WorldWideScience

Sample records for intestines

  1. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  2. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  3. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  4. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  5. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  6. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  7. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  8. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  9. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) What is intestinal failure? Intestinal failure occurs when a significant portion of the small ... intestine does. Who is at risk for intestinal failure? N Babies (usually premature) who have had surgery ...

  10. Intestinal microbiome landscaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Lahti, Leo; Smidt, Hauke; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    High individuality, large complexity and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying human intestinal microbiome function remain the major challenges for designing beneficial modulation strategies. Exemplified by the analysis of intestinal bacteria in a thousand Western adults, we discuss

  11. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  12. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  13. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  14. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  15. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycotoxins and the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  17. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  18. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  19. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  20. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  1. Intestinal failure: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Philip; Lal, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the gut to absorb necessary water, macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), micronutrients, and electrolytes sufficient to sustain life and requiring intravenous supplementation or replacement. Acute IF (types 1 and 2) is the initial phase of the illness and may last for weeks to a few months, and chronic IF (type 3) from months to years. The challenge of caring for patients with IF is not merely the management of the underlying condition leading to IF or the correct provision of appropriate nutrition or both but also the prevention of complications, whether thromboembolic phenomenon (for example, venous occlusion), central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, IF-associated liver disease, or metabolic bone disease. This review looks at recent questions regarding chronic IF (type 3), its diagnosis and management, the role of the multidisciplinary team, and novel therapies, including hormonal treatment for short bowel syndrome but also surgical options for intestinal lengthening and intestinal transplant. PMID:29399329

  2. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  3. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok

    1992-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome

  4. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  5. The intestinal calcistat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population.

  6. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  8. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  9. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  10. Small intestine and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    To highlight the recent studies which have enhanced our appreciation of the composition of the microbiota in the human small intestine and its relevance to the health of the host. In the past number of years, the composition of the microorganisms present in our small intestines has been the subject of greater scrutiny than ever before. These investigations have been possible as a consequence of the development and utilization of new molecular tools which have revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and have focused predominantly on the small intestinal microbiota associated with pediatric celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and pouchitis. The impact of invasive procedures, such as small bowel transplant, ileostomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis, on the ileal microbiota has also been investigated. The ever greater appreciation of the link between the small intestinal microbiota and the health status of the host has the potential to lead to the development of new strategies to alter this microbiota in a targeted way to prevent or treat specific disorders.

  11. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge Low-fiber diet Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy When you have nausea ...

  12. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  13. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  14. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) was one of the first recognised conditions of protracted IF. With the increasing and successful use of long-term PN during the last three decades, several other causes of IF have emerged. Long-term PN and home-PN are the mainstay of therapy, independent of the nature of “Intestinal failure” ...

  15. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  16. Small intestinal cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, L S; Fasco, M J

    1991-01-01

    Small intestinal cytochromes P450 (P450) provide the principal, initial source of biotransformation of ingested xenobiotics. The consequences of such biotransformation are detoxification by facilitating excretion, or toxification by bioactivation. P450s occur at highest concentrations in the duodenum, near the pylorus, and at decreasing concentrations distally--being lowest in the ileum. Highest concentrations occur from midvillus to villous tip, with little or none occurring in the crypts of Lieberkuehn. Microsomal P4503A, 2C8-10, and 2D6 forms have been identified in human small intestine, and P450s 2B1, possibly 2B2, 2A1, and 3A1/2 were located in endoplasmic reticulum of rodent small intestine, while P4502B4 has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from rabbit intestine. Some evidence indicates a differential distribution of P450 forms along the length of the small intestine and even along the villus. Rat intestinal P450s are inducible by xenobiotics--with phenobarbital (PB) inducing P4502B1, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) inducing P4501A1, and dexamethasone inducing two forms of P4503A. Induction is most effectively achieved by oral administration of the agents, and is rapid--aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was increased within 1 h of administration of, for example, 3-MC. AHH, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) have been used most frequently as substrates to characterize intestinal P450s. Dietary factors affect intestinal P450s markedly--iron restriction rapidly decreased intestinal P450 to beneath detectable values; selenium deficiency acted similarly but was less effective; Brussels sprouts increased intestinal AHH activity 9.8-fold, ECOD activity 3.2-fold, and P450 1.9-fold; fried meat and dietary fat significantly increased intestinal EROD activity; a vitamin A-deficient diet increased, and a vitamin A-rich diet decreased intestinal P450 activities; and excess cholesterol in the diet increased intestinal

  17. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  18. Hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, P A

    1996-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, with overall mortality exceeding 40% even with treatment. Effective efforts for screening and prevention are most likely to succeed in patient groups identified as high risk for colorectal cancer, most notably the hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes. In these syndromes, benign polyps develop throughout the intestinal tract prior to the development of colorectal cancer, marking the patient and associated family for precancer diagnosis followed by either close surveillance or preventive treatment. This review article was undertaken to discuss the most recent developments in the knowledge of hereditary intestinal polyposis syndromes, emphasizing the clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment relative to preventing the development of cancer. The most common of the hereditary polyposis syndromes is familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), which is characterized by the development of hundreds to thousands of adenomatous polyps in the colon followed at an early age by colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer can be prevented in this autosomal dominant condition by prophylactic colectomy, though a risk for other tumors, including periampullary cancers, remains throughout life. Variant of FAP associated with fewer and smaller polyps (hereditary flat adenoma syndrome), or even CNS tumors (Turcot's syndrome) also carry this high risk of colorectal cancer. Hereditary hamartomatous polyposis syndromes such as juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (also autosomal dominant) are characterized by less frequent polyps. Though these are generally benign polyps, they are also associated with a significant risk of colorectal and other cancers. Other polyposis syndromes, including neurofibromatosis and Cowden's disease, do not carry this increased risk of colorectal cancer, and therefore affect different treatment strategies. Analysis of genetic factors responsible for these and other hereditary syndromes with

  19. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  20. Cytokines and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamias, Giorgos; Cominelli, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Cytokines of the intestinal microenvironment largely dictate immunological responses after mucosal insults and the dominance of homeostatic or proinflammatory pathways. This review presents important recent studies on the role of specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. The particular mucosal effects of cytokines depend on their inherent properties but also the cellular origin, type of stimulatory antigens, intermolecular interactions, and the particular immunological milieu. Novel cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, including IL-33 and IL-36, have dominant roles in mucosal immunity, whereas more established ones such as IL-18 are constantly enriched with unique properties. Th17 cells are important mucosal constituents, although their profound plasticity, makes the specific set of cytokines they secrete more important than their mere numbers. Finally, various cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A, and death receptor, 3 demonstrate dichotomous roles with mucosa-protective function in acute injury but proinflammatory effects during chronic inflammation. The role of cytokines in mucosal health and disease is increasingly revealed. Such information not only will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of gut inflammation, but also set the background for development of reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and cytokine-specific therapies.

  1. Hippo signalling directs intestinal fate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    le Bouteiller, Marie Catherine M; Jensen, Kim Bak

    2015-01-01

    Hippo signalling has been associated with many important tissue functions including the regulation of organ size. In the intestinal epithelium differing functions have been proposed for the effectors of Hippo signalling, YAP and TAZ1. These are now shown to have a dual role in the intestinal epit...

  2. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Scaglione, Mariano [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Martino, Antonio [Trauma Center, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Di Pietto, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A.Cardarelli' Hospital, 80131 Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Department ' Magrassi-Lanzara' , Section of Radiology, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation.

