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Sample records for intimate male courtship

  1. Sensory integration regulating male courtship behavior in Drosophila.

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    Dimitrije Krstic

    Full Text Available The courtship behavior of Drosophila melanogaster serves as an excellent model system to study how complex innate behaviors are controlled by the nervous system. To understand how the underlying neural network controls this behavior, it is not sufficient to unravel its architecture, but also crucial to decipher its logic. By systematic analysis of how variations in sensory inputs alter the courtship behavior of a naïve male in the single-choice courtship paradigm, we derive a model describing the logic of the network that integrates the various sensory stimuli and elicits this complex innate behavior. This approach and the model derived from it distinguish (i between initiation and maintenance of courtship, (ii between courtship in daylight and in the dark, where the male uses a scanning strategy to retrieve the decamping female, and (iii between courtship towards receptive virgin females and mature males. The last distinction demonstrates that sexual orientation of the courting male, in the absence of discriminatory visual cues, depends on the integration of gustatory and behavioral feedback inputs, but not on olfactory signals from the courted animal. The model will complement studies on the connectivity and intrinsic properties of the neurons forming the circuitry that regulates male courtship behavior.

  2. Chemical cues from females trigger male courtship behaviour in grasshoppers.

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    Finck, Jonas; Kuntze, Janine; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Gomphocerine grasshoppers use species-specific calling songs for sex recognition and mate attraction. In two closely related species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, acoustic communication is the only experimentally characterized communication channel that elicits male courtship behaviour. However, courtship in these species involves extensive close-range interactions that are likely to be mediated by other signalling modalities, in particular chemical cues. We developed a bioassay to determine if female cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) act as chemical cues that induce courtship behaviour, and if males assess variation in CHCs to determine whether or not to court a female. The results of this approach provide evidence that grasshopper males use species- and sex-specific information from CHC signals and respond with a courtship song to the CHC profile of conspecific females but not to the CHC profile of heterospecific females and conspecific males. We conclude that males of C. biguttulus and C. mollis use multimodal channels for mating decisions, based on both acoustic and olfactory cues. We discuss various factors that might favour the evolution of male choosiness in grasshoppers.

  3. Sexual coercion and courtship by male western gorillas.

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    Breuer, Thomas; Robbins, Andrew M; Robbins, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    Sexual coercion and courtship are possible explanations for why male primates may direct agonistic behavior towards females. If so, then in species where females exhibit mate choice by transferring between males: (a) females who are not lactating (potential migrants) should receive more agonistic behavior than other females, (b) males should exhibit more agonistic behavior towards females during intergroup encounters than when no rival males are nearby, and (c) males should show more herding behavior when their group contains potential migrant females. We tested those hypotheses in a population of approximately 150 western gorillas at Mbeli Bai, northern Congo. We also tested whether difference in male phenotypic traits influenced their rates of agonistic behavior towards females. Of the 332 observed cases of male agonistic behavior towards females, 29% represented feeding competition, 7 % involved interventions in conflicts between females, and the remaining 64 % were considered potential evidence of sexual coercion and/or courtship. After excluding the cases of feeding competition and intervention, a multivariate analysis indicated that potential migrant females received agonistic behavior at a statistically significantly higher rate than other adult females. Females also received agonistic behavior at a significantly higher rate during intergroup encounters than at other times. Herding occurred during 22% of the 292 dyadic interunit encounters, and was significantly more likely to occur when the group contained a potential migrant female, but was not influenced by the number of adult females or the type of group encountered. Males with shorter body lengths had significantly higher rates of aggression, but phenotypic traits were not significantly correlated with herding. Collectively, our results are consistent with sexual coercion and/or courtship as an explanation for male-to-female agonistic behavior, but we are unable to distinguish between those two male

  4. Nutritional enrichment increases courtship intensity and improves mating success in male spiders

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    Lomborg, Johannes Peter; Toft, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The development of male sexual ornaments and the intensity of male courtship behavior are often used by females as criteria for mate choice and by other males to evaluate the strength of a rival. We tested the hypotheses that courtship intensity and mating success depend on the males' nutritional...... status (enriched or deficient) and that courtship intensity predicts mating success in males of the same nutritional status. We used wolf spiders, Pardosa prativaga, which have an elaborate display of courtship behaviors, including encircling, palp vibrations, abdomen vibrations, hopping, etc. Viability...... parameters indicated enhanced condition of enriched males. Mating success was higher for nutrient-enriched males in direct competition with deficient males. Enriched males had higher courtship intensity and were also larger (carapace width) but not heavier than deficient males. The statistical analysis...

  5. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

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    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  6. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies

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    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  7. Short and fast vs long and slow: age changes courtship in male orb-web spiders ( Argiope keyserlingi)

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    O'Hanlon, James C.; Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2018-02-01

    Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or `shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased. Males retained some ability to modulate courtship quality (shudder duration and number of rocks within each shudder) in response to female quality. A change in courtship performance over time, despite strong selection for repeatability, indicates that ageing in male A. keyserlingi may have direct impacts on reproductive performance.

  8. Do male birds intercept and use rival courtship calls to adjust paternity protection behaviours?

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    Matessi, Giuliano; McGregor, Peter Kenneth; Peake, Thomas More

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We tested whether male rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) change behaviours directed at their females when played back courtship display calls simulating a potential cuckolding event in the vicinity of their nests. We compared the behaviour of males before, during and after such playback...

  9. Reduction in courtship behavior induced by DDE in male ringed turtle doves

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    Haegele, M.A.; Hudson, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of p,p?-DDE on the intensity of male Ringed Turtle Doves? courtship behavior were determined for dietary levels of 10 ppm and 50 ppm (dry weight). Pairs of doves were placed in cages for 12.5 min on 5 consecutive days for behavioral observation before dietary treatment and for periods 31-35 and 5963 days after initiation of the treated diet. Total amount of time spent displaying courtship behavior and bow-coo frequency were analyzed through video tape recording..... The 50.ppm diet caused a reduction in total courtship activity time and in bow-coo frequency for both posttreatment observation periods. The 10-ppm diet did not affect bow-coo frequency and total activity time at 31-35 days but did cause a significant reduction in courtship behavior during the 59-63.day observation period. The DDE residues found in the male Ringed Turtle Doves showing reduced courtship behavior were lower than residues found in many species of birds that have shown reproductive failures in the wild.

  10. Love is blind: indiscriminate female mating responses to male courtship pheromones in newts (Salamandridae.

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    Dag Treer

    Full Text Available Internal fertilization without copulation or prolonged physical contact is a rare reproductive mode among vertebrates. In many newts (Salamandridae, the male deposits a spermatophore on the substrate in the water, which the female subsequently takes up with her cloaca. Because such an insemination requires intense coordination of both sexes, male newts have evolved a courtship display, essentially consisting of sending pheromones under water by tail-fanning towards their potential partner. Behavioral experiments until now mostly focused on an attractant function, i.e. showing that olfactory cues are able to bring both sexes together. However, since males start their display only after an initial contact phase, courtship pheromones are expected to have an alternative function. Here we developed a series of intraspecific and interspecific two-female experiments with alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris and palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus females, comparing behavior in male courtship water and control water. We show that male olfactory cues emitted during tail-fanning are pheromones that can induce all typical features of natural female mating behavior. Interestingly, females exposed to male pheromones of their own species show indiscriminate mating responses to conspecific and heterospecific females, indicating that visual cues are subordinate to olfactory cues during courtship.

  11. The Drosophila female aphrodisiac pheromone activates ppk23(+) sensory neurons to elicit male courtship behavior.

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    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J

    2012-06-28

    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23(+) neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23(+) sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Drosophila Female Aphrodisiac Pheromone Activates ppk23+ Sensory Neurons to Elicit Male Courtship Behavior

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    Hirofumi Toda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD, is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court females or to court males perfumed with 7,11-HD. Artificial activation of these ppk23+ neurons stimulates male-male courtship even without 7,11-HD perfuming. These data identify the ppk23+ sensory neurons as the primary targets for female sex pheromones in Drosophila.

  13. Male courtship behavior and weapon trait as indicators of indirect benefit in the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris.

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    Yû Suzaki

    Full Text Available Females prefer male traits that are associated with direct and/or indirect benefits to themselves. Male-male competition also drives evolution of male traits that represent competitive ability. Because female choice and male-male competition rarely act independently, exploring how these two mechanisms interact is necessary for integrative understanding of the evolution of sexually selected traits. Here, we focused on direct and indirect benefits to females from male attractiveness, courtship, and weapon characters in the armed bug Riptortus pedestris. The males use their hind legs to fight other males over territory and perform courtship displays for successful copulation. Females of R. pedestris receive no direct benefit from mating with attractive males. On the other hand, we found that male attractiveness, courtship rate, and weapon size were significantly heritable and that male attractiveness had positive genetic covariances with both courtship rate and weapon traits. Thus, females obtain indirect benefits from mating with attractive males by producing sons with high courtship success rates and high competitive ability. Moreover, it is evident that courtship rate and hind leg length act as evaluative cues of female choice. Therefore, female mate choice and male-male competition may facilitate each other in R. pedestris. This is consistent with current basic concepts of sexual selection.

  14. Modification of Male Courtship Motivation by Olfactory Habituation via the GABAA Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Shin-Ichiro Tachibana

    Full Text Available A male-specific component, 11-cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA works as an anti-aphrodisiac pheromone in Drosophila melanogaster. The presence of cVA on a male suppresses the courtship motivation of other males and contributes to suppression of male-male homosexual courtship, while the absence of cVA on a female stimulates the sexual motivation of nearby males and enhances the male-female interaction. However, little is known how a male distinguishes the presence or absence of cVA on a target fly from either self-produced cVA or secondhand cVA from other males in the vicinity. In this study, we demonstrate that male flies have keen sensitivity to cVA; therefore, the presence of another male in the area reduces courtship toward a female. This reduced level of sexual motivation, however, could be overcome by pretest odor exposure via olfactory habituation to cVA. Real-time imaging of cVA-responsive sensory neurons using the neural activity sensor revealed that prolonged exposure to cVA decreased the levels of cVA responses in the primary olfactory center. Pharmacological and genetic screening revealed that signal transduction via GABAA receptors contributed to this olfactory habituation. We also found that the habituation experience increased the copulation success of wild-type males in a group. In contrast, transgenic males, in which GABA input in a small subset of local neurons was blocked by RNAi, failed to acquire the sexual advantage conferred by habituation. Thus, we illustrate a novel phenomenon in which olfactory habituation positively affects sexual capability in a competitive environment.

  15. The Drosophila Female Aphrodisiac Pheromone Activates ppk23+ Sensory Neurons to Elicit Male Courtship Behavior

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    Toda, Hirofumi; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Dickson, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Females of many animal species emit chemical signals that attract and arouse males for mating. For example, the major aphrodisiac pheromone of Drosophila melanogaster females, 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), is a potent inducer of male-specific courtship and copulatory behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that a set of gustatory sensory neurons on the male foreleg, defined by expression of the ppk23 marker, respond to 7,11-HD. Activity of these neurons is required for males to robustly court female...

  16. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

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    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-01-01

    The results of previous studies that showed that exposing mass-reared male Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) to ginger root oil ('aromatherapy') increases the likelihood of mating with wild females were confirmed. The increased male success could be due to female responses to changes in male behavior or male pheromones. There were no significant differences in the types of courtship movements executed by males with and without aromatherapy. The durations of movements also did not differ when mass-reared males were paired with mass-reared females; however, when they were paired with wild females, there were a few, small differences. Previous studies indicated that the effectiveness of the male long-distance attractant pheromone is not affected by aromatherapy, but these studies did not consider pheromones released at close range during courtship, which behavioral analyses suggest may be different. We propose the following possible explanation for the different effects of aromatherapy with different females. Selection on males under mass rearing may have altered their close-range pheromones in ways that can be remedied by aromatherapy; and only wild females respond because the pheromonal responsiveness of mass-reared females has also changed. We propose observations that could test these ideas. (author) [es

  17. An oral male courtship pheromone terminates the response of Nasonia vitripennis females to the male-produced sex attractant.

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    Ruther, Joachim; Hammerl, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Sex pheromones are crucial for mate finding in many animals. Long-range attraction, mate recognition, and the elicitation of sexual receptiveness during courtship are typically mediated by different compounds. It is widely unknown, however, how the different components of a species' pheromone system influence each other. Here, we demonstrated in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis that females quickly cease to respond to the male sex attractant after they contact a male's oral secretion during courtship. We used this behavioral switch to monitor the fractionation of head extracts from male wasps for identification of the bioactive compounds as a blend of ethyl oleate, ethyl linoleate, and ethyl α-linolenate. This is the first identification of a cephalic courtship pheromone in parasitic Hymenoptera. Plasticity in pheromone-mediated sexual behavior of female insects has hitherto been attributed to the transfer of bioactive proteinaceous molecules with the male ejaculate. The pheromone interaction reported here sheds new light on the sexual communication of insects by showing that the sex pheromone response of females can be terminated by males independent of sperm transfer.

  18. Sexual courtship of steriles males of Ceratitis Capitata (WIED) in SIT program

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    Fadhel, Salma

    2008-01-01

    In the SIT programme, the success of sterile males to compete with the fertile males is an important parameter for assuring efficiency. In this study, two methods are tested to improve the sterile male quality: the first is the exposure of sterile males to different concentrations of Ginger Root Oil (GRO) (0, 20, 50 and 80 μl), the second is the exposure of males to different irradiation doses (80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 145 Gy). The comparison of these methods depends to study of quality parameters (emergence, flight ability, survival) and courtship behaviour of sterile males (sperm production, mating competitiveness, sperm transfer). The 80μl concentration of GRO improves the mating competitiveness of males to compare with the Control (respectively: 68% and 46%). The 80 Gy irradiation dose assure the same result then the Control. (Author)

  19. Characterization and generation of male courtship song in Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae.

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    Justin P Bredlau

    Full Text Available Male parasitic wasps attract females with a courtship song produced by rapid wing fanning. Songs have been described for several parasitic wasp species; however, beyond association with wing fanning, the mechanism of sound generation has not been examined. We characterized the male courtship song of Cotesia congregata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and investigated the biomechanics of sound production.Courtship songs were recorded using high-speed videography (2,000 fps and audio recordings. The song consists of a long duration amplitude-modulated "buzz" followed by a series of pulsatile higher amplitude "boings," each decaying into a terminal buzz followed by a short inter-boing pause while wings are stationary. Boings have higher amplitude and lower frequency than buzz components. The lower frequency of the boing sound is due to greater wing displacement. The power spectrum is a harmonic series dominated by wing repetition rate ∼220 Hz, but the sound waveform indicates a higher frequency resonance ∼5 kHz. Sound is not generated by the wings contacting each other, the substrate, or the abdomen. The abdomen is elevated during the first several wing cycles of the boing, but its position is unrelated to sound amplitude. Unlike most sounds generated by volume velocity, the boing is generated at the termination of the wing down stroke when displacement is maximal and wing velocity is zero. Calculation indicates a low Reynolds number of ∼1000.Acoustic pressure is proportional to velocity for typical sound sources. Our finding that the boing sound was generated at maximal wing displacement coincident with cessation of wing motion indicates that it is caused by acceleration of the wing tips, consistent with a dipole source. The low Reynolds number requires a high wing flap rate for flight and predisposes wings of small insects for sound production.

  20. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

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    Cohn D.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  1. What is the password? Female bark beetles (Scolytinae) grant males access to their galleries based on courtship song.

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    Lindeman, Amanda A; Yack, Jayne E

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic signals are commonly used by insects in the context of mating, and signals can vary depending on the stage of interaction between a male and female. While calling songs have been studied extensively, particularly in the Orthoptera, much less is known about courtship songs. One outstanding question is how potential mates are differentiated by their courtship signal characteristics. We examined acoustic courtship signals in a new system, bark beetles (Scolytinae). In the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) males produce chirp trains upon approaching the entrance of a female's gallery. We tested the hypotheses that acoustic signals are honest indicators of male condition and that females choose males based on signal characteristics. Males generated two distinct chirp types (simple and interrupted), and variability in their prevalence correlated with an indicator of male quality, body size, with larger males producing significantly more interrupted chirps. Females showed a significant preference for males who produced interrupted chirps, suggesting that females distinguish between males on the basis of their chirp performances. We suggest that interrupted chirps during courtship advertise a male's size and/or motor skills, and function as the proverbial 'passwords' that allow him entry to a female's gallery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Female rock sparrows (Petronia petronia), not males, respond differently to simulations of different courtship interaction outcomes

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    Matessi, Giuliano; Peake, Tom M.; McGregor, Peter K.

    2007-01-01

    Animals communicate in networks which spread beyond the classic sender-receiver dyad. Researchers have often concentrated on networks of signalling males, but the network-level effects of male-female signalling interactions are largely unexplored, even though these can contain information when...... individuals of both sexes have access to a range of mating strategies. We tested whether rock sparrows (Petronia petronia) behave differently after hearing playbacks of vocal interactions simulating a successful courtship as opposed to playback of an unsuccessful courtship. We found no support for our...... which heard the unsuccessful courtship simulation. Therefore, females responded to the treatments as if these represented different degrees of competition for either mates or nest sites. This is, to the best of our knowledge, among the first experimental demonstrations that female birds intercept...

  3. Barriers to gene exchange in hybridizing field crickets: the role of male courtship effort and cuticular hydrocarbons.

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    Maroja, Luana S; McKenzie, Zachary M; Hart, Elizabeth; Jing, Joy; Larson, Erica L; Richardson, David P

    2014-03-28

    Pre-zygotic barriers often involve some form of sexual selection, usually interpreted as female choice, as females are typically the choosier sex. However, males typically show some mate preferences, which are increasingly reported. Here we document previously uncharacterized male courtship behavior (effort and song) and cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles in the hybridizing crickets Gryllus firmus and G. pennsylvanicus. These two species exhibit multiple barriers to gene exchange that act throughout their life history, including a behavioral barrier that results in increased time to mate in heterospecific pairs. We demonstrated that male mate choice (as courtship effort allocation) plays a more important role in the prezygotic behavioral barrier than previously recognized. In gryllids females ultimately decide whether or not to mate, yet we found males were selective by regulating courtship effort intensity toward the preferred (conspecific) females. Females were also selective by mating with more intensely courting males, which happened to be conspecifics. We report no differences in courtship song between the two species and suggest that the mechanism that allows males to act differentially towards conspecific and heterospecific females is the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) composition. CHC profiles differed between males and females of both species, and there were clear differences in CHC composition between female G. firmus and G. pennsylvanicus but not between the males of each species. Although many barriers to gene exchange are known in this system, the mechanism behind the mate recognition leading to reduced heterospecific mating remains unknown. The CHC profiles might be the phenotypic cue that allow males to identify conspecifics and thus to adjust their courtship intensity accordingly, leading to differential mating between species.

  4. Evolution of multiple additive loci caused divergence between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea in wing rowing during male courtship.

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    Jessica Cande

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, male flies perform innate, stereotyped courtship behavior. This innate behavior evolves rapidly between fly species, and is likely to have contributed to reproductive isolation and species divergence. We currently understand little about the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of courtship behavior. Here we describe a novel behavioral difference between the two closely related species D. yakuba and D. santomea: the frequency of wing rowing during courtship. During courtship, D. santomea males repeatedly rotate their wing blades to face forward and then back (rowing, while D. yakuba males rarely row their wings. We found little intraspecific variation in the frequency of wing rowing for both species. We exploited multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG to genotype two backcross populations with a single lane of Illumina sequencing. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using the ancestry information estimated by MSG and found that the species difference in wing rowing mapped to four or five genetically separable regions. We found no evidence that these loci display epistasis. The identified loci all act in the same direction and can account for most of the species difference.

  5. Familiarity with a female does not affect a male's courtship intensity in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

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    Richard SHINE, Jonathan K.WEBB, Amanda LANE, Robert T.MASON

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In many animal species, males direct more intense courtship towards females they have not previously encountered, than towards females with which they have previously mated. To test the factors responsible for this "Coolidge Effect", we need studies on a wide range of taxa – including those with mating systems in which we would not expect (based on current theory that such an effect would be evident. The Coolidge Effect has been documented in several lizard species, but has not been looked for (and would not be expected in snakes. We conducted experimental trials with red-sided garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis at a communal den in Manitoba, to see whether previous exposure to a female (either courting, or courting plus mating modified male mate choice or courtship intensity. In keeping with prediction from theory (but contrary to an early anecdotal report, male garter snakes did not modify their courtship behaviour based upon their familiarity (or lack thereof with a specific female. At least in large courting aggregations, male snakes may maximize their fitness by basing mate-choice upon immediate attributes of the female (body size, condition, mated status and the intensity of competition (numbers and sizes of rival males rather than information derived from previous sexual encounters [Current Zoology 58 (6: 805–811, 2012].

  6. Acoustic courtship songs in males of the fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae associated with geography, mass rearing and courtship success

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    R.D Briceño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT has been used successfully to control or eradicate fruit flies. The commonly observed inferiority of mass-reared males, compared with wild males, when they are paired with wild females, is apparently due to their inadequate courtship. Anastrepha ludens males produce two types of wing vibration during courtship and mating, the "calling sound" and the "premating or precopulatory sound". There were clear differences in the calling songs between successful and unsuccessful courtships in sterile (irradiated and fertile Mexican flies. Among sterile flies, successful males produce longer buzzes, shorter interpulses and a higher power spectrum in the signal. Fertile flies showed the same trend. For mating songs a significant difference occurred in two parameters: power spectrum between sterile and fertile flies with respect to the type of song, and the signal duration and intensity were greater in non-irradiated flies. Calling songs of wild flies compared with laboratory grown flies from Mexico had shorter interpulses, longer pulses, and a greater power spectrum. However, in the case of premating songs, the only difference was in the intensity, which was significantly greater in wild males. An unexpected result was not observing pulses during pheromone deposition in wild males from Costa Rica. Comparing the premating songs of wild flies from Costa Rica and Mexico, no significant differences were observed in the duration, and the intensity of the signal was slightly greater in flies from Mexico. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (Suppl. 1: 257-265. Epub 2009 November 30.La técnica estéril del insecto (SIT se ha utilizado con éxito para controlar o para suprimir las moscas de fruta y su impacto en los cultivos. La inferioridad comúnmente observada de machos criados masivamente, comparada con los machos silvestres, cuando se aparean con las hembras silvestres es al parecer debido a su inadecuado cortejo. Los machos de Anastrepha

  7. Familiarity with a female does not affect a male's courtship intensity in garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis

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    Richard SHINE, Jonathan K.WEBB, Amanda LANE, Robert T.MASON

    2012-01-01

    In many animal species, males direct more intense courtship towards females they have not previously encountered, than towards females with which they have previously mated. To test the factors responsible for this "Coolidge Effect", we need studies on a wide range of taxa – including those with mating systems in which we would not expect (based on current theory) that such an effect would be evident. The Coolidge Effect has been documented in several lizard species, but has not been looked f...

  8. An eye for beauty: lateralized visual stimulation of courtship behavior and mate preferences in male zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer J; McCracken, Brianna G; Sher, Melissa; Mountjoy, D James

    2014-02-01

    Research on intersexual selection focuses on traits that have evolved for attracting mates and the consequences of mate choice. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that allow choosers to discriminate among potential mates and express an attraction to specific traits. Preferential use of the right eye during lateral displays in zebra finches, and lateralized expression of intermediate early genes in the left hemisphere during courtship led us to hypothesize that: (1) visual information from each eye differentially mediates courtship responses to potential mates; and (2) the ability to discriminate among mates and prefer certain mates over others is lateralized in the right eye/left hemisphere system of zebra finch brains. First, we exposed male zebra finches to females when using left, right or both eyes. Males courted more when the right eye was available than when only the left eye was used. Secondly, male preference for females - using beak color to indicate female quality - was tested. Right-eyed and binocular males associated with and courted orange-beaked more than gray-beaked females; whereas left-eyed males showed no preference. Lateral displays and eye use in male zebra finches increase their attractiveness and ability to assess female quality, potentially enhancing reproductive success. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible hormonal interaction for eliciting courtship behavior in the male newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Fumiyo; Hasunuma, Itaru; Nakada, Tomoaki; Haraguchi, Shogo; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Kikuyama, Sakae

    2015-12-01

    Reproductive behavior in amphibians, as in other vertebrate animals, is under the control of multiple hormonal substances. Prolactin (PRL), arginine vasotocin (AVT), androgen, and 7α-hydroxypregnenolone (7α-OH PREG), four such substances with hormonal activity, are known to be involved in the expression of the tail vibration behavior which is the initial step of courtship performed by the male newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. As current information on the interaction(s) between these hormones in terms of eliciting tail vibration behavior is limited, we have investigated whether the decline of expression of tail vibration behavior due to suppression of the activity of any one of these hormones can be restored by supplying any one of the other three hormones exogenously. Expression of the behavior was determined in terms of incidence (% of test animals exhibiting the behavior) and frequency (number of times that the behavior was repeated during the test period). Neither PRL nor androgen restored the decline in the incidence and frequency of the tail vibration behavior caused by the suppression of the activity of any one of other three hormones. AVT completely restored both the anti-PRL antibody-induced and flutamide (an androgen receptor antagonist)-induced, but not ketoconazole (an inhibitor of the steroidogenic CYP enzymes)-induced decline in the incidence and frequency of the tail vibration behavior. The neurosteroid, 7α-OH PREG, failed to restore flutamide-induced decline in the incidence and frequency of the behavior. However, it was able to restore both anti-PRL antibody-induced and AVT receptor antagonist-induced decline in the incidence, but not in the frequency of the behavior. In another experiment designed to see the activity of hormones enhancing the frequency of the tail vibration behavior, AVT was revealed to be more potent than 7α-OH PREG. The role of each hormonal substance in determining the expression of the tail vibration behavior was discussed based

  10. Evaluation of the courtship and of the hybrid male sterility among Drosophila buzzatii cluster species (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHADO L. P. de B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Drosophila repleta group the establishment of subgroups and complexes made on the basis of morphological and cytological evidences is supported by tests of reproductive isolation. Among species in the repleta group, the buzzatii cluster, due to its polymorphism and polytipism, is an excellent material for ecological and speciation studies. Some interspecific crosses involving Drosophila seriema, Drosophila sp. B, D. koepferae and D. buzzatii strains were completely sterile while others involving strains from these species produced F1 hybrids that did not yield F2. In the present work, data on courtship duration and copula occurrence obtained in the analysis of flies from parental sterile crosses and on spermatozoon mobility observed in F1 hybrids that did not yield F2 are presented. Copula did not occur during one hour of observation and the spermatozoon also did not show mobility at any of the analyzed stages (3, 7, 9 and 10 days old. There was a high variation in courtship average duration and in the percentage of males that courted the females. The reproductive isolation mechanisms indicated by these observations were pre and post-zygotic, as supported by the absence of copula and male sterility. Data obtained also showed the occurrence of different degrees of reproductive compatibility among the strains classified as the same species but from distinct geographic localities.

  11. Is bigger better? Male body size affects wing-borne courtship signals and mating success in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Ragni, Giacomo; Bonsignori, Gabriella; Stefanini, Cesare; Canale, Angelo

    2016-12-01

    Variations in male body size are known to affect inter- and intrasexual selection outcomes in a wide range of animals. In mating systems involving sexual signaling before mating, body size often acts as a key factor affecting signal strength and mate choice. We evaluated the effect of male size on courtship displays and mating success of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Wing vibrations performed during successful and unsuccessful courtships by large and small males were recorded by high-speed videos and analyzed through frame-by-frame analysis. Mating success of large and small males was investigated. The effect of male-male competition on mating success was evaluated. Male body size affected both male courtship signals and mating outcomes. Successful males showed wing-borne signals with high frequencies and short interpulse intervals. Wing vibrations displayed by successful large males during copulation attempt had higher frequencies over smaller males and unsuccessful large males. In no-competition conditions, large males achieved higher mating success with respect to smaller ones. Allowing large and small males to compete for a female, large males achieve more mating success over smaller ones. Mate choice by females may be based on selection of the larger males, able to produce high-frequency wing vibrations. Such traits may be indicative of "good genes," which under sexual selection could means good social-interaction genes, or a good competitive manipulator of conspecifics. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Differential courtship activity and alterations of reproductive success of competing gupply males as an indicator for low concentrations of aquatic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J.H.; Peters, K.

    1988-09-01

    Differential courtship activity of guppy males competing for the same females was used as a bioindicator for low concentrations of water-borne pollutants in a previous study. Patterns of male sexual activity were chosen because they determine reproductive success. The mean difference between courtship activities of two male competitors determines the relative fitness of the male in question. Accordingly, the decrease in mean differential courtship after exposure to aquatic contaminants was predicted to cause a corresponding change in the relative reproductive success. The present study completed the previous one by repeating the experiment with a 10% addition of wastewater drawn from the last clearing basin of a Munich purification plant this time using virgin (non-inseminated) females which were receptive to male courtship. The females subsequently were allowed to produce as many offspring as possible. The number of young guppies sired by individual male competitors could easily be traced by the use of sex-linked phenotypic color patterns as markers. The purpose of these two studies was to show that the quantification of sexual activities of male guppies is useful for monitoring environmental alterations which affect fitness characters.

  13. Two distinct genomic regions, harbouring the period and fruitless genes, affect male courtship song in Drosophila montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagisz, M; Wen, S-Y; Routtu, J; Klappert, K; Mazzi, D; Morales-Hojas, R; Schäfer, M A; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Butlin, R K

    2012-06-01

    Acoustic signals often have a significant role in pair formation and in species recognition. Determining the genetic basis of signal divergence will help to understand signal evolution by sexual selection and its role in the speciation process. An earlier study investigated quantitative trait locus for male courtship song carrier frequency (FRE) in Drosophila montana using microsatellite markers. We refined this study by adding to the linkage map markers for 10 candidate genes known to affect song production in Drosophila melanogaster. We also extended the analyses to additional song characters (pulse train length (PTL), pulse number (PN), interpulse interval, pulse length (PL) and cycle number (CN)). Our results indicate that loci in two different regions of the genome control distinct features of the courtship song. Pulse train traits (PTL and PN) mapped to the X chromosome, showing significant linkage with the period gene. In contrast, characters related to song pulse properties (PL, CN and carrier FRE) mapped to the region of chromosome 2 near the candidate gene fruitless, identifying these genes as suitable loci for further investigations. In previous studies, the pulse train traits have been found to vary substantially between Drosophila species, and so are potential species recognition signals, while the pulse traits may be more important in intra-specific mate choice.

  14. Copulatory behavior in a pholcid spider: males use specialized genitalic movements for sperm removal and copulatory courtship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbacho-Rosa, Lucía; Galicia-Mendoza, Ivette; Dutto, María Sofía; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Peretti, Alfredo V.

    2013-05-01

    Sexual selection may operate on pre-copulatory, copulatory, and post-copulatory traits. An example of a copulatory target of sexual selection is the genitalic movements a male performs during copulation. These movements may function either to prevent sperm competition or to influence a female's fertilization decision. Here we investigated how copulation duration, pedipalp movements, and abdominal movements that males of the pholcid spider Holocnemus pluchei produce during copulation influence sperm removal and/or patterns of successful sperm transfer. We compared mating events with virgin and mated females for differences in copulatory and post-copulatory behavior. We expected longer copulation duration, longer pedipalp movement duration, and more complex and frequent pedipalp and abdominal movements when males mated with mated females compared to virgin females. Except for abdominal movements, our results corroborated these predictions. Furthermore, when we investigated mating events with mated females, we observed sperm mass ejection from the female gonopore and physical removal of sperm by males' procursi. Females with interrupted second mating events showed a significant reduction of stored sperm masses compared to females with completed mating events. We suggest that males use alternating pedipalp movements to remove most of the rival sperm stored by mated females prior to sperm transfer. Copulation duration and pedipalp movements can be further used to transfer sperm and/or as a form of genitalic copulatory courtship.

  15. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Easton, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Male-to-female intimate partner violence remains a worldwide public health issue with adverse physical and psychological consequences for victims, perpetrators and children. Personality disorders, addiction, trauma and mood symptoms are established risk factors for intimate partner violence perpetration and factor prominently into a recovery-oriented treatment approach. We reviewed the partner violence literature for detailed reports of traditional as well as innovative, integrated treatment approaches. Empirically based recommendations for intervention programs and the policies that guide intervention efforts are offered. Nascent research suggests that integrated treatment models utilising a holistic approach to account for psychological comorbidity and interventions that involve a motivational interviewing component appear promising in terms of significantly improving intimate partner violence treatment compliance and reducing subsequent acts of physical partner violence. Further, methodologically rigorous research is required to fully assess the benefits of traditional and integrated treatment options. We have advanced several recommendations, including the development of and exclusive reliance upon empirically supported treatments, conducting a thorough risk and needs assessment of the offender and the immediate family to facilitate appropriate treatment referrals, integrating content to foster the offender's internal motivation to change maladaptive behaviours, and attempting to minimise offender treatment burdens through the strategic use of integrated treatment models. Intimate partner violence is a complicated and nuanced problem that is perpetrated by a heterogeneous population and requires greater variability in integrated treatment options. [Crane CA, Easton CJ. Integrated treatment options for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:24-33]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Blown by the wind: the ecology of male courtship display behavior in orchid bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Tamara; Vogler, Ira; Losch, René; Schlütting, Patrick; Juarez, Pedro; Bissantz, Nicolai; Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Many insects rely on chemical signals to transmit precise information on the location, identity, and quality of potential mates. Chemical signals are often broadcasted at sites with physical properties that maximize signal propagation and signal transmission. Male neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) perch and display on vertical branches and tree trunks in the forest to expose volatile blends (perfumes) that they previously collected from their environment. Previous studies have shown that the chemical composition of perfume blends is highly differentiated even between closely related species. However, variation in behavioral components of perfume exposure and male display remain poorly understood. We conducted a four-year study on orchid bee display sites (8 species) in pacific Costa Rica, using field observations along with chemical analysis and cage experiments to assess display niche partitioning among sympatric species. We evaluated the influence of physical factors (terrain, wind, light) on the distribution of perch sites and on display behavior, and tested a prediction of the sex pheromone-analogue hypothesis, i.e., that displaying males have above-average quantities or qualities of acquired perfumes. Males of different species displayed in the same general area and sometimes in close proximity to each other, but partitioned the display niche by selecting different perch diameters, display heights, and by displaying at different times of the day. Most perch sites were located inside the forest on elevated ground, especially along ridges, where stronger winds may help disperse perfume signals. Furthermore, the angular position of displaying males on perches was narrowly determined by wind direction, with males being positioned on the downwind side of the perch, where they would be most conspicuous to conspecifics approaching on an odor trail. Although our results generally support the hypothesis that perfumes serve as pheromone analogues, we did not find

  17. Male Veteran Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Program Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The prominence and incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) with male military veterans vary, but generally there is consensus that screening and intervention does help reduce IPV. Intervention is generally provided in the community via Batterer Intervention Programs. However, at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) intervention is provided via the Domestic Relations Clinic. Nationally the VA has limited treatment for male IPV. An aggregate sample (n = 178) of participants was assessed using the Domestic Violence/Abuse Screen to measure covariate pre-test and post-test outcomes, program failure, and recidivism. The treatment approach is psycho-educationally based to meet the challenging and unique needs of the military veteran population. The results contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of IPV and highlight the need for more intervention and prevention approaches.

  18. The search for causal traits of speciation: Divergent female mate preferences target male courtship song, not pheromones, in Drosophila athabasca species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman; Harvey, Taylor; Nguyen, Son; Kehlbeck, Joanne; Park, Agnes

    2016-03-01

    Understanding speciation requires the identification of traits that cause reproductive isolation. This remains a major challenge since it is difficult to determine which of the many divergent traits actually caused speciation. To overcome this difficulty, we studied the sexual cue traits and behaviors associated with rapid speciation between EA and WN sympatric behavioral races of Drosophila athabasca that diverged only 16,000-20,000 years ago. First, we found that sexual isolation was essentially complete and driven primarily by divergent female mating preferences. To determine the target of female mate choice, we found that, unlike cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), male courtship song is highly divergent between EA and WN in both allopatry and sympatry and is not affected by latitudinal variation. We then used pheromone rub-off experiments to show no effect of CHCs on divergent female mate choice. In contrast, both male song differences and male mating success in hybrids exhibited a large X-effect and playback song experiments confirmed that male courtship song is indeed the target of sexual isolation. These results show that a single secondary sexual trait is a major driver of speciation and suggest that we may be overestimating the number of traits involved in speciation when we study older taxa. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M.; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors. PMID:25891392

  20. Risk Factors for Hispanic Male Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Bibiana M; Dorgo, Sandor; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias

    2017-07-01

    The literature review analyzed 24 studies that explored male intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration risk factors among men, in particular Hispanics, using the socioecological model framework composed of four socioecological levels for violence prevention. Six databases were reviewed within the EBSCO search engine for articles published from 2000 to 2014. Articles reviewed were specific to risk factors for IPV perpetration among Hispanic men, focusing particularly on Mexican American men. Many key factors have previously been associated with risk for IPV perpetration; however, certain determinants are unique to Hispanics such as acculturation, acculturation stress, and delineated gender roles that include Machismo and Marianismo. These risk factors should be incorporated in future targeted prevention strategies and efforts and capitalize on the positive aspects of each to serve as protective factors.

  1. Alternative Mating Tactics in Male Chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon Are Evident in Both Long-Term Body Color and Short-Term Courtship Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Keren-Rotem

    Full Text Available Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling.

  2. Alternative Mating Tactics in Male Chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) Are Evident in Both Long-Term Body Color and Short-Term Courtship Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Rotem, Tammy; Levy, Noga; Wolf, Lior; Bouskila, Amos; Geffen, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling. PMID:27409771

  3. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Courtship in Frogs Role of Acoustic Communication in Amphibian Courtship Behaviour. Debjani Roy. General Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 39-48 ...

  4. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Stephenson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV among men who have sex with men (MSM, the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking.Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (,12 month experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV.Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration.Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:316–323.

  5. The Dark Side of Courtship: Violence and Sexual Exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Sally A.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews literature on physical violence and sexual exploitation between premarital partners. Suggests that two features of dating encourage exploitative behavior: different context of courtship for males versus females encourages male control of relationships and female compliance, and highly romanticized nature of courtship encourages partners to…

  6. Corticosterone and the transition from courtship behavior to dispersal in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease, Arianne J; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal modulation of baseline glucocorticoid concentrations as well as the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events such as seasonal reproduction and migration. Despite numerous studies on adrenocortical modulation, little is known about the exact timing of this seasonal modulation with respect to critical life-history stages. We tested the hypothesis that seasonal modulation of the HPA axis during the spring mating season in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is temporally linked to the mechanisms regulating dispersal. We compared hormonal responses to capture stress in courting male red-sided garter snakes collected from the den site and den perimeter to those of dispersing snakes collected 0.6 km from the den. We also investigated possible changes in steroid hormones during the spring mating season. These studies support previous findings that plasma androgen and corticosterone concentrations significantly decline over the mating season. Our results demonstrate that males 0.6 km into a 15-20 km route to the feeding grounds have lower baseline corticosterone concentrations than male snakes actively courting at the den. Dispersing males also exhibit a typical stress response marked by a significant increase in corticosterone while actively courting males do not. Capture stress did not significantly influence androgen concentrations of either courting or dispersing male red-sided garter snakes. There were no significant differences in body composition indices among male snakes collected from the den, den perimeter, or 0.6 km away from the den. However, we did observe a significant negative correlation between baseline corticosterone levels and body composition indices. These data suggest that breeding is a distinct stage accompanied by specific physiological parameters that differ from those during dispersal to the feeding grounds. Our results

  7. Proactive retention and therapeutic adherence in programs for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Subirana-Malaret

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to treatment in intervention programs for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence is one of the most relevant factors of the effectiveness of prevention of intimate partner violence. Despite controversies arising from different studies on this subject, there is unanimity in highlighting the key role that participants' motivation plays in adherence to treatment and program completion. Techniques ensuring participants' motivation in therapeutic programs include proactive retention techniques. In this paper we analyze the effect of proactive retention techniques at the beginning and throughout the treatment sessions in an intervention program for male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. The results indicate that both proactive retention techniques and support influence adherence to treatment

  8. Motor Control of Drosophila Courtship Song

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. Shirangi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many animals utilize acoustic signals—or songs—to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1 that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

  9. Heaven it's my wife! Male canaries conceal extra-pair courtships but increase aggressions when their mate watches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davy Ung

    Full Text Available Many animals live in a communication network, an environment where individuals can obtain information about competitors or potential mates by observing interactions between conspecifics. In such an environment, interactants might benefit by changing their signalling behaviour in the presence of an audience. This audience effect seems widespread among species, has been observed during various types of interaction (e.g. intra-sexual vs. inter-sexual interaction and varies according to the social context (e.g. gender, hierarchical or mating status of the audience. However, the way individuals might adapt their signalling behaviour to a combination of these factors remains poorly understood. To address this question, we studied how the presence of an audience affects the behaviour of male domestic canaries Serinus canaria during two types of interactions: (i an extra-pair interaction and (ii a male-male competition for food. Males were observed under three conditions: (a in the absence of audience, (b in the presence of their mate or (c of a familiar female. Our results show that male domestic canaries minutely adapt their courting and agonistic behaviours to a combination of: (i the type of interaction (extra-pair interaction/male-male competition, (ii the social context (mate, familiar female or nobody in audience and (iii the behaviours of both the audience and the interactant. These results highlight the ability of animals to subtly adapt their behaviour to the social environment. This also raises questions about the cognitive foundations and evolution of these processes especially considering that canaries are known neither for having high cognitive abilities nor for being a typical example for the social intelligence hypothesis.

