-08-01

    The production and characterization of Arabidopsis plants containing a transgene in which the Arabidopsis tAPX is inserted in antisense orientation, is described. tAPX activity in these transgenic tAPX plants is around 50% of control level. The tAPX antisense plants are phenotypically indistinguishable from control plants under normal growth conditions; they show, however, enhanced sensitivity to the O2- -generating herbicide, Paraquat. Interestingly, the tAPX antisense plants show enhanced symptoms of damage when cell death is triggered through treatment with the nitric oxide-donor, SNP. These results are in accordance with the ones recently obtained with transgenic plants overexpressing tAPX; altogether, they suggest that tAPX, besides the known ROS scavenging role, is also involved in the fine changes of H2O2 concentration during signaling events.

  12. Ionic liquid-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles: promising adsorbents for ultra-fast extraction of paraquat from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifeh, Farzad; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, ionic liquid-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@IL) were synthesized and applied as adsorbents for extraction and determination of paraquat (PQ) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. For assurance of the extraction efficiency, the obtained results were compared with those obtained by bared magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Experimental design and response surface methodology were used for optimization of different parameters which affect extraction efficiency of paraquat using both adsorbents. Under the optimized conditions, extraction recoveries in the range of 20-25 and 35-40 % with satisfactory repeatability values (RSDs%, n = 4) less than 5.0 % were obtained for bared MNPs and Fe3O4@SiO2@IL, respectively. The limits of detection were 0.1 and 0.25 μg/L using Fe3O4@SiO2@IL and bared MNPs, respectively. The linearity was obtained in the range of 0.25 to 25 μg/L and 0.5 to 25 μg/L for Fe3O4@SiO2@IL and bared MNPs, respectively, with the coefficients of determination better than 0.9950. Finally, Fe3O4@SiO2@IL was chosen as superior adsorbent due to more dispersion ability, higher extraction recovery, lower detection limit, as well as better linearity and repeatability. Calculated errors (%) were in the range of 3 to 10 % depicting acceptable accuracy for the analysis of PQ by the proposed method. Finally, the method was successfully applied for extraction and determination of PQ in some water and countryside soil samples.

  13. Responsabilidade civil por abandono afetivo

    OpenAIRE

    Fidélis, Maria de Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Este estudo tem por objetivo a análise da responsabilidade civil por abandono afetivo na relação paterno-filial a partir de recentes decisões dos tribunais brasileiros. Inicialmente discorre sobre a evolução da família contemporânea. Examina os elementos da responsabilidade civil objetivando uma interseção entre o novo Direito de Família e as transformações no dever de indenizar. A partir de dois casos paradigmáticos escolhidos busca-se encontrar os fundamentos e finalidades das demandas por ...

  14. Mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica, 1985-2006 Mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica, 1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Prado

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze mortality due to Hymenoptera stings in Costa Rica during 1985-2006. METHODS: Records of deaths due to Hymenoptera stings in 1985-2006 were retrieved from Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (National Statistics and Census Institute. Mortality rates were calculated on the basis of national population reports, as of 1 July of each year. Information for each case included age, gender, and the province in which the death occurred. In addition, reports of Hymenoptera sting accidents received by the Centro Nacional de Intoxicaciones (National Poison Center, CNI in 1995-2006 were obtained to assess exposure to these insects. RESULTS: Over the 22-year period analyzed, 52 fatalities due to Hymenoptera stings were recorded. Annual mortality rates varied from 0-1.73 per 1 million inhabitants, with a mean of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.93. The majority of deaths occurred in males (88.5%, representing a male to female ratio of 7.7:1. A predominance of fatalities was observed in the elderly (50 years of age and older, as well as in children less than 10 years of age. The province with the highest mortality rate was Guanacaste. The CNI documented 1 591 reports of Hymenoptera stings (mostly by bees in 1995-2006, resulting in an annual average of 133 cases, with only a slight predominance of males over females (1.4:1. CONCLUSIONS: Stings by Hymenoptera, mostly by bees, constitute a frequent occurrence in Costa Rica that can be life-threatening in a small proportion of cases, most often in males and the elderly. The annual number of fatalities fluctuated from 0-6, averaging 2.4 deaths per year. Awareness should be raised not only among the general population, but also among health care personnel that should consider this risk in the clinical management of patients stung by Hymenoptera.OBJETIVO: Analizar la mortalidad por picaduras de himenópteros en Costa Rica en el período de 1985 a 2006. MÉTODOS: Se obtuvieron los

  15. Effectiveness of the sequential organ failure assessment, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, and simplified acute physiology score II prognostic scoring systems in paraquat-poisoned patients in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Hwang, Seong Youn; Kim, Hye Ran; Kim, Yang Won; Kang, Mun Ju; Cho, Kwang Won; Lee, Dong Woo; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2017-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess the ability of the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scoring systems, as well as the simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II method to predict group mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients who were poisoned with paraquat. This will assist physicians with risk stratification. The medical records of 244 paraquat-poisoned patients admitted to the ICU from January 2010 to April 2015 were examined retrospectively. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II scores were calculated based on initial laboratory data in the emergency department and during the first 24 h of ICU admission. The probability of death was calculated for each patient based on the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II. The ability of the SOFA score, APACHE II score, and SAPS II method to predict group mortality was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calibration analyses. A total of 219 patients (mean age, 63 years) were enrolled. Sensitivities, specificities, and accuracies were 58.5%, 86.1%, and 64.0% for the SOFA, respectively; 75.1%, 86.1%, and 77.6% for the APACHE II scoring systems, respectively; and 76.1%, 79.1%, and 76.7% for the SAPS II, respectively. The areas under the curve in the ROC curve analysis for the SOFA score, APACHE II scoring system, and SAPS II were 0.716, 0.850, and 0.835, respectively. The SOFA, APACHE II, and SAPS II had different capabilities to discriminate and estimate early in-hospital mortality of paraquat-poisoned patients. Our results show that although the SOFA and SAPS II are easier and more quickly calculated than APACHE II, the APACHE II is superior for predicting mortality. We recommend use of the APACHE II for outcome predictions and risk stratification in paraquat-poisoned patients in the ICU.

  16. Porøse materialer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2000-01-01

    Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM).......Dette undervisningsnotat er en samling af noter, der refererer til den indledende del af kurset Materialmekanik og Porøse materailer på Insitut for Bærende Konstruktiner og Materialer (BKM)....

  17. Ptose palpebral causada por Paquidermoperiostose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Regina de Pinho Tavares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A paquidermoperiostose é uma síndrome caracterizada por acometimento cutâneo e ósseo, e em alguns casos ocorre comprometimento palpebral leve. É uma síndrome rara, idiopática ou hereditária, com provável herança autossômica dominante de penetrância variável. Descreve-se o caso de um paciente com ptose grave por paquidermoperiostose elucidando sua fisiopatologia e conduta cirúrgica aplicada.