  3. MDCT in blunt intestinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Stefania; Scaglione, Mariano; Tortora, Giovanni; Martino, Antonio; Di Pietto, Francesco; Romano, Luigia; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Injuries to the small and large intestine from blunt trauma represent a defined clinical entity, often not easy to correctly diagnose in emergency but extremely important for the therapeutic assessment of patients. This article summarizes the MDCT spectrum of findings in intestinal blunt lesions, from functional disorders to hemorrhage and perforation

  4. Modulation of Intestinal Microbiome Prevents Intestinal Ischemic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Bertacco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Butyrate protects against ischemic injury to the small intestine by reducing inflammation and maintaining the structure of the intestinal barrier, but is expensive, short-lived, and cannot be administered easily due to its odor. Lactate, both economical and more palatable, can be converted into butyrate by the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed to assess in a rat model whether lactate perfusion can also protect against intestinal ischemia.Materials and Methods: Rat intestinal segments were loaded in an in vitro bowel perfusion device, and water absorption or secretion was assessed based on fluorescence of FITC-inulin, a fluorescent marker bound to a biologically inert sugar. Change in FITC concentration was used as a measure of ischemic injury, given the tendency of ischemic cells to retain water. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections at light level microscopy were examined to evaluate intestinal epithelium morphology. Comparisons between the data sets were paired Student t-tests or ANOVA with p < 0.05 performed on GraphPad.Results: Lactate administration resulted in a protective effect against intestinal ischemia of similar magnitude to that observed with butyrate. Both exhibited approximately 1.5 times the secretion exhibited by control sections (p = 0.03. Perfusion with lactate and methoxyacetate, a specific inhibitor of lactate-butyrate conversion, abolished this effect (p = 0.09. Antibiotic treatment also eliminated this effect, rendering lactate-perfused sections similar to control sections (p = 0.72. Perfusion with butyrate and methoxyacetate did not eliminate the observed increased secretion, which indicates that ischemic protection was mediated by microbial conversion of lactate to butyrate (p = 0.71.Conclusions: Lactate's protective effect against intestinal ischemia due to microbial conversion to butyrate suggests possible applications in the transplant setting for reducing ischemic injury and ameliorating intestinal

  5. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  6. INFANTS’ INTESTINAL COLICS. MODERN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ursova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes modern data on infants’ intestinal colics. Peculiarities of nutrition, intestinal microbiocenose in healthy infants, methods of colcs’ correction are discussed. Author describes the principles of probiotics choice based on their clinical effectiveness in infants. Milk formula «Nan Comfort» can be useful in prophylaxis and treatment of functional disorders of gastrointestinal tract in children.Key words: infants, gastrointestinal tract, anatomy, physiology, intestinal colics, nutrition, probiotics.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2: 125–131

  7. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that move down the intestine in a peristaltic fashion (Phase III). Phase III represents a continuation of ... Activities, Legislative & Regulatory Research Leadership Contact us News Industry Treatment News Medical News Legislative & Regulatory News Press ...

  8. Defence Mechanisms during Intestinal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Buret

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.

  9. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  10. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  11. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  12. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. Adult intestinal failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J., E-mail: Jdavidson@doctors.org.u [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom); Plumb, A.; Burnett, H. [Salford Royal Hospital, Salford (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the alimentary tract to digest and absorb sufficient nutrition to maintain normal fluid balance, growth, and health. It commonly arises from disease affecting the mesenteric root. Although severe IF is usually managed in specialized units, it lies at the end of a spectrum with degrees of nutritional compromise being widely encountered, but commonly under-recognized. Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the initial enteric insult occurs in non-specialist IF centres. The aim of this article is to review the common causes of IF, general principles of its management, some commoner complications, and the role of radiology in the approach to a patient with severe IF. The radiologist has a crucial role in helping provide access for feeding solutions (both enteral and parenteral) and controlling sepsis (via drainage of collections) in an initial restorative phase of treatment, whilst simultaneously mapping bowel anatomy and quality, and searching for disease complications to assist the clinicians in planning a later, restorative phase of therapy.

  14. [Intestinal failure: from adaptation to transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, B; Corcos, O; Amiot, A; Joly, F

    2009-01-01

    Optimised Home Parenteral Nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the of benign but chronic Intestinal Failure. A better recognition of chronic Intestinal Failure, in its multiple facets, is warranted for a better approach of associated treatment to Home Parenteral Nutrition, i.e., intestinal trophic factors (growth hormone, Glucagon Like Peptide-2), rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end stage intestinal failure patients). Boundaries of permanent, judged irreversible, intestinal failure will be certainly modified in the following years by combining the various and effective therapies which optimise management by ameliorating absorption of the remnant short gut. The work done on short bowel syndrome in the past 20 years should be done in the next years for chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction patients presenting with intestinal failure on a large European scale because chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction is a group of heterogeneous but rare intestinal diseases. Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indication especially in case of Home Parenteral Nutrition failure (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease) where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, "preemptive" indication for intestinal transplantation alone will be discussed before home parenteral nutrition complications occur. No doubt that, for improving overall outcome in intestinal failure patients, reference centres should have in expert hands the whole spectrum of medicosurgical therapies for intestinal failure.

  15. [Interaction between humans and intestinal bacteria as a determinant for intestinal health : intestinal microbiome and inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Dirk; Hörmannsperger, G

    2015-02-01

    Recent scientific results underline the importance of the intestinal microbiome, the totality of all intestinal microbes and their genes, for the health of the host organism. The intestinal microbiome can therefore be considered as a kind of "external organ". It has been shown that the intestinal microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that influences host immunity and metabolism beyond the intestine. The composition and functionality of the intestinal microbiota is of major importance for the development and maintenance of intestinal functions. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by dysregulated interactions between the host and its microbiota.The present contribution summarizes current knowledge of the composition and development of the intestinal microbiome and gives an overview of the bidirectional interaction between host and microbiota. The contribution informs about insights regarding the role of the intestinal microbiota in IBD and finally discusses the protective potential of microbial therapies in the context of IBD.

  16. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86 Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141 Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO 2 ) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  17. Modeling intestinal disorders using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Pack, M

    2017-01-01

    Although the zebrafish was initially developed as a model system to study embryonic development, it has gained increasing attention as an advantageous system to investigate human diseases, including intestinal disorders. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly, and their digestive system is fully functional and visible by 5days post fertilization. There is a large degree of homology between the intestine of zebrafish and higher vertebrate organisms in terms of its cellular composition and function as both a digestive and immune organ. Furthermore, molecular pathways regulating injury and immune responses are highly conserved. In this chapter, we provide an overview of studies addressing developmental and physiological processes relevant to human intestinal disease. These studies include those related to congenital disorders, host-microbiota interactions, inflammatory diseases, motility disorders, and intestinal cancer. We also highlight the utility of zebrafish to functionally validate candidate genes identified through mutational analyses and genome-wide association studies, and discuss methodologies to investigate the intestinal biology that are unique to zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, 99 mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present

  19. Isotopic identification of intestinal strangulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Selby, J.B.

    1982-12-01

    A small series of eleven dogs prepared with a strangulating segment of jejunum demonstrated that a radionuclide, /sup 99/mTc-labelled albumin, concentrates in the lumen and bowel wall of the affected intestinal segment. Modern scanning equipment accurately localized the strangulating loop. This technique has the potential of identifying patients with intestinal obstruction, in whom strangulation is a factor, prior to the development of impaired arterial inflow and frank gangrene. These findings confirmed earlier obstructions that were reported when nuclear scanning instrumentation was less sophisticated. Identification of patients at risk for intestinal strangulation requires a high index of suspicion. Excruciating cramping abdominal pain out of proportion to physical findings, roentgenogram evidence, and laboratory studies should alert the physician to the possibility of intestinal ischemia and closed loop obstruction. Radionuclide scanning in such cases may be of assistance in defining or excluding the diagnosis of a strangulating mechanism. The test is simple, relatively economical, and represents a low risk procedure to patients. It would have no place when the classic physical and laboratory findings of intestinal infarction are present.

  20. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  1. Intestinal Microbiota Influences Non-intestinal Related Autoimmune Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Opazo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The human body is colonized by millions of microorganisms named microbiota that interact with our tissues in a cooperative and non-pathogenic manner. These microorganisms are present in the skin, gut, nasal, oral cavities, and genital tract. In fact, it has been described that the microbiota contributes to balancing the immune system to maintain host homeostasis. The gut is a vital organ where microbiota can influence and determine the function of cells of the immune system and contributes to preserve the wellbeing of the individual. Several articles have emphasized the connection between intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's disease with dysbiosis or an imbalance in the microbiota composition in the gut. However, little is known about the role of the microbiota in autoimmune pathologies affecting other tissues than the intestine. This article focuses on what is known about the role that gut microbiota can play in the pathogenesis of non-intestinal autoimmune diseases, such as Grave's diseases, multiple sclerosis, type-1 diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, we discuss as to how metabolites derived from bacteria could be used as potential therapies for non-intestinal autoimmune diseases.