  10. Recurring ethanol exposure induces disinhibited courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a strong causal relationship with sexual arousal and disinhibited sexual behavior in humans; however, the physiological support for this notion is largely lacking and thus a suitable animal model to address this issue is instrumental. We investigated the effect of ethanol on sexual behavior in Drosophila. Wild-type males typically court females but not males; however, upon daily administration of ethanol, they exhibited active intermale courtship, which represents a novel type of behavioral disinhibition. The ethanol-treated males also developed behavioral sensitization, a form of plasticity associated with addiction, since their intermale courtship activity was progressively increased with additional ethanol experience. We identified three components crucial for the ethanol-induced courtship disinhibition: the transcription factor regulating male sex behavior Fruitless, the ABC guanine/tryptophan transporter White and the neuromodulator dopamine. fruitless mutant males normally display conspicuous intermale courtship; however, their courtship activity was not enhanced under ethanol. Likewise, white males showed negligible ethanol-induced intermale courtship, which was not only reinstated but also augmented by transgenic White expression. Moreover, inhibition of dopamine neurotransmission during ethanol exposure dramatically decreased ethanol-induced intermale courtship. Chronic ethanol exposure also affected a male's sexual behavior toward females: it enhanced sexual arousal but reduced sexual performance. These findings provide novel insights into the physiological effects of ethanol on sexual behavior and behavioral plasticity.

  11. Prevalence of male intimate partner abuse in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen D

    2006-08-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of both current and lifetime physical partner abuse among Vietnamese males who reside in Vietnam. Participants (N = 315) were randomly selected to participate in the study. Participants completed the Vietnamese version of the Conflict Tactics Scale-2. A total of 47% (n = 148) of the sampled participants were identified as current physical abusers and 68% (n = 214) as past abusers. Four of the most common abusive tactics abusers exhibited toward their partner were (a) throwing something at their wife (80%), (b) pushing or shoving their partner (78%), (c) beating up their partner (54%), and (d) twisting their partner's arm or hair (60%).

  12. Courtship initiation is stimulated by acoustic signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Ejima

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding a mating partner is a critical task for many organisms. It is in the interest of males to employ multiple sensory modalities to search for females. In Drosophila melanogaster, vision is thought to be the most important courtship stimulating cue at long distance, while chemosensory cues are used at relatively short distance. In this report, we show that when visual cues are not available, sounds produced by the female allow the male to detect her presence in a large arena. When the target female was artificially immobilized, the male spent a prolonged time searching before starting courtship. This delay in courtship initiation was completely rescued by playing either white noise or recorded fly movement sounds to the male, indicating that the acoustic and/or seismic stimulus produced by movement stimulates courtship initiation, most likely by increasing the general arousal state of the male. Mutant males expressing tetanus toxin (TNT under the control of Gr68a-GAL4 had a defect in finding active females and a delay in courtship initiation in a large arena, but not in a small arena. Gr68a-GAL4 was found to be expressed pleiotropically not only in putative gustatory pheromone receptor neurons but also in mechanosensory neurons, suggesting that Gr68a-positive mechanosensory neurons, not gustatory neurons, provide motion detection necessary for courtship initiation. TNT/Gr68a males were capable of discriminating the copulation status and age of target females in courtship conditioning, indicating that female discrimination and formation of olfactory courtship memory are independent of the Gr68a-expressing neurons that subserve gustation and mechanosensation. This study suggests for the first time that mechanical signals generated by a female fly have a prominent effect on males' courtship in the dark and leads the way to studying how multimodal sensory information and arousal are integrated in behavioral decision making.

  13. Traumatic childhood exposures in the lives of male perpetrators of female intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Margaret E; Scrandis, Debra A

    2013-09-01

    Despite efforts to use behavior modification interventions for male perpetrators, intimate partner violence (IPV) remains a significant problem in some male-female relationships. Childhood exposure to traumatic violent experiences, especially when untreated, can influence adult behaviors. Little is known about these possible factors in the lives of male perpetrators of IPV and if they influence their violent behavior against female intimate partners. This study's aim was to explore the life perspective of men who have been violent with their female intimate partners using Gadamer's hermeneutic phenomenology. Nine men with a history of female IPV were interviewed twice over a 5-month period. Interview content focused on their experiences in childhood and adult lives. Four themes emerged from the qualitative interviews: (a) childhood and family issues, (b) school and mental health issues, (c) substance abuse and (d) legal issues. Traumatic violent experiences in childhood, such as physical and sexual abuse, frequently led to school problems, misuse of substances, and arrests for a spectrum of crimes. These results highlight the importance of identifying traumatic violent exposures through a brief two-question screen of all children in primary care. Implications for individualized mental health treatment of male perpetrators and recommendations for further research are addressed.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among court-referred male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Febres, Jeniimarie; Elmquist, JoAnna; Zapor, Heather; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the documented association between intimate partner violence perpetration and suicidal ideation, few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in men attending batterer intervention programs. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation in 294 males court-ordered to a batterer intervention program. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported experiencing suicidal ideation within the 2 weeks prior to entering the batterer intervention program. Multiple linear regression indicated that depression and borderline personality disorder symptoms, but not intimate partner violence perpetration, victimization, or antisocial personality disorder symptoms, accounted for significant variance in suicidal ideation. These results suggest that symptoms of depression and borderline personality disorder observed in males attending batterer intervention programs should warrant thorough suicide risk assessment. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study are discussed.

  15. Courtship herding in the fiddler crab Uca elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Hemmi, Jan M

    2008-12-01

    Male and female animals are not always complicit during reproduction, giving rise to coercion. One example of a system that is assumed to involve sexual coercion is the mate herding behaviour of fiddler crabs: males push females towards the home burrow with the goal of forcing copulation at the burrow entrance. We recorded and analysed in detail the courtship behaviour of a North Australian species of fiddler crab Uca elegans. Courtship was composed of four main phases: broadcast waving, outward run, herding and at burrow display. During interactions males produced claw-waving displays which were directed posteriorly towards the female and which varied in timing and structure depending on the courtship phase. We suggest that courtship herding in U. elegans is driven primarily by mate choice for the following reasons, (1) females can evade herding, (2) no other reproductive strategies were observed, (3) males broadcast their presence and accompany courtship with conspicuous claw waves, and (4) the behaviour ends with the female leading the male into the home burrow. As an alternative function for herding in U. elegans we suggest that the behaviour represents a form of courtship guiding, in which males direct complicit females to the correct home burrow.

  16. Intimate strangers: Eritrean male asylum seekers' perceptions of marriage and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birger, Lior; Peled, Einat

    2017-12-01

    This study examined perceptions of marriage and sexuality among male asylum seekers from Eritrea. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 men living in Israel. Their perceptions of marriage and sexuality were found to be influenced by their life as asylum seekers, and particularly by their encounter with a different culture, by their lack of legal status, and by the marked numerical imbalance between women and men within their community. Changes in their perceptions occurred after their arrival in Israel, and included greater relaxing of social codes and the transition from a relatively 'closed' sexual mindset to a more 'open' one. It is important to understand how lack of status affects male asylum seekers' intimate relationships with women, and to recognise such men as subjects with legitimate sexual and partnering needs, thereby broadening existing discourse in this field, which tends to present male asylum seekers primarily as sources of cheap labour and as sexual Others.

  17. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  18. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Evalina; Duma, Sinegugu E; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-09-23

    Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP), irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident. The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner's rape. We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1) within 14 days of, (2) a month after, (3) three months after, and (4) six months after the rape. Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant's familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  19. A Review of Research on Women’s Use of Violence With Male Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Suzanne C.; Gambone, Laura J.; Caldwell, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Snow, David L.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of research literature on women who use violence with intimate partners. The central purpose is to inform service providers in the military and civilian communities who work with domestically violent women. The major points of this review are as follows: (a) women’s violence usually occurs in the context of violence against them by their male partners; (b) in general, women and men perpetrate equivalent levels of physical and psychological aggression, but evidence suggests that men perpetrate sexual abuse, coercive control, and stalking more frequently than women and that women also are much more frequently injured during domestic violence incidents; (c) women and men are equally likely to initiate physical violence in relationships involving less serious “situational couple violence,” and in relationships in which serious and very violent “intimate terrorism” occurs, men are much more likely to be perpetrators and women victims; (d) women’s physical violence is more likely than men’s violence to be motivated by self-defense and fear, whereas men’s physical violence is more likely than women’s to be driven by control motives; (e) studies of couples in mutually violent relationships find more negative effects for women than for men; and (f ) because of the many differences in behaviors and motivations between women’s and men’s violence, interventions based on male models of partner violence are likely not effective for many women. PMID:18624096

  20. Mental Health Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Marital Relationships in a Nationally Representative Sample of Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet; Cox, Brian J.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Stein, Murray B.; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand the epidemiology of intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by both males and females. Data were drawn from the U.S. National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The relationships between physical IPV and child abuse, mental disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts among males and females were examined. The…

  1. Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparison Between Incarcerated and Community Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Olga; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa

    2017-11-01

    The literature considers intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators to be a heterogeneous group. In Portugal, IPV perpetrators may be sentenced to either of two types of sentences: deprivation of freedom or alternatives to prison (in the community). In the present study, we performed a comparative analysis between 76 male individuals sentenced to prison and 76 male individuals sentenced to community measures for crimes against their current or former partners, using a set of psychological measures. The results indicate that although incarcerated and nonincarcerated IPV perpetrators demonstrate considerable differences, some similarities may also be observed. Incarcerated IPV perpetrators present the lowest socioeconomic status and education, perpetrate more severe IPV, and have more criminal convictions. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the use of weapons and objects increased the probability of IPV perpetrators belonging to the prison group above and beyond sociodemographic variables. Based on these results, implications for IPV perpetrators' treatment are discussed.

  2. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  3. Love, Trust, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Ulibarri, Monica D; Fergus, Kirkpatrick B; Amaro, Hortensia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-08-01

    We examined correlates of love and trust among female sex workers and their noncommercial male partners along the Mexico-US border. From 2011 to 2012, 322 partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, completed assessments of love and trust. Cross-sectional dyadic regression analyses identified associations of relationship characteristics and HIV risk behaviors with love and trust. Within 161 couples, love and trust scores were moderately high (median 70/95 and 29/40 points, respectively) and correlated with relationship satisfaction. In regression analyses of HIV risk factors, men and women who used methamphetamine reported lower love scores, whereas women who used heroin reported slightly higher love. In an alternate model, men with concurrent sexual partners had lower love scores. For both partners, relationship conflict was associated with lower trust. Love and trust are associated with relationship quality, sexual risk, and drug use patterns that shape intimate partners' HIV risk. HIV interventions should consider the emotional quality of sex workers' intimate relationships.

  4. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.

  5. Study on wing fanning as a signal of sexual response and courtship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of experiments was carried out at the Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya to identify wing fanning as an attraction or signal of sexual response and courtship behavior of Bactrocera papayae. Sexual natures such as signal or attraction and courtship behavior were determined through males and ...

  6. Alcohol Outlet Density and Young Women’s Perpetration of Violence Toward Male Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritani, Bonita J.; Waller, Martha W.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Christ, Sharon L.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between alcohol outlet density, alcohol use, and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adult women in the US. Data were from Wave III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; N = 4,430 in present analyses). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine occurrence of past year IPV perpetration toward a male partner based on tract-level on-premise and off-premise alcohol outlet density, controlling for individuals’ demographic, alcohol use, and childhood abuse characteristics and neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Higher off-premise alcohol outlet density was found to be associated with young women’s perpetration of physical only IPV, controlling for individual-level and ecological factors. Alcohol use had an independent association with IPV perpetration but was not a mediator of the outlet density-IPV relationship. Findings suggest that considering alcohol-related environmental factors may help efforts aimed at preventing young women’s use of physical violence toward partners. PMID:23914050

  7. A behavioral syndrome linking courtship behavior toward males and females predicts reproductive success from a single mating in the hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Logue; Sandeep Mishra; David McCaffrey; Deborah Ball; William H. Cade

    2009-01-01

    Suites of correlated behaviors, or "behavioral syndromes," have been shown to occur throughout the animal kingdom. Behavioral syndromes involving sexual selection are expected to have significant evolutionary ramifications, but few studies have linked behavioral syndromes to sexual selection. We measured the behavior of male hissing cockroaches (Gromphadorhina portentosa) during male--male competition, female choice, and 3 other ecologically relevant contexts and quantified between-context co...

  8. Evolution of deceptive and true courtship songs in moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic mating signals in moths are argued to have evolved via exploitation of the receivers' sensory bias towards bat echolocation calls. We have demonstrated that female moths of the Asian corn borer are unable to distinguish between the male courtship song and bat calls. Females react to bo...

  9. Courtship pheromones in parasitic wasps: comparison of bioactive and inactive hydrocarbon profiles by multivariate statistical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, S.; Mumm, R.; Ruther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons play a significant role in the regulation of cuticular permeability and also in the chemical communication of insects. In the parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), male courtship behavior is mediated by a female-produced sex pheromone. Previous

  10. Sex or candy? Neuroendocrine regulation of the seasonal transition from courtship to feeding behavior in male red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Maine, Ashley R

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Seasonal modulation of glucocorticoids plays an important role in supporting critical life-history events, and probably facilitates transitions between different life-history stages. In a well-studied population of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), glucocorticoids are elevated during the mating season, but males dispersing to summer feeding grounds have significantly lower baseline glucocorticoids than courting males at the den. We tested the hypothesis that decreased plasma glucocorticoids mediate the behavioral switch between reproduction and foraging in this species. Using a two-choice Y-maze paradigm, we demonstrate that males treated with the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (1 and 3mg implants) prefer feeding cues (worm trail) over reproductive cues (female pheromone trail) significantly earlier than control-treated snakes. The metyrapone-induced changes in appetitive feeding behavior were independent of changes in plasma androgens and body mass loss. Metyrapone-treated males continued to court females at levels similar to those of control-treated snakes, suggesting that appetitive reproductive and ingestive behaviors are not mutually exclusive during this life-history transition. Consistent with this hypothesis, metyrapone treatment did not alter the number of arginine vasotocin-immunoreactive cells in any brain region, while it significantly increased neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive cell number in both the cortex and nucleus sphericus (homologues of the mammalian hippocampus and amygdala, respectively). Our results suggest that male red-sided garter snakes have the potential to maximize reproductive opportunities by continuing to court females they encounter even as they disperse from the den in search of food. Taken together, these data have important implications for understanding the neuroecology of seasonal life-history transitions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  11. Drosophila Courtship Conditioning As a Measure of Learning and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koemans, Tom S; Oppitz, Cornelia; Donders, Rogier A T; van Bokhoven, Hans; Schenck, Annette; Keleman, Krystyna; Kramer, Jamie M

    2017-06-05

    Many insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory have been elucidated through the use of simple behavioral assays in model organisms such as the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila is useful for understanding the basic neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits resulting from mutations in genes associated with human cognitive disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This work describes a methodology for testing learning and memory using a classic paradigm in Drosophila known as courtship conditioning. Male flies court females using a distinct pattern of easily recognizable behaviors. Premated females are not receptive to mating and will reject the male's copulation attempts. In response to this rejection, male flies reduce their courtship behavior. This learned reduction in courtship behavior is measured over time, serving as an indicator of learning and memory. The basic numerical output of this assay is the courtship index (CI), which is defined as the percentage of time that a male spends courting during a 10 min interval. The learning index (LI) is the relative reduction of CI in flies that have been exposed to a premated female compared to naïve flies with no previous social encounters. For the statistical comparison of LIs between genotypes, a randomization test with bootstrapping is used. To illustrate how the assay can be used to address the role of a gene relating to learning and memory, the pan-neuronal knockdown of Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (Dhap-at) was characterized here. The human ortholog of Dhap-at, glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPT), is involved in rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2, an autosomal-recessive syndrome characterized by severe ID. Using the courtship conditioning assay, it was determined that Dhap-at is required for long-term memory, but not for short-term memory. This result serves as a basis for further investigation of the underlying molecular

  12. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence among Young Adult Males with Childhood ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymbs, Brian; Molina, Brooke; Pelham, William; Cheong, JeeWon; Gnagy, Elizabeth; Belendiuk, Kat; Walther, Christine; Babinski, Dara; Waschbusch, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research has clearly documented the social dysfunction of youth with ADHD. However, little is known about the interpersonal relationships of adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood, including rates of intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Using data from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study, analyses compared the level of IPV…

  13. Perpetration of intimate partner violence by young adult males: The association with alcohol outlet density and drinking behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha W.; Iritani, Bonita J.; Christ, Sharon L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Flewelling, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association between alcohol outlet density and male to female intimate partner violence (IPV). Method Data were analyzed from a national probability sample of males who reported a current heterosexual relationship (N=3,194). Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the likelihood of having perpetrated IPV. Results High alcohol outlet density was associated with having perpetrated physical only IPV (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21–5.20). Outlet density was not associated with greater odds of sexual IPV perpetration. Conclusions Alcohol outlet density was found to be associated with perpetration of physical IPV. Developing environmental strategies with respect to alcohol outlets could potentially reduce perpetration of male-to-female physical IPV. PMID:23395919

  14. Prospective Prediction of Women’s Sexual Victimization by Intimate and Nonintimate Male Perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Although behavioral risk factors such as substance use have been hypothesized to increase women’s vulnerability to sexual victimization, prospective studies provide mixed empirical support. In the current prospective study, the authors considered substance use, sexual activity, and sexual assertiveness as predictors of sexual victimization from intimate partners and nonintimate perpetrators. Among a representative community sample of women ages 18–30 years (N = 927), 17.9% reported sexual vic...

  15. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-09-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape. Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape. Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain. Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  16. A Novel Gene Controlling the Timing of Courtship Initiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Peter; Zaki, Sadaf A; Tran, David H; French, Rachael L

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 35 years, developmental geneticists have made impressive progress toward an understanding of how genes specify morphology and function, particularly as they relate to the specification of each physical component of an organism. In the last 20 years, male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a robust model system for the study of genetic specification of behavior. Courtship behavior is both complex and innate, and a single gene, fruitless (fru), is both necessary and sufficient for all aspects of the courtship ritual. Typically, loss of male-specific Fruitless protein function results in male flies that perform the courtship ritual incorrectly, slowly, or not at all. Here we describe a novel requirement for fru: we have identified a group of cells in which male Fru proteins are required to reduce the speed of courtship initiation. In addition, we have identified a gene, Trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1), which is required in these cells for normal courtship and mating behavior. Tre1 encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor required for establishment of cell polarity and cell migration and has previously not been shown to be involved in courtship behavior. We describe the results of feminization of the Tre1-expressing neurons, as well as the effects on courtship behavior of mutation of Tre1. In addition, we show that Tre1 is expressed in a sexually dimorphic pattern in the central and peripheral nervous systems and investigate the role of the Tre1 cells in mate identification. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. The Occurrence of Male-to-Female Intimate Partner Violence on Days of Men's Drinking: The Moderating Effects of Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fals-Stewart, William; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Birchler, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the day-to-day relationship between male partner alcohol consumption and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) for men entering a domestic violence treatment program (n = 170) or an alcoholism treatment program (n = 169) were examined. For both samples,…

  18. Intimate partner violence reported by female and male users of healthcare units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Renata dos Santos Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze nonfatal violence suffered and committed by adult men and women, in an intimate relationship. METHODS The participants in the research were women aged between 15 and 49 years and men between 18 and 60 years, interviewed by face-to-face questionnaire application. The sample selection was of consecutive type, according to the order of arrival of the users. We conducted temporarily independent investigations and covered different health services to avoid couples and relationships in which the retaliation could be overvalued. To improve the comparison, we also examined reports of men and women from the same service, i.e., a service that was common to both investigations. We compared the situations suffered by women according to their reports and cross-linked the information to what men, according to their own reports, do against intimate partners or ex-partners. We also examined the cross-linked situation in reverse: the violence committed by women against their partners, according to their reports, in comparison with the violence suffered by men, also according to their reports, even if, in this case, the exam refers only to physical violence. The variables were described using mean, standard deviation, frequencies and proportions, and the hypothesis testing used was: Fisher’s exact and Pearson’s Chi-square tests, adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Victimization was greater among women, regardless of the type of violence, when perpetrated by intimate partner. The perception of violence was low in both genders; however, women reported more episodes of multiple recurrences of any violence and sexual abuse suffered than men acknowledged to have perpetrated. CONCLUSIONS The study in its entirety shows significant gender differences, whether about the prevalence of violence, whether about the perception of these situations.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Implications for Health and Functioning Among Male and Female Post-9/11 Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Katherine M; Vogt, Dawne; Maskin, Rachel M; Smith, Brian N

    2017-09-01

    There is increased emphasis on identifying patients who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in Department of Veterans Affairs and other health care settings. A better understanding of IPV's implications for health and functioning is needed among post-911 Veterans, and especially male Veterans, to inform IPV screening and response. To identify past 6-month IPV experienced among partnered post-9/11 Veterans and examine sex-based associations between IPV and health. A national sample of Veterans completed a survey that included measures of IPV victimization and health. Types of IPV and relationships with health and functioning were examined separately for male and female Veterans. In total, 407 post-9/11 Veterans (52% women) in intimate relationships. IPV victimization was assessed with the Conflict Tactics Scales-Revised. Health and functioning indicators included posttraumatic stress disorder (PCL-5) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Primary Care) symptoms, physical health-related quality of life (Short-Form 12-item Health Survey), and occupational functioning (Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning). Nearly two thirds of both men and women reported past 6-month IPV, with greatest endorsement of psychological aggression (65% of men, 59% of women). A total of 8% of men and 7% of women reported physical IPV and 4% of men and 7% of women reported sexual IPV. Psychological aggression was strongly linked with mental health for both sexes and greater occupational impairment for men. Physical and sexual IPV were associated with more severe mental health symptoms for women while physical IPV was negatively associated with physical health-related quality of life for men. Recent IPV victimization, especially psychological aggression, is a key health issue for partnered male and female post-9/11 Veterans. Practice and research implications are discussed.

  20. Visual and acoustic components of courtship in the bird-of-paradise genus Astrapia (Aves: Paradisaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Scholes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive and divergent courtship phenotypes of the birds-of-paradise make them an important group for gaining insights into the evolution of sexually selected phenotypic evolution. The genus Astrapia includes five long-tailed species that inhabit New Guinea’s montane forests. The visual and acoustic components of courtship among Astrapia species are very poorly known. In this study, we use audiovisual data from a natural history collection of animal behavior to fill gaps in knowledge about the visual and acoustic components of Astrapia courtship. We report seven distinct male behaviors and two female specific behaviors along with distinct vocalizations and wing-produced sonations for all five species. These results provide the most complete assessment of courtship in the genus Astrapia to date and provide a valuable baseline for future research, including comparative and evolutionary studies among these and other bird-of-paradise species.

  1. Multi-modal analysis of courtship behaviour in the old world leishmaniasis vector Phlebotomus argentipes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Bray

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes is arguably the most important vector of leishmaniasis worldwide. As there is no vaccine against the parasites that cause leishmaniasis, disease prevention focuses on control of the insect vector. Understanding reproductive behaviour will be essential to controlling populations of P. argentipes, and developing new strategies for reducing leishmaniasis transmission. Through statistical analysis of male-female interactions, this study provides a detailed description of P. argentipes courtship, and behaviours critical to mating success are highlighted. The potential for a role of cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship is also investigated, by comparing chemicals extracted from the surface of male and female flies.P. argentipes courtship shared many similarities with that of both Phlebotomus papatasi and the New World leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis. Male wing-flapping while approaching the female during courtship predicted mating success, and touching between males and females was a common and frequent occurrence. Both sexes were able to reject a potential partner. Significant differences were found in the profile of chemicals extracted from the surface of males and females. Results of GC analysis indicate that female extracts contained a number of peaks with relatively short retention times not present in males. Extracts from males had higher peaks for chemicals with relatively long retention times.The importance of male approach flapping suggests that production of audio signals through wing beating, or dispersal of sex pheromones, are important to mating in this species. Frequent touching as a means of communication, and the differences in the chemical profiles extracted from males and females, may also indicate a role for cuticular hydrocarbons in P. argentipes courtship. Comparing characteristics of successful and unsuccessful mates could aid in identifying the modality of signals

  2. Gay and Bisexual Men's Perceptions of Police Helpfulness in Response to Male-Male Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Finneran

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite several recent studies documenting high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among gay and bisexual men (GBM, the literature is silent regarding GBM’s perceptions of IPV within their community. We examine GBM’s perceptions of same-sex IPV: its commonness, its severity, and the helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to a GBM experiencing IPV.Methods: We drew data from a 2011 survey of venue-recruited GBM (n¼989. Respondents were asked to describe the commonness of IPV, severity of IPV, and helpfulness of a hypothetical police response to IPV among GBM and among heterosexual women. We fitted a logistic model for the outcome of viewing the police response to a gay/bisexual IPV victim as less helpful than for a female heterosexual IPV victim. The regression model controlled for age, race/ethnicity, education, sexual orientation, employment status, and recent receipt of physical, emotional, and sexual IPV, with key covariates being internalized homophobia and experiences of homophobic discrimination.Results: The majority of respondents viewed IPV among GBM as common (54.9% and problematic(63.8%. While most respondents had identical perceptions of the commonness (82.7% and severity (84.1% of IPV in GBM compared to heterosexual women, the majority of the sample (59.1% reported perceiving that contacting the police would be less helpful for a GBM IPV victim than for a heterosexual female IPV victim. In regression, respondents who reported more lifetime experiences of homophobic discrimination were more likely to have this comparatively negative perception (odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17.Conclusion: The results support a minority stress hypothesis to understand GBM’s perceptions of police helpfulness in response to IPV. While IPV was viewed as both common and problematic among GBM, their previous experiences of homophobia were correlated with a learned anticipation of rejection and stigma from

  3. Effects of age on the courtship, copulation, and fecundity of Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyi; Zhao, Yao; Yan, Qian; Li, Changchun; Jiang, Qinghong; Yun, Yueli; Peng, Yu

    2018-01-01

    According to sexual selection theory, age affects the preference of mate choice, and this preference ultimately influences the fecundity of the female. Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae) is a valued predator in many cropping systems. By determining oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, and also the number and carapace width of the 2nd instar spiderlings of the F 1 generation, we explored the effects of age on fecundity of the female spider. There were no significant effects of age on courtship duration, sexual cannibalism rate, mating rate, oviposition rate, egg hatching rate, or the number and carapace width of 2nd instar spiderings of P. pseudoannulata. However, age had a significant effect on courtship latency, courtship intensity, and mating duration of the spider. Courtship latency decreased significantly with an increase in the age of the male, and courtship intensity of the low-age male increased with increasing female age. Increasing age of male and female spiders was associated with significantly prolonged mating duration. The results indicated that low-age male spiders were more inclined to mate with high-age females, and age had no significant effect on sexual cannibalism rate or the fecundity of the female. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methyl-CpG binding domain proteins inhibit interspecies courtship and promote aggression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tarun; Morgan, Hannah R; Andrews, Jonathan C; Brewer, Edmond R; Certel, Sarah J

    2017-07-14

    Reproductive isolation and speciation are driven by the convergence of environmental and genetic variation. The integration of these variation sources is thought to occur through epigenetic marks including DNA methylation. Proteins containing a methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) bind methylated DNA and interpret epigenetic marks, providing a dynamic yet evolutionarily adapted cellular output. Here, we report the Drosophila MBD-containing proteins, dMBD-R2 and dMBD2/3, contribute to reproductive isolation and survival behavioral strategies. Drosophila melanogaster males with a reduction in dMBD-R2 specifically in octopamine (OA) neurons exhibit courtship toward divergent interspecies D. virilis and D. yakuba females and a decrease in conspecific mating success. Conspecific male-male courtship is increased between dMBD-R2-deficient males while aggression is reduced. These changes in adaptive behavior are separable as males with a hypermethylated OA neuronal genome exhibited a decrease in aggression without altering male-male courtship. These results suggest Drosophila MBD-containing proteins are required within the OA neural circuitry to inhibit interspecies and conspecific male-male courtship and indicate that the genetically hard-wired neural mechanisms enforcing behavioral reproductive isolation include the interpretation of the epigenome.

  5. Intimate partner aggression perpetrated and sustained by male Afghanistan, Iraq, and Vietnam veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Schumacher, Julie A; Taft, Casey T; Stanley, Melinda A; Kent, Thomas A; Bailey, Sara D; Dunn, Nancy Jo; White, Donna L

    2010-09-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consistently evidence higher rates of intimate partner aggression perpetration than veterans without PTSD, but most studies have examined rates of aggression among Vietnam veterans several years after their deployment. The primary aim of this study was to examine partner aggression among male Afghanistan or Iraq veterans who served during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and compare this aggression to that reported by Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Three groups were recruited, OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD (n = 27), OEF/OIF veterans without PTSD (n = 31), and Vietnam veterans with PTSD (n = 28). Though only a few comparisons reached significance, odds ratios suggested that male OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD were approximately 1.9 to 3.1 times more likely to perpetrate aggression toward their female partners and 1.6 to 6 times more likely to report experiencing female perpetrated aggression than the other two groups. Significant correlations among reports of violence perpetrated and sustained suggested many men may have been in mutually violent relationships. Taken together, these results suggest that partner aggression among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with PTSD may be an important treatment consideration and target for prevention.

  6. ICD-11 complex PTSD among Israeli male perpetrators of intimate partner violence: Construct validity and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Ohad; Hyland, Philip; Cloitre, Marylene; Dekel, Rachel

    2018-03-01

    The International Classification of Diseases 11th Version (ICD-11) will include Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) as a unique diagnostic entity comprising core PTSD and DSO (disturbances in self-organization) symptoms. The current study had three aims: (1) assessing the validity of CPTSD in a unique population of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence; (2) examining whether exposure to different types of traumatic events would be associated with the two proposed CPTSD factors, namely PTSD or DSO; and (3) assessing the differential association of various sociodemographic and symptom characteristics with each factor. Participants were 234 males drawn randomly from a sample of 2600 men receiving treatment at 66 domestic violence centers in Israel. Data were collected using the International Trauma Questionnaire (ITQ) - Hebrew version. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of ICD-11 CPTSD. Cumulative lifetime trauma and physical childhood neglect were associated with PTSD and DSO, while cumulative childhood violence exposure was associated only with DSO. Anxiety was associated only with DSO; depression more strongly with DSO than PTSD. Religious level contributed only to PTSD; compulsory military service only to DSO. The study supports the distinction between PTSD and DSO in the CPTSD construct and introduces the role of cultural variables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Image tracking study on courtship behavior of Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yin Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, there have been extensive studies aimed at decoding the DNA. Identifying the genetic cause of specific changes in a simple organism like Drosophila may help scientists recognize how multiple gene interactions may make some people more susceptible to heart disease or cancer. Investigators have devised experiments to observe changes in the gene networks in mutant Drosophila that responds differently to light, or have lower or higher locomotor activity. However, these studies focused on the behavior of the individual fly or on pair-wise interactions in the study of aggression or courtship. The behavior of these activities has been captured on film and inspected by a well-trained researcher after repeatedly watching the recorded film. Some studies also focused on ways to reduce the inspection time and increase the accuracy of the behavior experiment. METHODOLOGY: In this study, the behavior of drosophila during courtship was analyzed automatically by machine vision. We investigated the position and behavior discrimination during courtship using the captured images. Identification of the characteristics of drosophila, including sex, size, heading direction, and wing angles, can be computed using image analysis techniques that employ the Gaussian mixture model. The behavior of multiple drosophilae can also be analyzed simultaneously using the motion-prediction model and the variation constraint of heading direction. CONCLUSIONS: The overlapped fruit flies can be identified based on the relationship between body centers. Moreover, the behaviors and profiles can be correctly recognized by image processing based on the constraints of the wing angle and the size of the body. Therefore, the behavior of the male fruit flies can be discriminated when two or three fruit flies form a close cluster. In this study, the courtship behavior, including wing songs and attempts, can currently be distinguished with accuracies of 95.8% and

  8. Courtship behavior of different wild strains of Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Vilardi, J.; Cayol, J.-P.; Shelly, T.

    2007-01-01

    This study documents differences in the courtship behavior of wild strains of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) from Madeira (Portugal), Hawaii (U.S.A.), Costa Rica, and Patagonia (Argentina). Some traits showed large variations and others substantial overlaps. The angle at which the male faced toward the female at the moment of transition from continuous wing vibration and intermittent buzzing changed very little during the course of courtship in all strains, but males from Madeira tended to face more directly toward the female than other males. Females tended to look more, and more directly, toward the males as courtship progressed in all strains. The distance between male and female tended to decrease as courtship proceeded in all strains, but the distances at which males initiated continuous vibration, intermittent buzzing, and jumped onto the female were relatively less variable between strains, except for the strain from Costa Rica. Flies of Madeira courted for longer and the male moved his head and buzzed his wings longer than the other strains. (author) [es

  9. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercilene T Machisa

    Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and

  10. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machisa, Mercilene T; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and repeat

  11. Is Intimate Partner and Client Violence Associated with Condomless Anal Intercourse and HIV Among Male Sex Workers in Lima, Peru?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul E; Bayer, Angela M; Garcia, Patricia J; Perez-Lu, Jose E; Burke, Jessica G; Coates, Thomas J; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2016-09-01

    Violence experience can increase HIV risk behaviors; however, literature is scarce on violence among male sex workers (MSWs) globally. In 2014, 210 Peruvian MSWs (median age 24.9) were interviewed about their experience of physical, emotional, and sexual violence and condom use with non-paying intimate partners and clients and were tested for HIV. Multivariable models examined relationships between violence in the past 6 months, condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) in the past 3 months and HIV infection. HIV infection (24 %), CLAI (43 %), being a violence victim (42 %) and perpetrator (39 %) were common. In separate multivariable models, being a violence victim [adjusted prevalence ratio aPR = 1.49 (95 % CI 1.09-2.03)] and perpetrator [aPR = 1.39 (1.03-1.87)] were associated with CLAI. Further, being a victim [aPR = 1.65 (1.04-2.62)] was associated with HIV infection. Violence, which was significantly associated with CLAI and HIV infection, is common among Peruvian MSWs, reinforcing the importance of violence awareness and prevention as HIV risk-reduction strategies.

  12. Multimethod prediction of child abuse risk in an at-risk sample of male intimate partner violence offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Through their eyes: selective attention in peahens during courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Patricelli, Gail L; Babcock, Jason S; Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-08-15

    Conspicuous, multicomponent ornamentation in male animals can be favored by female mate choice but we know little about the cognitive processes females use to evaluate these traits. Sexual selection may favor attention mechanisms allowing the choosing females to selectively and efficiently acquire relevant information from complex male display traits and, in turn, may favor male display traits that effectively capture and hold female attention. Using a miniaturized telemetric gaze-tracker, we show that peahens (Pavo cristatus) selectively attend to specific components of peacock courtship displays and virtually ignore other, highly conspicuous components. Females gazed at the lower train but largely ignored the head, crest and upper train. When the lower train was obscured, however, females spent more time gazing at the upper train and approached the upper train from a distance. Our results suggest that peahens mainly evaluate the lower train during close-up courtship but use the upper train as a long-distance attraction signal. Furthermore, we found that behavioral display components (train rattling and wing shaking) captured and maintained female attention, indicating that interactions between display components may promote the evolution of multicomponent displays. Taken together, these findings suggest that selective attention plays a crucial role in sexual selection and likely influences the evolution of male display traits.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  15. Emergency Department Visits and Injury Hospitalizations for Female and Male Victims and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Kothari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The potential for hospital-based interventions for male victims of intimate partner violence (IPV as well as adult perpetrators of both genders has been largely unexplored despite early evidence of acute-care utilization that may be as high as female victims. The current investigation compared the emergency department (ED and injury-related-hospitalization rates of IPV-involved individuals against standardized national norms, assessing differences by gender and victim/perpetrator-status. Methods. This cross-sectional study collected one-year ED and in-patient visit data from hospital records for individuals listed as victim or perpetrator in an IPV criminal charging request in a Midwestern county (N=2,937. Expected rates were calculated based upon age-adjusted national norms. Results. The IPV-involved population generated ED rates 4.1 times higher than expected and injury-related-hospitalization rates that were 4.0 times higher than expected. Bi-directionally-violent individuals (both victim and perpetrator in IPV charges consistently had the highest utilization rates (ED 8.4 RR, injury-hospitalization 22.5 RR. Victims, primarily female, had higher ED-visits than perpetrators, primarily male (victims = 4.6 RR, perpetrator = 3.1 RR. Perpetrators, though, had higher injury hospitalizations (victims = 0.8RR, perpetrators = 5.5 RR. Conclusions. Substantial opportunities exist within acute-care medical settings to intervene with IPV-involved women, men, victims, and perpetrators, although the magnitude of the opportunity varied by setting, gender and victim/perpetrator-status.

  16. At the intersection of interpersonal violence, masculinity, and alcohol use: the experiences of heterosexual male perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Robert L; Tuttle, Lori A; Steele, Jennifer L

    2010-04-01

    This article examines the relationship between violence, masculinity, and alcohol use among heterosexual, economically disadvantaged, and primarily Black men officially identified as batterers. Violence occurred against intimates and strangers. Alcohol use coupled with violence against intimates and violence against others (e.g., strangers) appeared to be used for masculinity construction. The use of alcohol before and during assaultive behavior combined with the use of violence symbolized dominance and control. This occurred in situations where markers of masculinity were largely absent (e.g., steady employment) in instances of both intimate partner violence and stranger violence.

  17. An endocrine disrupting chemical changes courtship and parental care in the sand goby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saaristo, Minna, E-mail: Minna.Saaristo@helsinki.fi [Department of Bio- and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 65, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Craft, John A. [Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Lehtonen, Kari K. [Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, P.O. Box 140, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Lindstroem, Kai [Environmental and Marine Biology, Abo Akademi University, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)

    2010-05-10

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a diverse group of compounds that can mimic, block or modulate the synthesis of natural hormones. They are known to cause impairment of reproduction of aquatic organisms at very low concentrations. The aim of this study was to examine how exposure from 10 to 31 days to 17{alpha}-ethinyl estradiol (EE2, 41 ng L{sup -1}) affects the courtship and parental care behaviour of male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus). The sand goby exhibits a polygynous mating system, where males compete for females and provide paternal care. First, male courtship performance towards a stimulus female was recorded with video camera. Secondly, after the male had received eggs his parental care behaviour was video recorded. In addition to behavioural endpoints, we measured the expression of hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) mRNA, as well as common somatic indices. Our study shows that exposure to EE2 affected male fanning behaviour during both courtship and parental care. Interestingly, small exposed males increased their courtship fanning to similar levels as larger control males. However, during parental care egg fanning was not related to male size, and all exposed males fanned more than control males. The EE2-exposure induced Vtg and Zrp mRNA expression in males and decreased hepatosomatic index (HSI), and increased gonadosomatic index (GSI). Females prefer males that fan more, which will favour the small EDC exposed males. This may lead to mating that favours males that are not strong enough to tend the eggs until they hatch, thus decreasing the reproductive success of individuals.

  18. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson P Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius. We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation, among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits.

  19. Genetically Regulated Temporal Variation of Novel Courtship Elements in the Hawaiian Cricket Genus Laupala

    Science.gov (United States)

    deCarvalho, Tagide N.; Shaw, Kerry L.

    2011-01-01

    The Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae) has undergone rapid and extensive speciation, with divergence in male song and female acoustic preference playing a role in maintaining species boundaries. Recent study of interspecific differences in the diel rhythmicity of singing and mating, suggests that temporal variation in behavior may reduce gene flow between species. In addition, Laupala perform an elaborate and protracted courtship, providing potential for further temporal variation. However, whether these behavioral differences have a genetic basis or result from environmental variation is unknown. We observed courtship and mating in a common garden study of the sympatric species, Laupala cerasina and Laupala paranigra. We document interspecific differences in the onset and duration of courtship, spermatophore production rate, and diel mating rhythmicity. Our study demonstrates a genetic contribution to interspecific behavioral differences, and suggests an evolutionary pathway to the origins of novel timing phenotypes. PMID:20878226

  20. Intimate Partner Aggression Perpetrated and Sustained by Male Afghanistan, Iraq, and Vietnam Veterans with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Taft, Casey T.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Kent, Thomas A.; Bailey, Sara D.; Dunn, Nancy Jo; White, Donna L.

    2010-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consistently evidence higher rates of intimate partner aggression perpetration than veterans without PTSD, but most studies have examined rates of aggression among Vietnam veterans several years after their deployment. The primary aim of this study was to examine partner aggression among male…

  1. Experimental tests of light-pollution impacts on nocturnal insect courtship and dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firebaugh, Ariel; Haynes, Kyle J

    2016-12-01

    Though a number of effects of artificial light pollution on behavior and physiology have been described, there is little understanding of their consequences for the growth and distribution of populations. Here, we document impacts of light pollution on aspects of firefly population ecology and underlying mating behaviors. Many firefly species have a unique communication system whereby bioluminescent flashes are used in courtship displays to find and attract mates. We performed a series of manipulative field experiments in which we quantified the effects of adding artificial nighttime lighting on abundances and total flashing activity of fireflies, courtship behaviors and mating between tethered females and free-flying males, and dispersal distances of marked individuals. We show that light pollution reduces flashing activities in a dark-active firefly species (Photuris versicolor) by 69.69 % and courtship behavior and mating success in a twilight-active species (Photinus pyralis). Though courtship behavior and mating success of Photinus pyralis was reduced by light pollution, we found no effects of light pollution on male dispersal in this species. Our findings suggest that light pollution is likely to adversely impact firefly populations, and contribute to wider discussions about the ecological consequences of sensory pollution.

  2. Sexually dimorphic activation of dopaminergic areas depends on affiliation during courtship and pair formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai eIwasaki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For many species, dyadic interaction during courtship and pair bonding engage intense emotional states that control approach or avoidance behavior. Previous studies have shown that one component of a common social brain network (SBN, dopaminergic areas, are highly engaged during male songbird courtship of females. We tested whether the level of activity in dopaminergic systems of both females and males during courtship is related to their level of affiliation. In order to objectively quantify affiliative behaviors, we developed a system for tracking the position of both birds during free interaction sessions. During a third successive daily interaction session, there was a range of levels of affiliation among bird pairs, as quantified by several position and movement parameters. Because both positive and negative social interactions were present, we chose to characterize affiliation strength by pair valence. As a potential neural system involved in regulating pair valence, the level of activity of the dopaminergic group A11 (within the central gray was selectively reduced in females of positive valence pairs. Further, activation of non-dopaminergic neurons in VTA was negatively related to valence, with this relationship strongest in ventral VTA of females. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of fear or avoidance networks may be associated with development of close affiliation, and highlight the importance of negative as well as positive emotional states in the process of courtship, and in development of long-lasting social bonds.