  18. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci; Virginia Pujol Lereis; Sebastián Ameriso; Guillermo Povedano; María F. Díaz; Alejandro Hlavnicka; Néstor A. Wainsztein; Sebastián F. Ameriso

    2013-01-01

    La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Str...

  19. Colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sandra Gómez-Canosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos el caso de una paciente de edad avanzada y significativa comorbilidad que se diagnosticó de colecistitis aguda por Streptococcus constellatus. El drenaje de la vesícula biliar por colecistostomía percutánea, asociado a penicilinas, ha conseguido una evolución favorable. We report the case of a patient of advanced age and significant comorbidity diagnosed acute cholecystitis by Streptococcus constellatus. Gallbladder drainage by percutaneous cholecystostomy associated with penicillins has achieved a favorable outcome.

  20. Endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Senior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La endocarditis infecciosa por hongos es una complicación cada vez más frecuente en el mundo. Presentamos un caso de endocarditis infecciosa por Paecilomyces variotii en un paciente de sexo masculino con bioprótesis mitral, que respondió satisfactoriamente al tratamiento con cirugía de reemplazo valvular mitral y anfotericina B (dosis total de 3.670 mg. Hasta la fecha, sólo se han reportado seis casos similares en el mundo, con una mortalidad del 100%.

  1. Consanguinidad por isonimia en Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albeza, María V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estimó el coeficiente de parentesco por isonimia para localidades de la Puna, Valle Calchaquí y Valle de Lerma, a fin de evaluar diferentes factores evolutivos que podrían estar afectando la composición genética de la población. A partir de los apellidos de las parejas consignadas en fuentes primarias de información, se estimó la isonimia conyugal o marital, el coeficiente total Ft y sus componentes Fr (inbreeding azaroso y Fn (inbreeding no azaroso. De las localidades estudiadas, en la Puna se ha detectado sólo una pareja isónima en una de ellas, en el Valle Calchaquí, tres y ninguna en el Valle de Lerma. Tanto en el Valle Calchaquí como en el de Lerma, se han estimado valores negativos de Ft, y en la Puna se registran los valores más elevados. En las localidades estudiadas no se cumple el supuesto de transmisión patrilineal de apellidos por lo que los valores de Fr y por ende de Ft podrían estar subestimados. Es por ello que sería necesario contar con información desde otras vertientes metodológicas para corroborar, complementar y manejar cuidadosamente el análisis de los datos y las conclusiones que se obtienen.

  2. Celulitis por citomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ruiz Lascano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones cutáneas por citomegalovirus (CMV son infrecuentes y a menudo una manifestación tardía de una enfermedad sistémica, que generalmente anuncia un curso fatal. Comunicamos un caso de celulitis por CMV: una mujer de 70 años con trasplante renal efectuado 1 mes antes de la consulta, terapia inmunosupresora con ciclosporina A y metilprednisona. La paciente ingresó por fiebre, dolor e impotencia funcional en pierna derecha. Comprobamos la existencia de una placa de 8 por 4 cm eritematoedematosa. La tratamos con antibióticos sin mejoría, por lo que realizamos un estudio histopatológico de piel que mostró cambios citopáticos compatibles con infección por CMV. Los cultivos bacteriológicos y micológicos fueron negativos. La inmunohistoquímica específica para CMV y el estudio de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR de la biopsia de piel fueron positivas, al igual que la antigenemia. El tratamiento con ganciclovir produjo la mejoría del cuadro clínico. En la literatura revisada no hemos encontrado la celulitis como manifestación de enfermedad cutánea por CMV.Cutaneous lesions in CMV infection are rare, often a late manifestation of systemic infection, and usually herald a fatal course. A 70 year-old woman received a kidney transplantation one month before consulting and immunosuppressive therapy that included cyclosporine A and methylprednisone. She complained of fever, local pain in her right leg, and an erythematous and swelling plaque. She was treated with intravenous antibiotics without improvement. A skin biopsy was performed and the tissue obtained was sent for bacterial and fungal cultures as well as for histological examination. Cultures were negative. The biopsy showed CMV cytopathic changes. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for CMV and polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing revealed CMV DNA. She was treated with ganciclovir with resolution of the lesion. CMV cellulitis is a rare cutaneous manifestation

  3. Pesticide risk assessment: A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Mohd Rafee B; Sahid, Ismail B; Noor, Mohamad Azhar B Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Fadzil

    2011-01-01

    A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high. With motorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged from low to moderate. Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.

  4. Environmental pollutants parathion, paraquat and bisphenol A show distinct effects towards nuclear receptors-mediated induction of xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrzal, Radim; Zenata, Ondrej; Doricakova, Aneta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-10-01

    Environmental pollutants parathion, bisphenol A and paraquat were not systematically studied towards the effects on the expression of phase I xenobiotics-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (CYPs). We monitored their effects on the expression of selected CYPs in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Moreover, we investigated their effects on the receptors regulating these CYPs, particularly arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) by gene reporter assays. We found that parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of AhR. Moreover, they are the inducers of CYP1A1 mRNA in hepatoma cells HepG2 as well as in human hepatocytes by AhR-dependent mechanism via formation of AhR-DNA-binding complex, as revealed by gel shift assay. All three compounds possessed anti-glucocorticoid action as revealed by GR-dependent gene reporter assay and a decline in tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene expression in human hepatocytes. Moreover, parathion and bisphenol A are the activators of PXR and inducers of CYP3A4 mRNA and protein in the primary cultures of human hepatocytes. In conclusion, the studied compounds displayed distinct activities towards nuclear receptors involved in many biological processes and these findings may help us to better understand their adverse actions in pathological states followed after their exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of nitrate by the IE-HPLC-UV method in the brain tissues ofWistar rats poisoned with paraquat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJANA CURCIC JOVANOVIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of an initial study regarding the involvement of reactive nitrogen species (RNS in paraquat (PQ neurotoxicity. The nitrate concentration in the vulnerable regions of the brain (cortex, striatum and hippocampus of Wistar rats was used as a measure of nitric oxide (NO production or catabolism of the formed RNS. The tissue homogenates were deproteinized with acetonitrile and then centrifuged. Nitrate was measured in filtrated supernatants by simple and rapid isocratic ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (IE-HPLC-UV at 214 nm. The mobile phase (pH 8.5 consisted of borate buffer/gluconate concentrate, methanol, acetonitrile and deionized water (2:12:12:74, v/v/v/v, and the flow rate was 1.3 mL/min. Physiological nitrate levels (18.8 ± 6.1 nmol/mg of proteins, as well as a diverse range of nitrate concentrations could be determined with good precision (CV = 2.2 % and accuracy (recovery of spiked samples was 99 ± 4% in the brain tissue homogenates. Linearity was achieved in the range of nitrate from 0‑80 mM. The retention time of nitrate anion was 5.3 ± 0.3 min.