  2. Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hwan Lee

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

  3. Microbiota, intestinal immunity, and mouse bustle

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglov, A.; Nedospasov, S.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota is regulated by the immune system. This paper discusses the role of cytokines and innate immunity lymphoid cells in the intestinal immune regulation by means of IgA.

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  5. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  6. Abdominal tuberculosis presenting as intestinal obstruction- Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the complications of abdominal tuberculosis is intestinal obstruction, which can be acute, chronic or acute on chronic. Other complications include intestinal haemorrhage, perforation of the intestine (rare), faecal fistula, cold abscess formation, mal-absorption syndrome and dissemination of the tuberculosis to other ...

  7. Exercise and the gastro-intestinal tract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on perfonnance and me value of cardiovascular training in improving performance in aerobic sports is well recognised. The role of me gastro-intestinal tracr, bom as a limiting and sustaining facror in aerobic exercises, is less well appreciared. Gastro-intestinal symptoms. The spectrum of gastro-intestinal effecrs of exercise ...

  8. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those reportedis'gi m3 from other parts of the coun- try. Mortality from childhood intestinal obstruction is still high in our environment. References. 1. Otu AA. Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute intestinal obstruction. Postgrad. Doctor (Afr) 1992; 14: 51. 2.

  9. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The gastrointestinal tract serves as a potent barrier that prevents luminal bacteria from entering the host. This barrier function is maintained by a well-balanced intestinal flora, an unaltered perme- ability of the intestinal mucosa, and a normal functioning immune system. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosa, in.

  10. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria | Uba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal obstruction is a common cause of childhood surgical emergency in the tropics. The aim of this paper was to assess the pattern and the outcome of mangement of intestinal obstruction in Nigerian children. Study design: The clinical reccords of all the cases of childhood intestinal obstructions managed ...

  11. The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minekus, M.

    2015-01-01

    The TNO Gastro–Intestinal Model (TIM) is a multi–compartmental model, designed to realistically simulate conditions in the lumen of the gastro–intestinal tract. TIM is successfully used to study the gastro–intestinal behavior of a wide variety of feed, food and pharmaceutical products. Experiments

  12. Entomoftoromicose intestinal: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Aparecida Carvalho

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de entomoftoromicose intestinal causada por Entomophthorales, em indivíduo de 19 anos, agricultor e sem doença associada. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção intestinal e o diagnóstico foi feito após análise da peça cirúrgica. Após revisão da literatura, são discutidos a evolução clínica, as características clinicopatológicas, as dificuldades no diagnóstico e o tratamento dessa entidade rara.A case of intestinal entomophthoramycosis caused by Entomophthorales in a man with 19 years-old, farmer and without associated disease. The patient was submitted to a intestinal ressection and diagnosis was carried through after analisys of the surgical specimen. After a review of the literature, the clinical evolution, clinico-pathologic features, difficulties in diagnosis and treatment are discussed.

  13. Diversity of insect intestinal microflora

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Kott, T.; Kopečný, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2008), s. 229-233 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/0974 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : insect intestinal microflora Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.172, year: 2008

  14. Circadian disorganization alters intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.

  15. Milk products and intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, R; Bovee-Oudenhoven, IMJ; Sesink, ALA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Milk products may improve intestinal health by means of the cytoprotective effects of their high calcium phosphate (CaPi) content. We hypothesized that this cytoprotection may increase host defenses against bacterial infections as well as decrease colon cancer risk. This paper summarizes our studies

  16. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Francisca; Amiot, Aurélien; Coffin, Benoît; Lavergne-Slove, Anne; Messing, Bernard; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disease characterized by episodes resembling mechanical obstruction in the absence of organic, systemic, or metabolic disorders. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary (40%) or secondary (60%) causes. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually present many years before CIPO diagnosis. They can lead to severe electrolyte disorders and malnutrition. Principles for management of patients with CIPO are: to establish a correct clinical diagnosis in excluding mechanical obstruction; to perform a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the gastrointestinal tract involved; to look for extra-intestinal manifestations, especially for myopathy and neuropathy; to discuss in some cases a surgery for full-thickness intestinal biopsies, and/or a neuromuscular biopsy in case of mitochondrial cytopathy suspicion. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. Treatment of CIPO includes prokinetic agents which may help to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms Courses of antibiotics may be needed in patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth. When necessary, enteral nutrition is preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Intestinal transplantation can be discussed in selected patients.

  17. INTESTINAL PERMEABILITY IN PEDIATRIC GASTROENTEROLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANELBURG, RM; UIL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR; HEYMANS, HSA

    1992-01-01

    The role of the physiologic barrier function of the small bowel and its possible role in health and disease has attracted much attention over the past decade. The intestinal mucosal barrier for luminal macromolecules and microorganism is the result of non-immunologic and immunologic defense

  18. Microcontainers for Intestinal Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tentor, Fabio; Mazzoni, Chiara; Keller, Stephan Sylvest

    Among all the drug administration routes, the oral one is the most preferred by the patients being less invasive, faster and easier. Oral drug delivery systems designed to target the intestine are produced by powder technology and capsule formulations. Those systems including micro- and nano...

  19. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course......The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...

  20. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  1. Intestinal Epithelial Sirtuin 1 Regulates Intestinal Inflammation During Aging in Mice by Altering the Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Alicia S; Metukuri, Mallikarjuna R; Kazgan, Nevzat; Xu, Xiaojiang; Xu, Qing; Ren, Natalie S X; Czopik, Agnieszka; Shanahan, Michael T; Kang, Ashley; Chen, Willa; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Gulati, Ajay S; Fargo, David C; Guarente, Leonard; Li, Xiaoling

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal epithelial homeostasis is maintained by complex interactions among epithelial cells, commensal gut microorganisms, and immune cells. Disruption of this homeostasis is associated with disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanisms of this process are not clear. We investigated how Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a conserved mammalian NAD + -dependent protein deacetylase, senses environmental stress to alter intestinal integrity. We performed studies of mice with disruption of Sirt1 specifically in the intestinal epithelium (SIRT1 iKO, villin-Cre+, Sirt1 flox/flox mice) and control mice (villin-Cre-, Sirt1 flox/flox ) on a C57BL/6 background. Acute colitis was induced in some mice by addition of 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate to drinking water for 5-9 consecutive days. Some mice were given antibiotics via their drinking water for 4 weeks to deplete their microbiota. Some mice were fed with a cholestyramine-containing diet for 7 days to sequester their bile acids. Feces were collected and proportions of microbiota were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative PCR. Intestines were collected from mice and gene expression profiles were compared by microarray and quantitative PCR analyses. We compared levels of specific mRNAs between colon tissues from age-matched patients with ulcerative colitis (n=10) vs without IBD (n=8, controls). Mice with intestinal deletion of SIRT1 (SIRT1 iKO) had abnormal activation of Paneth cells starting at the age of 5-8 months, with increased activation of NF-κB, stress pathways, and spontaneous inflammation at 22-24 months of age, compared with control mice. SIRT1 iKO mice also had altered fecal microbiota starting at 4-6 months of age compared with control mice, in part because of altered bile acid metabolism. Moreover, SIRT1 iKO mice with defective gut microbiota developed more severe colitis than control mice. Intestinal tissues from patients with ulcerative colitis expressed significantly lower

  2. Intestinal perfusion in the study of intestinal absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.J.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques for studying absorption by means of intestinal perfusion have been developed. While the principle is simple, the practice is complicated by absorption of the solvent and by excretion of fluid into the lumen. To improve reliability a ''marker'' is incorporated into the system; it should behave as nearly as possible like the nutrient of interest, except that it should be unabsorbable. A great many markers, including several labelled with radionuclides, have been developed for use with numerous nutrients, and perfusion methods using double or triple tubes or occlusive balloons have been tested. The perfusion technique is too complicated for routine diagnostic use, but it offers at present the only possibility of studying the function of defined sections of the small intestine in the intact human. (author)