  3. Gender Equality, Patriarchal Cultural Norms, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: Comparison of Male University Students in Asian and European Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Reiko; Otis, Melanie D

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the relationship between patriarchal cultural norms and violence perpetration by male partners using a subsample of university students in Asia (n = 784) and Europe (n = 575) from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) data set. Bivariate analyses indicated Asian students scored significantly higher than Europeans on dominance, hostility to women, jealousy, negative attribution, and violence approval as well as perpetration of severe physical assault in dating relationships. Logistic regression models demonstrated that dominance and violence approval were significant predictors of severe physical and psychological aggression against dating partners. Implications for culturally relevant programming for intimate partner violence prevention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Tango to traffic : a field study into consequences of noisy urban conditions for acoustic courtship interactions in birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halfwerk, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    The acoustic courtship display of a male and a female great tit show all the characteristics of a passionate dance. This thesis examines the impact of anthropogenic noise on the acoustic communication between males and females and the relationship with reproduction.

  5. Courtship behaviour of Phlebotomus papatasi the sand fly vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelbi Ifhem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi is an Old World vector of Leishmania major, the etiologic agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. This study describes the courtship behaviour of P. papatasi and compares it with that of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the New World vector of visceral leishmaniasis. Understanding the details of courtship behaviour in P. papatasi may help us to understand the role of sex pheromones in this important vector. Results P. papatasi courtship was found to start with the female touching the male, leading him to begin abdomen bending and wing flapping. Following a period of leg rubbing and facing, the male flaps his wings while approaching the female. The female then briefly flaps her wings in response, to indicate that she is willing to mate, thereby signaling the male to begin copulation. Male P. papatasi did not engage in parading behaviour, which is performed by male L. longipalpis to mark out individual territories during lekking (the establishment and maintenance of mating aggregations, or wing-flap during copulation, believed to function in the production of audio signals important to mate recognition. In P. papatasi the only predictor of mating success for males was previous copulation attempts and for females stationary wing-flapping. By contrast, male L. longipalpis mating success is predicted by male approach-flapping and semi-circling behaviour and for females stationary wing-flapping. Conclusions The results show that there are important differences between the mating behaviours of P. papatasi and L. longipalpis. Abdomen bending, which does not occur in L. longipalpis, may act in the release of sex pheromone from an as yet unidentified site in the male abdomen. In male L. longipalpis wing-flapping is believed to be associated with distribution of male pheromone. These different behaviours are likely to signify significant differences in how pheromone is used, an observation that is consistent

  6. Agonistic display or courtship behavior? A review of contests over mating opportunity in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Male butterflies compete over mating opportunities. Two types of contest behavior are reported. Males of various butterfly species compete over a mating territory via aerial interactions until one of the two contestants retreats. Males of other butterfly species fly around larval food plants to find receptive females. Males of some species among the latter type can find a conspecific pupa, and they gather around it without expelling their rivals. Scramble competition over mating occurs when a female emerges from the pupa. Many studies have been performed on territorial species, and their contest resolution has often been understood from the point of view of contest models based on game theory. However, these models cannot explain why these butterflies perform contest displays despite the fact that they do not have the ability to attack their opponent. A recent study based on Lloyd Morgan's Canon showed that territorial contests of male butterflies are better understood as erroneous courtship between sexually active males. In this paper, I review research on contests over mating opportunity in butterflies, and show that the erroneous courtship framework can explain not only territorial contests of butterflies but also why males do not determine the owner of a conspecific pupa.

  7. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  8. Collateral Intimate Partner Homicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Collateral intimate partner homicide (CIPH is an underinvestigated genre of intimate partner violence (IPV where an individual(s connected to the IPV victim is murdered. We conducted a content analysis of a statewide database of CIPH newspaper articles (1990-2007. Out of 111 collateral murder victims, there were 84 IPV female focal victims and 84 male perpetrators. The most frequently reported CIPH decedent was the focal victim’s new partner (30%; 45% of focal victims were themselves killed. News reports framed CIPH as the unexpected result of interpersonal conflict, despite evidence of a systematic pattern of coercion and violence that capitulated in murder.

  9. Intimate Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul

    2017-01-01

    Intimate aspects of everyday life are increasingly being connected to and interacted with through digital technologies; this impacts the ways of being in the world and how bodies come to matter. From an interdisciplinary perspective at the intersections of feminist HCI, art, and interaction desig...

  10. Characterization of courtship sounds of species of the subgroup fasciola (Diptera, Drosophilidae, Drosophila repleta group: interspecific and interpopulational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. A. COSTA

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the male courtship song pattern of various species of the fasciola subgroup and to determine the level of variation both within and among species. The parameters analyzed were intrapulse interval (PI, interpulse interval (IPI, and intrapulse frequency (IF. Six different species were analyzed: D. coroica (three populations, D. ellisoni, D. fascioloides, D. moju, D. onca, and D. rosinae (one population each. There were significant differences among the six species for these three courtship song parameters. The IPI was the most variable parameter among these species, suggesting that this parameter is important for female discrimination. Four different hypotheses could explain this variation: 1. different selection pressures with absence of flow gene; 2. intraspecific sexual selection; 3. sympatric effects on song evolution; and 4. genetic drift. The PI was the only parameter that was significantly different among the three population of D. coroica. Low variability among populations within the same species was already observed for other subgroups and could be explained by the following hypotheses: strong selection acting on the song parameters, gene flow, or recent colonization from a common source. Additional studies of the courtship song of other species of the fasciola subgroup, as well as for other subgroups of the repleta group, and studies, using molecular makers, that focus on the genetic basis of the differences among these species in courtship song would allow us to evaluate the association of courtship song and sexual isolation in these species, and would also help us to understand the evolution of these behavioural differences.

  11. The impact of physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence on women's mental health: depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder, state anxiety, and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico-Alfonso, Maria A; Garcia-Linares, M Isabel; Celda-Navarro, Nuria; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Echeburúa, Enrique; Martinez, Manuela

    2006-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of lifetime physical, psychological, and sexual intimate male partner violence (IPV) on the mental health of women, after controlling for the contribution of lifetime victimization. The comorbidity of depressive symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and their relation to state anxiety and suicide were also assessed. Physically/psychologically (n = 75) and psychologically abused women (n = 55) were compared with nonabused control women (n = 52). Information about sociodemographic characteristics, lifetime victimization, and mental health status (depressive and state anxiety symptoms, PTSD, and suicide) was obtained through face-to-face structured interviews. Women exposed to physical/psychological and psychological IPV had a higher incidence and severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms, PTSD, and thoughts of suicide than control women, with no differences between the two abused groups. The concomitance of sexual violence was associated with a higher severity of depressive symptoms in both abused groups and a higher incidence of suicide attempts in the physically/psychologically abused group. The incidence of PTSD alone was very rare, and depressive symptoms were either alone or comorbid with PTSD. The severity of state anxiety was higher in abused women with depressive symptoms or comorbidity, as was the incidence of suicidal thoughts in the physically/psychologically abused group. Lifetime victimization was not a predictor of the deterioration of mental health in this study. These findings indicate that psychological IPV is as detrimental as physical IPV, with the exception of effects on suicidality, which emphasizes that psychological IPV should be considered a major type of violence by all professionals involved.

  12. Flightin maintains myofilament lattice organization required for optimal flight power and courtship song quality inDrosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravorty, Samya; Tanner, Bertrand C W; Foelber, Veronica Lee; Vu, Hien; Rosenthal, Matthew; Ruiz, Teresa; Vigoreaux, Jim O

    2017-05-17

    The indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of Drosophila and other insects with asynchronous flight muscles are characterized by a crystalline myofilament lattice structure. The high-order lattice regularity is considered an adaptation for enhanced power output, but supporting evidence for this claim is lacking. We show that IFMs from transgenic flies expressing flightin with a deletion of its poorly conserved N-terminal domain ( fln ΔN62 ) have reduced inter-thick filament spacing and a less regular lattice. This resulted in a decrease in flight ability by 33% and in skinned fibre oscillatory power output by 57%, but had no effect on wingbeat frequency or frequency of maximum power output, suggesting that the underlying actomyosin kinetics is not affected and that the flight impairment arises from deficits in force transmission. Moreover, we show that fln ΔN62 males produced an abnormal courtship song characterized by a higher sine song frequency and a pulse song with longer pulses and longer inter-pulse intervals (IPIs), the latter implicated in male reproductive success. When presented with a choice, wild-type females chose control males over mutant males in 92% of the competition events. These results demonstrate that flightin N-terminal domain is required for optimal myofilament lattice regularity and IFM activity, enabling powered flight and courtship song production. As the courtship song is subject to female choice, we propose that the low amino acid sequence conservation of the N-terminal domain reflects its role in fine-tuning species-specific courtship songs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Courtship display dynamics, iridescent structural color and nanostructural pattern formation in ocellated pheasants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Dakin, Roslyn; Fang, Rui; Lu, Yabin

    Peacocks court females by tilting a fan-like array of feathers decorated with multicolored eyespots (ocelli). Previous research has shown that half of the variation in peacock mating success can be attributed to eyespot iridescence. Several closely-related pheasant species perform similar, but less complex, courtship displays using ocellated feathers with less complex coloration, patterns and underlying nanostructures. This study explores the relationship between the dynamics of male courtship behavior and optical properties and nanostructure of each species' iridescent feather ornaments. In particular, we examined videos of courting males and of individual feathers to measure how the angles used during displays compared to those corresponding to optimal eyespot reflected intensity and iridescent contrast. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy was used to measure how the spectrum of reflected light depends on the characteristic angles used during displays, and hence how displays stimulate the four classes of cones found in the color vision systems of these birds. This work reveals a close correlation between the complexity of the angular dependence of iridescent feather reflectance properties and that of the motions used by males of each species.

  14. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  15. Reciprocal physical intimate partner violence is associated with prevalent STI/HIV among male Tanzanian migrant workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Alison H; Decker, Michele R; Weisband, Yiska L; Hindin, Michelle J

    2017-06-01

    Physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and STIs, including HIV, are highly prevalent in east Africa. While we have some evidence about women's experience with physical IPV, little is known about men's experience with physical IPV, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to examine, in Tanzanian male migrant plantation residents, the prevalence of, and associations among, experience and enactment of physical IPV and prevalent STI/HIV. Data from a cross-sectional survey of male plantation residents (n=158) in northern Tanzania were analysed to estimate prevalence of physical IPV experience and enactment. We assessed associations between IPV and sexual risk behaviours, and serodiagnosis of HIV, herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis. Overall, 30% of men had experienced and/or enacted physical IPV with their main sexual partner: 19% of men had ever experienced physical IPV with their main sexual partner; 22% had enacted physical IPV with their main sexual partner. Considering overlaps in these groups, 11% of all participants reported reciprocal (both experienced and enacted) physical IPV. 9% of men were HIV seropositive, 51% were HSV-2 seropositive and 10% were syphilis seropositive-54% had at least one STI. Men who reported reciprocal physical IPV had increased odds of STI/HIV (adjusted OR (AOR) 8.85, 95% CI 1.78 to 44.6); the association retained statistical significance (AOR 14.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 147.0) with sexual risk behaviours included in the multivariate model. Men's physical IPV experience and enactment was common among these migrant plantation residents. Men reporting reciprocal physical IPV had significantly increased odds of prevalent STI/IPV, and we hypothesise that they have unstable relationships. Physical IPV is an important risk factor for STI/HIV transmission, and programmatic activities are needed to prevent both. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  16. [Courtship behavior, communicative sound production and resistance to stress in Drosophila mutants with defective agnostic gene, coding for LIMK1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A V; Kaminskaia, A N; Savvateeva-Popova, E V

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the role of one of the main elements of signal cascade of actin remodeling--LIM-kinase 1 (LIMK1)--in the control of animal behavior we studied the characteristics of courtship behavior, parameters of acoustic communicative signals and their resistance to heat shock (HS, 37 degrees C, 30 min) in Drosophila melanogaster males from the strain with mutation in locus agnostic (agn(ts3)) containing gene CG1848 for LIMK1. The data obtained was compared with the results of our previous similar investigation on wild type CS males (Popov et al., 2006). Flies were divided into 4 groups. The males of control groups were not subjected to heat shock. The rest of males were subjected to heat shock either at the beginning of larval development when predominantly mushroom body neuroblasts are dividing (groups HS1), or at the prepupal stage when the brain central complex is developing (groups HS2), or at the imago stage one hour before the test (groups HS3). All males were tested at the age of 5 days. Virgin and fertilized CS females were used as courtship objects. Comparison of control groups of the two strains--CS and agnostic--have shown that the mutation agn(ts3) has no influence on the main parameters of courtship behavior of intact (not subjected to HS) males (courtship latency, the rapidity of achieving copulation, courtship efficiency) but leads to lowering of their sexual activity, increase of duration of sound trains in the songs and to slight increase of rate and stability of working of singing pacemakers. Agnostic males in comparison to wild type males are more resistant to HS given 1 hour before the test. After HS their courtship intensity does not decrease and the main parameters of their courtship behavior and communicative sound signals in comparison tu wild type males either do not change, or appear to be even better stabilized. The frequency of distorted sound pulses (an indicator of frequency of impairments in the activity pattern of neuro

  17. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  18. Dietary exposure to technical hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) alters courtship, incubation and parental behaviors in American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinson, Sarah C; Bird, David M; Letcher, Robert J; Sullivan, Katrina M; Ritchie, Ian J; Fernie, Kim J

    2012-11-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a high production volume brominated flame retardant that has been detected in the environment and wildlife at increasing concentrations. This study was designed to determine potential effects of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of HBCD on behavior during reproduction in captive American kestrels. Twenty kestrel pairs were exposed to 0.51 μg technical HBCD g(-1) kestrel d(-1) from 4 weeks prior to pairing until chicks hatched (~75 d). Ten pairs of controls received the safflower oil vehicle only and were used for comparison. During the courtship period the chitter-calls were reduced in both sexes (p=0.038) and females performed fewer bonding displays (p=0.053). Both sexes showed a propensity to be less active than controls during courtship. The reduction in male courtship behavior was correlated with reduced courtship behaviors of females (p=0.008) as well as reduced egg mass (p=0.019). During incubation, nest temperatures of treatment pairs were lower at mid-incubation (p=0.038). HBCD-exposed males performed fewer key parental behaviors when rearing nestlings, including entering the nest-box, pair-bonding displays and food-retrievals. HBCD-exposed females appeared to compensate for the reduced parental behavior of their mates by performing these same behaviors more frequently than controls (p=0.004, p=0.027, p=0.025, respectively). This study demonstrates that HBCD affects breeding behavior in American kestrels throughout the reproductive season and behavioral alterations were linked to reproductive changes (egg size). This is the first study to report HBCD effects on reproductive behavior in any animal model. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral and neural lateralization of vision in courtship singing of the zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Hara, Erina; Hessler, Neal A

    2006-09-01

    Along with human speech and language processing, birdsong has been one of the best-characterized model systems for understanding the relationship of lateralization of brain function to behavior. Lateralization of song production has been extensively characterized, and lateralization of song perception has begun to be studied. Here we have begun to examine whether behavior and brain function are lateralized in relation to communicative aspects of singing, as well. In order to monitor central brain function, we assayed the levels of several activity dependent immediate early genes after directed courtship singing. Consistent with a lateralization of visual processing during communication, there were higher levels of expression of both egr-1 and c-fos in the left optic tectum after directed singing. Because input from the eyes to the brain is almost completely contralateral in birds, these results suggest that visual input from the right eye should be favored during normal singing to females. Consistent with this, we further found that males sang more when they could use only their right eye compared to when they could use only their left eye. Normal levels of singing, though, required free use of both eyes to view the female. These results suggest that there is a preference for visual processing by the right eye and left brain hemisphere during courtship singing. This may reflect a proposed specialization of the avian left hemisphere in sustaining attention on stimuli toward which a motor response is planned.

  20. Conflict in intimate vs non-intimate relationships : When gender role stereotyping overrides biased self-other judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, ES; de Dreu, CKW; Buunk, BP

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore whether bias in self-other judgments pertains to conflict in intimate relationships and is overruled by gender role stereotypes in non-intimate relationships between males and females, it was predicted that when the opponent was one's intimate partner, both

  1. Intimate Contradictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Nadine; Jensen, Tina Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    The Danish family unification policies are based on an underlying moral agenda rooted in the idea of emotional, intimate, love-based marriages as the basis of the modern nation state. This paper questions the efficacy of this moral agenda by examining the unintended consequences and false...... dichotomies that emerge with the implementation of the legislation, particularly focusing on kin relations and individual autonomy. Empirically, the article compares how the legislation affects both the intended targets (intra-ethnic marriages among Danes of immigrant descent) and the unintended targets...... (ethnic Danes who marry non-European spouses, namely, Cubans). This comparative perspective highlights the cracks in the moral agenda of the state's efforts to shape family formation and, ultimately, the contradictions of attempting to promote ‘modernity’ over ‘tradition’....

  2. Evolution of courtship display in Estrildid finches: Dance in relation to female song and plumage ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo eSoma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Estrildid finches are known for great interspecific diversity in the degree of elaboration in courtship dance, song and plumage coloration and also for the considerable sex differences in these traits within species. To study the evolution of multimodal sexual signaling in these taxa, we collected data on 85 species and analyzed them in a phylogenetic comparative study. As dances are often displayed in parallel with songs and include behavioral elements to emphasize coloration, they are likely to evolve non-independently of songs and plumage characteristics. Hence, we hypothesized that the degree of elaboration in dance would be associated with song and plumage ornamentation due to correlated responses between traits. Alternatively, each sexual signal may evolve independently of the others under the influence of different aspects of reproductive ecology or life history. Finally, because trait expression occurs in both males and females and can be caused by pleiotropic effects, we predicted correlated exaggerations of the traits between sexes as well. We found that courtship dance, song and plumage coloration evolve independently, as these traits were not correlated among species in either sex (i.e. the presence of female song were not related to female dance repertoire. However, we found evidence for correlated responses between the sexes, as species that have males with complex dances or colorful plumage also have females with exaggerated traits. Yet, selection factors acting on these traits were only partially shared between sexes. While coloration can be predicted by intraspecific brood parasitism and dance by body size in females, we were unable to reveal similar relationships in males. Our results indicate that different secondary sexual characters in Estrildids finches evolved under the influence of complicated selection factors, in which both correlated responses between sexes as well as independent selective mechanisms play roles.

  3. The influence of having children on HIV-related risk behaviors of female sex workers and their intimate male partners in two Mexico–US border cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rolon, Maria Luisa; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Servin, Argentina; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    Among female sex workers who use drugs, the experience of having children and its effect on HIV risk behaviors remains underexplored. We draw from a study of 214 female sex workers and their intimate non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, México (n = 428), approximately 30% of whom have children living with them. During qualitative interviews with 41 of these couples, having children emerged as an important topic. Children influenced partners’ lives and HIV-related risk behavio...

  4. No Effect of Body Size on the Frequency of Calling and Courtship Song in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Atsushi; Kizaki, Hayato; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body size and vocalization parameters has been studied in many animal species. In insect species, however, the effect of body size on song frequency has remained unclear. Here we analyzed the effect of body size on the frequency spectra of mating songs produced by the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. We recorded the calling songs and courtship songs of male crickets of different body sizes. The calling songs contained a frequency component that peaked at 5.7 kHz. On the other hand, courtship songs contained two frequency components that peaked at 5.8 and 14.7 kHz. The dominant frequency of each component in both the calling and courtship songs was constant regardless of body size. The size of the harp and mirror regions in the cricket forewings, which are the acoustic sources of the songs, correlated positively with body size. These findings suggest that the frequency contents of both the calling and courtship songs of the cricket are unaffected by whole body, harp, or mirror size.

  5. Adherence to treatment in male batterers against their intimate partners in a community setting: State of the art and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Echeburúa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the difficulties inherent in providing mental health treatment for men who commit acts of violence against their intimate partners. The effectiveness of available treatment programs for men who batter, both in the international literature and in Spain, is analyzed. In all studies the dropout rates in the treatment of men involved in intimate partner violence are very high. Different studies have pointed to multiple psychological and social causes to explain the poor adherence to treatment in men who batter. The main predictors of poor adherence to therapy are described. Therefore, motivational enhancement strategies are being developed to strengthen subjects' commitment to change by helping them to identify their goals for recovery and to determine ways to reach these goals. Finally, some suggestions are discussed about how to successfully deal with these issues. It is necessary to implement strategies to improve motivation for treatment. Implications of this study for clinical practice, policy decisions, and future research in this field are commented upon.

  6. Learning of courtship components in Drosophila mercatorum (Paterson & Wheller (Diptera, Drosophilidae Aprendizado de corte sexual em Drosophila mercatorum (Paterson & Wheller (Diptera, Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Polejack

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, courtship is an elaborate sequence of behavioural patterns that enables the flies to identify conspecific mates from those of closely related species. This is important because drosophilids usually gather in feeding sites, where males of various species court females vigorously. We investigated the effects of previous experience on D. mercatorum courtship, by testing if virgin males learn to improve their courtship by observing other flies (social learning, or by adjusting their pre-existent behaviour based on previous experiences (facilitation. Behaviours recorded in a controlled environment were courtship latency, courtship (orientation, tapping and wing vibration, mating and other behaviours not related to sexual activities. This study demonstrated that males of D. mercatorum were capable of improving their mating ability based on prior experiences, but they had no social learning on the development of courtship.Em Drosophila, a corte sexual consiste em uma elaborada seqüência de padrões comportamentais que possibilita às moscas reconhecer parceiros conspecíficos dentre indivíduos de outras espécies. Essa discriminação é importante uma vez que drosofilídeos geralmente se agregam em sítios de alimentação, onde machos de diversas espécies cortejam as fêmeas vigorosamente. Neste estudo, testamos se machos virgens aprimoram seu comportamento de corte mediante a observação do cortejo de outras moscas da população (aprendizado social, ou mediante experiências próprias anteriores (facilitação. O comportamento de corte das moscas, observado em ambiente controlado, foi registrado com relação aos seguintes componentes: latência da corte, duração da corte (orientação, "tapping" e vibração das asas, cópula, e outros comportamentos não relacionados à corte sexual. Os resultados aqui obtidos sugerem que machos de D. mercatorum são capazes de aprimorar sua habilidade de cortejar fêmeas em função de

  7. Smaller right amygdala in Caucasian alcohol-dependent male patients with a history of intimate partner violence: a volumetric imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lishu; Kerich, Mike; Schwandt, Melanie L; Rawlings, Robert R; McKellar, Joshua D; Momenan, Reza; Hommer, Daniel W; George, David T

    2013-05-01

    Studies have shown that various brain structure abnormalities are associated with chronic alcohol abuse and impulsive aggression. However, few imaging studies have focused on violent individuals with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The present study used volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the volumes of different structural components of prefrontal cortex and six subcortical structures in perpetrators of intimate partner violence with alcohol dependence (IPV-ADs), non-violent alcohol-dependent patients (non-violent ADs) and healthy controls (HCs). Caucasian men (n = 54), ages 24-55, who had participated in National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism treatment programs, were grouped together as IPV-ADs (n = 27), non-violent ADs (n = 14) and HCs (n = 13). The MRI scan was performed at least 3 weeks from the participant's last alcohol use. T1-weighted images were used to measure the volumes of intracranial space, gray and white matter, orbitofrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, and six subcortical structures. Results revealed that IPV-ADs, compared with non-violent ADs and HCs, had a significant volume reduction in the right amygdala. No significant volumetric difference was found in other structures. This finding suggests that structural deficits in the right amygdala may underlie impulsive types of aggression often seen in alcohol-dependent patients with a history of IPV. It adds to a growing literature suggesting that there are fundamental differences between alcohol-dependent patients with and without IPV. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Actor-partner effects associated with experiencing intimate partner violence or coercion among male couples enrolled in an HIV prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kristin M; Sullivan, Patrick S; Kleinbaum, David; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-02-28

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and coercion have been associated with negative health outcomes, including increased HIV risk behaviors, among men who have sex with men (MSM). This is the first study to describe the prevalence and factors associated with experiencing IPV or coercion among US MSM dyads using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), an analytic framework to describe interdependent outcomes within dyads. Among MSM couples enrolled as dyads in an HIV prevention randomized controlled trial (RCT), two outcomes are examined in this cross-sectional analysis: 1) the actor experiencing physical or sexual IPV from the study partner in the past 3-months and 2) the actor feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by the study partner. Two multilevel APIM logistic regression models evaluated the association between each outcome and actor, partner, and dyad-level factors. Of 190 individuals (95 MSM couples), 14 reported experiencing physical or sexual IPV from their study partner in the past 3 months (7.3%) and 12 reported feeling coerced to participate in the RCT by their study partner (6.3%). Results of multivariate APIM analyses indicated that reporting experienced IPV was associated (p coercion was associated (p coercion to participate in the research study, indicating the need for screening tools and support services for these behaviors. The identification of factors associated with IPV and coercion demonstrate the importance of considering actor and partner effects, as well as dyadic-level effects, to improve development of screening tools and support services for these outcomes.

  9. Fixed Differences in the paralytic Gene Define Two Lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis Complex Producing Different Types of Courtship Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Rachel M. M. A.; Souza, Nataly A.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Maingon, Rhayza D. C.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.

    2012-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse) males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para) gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species. PMID:22970200

  10. Fixed differences in the paralytic gene define two lineages within the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex producing different types of courtship songs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M M A Lins

    Full Text Available The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, the most important vector of American visceral leishmaniasis, is widely distributed in Latin America. There is currently a consensus that it represents a species complex, however, the number and distribution of the different siblings is still uncertain. Previous analyses have indicated that Brazilian populations of this vector can be divided into two main groups according to the type of courtship song (Burst vs. Pulse males produce during copulation. Nevertheless, no diagnostic differences have been observed between these two groups with most molecular markers used to date. We analyzed the molecular divergence in a fragment of the paralytic (para gene, a locus involved in the control of courtship songs in Drosophila, among a number of Lu. longipalpis populations from Brazil producing Burst and Pulse-type songs. Our results revealed a very high level of divergence and fixed differences between populations producing the two types of songs. We also compared Lu. longipalpis with a very closely related species, Lutzomyia cruzi, which produces Burst-type songs. The results indicated a higher number of fixed differences between Lu. cruzi and the Pulse-type populations of Lu. longipalpis than with those producing Burst-type songs. The data confirmed our previous assumptions that the presence of different sibling species of the Lu. longipalpis complex in Brazil can be divided into two main groups, one representing a single species and a second more heterogeneous group that probably represents a number of incipient species. We hypothesize that para might be one of the genes directly involved in the control of the courtship song differences between these two groups or that it is linked to other loci associated with reproductive isolation of the Brazilian species.

  11. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Woodyatt, Cory R.; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus group discuss...

  12. Rethinking estrangement, interventions, and intimate femicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D; Dekeseredy, W S

    1997-12-01

    This article aims to build on M. Wilson and M. Daly's male proprietariness thesis by integrating it with a theory of interventions. The challenge thesis contributed by a number of feminists focuses on the concepts of male proprietariness, estrangement, and intimate femicide, with mechanisms identified as exit, voice, and loyalty. An elaborated version of the challenge model shows male intimate partners on a continuum of proprietariness, female intimate partners are located on a continuum of resistance, mechanisms of resistance/change are linked with the choice of different kinds of interventions, harms experienced by estranged wives/cohabitating partners can be located on a continuum of harms, and person/situational factors are included because they help account for variations in male violence via their impact on proprietariness and deviance. Loyalty/love-invoked interventions could more likely reduce intimate femicide among coresiding female intimates. The criminal justice system is usually invoked by voice and these voice-invoked interventions increase the confidence of the battered wife symbolizing society's opposition to women abuse and could most probably end battering. Exit and exit-invoked mechanism are effective in ending battering for most battered women, although they may provoke a more fatal violence among dependent partners. The effectiveness of any of the chosen interventions varies with their appropriateness and timing.

  13. Methyltestosterone-induced changes in electro-olfactogram responses and courtship behaviors of cyprinids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Rachelle M; Pachkowski, Melanie D; Stacey, Norm E

    2010-01-01

    In the tinfoil barb (Barbonymus schwanenfeldii; family Cyprinidae), we previously found that increased olfactory sensitivity to a female prostaglandin pheromone could induce sexual behavior display in juvenile fish treated with androgens. Here, we determined if this phenomenon is widespread among cyprinid fishes by adding 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT) to aquaria containing juveniles of 4 cyprinid species (tinfoil barbs; redtail sharkminnows, Epalzeorhynchos bicolor; goldfish, Carassius auratus; zebrafish, Danio rerio) and then using electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings and behavioral assays to determine if androgen treatment enhances pheromone detection and male sex behaviors. In all 4 cyprinids, MT treatment increased the magnitudes and sensitivities of EOG response to prostaglandins and, consistent with our initial study on tinfoil barbs, did not affect EOG responses to the free and conjugated steroid to which each species is most sensitive. In zebrafish, EOG responses to prostaglandins were similar in MT-treated juveniles and adult males, whereas responses of control (ethanol exposed) fish were similar to those of adult females. Finally, as previously observed in tinfoil barbs, MT treatment of juvenile redtail sharkminnows increased courtship behaviors (nuzzling and quivering) with a stimulus fish. We conclude that androgen-induced increase in olfactory responsiveness to pheromonal prostaglandins is common among the family Cyprinidae. This phenomenon will help us unravel the development of sexually dimorphic olfactory-mediated behavior.

  14. ppk23-Dependent chemosensory functions contribute to courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    Full Text Available Insects utilize diverse families of ion channels to respond to environmental cues and control mating, feeding, and the response to threats. Although degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaC represent one of the largest families of ion channels in Drosophila melanogaster, the physiological functions of these proteins are still poorly understood. We found that the DEG/ENaC channel ppk23 is expressed in a subpopulation of sexually dimorphic gustatory-like chemosensory bristles that are distinct from those expressing feeding-related gustatory receptors. Disrupting ppk23 or inhibiting activity of ppk23-expressing neurons did not alter gustatory responses. Instead, blocking ppk23-positive neurons or mutating the ppk23 gene delayed the initiation and reduced the intensity of male courtship. Furthermore, mutations in ppk23 altered the behavioral response of males to the female-specific aphrodisiac pheromone 7(Z, 11(Z-Heptacosadiene. Together, these data indicate that ppk23 and the cells expressing it play an important role in the peripheral sensory system that determines sexual behavior in Drosophila.

  15. The severity of violence against women by intimate partners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem drinking and drug use among male partners is a strong determinant of physical intimate partner violence among battered women in South Africa. Intimate partner violence prevention measures should address reduction of problem drinking and drug use among men. Keywords: physical violence, psychological ...

  16. The impact of men's magazines on adolescent boys' objectification and courtship beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, L Monique; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Although much attention concerning the potential impact of sexualized media has focused on girls and women, less is known about how this content effects boys' perceptions of women and courtship. Accordingly, the current three-wave panel study investigated whether exposure to sexualizing magazines predicts adolescent boys' (N = 592) sexually objectifying notions of women and their beliefs about feminine courtship strategies. The results indicated that when boys consumed sexualizing magazines more often, they expressed more gender-stereotypical beliefs about feminine courtship strategies over time. This association was mediated by boys' objectification of women. The possibility of a reciprocal relation whereby beliefs about courtship strategies predict future consumption of sexualizing magazines was also explored but received no support. Discussion focuses on effects of sexualizing media on boys, and supports future research to build on multidisciplinary knowledge. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sandpipers (Scolopacidae) switch from monoester to diester preen waxes during courtship and incubation, but why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneerkens, Jeroen; Piersma, Theunis; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-10-22

    Recently, a shift in preen wax composition, from lower molecular weight monoesters to higher molecular weight diesters, was described for individuals of a sandpiper species (red knot, Calidris canutus) that were about to leave for the tundra breeding grounds. The timing of the shift indicated that diester waxes served as a quality signal during mate choice. Here, this hypothesis is evaluated on the basis of a survey of preen wax composition in 19 sandpiper species. All of these species showed the same shift observed in the high-Arctic breeding red knots. As the shift also occurred in temperate breeding species, it is not specific to tundra-breeding sandpipers. Both sexes produced the diester waxes during the incubation period until hatching, in addition to the short period of courtship, indicating that diesters' functions extend beyond that of a sexually selected 'make-up'. The few non-incubating birds examined (males of curlew sandpipers (C. ferruginea) and ruffs (Philomachus pugnax)) had the lowest likelihood of secreting diesters, indicating a functional role for diester preen waxes during incubation. We propose that diester preen waxes enhance olfactory crypticism at the nest.

  18. Physical Health Effects of Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillito, Carrie LeFevre

    2012-01-01

    Although intimate partner violence has been recognized as both a social problem and health issue, the extent to which it is a health issue for both males and females in the general population is largely unknown. This longitudinal research uses data from the National Survey of Family and Households (1987-2003). Random effects logistic regression…

  19. Intimate partner homicide: review and implications of research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Glass, Nancy; Sharps, Phyllis W; Laughon, Kathryn; Bloom, Tina

    2007-07-01

    Current rates of intimate partner homicide of females are approximately 4 to 5 times the rate for male victims, although the rates for both have decreased during the past 25 years. The major risk factor for intimate partner homicide, no matter if a female or male partner is killed, is prior domestic violence. This review presents and critiques the evidence supporting the other major risk factors for intimate partner homicide in general, and for intimate partner homicide of women (femicide) in particular, namely guns, estrangement, stepchild in the home, forced sex, threats to kill, and nonfatal strangulation (choking). The demographic risk factors are also examined and the related phenomena of pregnancy-related homicide, attempted femicide, and intimate partner homicide-suicide.

  20. Courtship, sex and poverty: illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Angela Joy

    2018-01-01

    This article sheds new light on illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Britain through an analysis of evidence from 36 parishes across the former Welsh counties Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire. Quantitative analysis of illegitimacy ratios demonstrates that levels were significantly higher in certain, but not all, parts of Wales in the eighteenth century. This evidence is considered in relation to explanatory frameworks used in the analysis of English data, which attempt to account for rising levels through cultural changes that influenced premarital sexual behaviour, and economic opportunities created by industrialization. Welsh evidence appears to present a challenge to these understandings in two key ways: Wales was linguistically different and lacked certain cultural markers which some historians have associated with an eighteenth-century 'sexual revolution', and because the highest levels of illegitimacy were found in agricultural regions of Wales which experienced little or no industrial change. It is argued that Welsh illegitimacy was influenced by a combination of courtship-led marriage customs, a decline in traditional forms of social control and worsening economic circumstances which, on closer examination, appear remarkably similar to London. This analysis provides further evidence that illegitimacy in eighteenth-century Britain was a deeply complex phenomenon governed by diverse regionally specific social and economic influences.

  1. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronholm, Peter F; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce; Harrison, Suzanne Leonard

    2011-05-15

    Intimate partner violence is a common source of physical, psychological, and emotional morbidity. In the United States, approximately 1.5 million women and 834,700 men annually are raped and/or physically assaulted by an intimate partner. Women are more likely than men to be injured, sexually assaulted, or murdered by an intimate partner. Studies suggest that one in four women is at lifetime risk. Physicians can use therapeutic relationships with patients to identify intimate partner violence, make brief office interventions, offer continuity of care, and refer them for subspecialty and community-based evaluation, treatment, and advocacy. Primary care physicians are ideally positioned to work from a preventive framework and address at-risk behaviors. Strategies for identifying intimate partner violence include asking relevant questions in patient histories, screening during periodic health examinations, and case finding in patients with suggestive signs or symptoms. Discussion needs to occur confidentially. Physicians should be aware of increased child abuse risk and negative effects on children's health observed in families with intimate partner violence. Physicians also should be familiar with local and national resources available to these patients.

  2. Initial courtship behavior and stalking: how should we draw the line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, H C; Frieze, I H

    2000-01-01

    As noted by Schaum and Parrish (1995), stalking blurs the boundaries between normal courtship and obsessive behavior. Consequently, stalking proves an elusive phenomenon to define and to study. Where does courtship end and stalking begin? To address this question, 197 women and 44 men from the University of Pittsburgh who had loved someone who did not love them in return were surveyed about their feelings and actions in response to this rejection. Factor analyses revealed six groupings of behaviors in response to unrequited courtship: approach, surveillance, intimidation, harming oneself, verbal abuse/mild physical harm, and extreme physical harm. Approach behavior was reported to be used more often by men, but there were no significant differences between men and women in the self-reported prevalence of other types of courtship behaviors. Correlations reveal that feelings of anger and depression were the most common predictors of violent behavior for both men and women. Pursuer-perceptions of what behaviors connoted "going too far" in pursuit of a relationship proved unreliable. However, when pursuers were asked whether their love interest was afraid of them, fear was a reaction perceived in response to intimidation. Although it is likely that pursuer perceptions of where to draw the line would differ from the view of the love object, these results suggest that engaging in intimidation would be an appropriate place to draw the line between courtship and stalking.

  3. More about the role of 2,6-dichlorophenol in tick courtship: identification and olfactometer bioassay in Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Braz Louly

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify 2,6-dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP in Amblyomma cajennense and to evaluate its role in A. cajennense and Rhipicephalus sanguineus courtship. Hexanic extract from attractive females was purified by solid phase extraction and the phenol was identified by the single ion monitoring method using GC/MS. In an olfactometer, the responses of A. cajennense and R. sanguineus males to females, control rubber septa or rubber septa impregnated with 2,6-DCP at 50, 500, and 5000 ng, respectively, were studied. 2,6-DCP was identified in A. cajennense extract and the males oriented themselves toward the concentration of 500 ng. These septa and the females were recognized as copula partners. The septa treated with 2,6-DCP did not attract and were not even recognized by the R. sanguineus males, whereas the females were recognized. Due to the presence of 2,6-DCP in A. cajennense and the results of biological bioassays, it was concluded that this compound acts as an attractant and mounting sex pheromone in this tick, but it does not play any role in R. sanguineus courtship.

  4. Why do males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis wrap their nuptial gifts in silk: Female preference or male control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tina; Bollerup, Kristine; Toft, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Males of the spider Pisaura mirabilis present a nuptial prey gift to the female during courtship as a mating effort. The gift is usually round and wrapped in white silk. It was suggested that the wrapped gift functions as a sensory trap by mimicking the female's eggsac implying that males exploit...

  5. A meal or a male: the 'whispers' of black widow males do not trigger a predatory response in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibert, Samantha; Scott, Catherine; Gries, Gerhard

    2014-01-17

    Female spiders are fine-tuned to detect and quickly respond to prey vibrations, presenting a challenge to courting males who must attract a female's attention but not be mistaken for prey. This is likely particularly important at the onset of courtship when a male enters a female's web. In web-dwelling spiders, little is known about how males solve this conundrum, or about their courtship signals. Here we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the vibrations produced by males and prey (house flies and crickets) on tangle webs of the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus and on sheet webs of the hobo spider Tegenaria agrestis. We recorded the vibrations at the location typically occupied by a hunting female spider. We compared the vibrations produced by males and prey in terms of their waveform, dominant frequency, frequency bandwidth, amplitude and duration. We also played back recorded male and prey vibrations through the webs of female L. hesperus to determine the vibratory parameters that trigger a predatory response in females. We found overlap in waveform between male and prey vibrations in both L. hesperus and T. agrestis. In both species, male vibrations were continuous, of long duration (on average 6.35 s for T. agrestis and 9.31 s for L. hesperus), and lacked complex temporal patterning such as repeated motifs or syllables. Prey vibrations were shorter (1.38 - 2.59 s), sporadic and often percussive. Based on the parameters measured, courtship signals of male L. hesperus differed more markedly from prey cues than did those of T. agrestis. Courtship vibrations of L. hesperus males differed from prey vibrations in terms of dominant frequency, amplitude and duration. Vibrations of T. agrestis males differed from prey in terms of duration only. During a playback experiment, L. hesperus females did not respond aggressively to low-amplitude vibrations irrespective of whether the playback recording was from a prey or a male. Unlike courtship signals of other

  6. Conserved role of Drosophila melanogaster FoxP in motor coordination and courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Kristy J; Wassmer, Taryn L; Deitcher, David L

    2014-07-15

    FoxP2 is a highly conserved vertebrate transcription factor known for its importance in human speech and language production. Disruption of FoxP2 in several vertebrate models indicates a conserved functional role for this gene in both sound production and motor coordination. Although FoxP2 is known to be strongly expressed in brain regions important for motor coordination, little is known about FoxP2's role in the nervous system. The recent discovery of the well-conserved Drosophila melanogaster homolog, FoxP, provides an opportunity to study the role of this crucial gene in an invertebrate model. We hypothesized that, like FoxP2, Drosophila FoxP is important for behaviors requiring fine motor coordination. We used targeted RNA interference to reduce expression of FoxP and assayed the effects on a variety of adult behaviors. Male flies with reduced FoxP expression exhibit decreased levels of courtship behavior, altered pulse-song structure, and sex-specific motor impairments in walking and flight. Acute disruption of synaptic activity in FoxP expressing neurons using a temperature-sensitive shibire allele dramatically impaired motor coordination. Utilizing a GFP reporter to visualize FoxP in the fly brain reveals expression in relatively few neurons in distributed clusters within the larval and adult CNS, including distinct labeling of the adult protocerebral bridge - a section of the insect central complex known to be important for motor coordination and thought to be homologous to areas of the vertebrate basal ganglia. Our results establish the necessity of this gene in motor coordination in an invertebrate model and suggest a functional homology with vertebrate FoxP2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  8. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  9. Intimate body piercings in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, G T; Schultz, W C M Weijmar; Nijman, J M

    2008-12-01

    The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with intimate bodypiercings.

  10. The severity of violence against women by intimate partners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verbal/psychological, followed by physical abuse, intimidation, economic coercion, harassment, damage to property, sexual, stalking .... home, school, or workplace) developed by Tjaden and Thoennes (2000). Ten items were ..... Prevalence and consequences of male-to-female and female-to-male intimate partner violence ...