  6. Paraquat-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit neutrophil apoptosis via a p38 MAPK/NF-κB-IL-6/TNF-α positive-feedback circuit.

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    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ, a widely used herbicide and potent reactive oxygen species (ROS inducer, can injure multiple tissues and organs, especially the lung. However, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. According to previous reports, neutrophil aggregation and excessive ROS production might play pivotal pathogenetic roles. In the present study, we found that PQ could prolong neutrophil lifespan and induce ROS generation in a concentration-independent manner. Activated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK, and myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1 but not Akt signaling pathways were involved in this process, as well as increasing levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and IL-1β. Furthermore, the proinflammatory mediators IL-6 and TNF-α could in turn promote ROS generation, creating a vicious cycle. The existence of such a feedback loop is supported by our finding that neutrophil apoptosis is attenuated by PQ in a concentration-independent manner and could partially explain the clinical dilemma why oxygen therapy will exacerbate PQ induced tissue injury.

  7. The antioxidant effects of vitamin C on liver enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotranferease, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities in rats under Paraquat insult

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    Benjamin Nnamdi Okolonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat (PQ is a bipyridylium herbicide; applied around trees in orchards and between crop rows to control broad-leaved and grassy weeds. Its oxidation results in the formation of superoxides which causes damage to cellular components. In this study, we determined the antioxidant effect vitamin C has on the liver enzymes [aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT, alanine aminotranferease (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT] of rats under this toxic insult. Male rats in groups (A, B, C and D were intraperitoneally injected with different sublethal increasing doses (0, 0.02, 0.04 and 0.06 g/kg body weigh of PQ respectively on monthly basis. Subsequently, the subgroups (A2, B2, C2 and D2 were given orally, 200 mg/L vitamin C, while the subgroups A1, B1, C1, and D1, received only water. Four animals per subgroup were decapitated on monthly basis and blood samples taken for enzyme assay. The parameters studied were - SGOT, SGPT, ALP and GGT - liver enzymes. The dose and time dependent PQ toxicity effect resulted in highly elevated Liver enzymes activities. The subgroups on vitamin C had significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the same subgroups on only PQ insult. But the values were high when compared to the control subgroups (A1 and A2. These results were indication that vitamin C when given at moderate doses and maintained for a longer period could be a life saving adjunct to toxic insult.

  8. Oral Exposure to Paraquat Triggers Earlier Expression of Phosphorylated α-Synuclein in the Enteric Nervous System of A53T Mutant Human α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Nicolas; Antier, Emilie; Gaillard, Damien; Morignat, Eric; Lakhdar, Latifa; Baron, Thierry; Bencsik, Anna

    2017-12-01

    The misfolded α-synuclein protein, phosphorylated at serine 129 (pSer129 α-syn), is the hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD). Detected also in the enteric nervous system (ENS), it supports the recent theory that PD could start in the gut, rather than the brain. In a previous study, using a transgenic mouse model of human synucleinopathies expressing the A53T mutant α-synuclein (TgM83), in which a neurodegenerative process associated with α-synuclein occurs spontaneously in the brain, we have shown earlier onset of pSer129 α-syn in the ENS. Here, we used this model to study the impact of paraquat (PQ) a neurotoxic herbicide incriminated in PD in agricultural workers) on the enteric pSer129 α-syn expression in young mice. Orally delivered in the drinking water at 10 mg/kg/day for 6-8 weeks, the impact of PQ was measured in a time-dependent manner on weight, locomotor abilities, pSer129 α-syn, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression levels in the ENS. Remarkably, pSer129 α-syn was detected in ENS earlier under PQ oral exposure and enteric GFAP expression was also increased. These findings bring additional support to the theory that neurotoxic agents such as PQ initiate idiopathic PD after oral delivery. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc.

  9. Radio and Chemo protective Properties of Hesperidin against Genotoxicity Induced by Gamma Radiation and/or Paraquat in Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The Protective effect of hesperidin (HES), a flavonone glucoside, was investigated in rat bone marrow cells against genotoxicity induced by ?-irradiation (2Gy), and/or paraquat (PQ) herbicide. Rats were orally (gavages) pre-treated with solution of HES at dose (160 mg/ kg body wt) for five consecutive days. The fifth day 45 min after treatment, the rats were exposed to ?-irradiation and/or intera peritoneal injected with 10 mg/kg body wt PQ. Animals were sacrificed after 24 h for the evaluation of structural chromosomal aberrations, micro nucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) micro nucleated normo chromatic erythrocytes (MnNCEs) and the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) count to the total number of polychromatic erythrocytes and normo chromatic erythrocytes (NCEs). HES reduces the frequencies of MnPCEs and increases the ratio of the PCEs in the rat bone marrow compared with the non drug-treated exposed groups (P< 0.01). Chromatid type aberrations in PQ group, chromosome type aberrations in irradiated group and total aberrations were reduced in pre-treated HES groups (P< 0.05). This study demonstrates that HES has a powerful protective effect on radiation and/or chemical induced chromosome aberrations and DNA damage and on the decline in cell proliferation in rat bone marrow

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase show increased resistance to Paraquat-induced photooxidative stress and to nitric oxide-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Irene; Tarantino, Delia; Vannini, Candida; Bracale, Marcella; Carravieri, Sara; Soave, Carlo

    2004-06-01

    Ascorbate peroxidases (APX), localized in the cytosol, peroxisomes, mitochondria and chloroplasts of plant cells, catalyze the reduction of H(2)O(2) to water by using ascorbic acid (ASA) as specific electron donor. The chloroplastic isoenzymes of APX are involved in the water-water cycle, which contributes to the photophosphorylation coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport. In order to better clarify the contribution of thylakoidal APX (tAPX) to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, as well as to the fine modulation of ROS for signaling, we produced Arabidopsis lines overexpressing tAPX. These lines show an increased resistance to treatment with the O(2)(-) generating herbicide Paraquat (Pq). However, when challenged with photoinhibitory treatments at high light or low temperature, or with iron (Fe) or copper (Cu) overload, the tAPX-overexpressing lines show no increased resistance with respect to controls, indicating that in such experimental conditions, tAPX overexpression does not reinforce plant defenses against the oxidative stresses tested. Interestingly, the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) represses accumulation of tAPX transcript; SNP also partially inhibits tAPX enzymatic activity. After treatment with SNP, the tAPX-overexpressing lines show reduced symptoms of damage with respect to control plants treated with SNP. These transgenic lines confirm that H(2)O(2) acts in partnership with NO in causing cell death and highlight the important role of tAPX in the fine modulation of H(2)O(2) for signaling.