  3. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  4. The intestinal microenvironment in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Katherine T; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-10-01

    The gastrointestinal tract has long been hypothesized to function as "the motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. The gastrointestinal microenvironment is comprised of a single cell layer epithelia, a local immune system, and the microbiome. These three components of the intestine together play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis during times of health. However, the gastrointestinal microenvironment is perturbed during sepsis, resulting in pathologic changes that drive both local and distant injury. In this review, we seek to characterize the relationship between the epithelium, gastrointestinal lymphocytes, and commensal bacteria during basal and pathologic conditions and how the intestinal microenvironment may be targeted for therapeutic gain in septic patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Drug Transporters in the Intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente

    2016-01-01

    that may impact drug absorption. Thus absorptive transporters may facilitate BA of APIs that are substrates/victims for the transporters and have permeability-limited absorption, i.e. those that are classified in the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) Class 3 and 4. On the other hand, exsorptive...... transporters may restrict BA of APIs that are victims for these efflux transporters, especially those APIs classified to have solubility-limited absorption, i.e. compounds in BCS Class 2 and 4. The aim of the present Chapter is to review drug transporters (DTs) present within the intestine and to discuss...... and exemplify their roles in drug absorption/exsorption and in drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Although focus in the present Chapter is on DTs that are mentioned in American and European regulatory guidances, the intestinal transporters for nutrients and endogens (endogenous compounds) are also briefly...

  6. [Chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, T; Navarrete, J; Celestina, A

    1989-01-01

    Much has been written about gastric mucosae behavior and the occurrence of intestinal metaplasia. The aim of this paper is to learn something more about these matters in peruvian population. We selected 100 patients with endoscopically no localized lesions between 30 to 70 years of age. We took 8 samples of gastric mucosae in each patient which were carefully examined for the presence of inflammatory changes, settle the line type between antral and fundic mucosae and the frequency of intestinal metaplasia finding. The results showed disagreement between endoscopic and histological findings, so we conclude it is better to diagnose chronic gastritis on the basis of histological parameters. The line between antral and fundic mucosae was of the close type one found in 87% of all cases and it advanced proximally with increasing age. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 46% of the whole number of patients and the rate of occurrence increased in 50% over 50 years age. These findings will let us compare future investigations of gastric mucosae behavior with localized benign or malign lesions.

  7. Radiological manifestations of intestinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jae Hoon

    1974-01-01

    Radiological findings of 87 cases of intestinal tuberculosis are analyzed and presented. The diagnosis was based on histopathology in 29 cases, and on clinical ground and radiological findings in 58 cases. The radio of male and female patients was 4:6, and peak incidence is between 10 and 30. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, fever and general weakness are frequent symptoms, and tenderness of abdomen, ascites with abdominal distension, malnutrition and emaciation are frequent signs of the patients. Laboratory investigation reveal anemia, raised ESR, hypoalbuminaemia and positive occult blood reaction in the stool in most of the patients. Chest film show activity pulmonary tuberculosis in only 1/3 patients. There is no pathognomonic radiological findings in intestinal tuberculosis and their manifestations are protean, and differentiation from other inflammatory diseases and malignant tumors in gastrointestinal tract is very difficult on radiological ground alone. However, in patients with complaining vague abdominal symptoms and signs, the radiological diagnosis is most certain means in the decision of existence of organic lesion and suggestion of tuberculosis in the gastrointestinal tract and its extent as yet. Multiplicity of the lesion, involvement of adjacent organ such as peritoneum or mesenteric lymph nodes, typical nodularity or irregularity of mesenteric border and existence of active pulmonary tuberculosis are the suggestive findings of intestinal tuberculosis. In the diagnosis of inflammatory disease or malignant tumor of gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of tuberculosis should be borne in mind, and vice versa

  8. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  9. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  10. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-07-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Immediate postconditioning during reperfusion attenuates intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke-Xuan; Li, Yun-Sheng; Huang, Wen-Qi; Chen, Shu-Qing; Wang, Zhong-Xin; Liu, Jia-Xin; Xia, Zhengyuan

    2009-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that immediate but not delayed ischemic postconditioning (IPo) during reperfusion attenuates intestinal injury, and that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and IPo may confer synergy in intestinal protection. Prospective laboratory animal study with concurrent control. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (II/R) injury in rats was produced by clamping superior mesenteric artery for 60 min followed by 60 min reperfusion; IPC was elicited by 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion before index ischemia; IPo was performed by three cycles of 30 s reperfusion and 30 s ischemia initiated either immediately at the onset of reperfusion (IPo) or after reperfusion for 3 min (delayed-IPo). Combination of IPC and IPo was performed by combining both protocols. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion resulted in significant intestinal injury evidenced as significant increase in Chiu's scores and wet-to-dry intestine weight ratio accompanied with increases in plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, as well as increases in the intestinal tissue lipid peroxidation product malonediadehyde and myeloperoxidase activity as compared to control animals (all P IPo or their combination (P IPo (P > 0.05). IPC and IPo showed synergistic protection compared with either protocol alone. Ischemic postconditioning reduces intestinal injury, in part, by inhibiting oxidative injury, neutrophils filtration and proinflammatory response. The early period of reperfusion is critical to intestinal protection by IPo, and intestinal protection with IPo can be enhanced by IPC.

  12. Intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yi; Wang, Fang; Feng, Jie-xiong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observation that coagulation necrosis occurs in the majority of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) patients, it is clear that intestinal ischemia is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of NEC. However, the published studies regarding the role of intestinal ischemia in NEC are controversial. The aim of this paper is to review the current studies regarding intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction and NEC, and try to elucidate the exact role of intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction in NEC. The studies cited in this review were mainly obtained from articles listed in Medline and PubMed. The search terms used were "intestinal microcirculatory dysfunction" and "neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis". Mainly original milestone articles and critical reviews written by major pioneer investigators in the field were selected. Immature regulatory control of mesentery circulation makes the neonatal intestinal microvasculature vulnerable. When neonates are subjected to stress, endothelial cell dysfunction occurs and results in vasoconstriction of arterioles, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation in venules, and endothelial barrier disruption in capillaries. The compromised vasculature increases circulation resistance and therefore decreases intestinal perfusion, and may eventually progress to intestinal necrosis. Intestinal ischemia plays an important role through the whole course of NEC. New therapeutic agents targeting intestinal ischemia, like HB-EGF, are promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of NEC.

  13. Ketogenesis contributes to intestinal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Rychahou, Piotr; Fan, Teresa W-M; Lane, Andrew N; Weiss, Heidi L; Evers, B Mark

    2017-03-01

    The intestinal epithelium undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Previously, we have shown that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has a critical role in intestinal homeostasis. However, the downstream targets mediating the effects of mTOR in intestinal cells are not known. Here, we show that the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) induces intestinal cell differentiation as noted by the increased expression of differentiation markers (Mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme, IAP, sucrase-isomaltase, KRT20, villin, Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) and p21 Waf1 ). Conversely, knockdown of the ketogenic mitochondrial enzyme hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) attenuated spontaneous differentiation in the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Overexpression of HMGCS2, which we found is localized specifically in the more differentiated portions of the intestinal mucosa, increased the expression of CDX2, thus further suggesting the contributory role of HMGCS2 in intestinal differentiation. In addition, mice fed a ketogenic diet demonstrated increased differentiation of intestinal cells as noted by an increase in the enterocyte, goblet and Paneth cell lineages. Moreover, we showed that either knockdown of mTOR or inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin increases the expression of HMGCS2 in intestinal cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a possible cross-talk between mTOR and HMGCS2/βHB signaling in intestinal cells. In contrast, treatment of intestinal cells with βHB or feeding mice with a ketogenic diet inhibits mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Together, we provide evidence showing that HMGCS2/βHB contributes to intestinal cell differentiation. Our results suggest that mTOR acts cooperatively with HMGCS2/βHB to maintain intestinal homeostasis.