  11. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Porfiri, M; Fuller, R C

    2014-01-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation. (paper)

  12. To females of a noctuid moth, male courtship songs are nothing more than bat echolocation calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Skals, Niels

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that intraspecific ultrasonic communication observed in some moths evolved, through sexual selection, subsequent to the development of ears sensitive to echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Given this scenario, the receiver bias model of signal evolution argues that acou...

  13. Females of the Bumblebee Parasite, Aphomia sociella, Excite Males Using a Courtship Pheromone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindl, Jiří; Jiroš, Pavel; Kalinová, Blanka; Žáček, Petr; Valterová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2012), s. 400-407 ISSN 0098-0331 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : 6,10,14-Trimethylpentadecan-2-ol * ultrasonic signaling * Galleriinae Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.462, year: 2012

  14. An X chromosome effect responsible for asymmetric reproductive isolation between male Drosophila virilis and heterospecific females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Desirée; Civetta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between closely related species is expressed through uncoordinated courtship, failed fertilization, and (or) postzygotic barriers. Behavioural components of mating often form an initial barrier to hybridization between species. In many animals, females are responsible for mating discrimination in both intra- and interspecific crosses; males of Drosophila virilis group represent an exception to this trend. Using overall productivity tests, we show that a lower proportion of D. virilis males sire progeny when paired with a heterospecific female (Drosophila novamexicana or Drosophila americana texana) for 2 weeks. This suggests male mate discrimination or some other kind of asymmetrical incompatibility in courtship and mating or early zygote mortality. We used males from D. virilis-D. novamexicana and from D. virilis-D. a. texana backcross populations to map chromosome effects responsible for male reproductive isolation. Results from the analysis of both backcross male populations indicate a major X chromosome effect. Further, we conduct a male behavioural analysis to show that D. virilis males significantly fail to continue courtship after the first step of courtship, when they tap heterospecific females. The combined results of a major X chromosome effect and the observation that D. virilis males walk away from females after tapping suggest that future studies should concentrate on the identification of X-linked genes affecting the ability of males to recognize conspecific females.

  15. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.

  16. A meal or a male: the ‘whispers’ of black widow males do not trigger a predatory response in females

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Female spiders are fine-tuned to detect and quickly respond to prey vibrations, presenting a challenge to courting males who must attract a female’s attention but not be mistaken for prey. This is likely particularly important at the onset of courtship when a male enters a female’s web. In web-dwelling spiders, little is known about how males solve this conundrum, or about their courtship signals. Here we used laser Doppler vibrometry to study the vibrations produced by males and prey (house flies and crickets) on tangle webs of the western black widow Latrodectus hesperus and on sheet webs of the hobo spider Tegenaria agrestis. We recorded the vibrations at the location typically occupied by a hunting female spider. We compared the vibrations produced by males and prey in terms of their waveform, dominant frequency, frequency bandwidth, amplitude and duration. We also played back recorded male and prey vibrations through the webs of female L. hesperus to determine the vibratory parameters that trigger a predatory response in females. Results We found overlap in waveform between male and prey vibrations in both L. hesperus and T. agrestis. In both species, male vibrations were continuous, of long duration (on average 6.35 s for T. agrestis and 9.31 s for L. hesperus), and lacked complex temporal patterning such as repeated motifs or syllables. Prey vibrations were shorter (1.38 - 2.59 s), sporadic and often percussive. Based on the parameters measured, courtship signals of male L. hesperus differed more markedly from prey cues than did those of T. agrestis. Courtship vibrations of L. hesperus males differed from prey vibrations in terms of dominant frequency, amplitude and duration. Vibrations of T. agrestis males differed from prey in terms of duration only. During a playback experiment, L. hesperus females did not respond aggressively to low-amplitude vibrations irrespective of whether the playback recording was from a prey or a male

  17. Moths are not silent, but whisper ultrasonic courtship songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, R; Takanashi, T; Fujii, T

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic hearing is widespread among moths, but very few moth species have been reported to produce ultrasounds for sexual communication. In those that do, the signals are intense and thus well matched for long distance communication. By contrast, males of the Asian corn borer moth (Crambidae) ...

  18. The global prevalence of intimate partner homicide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Devries, Karen; Rotstein, Alexandra; Abrahams, Naeemah; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Watts, Charlotte; Moreno, Claudia Garcia

    2013-09-07

    Homicide is an important cause of premature mortality globally, but evidence for the magnitude of homicides by intimate partners is scarce and hampered by the large amount of missing information about the victim-offender relationship. The objective of the study was to estimate global and regional prevalence of intimate partner homicide. A systematic search of five databases (Medline, Global Health, Embase, Social Policy, and Web of Science) yielded 2167 abstracts, and resulted in the inclusion of 118 full-text articles with 1122 estimates of the prevalence of intimate partner homicide after double-blind screening. All studies were included that reported the number or proportion of women or men who were murdered by an intimate partner in a country, province, or town, using an inclusive definition of an intimate partner. Additionally, a survey of official sources of 169 countries provided a further 53 estimates. We selected one estimate per country-year using a quality assessment decision algorithm. The median prevalence of intimate partner homicide was calculated by country and region overall, and for women and men separately. Data were obtained for 66 countries. Overall 13·5% (IQR 9·2-18·2) of homicides were committed by an intimate partner, and this proportion was six times higher for female homicides than for male homicides (38·6%, 30·8-45·3, vs 6·3%, 3·1-6·3). Median percentages for all (male and female) and female intimate partner homicide were highest in high-income countries (all, 14·9%, 9·2-18·2; female homicide, 41·2%, 30·8-44·5) and in southeast Asia (18·8%, 11·3-18·8; 58·8%, 58·8-58·8). Adjustments to account for unknown victim-offender relationships generally increased the prevalence, suggesting that results presented are conservative. At least one in seven homicides globally and more than a third of female homicides are perpetrated by an intimate partner. Such violence commonly represents the culmination of a long history of abuse

  19. Perception of violence in courtship between university students: control or love?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Leticia Flores Palacios

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence between courting couples is a central theme in many research works. In this particular study we analysed the perception of violence within courtship between university students. One of the most important findings was that psychological and emotional violence – consisting in controlling the other person and using nicknames to humiliate him/her – was the most common. Both sexes agree that both men and women may be the aggressors or the victims of this kind of violence.

  20. Costs of female odour in males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruther, Joachim; Steiner, Sven

    2008-06-01

    The display of female traits by males is widespread in the animal kingdom. In several species, this phenomenon has been shown to function adaptively as a male mating strategy to deceive sexual rivals (female mimicry). Freshly emerged males of the parasitic wasp Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are perceived by other males as if they were females because of a very similar composition of cuticular hydrocarbons which function as a sex pheromone in this species inducing courtship behaviour in males. Within 32 h, however, males deactivate the pheromone and are no longer courted by other males. In this paper, behavioural experiments were performed to test hypotheses on potential costs and benefits associated with the female odour in young males. We did not find any benefits, but demonstrated that young males were significantly more often outrivaled in male-male contests when competing with two older males for a female. Also, young males were significantly more often mounted in homosexual courtship events during these contests. Thus, display of female traits by males is not necessarily beneficial, and in fact, can be disadvantageous. We suggest that these costs have favoured the evolution of the pheromone deactivation mechanism in L. distinguendus males. The function of cuticular hydrocarbons as a female courtship pheromone in L. distinguendus might have evolved secondarily from a primary function relevant for both genders, and the deactivation of the signal in males might have caused a shift of specificity of the chemical signal from the species level to the sex level.

  1. Intimate body piercings in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, G. T.; Schultz, W. C. M. Weijmar; Nijman, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of (intimate) body piercing has increased as well as the chances of being confronted with (the complications) of it. This article provides information about the various types of intimate body piercings in women, the complications and concerns regarding the treatment of patients with

  2. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  3. Intimate partner abuse: wife beating among civil servants in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wife beating is one of the most common forms of violence against women by husbands or other intimate male partners. Although violence against women is pervasive, there are only few studies documenting the magnitude of the problem especially among the working class. The civil service comprises of persons from all ...

  4. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  5. Male coercion and convenience polyandry in a calopterygid damselfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cordero

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Copulation in odonates requires female cooperation because females must raise their abdomen to allow intromission. Nevertheless in Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Odonata males commonly grasp ovipositing females and apparently force copulations. This has been interpreted as a consequence of extreme population density and male-male competition. We studied this behavior at two sites on a river that had different densities over three years. As predicted, at high densities most matings were forced (i.e. not preceded by courtship, but at low density most were preceded by courtship. Courtship matings were shorter at high density, but density did not affect the duration of forced matings. Females cooperated in forced matings even if they had very few mature eggs. Furthermore, females mated more times if they experienced higher male harassment during oviposition, and at low density second and subsequent matings were more likely to be forced. We interpret these results to mean that females engage in "convenience polyandry", because they gain more by accepting copulation than by resisting males. The results also suggest that females might trade copulations for male protection, because under extreme population density harassment by males is so intense that they can impede oviposition.

  6. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and

  7. Pleiotropic Effects of DDT Resistance on Male Size and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostant, Wayne G; Bowyer, Jemima; Coupland, Jack; Facey, James; Hosken, David J; Wedell, Nina

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the evolution and spread of insecticide resistance requires knowing the relative fitness of resistant organisms. In the absence of insecticides, resistance is predicted to be costly. The Drosophila melanogaster DDT resistance allele (DDT-R) is associated with a male mating cost. This could be because resistant males are generally smaller, but DDT-R may also alter courtship behaviours. Here we tested for body size and courtship effects of DDT-R on mating success in competitive and non-competitive mating trials respectively. We also assessed relative aggression in resistant and susceptible males because aggression can also influence mating success. While the effect of DDT-R on male size partly contributed to reduced mating success, resistant males also had lower rates of courtship and were less aggressive than susceptible males. These differences contribute to the observed DDT-R mating costs. Additionally, these pleiotropic effects of DDT-R are consistent with the history and spread of resistance alleles in nature.

  8. Changes in reproductive courtship behaviors of adult American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to environmentally relevant levels of the polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture, DE-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim J; Shutt, John L; Letcher, Robert J; Ritchie, James I; Sullivan, Katrina; Bird, David M

    2008-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are increasing in biota. Here, captive adult American kestrels were exposed daily by diet to safflower oil (controls), or one of two levels of a pentaBDE technical formulation, DE-71 (0.3 or 1.6 ppm), for approximately 75 days, commencing 21 days before breeding. This exposure resulted in eggs having PBDE concentrations similar (low exposure) or within the same order of magnitude (high exposure) reported for wild American kestrels and gulls in the Great Lakes. Compared to controls, kestrels in both exposure groups copulated less, spent less time in their nest boxes, and participated in fewer pair-bonding behaviors. Furthermore, the timing of these behaviors, which is important to creating and maintaining the pair-bond, also differed significantly from the controls. The females in the low-exposure group made fewer compatible trilling calls and ate less frequently. These behavioral changes were compounded by increasing exposure to DE-71 during the 9-day courtship period immediately preceding egg laying, a standard measure of the kestrel courtship period. The birds in the high-exposure group made more food transfers, excited "klee" calls, and copulations, the latter only when compared to the low-exposure birds, whereas the low-exposure males performed fewer pair-bonding behaviors. This study demonstrates that the exposure of kestrels to environmentally relevant levels of DE-71 modifies the quality of the pair-bond, affects the reproductive behavior of both sexes, and occurs when birds are exposed for a short period as adults. In addition, these behavioral effects are consistent with the observed reproductive changes in these birds.

  9. [The female brain and the male brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke; Sato, Kosei

    2013-10-01

    Sex differences in the nervous system are prevalent throughout the animal kingdom. In humans, the corpus callosum and anterior commissure are larger in females, whereas some hypothalamic nuclei and associated structures are larger in males. Numerous studies in rodents have demonstrated that when these nuclei are exposed to circulating androgens during the critical period around birth, they develop into male-typical structures. In addition to this organizational effect, androgens exert an activational effect during adulthood. For example, sexually dimorphic gene expression in the hypothalamus and amygdala depends on circulating androgen levels. Cckar encodes a G protein-coupled receptor and its expression is sexually dimorphic. The major of Cckar-expressing neurons in the ventrolateral division of ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) also express progesterone receptor (PR), with a female-biased expansion of arborizations in the anteroventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus. Selective ablation of these PR-positive neurons in the VMHvl results in a marked reduction in female sexual receptivity and male aggression, demonstrating that these sexually dimorphic neurons contribute to gendered behavior in mammals. Remarkable sex differences in single neurons have been documented in the fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster). The fruitless (fru) gene in the fruitfly is considered as a major regulator of male courtship circuitry; a male specific fru-expressing neuron cluster, P1, can initiate male courtship when artificially activated even in the absence of courtship target (e.g., a female). The fru gene encodes a set of putative transcription factors that appear to orchestrate the transcription of ~100 genes by recruiting chromatin regulators, histone deacetylase 1 or heterochromatin protein 1a, to the target sites. These studies have unraveled the causal link among genes, brain sexual dimorphisms and gendered behaviors.

  10. THE INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE RESPONSIBILITY ATTRIBUTION SCALE (IPVRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Lila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a psychometrically sound instrument to assess intimate partner violence offenders’ responsibility attributions: the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale. The scale was administrated to 423 adult male intimate partner violence offenders court-mandated to a community-based intervention program. A three factor structure (responsibility attribution to the legal system, responsibility attribution to the victim, and responsibility attribution to the offender personal context was supported using confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of the scales in this study was estimated using Cronbach’s alpha, ρ and greatest lower bound. The Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale correlated in theoretically expected ways with variables used to assess construct validity (system blaming, problems with partner, and responsibility assumption and with variables used to assess criterion-related validity (satisfaction with legal system, victim-blaming attitudes, alcohol consumption, hostile sexism, stressful life events, social desirability, impulsivity and household income. Results support the validity and reliability of the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale

  11. Male convict cichlid 11-ketotestosterone levels throughout the reproductive cycle: an exploratory profile study in laboratory and field populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie April van Breukelen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The convict cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata has been extensively examined in relation to many behavioral topics, such as courtship, pair-bonding, bi-parental care, and territoriality. Recently, this model species has been utilized in studies on genetics, endocrinology, and neuroanatomy, with an ultimate goal of connecting behavior with its underlying mechanisms. The goal of this study was two-fold: (1 profile the circulating levels of plasma 11KT in the male convict cichlid at multiple points during the reproductive cycle and (2 generally compare the hormonal profiles of the widely used laboratory populations and those of a free-living population in the streams of Costa Rica. The results of the field experiment showed that male convict cichlids had higher levels of circulating 11KT during courtship and lower during the parental care and non-breeding phases. The profile of the laboratory population was similar to the profile of the free-living individuals, with significantly higher levels of 11KT occurring during courtship than during parental care, though the level of 11KT during non-breeding phase was elevated in the laboratory. The high levels of 11KT during courtship and low levels of 11KT during parental care found in both the field and the laboratory is similar to what has been reported in other species of teleosts, and may suggest an important function of 11KT in the expression of courtship behavior and the subsequent onset of parental behaviors in this model species.

  12. Selectivity and plasticity in a sound-evoked male-male interaction in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Yoon

    Full Text Available During courtship, many animals, including insects, birds, fish, and mammals, utilize acoustic signals to transmit information about species identity. Although auditory communication is crucial across phyla, the neuronal and physiologic processes are poorly understood. Sound-evoked chaining behavior, a display of homosexual courtship behavior in Drosophila males, has long been used as an excellent model for analyzing auditory behavior responses, outcomes of acoustic perception and higher-order brain functions. Here we developed a new method, termed ChaIN (Chain Index Numerator, in which we use a computer-based auto detection system for chaining behavior. The ChaIN system can systematically detect the chaining behavior induced by a series of modified courtship song playbacks. Two evolutionarily related Drosophila species, Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans, exhibited dramatic selective increases in chaining behavior when exposed to specific auditory cues, suggesting that auditory discrimination processes are involved in the acceleration of chaining behavior. Prolonged monotonous pulse sounds containing courtship song components also induced high intense chaining behavior. Interestingly, the chaining behavior was gradually suppressed over time when song playback continued. This behavioral change is likely to be a plastic behavior and not a simple sensory adaptation or fatigue, because the suppression was released by applying a different pulse pattern. This behavioral plasticity is not a form of habituation because different modality stimuli did not recover the behavioral suppression. Intriguingly, this plastic behavior partially depended on the cAMP signaling pathway controlled by the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase gene that is important for learning and memory. Taken together, this study demonstrates the selectivity and behavioral kinetics of the sound-induced interacting behavior of Drosophila males, and provides a basis for the

  13. Intimate partner violence: psychological and verbal abuse during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This

  14. Suicidal Behavior among Low-Income, African American Female Victims of Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Janel M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined risk of suicidal behavior among low-income, African American women (N = 369) in three types of male intimate relationships--intimate terrorism (IT) (i.e., physical violence used within a general pattern of coercive control), situational couple violence (SCV; i.e., episodic physical violence that is not part of a general pattern…

  15. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  16. Barriers to Screening for Intimate Partner Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Simunovic, Nicole; Godin, Katelyn; Pham, Ngan K.; Bhandari, Mohit; Goslings, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health care providers play a vital role in the detection of intimate partner violence among their patients. Despite the recommendations for routine intimate partner violence screening in various medical settings, health care providers do not routinely screen for intimate partner

  17. The dating mind: evolutionary psychology and the emerging science of human courtship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Nathan; Miklousic, Igor

    2012-12-20

    In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.

  18. Persistent activity in a recurrent circuit underlies courtship memory in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lenek, Daniela; Dag, Ugur; Dickson, Barry J

    2018-01-01

    Recurrent connections are thought to be a common feature of the neural circuits that encode memories, but how memories are laid down in such circuits is not fully understood. Here we present evidence that courtship memory in Drosophila relies on the recurrent circuit between mushroom body gamma (MBγ), M6 output, and aSP13 dopaminergic neurons. We demonstrate persistent neuronal activity of aSP13 neurons and show that it transiently potentiates synaptic transmission from MBγ>M6 neurons. M6 neurons in turn provide input to aSP13 neurons, prolonging potentiation of MBγ>M6 synapses over time periods that match short-term memory. These data support a model in which persistent aSP13 activity within a recurrent circuit lays the foundation for a short-term memory. PMID:29322941

  19. A critical period of sleep for development of courtship circuitry and behavior in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2014-04-18

    Most animals sleep more early in life than in adulthood, but the function of early sleep is not known. Using Drosophila, we found that increased sleep in young flies was associated with an elevated arousal threshold and resistance to sleep deprivation. Excess sleep results from decreased inhibition of a sleep-promoting region by a specific dopaminergic circuit. Experimental hyperactivation of this circuit in young flies results in sleep loss and lasting deficits in adult courtship behaviors. These deficits are accompanied by impaired development of a single olfactory glomerulus, VA1v, which normally displays extensive sleep-dependent growth after eclosion. Our results demonstrate that sleep promotes normal brain development that gives rise to an adult behavior critical for species propagation and suggest that rapidly growing regions of the brain are most susceptible to sleep perturbations early in life.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  1. The best time to have sex: mating behaviour and effect of daylight time on male sexual competitiveness in the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito worldwide and works as a vector for many important pathogens. Control tools rely to chemical treatments against larvae, indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets. Recently, huge efforts have been carried out to propose new eco-friendly alternatives, such as evaluation of plant-borne compounds and sterile insect technique (SIT) programs. Success of SIT is dependent to the ability of sterile males to compete for mates with wild ones. Little is still known about mating behaviour of Aedes males. Most of the studies focus on comparisons of insemination ability in sterilised and wild males, while behavioural analyses of mating behaviour are lacking. Here, I quantified the courtship and mating behaviour of A. albopictus and evaluated how daylight hours affect male mating behaviour and success. A. albopictus males chased females facing them frontally, from behind, or from a lateral side. If the female allowed genital contact, copulation followed. Otherwise, females performed rejection kicks and/or flew away. Thirty-seven percent of males obtained a successful copulation (i.e. sperm transfer occurs), lasting 63 ± 4 s. Unsuccessful copulation (20 % of males) had shorter duration (18 ± 1 s). Successful copulations followed longer male courtships (39 ± 3 s), over courtships preceding unsuccessful copulation (20 ± 2 s) or male's rejection (22 ± 2 s). After copulation, the male rested 7 ± 0.4 s close to the female, then move off. In a semi-natural environment, male mating success was lower in early afternoon, over morning and late afternoon. However, little differences in courtship duration over daylight periods were found. This study adds knowledge to the reproductive behaviour of A. albopictus, which can be used to perform comparisons among courtship and mating ethograms from different mosquito species and strains, allowing monitoring and optimisation of mass rearing quality over time in SIT programs.

  2. Agreement on Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Blue-Collar Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was…

  3. Social Norms for Intimate Partner Violence in Situations Involving Victim Infidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tricia H.; Mulla, Mazheruddin M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated perceived descriptive norms (i.e., perceived prevalence) for male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) following victim infidelity (i.e., girlfriend had sex with another man). While watching a video-taped vignette of a young, dating couple in an argument that escalated to male-to-female violence, male…

  4. A Path Model of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence among Couples in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, John; Caetano, Raul; Cunradi, Carol B.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the impact of drinking problems, impulsivity, and a history of childhood physical abuse on both male-to-female (MFIPV) and female-to-male intimate partner violence (FMIPV). The data were collected in 1995 from a representative national sample of couples living in the contiguous 48 states. Using a…

  5. Intimate Femicide: A Study of Men Who Have Killed Their Mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen D.

    1993-01-01

    Examined demographic and situational factors related to killing of women by male intimate partners. Data from 23 men incarcerated for such homicides revealed portrait of offender as while male, aged 20-24, employed full-time prior to imprisonment, coming from stable childhood. Findings suggest that persons who are separated are most frequent…

  6. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  7. P1 interneurons promote a persistent internal state that enhances inter-male aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D; Jung, Yonil; Inagaki, Hidehiko K; Rubin, Gerald M; Anderson, David J

    2015-01-01

    How brains are hardwired to produce aggressive behavior, and how aggression circuits are related to those that mediate courtship, is not well understood. A large-scale screen for aggression-promoting neurons in Drosophila identified several independent hits that enhanced both inter-male aggression and courtship. Genetic intersections revealed that 8-10 P1 interneurons, previously thought to exclusively control male courtship, were sufficient to promote fighting. Optogenetic experiments indicated that P1 activation could promote aggression at a threshold below that required for wing extension. P1 activation in the absence of wing extension triggered persistent aggression via an internal state that could endure for minutes. High-frequency P1 activation promoted wing extension and suppressed aggression during photostimulation, whereas aggression resumed and wing extension was inhibited following photostimulation offset. Thus, P1 neuron activation promotes a latent, internal state that facilitates aggression and courtship, and controls the overt expression of these social behaviors in a threshold-dependent, inverse manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11346.001 PMID:26714106

  8. Store Data og Intime Detaljer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Jesper Fels; Bornakke, Tobias; Glavind, Kristoffer Pade

    2015-01-01

    løbet af det enkelte møde. Vi viser også, hvordan den fysiske nærhed, varierer over dagens og ugens forløb, og hvordan der sker en generel stigning i mødernes nærhed som semestret skrider frem. Undersøgelsen er et eksempel på, hvordan digitale sensordata kan tilbyde socialvidenskaben intime...

  9. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  10. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride reduced intimal hyperplasia in experimental rabbit vein graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Akio; Komori, Kimihiro; Hattori, Keisuke; Yamanouchi, Dai; Kajikuri, Junko; Itoh, Takeo

    2009-05-01

    The selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist sarpogrelate has been clinically used for treatment in atherosclerotic diseases. However, it remains unknown whether administration of sarpogrelate inhibits intimal hyperplasia seen in autologous vein grafts. Therefore, we sought to clarify this question using an experimental rabbit vein graft model. Male rabbits were divided into two groups: a control group and a sarpogrelate-treated group. The jugular vein was interposed in the carotid artery in reversed fashion for 4 weeks and intimal hyperplasia of the grafted vein was measured (n = 8, in each group). Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was tested by precontraction with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha), 5 muM) (n = 5, in each). endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and superoxide production of these veins were also assessed. The suppression of intimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the sarpogrelate-treated group than in the control group. ACh induced an endothelium-dependent relaxation in the sarpogrelate-treated group (but not in the control group). In endothelium-intact strips from the sarpogrelate-treated group, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor nitroarginine enhanced the PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction and blocked the ACh-induced relaxation. Immunoreactive eNOS protein expression was similar between the two groups but superoxide production (estimated from ethidium fluorescence) in endothelial cells was significantly smaller in the sarpogrelate-treated group. The present results indicate that in vivo blockade of 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to an inhibition of intimal hyperplasia in rabbit vein graft. It is suggested that an increased function of endothelium-derived NO through a reduction in endothelial superoxide production may be a possible underlying mechanism for this. These novel findings support the clinical usefulness of sarpogrelate for preventing intimal hyperplasia in vein graft after bypass

  11. A new East-Asian species in the Chrysoperla carnea-group of cryptic lacewing species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) based on distinct larval morphology and a unique courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles S; Brooks, Stephen J; Johnson, James B; Haruyama, Naoto; Duelli, Peter; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2015-02-11

    Larval morphology and substrate-borne vibrational courtship songs have been hypothesized to distinguish and isolate Chrysoperla 'nipponensis-B' from true 'Type A' Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), both of which occur sympatrically in eastern Asia. Here, we formally describe C. 'nipponensis-B' as Chrysoperla nigrocapitata sp.n., based on populations sampled throughout Japan and at two sites in South Korea. Behavioral playback experiments show that males and females of each species reject the duetting songs of non-conspecifics, supporting the existence in nature of strong premating reproductive isolation between the two species. Detailed morphological analysis substantiates that the adults of the two species are nearly identical. However, the dorsum of the larval head of C. nigrocapitata is usually darkly and heavily pigmented, in striking contrast to the condition seen in C. nipponensis; if available, it is probably the best trait for distinguishing the two species morphologically. Other aspects of life history, ecology, geographic distribution, and molecular systematics of the new species are briefly considered.

  12. Digest: Context matters: the effects of light environment and female presence on the structure of wolf spider courtship displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialko, Kristina

    2018-03-31

    Does variation in the environment in which a signal is presented affect the components of a complex, ritualized animal display? Using a signal phenotype network, Rosenthal et al. (2018) find that light and female presence alter the structure of wolf spider courtship displays, providing evidence that complex signaling behaviors may be modified depending on the social and environmental context. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Do male secondary sexual characters correlate with testis size and sperm length in the small hairy maggot blowfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  15. The effects of adult sex ratio on mating competition in male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Pierre J C; Brown, Grant E; Grant, James W A

    2016-08-01

    When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs. high ambient predation risk) on mating competition in male and female wild-caught Trinidadian guppies. Both male and female aggression rates increased with ASR, but the increase for males was only significant in the low-predation population. In regard to male mating tactics, courtship propensity was unaffected by ASR, while the propensity to sneak increased at male-biased ASRs. Guppies from a high predation population had lower aggression rates than their low predation counterpart, but male courtship and sneaking attempts did not differ between populations. Surprisingly, females were just as aggressive as males when competing for mates. These results highlight the trade-offs between antipredator and agonistic behaviour, which may affect sexual selection pressures in wild populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intimate partner violence: homicides followed by suicides in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sabrina; Hemenway, David

    2005-01-01

    Homicides followed by suicides are rare yet devastating events. This study, for the first time, details the problem in Kentucky by linking coroner, medical examiner, vital statistics and administrative judicial data. In the three-year period 1998-2000, there were 492 firearm homicides in Kentucky, of which 32 (6.5%) were followed by a firearm suicide. All perpetrators who followed their homicide by killing themselves were males. Just or 9% of firearm homicides (46/492) were intimate partner-related but the majority of these (54%) were followed by a suicide. Although we found that only a small percentage of firearm homicides a followed by firearm suicide, when women were shot and killed by their intimate partners, the perpetrator shot himself in two thirds of cases. Continued research about violent deaths might provide a better understanding of homicides followed by suicides--critical for surveillance and prevention efforts.

  17. Intimate relations and sexual abuse in Danish Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støckel, Jan Toftegaard

    This chapter reports the first phase of a two-phase research project investigating the prevalence of potentially threatening and abusive behaviours in a sample of male and female Danish athletes. A cross sectional, retrospective design, using a mailed survey, provided a quantitative assessment....... These relationships occurred during the athlete’s childhood (0.5%), adolescence (8%) or adulthood (28%). Data showed no statistically significant differences between reporting personal experiences of intimate relationships at various sports levels (from recreational thru to elite sport) or between gender. Respondents...... reporting to have had experienced an intimate relationship with a coach as an adult had a more positive response regarding the relationship than athletes experiencing the same at 13-17 years of age. Elite athletes had a more critical response to coach-athlete relationships than at other sport levels...

  18. Nurses' roles in screening for intimate partner violence: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Natour, A; Qandil, A; Gillespie, G L

    2016-09-01

    To describe Jordanian nurses' roles and practices in screening for intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence is a recognized global health problem with a prevalence of 37% for the Eastern Mediterranean region. Jordanian nurses screening for intimate partner violence is as low as 10.8%. Nurses have encountered institutional and personal barriers hindering their screening practice. A descriptive phenomenological design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 12 male and female Jordanian nurses working at a university hospital in Jordan participated. Participants were interviewed in 2014 using a semi-structured, face-to-face interview. Steps of Colaizzi's phenomenological method were used to analyse the qualitative data. Four themes were derived from the data: (1) screening practices and roles for suspected IPV cases, (2) advantages for screening and disadvantages for not screening for intimate partner violence, (3) factors hindering screening practice and (4) feelings towards screening and not screening for intimate partner violence. Increasing Jordanian nurses' awareness of the need for intimate partner violence screening in this sample was needed. Professional education and training may facilitate the adoption of intimate partner violence screening practices. A key barrier to intimate partner violence screening is Jordanian nurses' personal beliefs. Overcoming these personal beliefs will necessitate a multi-faceted approach starting with schools of nursing and bridging into healthcare settings. Healthcare professionals including nursing and policy makers at health institutions should enforce screening policies and protocols for all receipt of care at first contact. In addition, an emphasis on modelling culturally congruent approaches to develop the trusting nurse-patient relationships and process for screening patients for intimate partner violence. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Intimate partner violence in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M

    2002-01-01

    Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.

  20. Strategic exploitation of fluctuating asymmetry in male Endler’s guppy courtship displays is modulated by social environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řežucha, Radomil; Reichard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 356-367 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural laterality * experience * Poecilia wingei * sidedness * sigmoid display * social environment Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2015

  1. Male–female relatedness and patterns of male reproductive investment in guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Luisa J.; Gasparini, Clelia; Fitzpatrick, John L.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Inbreeding can cause reductions in fitness, driving the evolution of pre- and postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. There is now considerable evidence for such processes in females, but few studies have focused on males, particularly in the context of postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Here, we address this topic by exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to either full-sibling or unrelated females and determining whether they adjust investment in courtship and ejaculates. Our results revealed that males reduce their courtship but concomitantly exhibit short-term increases in ejaculate quality when paired with siblings. In conjunction with prior work reporting cryptic female preferences for unrelated sperm, our present findings reveal possible sexually antagonistic counter-adaptations that may offset postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance by females. PMID:24806425

  2. Song choice is modulated by female movement in Drosophila males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Trott

    Full Text Available Mate selection is critical to ensuring the survival of a species. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic and anatomical studies have focused on mate recognition and courtship initiation for decades. This model system has proven to be highly amenable for the study of neural systems controlling the decision making process. However, much less is known about how courtship quality is regulated in a temporally dynamic manner in males and how a female assesses male performance as she makes her decision of whether to accept copulation. Here, we report that the courting male dynamically adjusts the relative proportions of the song components, pulse song or sine song, by assessing female locomotion. Male flies deficient for olfaction failed to perform the locomotion-dependent song modulation, indicating that olfactory cues provide essential information regarding proximity to the target female. Olfactory mutant males also showed lower copulation success when paired with wild-type females, suggesting that the male's ability to temporally control song significantly affects female mating receptivity. These results depict the consecutive inter-sex behavioral decisions, in which a male smells the close proximity of a female as an indication of her increased receptivity and accordingly coordinates his song choice, which then enhances the probability of his successful copulation.

  3. Song choice is modulated by female movement in Drosophila males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, Alexander R; Donelson, Nathan C; Griffith, Leslie C; Ejima, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Mate selection is critical to ensuring the survival of a species. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, genetic and anatomical studies have focused on mate recognition and courtship initiation for decades. This model system has proven to be highly amenable for the study of neural systems controlling the decision making process. However, much less is known about how courtship quality is regulated in a temporally dynamic manner in males and how a female assesses male performance as she makes her decision of whether to accept copulation. Here, we report that the courting male dynamically adjusts the relative proportions of the song components, pulse song or sine song, by assessing female locomotion. Male flies deficient for olfaction failed to perform the locomotion-dependent song modulation, indicating that olfactory cues provide essential information regarding proximity to the target female. Olfactory mutant males also showed lower copulation success when paired with wild-type females, suggesting that the male's ability to temporally control song significantly affects female mating receptivity. These results depict the consecutive inter-sex behavioral decisions, in which a male smells the close proximity of a female as an indication of her increased receptivity and accordingly coordinates his song choice, which then enhances the probability of his successful copulation.

  4. Sexual experience enhances Drosophila melanogaster male mating behavior and success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehresh Saleem

    Full Text Available Competition for mates is a wide-spread phenomenon affecting individual reproductive success. The ability of animals to adjust their behaviors in response to changing social environment is important and well documented. Drosophila melanogaster males compete with one another for matings with females and modify their reproductive behaviors based on prior social interactions. However, it remains to be determined how male social experience that culminates in mating with a female impacts subsequent male reproductive behaviors and mating success. Here we show that sexual experience enhances future mating success. Previously mated D. melanogaster males adjust their courtship behaviors and out-compete sexually inexperienced males for copulations. Interestingly, courtship experience alone is not sufficient in providing this competitive advantage, indicating that copulation plays a role in reinforcing this social learning. We also show that females use their sense of hearing to preferentially mate with experienced males when given a choice. Our results demonstrate the ability of previously mated males to learn from their positive sexual experiences and adjust their behaviors to gain a mating advantage. These experienced-based changes in behavior reveal strategies that animals likely use to increase their fecundity in natural competitive environments.

  5. Coding Conversation between Intimates: A Validation Study of the Intimate Negotiation Coding System (INCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    A study was conducted to test the reliability and validity of the Intimate Coding System (INCS)--an instrument designed to code verbal conversation in intimate relationships. Subjects, 34 married couples, completed Spanier's Dyadic Adjustment Scale, which elicited information about relational adjustment and satisfaction in intimate couples in…

  6. Self-reported characteristics of women and men with intimate body piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Carol; Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a study exploring factors associated with female and male intimate body piercing, with particular emphasis on health issues. Nipple and genital piercings (intimate piercings) have become common types of body art. Scant medical and nursing literature is available, leading to little understanding of these body modifications by health care providers. A convenience sample of intimately pierced individuals (63 women and 83 men) from 29 states in the United States of America was surveyed via an author-developed questionnaire. Questions focused on demographic characteristics, decision factors and health problems related to intimate piercings. Self-reported characteristics were compared between female and male participants, and participants were compared demographically to United States general population. Participants reported wearing nipple piercings (43%), genital piercings (25%) and both types (32%). Respondents were significantly younger, less ethnically diverse, better educated, less likely to be married, more often homosexual or bisexual and they initiated sexual activity at a younger age than the US population. Deliberate, individual decisions for procurement of the intimate piercings were made. Average purchase consideration was at age 25 (nipple) and 27 (genital); average age to obtain the piercing was 27 (nipple) and 28 (genital) years. Purposes for obtaining the piercings included uniqueness, self-expression and sexual expression. Most participants still liked their piercing (73-90%). Health concerns related to intimate piercings were described by both those with nipple piercings (66%) and with genital piercings (52%) and included site sensitivity, skin irritation, infection and change in urinary flow (male genital). Few STDs (3%) were reported and no HIV or hepatitis. Usually non-medical advice was sought for problems -- often from the body piercer. Understanding client rationale is not a necessary

  7. Reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence in obstetrics and gynecology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lindsay E; Allen, Rebecca H; Goyal, Vinita; Raker, Christina; Gottlieb, Amy S

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive coercion is male behavior to control contraception and pregnancy outcomes of female partners. We examined the prevalence of reproductive coercion and co-occurring intimate partner violence among women presenting for routine care at a large, urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. Women aged 18-44 years completed a self-administered, anonymous survey. Reproductive coercion was defined as a positive response to at least 1 of 14 questions derived from previously published studies. Women who experienced reproductive coercion were also assessed for intimate partner violence in the relationship where reproductive coercion occurred. Of 641 women who completed the survey, 16% reported reproductive coercion currently or in the past. Among women who experienced reproductive coercion, 32% reported that intimate partner violence occurred in the same relationship. Single women were more likely to experience reproductive coercion as well as co-occurring intimate partner violence. Reproductive coercion with co-occurring intimate partner violence is prevalent among women seeking general obstetrics and gynecology care. Health care providers should routinely assess reproductive-age women for reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence and tailor their family planning discussions and recommendations accordingly. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization in Latino Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grest, Carolina Villamil; Amaro, Hortensia; Unger, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    Despite the prevalence of intimate partner violence in emerging adulthood, literature focused on this life stage among Latinos remains limited. This longitudinal study examined acculturation; traditional gender role attitudes; use of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco; and depressive symptoms in 10th grade as predictors of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization among Latino emerging adults (N = 823; 58% female). Average age of participants was 15.5 years in 10th grade and 22.7 years in emerging adulthood. The results indicate important gender differences in intimate partner violence outcomes for Latino emerging adults. Higher U.S. acculturation predicted physical intimate partner violence perpetration among young men. More traditional gender role attitudes were significantly associated with psychological and physical intimate partner violence perpetration among male Latino emerging adults. Among Latinas, alcohol use in 10th grade predicted psychological perpetration and victimization in emerging adulthood. The findings have implications for developing gender- and ethnic-relevant prevention interventions focused on intimate partner violence among Latino adolescents and emerging adults.

  9. Intimate partner violence and companion animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiplady, C M; Walsh, D B; Phillips, C J C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intimate partner violence (IPV) on companion animal welfare. Self-selected telephone survey of people meeting the criteria. Members of the Australian public with experience of IPV and concurrent companion animal ownership were invited to telephone a researcher for a semi-structured interview. In total, 26 Australian women reported one or more companion animals in the household being verbally and/or physically abused by their male partner, usually with prolonged effects on animal behaviour; 92% indicated that they had been unwilling to discuss the animal abuse with a veterinarian. Many were unaware of animal accommodation services for people fleeing violence and those who did know about these were unwilling to use them, citing their bond with the animals as the main reason. Animals targeted for abuse were most likely to be dogs and owned by women rather than men, children or both partners. Animals can be severely affected by domestic violence situations and many people experiencing violence are unwilling to confide in veterinarians or seek help from animal shelters. © 2012 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2012 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Burden of intimate partner violence in The Gambia - a cross sectional study of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoko, Patrick; Ogbe, Emmanuel; Jallow, Oley; Ocheke, Amaka

    2015-04-21

    Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem that cuts across geographic and cultural barriers. Intimate partner violence refers to the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against women by current or former male intimate partners. The frequency and severity of violence varies greatly but the main goal is usually to control the victims through fear and intimidation. About 80% of Gambian women believe it is acceptable for a man to beat his wife thus encouraging the perpetuation of violence against women. The objective was to ascertain the burden of intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Gambia. A cross sectional survey was carried out at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia, on antenatal clinic attendees between October and December 2012, using a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. All pregnant women were informed about the study at the antenatal booking clinic. Of the 161 pregnant women informed, 136 (84.5%) consented to take part and were recruited in the study. Descriptive analysis was done using the Epi info statistical software. Any pregnant woman booking for the first time during the period of the study was eligible to be recruited into the study. Majority of enrolled participants (61.8%) reported intimate partner violence. Verbal forms of intimate partner violence were the commonest forms, with 12% requiring medical care on account of intimate partner violence and 3% prevented from seeking healthcare as a result of such violence. Intimate partner violence is common in The Gambia, West Africa and is a threat to women's health.