  11. Supplementation of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) Improves Lifespan and Locomotor Activity in Paraquat-Sensitive DJ-1βΔ93Flies, a Parkinson's Disease Model in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Christian, Pearl K; Panchal, Komal; Guruprasad, B R; Tiwari, Anand K

    2017-09-03

    Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) is a cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) consumed by humans and other animals because of its nutritional values and pharmacological properties. Apart from high protein contents, it also contains high levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds, such as carotenoids, β-carotene, phycocyanin, and phycocyanobilin, indicating its possible pharmaco-therapeutic utility. In the present study using DJ-1β Δ93 flies, a Parkinson's disease model in Drosophila, we have demonstrated the therapeutic effect of spirulina and its active component C-phycocyanin (C-PC) in the improvement of lifespan and locomotor behavior. Our findings indicate that dietary supplementation of spirulina significantly improves the lifespan and locomotor activity of paraquat-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Furthermore, supplementation of spirulina and C-PC individually and independently reduced the cellular stress marked by deregulating the expression of heat shock protein 70 and Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling in DJ-1β Δ93 flies. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in spirulina-fed DJ-1β Δ93 flies tends to indicate the involvement of antioxidant properties associated with spirulina in the modulation of stress-induced signaling and improvement in lifespan and locomotor activity in Drosophila DJ-1β Δ93 flies. Our results suggest that antioxidant boosting properties of spirulina can be used as a nutritional supplement for improving the lifespan and locomotor behavior in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Se los por se lo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rivarola

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de la conjugación "objetiva" plantea interesantesproblemas que fueron tratados en parte por K. Heger (1966 en suestudio comparativo del francés y del español. De la comparaciónse desprende, por ejemplo, que en español hay un cierto número deambigüedades que no permiten establecer un "paradigma tan completo y unívoco" como en el caso del francés. Dentro de estas ambigüedades se encuentran las que propicia el gramema se: "El morfema [gramema] se funciona no sólo como pronombre reflexivo, sinotambién como variante combinatoria del pronombre personal complemento indirecto de la tercera persona.

  13. Esporotricosis diagnosticada por el laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Nelly Ordóñez; Jeannette Castillo; Elizabeth Castañeda

    1989-01-01

    De 1976 a 1989 se han diagnosticado 40 casos de esporotricosis en el laboratorio de Micología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. La enfermedad se presentó en pacientes entre 4 y 52 años y tuvo predilección por el sexo masculino: 35 de 40 (87,5%; las formas clínicas más frecuentes fueron la cutánea fija, 18 de 40 (45%), y la linfocutánea, 17 de 40 (42,5%), con localización mayor en miembros superiores, 18 de 40 (45%). El diagnóstico se estableció por el aislamiento del Sporothrix schenckii en 35...

  14. Esporotricosis diagnosticada por el laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ordóñez

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available De 1976 a 1989 se han diagnosticado 40 casos de esporotricosis en el laboratorio de Micología del Instituto Nacional de Salud. La enfermedad se presentó en pacientes entre 4 y 52 años y tuvo predilección por el sexo masculino: 35 de 40 (87,5%; las formas clínicas más frecuentes fueron la cutánea fija, 18 de 40 (45%, y la linfocutánea, 17 de 40 (42,5%, con localización mayor en miembros superiores, 18 de 40 (45%. El diagnóstico se estableció por el aislamiento del Sporothrix schenckii en 35 de 38 pacientes (92%; los otros dos pacientes se diagnosticaron empleando otras técnicas: inmunofluorescencia directa, intradermorreacción y aglutinación en tubo.

  15. Miasis cutanea por cordylobia anthropophaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkorta Gurrutxaga Miriam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El incremento progresivo en el número de personas que viajan a países tropicales ha hecho que las enfermedades importadas adquieran una relevancia cada vez mayor. Las miasis (o infestaciones por larvas de moscas cutáneas se encuentran entre este tipo de enfermedades siendo especialmente frecuentes en países tropicales. A propósito de la observación de un caso de miasis cutánea masiva por Cordylobia antropophaga, que ocurrió en una mujer de 34 años de edad al volver de un viaje a Senegal, se ha efectuado una revisión de los casos de miasis cutáneas forunculoides importadas publicados en España, así como de la biología, patología, tratamiento y prevención de la miasis humana por Cordylobia anthropophaga. El caso referido, se caracterizó por la infestación con un número inusualmente elevado de larvas, no sospechándose su etiología hasta la fase final de la enfermedad. La emergencia continuada de larvas (se recogieron 91 generó en la paciente un estado de ansiedad importante. Finalmente, la eliminación de las larvas provocó una rápida mejoría de la paciente. Aunque los casos de miasis cutánea no tienen la gravedad de otras enfermedades importadas, su conocimiento es necesario desde el punto de vista preventivo, diagnóstico y terapeútico. Es importante proceder a la identificación morfológica de las larvas diferenciándolas de otro tipo de miasis con implicaciones terapéuticas diferentes.

  16. Abdome agudo por obstrução por ileobiliar

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    Márcia Cristina de Alencastro

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: descrever a experiência na abordagem dos doentes com abdome agudo por obstrução por IB, desde o diagnóstico até o tratamento definitivo. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo incluindo todos os casos de IB tratados em um período de 23 anos. De acordo com a abordagem cirúrgica realizada, os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (1 enterolitotomia com colecistectomia no segundo momento; e (2 enterolitotomia, colecistectomia e abordagem da fístula. RESULTADOS: Doze pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 11 mulheres (91,6%, com média de idade de 72,2 anos. Todos os pacientes apresentavam doenças associadas, principalmente hipertensão arterial sistêmica (75%. Dois pacientes não apresentavam sintomas significativos de obstrução intestinal. O diagnóstico de IB foi realizado em seis pacientes (50% antes da laparotomia. O grupo 1 foi constituído de oito pacientes e o grupo 2 de quatro, e a morbidade foi, respectivamente, 33,3% e 8,3%. A mortalidade foi 16,6% (um paciente de cada grupo. CONCLUSÃO: O manejo do IB deve ser individualizado. O tratamento da obstrução mediante remoção do cálculo biliar por enterotomia proximal é a escolha inicial para o tratamento do IB. A colecistectomia e a correção da fístula bilioentérica podem ser realizadas juntamente com a remoção do cálculo, no entanto, em pacientes com comorbidades significativas, esses procedimentos devem ser realizados posteriormente.