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Tang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidermal growth factor (EGF is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health.

  15. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  16. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  17. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  18. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. → Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. → The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [ 14 C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [ 14 C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway rather

  19. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma and intestinal polyposis syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Angelo Giagulli, Vito; Tafaro, Angela; Resta, Francesco; Sabba, Carlo; Licchelli, Brunella; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2012-12-01

    Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, Cowden's Syndrome, and Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome are well known as Intestinal Polyposis Syndromes, inherited conditions characterized by the development of polyps of the gastro-intestinal tract in association with extra-intestinal manifestations, in particular malignant tumors at different sites. Thyroid carcinoma is sometimes a part of the clinical picture of these syndromes. The aim of this paper is to review the literature dealing with the association between differentiated thyroid carcinomas and Intestinal Polyposis Syndromes in order to point out peculiar aspects, providing suggestions for the screening and the management of thyroid tumors in these patients.

  20. Sonographic diagnosis of intestinal polyps in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Dimitri A; Navarro, Oscar M

    2008-06-01

    Although colonoscopy is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of intestinal polyps, sonography may be the first diagnostic modality in the evaluation of children with this pathology. Graded compression sonography of the small and large bowel may be useful in diagnosing intestinal polyps. A specific diagnosis is possible in many cases as most polyps have a characteristic appearance. Although sonography is not intended to replace endoscopy in the diagnostic work-up of intestinal polyps, it is important for radiologists to be aware of this appearance as they can be the first in making the diagnosis of intestinal polyps using sonography.

  1. Intestinal absorption of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simovic, Spomenka; Song, Yunmei; Nann, Thomas; Desai, Tejal A

    2015-07-01

    Characterization of intestinal absorption of nanoparticles is critical in the design of noninvasive anticancer, protein-based, and gene nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Here we demonstrate a general approach for the characterization of the intestinal absorption of nanoparticles and for understanding the mechanisms active in their processing within healthy intestinal cells. It is generally accepted that the cellular processing represents a major drawback of current nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems. In particular, endolysosomal trafficking causes degradation of therapeutic molecules such as proteins, lipids, acid-sensitive anticancer drugs, and genes. To date, investigations into nanoparticle processing within intestinal cells have studied mass transport through Caco-2 cells or everted rat intestinal sac models. We developed an approach to visualize directly the mechanisms of nanoparticle processing within intestinal tissue. These results clearly identify a mechanism by which healthy intestinal cells process nanoparticles and point to the possible use of this approach in the design of noninvasive nanoparticle-based therapies. Advances in nanomedicine have resulted in the development of new therapies for various diseases. Intestinal route of administration remains the easiest and most natural. The authors here designed experiments to explore and characterize the process of nanoparticle transport across the intestinal tissue. In so doing, further insights were gained for future drug design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keating, Niamh

    2009-10-01

    In addition to their roles in facilitating lipid digestion and absorption, bile acids are recognized as important regulators of intestinal function. Exposure to bile acids can dramatically influence intestinal transport and barrier properties; in recent years, they have also become appreciated as important factors in regulating cell growth and survival. Indeed, few cells reside within the intestinal mucosa that are not altered to some degree by exposure to bile acids. The past decade saw great advances in the knowledge of how bile acids exert their actions at the cellular and molecular levels. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the role of bile acids in regulation of intestinal physiology.

  3. Intestinal myiasis caused by Muscina stabulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivekar S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal maggots were isolated from a patient, who had reported to the Department of General Medicine of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College, Puducherry, in southern India with complaints of abdominal distress, bloating of abdomen and intestinal hurry following a meal. He was diagnosed as a case of intestinal myiasis. Maggots obtained from his stool were identified to be Muscina stabulans based on characteristic patterns of posterior spiracles. He was treated with purgatives and albendazole. This intestinal myiasis case caused by M. stabulans is reported here because of its rare occurrence and the need to establish a correct diagnosis.

  4. Ischemia-reperfusion and neonatal intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher M; Kingma, Sandra D K; Neu, Josef

    2011-02-01

    We review research relating ischemia/reperfusion to injury in the neonatal intestine. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that the most common form of necrotizing enterocolitis is not triggered by a primary hypoxic-ischemic event. Its late occurrence, lack of preceding ischemic events, and evidence for microbial and inflammatory processes preclude a major role for primary hypoxic ischemia as the sentinel pathogenic event. However, term infants, especially those with congenital heart disease who have development of intestinal necrosis, and those preterm infants with spontaneous intestinal perforations, are more likely to have intestinal ischemia as a primary component of their disease pathogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of digested onion extracts on intestinal gene expression: an interspecies comparison using different intestine models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, M.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Smits, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as

  6. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  7. Inflammatory mediators and intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; MacKendrick, W

    1994-06-01

    Although the causes of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are not well understood, there is compelling evidence to suggest that the inflammatory mediators play an important role in the pathophysiology of the disease. This article examines the role of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and other mediators on the development of NEC, and attempts to explain the association of the putative NEC risk factors with altered mediator production and subsequent intestinal injury. The authors hypothesize that PAF is a key mediator in the final common pathway leading to NEC.

  8. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Secondary to Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM Reifen

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight month-old infant presented with a 10-day history of vomiting and diarrhea, and a one-week history of swelling of the lower extremities. Laboratory evaluations revealed hypoproteinemia and lymphocytopenia due to protein-losing enteropathy. Peroral small bowel biopsy showed intestinal lymphangiectasia. Subsequent onset of unexplained ecchymosis and obstructive jaundice resulted in additional studies which revealed an omental neuroblastoma as the underlying etiology of the infant’s symptoms. This report emphasizes the importance of considering secondary, obstructive causes for lymphangiectasia and protein-losing enteropathy.

  9. Prematurity reduces functional adaptation to intestinal resection in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Thymann, Thomas; Qvist, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis and congenital gastrointestinal malformations in infants often require intestinal resection, with a subsequent risk of short bowel syndrome (SBS). We hypothesized that immediate intestinal adaptation following resection of the distal intestine with placement ...

  10. The Adaptive Response to Intestinal Oxidative Stress in Mammalian Hibernation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carey, Hannah V

    2006-01-01

    .... Specific Aim 2 examines consequences of intestinal oxidative stress during hibernation including seasonal changes in NF-kB activation in intestine, seasonal changes in the intestinal mucosal immune...

  11. Lymphoma Caused by Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuko L. Yamamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota and gut immune system must constantly communicate to maintain a balance between tolerance and activation: on the one hand, our immune system should protect us from pathogenic microbes and on the other hand, most of the millions of microbes in and on our body are innocuous symbionts and some can even be beneficial. Since there is such a close interaction between the immune system and the intestinal microbiota, it is not surprising that some lymphomas such as mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma have been shown to be caused by the presence of certain bacteria. Animal models played an important role in establishing causation and mechanism of bacteria-induced MALT lymphoma. In this review we discuss different ways that animal models have been applied to establish a link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma and how animal models have helped to elucidate mechanisms of microbiota-induced lymphoma. While there are not a plethora of studies demonstrating a connection between microbiota and lymphoma development, we believe that animal models are a system which can be exploited in the future to enhance our understanding of causation and improve prognosis and treatment of lymphoma.

  12. Intestinal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin-Lin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Zi-Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping; Yang, Jin-Lin

    2016-04-21

    To present a retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic features of 4 cases of immunocompetent hosts with intestinal histoplasmosis (IH). Four immunocompetent adults were diagnosed with IH between October 2005 and March 2015 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were summarized and analyzed retrospectively. GMS (Gomori methenamine silver), PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) and Giemsa staining technique were used to confirm Histoplasma capsulatum(H. capsulatum). The symptoms, signs, endoscopic presentations, radiographic imaging, pathological stain results and follow-up are presented as tables and illustrations. The cases were male patients, ranging from 33 to 61 years old, and primarily presented with non-specific symptoms such as irregular fever, weight loss, abdominal pain and distention. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common signs. Endoscopic manifestations were localized or diffuse congestion, edema, ulcers, and polypoid nodules with central erosion involving the terminal ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, similar to intestinal tuberculosis, tumor, and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous yeast-like pathogens testing positive for PAS and GMS stains but negative for Giemsa were detected in the cytoplasm of the histiocytes, which were highly suggestive of H. capsulatum. Immunocompetent individuals suffering from histoplasmosis are rarely reported. It is necessary that gastroenterologists and endoscopists consider histoplasmosis as a differential diagnosis, even in immunocompetent patients.