  11. The relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and violence in intimate relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Cumbie, Tamra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between egalitarianism, dominance, and intimate partner violence within the context of couples’ dynamics. In particular, it was hypothesized that dominance and sexist attitudes would have both self and partner effects on relationship aggression. To test this hypothesis, gender role egalitarianism, dominance/control, sexism, power dynamics, and aggression were assessed using several measures. Questionnaires for these measures were completed by 87 heterosexual dyads. The relationship between female and male scores on the dominance, egalitarianism, sexism, and intimate partner violence scales were examined using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Findings indicated that the APIM model provided a satisfactory fit to the data*. For both sexes, dominance had more explanatory power than sexism and egalitarianism when all else was controlled in the model. Furthermore, contrary to our expectation, male egalitarian attitude had no significant actor or partner effect on relationship aggression, while female egalitarian attitude had significant actor and partner effects on relationship aggression. Dyadic analysis indicated that cultural pointers of patriarchy, such as egalitarianism among young college students, were not associated with male-to-female violence. The sample size might also have an effect on this result in that a larger sample with older participants might yield different results. PMID:23123589

  12. Intimate Terrorism by Women Towards Men: Does it Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2010-01-01

    Research showing that women commit high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) against men has been controversial because IPV is typically framed as caused by the patriarchal construction of society and men’s domination over women. Johnson’s (1995) typology of common couple violence (CCV) and intimate terrorism (IT) attempted to resolve this controversy, but he maintained that IT was caused by patriarchy and committed almost exclusively by men. This study investigates Johnson’s theory as it applies to a sample of 302 men who sustained IPV from their female partners and sought help, and a comparison sample of community men. Results showed that the male helpseekers sample was comprised of victims of IT and that violence by the male victims was part of a pattern of what Johnson labels violent resistance. Men in the community sample who were involved in IPV conformed to Johnson’s description of CCV. Results are discussed in terms of research, policy, and practice implications of acknowledging women’s use of severe IPV and controlling behavior against their male partners. PMID:21165167

  13. Chaperone use during intimate examinations in primary care: postal survey of family physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians have long been advised to have a third party present during certain parts of a physical examination; however, little is known about the frequency of chaperone use for those specific intimate examinations regularly performed in primary care. We aimed to determine the frequency of chaperone use among family physicians across a variety of intimate physical examinations for both male and female patients, and also to identify the factors associated with chaperone use. Methods Questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 500 Ontario members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. Participants were asked about their use of chaperones when performing a variety of intimate examinations, namely female pelvic, breast, and rectal exams and male genital and rectal exams. Results 276 of 500 were returned (56%, of which 257 were useable. Chaperones were more commonly used with female patients than with males (t = 9.09 [df = 249], p Conclusion Clinical practice concerning the use of chaperones during intimate exams continues to be discordant with the recommendations of medical associations and medico-legal societies. Chaperones are used by only a minority of Ontario family physicians. Chaperone use is higher for examinations of female patients than of male patients and is highest for female pelvic exams. The availability of a nurse in the clinic to act as a chaperone is associated with more frequent use of chaperones.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and Contribution of Drinking and Sociodemographics: The Brazilian National Alcohol Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Marcos; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Caetano, Raul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate prevalence rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Brazilian couples and to assess the contribution of drinking and sociodemographic factors to the risk of IPV. Methods: A sample consisting of 1,445 married or cohabitating males and females in the Brazilian population was interviewed. The survey response rate was 66%.…

  15. Associations between dysfunctional personality traits and intimate partner violence in perpetrators and victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J.J.; Baan, L.; Bogaerts, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the role of borderline and antisocial personality traits and psychological and physical forms of intimate partner violence were examined. Using self- and partner-reports, 30 perpetrators (28 males) and 30 victims (29 females) of partner violence, including 23 (former) couples,

  16. Gender-Specific Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide: A Nationwide Register-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Gronroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helina

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in intimate partner homicide (IPH) and offender characteristics with the focus on putative gender-specific risk factors in a nationwide consecutive sample of homicide offenders. Data on all offenders (N = 642; 91 females, 551 males) convicted of homicide and subjected to a forensic psychiatric…

  17. Engaging Intercollegiate Athletes in Preventing and Intervening in Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Mary M.; Banyard, Victoria L.; Arnold, Julie S.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Stapleton, Jane G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The object of this exploratory evaluation was to evaluate the "Bringing in the Bystander" sexual and intimate partner violence prevention program with a new sample of intercollegiate athletes. Participants and Methods: Fifty-three male and female athletes participated in the program (experimental group), and 86 were in the control…

  18. Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette; Abbott, Jessica K.; Philipsborn, Anne von

    2015-01-01

    Although males are generally less discriminating than females when it comes to choosing a mate, they still benefit from distinguishing between mates that are receptive to courtship and those that are not, in order to avoid wasting time and energy. It is known that males of Drosophila melanogaster...... of the experiment was carried out in darkness.This is, to our knowledge 1) the first evidence that male D. melanogaster can use more arbitrary cues and 2) the first evidence that males use visual cues during mate choice learning. Our findings suggest that that D. melanogaster has untapped potential as a model...

  19. Abused Women's Understandings of Intimate Partner Violence and the Link to Intimate Femicide

    OpenAIRE

    Dekel, Bianca; Andipatin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed...

  20. Men's sense of humor and women's responses to courtship solicitations: an experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2010-08-01

    Producing humor might function as a fitness indicator associated with greater desirability during dating selection. A male confederate in a bar was instructed to tell (or not tell) funny jokes to two other male confederates. A few minutes later, when the second of two male confederates left, the first male confederate asked a female who was near his table and who had heard the funny jokes for her phone number. The previous expression of humor was associated with greater compliance with the male confederate's request and with a higher positive evaluation. The possible effects of humor are discussed from an evolutionary perspective.

  1. Intimate relationships of Devadasi sex workers in South India: An exploration of risks of HIV/STI transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaik, Satyanarayana; Thompson, Laura H; du Plessis, Elsabé; Pelto, Pertti; Annigeri, Vinod; Doddamane, Mahesh; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Shaw, Souradet Y; Deering, Kathleen; Khan, Shamshad; Halli, Shiva S; Lorway, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Global literature on female sex workers suggests that being in an intimate relationship is associated with barriers to practising safe sex behaviours. Condom use within intimate relationships is often seen as a sign of infidelity and fosters mistrust which could affect longevity, trust and intimacy within partnerships. Using qualitative data from Devadasi sex workers and their intimate male partners in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India, we examined both partners' perspectives to understand the quality and dynamics of these relationships and the factors that influence condom use in intimate relationships. Our thematic analysis of individual interviews conducted in May 2011 with 20 couples suggests that many Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners define their relationships as 'like marriage' which reduced their motivation to use condoms. Evidence from this study suggests that active participation in sex workers' collectives (sanghas) can increase condom use, education and family planning services, among other things, and could be helpful for both Devadasis and their intimate partners to better understand and accept safer sexual practices. Our work has direct implications for designing couple-based health interventions for traditional Devadasi sex workers and their intimate partners in India.

  2. Cooperative Decision-Making and Intimate Partner Violence in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svec, Joseph; Andic, Tanja

    2018-03-01

    Using the continuous Demographic and Health Surveys (2005-2012) for Peru, we employ multinomial logistic regression estimates to assess risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Using empowerment and gender frameworks for IPV, we find that women making more household decisions jointly are less likely to experience physical violence. We also find that education is negatively associated with IPV, unless a woman's attainment exceeds her partner's. Although women earning more than their partners are more likely to experience violence, joint decision-makers have a lower risk of moderate physical violence even when their status exceeds that of a male partner. By adding measures for relationship dynamics, we highlight the ways decision-making within the household contributes to violence risk for women. While deviating from male-breadwinning norms can result in violence, risk factors are conditioned on the nature of cooperation within a partnership. Our findings suggest that shared power within the household reduces IPV risk.

  3. Gender role attitudes, relationship efficacy, and self-disclosure in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rebecca M; Johnson, Matthew D

    2018-01-01

    Drawing from the intimacy process model and data from 5,042 individuals who remained partnered across Waves 1 and 2 of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the contributions of traditional gender role attitudes and relationship efficacy in predicting levels of self-disclosure within an intimate relationship. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated females scored higher than males on self-disclosure and relationship efficacy measures but lower on traditional gender role attitudes. An ordinary least squares regression analysis revealed relationship efficacy was a stronger predictor of self-disclosure compared to traditional gender role attitudes, which were not associated with self-disclosure. The findings suggest attitudes with an interpersonal motivational system may be especially important for setting the intimacy process into motion within an intimate union.

  4. Understanding intimate partner violence and its correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikumar Ramadugu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study assessed intimate partner violence (IPV and alcohol use in an urban population in Pune, India. The prevalence of IPV and alcohol use was assessed along with the correlation of IPV with alcohol and other variables. Materials and Methods: The study was cross-sectional, questionnaire-based. The materials used were the hurt insult threaten scream (HITS scale, the alcohol use disorders identification test, and a brief psychosocial questionnaire. Systematic random sampling was done on the target population. Regression analysis of various factors in relation to HITS score was done. Results: Sample size (n was 318 individuals. Prevalence of IPV was found to be 16% and the victims were mostly women. Prevalence of alcohol use was 44%, of which 8.9% were harmful users. No female subjects consumed alcohol, but 94% were aware of their husband's alcohol consumption. No significant correlation was found between IPV and education (P = 0.220 or income of women (P = 0.250. Alcohol consumption by males was a significant risk factor for women experiencing IPV (σ = +0.524; P< 0.001. Regression analysis also revealed that increasing marital age (P = 0.019 and financial support from in-laws (P = 0.040 were significantly protective. Conclusion: IPV prevalence was less than the national average for India, but the majority of victims was women. The most common type of IPV was verbal. Alcohol use prevalence was higher than the national average, but harmful use was lower. Alcohol use is a significant risk factor for IPV. Education and income of women were not significantly protective against IPV but increased age at marriage and support from in-laws were.

  5. Intimate partner violence among health professionals: distribution by autonomous communities in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: among women, an intimate partner violence screening questionnaire; and among men, a questionnaire that screened for violence in the family environment. RESULTS A total of 1,039 health professionals participated in the study. Of these, 26% had suffered some type of abuse. Among the men, this prevalence was 2.7%, while among the women, it was 33.8%. There were differences in the prevalence of intimate partner violence among different autonomous communities, with the highest percentages in the Canary Islands. In terms of profession, 19.5% of the doctors had been exposed to intimate partner violence, while this percentage was 31% and 48.6% for nurses and nursing professionals, respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of intimate partner violence among healthcare personnel in most of the autonomous communities of Spain. The data demonstrate the need to implement action plans, both to support victims and to mitigate the problem.

  6. Intimate partner violence among health professionals: distribution by autonomous communities in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; Recio-Andrade, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides) in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: among women, an intimate partner violence screening questionnaire; and among men, a questionnaire that screened for violence in the family environment. RESULTS A total of 1,039 health professionals participated in the study. Of these, 26% had suffered some type of abuse. Among the men, this prevalence was 2.7%, while among the women, it was 33.8%. There were differences in the prevalence of intimate partner violence among different autonomous communities, with the highest percentages in the Canary Islands. In terms of profession, 19.5% of the doctors had been exposed to intimate partner violence, while this percentage was 31% and 48.6% for nurses and nursing professionals, respectively. CONCLUSION The results indicate the presence of intimate partner violence among healthcare personnel in most of the autonomous communities of Spain. The data demonstrate the need to implement action plans, both to support victims and to mitigate the problem.

  7. Community level effects of gender inequality on intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia: testing the feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallitto, Christina C; O'Campo, Patricia

    2005-05-01

    Violence against women, especially by intimate partners, is a serious public health problem that is associated with physical, reproductive, and mental health consequences. The effect of intimate partner violence on women's ability to control their fertility and the mechanisms through which these phenomena are related merit further investigation. Building on findings from a previous analysis in which a statistically significant relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia was found, this analysis examines the effect of gender inequality on this association using data from the 2000 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. Specifically, the objective of this analysis is to explore whether gender inequality (as measured by women's autonomy, women's status, male patriarchal control, and intimate partner violence) in municipalities partially explains the association between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Colombia. Results of logistic regression analysis with multi-level data show that living in a municipality with high rates of male patriarchal control significantly increased women's odds of having an unintended pregnancy by almost four times. Also, living in a municipality with high rates of intimate partner violence increased one's odds of unintended pregnancy by more than 2.5 times, and non-abused women living in municipalities with high rates of intimate partner violence were at a significantly increased risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, abused women living in a municipality with high personal female decision-making autonomy had more than a fourfold increased risk of having an unintended pregnancy. These findings demonstrate the need for reproductive health programs to target areas at particularly high risk for unintended pregnancy by reducing intimate partner violence and gender inequality.

  8. Behaviour of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during an induced mating season in captivity: how male relative size influences male behavioural investment and female preference over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgan, M; O'Brien, J; Picciulin, M; Manning, L; Gammell, M

    2017-04-01

    The behaviour of sexually mature Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus specimens (fifth farm generation) was observed in captivity for four consecutive days. Only agonistic interactions between males of different size were facilitated on the first 2 days, while both agonistic and courtship interactions were possible from the third day up to the end of the experiment. The reliability of behavioural analysis was assessed in order to reduce the possibility of observer errors within the generated datasets. The behavioural investment of big males, small males and females was analysed using general linear models (two-way repeated measures ANOVAs with time and male size as factors). A peak in the agonistic interactions between males occurred during the first day of interactions, where the agonistic investment of big males was significantly higher than that of small males. This resulted in an increased investment in submissive behaviour by the small males, who consistently performed submissive behaviours from the second day of interactions up to the end of the trial. Big males were found to invest significantly more than small males in courtship behaviours for the duration of the trial. Even though females performed inter-sexual behaviours towards both big and small males for the entire observation period, female interaction rate towards big males was higher than towards small males. This study suggests that both male investment in mating behaviour and female preference might be related to male characteristics such as body length and that S. alpinus behavioural patterns and mate choice cues might be strongly context-related and characterized by high levels of behavioural plasticity (i.e. presence-absence of certain behavioural units or potential reversal of a mate choice cue) within the same species. Finally, in light of this, some conservation measures are discussed. In particular, effective management plans should take into account the high level of behavioural plasticity

  9. 'Struggling to be the alpha': sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.

  10. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Kausalya

    2012-01-01

    Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments) and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  11. Environmentally realistic exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters some sexually selected traits in male guppies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kausalya Shenoy

    Full Text Available Male mating signals, including ornaments and courtship displays, and other sexually selected traits, like male-male aggression, are largely controlled by sex hormones. Environmental pollutants, notably endocrine disrupting compounds, can interfere with the proper functioning of hormones, thereby impacting the expression of hormonally regulated traits. Atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides, can alter sex hormone levels in exposed animals. I tested the effects of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures on mating signals and behaviors in male guppies, a sexually dimorphic freshwater fish. Prolonged atrazine exposure reduced the expression of two honest signals: the area of orange spots (ornaments and the number of courtship displays performed. Atrazine exposure also reduced aggression towards competing males in the context of mate competition. In the wild, exposure levels vary among individuals because of differential distribution of the pollutants across habitats; hence, differently impacted males often compete for the same mates. Disrupted mating signals can reduce reproductive success as females avoid mating with perceptibly suboptimal males. Less aggressive males are at a competitive disadvantage and lose access to females. This study highlights the effects of atrazine on ecologically relevant mating signals and behaviors in exposed wildlife. Altered reproductive traits have important implications for population dynamics, evolutionary patterns, and conservation of wildlife species.

  12. Genetic analysis of male reproductive success in relation to density in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan William C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used behavioural and genetic data to investigate the effects of density on male reproductive success in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Based on previous measurements of aggression and courtship behaviour by territorial males, we predicted that they would sire more offspring than non-territorial males. Results Microsatellite analysis of paternity showed that at low densities territorial males had higher reproductive success than non-territorial males. However, at high density territorial males were no more successful than non-territorials and the sex difference in the opportunity for sexual selection, based on the parameter Imates, was low. Conclusion Male zebrafish exhibit two distinct mating tactics; territoriality and active pursuit of females. Male reproductive success is density dependent and the opportunity for sexual selection appears to be weak in this species.

  13. Experiences of physical violence by women living with intimate partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Madzimbalale

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence directed towards females by male partners is a common significant global public health problem. Most victims of physical aggression such as women and children are subjected to multiple acts of violence over extended periods of time, suffering from more than one type of abuse, for example physical which is more symbolic and evidenced by scars. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of the symbols of physical violence as experienced by women who live with intimate partners in the Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province. The research design of this study was qualitative, exploratory and descriptive in nature. The accessible population was those participants who used the trauma unit A in a particular hospital. Seven women comprised the sample of the study. In-depth individual interviews were conducted exploring the women’s experiences in the context of physical violence. From the data collected all seven participants experienced some form of physical violence which resulted in permanent deformity. They experienced some form of battering such as kicking, stabbing, burning, fracturing, strangling and choking. Recommendations were made that health care providers are encouraged to implement screening for physical violence, to provide appropriate interventions if assault is identified and to provide appropriate education regarding, employment opportunities, legal literacy, and rights to inheritance. Human rights education and information regarding domestic violence should be provided to them because this is their absolute right (UNICEF, 2000:14.

  14. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    OpenAIRE

    Ingmar Weiss; Joachim Ruther; Johannes Stökl

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the invest...

  15. Male Mating Signaling in Social Dilemma Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2013-01-01

    being observed by an attractive woman engage in competitive economic altruism in three social dilemma games — the Dictator Game, Trust Game (2nd mover), and Public Goods Game — in comparison to men being observed by a non-attractive woman. Results showed that altruistic contributions in the games were...... effect on altruism. Moderating effects of key individual differences suggest that the mixed findings within the empirical literature may be attributed to the existence of multiple male courtship signaling strategies. As such, the findings suggest a promising way for future studies to identify different...... signaling strategies, but until the findings can be replicated with specific hypothesis-driven studies they should be considered with caution....

  16. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained first. Afterwards, the findings of content analysis which was obtained from newspaper reports about femicide in 2013 have been shown and these findings have been discussed within the context of I-cube theory, respectively. Finally, solutions to prevent this violence has been suggested.

  17. A signal-substrate match in the substrate-borne component of a multimodal courtship display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian O. ELIAS, Andrew C. MASON, Eileen A. HEBETS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The environment can impose strong limitations on the efficacy of signal transmission. In particular, for vibratory communication, the signaling environment is often extremely heterogeneous at very small scales. Nevertheless, natural selection is expected to select for signals well-suited to effective transmission. Here, we test for substrate-dependent signal efficacy in the wolf spider Schizocosa stridulans Stratton 1991. We first explore the transmission characteristics of this important signaling modality by playing recorded substrate-borne signals through three different substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and red clay and measuring the propagated signal. We found that the substrate-borne signal of S. stridulans attenuates the least on leaf litter, the substrate upon which the species is naturally found. Next, by assessing mating success with artificially muted and non-muted males across different signaling substrates (leaf litter, pine litter, and sand, we explored the relationship between substrate-borne signaling and substrate for mating success. We found that muted males were unsuccessful in obtaining copulations regardless of substrate, while mating success was dependent on the signaling substrate for non-muted males. For non-muted males, more males copulated on leaf litter than any other substrate. Taken together, these results confirm the importance of substrate-borne signaling in S. stridulans and suggest a match between signal properties and signal efficacy – leaf litter transmits the signal most effectively and males are most successful in obtaining copulations on leaf litter [Current Zoology 56 (3: 370–378, 2010].

  18. Binge drinking and violence against intimate partners in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysova, Aleksandra V; Hines, Denise A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to provide information on the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and binge drinking among Russian university students. Using data from 500 (58% female) university students from the four Russian sites of the International Dating Violence Study, we found gender differences in rates of IPV perpetration and in the association between binge drinking and IPV. Specifically, more females than males perpetrated IPV, and the associations between binge drinking and IPV were stronger for the female students than for the male students. In addition, antisocial traits and behavior (ATSB) were significantly related to both binge drinking and IPV perpetration for males and females. For males, the relatively weak associations between binge drinking and IPV perpetration disappeared once ASTB was accounted for. For females, the relationship decreased but remained significant when ATSB was statistically controlled. Path analyses confirmed that this pattern of relationships would be consistent with ATSB serving as a partial mediator between binge drinking and IPV perpetration. However, other alternative mediation and moderation models for the relationships between binge drinking, IPV perpetration, and ATSB could not be ruled out with this one-wave correlational study.

  19. Guns, alcohol, and intimate partner violence: the epidemiology of female suicide in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, L; Huyler, F; Lynch, A W; Fullerton, L; Werenko, D; Sklar, D; Zumwalt, R

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is among the leading causes of death in the United States, and in women the second leading cause of injury death overall. Previous studies have suggested links between intimate partner violence and suicide in women. We examined female suicide deaths to identify and describe associated risk factors. We reviewed all reports from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator for female suicide deaths occurring in New Mexico from 1990 to 1994. Information abstracted included demographics, mechanism of death, presence of alcohol/drugs, clinical depression, intimate partner violence, health problems, and other variables. Annual rates were calculated based on the 1990 census. The New Mexico female suicide death rate was 8.2/100,000 persons per year (n = 313), nearly twice the U.S. rate of 4.5/100,000. Non-Hispanic whites were overrepresented compared to Hispanics and American Indians. Decedents ranged in age from 14 to 93 years (median = 43 years). Firearms accounted for 45.7% of the suicide deaths, followed by ingested poisons (29.1%), hanging (10.5%), other (7.7%), and inhaled poisons (7.0%). Intimate partner violence was documented in 5.1% of female suicide deaths; in an additional 22.1% of cases, a male intimate partner fought with or separated from the decedent immediately preceding the suicide. Nearly two-thirds (65.5%) of the decedents had alcohol or drugs present in their blood at autopsy. Among decedents who had alcohol present (34.5%), blood alcohol levels were far higher among American Indians compared to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites (p = .01). Interpersonal conflict was documented in over 25% of cases, indicating that studies of the mortality of intimate partner violence should include victims of both suicide and homicide deaths to fully characterize the mortality patterns of intimate partner violence.

  20. Interactions between males guppies facilitates the transmission of the monogenean ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, E L; van Oosterhout, C; Cable, J

    2012-12-01

    In a previous study we found that female guppies shoaled more than males and that there was greater transmission of the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli between females. Here, to test for a possible sex bias in parasite transmission, we conducted a similar experiment on single sex shoals of male and female guppies, observing host behaviour before and after the introduction of an infected shoal mate. The initial parasite burden was considerably lower in the present experiment (30 worms versus >100 worms previously) and we used a different stock of ornamental guppies (Green Cobra variety versus a Tuxedo hybrid previously). Contrary to our previous finding, males aggregated significantly more than females. Males performed 'sigmoid' displays towards each other, a courtship behaviour that is more generally directed towards females. Due to the high rate of male-male interactions, parasite transmission was 10 times higher between males than between females. Furthermore, shoaling intensity was highest for the most parasitised fish indicating that these infected fish were not avoided by non-parasitised conspecifics. These studies show that certain social behaviours including shoaling and courtship displays, appear to facilitate the transmission of gyrodactylid parasites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intimate Partner Aggression-related Shame and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: The Moderating Role of Substance Use Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H.; Duke, Aaron A.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Swan, Suzanne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.

    2017-01-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women’s use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women’s use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally-avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women’s shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women’s intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. PMID:26699821

  2. Intimate partner aggression-related shame and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: The moderating role of substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nicole H; Duke, Aaron A; Overstreet, Nicole M; Swan, Suzanne C; Sullivan, Tami P

    2016-09-01

    A dearth of literature has examined the consequences of women's use of aggression in intimate relationships. Women's use of aggression against their intimate partners, regardless of their motivation (e.g., self-defense, retaliation), may elicit shame. Shame, in turn, may contribute to the maintenance and/or exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which are commonly experienced in this population. Further, emerging research suggests that emotionally avoidant coping strategies, such as substance use, may strengthen the relation between shame and PTSD symptoms. The goal of the present study was to examine whether women's shame concerning their use of intimate partner aggression is associated with their PTSD symptoms, and whether drug and alcohol use problems moderate this association. Participants were 369 community women who had used and been victimized by physical aggression in an intimate relationship with a male partner in the past six months. The intimate partner aggression-related shame × drug (but not alcohol) use problems interaction on PTSD symptom severity was significant. Analysis of simple slopes revealed that women's intimate partner aggression-related shame was positively associated with their PTSD symptoms when drug use problems were high, but not when drug use problems were low. Findings have implications for the potential utility of PTSD treatments targeting a reduction in shame and maladaptive shame regulation strategies (i.e., drug use) in this population. Aggr. Behav. 42:427-440, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  4. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...

  5. Lap-belt syndrome: management of aortic intimal dissection in a 7-year-old child with a constellation of injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Paritosh C.; Bulas, Dorothy I.; Rothenbach, Patricia; Guzzetta, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of lap-belt motor vehicle injury in a 7-year-old male who was admitted with abdominal ecchymoses and pain with associated aortic intimal flap, bowel injury, hemoperitoneum, and retroperitoneal hematoma at initial imaging with CT. Most of these findings were confirmed at subsequent laparotomy, and the patient underwent operative repair of bowel injuries. His aortic intimal flap was followed with US and color Doppler imaging during which time he was treated conservatively until there was sonographic evidence of intimal healing. This patient illustrates a multimodality approach to imaging and conservative management. (orig.)

  6. Lap-belt syndrome: management of aortic intimal dissection in a 7-year-old child with a constellation of injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Paritosh C.; Bulas, Dorothy I. [George Washington University, Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Rothenbach, Patricia; Guzzetta, Philip C. [George Washington University, Pediatric Surgery, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2007-01-15

    We present a case of lap-belt motor vehicle injury in a 7-year-old male who was admitted with abdominal ecchymoses and pain with associated aortic intimal flap, bowel injury, hemoperitoneum, and retroperitoneal hematoma at initial imaging with CT. Most of these findings were confirmed at subsequent laparotomy, and the patient underwent operative repair of bowel injuries. His aortic intimal flap was followed with US and color Doppler imaging during which time he was treated conservatively until there was sonographic evidence of intimal healing. This patient illustrates a multimodality approach to imaging and conservative management. (orig.)

  7. Child abuse in the context of intimate partner violence against women: the impact of women's depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms on maternal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria Implications for Counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence is a social problem which continues to plague the nation. In the past, in many cultures, intimate partner violence was not viewed a serious problem. However, in recent years, it has begun to be viewed as a criminal problem. This paper explains the concepts of intimate partner violence. It discusses ...

  9. Intimate partner violence among health professionals: distribution by autonomous communities in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres; Beatriz Recio-Andrade; María Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego

    2017-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence among health care professionals who work in the Spanish National Health System, according to the autonomous communities of Spain. METHOD This was a descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study conducted with male and female health professionals (doctors, nurses, and nursing aides) in the different autonomous communities that are part of the Spanish National Health System. The following instruments were employed: am...

  10. Psychological and Relational Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence Profiles Among Pregnant Adolescent Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jessica B.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Angley, Meghan; Callands, Tamora; Divney, Anna A.; Magriples, Urania; Gordon, Derrick M.; Kershaw, Trace S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify relationship and individual psychological factors that related to four profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant adolescent couples: no IPV, male IPV victim only, female IPV victim only, mutual IPV, and how associations differ by sex. Using data from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescents and partners (n = 291 couples), we used a multivariate profile analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance with between and within-subjects effects to comp...

  11. Mental health, intimate partner violence and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and depression symptoms reduces risk for future intimate partner violence among interpersonal trauma survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol 2011;79(2):193-202. DOI:10.1037/a0022512. 17. Joyner K, Theunissen L, de Villiers L, et al. Emergency care provision for, and psychological ...

  12. Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Intimate Partner Violence. African Journal of Reproductive Health March 2016; 20 (1): 31 child?”, and 2) “Have you ever been sexually abused as a child?” Response options were 'yes' and 'No'40. Sexual risk behaviour and reproductive health. Items included 'How many sexual partners have you had in the past 12 months ...

  13. Degendering (sexual) violence in intimate relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Eva; Østerby Sørensen, William; Jensen, Mathilde Worch

    2018-01-01

    and his concept objective violence inform the paper, in order to analyze authoritative representations of ‘sexual violence in intimate relationships’ in three areas: Danish legislation and legal practices, Danish research on sexual violence, and policy-papers. Thus the Danish Criminal Code, selected...

  14. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  15. Procoagulant activity and intimal dysfunction in IDDM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Rossing, P; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    .34 nmol/l in group 1). No difference in the level of antithrombin III was seen between the groups. We reconfirmed the presence of intimal dysfunction in diabetic nephropathy demonstrated by elevated transcapillary escape rate of albumin in group 4 compared with group 2 (8.9 +/- 2.0% vs 7.0 +/- 1.9%, p

  16. Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety among Victims of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Effect of Shame Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Sherman, Amanda E.; Kivisto, Aaron J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Rhatigan, Deborah L.; Moore, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of shame proneness on the association between physical, psychological, and sexual intimate partner violence victimization and depressive and anxious symptoms among male and female college students (N = 967). Students completed self-report measures of dating violence, depression, anxiety, and shame…

  17. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence--a qualitative study from urban Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisser, Rose M; Nyström, Lennarth; Lugina, Helen I; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-04-18

    Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to intervene but further consciousness-raising of the human rights

  18. Community perceptions of intimate partner violence - a qualitative study from urban Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence against women is a prevailing public health problem in Tanzania, where four of ten women have a lifetime exposure to physical or sexual violence by their male partners. To be able to suggest relevant and feasible community and health care based interventions, we explored community members' understanding and their responses to intimate partner violence. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions with 75 men and women was conducted in a community setting of urban Tanzania. We analysed data using a grounded theory approach and relate our findings to the ecological framework of intimate partner violence. Results The analysis resulted in one core category, "Moving from frustration to questioning traditional gender norms", that denoted a community in transition where the effects of intimate partner violence had started to fuel a wish for change. At the societal level, the category "Justified as part of male prestige" illustrates how masculinity prevails to justify violence. At the community level, the category "Viewed as discreditable and unfair" indicates community recognition of intimate partner violence as a human rights concern. At the relationship level, the category "Results in emotional entrapment" shows the shame and self-blame that is often the result of a violent relationship. At the individual level, the risk factors for intimate partner violence were primarily associated with male characteristics; the category "Fed up with passivity" emerged as an indication that community members also acknowledge their own responsibility for change in actions. Conclusions Prevailing gender norms in Tanzania accept women's subordination and justify male violence towards women. At the individual level, an increasing openness makes it possible for women to report, ask for help, and become proactive in suggesting preventive measures. At the community level, there is an increased willingness to

  19. Study on wing fanning as a signal of sexual response and courtship ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... attractiveness in several small screen mini cages, made with white nylon (5 cm in diameter and 6 cm in height). ... cages and males were hung on plant and placed in a large screen cage. Hundred (100) female ..... be intervening rhythmically with the buzzing sound was generated by wing fanning and touch.

  20. Testing Johnson's typology: is there gender symmetry in intimate terrorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, Jana; Blumenstein, Lindsey; Morgan, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the vast literature on gender symmetry in the perpetration of domestic assault, few studies have looked specifically at both the female and male victims of violence. Using data from the National Violence Against Women Survey (NVAWS) and building on the work of Johnson and Leone (2005), this study is a comparison of the female and male victims of intimate terrorism (IT) and an examination of the effects of IT on male victims. The findings indicate that IT, as a type of violence, does not have the same characteristics when the victims are men. Men involved in a terroristic marriage are not more likely to be injured, do not miss work more frequently, and are not more likely to report symptoms of depression compared to men involved in situational couple violence (SCV). Other findings appear to point to gender symmetry between women and men regarding IT, although broad conclusions based on these findings cannot be made in the absence of a sufficient means to measure the level of coercion within the relationship. Additional research is needed with more innovative and complete measures of control, the defining characteristic of IT.

  1. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2015-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths’ experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

  2. Depression and intimate partner violence among college students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Nourian, Maziar M; Assasnik, Nushean; Franchek-Roa, Kathy

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health threat and causes mental as well as physical health problems. Depression is a common mental health consequence of IPV. While Iran has a high prevalence of IPV and depression, the association between IPV and depression has not been well examined. The Iranian data from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) 2001-2006 (ICPSR 29583) were analyzed. Twenty-three male and 75 female college students were selected in the IDVS Iranian data. Nearly all of the participants, male and female, reported being victims and perpetrators of IPV. Female participants were more likely to report depression compared to male participants. Participants who had experienced sexual IPV reported significantly higher levels of depression compared to those who did not experience sexual IPV. However, when substance abuse and partner conflict were analyzed, the contribution of sexual IPV on depression was no longer significant. This study suggests that IPV prevention and intervention programs should take into consideration that college-aged men and women frequently experience and use violence in dating relationships. Depression interventions should be included for female students. Substance abuse and partner conflict are important risk factors for depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intimate Partner Maltreatment Recidivism in U.S. Air Force Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Sarah L; McCarthy, Randy J; Milner, Joel S; Ormsby, LaJuana; Travis, Wendy J

    2016-08-01

    Research has demonstrated that perpetrator characteristics (gender, age, and military status) and incident characteristics (perpetrator substance use and initial incident severity) are associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism. This study assessed whether these variables were associated with intimate partner maltreatment recidivism in U.S. Air Force families during a 16-yr period (1997-2013). During the study period, 21% of the intimate partner maltreatment perpetrators in the U.S. Air Force committed more than one incident of maltreatment. In terms of perpetrator characteristics, male perpetrators reoffended more than female perpetrators, younger perpetrators reoffended more than older perpetrators, and active duty perpetrators reoffended more than civilians. Whether a perpetrator was enlisted or an officer was not associated with the likelihood of recidivism. In terms of incident characteristics, substance use (which was mainly alcohol use) during an initial maltreatment incident was associated with recidivism, but the severity of perpetrators' initial maltreatment incident was not. However, for perpetrators who reoffended, the severity of their initial incident was associated with the severity of subsequent incidents. On the basis of these findings, the need for targeted interventions to reduce intimate partner maltreatment recidivism is discussed. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Students? perception and experience of intimate area examination and sexual history taking during undergraduate clinical skills training:

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Haque, Shafiul; Irshad, Mohammad; Al-Zahrani, Noor; Al-Bedaie, Eman; Al-Fahad, Latifah; Al-Eid, Manar; Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study explores the experiences of Saudi undergraduate medical students about intimate-area examination (IAE) and sexual history taking (SHT) skills and assesses the barriers and their impacts on students? learning. This survey-based study was performed at 2 Saudi university medical colleges and revealed that most of the students never performed IAE, that is, female breast, male genital, female genital, female pelvic, male rectal, and female rectal. We found that 42.3% students h...

  5. The evolution of an academic-community partnership in the design, implementation, and evaluation of experience corps® Baltimore city: a courtship model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Erwin J; McGill, Sylvia; Tanner, Elizabeth K; Carlson, Michelle C; Rebok, George W; Seeman, Teresa E; Fried, Linda P

    2014-04-01

    Experience Corps Baltimore City (EC) is a product of a partnership between the Greater Homewood Community Corporation (GHCC) and the Johns Hopkins Center on Aging and Health (COAH) that began in 1998. EC recruits volunteers aged 55 and older into high-impact mentoring and tutoring roles in public elementary schools that are designed to also benefit the volunteers. We describe the evolution of the GHCC-COAH partnership through the "Courtship Model." We describe how community-based participatory research principals, such as shared governance, were applied at the following stages: (1) partner selection, (2) getting serious, (3) commitment, and (4) leaving a legacy. EC could not have achieved its current level of success without academic-community partnership. In early stages of the "Courtship Model," GHCC and COAH were able to rely on the trust developed between the leadership of the partner organizations. Competing missions from different community and academic funders led to tension in later stages of the "Courtship Model" and necessitated a formal Memorandum of Understanding between the partners as they embarked on a randomized controlled trial. The GHCC-COAH partnership demonstrates how academic-community partnerships can serve as an engine for social innovation. The partnership could serve as a model for other communities seeking multiple funding sources to implement similar public health interventions that are based on national service models. Unified funding mechanisms would assist the formation of academic-community partnerships that could support the design, implementation, and the evaluation of community-based public health interventions.

  6. The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

    2014-08-01

    While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths' experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (β = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p < .05) than females who did not experience IPV. Female homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (β = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p < .05), but those who experienced sexual abuse during childhood had fewer male friends (β = -2.04, SE = 0.93, p < .05). Although there was no significant difference in the rate of IPV victimization across genders, the context of this abuse appears to be drastically different. The results suggest that females with more male friendships are at greater risk for exposure to IPV. To date, there are few effective youth-targeted IPV prevention programs and none have been shown to be effective with homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Male-biased predation of a cave fish by a giant water bug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Franssen, Courtney M.; Plath, Martin

    2008-08-01

    Male-biased predation has been described from several epigean species, and in many cases, intrinsic differences between the sexes (such as male ornaments) have been suggested as an explanation. Here we report on male-biased predation of a cave fish ( Poecilia mexicana) by an aquatic insect ( Belostoma sp.) in a Mexican sulfur cave. P. mexicana use aquatic surface respiration (ASR) to survive in their sulfidic, hypoxic habitat. We found that males typically exhibit more ASR activity than females, which leads to increased exposure to the sit-and-wait predator that catches fish near the water surface. Our finding is novel, because male vulnerability to predation is not directly related to male traits involved in courtship, but rather due to other sexual differences in behavior and ultimately, oxygen demands.

  8. Do male desert gobies compromise offspring care to attract additional mating opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Symons

    Full Text Available Males often play a critical role in offspring care but the time and energy invested in looking after young can potentially limit their ability to seek out additional mating opportunities. Recent studies, however, suggest that a conflict between male parental effort and mating effort may not always be inevitable, especially if breeding occurs near the nest, or if parental behaviours are under sexual selection. Accordingly, we set out to experimentally investigate male care and courtship in the desert goby Chlamydogobius eremius, a nest-guarding fish with exclusive paternal care. Despite courtship occurring near the nest, we found that when egg-tending males were given the opportunity to attract additional females, they fanned their eggs less often, engaged in shorter fanning bouts, and spent more of their time outside their nests courting. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding the circumstances under which reproductive tradeoffs are expected to occur and how these, in turn, operate to influence male reproductive decisions.

  9. Cryptic confounding compounds: A brief consideration of the influences of anthropogenic contaminants on courtship and mating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Tomica D.; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants, like pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and metals, are persistent and ubiquitous and are known to threaten the environment. Traditionally, scientists have considered the direct physiological risks that these contaminants pose. However, scientists have just begun to integrate ethology and toxicology to investigate the effects that contaminants have on behavior. This review considers the potential for contaminant effects on mating behavior. Here we assess the growing body of research concerning disruptions in sexual differentiation, courtship, sexual receptivity, arousal, and mating. We discuss the implications of these disruptions on conservation efforts and highlight the importance of recognizing the potential for environmental stressors to affect behavioral experimentation. More specifically, we consider the negative implications for anthropogenic contaminants to affect the immediate behavior of animals, and their potential to have cascading and/or long-term effects on the behavioral ecology and evolution of populations. Overall, we aim to raise awareness of the confounding influence that contaminants can have, and promote caution when interpreting results where the potential for cryptic affects are possible. PMID:24244068

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Intimate partner violence, health behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South African Stress and Health Study, we assessed exposure to intimate partner ..... Other drug use. 0.77. 0.11. 5.51. 0.795. Health-seeking behaviours. Partner stability. 0.95. 0.64. 1.42. 0.815. Sexual precautions. 0.86. 0.61. 1.22. 0.404. AIDS test.

  11. Risk Factors of Female Intimate Partner and Non-Intimate Partner Homicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Loinaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming type of intimate partner violence is homicide. Violence risk assessment of intimate partner violent offenders is a common topic in police and prison contexts with the aim of preventing recidivism and fatal results. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether men who kill their intimate partner (intimate partner homicide - IPH present different risk factors from those who kill women outside of a relationship (non-intimate partner homicide - non-IPH. The crime characteristics of 30 attempted or completed IPHs that were sentenced in Catalonia (Spain between 2004 and 2009 are described. Moreover, the risk factors of 21 completed IPHs and 20 non-IPHs were compared using the RisCanvi, an actuarial risk assessment tool used in the Catalan prison context to manage inmates. Results show differences between the two types of offenders in the criminal role and recklessness, more prevalent among non-IPHs, which is consistent with research indicating that IPH offenders are similar to other homicide offenders. The difficulties faced seeking to assess and manage the risk of IPH are discussed.

  12. "Demonstrating Masculinity" Via Intimate Partner Aggression: The Moderating Effect of Heavy Episodic Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Leone, Ruschelle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. Men's history of heavy episodic drinking was also examined as a moderator of the proposed mediation effect. A sample of 392 heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms (i.e., status, toughness, and antifemininity), masculine gender role stress, alcohol use patterns, and intimate partner physical aggression. Results indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were significant and marginal, respectively. A significant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were significant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity. Overall, results suggest that the proximal effect of heavy episodic drinking focuses men's attention on gender-based schemas associated with antifemininity and toughness, which facilitates partner-directed aggression as a means to demonstrate these aspects of their masculinity. Implications for the intersection between men's adherence to specific norms of hegemonic masculinity, cognitive appraisal of gender relevant situations, and characteristic patterns of alcohol consumption are discussed.

  13. Adolescent Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn A; Greenman, Sarah J; Thornberry, Terence P; Henry, Kimberly L; Ireland, Timothy O

    2015-08-01

    The prevention of intimate partner violence is a desirable individual and public health goal for society. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of adolescent risk factors for partner violence in order to inform the development of evidence-based prevention strategies. We utilize data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a two decade long prospective study of a representative community sample of 1000 participants that has extensive measures of adolescent characteristics, contexts, and behaviors that are potential precursors of partner violence. Using a developmental psychopathology framework, we assess self-reported partner violence perpetration in emerging adulthood (ages 20-22) and in adulthood (ages 29-30) utilizing the Conflict Tactics Scale. Our results indicate that risk factors for intimate partner violence span several developmental domains and are substantially similar for both genders. Internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors as well as early intimate relationships are especially salient for both genders. Additionally, cumulative risk across a number of developmental domains places adolescents at particularly high risk of perpetrating partner violence. Implications for prevention include extending existing prevention programs that focus on high risk groups with multiple risks for developmental disruption, as well as focusing on preventing or mitigating identified risk factors across both genders.

  14. The Relationship Between Parents' Intimate Partner Victimization and Youths' Adolescent Relationship Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Bruce G

    2018-02-01

    Witnessing inter-parental intimate partner violence has been found to be associated with adolescents' own relationship abuse. This study investigates the relationship between patterns of inter-parental intimate partner verbal and physical violence victimization reported by parents and their children's reports of dating abuse experiences and behavior. Latent class analysis was performed on a sample of 610 parents (42% male and 67% white) and their dating adolescent children (ages 12-21 years; 52% male). Parents reported five types of victimization by their partners in the past year, while youth concurrently reported their own victimization and perpetration within their dating relationships. Three profiles of parents' intimate partner victimization were related to youth relationship abuse experiences and behaviors. Children of parents who experienced verbal abuse were more likely to experience similar patterns in their own relationships, whereas children of parents who report physical and verbal abuse were more likely to report psychological, physical and sexual abusive encounters in their partnerships. Findings indicate that parents' relationship quality and abusive behaviors may have a long lasting effect on their children as they enter mid and late adolescence. Parents should pay attention to their own relationship quality and behavior even as their teen-age children gain independence.