  17. Certificado de reconocimiento por ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas Certificate of recognition for the ingestion of alcoholic beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Barreiro Ramos

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los llamados procedimientos médico-legales hay 3 que son de suma importancia para el médico de asistencia, el certificado de defunción, el de primera intención de un lesionado y el de reconocimiento por ingestión de bebidas alcohólicas. En el caso de los dos primeros contamos con algunas publicaciones que nos pueden ayudar en su confección; sin embargo, con respecto al último no conocemos que se haya publicado algo, y por tanto, se hace necesario difundir los conocimientos al respecto. El resultado de este procedimiento tiene una trascendencia indiscutible, tanto para el sujeto sometido a él, como para los órganos de justicia; además del poco tiempo disponible en pregrado para explicar este tipo de actuación. Se revisó la legislación vigente y trabajos relacionados con la temática de las intoxicaciones y adicciones más comunes en nuestro país, fundamentalmente del fondo bibliográfico del Instituto de Medicina Legal. La exposición la realizamos a manera de manual o guía práctica para el examen clínico de la ingestión o embriaguez alcohólica, su diagnóstico diferencial con la intoxicación por metanol, la marihuana y la toma de muestras entre otras cuestiones. El material está dirigido fundamentalmente a los médicos de asistencia y estudiantes de 5to. año de la carrera de Medicina.Among the so-called medico-legal procedures there are 3 that are very important for a physician: the death certificate, that of first intention of an injured and that of recognition for the ingestion of alcoholic beverages. There are some publications that can help us to made the first two; however, we do not know about any publication on the latter. Therefore, it is necessary to spread the knowledge existing on this regard. The result of this procedure is unquestionably significant for the individual subjected to it and for the legal bodies, in addition to the little time available at the undergraduate level to explain this type of

  18. Tendencias de mortalidad por traumatismos y envenenamientos en adolescentes: México, 1979-1997 Adolescent injury and poisoning mortality trends: Mexico, 1979-1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Celis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir las causas externas de la mortalidad por traumatismos y envenenamientos, así como la tendencia que estas causas han mostrado entre adolescentes en México, de 1979 a 1997. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para la realización de este estudio descriptivo de la mortalidad se utilizaron las bases de datos de mortalidad registrada en México de 1979 a 1997. Los datos son recabados, codificados y capturados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, y se obtuvieron a través del Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública. Los datos fueron tabulados durante el último semestre de 2000, en Jalisco, en la Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud del Adolescente del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. RESULTADOS: Los traumatismos y envenenamientos ocuparon el primer lugar en la mortalidad del grupo adolescente (tasa de 13.35/100 000 con una tendencia descendente de -41.4% durante el periodo 1979-1997, no obstante el incremento de homicidios y suicidios (9.5% y 104.0% respectivamente. Los mecanismos más frecuentes fueron los vehículos de tráfico de motor, las armas de fuego, las intoxicaciones, las sofocaciones y las asfixias por inmersión. CONCLUSIONES: Los traumatismos y envenenamientos que experimenta la población de países en desarrollo muestran frecuencias diferentes a lo registrado en los más desarrollados, haciendo necesario el estudio de los mismos para implantar las medidas preventivas acordes con las condiciones socioculturales y ambientales de cada entorno.OBJECTIVE: To describe the external causes of death and mortality trends due to injuries and poisoning in Mexican adolescents, from 1979 to 1997. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a descriptive study of deaths occurring in Mexico from 1979 to 1997. Data were abstracted, coded, and entered in electronic format, by Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática (National Institute of Statistics, Geography, and Informatics

  19. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera; Jorge Martín Rodríguez; Guillermo Farfán

    2016-01-01

    La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. S...

  20. Desajuste educativo por regiones en Colombia: ¿competencia por salarios o por puestos de trabajo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Caicedo Maribel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aporta una perspectiva del fenómeno de la sobreeducación,
    entendida como un desajuste por exceso, entre el nivel educativo alcanzado
    por el individuo y el exigido por el puesto de trabajo en el cual se
    desempeña; esto se debe a que existe una demanda laboral estrecha de
    puestos de trabajo para personas calificadas en Colombia. Se analizan las
    contribuciones empíricas existentes y el debate sobre las mismas; se
    examinan las teorías que permiten explicar la existencia de un desajuste
    educativo y se realiza una revisión de la literatura internacional y
    nacional sobre el tema. Adicionalmente, se plantean una serie de hipótesis
    para desarrollar un esquema que permita determinar el comportamiento
    del individuo en el fenómeno de la sobreeducación.

  1. Muerte materna por malaria grave por Plasmodium vivax

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    Nancy Arróspide

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años con 29 semanas de gestación, procedente de Llumpe (Ancash con antecedentes de viajes a las localidades de Chanchamayo (Junín y Rinconada (Ancash. Ingresó al Hospital de Chacas (Ancash por presentar mal estado general, deshidratación, dificultad respiratoria, ictericia, sensación de alza térmica y dolor abdominal, tuvo reporte de: hemoparásitos 60% en frotis sanguíneo. Fue transferida al Hospital Ramos Guardia (Huaraz donde presentó mayor dificultad respiratoria, coluria, hematuria, disminución del débito urinario y reporte de Plasmodium (+, luego fue transferida al Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima donde ingresó a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI, con evolución a falla multiorgánica, óbito fetal y muerte materna. Se confirmó infección por Plasmodium vivax. Destacamos la importancia de mejorar nuestras capacidades de diagnóstico y manejo para brindar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno.

  2. Penfigoide ampolloso inducido por vildagliptina

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldine López-Sánchez; Eduardo Reyna-Villasmil

    2016-01-01

    Penfigoide ampolloso (PA) es una enfermedad crónica, poco común, autoinmune y sub-epidérmica. La etiología no es completamente comprendida. Puede estar asociado con fármacos, radiación ultravioleta y exposición de rayos X. Hay algunos informes sobre la PA inducidos por gliptinas (vildagliptina, sitagliptina, saxagliptina) o inhibidores de la dipeptidil peptidasa IV (DPP-IV). La enzima DPP-IV degrada péptido similar al glucagón 1, que es u...

  3. Clonagem de canistel por estaquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marcelo Chiamolera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel é nativo do sul do México e América Central e seus frutos apresentam elevado teor de carotenoides e vitamina A. Sua propagação é feita via sementes, resultando em considerável variabilidade genética entre os indivíduos, sendo a propagação vegetativa preferível, a fim de fixar características desejáveis. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a propagação vegetativa por estaquia de ramos semi-herbáceos de canistel, em função de quatro genótipos e quatro concentrações de AIB. Foram utilizadas estacas semiherbáceas apicais, mantidas com um par de folhas, sob nebulização intermitente, por 120 dias. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4×4 (genótipos de canistel × concentrações de AIB, com quatro repetições e dez estacas por parcela. Foram avaliados a porcentagem de sobrevivência, a retenção foliar, o enraizamento, o calejamento, o número e o comprimento médio de raízes por estaca. O genótipo PC-1 foi superior aos demais, em todas as variáveis avaliadas, com destaque para o enraizamento das estacas, superior a 60%. As concentrações de AIB (0; 1.000; 3.000 e 5.000 mg L-1 não influenciaram na sobrevivência, retenção foliar e enraizamento das estacas, mas aumentaram o número e o comprimento de raízes em relação ao tratamento-controle (sem AIB. Há diferença na capacidade de enraizamento das estacas entre os genótipos de canistel, sendo a melhor resposta obtida com PC-1. A concentração de 3.000 mg L-1 de AIB resulta em maior número e comprimento de raízes nas estacas de canistel.