  13. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prognosis is poor and most patients die early because of sepsis or total parental nutrition-related complications. This report describes a new case of megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome associated with meconium ileus, dilated stomach, and megaesophagus. Keywords: intestinal hypoperistalsis ...

  14. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  15. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  16. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase have been purified and characterized. The purification was carried out by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Five intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes (IAP1 to IAP5) were obtained. IAP2 and IAP5 with the highest activity levels were purified to homogeneity by Sephacryl ...

  17. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: a report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intestinal peristalsis. The prognosis is poor and most patients die early because of sepsis or total parental nutrition-related complications. This report describes a new case of megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome associated with meconium ileus, dilated stomach, and megaesophagus. Ann Pediatr Surg.

  18. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  19. Laparoscopic Treatment of Intestinal Malrotation in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, N.; Matthyssens, L.E.; Draaisma, J.M.T.; Blaauw, I. de; Wijnen, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intestinal malrotation is a congenital intestinal rotation anomaly, which can be treated by either laparotomy or laparoscopy. Our hypothesis is that laparoscopic treatment leads to less small bowel obstruction because of the fewer adhesions in comparison to laparotomy, without increasing the

  20. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending Federal ...

  1. Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectoparasites and intestinal helminths of speckled pigeon ( Columba guinea Hartlaub and Finsch 1870) in Zaria, Nigeria. ... Science World Journal ... A total of 30 (20 males and 10 females) Speckled Pigeons trapped from the wild in Zaria and its environs, Nigeria, were examined for ectoparasites and intestinal helminths, ...

  2. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending ...

  3. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and 137 Cs γ rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and γ-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome

  4. Regulation of intestinal calcium absorption by luminal calcium content: role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Lucas R; Brance, María L; Lombarte, Mercedes; Lupo, Maela; Di Loreto, Verónica E; Rigalli, Alfredo

    2014-07-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is a brush border enzyme that is stimulated by calcium. Inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase increases intestinal calcium absorption. We hypothesized that intestinal alkaline phosphatase acts as a minute-to-minute regulatory mechanism of calcium entry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism by which intestinal luminal calcium controls intestinal calcium absorption. We performed kinetic studies with purified intestinal alkaline phosphatase and everted duodenal sacs and showed that intestinal alkaline phosphatase modifies the luminal pH as a function of enzyme concentration and calcium luminal content. A decrease in pH occurred simultaneously with a decrease in calcium absorption. The inhibition of intestinal alkaline phosphatase by l-phenylalanine caused an increase in calcium absorption. This effect was also confirmed in calcium uptake experiments with isolated duodenal cells. Changes in luminal pH arising from intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity induced by luminal calcium concentration modulate intestinal calcium absorption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ruijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microecosystem is composed of natural microflora, intestinal epithelial cells, and intestinal mucosal immune system. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a metabolic stress-induced liver injury associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence showing the involvement of imbalanced intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Overgrowth of intestinal microflora, increased permeability of intestinal mucosa, intestinal endotoxemia, and production of inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of NAFLD. Further studies on the relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and the pathogenesis of NAFLD may shed light on the treatment and prevention of NAFLD.

  6. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  7. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  8. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  9. Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowat, Allan M.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly...... implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and we suggest how these may account for the diversity in the immune apparatus that is seen throughout...... the intestine. We describe how the distribution of innate, adaptive and innate-like immune cells varies in different segments of the intestine and discuss the environmental factors that may influence this. Finally, we consider the implications of regional immune specialization for inflammatory disease...

  10. [Neovagina with intestine: 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, A; Molina, E; Cerdá, J; Cañizo, A; Rodriguez, A; Laín, A; Fanjul, M; Vázquez, J

    2008-01-01

    The absence or hipoplasia vaginal can turn out to be isolated, associated with ambiguous genitalia, or as anatomical variant in a syndrome of sewer. The fundamental aim in the creation of a new vagina is: to obtain a good aesthetic result, to fulfil functional criteria (elasticity, sensibility, physiological inclination) and to improve the quality of life of the patients avoiding the use of molds and minimizing the morbidity of the zones donors. In this work let's sense beforehand our experience in the accomplishment of neovaginas with intestine. We analyze the clinical record of 13 patients treated surgically in the last ten years. We differentiate two groups according to the age, the diagnosis and the type of surgery: a) the first group of 8 patients present syndrome of insensibility to the androgens (4), syndrome of Rokitansky (2), extrofia of sewer (1) and mixed gonadal disgenesia (1). This group of patients were controlled in the adolescence by an average of age of 19 years (11-35 years), they fulfilling a neovagina with sigma; b) the second group of 5 patients with sewer (3), extrofia of sewer (1) and congenital suprarrenal hiperplasia (1). This group was controlled prematurely by a middle ages of one year (4 months-3 years). The intestinal segment used as neovagina was sigma (2), ileon (2) and rectum (1), and was performed during the surgical correction of her congenital malformation. Two patients have presented intestinal obstruction in the postoperatory immediate one. Four patients have needed removal of a small vaginal prolapse, and three have needed vaginal transitory expansions for introit stenosis. The long-term evolution has been favorable with an excellent aesthetic aspect. Four patients recount sexual fully satisfactory relations. We believe that the neovagina with sigma is at present the best option in patients with absence or hipoplasia vaginal. The advantages are the possibility of precocious and one time correction, a neovagina of dimensions and

  11. [Intestinal endometriosis - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, Sławomir

    2017-03-21

    Endometriosis intestines due to its non-specific symptoms can pose diagnostic problems, a lack of or incorrect treatment worsens the quality of life, sometimes leading to serious complications. The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain, especially in patients of reproductive age should be taken disease into account. Often abdominal pain in young women are classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder, and only carefully collected intelligence allows you to focus on the diagnosis of endometriosis, especially if the symptoms significantly impair quality of life. A woman 32 year old who was admitted to the department of gastroenterology because of increasing pain in the abdomen. Due to the deteriorating condition of the patient, the characteristics of mechanical obstruction on imaging studies was transferred to the surgical ward with suspected Crohn's disease. She was treated surgically. Histopathological examination found endometriosis. Endometriosis outside the sex system can lead to serious complications.

  12. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  13. The significance of intestinal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potten, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis occurs at a low level spontaneously in the small intestine (SI). The levels can be raised by a variety of cytotoxic agents including radiation. The apoptosis induced by radiation, and some drugs and the spontaneous apoptosis, show some specificity for the stem cells in the small intestinal crypt. In the colon, these agents target transit cells in the mid crypt. p53 expression is elevated at the same time as apoptosis in the SI but not in the cells undergoing apoptosis. The expression of bcl-2, a survival gene, is largely absent in the SI, but is expressed, albeit weakly, in the stem cells in the colon. Spontaneous apoptosis is observed in p53 null mice which also develop normally suggesting that spontaneous and developmental apoptosis are p53 independent and that spontaneous apoptosis is part of the homeostatic mechanisms maintaining stem cell numbers. Radiation induced apoptosis is completely absent at these early times post-irradiation in p53 nulls. In bel-2 null mice, the levels of spontaneous and radiation induced apoptosis are elevated in the colon. Bax, a death gene, is expressed on the villus and inter-crypt table in the colon suggesting that cells at the end of their lifespan initiate apoptosis. It has been suggested that apoptosis in the SI is a protective mechanism against carcinogenesis in the stem cells of the SI which rarely develops cancer. Cells that possess genetic damage detected. In the large bowel, this mechanism is not effective due to the action of bcl-2. Thus stem cells may persist in this tissue with genetic damage resulting in a higher cancer risk. Furthermore, the lack of spontaneous apoptosis in the colon may result in a gradual increase of the stem cells with time resulting in more ells at risk. (author)