  15. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be

  16. Intimate partner violence against South Asian women in greater Boston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay G

    2002-01-01

    to identify the prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) against South Asian women (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan, Bhutanese, Nepalese, Maldive Islanders) residing in Greater Boston; to identify forms of abuse, abuse-related injuries, and help-seeking behaviors of South Asian women reporting IPV; and to assess the relationship between current IPV victimization and history of nonpartner abuse, acculturation, and victim-blaming attitudes. A community-based volunteer sample of South Asian women (n=160) in relationships with male partners participated in a cross-sectional study of women's health. Participants were recruited via community outreach (eg, fliers, snowball sampling, referrals) and were interviewed in person by trained South Asian women. Participants were 18 to 62 years old (mean age=31.6) and predominantly immigrant (87.5%); 74.4% were married, 51.6% had children, and 71.9% had family incomes of more than $2100 per month. Forty percent of the sample reported physical IPV, sexual IPV, or injury/need for medical services due to IPV from current male partners; few women (9.4%) who reported ever experiencing IPV from current male partners reported no abuse in the past year. Twice as many participants reported needing to see a doctor for abuse-related injuries, but not seeing one (6.3%), as actually seeing a doctor (3.1%). Only 11.3% of women reporting IPV reported having received any counseling related to the abuse. Other variables assessed were not related to abuse in current relationships. Domestic violence is a serious and highly prevalent concern among this group of South Asian women. Their knowledge of available services is limited, and victim-blaming attitudes are not uncommon. Culturally tailored domestic violence services and IPV education are needed for this underserved population.

  17. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  18. Gay men and intimate partner violence: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps.

  20. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps.

  1. Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Hidden Intimate Partner Violence in Spain: A Quantitative and Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. De la Poza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fact that women are abused by their male partner is something that happens worldwide in the 21st century. In numerous cases, abuse only becomes publicly known when a fatal event occurs and is beyond any possible remedy, that is, when men murder their female partner. Since 2003, 793 (September 4, 2015 women have been assassinated by their significant other or excouple in Spain. Only 7.2% of murdered women had reported their fear and previous intimate partner violence (IPV to the police. Even when the number of female victims is comparable to the number of victims by terrorism, the Government has not assigned an equal amount of resources to diminish the magnitude of this hidden social problem. In this paper, a mathematical epidemiological model to forecast intimate partner violence in Spain is constructed. Both psychological and physical aggressor subpopulations are predicted and simulated. The model’s robustness versus uncertain parameters is studied by a sensitivity analysis.

  3. Disruption of male reproductive behavior in threespine stickleback asterosteus aculeatus exposed to 17β-estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibe, Asa Espmark; Rosenqvist, Gunilla; Jenssen, Bjoern Munro

    2002-01-01

    In past years we have witnessed decreased reproductive capacity in many wildlife species due to exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting properties. In this laboratory experiment male three spine sticklebacks asterosteus aculeatus exposed to 17β-estradiol (2.0 μg/g) dispersed in peanut oil, on days 1, 7, 14, and 21, showed impaired paternal care compared to control fish that were exposed to peanut oil only. There were no differences between the two groups in number of males that built nests or in courtship displays. However, exposed males started nest building significantly later than control males. This study suggests that some but not all essential traits of male reproductive behavior may be altered as a result of exposure to 17β-estradiol. To reveal harmful effects of chemicals with suggested reproductive-disrupting properties it is thus important to take a wide variety of variables related to reproductive behavior into consideration

  4. Should I stay or should I go? Female brood desertion and male counterstrategy in rock sparrows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano; Pilastro, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Brood desertion involves a series of interactions between the members of a pair. This process is likely to be based on either member's perception of the other's propensity to desert. We manipulated this perception in males by experimentally increasing female body mass in the rock sparrow (Petronia...... petronia), a species in which females can desert their first brood before the nestlings from the first brood leave the nest. We predicted that the male would either desert the brood first or stay even if this implied the risk of caring for the brood alone. We found that males mated to loaded females did...... not leave but stayed and significantly increased their courtship rate and mate guarding. Unexpectedly, they also increased their food provisioning to the nestlings, even though loaded females did not reduce their nestling-feeding rate. The increase in male feeding rate may be explained as a way for the male...

  5. The psychopathic intimate partner batterer: a non-psychopathological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pozueco-Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.

  6. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for biological roots in the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, M I; Poirier, G L; Marquez, C; Veenit, V; Fontana, X; Salehi, B; Ansermet, F; Sandi, C

    2012-04-24

    Intimate partner violence is a ubiquitous and devastating phenomenon for which effective interventions and a clear etiological understanding are still lacking. A major risk factor for violence perpetration is childhood exposure to violence, prompting the proposal that social learning is a major contributor to the transgenerational transmission of violence. Using an animal model devoid of human cultural factors, we showed that male rats became highly aggressive against their female partners as adults after exposure to non-social stressful experiences in their youth. Their offspring also showed increased aggression toward females in the absence of postnatal father-offspring interaction or any other exposure to violence. Both the females that cohabited with the stressed males and those that cohabited with their male offspring showed behavioral (including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors), physiological (decreased body weight and basal corticosterone levels) and neurobiological symptoms (increased activity in dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons in response to an unfamiliar male) resembling the alterations described in abused and depressed women. With the caution required when translating animal work to humans, our findings extend current psychosocial explanations of the transgenerational transmission of intimate partner violence by strongly suggesting an important role for biological factors.

  8. Universal Screening for Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence in Trauma Patients - What About the Men? An EAST Multicenter Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Rattan, Rishi; Milian Valdés, Davel; Ruiz, Xiomara; Gelbard, Rondi; Cline, John; Turay, David; Luo-Owen, Xian; Namias, Nicholas; George, Jessica; Yeh, Dante; Pust, Daniel; Williams, Brian H

    2018-02-14

    A recent EAST-supported, multicenter trial demonstrated a similar rate of intimate partner and sexual violence (IPSV) between male and female trauma patients, regardless of mechanism. Our objective was to perform a subgroup analysis of our affected male cohort as this remains an understudied group in the trauma literature. We conducted a recent EAST-supported, cross-sectional, multicenter trial over one year (03/15-04/16) involving four Level I trauma centers throughout the United States. We performed universal screening of adult trauma patients using the validated HITS (Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream) and SAVE (sexual violence) screening surveys. Risk factors for male patients were identified. Chi-squared test compared categorical variables with significance at pintimate partner violence, 14.1% for IPSV and 6.5% for sexual violence. On categorical analysis of the HITS screen, the proportion of men that were physically hurt was 4.8% compared to 4.3% for women (p = 0.896). A total of 4.8% of men screened positive for both intimate partner and sexual violence. The total proportion of men who presented with any history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence or both (IPSV) was 15.8%. More men affected by penetrating trauma screened positive for IPSV (p intimate partner and sexual violence, with one out of every six men experiencing some form of violence. Men are at similar risk for physical abuse as women when this intimate partner violence occurs. IPSV is associated with penetrating trauma in men. Support programs for this population may potentially impact associated mental illness, substance abuse, trauma recidivism and even societal-level violence. III STUDY TYPE: Diagnostic.

  9. Fat is sexy for females but not males: the influence of body reserves on reproduction in snakes (Vipera aspis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubret, Fabien; Bonnet, Xavier; Shine, Richard; Lourdais, Olivier

    2002-09-01

    Reproduction is energetically expensive for both sexes, but the magnitude of expenditure and its relationship to reproductive success differ fundamentally between males and females. Males allocate relatively little to gamete production and, thus, can reproduce successfully with only minor energy investment. In contrast, females of many species experience high fecundity-independent costs of reproduction (such as migration to nesting sites), so they need to amass substantial energy reserves before initiating reproductive activity. Thus, we expect that the relationship between energy reserves and the intensity of reproductive behavior involves a threshold effect in females, but a gradual (or no) effect in males. We tested this prediction using captive vipers (Vipera aspis), dividing both males and females into groups of high versus low body condition. Snakes from each group were placed together and observed for reproductive behavior; sex-steroid levels were also measured. As predicted, females in below-average body condition had very low estradiol levels and did not show sexual receptivity, whereas males of all body condition indices had significant testosterone levels and displayed active courtship. Testosterone levels and courtship intensity increased gradually (i.e., no step function) with body condition in males, but high estradiol levels and sexual receptivity were seen only in females with body reserves above a critical threshold. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  10. Gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence among South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jesse D; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-09-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, the authors examine data from 1,715 currently married or cohabiting adults on reporting of intimate partner violence. Our analysis include (a) demographic factors, (b) early life risk factors (including exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, parental closeness, and early onset DSM-IV disorders), and (c) adult risk factors (including experiencing the death of a child and episodes of DSM-IV disorders after age 20). Although prevalence rates of intimate partner violence are high among both genders, women are significantly more likely than men to report being victimized (29.3% vs. 20.9%). Rates of perpetrating violence are similar for women and men (25.2% and 26.5%, respectively). Men are more likely to report predictive factors for perpetration, whereas women are more likely to report predictors for victimization. Common risk factors among men and women reporting perpetration include exposure to childhood physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and adult onset alcohol abuse/dependence. However, risk factors in male perpetrators are more likely to include cohabitation, low income, and early and adult-onset mood disorders, whereas risk factors in female perpetrators include low educational attainment and early onset alcohol abuse/dependence. The single common risk factor for male and female victims of partner violence is witnessing parental violence. Additional risk factors for male victims are low income and lack of closeness to a primary female

  11. Abused Women's Understandings of Intimate Partner Violence and the Link to Intimate Femicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Dekel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. The women's understandings were filtered through the particular social context in which their abusive experiences occurred. The findings highlighted that contemplating femicide was too threatening, and consequently participants drew on discourses of femininity, romantic love, and others to justify their remaining in their violence-ridden relationships. It emphasizes the need for additional engagement in women's understandings of intimate femicide, as women who live in abusive relationships have largely been consigned to the periphery. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160196

  12. Mental Health Aspects of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donna Eileen; Vigod, Simone Natalie

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common worldwide and occurs in more than one-third of American women and psychiatric patients. As well as physical injuries, it may cause mental health sequelae, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, inability to trust others, self-harm, and a host of psychosomatic conditions, that may be referred to psychiatrists. It is imperative that psychiatrists know the risk factors, how to assist disclosure of IPV, and how to safely respond. Psychiatrists must know the best evidence-based management of IPV and its mental health sequelae to best assist patients who have been exposed to IPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Male traits, mating tactics and reproductive success in the buff-breasted sandpiper, Tryngites subruficollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Weatherhead, Patrick J.; Kempenaers, Bart; Scribner, Kim T.

    1998-01-01

    Buff-breasted sandpipers use a variety of mating tactics to acquire mates, including remaining at a single lek for most of the breeding season, attending multiple leks during the season, displaying solitarily or displaying both on leks and solitarily. We found that differences in body size, body condition, fluctuating asymmetry scores, wing coloration, territory location and behaviour (attraction, solicitation and agonistic) did not explain the observed variation in mating tactics used by males. Which males abandoned versus returned to leks was also not related to morphology or behaviour, and there was no tendency for males to join leks that were larger or smaller than the lek they abandoned. These results suggest that male desertion of leks was not dependent on a male's characteristics nor on the size of the lek he was presently attending. Males did join leks with larger males than their previous lek, perhaps to mate with females attracted to these larger 'hotshot' males. Males at both leks and solitary sites successfully mated. Lek tenure did not affect mating success, although lekking males appeared to mate more frequently than solitary males. Courtship disruption and to a lesser extent, female mimicry, were effective at preventing females from mating at leks, and may offer a partial explanation for female mating off leks. Our analysis that combined all males together within a year (regardless of mating tactic) indicated that males that attended leks for longer periods of time and that had fewer wing spots were significantly more likely to mate. Given some evidence that wing spotting declines with age, and that females inspect male underwings during courtship, the latter result suggests that female choice may play some role in determining male success. We suggest that male buff-breasted sandpipers may use alternative mating tactics more readily than males in other 'classic' lek-breeding species because: (1) unpredictable breeding conditions in this species' high

  15. Intimate Relationships and Attitudes Toward Celebrities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. McCutcheon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that persons who self-report a high level of preoccupation with celebrities tend to have lower levels of well-being. We administered the “Romantic Partner Conflict Scale”, the “Love Attitudes Scale”, the soulmate subscale from the “Relationship Theories Questionnaire”, and the anxiety subscale from the “Experiences in Close Relationships Scale” to 330 students from four universities to see how well scores on these measures would predict scores on each of the three subscales from the “Celebrity Attitude Scale” (CAS. We predicted that persons whose scores on these measures of intimate relationships indicated a troubled, anxious, or poor quality relationship would have higher scores on the CAS, especially on its two problematic subscales. In three multiple regressions, specific measures of behavior during conflict with a romantic partner and certain love styles significantly predicted scores on all three of the CAS subscales. We discuss the implications of being a celebrity worshiper on one’s relationship with an intimate partner.

  16. [Intimate partner violence: study with female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración

    2011-08-01

    Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Morphology and ornamentation in male frigatebirds: variation with age-class and mating status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Vinni; Dabelsteen, Torben; Osorio, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Male magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) ornamentation includes bright iridescent plumage and a red inflatable gular pouch. These signals are displayed during courtship, along with a drumming sound produced through specialized beak clackings resonating in the gular pouch. The extent...... of white in the plumage identifies three age classes of nonjuvenile male. Here we investigate how morphological and secondary sexual traits correlate with age class and mating status. Even though several age class-related differences in morphology and visual appearance can be identified, the only features...... with age class, reflecting an increase in gular pouch size. This implies that females prefer older or possibly more experienced or viable males. Drumming cadence speed and stability might reflect male stamina. Apart from the acoustic differences with mating status, there is a nonsignificant tendency...

  18. Intimate partner physical violence among women in Shimelba refugee camp, northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feseha Girmatsion

    2012-02-01

    (AOR = 2.1[95%C.I:1.0, 4.5]. Conclusions Intimate partner physical violence was found to be high and a serious problem among women in Shimelba refugee camp. Multifaceted interventions such as male counseling, increasing awareness on the consequences of intimate partner violence and the effect of substance use like alcohol will help to reduce intimate partner violence.

  19. Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes | Laelago ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence by intimate partner during pregnancy has many adverse pregnancy outcomes. Thus, that's why we sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 183 recently ...

  20. HIV- related intimate partner violence among pregnant women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: HIV-positive status predisposes pregnant women to increased intimate partner violence more of emotional nature further underlying the enormity of social rejection suffered as a result of HIV infection. Intimate partner violence screening should form part of their routine antenatal care. Key words. HIV-Related ...

  1. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  2. Examining the Interface between Substance Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory L. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable theoretical and empirical support for a link between substance misuse and perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. This review briefly summarizes this literature and highlights current research that addresses the interface between treatment for substance abuse and intimate partner violence. Suggestions for future research and clinical implications are provided.

  3. Intimate partners' violence in Southern Ethiopia: Examining the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, ...

  4. Intimate partner violence at a tertiary institution | Spencer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, emotional or stalking abuse by an intimate partner. Despite the high prevalence of IPV in South Africa (SA), there is a paucity of data on university students training in fields where they are likely to have to manage the ...

  5. Attitudes toward Intimate Partner Violence in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Braithwaite, Scott; Pasley, Kay

    2008-01-01

    Prevention of intimate partner violence on college campuses includes programs designed to change attitudes, and hence, a scale that assesses such attitudes is needed. Study 1 (N = 859) cross validates the factor structure of the Intimate Partner Violence Attitude Scale-Revised using exploratory factor analysis and presents initial validity data on…

  6. How Children and Their Caregivers Adjust after Intimate Partner Femicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; McFarlane, Judith M.; Lewandowski, Linda A.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 3,300 children are affected by intimate partner femicide each year. Despite the multitude of stressors and the potential for negative outcomes, little is known about these children or their caregivers. This in-depth interview study used family stress theory to explore caregivers' and children's adjustment after intimate partner…

  7. Intimate Femicide Followed by Suicide: Examining the Role of Premeditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    People who kill others rarely kill themselves afterwards. When they do, they are more likely to have killed someone with whom they were intimate. Two broad types of suicidal killers have been identified in research that presumes varying degrees of premeditation. Using data on over 700 intimate femicides, the role of premeditation in cases of…

  8. Trends in Intimate Partner Violence: 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Rachael A.; Kaukinen, Catherine Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Research on trends in partner violence has primarily relied on official measures of victimization focusing primarily on women's risk for intimate partner homicide. The current study uses 28 years of data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine the trends of intimate partner violence against female victims and identify…

  9. National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization of adult women and men in the United States. The survey ... of this violence, the im- mediate impacts of victimization, and the lifelong health ... are disproportionally affected by sexual violence, intimate partner ...

  10. The impact of intimate partner relationships on suicidal thoughts and behaviours: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Dominique; Calear, Alison L; Batterham, Philip J

    2016-01-15

    A systematic review was conducted to identify the impact of intimate partner relationships on suicidality. The aim of the review was to identify factors within intimate partner relationships that influence suicidal ideation, attempts and completion. Fifty-one articles were identified through Scopus, PubMed and PsycINFO databases. Due to the high heterogeneity of the included studies, a narrative data synthesis was conducted. The research drew attention to specific contingents of the population, for example examining suicide risk in individuals under the age of 35 or lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are experiencing relationship discord, and in males who have recently separated. Interpretation of these findings is constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in much of the literature. Limitations of the existing literature and corresponding directions for future research are discussed. Relationship separation and poor quality relationships are likely to be important risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviours and are frequent triggers for a suicide attempt. This review highlights intimate partner relationships as a significant component in a suicide risk assessment, regardless of the clinical setting. Consequently, clinicians should be aware that individuals reporting relationship problems are likely to be at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Original article Attachment styles and anxiety of rejecters in intimate relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mandal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background In this paper, the problem of the lack of stability of intimate female-male relationships, the intensity of which is currently increasing, is presented. Attention is focused on early-childhood attachment styles and anxiety in rejecters in intimate relationships. Participants and procedure The research included 120 individuals: 60 individuals who had dropped 3-15 partners (on average, M = 3.77 partners and 60 individuals from the control group. The following research tools were applied: the Attachment Styles Inventory, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results The results showed that rejecters in intimate relationships obtained higher results than individuals from the control group in an avoidant and an anxious-ambivalent attachment style, and lower ones in a secure attachment style, as well as higher ones in anxiety as a trait. Sex itself was not a differentiating factor in any of the studied variables. An avoidant attachment style, and anxiety as a trait, were predictors of being a rejecter. Conclusions The obtained results confirm the fundamental findings of the theory of attachment indicating that the lower the level of a secure style is, the lower is the level of interpersonal skills.

  12. Prevalence of intimate partner violence reported by homeless youth in Columbus, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Erdem, Gizem; Collins, Jennifer; Patton, Rikki; Buettner, Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    No study to date has reported intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences among homeless youth. This study sought to uncover lifetime prevalence estimates of physical, sexual, and emotional IPV among a nonprobability sample of 180 homeless male and female youth in Columbus, Ohio. To that aim, self-reported IPV and the association between IPV and gender, race, age, and history of childhood abuse were examined. Results showed that physical violence and verbal abuse were the most commonly reported experiences of IPV in the current sample and ranged from 30.0% to 35.4%. Women and those with a history of childhood abuse were more likely to be victimized by their intimate partners. Specifically, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that women were approximately twice as likely as men to be verbally and physically abused in intimate relationships. Moreover, youth who reported being victims of abuse in childhood were more than twice as likely to experience verbal abuse and physical violence in their relationships. Given the high lifetime occurrence of IPV among homeless youth, intervention efforts should target IPV to prevent future occurrence. Findings also suggest that intervention efforts should consider gender and history of childhood abuse.

  13. Intimate partner violence: what do movies have to teach us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenahan, Patricia M

    2009-06-01

    Intimate partner violence is one of the most pervasive global public health problems affecting women. It results in untold costs to the healthcare system and is positively linked to eight out of ten leading indicators for Healthy People 2010. Intimate partner violence also is one of the factors associated with adverse childhood experiences that result in negative healthcare behaviours. Intimate partner violence has been the subject of film, made for television movies and music videos. The use of film as an innovative tool to teach about common health and mental health disorders is well-documented. Film also has been used as an adjunctive therapeutic tool in counselling. This paper will provide an overview of intimate partner violence, its portrayal in popular film and ways in which educators may use film to teach intimate partner violence-related topics.

  14. Sexual infidelity as trigger for intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lee, Meghan A; Ludwin, Jennifer M

    2012-09-01

    We conducted a qualitative study to examine acute, situational factors and chronic stressors that triggered severe intimate partner violence (IPV) in women. Our sample consisted of 17 heterosexual couples, where the male was in detention for IPV and made telephone calls to his female victim. We used up to 4 hours of telephone conversational data for each couple to examine the couple's understanding of (1) acute triggers for the violent event and (2) chronic stressors that created the underlying context for violence. Grounded theory guided our robust, iterative data analysis involving audiotape review, narrative summation, and thematic organization. Consistently across couples, violence was acutely triggered by accusations of infidelity, typically within the context of alcohol or drug use. Victims sustained significant injury, including severe head trauma (some resulting in hospitalization/surgery), bite wounds, strangulation complications, and lost pregnancy. Chronic relationship stressors evident across couples included ongoing anxiety about infidelity, preoccupation with heterosexual gender roles and religious expectations, drug and alcohol use, and mental health concerns (depression, anxiety, and suicide ideation/attempts). Disseminated models feature jealousy as a strategy used by perpetrators to control IPV victims and as a red flag for homicidal behavior. Our findings significantly extend this notion by indicating that infidelity concerns, a specific form of jealousy, were the immediate trigger for both the acute violent episode and resulting injuries to victims and were persistently raised by both perpetrators and victims as an ongoing relationship stressor.

  15. Women's Work, Gender Roles, and Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.

  16. Media Portrayals of Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, Kellie E; Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Slater, Michael D

    2014-09-01

    Preventing intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health priority. An important component of designing prevention programs is developing an understanding of how media portrayals of health issues influence public opinion and policy. To better understand the ways in which media images may be informing our understanding of IPV, this study content analyzed portrayals of IPV in news media articles. Stratified media outlets were used to obtain a representative sample of daily newspapers based on their designated market areas. Researchers created constructed months using weeks from each season across a 2-year period. The first part of the study investigated quantitative differences in the coverage of female and male perpetrators (n = 395) and identified several areas where coverage differed. The second part of the study qualitatively examined coverage of female perpetrators (n = 61) to provide a richer description of such coverage. This study contributes to our understanding of female perpetrators and how these portrayals may contribute to the larger gender symmetry debate surrounding female aggressors. Implications for public health policy and research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Intimate Partner Violence Among Low-Income Fathers: Testing a Stress-Coping Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Moore, Kelly E; Vincent, Wilson; Iwamoto, Derek K; Campbell, Christina; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Ward, Nadia L; Hawes, Samuel W; Albritton, Tashuna; McCaulley, Horace; DiTunno, Dianna; Judkins, Anthony

    2017-11-01

    This research used a stress-coping conceptual framework to examine intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who are fathers. The current study examined how perceived stress explained associations between stressors (e.g., employment status, psychological and physical female-to-male partner violence [FMPV], substance use, criminal justice system involvement) and male-perpetrated physical and psychological IPV. Participants were 1,971 low-income, ethnically diverse fathers involved in a statewide fatherhood program. Findings indicated that, across African American, White, and Hispanic/Latino men, male-reported FMPV and criminal justice involvement were associated with psychological and/or physical IPV via perceived stress. Employment status and alcohol use were associated with psychological IPV via perceived stress among African American men only. Implications for community-based fatherhood programs are discussed.

  18. Recent Intimate Partner Violence and Housing Instability Among Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ann Elizabeth; Sorrentino, Anneliese E; Cusack, Meagan C; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Medvedeva, Elina; Roberts, Christopher B; Dichter, Melissa E

    2018-04-01

    Women Veterans are at increased risk of both housing instability and intimate partner violence compared with their non-Veteran counterparts. The objectives of the present study were (1) to assess the relationship between women Veterans' experience of intimate partner violence and various indicators of housing instability, and (2) to assess what correlates help to explain experiences of housing instability among women Veterans who experienced past-year intimate partner violence. Data were collected from U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs electronic medical records for 8,427 women Veterans who were screened for past-year intimate partner violence between April 2014 and April 2016 at 13 Veterans Affairs' facilities. Logistic regressions performed during 2017 assessed the relationship between past-year intimate partner violence and housing instability. A total of 8.4% of the sample screened positive for intimate partner violence and 11.3% for housing instability. Controlling for age and race, a positive intimate partner violence screen increased odds of housing instability by a factor of 3. Women Veterans with past-year intimate partner violence were more likely to have an indicator of housing instability if they identified as African American, had screened positive for military sexual trauma, or had a substance use disorder; receiving compensation for a disability incurred during military service and being married were protective. For women Veterans, intimate partner violence interventions should assess for both physical and psychological housing needs, and housing interventions should coordinate with intimate partner violence programs to address common barriers to resources. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Types of adolescent exposure to violence as predictors of adult intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Scott; Weiss, Andrea J; Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C

    2014-04-01

    Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship of adolescent physical abuse victimization, witnessing parental violence, and adolescent exposure to violence in the community, to perpetration of and victimization by IPV in middle age. Respondents are drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal sample with data collected from 1976-77 to 2002-03, age 11-17 when first interviewed and 37-43 when last interviewed. Univariate descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are presented, along with Heckman two-step models calculated separately for females and males. The use of the Heckman two-step model allows prediction not only of adult IPV, but also of selection out of intimate partner relationships (i.e., out of the at-risk population). For males, in the multivariate analysis, only physical abuse remains significant as a predictor. For females, adolescent exposure to violence is not predictive of adult IPV perpetration or victimization, but physical abuse is predictive of not being in the at-risk population (married or cohabiting). The combined index of adolescent exposure to violence is significant for both females and males in predicting selection into marriage or cohabitation, and at least marginally significant in predicting IPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced Intimal Hyperplasia in Rabbits via Medical Therapy after Carotid Venous Bypass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Semih; Bahcivan, Muzaffer; Gol, Mehmet Kamil; Erenler, Behice H.; Kolbakir, Fersat; Keceligil, Hasan T.

    2009-01-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is a major cause of restenosis after the interventional or surgical treatment of occlusive arterial disease. We investigated the effects of clopidogrel, calcium dobesilate, nebivolol, and atorvastatin on the development of intimal hyperplasia in rabbits after carotid venous bypass surgery. We divided 40 male New Zealand rabbits into 4 study groups and 1 control group. After occluding the carotid arteries of the rabbits, we constructed jugular venous grafts between the proximal and the distal segments of the occluded artery. Thereafter, group 1 (control) received no medication. We administered daily oral doses of clopidogrel to group 2, calcium dobesilate to group 3, nebivolol to group 4, and atorvastatin to group 5. The rabbits were killed 28 days postoperatively. The arterialized jugular venous grafts were extracted for histopathologic examination. Intimal thicknesses were 42.87 ± 6.95 μm (group 2), 46.5 ± 9.02 μm (group 3), 34.12 ± 5.64 μm (group 4), and 48.37 ± 6.16 μm (group 5), all significantly less than the 95.12 ± 9.93 μm in group 1 (all P < 0.001). Medial thicknesses were 94 ± 6 μm (group 2), 101.5 ± 13.52 μm (group 3), 90.5 ± 9.69 μm (group 4), and 101.37 ± 7.99 μm (group 5), all significantly thinner than the 126.62 ± 13.53 μm in group 1 (all P < 0.001). In our experimental model of carotid venous bypass grafting in rabbits, clopidogrel, calcium dobesilate, nebivolol, and atorvastatin each effectively reduced the development of intimal hyperplasia. Herein, we discuss our findings and review the medical literature. PMID:19876413

  1. The University Hospital Zurich Offers a Medical Online Consultation Service for Men With Intimate Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Weitmann, Sabine; Schulz, Urs; Schmid, Daniel Max; Brockes, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    The University Hospital of Zurich offers a text-based, Medical Online Consultation Service to the public since 1999. Users asked health questions anonymously to tele-doctors. This study focused on the characteristics of male enquirers with intimate health problems, the content of their questions, the medical advice given by tele-doctors and the rating of the service to prove the benefit of an online service for medical laymen. This retrospective study included 5.1% of 3,305 enquiries from 2008 to 2010 using the International Classification of Diseases-10 and International Classification of Primary Care codes relevant for intimate and sexual health problems in men. A professional text analysis program (MAXQDA) supported the content analysis, which is based on the procedure of inductive category development described by Mayring. The average age was 40 years, 63.1% enquirers had no comorbidity, in 62.5% it was the first time they consulted a doctor, and 70.2% asked for a specific, single, intimate health issue. In 64.3%, the most important organ of concern was the penis. Overall, 30.4% asked about sexually transmitted diseases. In 74.4% a doctor visit was recommended to clarify the health issue. The rating of the problem solving was very good. The service was mainly used by younger men without comorbidity and no previous contact with a doctor with regard to an intimate health problem. The anonymous setting of the teleconsultation provided men individual, professional medical advice and decision support. Teleconsultation is suggested to empower patients by developing more health literacy.

  2. Neighborhood Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Theory-Informed Analysis Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voith, Laura A; Brondino, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Due to high prevalence rates and deleterious effects on individuals, families, and communities, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem. Because IPV occurs in the context of communities and neighborhoods, research must examine the broader environment in addition to individual-level factors to successfully facilitate behavior change. Drawing from the Social Determinants of Health framework and Social Disorganization Theory, neighborhood predictors of IPV were tested using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that concentrated disadvantage and female-to-male partner violence were robust predictors of women's IPV victimization. Implications for theory, practice, and policy, and future research are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30.

  4. Domestic Violence and Abuse in Intimate Relationship from Public Health Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec-Felser, Zlatka

    2014-11-06

    In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society - physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.

  5. Prevalência da violência praticada por parceiro masculino entre mulheres usuárias da rede primária de saúde do Estado de São Paulo Prevalence of violence by intimate male partner among women in primary health units in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Rios de Araujo Mathias

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a prevalência e fatores associados à violência praticada por parceiro íntimo (VPI, entre mulheres usuárias das Unidades Básicas de Saúde (UBS do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo de corte transversal, a partir da análise secundária de dados de entrevista a mulheres usuárias de 75 UBS de 15 Departamentos Regionais do Estado de São Paulo, no período de Agosto/2008 a Maio/2009. Foi utilizado questionário baseado no Abuse Assessment Screen e o Conflict Tactics Scales modificado pelo Violence Against Women Study (VAW, estruturado e pré-testado. As variáveis estudadas foram os tipos de VPI (psicológica, física e sexual e variáveis sociodemográficas (idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, trabalho remunerado, religião, estado marital e classe econômica. Foram entrevistadas 2.379 mulheres de 18 a 60 anos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de VPI durante a vida foi de 55,7%, sendo a psicológica, física e sexual de 53,8, 32,2 e 12,4%, respectivamente. As mulheres sem companheiro, mas com casamento anterior, com escolaridade PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV among women users of Basic Health Units (BHU in the State of São Paulo. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on secondary data analysis of women users' interviews at 75 BHU in the State of São Paulo, from August/2008 to May/2009. We used a questionnaire based on the Abuse Assessment Screen and the Conflict Tactics Scales modified by the Violence Against Women Study (VAW, structured and pre-tested. The variables studied were the types of IPV (psychological, physical and sexual and sociodemographic variables (age, education, race, paid work, religion, marital status and economic class. We interviewed 2,379 women aged 18 to 60 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of lifetime IPV was 55.7%, and the prevalences of psychological, physical and sexual IPV were 53.8, 32

  6. The Remaking of Erotic and Intimate Life The Remaking of Erotic and Intimate Life

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Weeks

    2009-01-01

    We are living in the midst of an unprecedented transformation of erotic and intimate life. Although this has been the subject of much controversy, most people have taken for granted the results of the changes, with little awareness of how things have changed, and how significant the changes have been. The article explores three traps that commentators fall into. The first is a mindless progressivism that assumes that all is for the best in all possible worlds. The second is a declinist approa...

  7. Physical intimate partner violence in northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragavan, Maya I; Iyengar, Kirti; Wurtz, Rebecca M

    2014-04-01

    In this article, we examine perceptions about the definition of physical intimate partner violence (IPV) in northern India utilizing feminist perspectives as a framework. We interviewed 56 women and 52 men affiliated with a health services nongovernmental organization in the Udaipur district of Rajasthan. We transcribed, coded, and analyzed the interviews utilizing grounded theory. We found that perceptions regarding physical IPV were associated with both structural and ideological patriarchal beliefs and microlevel constructs such as alcohol use. We discovered multiple types of physical IPV in the study region, including rationalized violence (socially condoned violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), unjustified violence (socially prohibited violence perpetrated by a husband against his wife), and majboori violence (violence perpetrated by a wife against her husband). Our results add to the breadth of research available about IPV in India and create a framework for future research and IPV prevention initiatives.

  8. Frida Kahlo’s Intimate Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Seixas Fernandes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses three works by Mexican painter Frida Kahlo: Las dos Fridas (The Two Fridas, Autorretrato en la frontera entre México y Estados Unidos (Self-Portrait on the Borderline between Mexico and the United States, and Lo que el agua me dio (What the Water Gave Me. Each work is first analyzed separately and then connected with the others. The analysis of the first two is guided by the national/foreign dichotomy present in Kahlo; the analysis of the third shows the overcoming of the dichotomy through the concept of intimate map – in which a feeble and ever-changing territorialization of memory via plastic expression comes to show.

  9. AWHONN Position Statement. Intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) opposes laws and other policies that require nurses to report the results of screening for intimate partner violence (IPV) to law enforcement or other regulatory agencies without the consent of the woman who experiences the IPV. Nurses and other health care professionals, however, should become familiar with laws on mandatory reporting in their states and comply as applicable. Women should be universally screened for IPV in private, safe settings where health care is provided. Nurses are ideally positioned to screen for IPV for the purpose of initiating a referral for services and support when applicable. To protect the woman's safety, AWHONN supports policies that require a woman's consent before reporting occurs.

  10. Unperceived intimate partner violence and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Michela; Gandarillas, Ana; Zorrilla, Belén; Lasheras, Luisa; Pires, Marisa; Anes, Ana; Ordobás, María

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) often do not perceive themselves as abused. This study sought to estimate the health effects of unperceived IPV (uIPV), taking violence-free women as the reference, and to compare the effects of uIPV with those of perceived IPV (pIPV). We performed a cross-sectional population study through telephone interviews of 2835 women aged 18 to 70 years living in the region of Madrid and having an ongoing intimate partner relationship or contact with a former partner in the preceding year. Based on 26 questions from the Conflict Tactics Scale-1 and the Enquête Nacional sur les Violences envers les Femmes en France and the question "Do you feel abused by your partner?" a variable was constructed in three categories, namely, the absence of IPV, uIPV and pIPV. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between health problems, medication use, health-service utilization and IPV (perceived and unperceived) vis-à-vis the absence of IPV. There were 247 cases of uIPV and 96 of pIPV (prevalences of 8.8% and 3.4%, respectively). The multivariate analysis showed that a substantial number of the outcomes explored were associated with uIPV, pIPV, or both. The highest odds ratios (ORs) were obtained for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9≥10) (uIPV: OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.4-3.8; and pIPV: 4.1, 95%CI 2.5-6.8). In most problems, the ORs did not significantly differ between the two types of IPV. uIPV is 2.6 times more frequent than pIPV and is associated with at least as many health problems as pIPV. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Intimate partner violence and maternal educational practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Josianne Maria Mattos da; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Ludermir, Ana Bernarda

    2017-04-10

    The objective of this study is to analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and maternal educational practice directed to children at the beginning of formal education. This is a cross-sectional study, carried out between 2013 and 2014, with 631 mother/child pairs, registered in the Family Health Strategy of the Health District II of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. It integrates a prospective cohort study designed to investigate the consequences of exposure to intimate partner violence in relation to the child who was born between 2005 and 2006. The maternal educational practice has been assessed by the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale and the intimate partner violence by a questionnaire adapted from the Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence of the World Health Organization. Intimate partner violence referred to the last 12 months and was defined by specific acts of psychological, physical, and sexual violence inflicted to women by the partner. The crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated for the association studied, using log-binomial regression. The prevalence of intimate partner violence was 24.4%, and violent maternal educational practice was 93.8%. The use of non-violent discipline was mentioned by 97.6% of the women, coexisting with violent strategies of discipline. Children whose mothers reported intimate partner violence presented a higher chance of suffering psychological aggression (PR = 2.2; 95%CI 1.0-4.7). The violence suffered by the mother interferes in the parental education. The findings show high prevalence of violent maternal educational practice, pointing to the need for interventions that minimize the damage of violence in women and children. Analisar a associação entre a violência pelo parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e a prática educativa materna direcionada às crianças no início da escolaridade formal. Estudo transversal, realizado entre 2013 e 2014, com

  12. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. [Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner abuse in female users of public health services in Mexico: a comparative analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.

  14. Sex, Courtship, and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Berniece

    The author presents an historical perspective on abortion, contraception and marriage as a prelude to an examination of changing attitudes toward sex. The article deals with the negative effects attributed to the increased incidence of early dating and early marriage of teenagers in the United States. The author also assumes positions on such…

  15. Courtship in Frogs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vertebrate vocalization came into existence for the first time in frogs. Acoustic signals produced by the frogs have well-defined physical characteristics and a clear biological meaning. The signals are meant to attract and assess the sex, species identity and genetic quality of potential mates. Acoustic communication plays a ...

  16. Male dance moves that catch a woman's eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, Nick; McCarty, Kristofor; Freynik, Jeanette; Caplan, Nicholas; Hönekopp, Johannes; Fink, Bernhard

    2011-04-23

    Male movements serve as courtship signals in many animal species, and may honestly reflect the genotypic and/or phenotypic quality of the individual. Attractive human dance moves, particularly those of males, have been reported to show associations with measures of physical strength, prenatal androgenization and symmetry. Here we use advanced three-dimensional motion-capture technology to identify possible biomechanical differences between women's perceptions of 'good' and 'bad' male dancers. Nineteen males were recorded using the 'Vicon' motion-capture system while dancing to a basic rhythm; controlled stimuli in the form of avatars were then created in the form of 15 s video clips, and rated by 39 females for dance quality. Initial analyses showed that 11 movement variables were significantly positively correlated with perceived dance quality. Linear regression subsequently revealed that three movement measures were key predictors of dance quality; these were variability and amplitude of movements of the neck and trunk, and speed of movements of the right knee. In summary, we have identified specific movements within men's dance that influence women's perceptions of dancing ability. We suggest that such movements may form honest signals of male quality in terms of health, vigour or strength, though this remains to be confirmed.

  17. Intimate partner violence against deaf female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Melissa L; Leigh, Irene W

    2011-07-01

    It has been estimated that roughly 25% of all Deaf women in the United States are victims of intimate partner violence (Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Services [ADWAS]), a figure similar to annual prevalence rates of 16% to 30% for intimate partners in the general population. One goal of the present study was to ascertain the prevalence of intimate partner violence victimization in a sample of Deaf female college students. When comparing the prevalence of physical assault, psychological aggression, and sexual coercion victimization to hearing female undergraduates, the current sample was approximately two times as likely to have experienced victimization in the past year.

  18. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2016-01-01

    NARRATIVE ABSTRACT Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women cannot use them due to health conditions or side effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancy, of which 80–90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper will briefly review the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies, and then discuss the research directed towards the development of novel methods of male contraception. PMID:27678037

  20. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... Contact your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE ...

  1. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormality affecting other hormonal systems including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male ... Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications, some ulcer drugs ...

  2. Male nurses and the protection of female patient dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Antony

    Nurses need to be aware of their professional, legal and ethical responsibilities towards patients. Male nurses in particular face problems in their practice as a result of their gender and the stereotypes associated with male nurses. Such stereotypes can act as a barrier to their duty of care. This article examines the challenges associated with male nurses carrying out intimate, physical care. It discusses the ethical, legal and professional issues that male nurses should consider in relation to maintenance of patient dignity during nursing care provision, particularly in relation to female patients.

  3. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  4. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  5. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldhoff Pamela W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF, respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component.

  6. Sex-specific visual performance: female lizards outperform males in motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Saúl S.; Conway, Mirela; Martins, Emília P.

    2009-01-01

    In animal communication, complex displays usually have multiple functions and, male and female receivers often differ in their utilization and response to different aspects of these displays. The perceptual variability hypothesis suggests that different aspects of complex signals differ in their ability to be detected and processed by different receivers. Here, we tested whether receiver male and female Sceloporus graciosus lizards differ in visual motion detection by measuring the latency to the visual grasp response to a motion stimulus. We demonstrate that in lizards that largely exhibit complex motions as courtship signals, female lizards are faster than males at visually detecting motion. These results highlight that differential signal utilization by the sexes may be driven by variability in the capacity to detect different display properties. PMID:19656865

  7. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A; Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C

    2014-06-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships ( N =648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type.

  8. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  9. Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. AJ Mason-Jones, P De Koker, SM Eggers, C Mathews, M Temmerman, E Leye, PJ de Vries, H de Vries ...

  10. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    OpenAIRE

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2013-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting,...

  11. Resources and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cools, Sara; Kotsadam, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Combining DHS data for 580,000 women from 30 different countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, we analyze how both the incidence and the acceptance of intimate partner violence vary across time and space, in a region with record high levels of violence against women. We review the existing literature regarding the impact of resources on intimate partner violence, extracting testable and often conflicting hypotheses at the micro and macro level, and on the interaction across levels. We propose to ext...