  4. Once mil metros por segundo

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Esta exposición es una ventana hacia el mundo de la Ciencia Ficción. Los sueños de escritores extraordinarios, personajes, lugares, máquinas y robots que cada día están más cerca de nuestra cotidianidad gracias a los avances de la ciencia y la tecnología hacen parte de la muestra itinerante por las sedes de la Universidad Nacional. El visitante puede recorrer los diferentes géneros que constituyen este género literario, además de conocer sus principales representantes. Así mismo se explor...

  5. La curiosidad por la naturaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta actitud es un instrumento estratégico para estimular procesos de desarrollo realmente sostenibles, donde se aproveche la admiración que nos embarga al conocer y apreciar lo que nos rodea para responsablemente utilizar y conservar nuestros recursos naturales. Con esta reflexión deseo resaltar esa motivación de escudriñar lo desconocido, que fue también la virtud que propició el desarrollo de la personalidad de Francisco José de Caldas y Tenorio, uno de nuestros primeros y connotados sabios colombianos, y en cuyo honor se constituyó la revista de divulgación científica más importante del país, que en estos momentos cumple 76 años de existencia. Caldas tuvo curiosidad por todo lo que existía en su entorno; inicialmente en su natal Popayán, donde se maravilló por lo natural, lo que lo motivó y llevó más allá de su tierra a formar parte de la mayor empresa de exploración científica adelantada en ese entonces en territorio americano: la primera Expedición Botánica al nuevo Reino de Granada, de José Celestino Mutis.

  6. Hipoglucemia inducida por carcinoma adrenal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Soutelo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma suprarrenal es una neoplasia maligna infrecuente y de mal pronóstico. La presentación clínica más común es originada por la producción hormonal excesiva, mientras que el desarrollo de hipoglucemia sintomática es excepcional. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 37 años que ingresó al hospital por síntomas de hipoglucemias graves, hipertensión arterial, hipopotasemia y amenorrea secundaria. En el laboratorio se halló hipoglucemia con insulina inhibida y niveles de andrógenos en rango tumoral. La tomografía computarizada (TC de abdomen y pelvis mostró voluminosa formación heterogénea de aspecto sólido sin plano de clivaje con respecto al parénquima hepático e intenso realce con contraste. Luego de la extirpación de la masa retroperitoneal, evolucionó con valores de glucemia y potasemia normales, estabilizó la presión arterial y recuperó los ciclos menstruales.

  7. Mortalidad por meningitis por Pasteurella canis. Oportunidades de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Ropero Vera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis bacteriana es una enfermedad importante de distribución mundial, causa mayor y sustancial de mortalidad y morbilidad en países en desarrollo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS sostiene que la meningitis es una de las diez afecciones principales del ser humano y debe ser considerada como una emergencia infectológica; por eso es fundamental reconocer que esta enfermedad es causa de muerte en niños de todo el mundo, sin distinción de raza, nivel económico o sociocultural. Se realizó una investigación de caso en menor de 53 días de nacido, que cumplía con los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio compatible con meningitis bacteriana, con el propósito de analizar y fortalecer la toma de decisiones en salud pública por parte de la secretaría local de salud del municipio de Valledupar (Colombia. Entre los hallazgos se encontró antecedentes infecciosos en el menor, coloración de Gram y cultivo de LCR, en el que se identificó cocobacilos Gram negativos, que fueron aislados como agente causal Pasteurella canis. Este estudio pretende sensibilizar a los prestadores de salud para que cuenten con personal altamente capacitado para brindar tratamientos adecuados y prevenir complicaciones en la meningitis bacteriana en niños, y así disminuir la posibilidad de secuelas o muerte, tanto en pacientes con compromiso inmunológico o sin este.

  8. La administración por objetivos

    OpenAIRE

    García Madariaga, Ricardo

    1988-01-01

    De la administración por objetivos puede esperarse dos clases de resultados diferentes pero complementarios. Por una parte, la administración por objetivos contribuye a crear o mantener las condiciones que aseguren la evolución permanente de la organización para que ésta no solamente pueda adaptarse a los cambios del entorno sino también crecer y desarrollarse. Por otra parte, mejora la productividad racionalizando el empleo de los recursos humanos.

  9. The laws governing ionic liquid extraction of cations: partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat dication in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Takuya; Okai, Miho; Katsuta, Shoichi

    2015-05-21

    To find the laws governing the extraction of cations from aqueous solutions into hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), we investigated the partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) dication in various IL/water biphasic systems. Ten different ILs of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide-based salts were used. The distribution ratio of the target cations (T(n+)) was dependent on the initial concentration in the aqueous phase and also very sensitive to the kind of IL. The behavior was quantitatively explained on the basis of a model in which the extraction goes through both the ion exchange and ion pair transfer processes, while keeping the product of the aqueous concentrations of the IL constituent ions a constant value (solubility product, Ksp). The distribution ratio of T(n+) is expressed as a function of the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(n+) in the aqueous phase (Δ[T(n+)]W), the aqueous solubility of IL (Ksp(1/2)), and the cation valence n. The distribution ratio is a nearly constant value (D0) when Δ[T(n+)]W ≪ Ksp(1/2)/n and decreases inversely proportional to the nth power of Δ[T(n+)]W when Δ[T(n+)]W ≫ Ksp(1/2)/n. The log D0 versus log Ksp(1/2) plot gives a linear relationship with a slope of +n for the ILs with the same anion but different cations and that with a slope of nearly -n for the ILs with the same cation but different anions. This means that the extractability dependence on the kinds of IL constituent ions is greater for the divalent cation than for the monovalent one.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative in vivo model to determine oral uptake, nanotoxicity, and efficacy of melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules on paraquat damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Souto, Caroline; Brucker, Natália; Barth, Anelise; Jornada, Denise S; Fagundez, Daiandra; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Eifler-Lima, Vera L; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an alternative in vivo model that is being successfully used to assess the pharmacological and toxic effects of drugs. The exponential growth of nanotechnology requires the use of alternative in vivo models to assess the toxic effects of theses nanomaterials. The use of polymeric nanocapsules has shown promising results for drug delivery. Moreover, these formulations have not been used in cases of intoxication, such as in treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Thus, the use of drugs with properties improved by nanotechnology is a promising approach to overcome the toxic effects of PQ. This research aimed to evaluate the absorption of rhodamine B-labeled melatonin (Mel)-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) by C. elegans, the application of this model in nanotoxicology, and the protection of Mel-LNC against PQ damage. The formulations were prepared by self-assembly and characterized by particle sizing, zeta potential, drug content, and encapsulation efficiency. The results demonstrated that the formulations had narrow size distributions. Rhodamine B-labeled Mel-LNC were orally absorbed and distributed in the worms. The toxicity assessment of LNC showed a lethal dose 50% near the highest dose tested, indicating low toxicity of the nanocapsules. Moreover, pretreatment with Mel-LNC significantly increased the survival rate, reduced the reactive oxygen species, and maintained the development in C. elegans exposed to PQ compared to those worms that were either untreated or pretreated with free Mel. These results demonstrated for the first time the uptake and distribution of Mel-LNC by a nematode, and indicate that while LNC is not toxic, Mel-LNC prevents the effects of PQ poisoning. Thus, C. elegans may be an interesting alternative model to test the nanocapsules toxicity and efficacy. PMID:26300641