  14. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) lowers body weight and affects intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Ren, Wenkai; Gao, Wei; Liu, Gang; Yin, Jie; Duan, Jielin; Li, Yinghui; Yao, Kang; Huang, Ruilin; Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong

    2017-06-13

    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment. The ileum was collected for detecting the expression of intestinal proinflammatory cytokines and innate immune factors by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Additionally, the ileal luminal contents and feces were collected for 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the microbial composition. The intestinal microbiota in mice was disrupted with an antibiotic cocktail. The results revealed that AKG supplementation lowered body weight, promoted ileal expression of mammalian defensins of the alpha subfamily (such as cryptdins-1, cryptdins-4, and cryptdins-5) while influencing the intestinal microbial composition (i.e., lowering the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio). In the antibiotic-treated mouse model, AKG supplementation failed to affect mouse body weight and inhibited the expression of cryptdins-1 and cryptdins-5 in the ileum. We concluded that AKG might affect body weight and intestinal innate immunity through influencing intestinal microbiota.

  15. [Effect of perioperative intestinal probiotics on intestinal flora and immune function in patients with colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dajian; Chen, Xiaowu; Wu, Jinhao; Ju, Yongle; Feng, Jing; Lu, Guangsheng; Ouyang, Manzhao; Ren, Baojun; Li, Yong

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effect of perioperative application of intestinal probiotics to substitute oral intestinal antimicrobial agents on intestinal flora and immune function in surgical patients with colorectal cancer. Sixty patients with colorectal cancer undergoing elective laparoscopic radical surgery were randomized to receive preoperative bowel preparation using oral intestinal antimicrobial agents (n=20) or using oral intestinal probiotics (Jinshuangqi Tablets, 2.0 g, 3 times daily) since the fifth day before the operation and at 24 h after the operation for 7 consecutive days. Upon admission and 7 days after the operation, fecal samples and fasting peripheral venous blood were collected from the patients to examine the intestinal flora and serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IgA, IgG, and IgM, NK cell activity, T lymphocytes subsets CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio. At 7 days after the operation, the patients receiving probiotics showed significantly increased counts of intestinal Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus (Pprobiotics group compared with those in patients with conventional intestinal preparation (Pprobiotics to replace preoperative oral intestinal antimicrobial agents can effectively correct intestinal flora imbalance and improve the immune function of surgical patients with colorectal cancer.

  16. Diffused and sustained inhibitory effects of intestinal electrical stimulation on intestinal motility mediated via sympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2014-06-01

    The aims were to investigate the energy-dose response effect of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES, and to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in five sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. 1) IES with long pulse energy dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused, and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  17. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen Lillelund

    2002-01-01

    by a general down-regulation of genes in the low abundance class. Similar results were found using mouse small intestinal crypt and villus cells, suggesting that the phenomenon also occurs in the intestine in vivo. The expression data were subsequently used in a search for markers for subsets of epithelial...... cells by performing reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on RNA extracted from laser dissected intestinal crypt and villi. In a screen of eight transcripts one - SART3 - was identified as a marker for human colonic crypts....

  20. Recreating Intestinal Peristalsis in the Petri Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Luna, Rosa; Barajas-Espinosa, Alma R; Ochoa-Cortez, Fernando; Barajas-López, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe a culture technique of cells dissociated from the external muscularis of the guinea pig small intestine, which allows us to maintain all the elements involved in the intestinal peristaltic reflex. After a few days in culture, these cells reorganize to form a small group of cells that permit the generation of pacemaker activity, spontaneous contractions, and the development of inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials in the petri dish, all elements involved in the peristaltic reflex. Therefore, these co-cultures are suitable to study the cellular and molecular aspects related to the development, maintenance, and modulation of motor intestinal functions.

  1. Intestinal lengthening: an experimental and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, A

    1984-01-01

    Small intestinal lengthening by the Bianchi procedure has now had successful clinical application in children and neonates with the short-bowel syndrome. This paper reviews the background experimental work and clinical cases so far treated. A personal case of intestinal lengthening in a 7-week-old baby with 35 cm jejunum is described in detail. Intestinal lengthening appears to reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition, thus allowing earlier establishment of total enteral alimentation. The procedure may therefore have a useful place in the overall management of the short-bowel syndrome. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D PMID:6471060

  2. Peptidases Compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum Intestinal Lumen and Apical Intestinal Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine. PMID:25569475

  3. Pathogen invasion changes the intestinal microbiota composition and induces innate immune responses in the zebrafish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Zou, Song-Song; Zhai, Li-Juan; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Fu-Miao; An, Li-Guo; Yang, Gui-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Numerous bacteria are harbored in the animal digestive tract and are impacted by several factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for maintaining the health of an organism. However, how pathogen invasion affects the microbiota composition has not been fully clarified. The mechanisms for preventing invasion by pathogenic microorganisms are yet to be elucidated. Zebrafish is a useful model for developmental biology, and studies in this organism have gradually become focused on intestinal immunity. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota of normal cultivated and infected zebrafish intestines, the aquarium water and feed samples. We found that the predominant bacteria in the zebrafish intestine belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (67%) and that feed and environment merely influenced intestinal microbiota composition only partially. Intestinal microbiota changed after a pathogenic bacterial challenge. At the genus level, the abundance of some pathogenic intestinal bacteria increased, and these genera included Halomonas (50%), Pelagibacterium (3.6%), Aeromonas (2.6%), Nesterenkonia (1%), Chryseobacterium (3.4‰), Mesorhizobium (1.4‰), Vibrio (1‰), Mycoplasma (0.7‰) and Methylobacterium (0.6‰) in IAh group. However, the abundance of some beneficial intestinal bacteria decreased, and these genera included Nitratireductor (0.8‰), Enterococcus (0.8‰), Brevundimonas (0.7‰), Lactococcus (0.7‰) and Lactobacillus (0.4‰). Additionally, we investigated the innate immune responses after infection. ROS levels in intestine increased in the early stages after a challenge and recovered subsequently. The mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes lectin, hepcidin and defensin1, were upregulated in the intestine after pathogen infection. These results suggested that the invasion of pathogen could change the intestinal microbiota composition and induce intestinal innate immune responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Apple-peel intestinal atresia: enteroplasty for intestinal lengthening and primary anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Luciano Silveira; Maranhão, Renato Frota de Albuquerque; Martins, Elaine Cristina Soares; Fachin, Camila Girardi; Martins, Jose Luiz

    2013-06-01

    Apple-peel atresia (or Type-IIIb intestinal atresia) is an unusual type of jejunoileal atresia. They present with jejunal atresia near the ligament of Treitz and a foreshortened small bowel. Many surgical options have been used, but the optimal method of repair remains unclear. We present a case of a newborn with apple-peel intestinal atresia managed by enteroplasty for intestinal lengthening and primary anastomosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo?Obstruction in 6 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zacuto, A.C.; Pesavento, P.A.; Hill, S.; McAlister, A.; Rosenthal, K.; Cherbinsky, O.; Marks, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo?obstruction in humans and animals. Objective To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Animals Six client?owned dogs. Methods Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to de...

  6. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We next introduce a category of immune cells, the innate lymphoid cells, and describe their classification and function in intestinal immunology. Finally, we discuss the effects of the intestinal microbiota on innate lymphoid cells.

  7. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representa

  8. Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), also called 'Ondine's curse', is characterised by an abnormal ventilatory response to progressive hypercapnia and sustained hypoxaemia. Neonates with this condition experience hypoventilation or apnoea while asleep. Patients may also have congenital intestinal aganglionosis (CIA), ...