  12. Minority Stress and Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.

  13. Association between exposure to political violence and intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Suglia, Shakira Franco; Btoush, Rula; Alonso, Alvaro; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M

    2010-01-23

    Intimate-partner violence might increase during and after exposure to collective violence. We assessed whether political violence was associated with male-to-female intimate-partner violence in the occupied Palestinian territory. A nationally representative, cross-sectional survey was done between Dec 18, 2005, and Jan 18, 2006, by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. 4156 households were randomly selected with a multistage random cluster design, from which 3815 ever-married women aged 15-64 years were identified. We restricted our analysis to presently married women (n=3510, 92% participation rate), who completed a short version of the revised conflict tactics scales and exposure to political violence inventory. Exposure to political violence was characterised as the husband's direct exposure, his indirect exposure via his family's experiences, and economic effects of exposure on the household. We used adjusted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for association between political violence and intimate-partner violence. Political violence was significantly related to higher odds of intimate-partner violence. ORs were 1.89 (95% CI 1.29-2.76) for physical and 2.23 (1.49-3.35) for sexual intimate-partner violence in respondents whose husbands were directly exposed to political violence compared with those whose husbands were not directly exposed. For women whose husbands were indirectly exposed, ORs were 1.61 (1.25-2.07) for physical and 1.97 (1.49-2-60) for sexual violence, compared with those whose husbands were not indirectly exposed. Economic effects of exposure were associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence in the Gaza Strip only. Because exposure to political violence is associated with increased odds of intimate-partner violence, and exposure to many traumas is associated with poor health, a range of violent exposures should be assessed when establishing the need for psychosocial interventions in

  14. Peripheral, central and behavioral responses to the cuticular pheromone bouquet in Drosophila melanogaster males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Inoshita

    Full Text Available Pheromonal communication is crucial with regard to mate choice in many animals including insects. Drosophila melanogaster flies produce a pheromonal bouquet with many cuticular hydrocarbons some of which diverge between the sexes and differently affect male courtship behavior. Cuticular pheromones have a relatively high weight and are thought to be -- mostly but not only -- detected by gustatory contact. However, the response of the peripheral and central gustatory systems to these substances remains poorly explored. We measured the effect induced by pheromonal cuticular mixtures on (i the electrophysiological response of peripheral gustatory receptor neurons, (ii the calcium variation in brain centers receiving these gustatory inputs and (iii the behavioral reaction induced in control males and in mutant desat1 males, which show abnormal pheromone production and perception. While male and female pheromones induced inhibitory-like effects on taste receptor neurons, the contact of male pheromones on male fore-tarsi elicits a long-lasting response of higher intensity in the dedicated gustatory brain center. We found that the behavior of control males was more strongly inhibited by male pheromones than by female pheromones, but this difference disappeared in anosmic males. Mutant desat1 males showed an increased sensitivity of their peripheral gustatory neurons to contact pheromones and a behavioral incapacity to discriminate sex pheromones. Together our data indicate that cuticular hydrocarbons induce long-lasting inhibitory effects on the relevant taste pathway which may interact with the olfactory pathway to modulate pheromonal perception.

  15. Screening for and treating intimate partner violence in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecha, Ann

    2003-07-01

    The WHO has declared that violence is a leading worldwide public health problem with intimate partner violence one of the most common forms of violence against women (2002). Health care providers are frequently among the first to see victims of intimate partner violence and must strive to provide appropriate and effective care to abused women. Violence by intimate partners can be prevented. Occupational health nurses have a unique opportunity to intervene with abused women. Routine screening for intimate partner violence increases the likelihood of violence identification, leading to early intervention that may prevent trauma and injury. Occupational health nurses can foster a caring and confidential workplace where abused women feel safe to disclose the violence in their lives and trust that the nurse will provide treatment. A safe and healthy workplace, where abused women feel comfortable disclosing intimate partner violence and seeking treatment may also protect coworkers from the stress and violence that may potentially affect them. Occupational health nurses need to add screening for and treatment of intimate partner violence to their current health promotion and prevention activities to benefit all employees.

  16. Assessing Intimate Partner Violence in a Control Balance Theory Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Erin D; Nobles, Matt R; Zavala, Egbert

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role that control occupies in the motivation for, and development of, intimate partner violence (IPV). The research literature often theorizes about the importance of control in gender-based crimes; however, few studies have empirically tested these assumptions. Given the breath of theoretical approaches in examining IPV and the need for individualized explanations, the current study used concepts from Tittle's control balance theory. This integrated theory accounts for many of the known risk factors, such as self-control and routine activities, while accounting for individual perceptions of control. A college student sample ( N = 401) was used, in accordance with the literature that has found this subpopulation to be at high risk for IPV. An online survey was distributed to potential participants to capture self-reported incidents of victimization and perpetration of IPV within the past year. Statistical analysis using segmented nonlinear regression models was estimated to assess sex difference effects. The results showed no difference in control continuums between the sexes but did find significant associations between control deficits and female victimization and perpetration, as well as significant association between control deficits and male perpetration of IPV. These findings have implications beyond the theoretical confirmation that control is key factor to this type of violence. In addition to greater education regarding dating expectations, control deficits may be particularly important for socially marginalized groups, such as those from the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Efforts can then be made to identify issues with control in IPV counseling, victim services, treatments for offenders, and other gender-based crimes, such as rape, sexual assault, and stalking.

  17. Trajectories of Intimate Partner Violence Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Swartout

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purposes of this study were to assess the extent to which latent trajectories of female intimate partner violence (IPV victimization exist; and, if so, use negative childhood experiences to predict trajectory membership.Methods: We collected data from 1,575 women at 5 time-points regarding experiences during adolescence and their 4 years of college. We used latent class growth analysis to fit a series of personcentered, longitudinal models ranging from 1 to 5 trajectories. Once the best-fitting model was selected, we used negative childhood experience variables—sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing domestic violence—to predict most-likely trajectory membership via multinomial logistic regression.Results: A 5-trajectory model best fit the data both statistically and in terms of interpretability. The trajectories across time were interpreted as low or no IPV, low to moderate IPV, moderate to low IPV, high to moderate IPV, and high and increasing IPV, respectively. Negative childhood experiences differentiated trajectory membership, somewhat, with childhood sexual abuse as a consistent predictor of membership in elevated IPV trajectories.Conclusion: Our analyses show how IPV risk changes over time and in different ways. These differential patterns of IPV suggest the need for prevention strategies tailored for women that consider victimization experiences in childhood and early adulthood. [West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(3:272–277.

  18. A microsatellite linkage map for Drosophila montana shows large variation in recombination rates, and a courtship song trait maps to an area of low recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, M A; Mazzi, D; Klappert, K; Kauranen, H; Vieira, J; Hoikkala, A; Ritchie, M G; Schlötterer, C

    2010-03-01

    Current advances in genetic analysis are opening up our knowledge of the genetics of species differences, but challenges remain, particularly for out-bred natural populations. We constructed a microsatellite-based linkage map for two out-bred lines of Drosophila montana derived from divergent populations by taking advantage of the Drosophila virilis genome and available cytological maps of both species. Although the placement of markers was quite consistent with cytological predictions, the map indicated large heterogeneity in recombination rates along chromosomes. We also performed a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis on a courtship song character (carrier frequency), which differs between populations and is subject to strong sexual selection. Linkage mapping yielded two significant QTLs, which explained 3% and 14% of the variation in carrier frequency, respectively. Interestingly, as in other recent studies of traits which can influence speciation, the strongest QTL mapped to a genomic region partly covered by an inversion polymorphism.

  19. Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence in a Migrant Farmworker Community in Baja California, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcella J; Mintle, Rachel A; Smith, Sylvia; Garcia, Alicia; Torres, Vanessa N; Keough, Allie; Salgado, Hugo

    2015-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the most common forms of violence against women worldwide. Among Mexican women, it is estimated that 15 to 71% have experienced physical or sexual abuse by an intimate male partner in their lifetime. This study examined the prevalence of four leading risk factors associated with IPV (alcohol consumption, education, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender roles) in adult women (n = 68) in a migrant farmworker community in México. Alcohol consumption among women was higher than the national average, and partner consumption was lower. Education level and SES were low, and women identified with a feminist ideology more than a traditional gender role. Results also revealed that 86.4% (n = 57) of participants identified violence against women as a common problem in the community, and the majority (94.0%, n = 62) of participants believe that IPV specifically is a problem within the community.

  20. Male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  1. Intimate Partner Violence Among Men Presenting to a University Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, Cherlin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We sought to investigate the one-year point prevalence for male intimate partner violence (IPV in men presenting to a university emergency department, to identify types of violence, to examine differences in male IPV rates based on patient demographics, and to identify any differences in prevalence based on types of partnership. Methods: This survey study was conducted from September 2001 until January 2002 at a tertiary, academic, Level I Trauma Center with an emergency department (ED that has 40,000 visits per year. The anonymous written survey consisted of 16 questions previously validated in the Colorado Partner Violence Study, Index of Spouse Abuse and the Conflict Tactics Scale. This survey was administered to all consenting adult men who presented to the ED. Odds ratios (OR with 95% CI were calculated when appropriate and a p-value of 0.05 was set for significance. Results: The oneyear point prevalence rate of male IPV was 24% in our study population (82/346. Among the men who experienced some form of abuse specified as either physical, emotional, or sexual, the prevalence was calculated to be 15.6% (54/346, 13.6% (47/346, and 2.6% (9/346, respectively. Education, income, age, and race did not demonstrate an association for any one variable to be associated with intimate partner abuse (p>0.05 with the exception of increased risk of IPV among unemployed men in the relationship (p<0.04, OR 0.592. IPV towards men was found to affect both heterosexual as well as homosexual relationships. Overall, 2% (8/346 of the men surveyed had received medical treatment as a result of IPV by their intimate partner within the past year. Three percent (11/344 of those men reporting abuse were abusers themselves. Conclusion: The point prevalence of IPV among our study population was 24%. In our study of 346 men, male IPV crossed all socioeconomic boundaries, racial differences, and educational levels regardless of the sex of the partner.

  2. The Influence of Victim Vulnerability and Gender on Police Officers' Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jennifer E; Strand, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of victim vulnerability factors and gender on risk assessment for intimate partner violence (IPV). 867 cases of male and female perpetrated IPV investigated by Swedish police officers using the Brief Spousal Assault Form for the Evaluation of Risk (B-SAFER) were examined. For male-to-female IPV, victim vulnerability factors were associated with summary risk judgments and risk management recommendations. For female-to-male IPV, vulnerability factors were more often omitted, and consistent associations were not found between vulnerability factors, summary risk judgments, and risk management. Results indicate that B-SAFER victim vulnerability factors can assist in assessing male-to-female IPV risk. Further research is necessary to examine the use of B-SAFER victim vulnerability factors for female-to-male IPV, as results showed victim vulnerability factors to be less relevant to officers' decision making, particularly their management recommendations. However, several variables external to the B-SAFER, such as the availability of management strategies may account for these findings.

  3. Pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol by males enhances sexual selection of Bactrocera carambolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong; Nishida, Ritsuo

    2007-06-01

    After pharmacophagy of methyl eugenol (ME), males of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) produced (E)-coniferyl alcohol (CF) along with its endogenously synthesized pheromonal compounds. CF was shown to be released into the air by the ME-fed males only during the courtship period at dusk and attracted significantly more males and females than the ME-deprived males in wind tunnel assays. However, earlier onset of sexual attraction and a higher mating success were observed only in the wind tunnel and field cage assays on the third day posttreatment of ME. Field cage observations on the male-to-male interaction indicated that the ME-deprived males did not exhibit aggregation behavior, but that ME feeding promoted aggregation behavior in B. carambolae. Field cage observations revealed that the ME-deprived males were not only attracted to the ME-fed males, but also appeared to feed on their anal secretions. The secretions were subsequently confirmed to contain CF along with endogenously produced pheromonal compounds. Results obtained for B. carambolae were compared to those previously obtained from its sibling species, Bactrocera dorsalis, and are discussed in light of species advancement in fruit fly-plant relationships.

  4. [Health status and intimate partner violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Rey, Lourdes; Otero-García, Laura

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Spain in the last year and at some point during the lifetime, to determine health status in women according to whether they had experienced IPV or not, and to analyze the individual variables associated with IPV in Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed of the database, Macrosurvey on Gender Violence in Spain 2011. This database includes data on 7,898 women older than 18 years old. The dependent variables were IPV-last year, IPV-ever in life. Covariates consisted of sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal experience of IPV, social support, and self-care. The measure of association used was the OR with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of 3.6% of women had experienced IPV-last year and 12.2% ever in life. Female victims of IPV had poorer health than women who had not experienced IPV. Immigrant women living in Spain for 6 years or more were more likely to experience IPV-ever in life than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.95 (1.50, 2.53)]. An interaction was found between nationality and the existence of children under 18 years old. Among women with children under 18 years old, immigrant women were more likely to experience IPV-last year than Spanish women [OR (95% CI): 1.99 (1.25, 3.17)]. Other variables associated with IPV were age, low socioeconomic status, low social support and having a mother who had experienced IPV. In Spain, some women have a higher probability of experiencing IPV. The variables associated with greater vulnerability to IPV should be taken into account when implementing measures to prevent or alleviate IPV. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimate partner violence and housing instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, Joanne; Alvarez, Jennifer; Baumrind, Nikki; Induni, Marta; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-02-01

    The mental and physical health consequences of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been well established, yet little is known about the impact of violence on a woman's ability to obtain and maintain housing. This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between recent IPV and housing instability among a representative sample of California women. It is expected that women who have experienced IPV will be at increased risk for housing instability as evidenced by: (1) late rent or mortgage, (2) frequent moves because of difficulty obtaining affordable housing, and/or (3) without their own housing. Data were taken from the 2003 California Women's Health Survey, a population-based, random-digit-dial, annual probability survey of adult California women (N=3619). Logistic regressions were used to predict housing instability in the past 12 months, adjusting for the following covariates; age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty status, marital status, children in the household, and past year IPV. In the multivariate model, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, poverty, and IPV were significant predictors of housing instability. After adjusting for all covariates, women who experienced IPV in the last year had almost four times the odds of reporting housing instability than women who did not experience IPV (adjusted odds ratio=3.98, 95% confidence interval: 2.94-5.39). This study found that IPV was associated with housing instability among California women. Future prospective studies are needed to learn more about the nature and direction of the relationship between IPV and housing instability and the possible associated negative health consequences.

  6. Prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence in women living in eight indigenous regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Híjar, Martha; Rojas Martínez, Rosalba; Avila Burgos, Leticia; Arenas Monreal, María de la Luz

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and severity of intimate partner violence (IPV) in eight indigenous regions of Mexico, as well as the socioeconomic and demographic variables that are associated with this phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was conducted in indigenous regions that have a greater availability of government medical services than other indigenous regions. Interviews were conducted with female patients (n = 3287) seeking medical care in either of the two public health institutions in these regions. The severity of intimate partner violence (SIPV) during the previous 12 months was measured using a 33-item scale. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the factors associated with SIPV. Intimate partner violence prevalence was 25.5% (95%CI 24.93-25.26). Female partner variables such as personal history of child abuse (ORA 3.48; 95%CI 2.48-4.89) and work outside the home (ORA 1.74; 95%CI 1.22-2.49) and male partner variables such as unemployment (ORA 2.31; 95%CI 1.34-3.97) and a high frequency of alcohol use (ORA 13.35; 95%CI 7.02-25.39) were the main predictors for IPV. We found a three-fold higher risk of IPV for women living in the Los Altos de Chiapas region (ORA 3.01; 95%CI 1.88-4.79) compared with women in the Mayan region (reference category). Such results should aid decision makers in the development of extended public policies and interventions to address violence against women in the indigenous populations of Mexico. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Engendering independence while living with purpose: women's lives after leaving abusive intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Penelope W; Dickerson, Suzanne

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the common meanings a history of violence has for women out of abusive and violent relationships with an intimate male partner for 5 or more years. To describe the common meanings and shared practices of women who left violent and abusive heterosexual intimate relationships 5 or more years ago, the challenges they face in their current lives, and the resources they use to meet those challenges. An additional aim is to elucidate practical advice they have for others who want to be supportive of the efforts of women recovering from intimate partner violence. An interpretive phenomenological approach using Heideggerian hermeneutics was utilized. Approval of the University Social Sciences Institutional Review Board was obtained. Participants were recruited by means of fliers distributed through a domestic violence listserv and through postings in health clinics in western New York. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A hermeneutic team approach was used for analysis and interpretation of texts. Twenty-one women of various ages, ethnicities, and backgrounds, who self-identified as being out of abusive relationships for 5 or more years, were interviewed. Six themes were identified: developing and maintaining self reliance; negotiating relationships; creating a safe and supportive environment; challenging societal roles and expectations; nurturing the self; and protecting the children. Engendering independence while living with purpose was the constitutive pattern that unified the themes. Women can successfully establish productive, meaningful lives after violence and will fiercely protect and maintain their independence as they negotiate relationships and developmental challenges throughout their lives. A need for control of their lives and difficulty trusting others remain a lasting legacy of living with a history of violence. This is the first study that examines women's lives 5 or more years after leaving violent and

  8. The sexual habits of males who molest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L E; Yap, A K; Ong, S H; Chan, A O; Chan, K L

    2000-10-01

    To gain better understanding into the causes of molesting behaviour in males, we examined a prison cohort of molesters and compared them with a control group comprising thieves. The molesters were older, had attained a higher educational level and were more likely to be married. They had their initial sexual intercourse at an older age but tended to have multiple sexual relationships and were less likely to report having viewed pornographic material. Three months prior to committing their offences, molesters seemed to engage in less sexual activity. The implications are that molesters had a need for more explicit sexual contact but were unable to sustain ongoing, stable, intimate sexual relationships.

  9. Rural black women's agency within intimate partnerships amid the South African HIV epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thege, Britta

    2009-12-01

    In a particular way, the HIV pandemic exposes the prevailing gender relations and the definitions of male and female gender roles, both in intimate relationships and in the wider society. The HIV pandemic reveals the contradictions between women's legal rights and the persistence of women's cultural and sexual subordination. It reflects the impact of poverty, gender roles, culture and religion. Although HIV and AIDS cuts across class, South African rural black women's infection risk seems particularly high since they suffer notably from subordination and socio-economic hardships. Negotiating safer sex in marriage or intimate partnerships is very difficult for them in view of the traditional spaces in which they find themselves, where patriarchal structures are pervasive. Based on data obtained from a case study, this paper examines socio-cultural constraints to rural women's sexual agency in a patriarchal social order. These rules are based on a patriarchal code of respect, which is still pervasive in many aspects of the community under investigation. In terms of gender relations, the patriarchal code of respect is founded on an assumed 'naturalisation' of the two genders and the natural superiority of the male over the female. In terms of sexuality it is translated into male sex-right. The fear of HIV infection is omnipresent and results in unmarried women engaging in the negotiation of their wants and needs. Owing to the patriarchal code of respect, married women are perceived as having no choice in negotiating safer sex and are forced to put their lives at risk in contracting HIV. Unmarried women have greater although not endless choices in this regard. Although the study participants unexpectedly displayed a rather negative perception of other women, in order to strengthen women in their proximal environment the HIV epidemic may be seen as a vehicle for building solidarity among women in the community.

  10. Intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marital control behaviours by husband and parental IPV were associated with past 12-month physical IPV violence perpetration. IPV prevention programmes should include the reduction of violent gender norms, male control of female behaviour and problem drinking among men. Keywords: psychological partner violence, ...

  11. Male Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, Wieland; Wagner, Isabel V; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Körner, Antje

    2015-12-01

    Many cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal studies have examined the association between adiposity and pubertal development. In addition, the impact of an increased fat mass on reproduction and fertility in human obese men and in male animal models of obesity has been studied. A trend toward earlier pubertal development and maturation in both sexes has been shown, and the notion that obese boys might progress to puberty at a slower pace than their nonobese peers can no longer be substantiated. Impaired fertility markers and reduced reproductive functions have been observed in obesity. Obesity affects both pubertal development and fertility in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment. PMID:26483719

  13. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: A comparison of six species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eDadda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki, when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of 6 poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, Gambusia holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii and Xiphophorus mayae that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females’ social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  14. Rutting behaviour of territorial and nonterritorial male chamois: is there a home advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlatti, Luca; Caroli, Martina; Pietrocini, Venusta; Lovari, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Males using alternative male mating tactics (AMTs) may express their mating effort in a variety of ways. In polygynous species with limited sexual dimorphism, differences in male aggressiveness may affect mating opportunities. We recorded the behaviour of 8 territorial and 7 nonterritorial male Alpine chamois Rupicapra rupicapra, a nearly monomorphic ungulate, during the 2011 rut in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy), to analyse differences in mating effort and mating opportunities between AMTs. The chamois showed a rich behavioural repertoire (31 behavioural patterns), with a prevalence of indirect aggression. Territorial males had higher frequency of aggressive and courtship behaviour than nonterritorial males over the early rut. Later, nonterritorials increased their mating effort, possibly because of reduced competition with dominant males. Territorial males monopolised all observed mating events. Our results support the hypothesis that chamois may assert dominance through intense aggressiveness rather than through horn size or body mass as found in other polygynous ungulates. Most important, differences in mating effort mediated by AMTs resulted in different mating opportunities; these benefits, however, are traded off against greater costs, due to higher levels of hormone metabolites and parasitism. Data on AMTs flexibility, lifetime reproductive success and survival are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the evolution and maintenance of AMTs within chamois populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Female sexual attractiveness and sex recognition in leopard gecko: Males are indiscriminate courters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schořálková, Tereza; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš

    2018-02-01

    The nature and hormonal control of cues used for recognition of sex and reproductive status of conspecifics remain largely unstudied in reptiles. It has been proposed that production of a female attractiveness pheromone controlled by female ovarian hormones (and which is suppressed by male gonadal androgens) is necessary to elicit courtship in males. In the case of leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius), it has been suggested that an individual is recognized as a male and attacked unless it produces female-specific stimuli in its skin and that females are attacked, not courted, while shedding. We tested the reactions of males to control males and control shedding and non-shedding females, castrated males, females treated with exogenous androgens (testosterone and dihydrotestosterone), and prepubertal individuals. The individuals with high androgen levels (i.e., control males and hormone-treated females) were attacked while animals in all the other groups were courted. Our results indicate that in leopard gecko hormonally controlled pheromones advertising female attractiveness are not required and that sex discrimination is based on the presence or absence of cues dependent on masculinization by male gonadal steroids. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Female social response to male sexual harassment in poeciliid fish: a comparison of six species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadda, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G. holbrooki, Poecilia reticulata, Xiphophorus hellerii, and Xiphophorus mayae) that exhibit different male mating strategies and different levels of sexual activity. Results revealed large interspecific differences in the pattern of female aggregation. Females of species with a high frequency of sneak copulations tended to reduce their social distance in the presence of a male. By contrast, species that rely mainly on courtship showed little or no variation in social distance. The proportion of sneak copulations predicts the degree of variation in female social response, but the amount of total sexual activity does not, suggesting that the change in females' social distance when a male is present may indeed serve to reduce the costs of male sexual harassment.

  17. Male sex pheromone components in Heliconius butterflies released by the androconia affect female choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Darragh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sex-specific pheromones are known to play an important role in butterfly courtship, and may influence both individual reproductive success and reproductive isolation between species. Extensive ecological, behavioural and genetic studies of Heliconius butterflies have made a substantial contribution to our understanding of speciation. Male pheromones, although long suspected to play an important role, have received relatively little attention in this genus. Here, we combine morphological, chemical and behavioural analyses of male pheromones in the Neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene. First, we identify putative androconia that are specialized brush-like scales that lie within the shiny grey region of the male hindwing. We then describe putative male sex pheromone compounds, which are largely confined to the androconial region of the hindwing of mature males, but are absent in immature males and females. Finally, behavioural choice experiments reveal that females of H. melpomene, H. erato and H. timareta strongly discriminate against conspecific males which have their androconial region experimentally blocked. As well as demonstrating the importance of chemical signalling for female mate choice in Heliconius butterflies, the results describe structures involved in release of the pheromone and a list of potential male sex pheromone compounds.

  18. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. [Systematic review of studies on the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives-Cases, Carmen; Gil-González, Diana; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Despite the visibility of intimate partner violence against women in low socioeconomic groups, the association of low socioeconomic status and violent behavior is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the empirical evidence on the causal role of batterers' socioeconomic status in this phenomenon. We performed a systematic review, using the following databases: Eric (1966-2004), Sociological Abstracts (1963-2005), Science Citation Index (1945-2005), Social Science Citation Index (1956-2005), Medline through Pubmed (1966-2005), Social Service Abstracts (1980-2005), Lilacs (1982-2005) and Psycinfo (1972-2005). We included empirical papers with aims or hypothesis related to the causal relation between low socioeconomic status (employment, education, income) in men and IPV. A total of 251 studies were identified, but only 10 met the inclusion criteria. There was one cohort study, one case-control study, one ecological study and one study based on a series of cases. Two studies calculated odds ratio in the analyses. One of these studies reported an odds ratio of 1.4 (95% CI, 1.1-1.9) with unemployment and the other study showed no significant positive associations with this factor or with low income or education. More information and better quality data are required to establish conclusive results on the causal role of the socioeconomic status of men who batter their intimate partners. The empirical evidence on the relationship between violent male behavior against their partners and low socioeconomic status is still insufficient.

  20. Acceptability of Family Violence: Underlying Ties Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol

    2017-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.

  1. Patient Perspectives on Intimate Partner Violence Discussion during Genetic Counseling Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina; Greb, Anne; Kalia, Isha; Bajaj, Komal; Klugman, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major health concern in the United States (ACOG 2013). The World Health Organization (WHO) describes IPV as any physical, sexual, psychological harm by a current or former intimate partner (WHO 2016). Due to the psychosocial depth and nature of discussions within genetic counseling sessions, patients may disclose and/or discuss IPV as it relates to sexual well-being, reproductive and overall health. This study aims to assess the role for IPV screening, counseling and intervention in genetic counseling practice by investigating the incidence, experiences and attitudes about IPV among genetic counseling patients. Patients receiving genetic counseling at an urban metropolitan hospital were anonymously surveyed about experiences and perspectives on IPV as a topic of discussion during genetic counseling sessions. Among 60 eligible patients, 50 completed the survey (49 females, 1 male, of which, 5 identified as LGBT) ages 20 to 66. The incidence of IPV in this group was 16.0 % (n = 8). Majority of participants had never been asked about IPV by a healthcare provider (n = 32; 64.0%), would have felt comfortable answering questions about IPV by their healthcare provider (n = 34; 68.0%), and would have felt comfortable answering questions about IPV by their genetic counselor (n = 39; 78.0%). Perspectives from all participants, notably those with IPV history, provided insights to the role of genetic counselors in areas for IPV screening and counseling training.

  2. Tipe Kepribadian dan Tahapan Komunikasi Intim pada Dewasa Awal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Agias Fitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Personality aspect is an aspect that cannot be discharged in an individual. It is as same as communication aspect, which is important in a relationship, including in marriage relationship. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a correlation between Extrovert and Introvert personality type with intimate communication phases in early adulthood. This study belongs to the type of correlation research. In this study, the result showed that there was a positive relationship between extrovert personality type with two phases of intimate communication, namely sharing the self and becoming one. Meanwhile, there was a negative relationship between Introvert personality typet with two phases of intimate communication, namely sharing the self and becoming one. 

  3. Preventing violence by intimate partners in adolescence: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.

  4. FCJ-149 Affect and Care in Intimate Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone Bertelsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the ‘co-affective’ power of the new media artwork Intimate Transactions. This co-affective power operates at the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience. In order to explore this level of experience the article draws on the work of Brian Massumi, Bracha Ettinger and Felix Guattari amongst others. For these thinkers the ‘trans-subjective’ level of experience, precisely because it is ‘co-affective’, holds ethical potential. The article argues for the importance of tending to ‘co-affective’ level of experience – both in designing “interactive” art, such as Intimate Transactions, and in life more generally.

  5. Primary Intimal Sarcoma of Thoracic Aorta Presenting as Hypertensive Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-I; Su, Min-I; Tsai, Cheng-Ting

    2015-11-01

    We report a 45-year-old woman who presented to our facility in a hypertensive crisis. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a thoracic aortic tumor, and tissues obtained via endovascular biopsy revealed undifferentiated sarcoma. A final diagnosis of intimal sarcoma was made by intra-operative pathological examination. Despite undergoing surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient died from progressive multiple metastasis and severe sepsis. Although aortic sarcoma is rarely diagnosed, it should be considered a possible etiology of hypertensive crisis. Aortic tumor; Endovascular biopsy; Hypertension crisis; Intimal sarcoma.

  6. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web.

  7. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The magnitude of intimate partner violence in Brazil: portraits from 15 capital cities and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichenheim Michael Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the prevalence of intimate partner violence in 15 State capital cities and the Federal District of Brazil. A population-based multi-stage survey in 2002/2003 involved 6,760 15-69-year-old women (respondents. Using the Conflict Tactics Scales - Form R, the overall prevalence of psychological aggression and "minor" and severe physical abuse within couples was 78.3%, 21.5%, and 12.9%, respectively. Prevalence rates varied distinctively between cities. For instance, total physical abuse ranged from 13.2% to 34.8%. On the whole, prevalence was higher in the North and Northeast cities than in the Southeast, South, and Central West. Also, all types of intimate partner violence were more frequent in couples including women who were younger (< 25 years and had less schooling (< 8 years. After stratifying by gender, although women tended to perpetrate at least one act of physical abuse more often, scores were consistently higher among male partners who were perpetrators. The results are compared to international findings. Regional, demographic, and gender differentials are discussed in light of the growing role of the Brazilian health sector in relation to intimate partner violence.

  9. Accounting for Intimate Partner Violence: A Biographical Analysis of Narrative Strategies Used by Men Experiencing IPV From Their Female Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbally, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar: um diagnóstico diferencial do tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery: a differential diagnosis of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Alves Valle Dornas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar é um tumor raro e potencialmente letal, de diagnóstico difícil e, muitas vezes, tardio. Os sinais e sintomas clínicos são inespecíficos, simulando com frequência o tromboembolismo pulmonar crônico (TEPC. Apresentamos o caso de um homem de 45 anos em tratamento de TEPC associado com hipertensão arterial pulmonar e cor pulmonale crônico, sem resposta ao uso de anticoagulantes e sildenafil. Ressaltamos as dificuldades para o diagnóstico do sarcoma intimal de artéria pulmonar, a necessidade de se pesquisar essa neoplasia no diagnóstico diferencial do TEPC e a utilização sistemática de critérios para a adequada indicação dos novos medicamentos para a hipertensão arterial pulmonar.Intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery is a rare and potentially lethal tumor, the diagnosis of which is difficult and therefore frequently delayed. The clinical signs and symptoms are nonspecific, often mimicking chronic pulmonary thromboembolism (CPTE. We report the case of a 45-year-old male under treatment for CPTE associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic cor pulmonale. There was no response to treatment with anticoagulants and sildenafil. We emphasize the difficulties in diagnosing intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery, the need to investigate this neoplasm in the differential diagnosis of CPTE and the systematic use of criteria for the appropriate prescription of new medications for pulmonary artery hypertension.

  11. [Female intimate partner homicide: clinical and criminological issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechova-Vayleux, E; Leveillee, S; Lhuillier, J-P; Garre, J-B; Senon, J-L; Richard-Devantoy, S

    2013-12-01

    Female intimate partner homicide (FIPH) is a fatal complication of domestic violence. The aim of this study was to describe the socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of male perpetrators of FIPH and to compare them to the perpetrators of extrafamilial homicide and the perpetrators of intrafamilial homicide other than FIPH. Between 1975 and 2005, 32 FIPH were perpetrated in the region of Angers (France), and these were compared to 26 intrafamilial homicides other than FIPH and to 97 extrafamilial homicides perpetrated in the same period, in the same region. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological data were collected from psychiatric expert reports and medical files. The mean age of the FIPH perpetrators was 37.8years. They were professionally active, in majority as manual workers. They had a psychiatric record (69%), a previous criminal record (31%), and a history of violence against others (47%). Half of these perpetrators also had experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18. Compared to extrafamilial homicide perpetrators, FIPH perpetrators occupied more frequently a manual job and had prior criminal records less frequently. In the majority of cases of FIPH and intrafamilial homicide, the murder occurred in the evening, at the victim's home, and while the perpetrator was intoxicated. FIPH was mostly premeditated and was accompanied four times less frequently by another criminal behaviour compared to extrafamilial homicide. The FIPH perpetrators had more depressive symptoms and suicidal ideations when committing the crime and remained on the crime scene more often than extrafamilial homicide perpetrators who mostly attempted to flee the crime scene. FIPH perpetrators and extra- and intrafamilial homicide perpetrators were found criminally responsible in half of the cases. The socio-demographic, clinical and criminological characteristics of FIPH perpetrators were not statistically different from those of perpetrators of

  12. Assessment of a community rehabilitation programme in convicted male intimate-partner violence offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En España, la introducción por ley del tratamiento en la comunidad de la mayoría de los condenados por delitos de violencia de género ha planteado un nuevo escenario de investigación para afrontar esta demanda. A fin de conocer la eficacia de un programa cognitivo-conductual de tratamiento cuyas características específicas eran el control de la adherencia/progreso en el tratamiento y el ajuste de los contenidos a las necesidades de los penados, se diseñó un estudio de campo con el objetivo de conocer los efectos del programa en los mecanismos internos subyacentes al comportamiento criminal. Para ello fueron evaluados en éstos los 130 primeros penados que cumplieron el programa. Los resultados de la evaluación pre-intervención de los penados mostraron que exhibían hostilidad (v.gr., agresividad, ira, rabia, irritabilidad, cólera, resentimiento, ideas persecutorias (suspicacia, miedo a la pérdida de autonomía, necesidad de control, dificultades en la expresión de la hostilidad y sintomatología depresiva. Los efectos del tratamiento fueron significativos, positivos y de un tamaño del efecto moderado en la sintomatología depresiva, grande en hostilidad y moderado en las ideas persecutorias. En conclusión, los resultados avalan la efectividad de este programa en el tratamiento del pensamiento violento.

  13. Nonfatal Suicidal Behavior among Chinese Women Who Have Been Physically Abused by Their Male Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Susan P. Y.; Phillips, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Three hundred fifty-three women (median age = 32 years) admitted to the emergency rooms of nine general hospitals serving rural areas in China were interviewed for nonfatal suicidal behavior. Spousal conflict was the most commonly reported cause for their suicidal behavior and one third of respondents reported being victims of physical abuse by…

  14. Prospective Prediction of Women's Sexual Victimization by Intimate and Nonintimate Male Perpetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2007-01-01

    Although behavioral risk factors such as substance use have been hypothesized to increase women's vulnerability to sexual victimization, prospective studies provide mixed empirical support. In the current prospective study, the authors considered substance use, sexual activity, and sexual assertiveness as predictors of sexual victimization from…

  15. Prevalence and risk of experiences of intimate partner violence among people with eating disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundock, Louise; Howard, Louise M; Trevillion, Kylee; Malcolm, Estelle; Feder, Gene; Oram, Siân

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence and risk of lifetime and past year intimate partner violence (IPV) among males and females with eating disorders. Systematic review. We searched 15 electronic databases, supplemented by hand searching, citation tracking, updating a review on victimisation and mental disorder and expert recommendations. Eight papers were included, involving 6775 females and 4857 males. Individual studies reported that eating disorders are associated with a high prevalence and increased odds of lifetime IPV among both males and females. Evidence is lacking on eating disorder and past year IPV, on whether associations between eating disorder and IPV vary by type of IPV, and temporality. More research is needed to investigate the strength and nature of the association between eating disorders and IPV, including with regards to the direction of causality between eating disorders and IPV, and whether associations are mediated by childhood abuse. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Propensity for intimate partner abuse and workplace productivity: why employers should care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Corso, Phaedra S

    2008-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is costly to employers, but little is known about the economic consequences associated with employing perpetrators. This study investigated propensity for partner abuse as a predictor of missed work time and on-the-job decreases in productivity among a small sample of male employees at a state agency (N=61). Results suggest that greater propensity for abusiveness is positively associated with missing work and experiencing worse productivity on the job, controlling for level of education, income, marital status, age, and part-time versus full-time employment status. Additional research could clarify whether IPV perpetration is a predictor of decreased productivity among larger samples and a wider variety of workplace settings. Employers and IPV advocates should consider responding to potential IPV perpetrators through the workplace in addition to developing victim-oriented policies and prevention initiatives.

  17. Domestic Violence and Abuse in Intimate Relationship from Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec-Felser, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948

  18. Women survivors of intimate partner violence and post-traumatic stress disorder: Prediction and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeJonghe E

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A considerable body of research has demonstrated that women who are abused by their male romantic partners are at substantially elevated risk for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This article reviews recent literature regarding intimate partner violence (IPV and resultant PTSD symptoms. The article is intended to be an introduction to the topic rather than an exhaustive review of the extensive literature in this area. Factors that enhance and reduce the risk for PTSD, including social support, coping styles, and types of abusive behavior experienced, are described. In addition, the unique risks associated with IPV for women who have children are discussed. Prevention efforts and treatment are briefly reviewed.

  19. Perceptions and practices of Angolan health care professionals concerning intimate partner violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Edna de Fátima Gonçalves Alves do; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto; Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de

    2014-06-01

    This was a qualitative exploratory study with the objective of identifying perceptions and practices among health professionals in Angola concerning intimate partner violence against women. Semi-structured interviews were held with a senior health administrator, head nurses, medical directors, psychologists, and nurse technicians in three national hospitals in the capital city of Luanda. The perceptions of Angolan health professionals towards violence against women are marked by the cultural construction of woman's social role in the family and the belief in male superiority and female weakness. Despite their familiarity with the types of violence and the consequences for physical and mental health, the health professionals' practices in providing care for women in situations of violence focus on the treatment of physical injuries, overlooking the subjectivity and complexity of these situations. Recent inclusion of the issue in public policies is reflected in health professionals' practices and raises challenges for the health sector in caring for women in situations of violence.

  20. The association between alcohol use and intimate partner violence: linear effect, threshold effect, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K Daniel; Schumacher, Julie A

    2003-12-01

    The present study examined whether the association between alcohol and male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) is most meaningfully described as a linear relationship, a threshold effect, or both. Men in two nationally representative samples, the National Family Violence Survey (NFVS) and the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), were divided into similar drinking groups based on quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Analyses of the association between IPV and drinking category revealed that although linear associations between drinking classification and IPV were significant in both samples, the associated effect sizes were very small. Further, only heavy drinkers and binge drinkers were major contributors to the significant chi-squares. Overall, the results revealed both linear and threshold effects, and suggest that distinctions among drinking patterns may be more important than incremental increases in quantity or frequency in conceptualizing alcohol as a risk factor for IPV.

  1. Assaults on Inmates and Staff by Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Homicide: An Examination of Competing Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jonathan R; Vigen, Mark P; Woods, S O; Williams, Bradley D

    2015-11-01

    The current study presents the results of an analysis of serious and assaultive prison rule violating behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner homicide (IPH). Data on prison rule violations were collected from a sample of 189 inmates convicted of IPH in a large, southern prison system. The study focused on the degree of continuity in violent behavior among IPH offenders from the community to the prison setting. The current study tested hypotheses derived from both the feminist perspective (FP) and the general violence perspective (GVP). As a group, IPH offenders were better behaved in prison than other incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby offering some support for the FP. However, the lower level of assaultive behavior among the group was not universal. Characteristics associated with continued violent offending in the prison environment were the same as those found in previous studies of incarcerated homicide offenders, thereby lending greater support to the GVP. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and intimate partner violence perpetration: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkley, Erica L; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2015-04-01

    Prior reviews have identified elevated trait anger as a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. Given that 10 years have passed since the last comprehensive review of this literature, we provide an updated meta-analytic review examining associations among anger, hostility, internalizing negative emotions, and IPV for male and female perpetrators. One hundred and five effect sizes from 64 independent samples (61 studies) were included for analysis. IPV perpetration was moderately associated with the constructs of anger, hostility, and internalizing negative emotions. This association appeared stronger for those who perpetrated moderate to severe IPV compared to those who perpetrated low to moderate IPV, and did not vary across perpetrator sex, measurement method, relationship type, or perpetrator population. Implications and limitations of findings were reviewed in the context of theoretical models of IPV, and future directions for empirical and clinical endeavors were proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Domestic violence and abuse in intimate relationship from public health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Rakovec-Felser

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we pay attention to the vio- lence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.

  4. College Students' Definitions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Three Chinese Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yanpeng; Sun, Ivan Y; Farmer, Ashley K; Lin, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Although a large number of studies have been conducted worldwide to examine various aspects of intimate partner violence (IPV), comparative study of people's views on such violence in Chinese societies has been scarce. Using survey data collected from more than 850 college students in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, this study specifically assessed the impact of attitudes toward gender role and violence, personal and vicarious experience, demographic characteristics, and locality on students' definitions of IPV. The Taiwanese students were most likely to define a broader range of abusive behavior as IPV, followed by Hong Kong and Beijing students. Gender role and violence attitudes appeared to be most important predictors of IPV definitions. College students who supported the notion of male dominance were more likely to have a narrower definition of IPV, whereas those who viewed domestic violence as crime were more inclined to have a broader definition of IPV. Implications for future research and policy were discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P

    2014-03-01

    This article investigates the overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV) and the factors associated with these behaviors. Knowledge on these questions is relevant to theory and policy. For the former, this article considers the extent to which specific theories are needed for understanding crime, criminal violence, and/or IPV, whereas for the latter, it may suggest specific offense- and offender-based policies. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development that traces the offending, criminal violence, and IPV of males to age 50. Findings show that there is significant overlap between criminal violence and IPV, high-rate offending trajectories have increased odds of criminal violence and IPV, and early childhood risk factors have no additional effect on criminal violence and IPV in adulthood over and above the offending trajectories.

  6. Intimate partner violence victimization and cigarette smoking: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Weinberger, Andrea H

    2013-10-01

    The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization-smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization-smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.

  7. Chaos in Family Law: A Model for the Recognition of Intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chaos theory is utilised in a metaphorical manner to describe the current state of family law and more specifically law regulating intimate relationships in South Africa. A bird's eye view of the law of intimate relationships is provided to indicate that the current system of law regulating intimate relationships is in a state of ...