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans as an alternative in vivo model to determine oral uptake, nanotoxicity, and efficacy of melatonin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules on paraquat damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Souto, Caroline; Brucker, Natália; Barth, Anelise; Jornada, Denise S; Fagundez, Daiandra; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Eifler-Lima, Vera L; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is an alternative in vivo model that is being successfully used to assess the pharmacological and toxic effects of drugs. The exponential growth of nanotechnology requires the use of alternative in vivo models to assess the toxic effects of theses nanomaterials. The use of polymeric nanocapsules has shown promising results for drug delivery. Moreover, these formulations have not been used in cases of intoxication, such as in treatment of paraquat (PQ) poisoning. Thus, the use of drugs with properties improved by nanotechnology is a promising approach to overcome the toxic effects of PQ. This research aimed to evaluate the absorption of rhodamine B-labeled melatonin (Mel)-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) by C. elegans, the application of this model in nanotoxicology, and the protection of Mel-LNC against PQ damage. The formulations were prepared by self-assembly and characterized by particle sizing, zeta potential, drug content, and encapsulation efficiency. The results demonstrated that the formulations had narrow size distributions. Rhodamine B-labeled Mel-LNC were orally absorbed and distributed in the worms. The toxicity assessment of LNC showed a lethal dose 50% near the highest dose tested, indicating low toxicity of the nanocapsules. Moreover, pretreatment with Mel-LNC significantly increased the survival rate, reduced the reactive oxygen species, and maintained the development in C. elegans exposed to PQ compared to those worms that were either untreated or pretreated with free Mel. These results demonstrated for the first time the uptake and distribution of Mel-LNC by a nematode, and indicate that while LNC is not toxic, Mel-LNC prevents the effects of PQ poisoning. Thus, C. elegans may be an interesting alternative model to test the nanocapsules toxicity and efficacy.

  12. Heat shock protein-70 (Hsp-70 suppresses paraquat-induced neurodegeneration by inhibiting JNK and caspase-3 activation in Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Shukla

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders with limited clinical interventions. A number of epidemiological as well as case-control studies have revealed an association between pesticide exposure, especially of paraquat (PQ and occurrence of PD. Hsp70, a molecular chaperone by function, has been shown as one of the modulators of neurological disorders. However, paucity of information regarding the protective role of Hsp70 on PQ-induced PD like symptoms led us to hypothesize that modulation of hsp70 expression in the dopaminergic neurons would improve the health of these cells. We took advantage of Drosophila, which is a well-established model for neurological research and also possesses genetic tools for easy manipulation of gene expression with limited ethical concern. Over-expression of hsp70 was found to reduce PQ-induced oxidative stress along with JNK and caspase-3 mediated dopaminergic neuronal cell death in exposed organism. Further, anti-apoptotic effect of hsp70 was shown to confer better homeostasis in the dopaminergic neurons of PQ-exposed organism as evidenced by their improved locomotor performance and survival. The study has merit in the context of human concern since we observed protection of dopaminergic neurons in PQ-exposed organism by over-expressing a human homologue of hsp70, HSPA1L, in these cells. The effect was parallel to that observed with Drosophila hsp70. These findings reflect the potential therapeutic applicability of hsp70 against PQ-induced PD like symptoms in an organism.

  13. Metabolic flux ratio analysis and multi-objective optimization revealed a globally conserved and coordinated metabolic response of E. coli to paraquat-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tie; Rui, Bin; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Ximing; Yi, Yin; Wen, Han; Zheng, Haoran; Wu, Jihui; Shi, Yunyu

    2013-01-27

    . coli to paraquat-induced oxidative stress is globally conserved and coordinated.

  14. Lysine acetylsalicylate increases the safety of a paraquat formulation to freshwater primary producers: A case study with the microalga Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltazar, Maria Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Martins, Alexandra; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Duarte, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The formulation has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared to Gramoxone ® . •The highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8 (PQ/LAS). •LAS conferred a protection of approximately 1.8 fold (% of inhibition of growth). •Salicylic acid is biotransformed by C. vulgaris after 48 h, and not detectable at 96 h. -- Abstract: Large amounts of herbicides are presently used in the industrialized nations worldwide, with an inexorable burden to the environment, especially to aquatic ecosystems. Primary producers such as microalgae are of especial concern because they are vital for the input of energy into the ecosystem and for the maintenance of oxygen in water on which most of other marine life forms depend on. The herbicide paraquat (PQ) is known to cause inhibition of photosynthesis and irreversible damage to photosynthetic organisms through generation of reactive oxygen species in a light-dependent manner. Previous studies have led to the development of a new formulation of PQ containing lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) as an antidote, which was shown to prevent the mammalian toxicity of PQ, while maintaining the herbicidal effect. However, the safety of this formulation to primary producers in relation to commercially available PQ formulations has hitherto not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of the PQ + LAS formulation in comparison with the PQ, using Chlorella vulgaris as a test organism. Effect criterion was the inhibition of microalgal population growth. Following a 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of PQ, C. vulgaris growth was almost completely inhibited, an effect that was significantly prevented by LAS at the proportion used in the formulation (PQ + LAS) 1:2 (mol/mol), while the highest protection was achieved at the proportion of 1:8. In conclusion, the present work demonstrated that the new formulation with PQ + LAS has a reduced toxicity to C. vulgaris when compared