  8. Intimate Technology: A Tool for Teaching Anti-Racism in Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Anne C.; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a new conceptual tool, intimate technology, to mobilize social work students' commitment to anti-racism. Intimate technology is marked by its emotional intensity and accessibility, and its effect of de-centering knowledge and authority. This teaching strategy integrates the modality of intimate technology via…

  9. Witnessing intimate partner violence as a child does not increase the likelihood of becoming an adult intimate partner violence victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Amy A; Weiss, Steven J; Del Castillo, Christie; Aagaard, Jaime; Marvez-Valls, Eduardo; D'Angelo, Juliet; Combs, Shanna; Feuchter, Alexander; Hegyi, Michael; Clark, Ross; Coffman, Brittany

    2007-05-01

    To determine whether adults who witnessed intimate partner violence (IPV) as children would have an increased rate of being victims of ongoing IPV, as measured by the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool (OVAT), compared with adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. The authors also sought to determine whether there were differences in demographics in these two groups. This was a cross sectional cohort study of patients presenting to a high-volume academic emergency department. Emergency department patients presenting from November 16, 2005, to January 5, 2006, during 46 randomized four-hour shifts were included. A confidential computer touch-screen data entry program was used for collecting demographic data, including witnessing IPV as a child and the OVAT. Main outcome measures were witnessing IPV as a child, ongoing IPV, and associated demographics. Assuming a prevalence of IPV of 20% and a clinically significant difference of 20% between adults who witnessed IPV as children and adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, the study was powered at 80%, with 215 subjects included. A total of 280 subjects were entered; 256 had complete data sets. Forty-nine percent of subjects were male, 45% were Hispanic, 72 (28%) were adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 184 (72%) were adult controls who did not witness IPV as children. Sixty-three (23.5%) were positive for ongoing IPV. There was no correlation of adults who witnessed IPV as children with the presence of ongoing IPV, as determined by univariate and bivariate analysis. Twenty-three of 72 (32%) of the adults who witnessed IPV as children, and 39 of 184 (21%) of the adult controls who did not witness IPV as children, were positive for IPV (difference, 11%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2% to 23%). Significant correlations with having witnessed IPV as a child included age younger than 40 years (odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% CI = 1.7 to 9.1), income less than $20,000/year (OR, 5.1; 95% CI = 1.6 to 12

  10. [Intimate partner sexual violence among men and women in urban Brazil, 2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraiber, Lilia Blima; D'Oliveira, Ana Flávia P L; França Junior, Ivan

    2008-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence among men and women of the Brazilian urban population and factors associated to it. The data analyzed is part of the study conducted between 1998 and 2005 among urban populations in Brazil. The data was obtained by means of a questionnaire applied to a representative sample of 5.040 individuals, men and women 16 to 65 years of age. Descriptive analysis was undertaken with weighted data, utilizing F design-based tests, with 5% significance. The global prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence was 8.6%, being predominant among women (11.8% versus 5.1%). Women consistently reported higher rates of violence then men, except in cases involving homo/bisexual partners. The rate verified for male homo/bisexuals was significantly greater than that found among male heterosexuals, but this difference in rates was not significant among women. The black population, irrespective of sex, referred more violence than the white population. The lower the income and years of formal education, the greater the rates of violence. However, men from poorer regions referred more violence, but this did not occur with respect to women. Diverse situations with respect to work, use of condoms, lower age at first intercourse and number of partners during the last five years differed significantly among women, but not among men. For both men and women sexual violence was associated with being separated or divorced, having had STDs, self -evaluation of being at risk for HIV, but was not associated with testing positive for HIV. The high magnitude of sexual violence as well as female surtax is confirmed. Violence as a result of gender conflicts, that pervades social stratification and ethnic groups is reiterated. As to the Aids epidemic, sexual violence is an important factor to be taken into consideration when discussing the feminization of the population affected by the disease.

  11. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna Preiser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  12. Psychological Predictors of Sexual Intimate Partner Violence against Black and Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin

    2017-12-27

    Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.

  13. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Status Compatibility, Physical Violence, and Emotional Abuse in Intimate Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…

  15. Empathy in intimate relationships : The role of positive illusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Van Bruggen, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown empathy to be an important aspect of a high quality intimate relationship. Likewise, positive illusions about a partner's characteristics have been shown to contribute to relationship quality. The present study connects these issues by examining the degree to which

  16. The Role of Gender in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve

    2012-01-01

    The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…

  17. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round the world. These problems have been part of the fabric of many societies and cultures worldwide, and have thus gone unnoticed despite the devastating physical, psychological, ...

  18. Intimate Transactions: The Evolution of an Ecosophical Networked Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intimate Transactions is a networked interactive installation for two participants located in different geographical locations. During a 30-minute, one-on-one session they individually and collaboratively explore a range of virtual, interactive environments mediated by digital image, sound and haptic feedback. This major work evolved from a single site, non-networked version to a multi-site, server-driven artwork that operates in mixed online/offline modes. In 2005, the work was awarded an Honorary Mention in the Prix Ars Electronica and began an international tour of several high profile festivals and arts’ venues. Intimate Transactions is a product of the Transmute Collective (http://www.intimatetransactions.com.Intimate Transactions networked inter-relational design was inspired by a range of conditions, discourses and practices drawn from scientific and critical ecologies, new media and innovative performance that I collectively name ‘ecosophical praxis’. An inherent part of this approach involves the continual development of contextualizing questions, which in turn mould the work’s practice and presentation. This paper considers the issues and implications of applying this approach during the Intimate Transactions project. The concluding questions are relevant as a guiding method for othercreative practitioners similarly interested in eco-social and eco-political engagement.

  19. [An economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nectoux, Marc; Mugnier, Claude; Baffert, Sandrine; Albagly, Maité; Thélot, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to carry out an economic evaluation of intimate partner violence in France. Using published data, institutional sources, field studies and expert opinions, the cost of intimate partner violence is estimated in terms of the overall cost to society. A range of different economic approaches are used (micro-economic, meso-economic and macro-economic approaches). The total cost of intimate partner violence in France is estimated at 2.5 billion Euros per year (between 1.7 and 3.5 billion Euros). The total cost of intimate partner violence includes healthcare costs (483 ? million), social and justice services (355 ? million), production losses as a result of deaths, imprisonments and absenteeism (1099 ? million), and the human costs of rape and prejudice (535 ? million). By increasing the budget allocated to the prevention of domestic violence by one euro, it is estimated that the state, health insurance and local authorities could make savings of up to 87 Euros of social spending, including 30 Euros of direct expenses.

  20. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...... of ethics in the various phases of research, from the conception of a research idea to the dissimination of research results....

  1. Effect of maternal exposure to intimate partner violence on under

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-01-12

    Jan 12, 2012 ... e.g. stalking, name calling, intimidation or not allowing a partner see friends or family. Intimate partner violence is the third highest cause of death among people 15-44 years of age,5 and the most common form of violence against women. Its negative effects on women's health are serious enough to be rec-.

  2. Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with chronic physical illness, although rates of headache, heart attack and high blood pressure reached near-significance. Conclusions. Partner violence against women is a significant public health problem in South Africa, associated with healthrisk behaviours and ...

  3. Revisiting the Role of Communication in Adolescent Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Rickert, Vaughn I.; Fry, Deborah A.; Lessel, Harriet; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2012-01-01

    A growing literature suggests that communication strategies can promote or inhibit intimate partner violence (IPV). Research on communication is still needed on a group ripe for early IPV intervention: high school-aged adolescents. This article revisits our previous analyses of young female reproductive clinic patients (Messinger, Davidson, &…

  4. The neural correlates of intimate partner violence in women | Flegar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine hippocampal volume and white matter tracts in women with and without intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Nineteen women with IPV exposure in the last year, and 21 women without IPV exposure in the last year underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion tensor ...

  5. Intimate partner violence: A helpful guide to legal and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a combined health and social sector system response to intimate partner violence, this article provides health professionals with insight into domestic violence and current legal and psychosocial support services. It focuses on how to support and advise abused women about practicalities of obtaining protection orders and ...

  6. Intimate economies : Postsecret and the affect of confession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poletti, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that the scale and success of the PostSecret project evidences the continuing influence of confession in contemporary autobiography. It analyzes the importance of materiality as a signifier of authenticity in a participatory media project that functions as an intimate public by

  7. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Child Bearing Age in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the extent to which married women had experienced physical, sexual, psychological and economic forms of violence by their intimate partners was determined. The study was descriptive and cross-sectional. It was conducted in Alimosho Local Government Area (LGA) of Lagos State. Data were collected using ...

  8. Intimate partner violence in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: Women's experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partners' violence (IPV) is a topical reproductive health, rights and gender issue. Data on IPV experiences and associated factors were collected from 224 randomly selected married women and 99 men in Ile-Ife through administered questionnaire. Data was analysed through SPSS: chi-square test and binary ...

  9. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews ...

  10. Relevance and feasibility of WHO recommendations for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) clinical and policy guidelines for responding to intimate partner violence (IPV) against women focus on improving health service delivery of women-centred care. This publication is a watershed. It sounds a call to innovate and implement creative new directions for effective health ...

  11. Professionalism and the intimate examination – are chaperones the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complaints of sexual impropriety against health care practitioners are escalating. Professionalism in the practitioner-patient relationship and the role-based trust in health care do not allow crossing of sexual boundaries. Communication with patients is key to prevent erroneous allegations of sexual misconduct. The intimate ...

  12. Programmes for change: Addressing sexual and intimate partner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has a number of locally evaluated interventions that have been designed to prevent sexual and intimate partner violence before it occurs. This article describes such programmes that have been evaluated and found to be promising or effective. Seven locally evaluated primary prevention interventions are ...

  13. Prevalence, Pattern and Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most common type of violence against women. It is a major public health problem and violates the fundamental human rights of women. Aim: To determine the prevalence, pattern and consequences of IPV during pregnancy in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria. Subjects and ...

  14. Screening and brief intervention for intimate partner violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening and brief intervention for intimate partner violence among antenatal care attendees at primary healthcare clinics in. Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. G Matseke,1 MPH; K Peltzer,1,2,3 PhD, Dr Habil. 1 HIV/AIDS, STIs and TB (HAST) Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South ...

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among Women of Childbearing Age in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the prevalence and characteristics of intimate partner violence among women of childbearing age in a primary health centre. With interviewer-administered questionnaire, information on partner violence was elicited from three hundred women of childbearing age selected by systematic sampling in a ...

  16. Tackling gender inequalities and intimate partner violence in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to “'ending AIDS” by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

  17. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women who engage in transactional sex are more likely to experience intimate partner violence (IPV) and are at higher risk of HIV. However, women engage in transactional sex for a variety of reasons and the precise mechanism linking transactional sex and IPV is not fully understood. We conducted a behavioural survey ...

  18. Experience of intimate partner violence as a predictor of sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...

  19. Mental health, intimate partner violence and HIV | Woollett | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are intersecting epidemics in South Africa (SA). Despite recognition that IPV and HIV are bidirectionally linked, less attention has been given to mental health – a key health condition that is at the nexus of both violence and HIV/AIDS. While SA healthcare professionals have made ...

  20. Intimate Partner Violence in Colombia: Who Is at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedemann-Sanchez, Greta; Lovaton, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    The role that domestic violence plays in perpetuating poverty is often overlooked as a development issue. Using data from the 2005 Demographic Health Survey, this paper examines the prevalence of intimate partner violence in Colombia. Employing an intrahousehold bargaining framework and a bivariate probit model, it assesses the prevalence of and…

  1. Intimate partner violence is everyone's problem, but how should we ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA's female homicide rate is six times higher than global estimatesand the high- est reported intimate femicide rate internationally.[5,6] IPV harms sexual and reproductive health, ... patient's concerns; Relevant clinical assessment; Risk assessment; cRisis plan; and Refer as needed for medical, social, psychological and/or.

  2. Physical domestic violence against married women by their intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender based violence is very common in our environment supported by religious and cultural considerations and often justified by women. Objective: This study was carried out to determine the pattern of physical violence in the home among intimate partners with a view to ascertain the magnitude of the ...

  3. Intimate partner violence among pregnant women and women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and analyze the pattern of intimate partner violence over six months. This was a cohort study undertaken on 207 women aged 18 to 49 years, who consulted in general out-patient and antenatal care clinics in nine hospitals in central Thailand. The women were interviewed ...

  4. Socio-demographic factors associated with intimate partner violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was done of 373 women who attended the antenatal clinic and welfare units of a primary health center in Ile-Ife. The objective of this study was to determine, among a sample of women attending a primary health center in Ile-Ife, the socio-demographic factors associated with intimate ...

  5. PAQ Types and Power Strategies Used in Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    1982-01-01

    Examined kinds of power strategies used by masculine, feminine, androgynous, and undifferentiated people in their intimate relationships. Androgynous people reported using primarily bilateral strategies, such as persuasion. Undifferentiated people reported using primarily unilateral strategies, such as doing what they wanted, regardless of their…

  6. Intimate Partner Violence and Welfare Participation: A Longitudinal Causal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the temporal-ordered causal relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV), five mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]), alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/ dependence, treatment seeking (from physician, counselor, and…

  7. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  8. Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    to any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes ... alcohol to perpetrate IPV.17 Witnessing parental violence or being a victim .... physical violence if she said “yes” when asked if a current or past partner ever abused her in any of the following ways: a) Slapped you or threw something at you that could hurt you?

  9. Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of intimate partner violence disclosure among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Oyo East Local Government, Nigeria. ... South African Family Practice ... Results: Of 252 (72.0%) women who had been exposed to violence by their partner in pregnancy, 72 (28.6%) disclosed their IPV experience.

  10. Methodological Review of Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Graybeal, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a methodological review of empirical program evaluation research in the area of intimate partner violence prevention. The authors adapted and utilized criterion-based rating forms to standardize the evaluation of the methodological strengths and weaknesses of each study. The findings indicate that the limited amount of…

  11. Effect of intimate partner violence on birth outcomes.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... sought to determine association between intimate partner violence during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Methods: A ... partner violence was not associated with still birth, pre-term birth and Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes. Conclusion: ..... Besides, the wide confidence intervals were observed ...

  12. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: Any ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... Background: Intimate partner and sexual violence are major public health and human right concerns affecting women and girls all round .... of bullying and social learning of abuse; however, abusers' efforts to dominate their .... delivery and low birth weight babies.[7]. 3. Psychological effect: Violence against.

  13. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    KARAKOÇ, Berna; GÜLSEREN, Leyla; ÇAM, Birmay; GÜLSEREN, Şeref; TENEKECİ, Nermin; METE, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of intimate partner physical violence among depressive Turkish women, as well as the association of intimate partner physical violence with attachment patterns, childhood traumas, and socio-demographic factors. Methods The study included 100 women diagnosed with depressive disorder and 30 healthy women. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV axis I disorders, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Adult Attachment Style Questionnaire (AASQ), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were used for clinical assessment. Results It was found that 64% of the women diagnosed with depression were suffering from intimate partner physical violence. In these women, the severity of depression and anxiety symptoms was higher, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were more common, and the diagnosis of double depression was more prevalent. These women also achieved higher scores in the avoidant and ambivalent subscales of AASQ and higher total scores and higher scores in the physical abuse subscale of CTQ. The partner’s and the woman’s experiences of physical violence in their families during their childhood predicted intimate partner physical violence for women suffering from depression. Conclusion The investigation of domestic violence contributes to the treatment of depression and also to the recognition and prevention of domestic violence that has profound effects on successive generations. PMID:28360734

  14. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial and Monoracial Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brittny A.; Cui, Ming; Ueno, Koji; Fincham, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    This study, using a nationally representative sample, investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in interracial and monoracial relationships. Regression analyses indicated that interracial couples demonstrated a higher level of mutual IPV than monoracial White couples but a level similar to monoracial Black couples. There were significant gender…

  15. Intimate partner violence among HIV infected and uninfected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    3Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Children's Health, Uppsala. University, Sweden. Abstract. Background: Worldwide Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, affecting all women and ..... women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet ...

  16. Challenges of Recognition of the Psychiatric Aspects of Intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: This paper utilized the framework of relevant case series and a focused review of the relevant literature to describe and annotate the psychiatric problems of the victims and perpetrators of intimate partner violence in southeast Nigeria. Results: The major barriers to detection of the psychiatric disorders occurring in ...

  17. experience of intimate partner violence as a predictor of sexually

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of IPV among married women in Nigeria was 29.3%. Majority of the women ... with multiple types of violence. Keywords: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), married women, Nigeria. .... richer, richest); marital duration (grouped as 15); number of ...

  18. Gestalt Therapy with Females Involved in Intimate Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Linda F.

    This paper notes recent evidence suggesting that couples characterized by violent interactions respond best to therapy when seen first in individual therapy sessions. Clinicians are then presented with a Gestalt therapy approach to intervening in cases of intimate violence that goes beyond crisis intervention. The focus is on the female's roles in…

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Coparenting across the Transition to Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Marni L.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) between parents has been linked to negative parenting and child maladjustment, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are not fully understood. Based on a theory that violence among parents disrupts the coparental alliance--which has been linked to parenting quality and child adjustment--the authors examined…

  20. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Physical Violence against Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESULTS: The study showed that 52.6% and 30.2% of the respondents experienced intimate partner physical violence in their lifetime and in the 12 months before the survey respectively. Witnessing family violence as a girl child, education, place of residence, parity, duration of marriage, tradition of marriage arrangement ...

  1. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...

  2. Reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A growing body of U.S.-based research demonstrates that reproductive coercion is an important consideration regarding the negative health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, less work on IPV and reproductive coercion has been done in West African settings. Cross-sectional data of 981 women who ...

  3. Intimate partner violence. Mothers' perspectives of effects on their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmey, D; McFarlane, J; Willson, P; Malecha, A

    2001-01-01

    Intimate partner violence not only affects adults but also the children living within that "war zone." The present study expands our understanding about how children are affected when they observe violence in their own homes, as reported by their mothers. This descriptive study was conducted to describe mothers' perspectives of the impact of the violence on their children. A consecutive sample of 72 mothers attempting to file assault charges were interviewed in a private room by a registered nurse and were asked to describe the effect of witnessing intimate partner violence on their child's behavior. Each response was written verbatim by the interviewer. A majority (72%) of the mothers reported negative behaviors in their children that they believed were as a result of witnessing their mother's violent experiences. The most common negative traits were distress-indicating behaviors such as sleep disturbances, clinging, and fretful behaviors followed by problems with the abuser, problems in school, and problems with mother. Because intimate partner violence affects children, health care providers should become familiar with behaviors indicative of this problem. To promote the well being and development of children, recommendations for assessment and intervention for women experiencing intimate partner violence are discussed.

  4. Intimate partner violence and incidence of common mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Franklin Salvador de Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the association of intimate partner violence against women reported in the last 12 months and seven years with the incidence of common mental disorders. METHODS A prospective cohort study with 390 women from 18 to 49 years, registered in the Family Health Program of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco; from July 2013 to December 2014. The Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20 assessed mental health. Intimate partner violence consists of concrete acts of psychological, physical or sexual violence that the partner inflicts on the woman. Poisson regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted relative risks (RR of the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence. RESULTS The incidence of common mental disorders was 44.6% among women who reported intimate partner violence in the last 12 months and 43.4% among those who reported in the past seven years. Mental disorders remained associated with psychological violence (RR = 3.0; 95%CI 1.9–4.7 and RR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.0–3.7 in the last 12 months, and seven years, respectively, even in the absence of physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence were related to physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher, both in the last 12 months (RR = 3.1; 95%CI 2.1–4.7 and in the last seven years (RR = 2.5; 95%CI 1.7–3.8. CONCLUSIONS Intimate partner violence is associated with the incidence of common mental disorders in women. The treatment of the consequences of IPV and support for women in seeking protection for themselves for public services is essential.

  5. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men's experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people's risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent's experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed.

  6. Does the Situational Couple Violence-Intimate Terrorism Typology Explain Cohabitors' High Risk of Intimate Partner Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownridge, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines M. P. Johnson's assertion that violence in marital unions is more likely to be intimate terrorism (IT) and violence in cohabiting unions is more likely to be situational couple violence (SCV). Having overcome limitations of the data on which Johnson based his assertion, the results show that cohabiting and married victims of…

  7. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men’s Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan R.; Lisco, Claire G.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Tharp, Andra T.

    2018-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men’s perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. PMID:25389191

  8. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  9. Reading John 7:53–8:11 as a narrative against male violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male violence against women is at shocking levels in South Africa. According to Faul, 'A woman is killed by an intimate partner every eight hours, a probable underestimate because no perpetrator is identified in 20 percent of killings', whilst 'More than 30 percent of girls have been raped by the time they are 18'. Reeva ...

  10. A Study of Male Veterans' Beliefs toward Domestic Violence in a Batterers Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Mary E.; Robyak, James; Torosian, Elaine J.; Hummer, John

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence in intimate relationships is a ubiquitous social problem. This study addresses a gap in the research literature on batterers intervention programs with heterosexual male batterers by evaluating whether or not self-reported attitudes about partner abuse and sexist beliefs could be modified over time as a result of participation in…

  11. A comparison of intimate partner homicide to intimate partner homicide-suicide: one hundred and twenty-four New Mexico cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Laura; Crandall, Cameron; Sklar, David; Bauer, Michael

    2008-09-01

    The authors compare cases of female intimate partner homicide-suicide to female intimate partner homicide alone to describe risk factors and suggest prevention strategies, including strategies in the medical setting. Differences are found between the types of cases in marital relationship, age, blood alcohol, and the use of firearms. Physicians and other health care providers who treat victims of intimate partner violence and patients at risk for suicide should be aware of the interwoven risk factors within these populations. Interventions aimed at suicide prevention as well as targeted removal of firearms should be investigated as tools in the prevention of intimate partner homicide.

  12. Sexual Relationship Power and Intimate Partner Violence Among Sex Workers with Non-Commercial Intimate Partners in a Canadian Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Katherine; Deering, Kathleen N.; Feng, Cindy X.; Shoveller, Jean S.; Shannon, Kate

    2014-01-01

    There is little information on the private lives of women engaged in sex work, particularly how power dynamics within intimate relationships may affect intimate partner violence (IPV). Using baseline data of sex workers enrolled in a longitudinal cohort, ‘AESHA’ (An Evaluation of Sex Workers’ Health Access), the present study examined the association between sexual relationship power and IPV among sex workers in non-commercial partnerships in Vancouver, Canada. Pulweritz's Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS) and The World Health Organization (WHO) Intimate Partner Violence Against Women scale (Version9.9) were used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression techniques were used to investigate the potential confounding effect of sexual relationship power on IPV among sex workers. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Of 510 sex workers, 257 (50.4%) reported having an non-commercial intimate partner and were included in this analysis. In the past 6 months, 84 (32.7%) sex workers reported IPV (physical, sexual or emotional). The median age was 32 years, 39.3% were of Aboriginal ancestry, and 27.6% were migrants. After controlling for known confounders (e.g., age, Aboriginal ancestry, migrant status, childhood trauma, non-injection drug use), low relationship power was independently associated with 4.19 increased odds (95% CI: 1.93-9.10) and medium relationship power was associated 1.95 increased odds (95% CI:0.89-4.25) of IPV. This analysis highlights how reduced control over sexual-decision making is plays a critical role in IPV among sex workers, and calls for gender-focused and coupled-based interventions tailored to noncommercial intimate partnerships of sex workers. PMID:25402720

  13. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Jewkes, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart. We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5), compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6) in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84) reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02), indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08) and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42). The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99) in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]). Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points. Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that South Africa

  14. Intimate partner femicide in South Africa in 1999 and 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    Full Text Available Death is the most extreme consequence of intimate partner violence. Female homicide studies with data on the perpetrator-victim relationship can provide insights. We compare the results of two South African national studies of female homicide with similar sampling done 10 y apart.We conducted a retrospective national survey using a weighted cluster design of a proportionate random sample of 38 mortuaries to identify homicides committed in 2009. We abstracted victim data from mortuary and autopsy reports, and perpetrator data from police interviews. We compared homicides of women 14 y and older in 2009 with previously published data collected with the same methodology for homicides committed in 1999. The study found that the rate of female homicide per 100,000 female population in 2009 was 12.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3, 16.5, compared to 24.7 (95% CI: 17.7, 31.6 in 1999. The incidence rate ratio of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.84 reflects a significantly lower rate in 2009. The rate of intimate partner femicide was 5.6/100,000 in 2009 versus 8.8/100,000 in 1999, with an incidence rate ratio of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.24, 1.02, indicating no difference between rates. Logistic regression analysis of homicide characteristics showed that the odds ratio of suspected rape among non-intimate femicides in 2009 compared to 1999 was 2.61 (95% CI: 1.23, 4.08 and among intimate partner femicides it was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.42. The OR of homicide by gunshot was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.99 in 2009 versus 1999. There was a significant drop in convictions of perpetrators of non-intimate femicide in 2009 versus 1999 (OR = 0.32 [95% CI: 0.19, 0.53]. Limitations of the study include the relatively small sample size and having only two time points.Female homicide in South Africa was lower in 2009 than 1999, but intimate partner femicide and suspected rape homicide rates were not statistically different. The cause of the difference is unknown. The findings suggest that

  15. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Male Reproductive System KidsHealth / For Parents / Male Reproductive System What's in ... your son's reproductive health. About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  16. The effects of experience on the development of sexual behaviour of males and females of the banded demoiselle (Calopteryx splendens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Scobell, Sunny K; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-11-01

    Mate preferences can vary in the direction of the preference, as well as the strength of the preference, and both direction and strength of preference are known to be plastic in many species. Preferences might have a learned component, and current and past social context may influence an individual's choosiness. In the damselfly species Calopteryx splendens, females increase the strength of their mate preferences with sexual experience. Here we show that sexually naïve females selectively respond to conspecific courtship as soon as physical contact has been established, suggesting a role for tactile cues perceived through interspecific morphological differences in secondary reproductive traits. In addition our data also shows that males and females selectively respond to the intensity of the courtship of the potential, conspecific mate, while ignoring such information in heterospecific potential mates. These results underscore that mate choice is the result of dynamic interactions between the sexes, where both current and past information are integrated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the Wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional Regulation and Revictimization in Women's Intimate Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Osnat; Lavee, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to test whether women's emotional regulation (ER) capacity moderates the relationship between childhood abuse and both adult intimate partner violence (IPV) and relationship quality. Female graduate students (N = 425), either married or in a long-term cohabitation, participated in an Internet-based survey. Structural equation model (SEM) multiple-group analysis was conducted to estimate whether the link between childhood abuse and marital outcomes varied across high and low levels of ER. The data showed that childhood abuse was associated with higher levels of IPV and lower marital quality. A high level of ER was found to buffer the association between child abuse and IPV. Among women with a low level of ER, childhood abuse had a stronger negative effect on relationship quality than for women with a high level of ER. ER is a protective factor against revictimization in intimate relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Intimate Partner Violence, Maternal Gatekeeping, and Child Conduct Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvara, Bharathi J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha

    2016-12-01

    We examined the mediating role of parenting behavior on the relationship between intimate partner violence and child conduct problems, as well as the moderating role of maternal gatekeeping to these associations. The sample (N = 395) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty in the eastern United States, exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape child development over time. Study findings indicate that a father's harsh-intrusive parenting behavior may be a key mediating pathway linking intimate partner violence and child conduct problems. Study findings further provide evidence for problematic outcomes for children when mothers encourage fathers with high levels of harsh-intrusive parenting to interact with their children.

  19. Ethics and Intimate Sexual Activity in Long-Term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Eran

    2017-07-01

    A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Emotional violence among women in intimate relationships in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Seloilwe, Esther Salang

    2010-01-01

    A Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was used to investigate the lived experience of women in Botswana who had experienced emotional abuse in intimate relationships. Hermeneutic phenomenology is concerned with the human experience as it is lived. Ten educated Botswana women who had formal employment and have been in intimate relationships for longer than ten years, narrated their life experiences with abusive men. Extensive interviews took place over a six month period. Sociocultural practices in Botswana emerged as salient factors that contribute to emotional abuse and predispose women to mental illness. Entwined in these cultural practices are issues of age, ethnicity, payment of lobola (bride price), financial standing, change of name, and relocation to the man's residence. Education and employment seem to worsen the abuse. Depression and anxiety are common results of abuse. Understanding how the sociocultural factors perpetuate abuse can assist nurses in the way they provide health care services to women.

  1. The role of alcohol use in intimate partner femicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, P W; Campbell, J; Campbell, D; Gary, F; Webster, D

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol use by victims and perpetrators as a risk factor for intimate partner violence and femicide. A case control design was used to describe alcohol use among Femicide/Attempted Femicide victims (n = 380), Abused Controls (n = 384) and Non-Abused Controls (n = 376), and their intimate partners. Telephone interviews of proxies (family members or friends) of femicide victims and actual survivors of attempted femicide were conducted in 10 cities. The purpose of the interviews was to gather information about relationship violence and alcohol use by femicide victims, attempted femicide survivors, and their perpetrators. Telephone interviews of controls, recruited from the same cities by random digit dialing, were also conducted. Perpetrator problem drinking was associated with an eight fold increase in partner abuse (e beta = 8.24, p femicide/attempted femicide (e beta = 2.39, p = .001), controlling for demographic differences.

  2. Bactrocera oleae-induced olive VOCs routing mate searching in Psyttalia concolor males: impact of associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunti, G; Benelli, G; Palmeri, V; Canale, A

    2018-02-01

    Olfaction is a key sense routing foraging behaviour in parasitoids. Preferences for food, mate and host stimuli can be innate in parasitic wasps. Alternatively, learning-mediated mechanisms play a crucial role. Females of the braconid parasitoid Psyttalia concolor exploit olfactory cues arising from tephritid hosts and related microhabitats. However, little is known on the olfactory stimuli routing males searching for mates. In this study, we focused on the attractiveness of Bactrocera oleae-induced olive volatiles towards P. concolor males. Furthermore, we evaluated learning occurrence in virgin males, when trained for selected unattractive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with mate rewards. (E)-β-Ocimene, α-pinene and limonene attracted virgin males in Y-tube bioassays. Unattractive VOCs evoked positive chemotaxis after associative learning training. P. concolor males exposed to VOCs during a successful or unsuccessful mating, showed short-term preference for these VOCs (fast consolidation into protein dependent long-term memory, appearing after 24 h. On the other hand, males experiencing a less valuable training experience (i.e. unsuccessful courtship), did not show consolidated memory after 24 h. Overall, our findings suggest that P. concolor virgin males may exploit VOCs from the host microhabitat to boost their mate searching activity, thus their reproductive success. However, since learning is a costly process, P. concolor males retained durable memories just in presence of a valuable reward, thus avoiding maladaptive behaviours.

  3. Intimate Partner Violence During Pregnancy: Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Ray, Ellen; Sharps, Phyllis; Bullock, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on maternal and neonatal outcomes are multifaceted and largely preventable. During pregnancy, there are many opportunities within the current health care system for screening and early intervention during routine prenatal care or during episodic care in a hospital setting. This article describes the effects of IPV on maternal health (e.g., insufficient or inconsistent prenatal care, poor nutrition, inadequate weight gain, substance use, increased...

  4. Intimate Partner Violence in South Chilean College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcarra Larrañaga, Maria Beatriz; Universidad de La Frontera; Póo Figueroa, Ana María; Universidad de la Frontera

    2010-01-01

    The present study sought to estimate the magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in university students in southern Chile; to describe its manifestations, its associated factors, consequences and coping strategies. Method: A descriptive quantitative design was used, the sample was constituted by 447 university students randomly selected balanced by sex. Participants were asked about violent behaviour conduct through a questionnaire. Results: 57% of those questioned reported having exper...

  5. Negotiating agency in cases of intimate partner violence in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Pells, K.; Wilson, E.; Thi Thu Hang, N.

    2016-01-01

    Understandings of women's agency in cases of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been dominated by an individualistic focus on help-seeking behaviour. The role of children in influencing, enabling and restricting the decision-making processes of their mothers has been largely ignored. We adopt biographical analytical approaches to qualitative longitudinal data collected as part of the Young Lives study to highlight the interdependency of women's and children's agency in contexts of IPV in Vi...

  6. "Teen Mothers' experience of Intimate Partner Violence; a metasynthesis."

    OpenAIRE

    Bekaert, S.; SmithBattle, L.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers beco...

  7. Attitudes Toward Physical Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Okenwa-Emegwa; Stephen Lawoko; Bjarne Jansson

    2016-01-01

    Attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) are known predictors of IPV victimization and perpetration with more women generally believed to justify IPV than men. An understanding of the determinants of justification of IPV may provide information necessary for holistic interventions. This study sought to examine the magnitude, extent, and predictors of justification of physical IPV against women among men and women in Nigeria. Data from 33,385 women and 15,486 men from the 2008 Nigerian...

  8. College Students’ Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Japan, China, and the United States

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    Toan Thanh Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of cross-cultural differences between the United States, Japan, and China in perceptions of male to female intimate partner violence, and in the extent to which gender and traditional attitudes toward women related to these perceptions. College students (n = 943 read two fictitious scenarios describing marital and dating violence. MANOVA results showed gender differences in the perceptions of violence between the three countries. Male participants had more traditional attitudes toward women and placed more blame on female victims. The magnitude of the difference between women’s and men’s scores was much smaller for Japanese students than for American and Chinese students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the effects of respondent gender were reduced when traditional attitudes toward women were taken into account. Differences in beliefs about appropriate gender roles still exist among college students in these countries and may be related to socially tolerant attitudes toward violence against women.

  9. Guns in Intimate Partner Violence: Comparing Incidents by Type of Weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The goal of this study was to assess the frequency, nature, and outcome of weapon use in intimate partner violence (IPV) and to assess compliance with related gun policies. Methods: Data were drawn from forms police are mandated to complete at the scene of IPV in the fifth largest U.S. city during 2013. Proportions were calculated and odds ratios were adjusted for demographic and contextual characteristics and a Bonferroni correction for multiple statistical tests was applied. Results: Of the 35,413 incidents, 6,573 involved hands, fists, or feet, and 1,866 involved external weapons of which 576 were guns. Most incidents were male-on-female: 63.4% (no weapon), 77.4% (bodily weapon), 50.2% (nongun external weapon), and 79.5% (gun). Guns were used most often to threaten the partner (69.1%). When a gun (vs. bodily or nongun external weapon) was used, IPV victims were less likely to have visible injuries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.64 and 0.23, respectively)—offenders were less likely to have pushed or shoved, grabbed, punched, or kicked the victim—but (victims) were more likely to be frightened (AOR = 3.13 and 1.49, respectively). Conclusions: Weapon use of any type by an intimate partner is associated with a wide range of violent offender behavior and multiple negative outcomes for victims. The use of a gun has implications that include, but go beyond, physical injury of the victim. Documentation of the enforcement of state law regarding gun removal merits improvement, which has important implications for the evaluation of policies designed to keep guns out of the hands of abusers. PMID:28134571

  10. Reported intimate partner violence amongst women attending a public hospital in Botswana

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    Lindiwe I. Zungu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV is common worldwide and occurs across social, economic, religious and cultural groups. This makes it an important public health issue for health care providers. In South Africa, the problem of violence against women is complex and it has social and public health consequences. The paucity of data on IPV is related to underreporting and a lack of screening of this form of violence in health care settings.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of IPV and explore the risk factors associated with this type of violence against women who visited a public hospital in Botswana.Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly sampled adult women aged 21 years and older, during their hospital visits in 2007. Data were obtained by means of structured interviews, after obtaining written and signed, informed consent from each participant.Results: A total of 320 women participated in this study. Almost half (49.7% reported having had an experience of IPV in one form or another at some point in their lifetime, while 68 (21.2% reported a recent incident of abuse by their partners in the past year. Experiences of IPV were predominantly reported by women aged 21 – 30 years (122; 38%. Most of the allegedly abused participants were single (173; 54% and unemployed (140; 44%. Significant associations were found between alcohol use by participants’ male intimate partners (χ2 = 17.318; p = 0.001 and IPV, as well as cigarette smoking (χ2 = 17.318; p = 0.001 and IPV.Conclusion: The prevalence of alleged IPV in Botswana is relatively high (49.7%, especially among young adult women, but the prevalence of reported IPV is low (13.2%. It is essential that women are screened regularly in the country’s public and private health care settings for IPV.

  11. Autocrine role of vascular IL-15 in intimal thickening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercek, Miha; Matsumoto, Michiaki; Li, Hongyan; Chyu, K.-Y.; Peter, Ashok; Shah, Prediman K.; Dimayuga, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that modulates T cell recruitment and activation, independent of antigen. It has been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and atherosclerotic plaques of apoE-/- mice. IL-15 regulates fractalkine (FKN)-CX3CR1 chemokine signaling which is involved in atherogenesis and promotes SMC proliferation. We investigated the role of IL-15 in intimal thickening after arterial injury. Treatment of serum-stimulated SMC with IL-15 in vitro attenuated proliferation and suppressed CX3CR1 and FKN mRNA expression. The role of endogenous IL-15 in vivo was investigated in injured carotid arteries of mice. Periadventitial arterial injury resulted in increased IL-15 expression in the media and neointima, paralleled by increased IL-15 receptor α expression. Blockade of endogenous IL-15 increased intimal thickening. FKN and CX3CR1 expression increased after injury and were further augmented after IL-15 blockade. These data suggest that endogenous IL-15 attenuated intimal thickening after arterial injury. The potential mechanism of action is suppression of CX3CR1 signaling

  12. Intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina da C. Azevêdo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the association between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence before pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1,054 women, aged 18 to 49, in Recife, Northeastern Brazil, from July 2005 to March 2006. Non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed with a hierarchical strategy for entering variables into the model, according to the conceptual framework defined. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 60.3% (636 women. Intimate partner violence prior to the pregnancy was associated with unintended pregnancy (ORadj = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.17-2.11, even when adjusted for the women's sociodemographic characteristics, the partner's behaviour, and the relationship dynamic. When the association was adjusted for the use of contraception and the partner's refusal to use contraception, the association was no longer significant, suggesting that the effect of partner violence on unintended pregnancy may be mediated by these variables. The findings point to the need of screening for intimate partner violence in reproductive health services.

  13. Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Claudia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; França-Junior, Ivan

    2011-04-01

    To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System) units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91). Violence independent from severity and recurrence of episodes showed greater association with suspected HIV infection (PR = 1.29). Intimate partner violence against women has a key role in situations of suspected and confirmed HIV infection. Thus, it is essential to include its detection, control and prevention as part of the comprehensive care provided for women's health.

  14. Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klostermann Keith C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1 most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2 among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3 available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages.

  15. [Intimate partner violence: social and health determinants and responses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Blanco-Prieto, Pilar; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to review the problem of intimate partner violence, as well as its causes and consequences. It will also specifically analyze the role of health professionals. In opposition to the classical epidemiological view of risk factors, Heise proposes an ecological framework to study violence against women. This framework analyzes the interplay among the personal, situational and sociocultural factors that combine to cause abuse. Regarding the frequency of intimate partner violence in Spain, in January 2003 there were 2.519 formal complaints and 69 women died between January and November 2003. No geographical patterns in mortality or the incidence of formal complaints of intimate partner violence or among the provinces with the highest incidence of formal complains and those with highest mortality were observed. The only national survey published in Spain was performed by the Women's Institute in 1999, which reported a prevalence of domestic violence of 9.2%. A frequency of 22.8% was found in a primary health care center in Granada. Health services can play a key role in helping victims of domestic violence, since most women contact the health services at some time in their lives. Professionals in administrative or managerial positions can contribute to raising awareness of this health problem, which is one of the main causes of poor health and disability. Evidently, beyond consciousness-raising and early detection campaigns, public health strategies should be designed to prevent this serious health problem the causes of which can be changed.

  16. Common mental disorders and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To investigate the association between common mental disorders and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Program in the city of Recife, Northeastern Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Common mental disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Intimate partner violence was defined as psychologically, physically and sexually abusive acts committed against women by their partners. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were estimated for the association studied utilizing logistic regression analysis. RESULTS : The most common form of partner violence was psychological. The prevalence of common mental disorders was 71.0% among women who reported all form of violence in pregnancy and 33.8% among those who did not report intimate partner violence. Common mental disorders were associated with psychological violence (OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.8;3.5, even without physical or sexual violence. When psychological violence was combined with physical or sexual violence, the risk of common mental disorders was even higher (OR 3.45; 95%CI 2.3;5.2. CONCLUSIONS : Being assaulted by someone with whom you are emotionally involved can trigger feelings of helplessness, low self-esteem and depression. The pregnancy probably increased women`s vulnerability to common mental disorders

  17. Intimate Partner Jealousy and Femicide Among Former Ethiopians in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2018-02-01

    Ethiopian immigrant women in Israel are overrepresented as victims of femicide; they are killed at more than 16 times the rate of the general population. This article suggests integrating current theoretical and empirical models to explain Ethiopian femicide, and stresses that considering psychological or sociocultural explanations as risk factors alone is not enough to understand this phenomenon. We distinguish between risk factors and triggers for femicide against Ethiopian women. While sociocultural and even psychological changes are risk factors for femicide, one, two, or three main triggers may activate such potential risk factors, such as the woman's willingness (WW) to leave the intimate relationship, sexual jealousy (SJ), and formal complaints against the abusive partner. The first two triggers are jealousy oriented. To analyze this phenomenon in Israel, we examined all court decisions on intimate partner homicide (IPH) from 1990 to 2010. After reading former studies on IPH and identifying important variables that could explain the phenomenon, we first catalogued the data in every decision and verdict according to main independent variables mentioned in the literature. The study population consists of first-generation immigrants, N = 194: native Israelis (47%), new immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU; 31%), and Ethiopians (16%). Our analysis of court decisions reveals that triggers containing jealousy components are responsible for 83% of femicide cases committed by Ethiopian men, in comparison with native Israelis (77%) and immigrant Russian men (66%) who murdered their intimate partners. In addition, there is a significant correlation among motive (jealousy), method of killing (stabbing), and "overkilling" (excessive force).

  18. Coping styles used by sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles

  19. Tachykinin-expressing neurons control male-specific aggressive arousal in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

    2014-01-16

    Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Education, Perception Factors, and Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence: Empirical Research on Chinese University Students' Perceptions and Attitudes Concerning Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili

    2016-06-09

    Research on perceptions and attitudes regarding intimate partner violence (IPV), a prominent predictor of IPV, is limited, and surveys on the relationships of the influencing factors are even rarer. Using a convenience sample of 2,057 students and assessed by the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, this study explored Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV to improve IPV prevention programs. It focused on the existences of the different perceptions and attitudes regarding gender, residence, major, and age under the same condition of educational attainment. Significant gender differences were found, with female students possessing better perceptions, which indicated that with the same education levels, the perceptions of females were better than those of males. Significant differences were also found for the first time in the literature between science students and arts students, with the latter holding better attitudes. No significant differences were seen between students from rural areas and students from urban areas, suggesting that with the same educational attainment, there were no perception differences between rural and urban residents. No significant perception differences were found among freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors, which revealed that neither university education nor urban life had a significant effect on perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV for students who had finished high school education. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that among the other factors such as gender, residence, and age, education was the most powerful factor influencing perceptions and attitudes concerning IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.