  15. Melatonin Improves the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Pea Leaves Stressed by Paraquat via Chlorophyll Breakdown Regulation and Its Accelerated de novo Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szafrańska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The positive effect of melatonin on the function of the photosynthetic apparatus is known, but little is known about the specific mechanisms of melatonin's action in plants. The influence of melatonin on chlorophyll metabolism of 24-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings during paraquat (PQ-induced oxidative stress was investigated in this study. Seeds were hydro-primed with water (H, 50 and 200 μM melatonin/water solutions (H-MEL50, H-MEL200, while non-primed seeds were used as controls (C. Increases in chlorophyllase activity (key enzyme in chlorophyll degradation and 5-aminolevulinic acid contents (the first compound in the porphyrin synthesis pathway were observed in H-MEL50 and H-MEL200 leaf disks. This suggests that melatonin may accelerate damaged chlorophyll breakdown and its de novo synthesis during the first hours of PQ treatment. Elevated level of pheophytin in control leaf disks following 24 h of PQ incubation probably was associated with an enhanced rate of chlorophyll degradation through formation of pheophytin as a chlorophyll derivative. This validates the hypothesis that chlorophyllide, considered for many years, as a first intermediate of chlorophyll breakdown is not. This is indicated by the almost unchanged chlorophyll to chlorophyllide ratio after 24 h of PQ treatment. However, prolonged effects of PQ-induced stress (48 h revealed extensive discolouration of control and water-treated leaf disks, while melatonin treatment alleviated PQ-induced photobleaching. Also the ratio of chlorophyll to chlorophyllide and porphyrin contents were significantly higher in plants treated with melatonin, which may indicate that this indoleamine both retards chlorophyll breakdown and stimulates its de novo synthesis during extended stress. We concluded that melatonin added into the seeds enhances the ability of pea seedlings to accelerate chlorophyll breakdown and its de novo synthesis before stress appeared and for several hours after, while

  16. Melatonin application to Pisum sativum L. seeds positively influences the function of the photosynthetic apparatus in growing seedlings during paraquat-induced oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szafranska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, due to its pleiotropic effects plays an important role improving tolerance to stresses. Plants increase endogenous melatonin synthesis when faced with harsh environments as well as exogenously-applied melatonin limits stress injuries. Presented work demonstrated that single melatonin application into the seeds during pre-sowing priming improved oxidative stress tolerance of growing seedlings exposed to paraquat (PQ. PQ is a powerful herbicide which blocks the process of photosynthesis under light conditions due to free radicals excess production, when O2 is rapidly converted to O2•- and subsequently to other ROS. The parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, Rfd, ΦPSII, qP and NPQ in all variants of pea leaves (derived from control non treated seeds – C, and those hydroprimed with water – H, and hydroprimed with melatonin water solution 50 or 200 μM – H-MEL50 and H-MEL200, respectively were analysed as a tool for photosynthetic efficacy testing. Moreover stability of the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a, b, and carotenoids was also monitored under oxidative stress conditions. The results suggest that melatonin applied into the seed significantly enhances oxidative stress tolerance in growing seedlings. This beneficial effect was reflected in reduced accumulation of O2•- in leaf tissues, preservation of photosynthetic pigments, improved functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and higher water content in the tissues during PQ-mediated stress. Our findings provide evidence for the physiological role of this molecule and serve as a platform for its possible applications in agricultural or related areas of research.

  17. Mortalidad intrahospitalaria por accidente cerebrovascular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Rodríguez Lucci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71% con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11% y 435 (29% con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%. Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos, representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos. No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.

  18. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones por tinturas para el cabello son infrecuentes en Antioquia; sin embargo, su toxicidad es potencialmente letal cuando ingresan al organismo por vía oral al producir un compromiso multiorgánico que puede llevar a la muerte del paciente. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 2 años que ingirió una dosis de 125 mg/kg de parafenilendiamina, asociada a ácido bórico y perborato de sodio, compuestos que hacen parte de una presentación comercial de una tintura para el cabello; la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina tuvo como consecuencia principal la obstrucción de la vía aérea por angioedema que requirió intubación endotraqueal, soporte ventilatorio y administración de esteroides y antihistamínicos; secundario al compromiso aéreo la paciente presentó edema agudo de pulmón y posteriormente un cuadro neumónico que requirió tratamiento con antibióticos. Adicionalmente presentó rabdomiolisis severa que se trató con líquidos endovenosos para que no se comprometiera la función renal. Luego de una terapia durante 10 días en el hospital, la niña fue dada de alta con resolución completa del cuadro tóxico. Se revisan los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina, dado que este fue el compuesto tóxico clínicamente importante en el contexto de este caso. There have been few cases reported of intoxication by hair dyes in Antioquia; however, their toxicity may be potentially lethal when their components enter the organism by oral route inducing a multiorganic compromise that may lead to death. We report the case of a two year old girl who ingested 125mg/kg of paraphenylenediamine, with boric acid and sodium perborate; these compounds are part of the commercial presentation of a hair dye; the child suffered airway obstruction because of angioedema that required intubation, ventila tory support, steroids and antihistaminics; due to

  19. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales...

  20. Aplicação de herbicidas dessecantes em pastagens nativas construídas por differentes espécies do gênero Paspalum Application of desiccant herbicides on native pasture composed with diferent Paspalum gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Weiss Ferri

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de herbicidas dessecantes sobre pastagens nativas constituídas por diferentes espécies do gênero Paspalum, adequando-as a semeadura direta ou a sobressemeadura de espécies de interesse forrageiro, foram conduzidos três experimentos na região fisiográfica da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. No primeiro experimento, em 1995/96, avaliou-se glyphosate a 360, 720 e 1080g ha-1 de equivalente ácido, aspergido nos volumes de calda de 50 e 200 ha-1 e as espécies de Paspalum identificadas foram P. pumilum e P. notatum var. notatum biótipo "C" e "D". No segundo, em 1996, avaliou-se glyphosate a 720, 1080, 1440 e 1880g ha-1 de equivalente ácido e as espécies de Paspalum identificadas foram P. plicatulum, P. nicorae, P. notatum var. notatum biótipo "A", P. pumilum e P. maculosum. No terceiro, em 1997, avaliou-se glyphosate a 180, 270, 360, 450, 540, 720 e 1080g ha-1 de equivalente ácido e paraquat a 600 e 800g ha-1 de ingrediente ativo, e onde foram identificadas as espécies P. notatum var. saurae, P. notatum var. notatum biótipo "A" e P. pumilum. O herbicida glyphosate a 1080, 1440 e 1880g ha-1 é adequado quando se deseja controlar a pastagem nativa para introdução de semeadura direta, enquanto que glyphosate a 180, 270, 360 e 450g ha-1 e o paraquat a 600 e 800g ha-1, são adequados quando se deseja realizar a sobressemeadura de espécies forrageiras. A seleção dos herbicidas e das doses, dependerá da espécie de Paspalum dominante na pastagem nativa.The objective of this report was to evaluate the effect of desiccant herbicides on native pasture constituted of different species of the Paspalum gender, to adequate it to no-till system or to introduce forage species. Three experiments were carried out in the "Depressão Central Region" in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the first, during 1995/96, glyphosate was applied in the rates of 360, 720 and 1080g ha-1 of acid equivalent, sprayed