  9. Intestinal perforation secondary to metastasic lung carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Álvarez Sánchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary symptomatic gastrointestinal metastases from lung primary tumor are rare. They can cause a variety of clinical conditions such as perforation, obstruction and bleeding. Intestinal perforations of intestinal metastases have a very poor prognosis. We present a case of a patient with metastatic lung cancer who presents with intestinal perforation and pneumoperitoneum. A 67 year old male, immunosuppressed and smoker is diagnosed with acute abdomen secondary to perforation of a tumor of the terminal ileum, as well as three other similar injuries. Resection and anastomosis. The patient died two months after surgery. The final pathological diagnosis supports epidermoidide poorly differentiated lung carcinoma. It was concluded that given an intestinal perforation in a patient diagnosed with lung carcinoma, it shouldn´t be excluded the metastases origen . Surgery is a purely palliative procedure.

  10. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  11. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. [THE INTESTINAL BARRIER, THE MICROBIOTA, MICROBIOME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar'yanovich, A T

    2016-01-01

    The review examined modern condition of development directions physiology of digestion, like structure and function of the intestinal barrier, the microbiota of the digestive tract in its relations with the microorganism.

  13. Diversity and functions of intestinal mononuclear phagocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joeris, Thorsten; Müller-Luda, K; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation. In the curr......The intestinal lamina propria (LP) contains a diverse array of mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) subsets, including conventional dendritic cells (cDC), monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages (mφ) that collectively play an essential role in mucosal homeostasis, infection and inflammation....... In the current review we discuss the function of intestinal cDC and monocyte-derived MNP, highlighting how these subsets play several non-redundant roles in the regulation of intestinal immune responses. While much remains to be learnt, recent findings also underline how the various populations of MNP adapt...

  14. Inflammasome in Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Nunes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation of specific cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors, the nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain- (NOD- like receptors (NLRs, leads to the assembly of the inflammasome, a multimeric complex platform that activates caspase-1. The caspase-1 pathway leads to the upregulation of important cytokines from the interleukin (IL-1 family, IL-1β, and IL-18, with subsequent activation of the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss the molecular structure, the mechanisms behind the inflammasome activation, and its possible role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal cancer. Here, we show that the available data points towards the importance of the inflammasome in the innate intestinal immune response, being the complex involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, correct intestinal barrier function and efficient elimination of invading pathogens.

  15. Upper intestinal and biliary tract endoprosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Bartelsman, J. F.; den Hartog Jager, F. C.; Huibregtse, K.; Mathus-Vliegen, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    The endoscopic insertion of an endoprosthesis is now a standard procedure in the ultimate palliation of malignant obstructing upper gastrointestinal and biliary malignancy. The commercially available prostheses and introducing devices are adequate for the majority of upper intestinal cancers. For

  16. Epidemiology of small intestinal atresia in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Tennant, Peter W G; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2012-01-01

    The epidemiology of congenital small intestinal atresia (SIA) has not been well studied. This study describes the presence of additional anomalies, pregnancy outcomes, total prevalence and association with maternal age in SIA cases in Europe....

  17. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  18. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    AJEST. African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from children facing diarrheal disease and associated risk factors in ...

  19. Non-Meckel Small Intestine Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim Ejaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can have many manifestations and its management is not well-defined. We report 4 unselect cases of small intestine diverticulitis; all patients were seen by the same physician at the Emergency Center at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center between 1999 and 2014. The median age at diagnosis of these patients was 82 years (range, 76–87 years. All 4 patients presented with acute onset of abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans showed characteristics of small intestine diverticulitis unrelated to cancer. Most of the diverticula were found in the region of the duodenum and jejuno-ileal segments of the small intestine. The patients, even those with peripancreatic inflammation and localized perforation, were treated conservatively. Non-Meckel diverticulitis can be overlooked in the initial diagnosis because of the location of the diverticulosis, the age of the patient, and the rarity of the disease. Because patients with non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can present with acute abdominal pain, non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute abdominal pain, and computed tomography scans can help identify the condition. Because of the rarity of non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis, few studies have been published, and the data are inconclusive about how best to approach these patients. Our experience with these 4 elderly patients indicates that non-Meckel small intestine diverticulitis can be treated conservatively, which avoids the potential morbidity and mortality of a surgical approach.

  20. Neuroimmune regulation during intestinal development and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Fernandes, Henrique; Pachnis, Vassilis

    2017-02-01

    Interactions between the nervous system and immune system are required for organ function and homeostasis. Evidence suggests that enteric neurons and intestinal immune cells share common regulatory mechanisms and can coordinate their responses to developmental challenges and environmental aggressions. These discoveries shed light on the physiology of system interactions and open novel perspectives for therapy designs that target underappreciated neurological-immunological commonalities. Here we highlight findings that address the importance of neuroimmune cell units (NICUs) in intestinal development, homeostasis and disease.

  1. Intestinal angina. Report on two operated cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, K; Rosseland, A; Lund, B L

    1977-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the concept of intestinal angina is more than 70 years old, it is not generally accepted and only 400 cases of elective revascularization of the celiac/mesenteric arteries are reported in the literature. Two typical cases of intestinal angina treated with elective revascularization are presented and the pertinent literature is reviewed. An aggresive approach to the problem, followed by adequate reconstruction, is recommended.

  2. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SUBACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Amit; Anjani; Shaleen; Vikram; Prasheel

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction can be defined as impairment to the abnormal passage of intestinal contents that may be due to either mechanical obstruction or failure of normal intestinal motility in the absence of an obstructing lesion. Intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical disorder of the small intestine. SAIO implies incomplete obstruction. It has been defined in a number of ways and there are many gray zones in the treatment protocols. It is characterized by conti...

  3. Interactions between the intestinal microbiota and innate lymphoid cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Vincent L; Kasper, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian intestine must manage to contain 100 trillion intestinal bacteria without inducing inappropriate immune responses to these microorganisms. The effects of the immune system on intestinal microorganisms are numerous and well-characterized, and recent research has determined that the microbiota influences the intestinal immune system as well. In this review, we first discuss the intestinal immune system and its role in containing and maintaining tolerance to commensal organisms. We...

  4. Functions and Signaling Pathways of Amino Acids in Intestinal Inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang He; Chenlu Wu; Pan Li; Nengzhang Li; Dong Zhang; Quoqiang Zhu; Wenkai Ren; Yuanyi Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intestine is always exposed to external environment and intestinal microorganism; thus it is more sensitive to dysfunction and dysbiosis, leading to intestinal inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and diarrhea. An increasing number of studies indicate that dietary amino acids play significant roles in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. The review aims to summarize the functions and signaling mechanisms of amino acids in intestin...

  5. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cleve Nicolodi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases, increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases, identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases, and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case. Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  6. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F. S.; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. PMID:27818542

  7. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  8. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F S; de Castro, Francisco Gomes; Miller, Wagner Peitl; de Lima, Raphael Rodrigues; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle

    2016-01-01

    To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation.

  9. Loss of HLTF function promotes intestinal carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Sumit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HLTF (Helicase-like Transcription Factor is a DNA helicase protein homologous to the SWI/SNF family involved in the maintenance of genomic stability and the regulation of gene expression. HLTF has also been found to be frequently inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in human colon cancers. Whether this epigenetic event is required for intestinal carcinogenesis is unknown. Results To address the role of loss of HLTF function in the development of intestinal cancer, we generated Hltf deficient mice. These mutant mice showed normal development, and did not develop intestinal tumors, indicating that loss of Hltf function by itself is insufficient to induce the formation of intestinal cancer. On the Apcmin/+ mutant background, Hltf- deficiency was found to significantly increase the formation of intestinal adenocarcinoma and colon cancers. Cytogenetic analysis of colon tumor cells from Hltf -/-/Apcmin/+ mice revealed a high incidence of gross chromosomal instabilities, including Robertsonian fusions, chromosomal fragments and aneuploidy. None of these genetic alterations were observed in the colon tumor cells derived from Apcmin/+ mice. Increased tumor growth and genomic instability was also demonstrated in HCT116 human colon cancer cells in which HLTF expression was significantly decreased. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss of HLTF function promotes the malignant transformation of intestinal or colonic adenomas to carcinomas by inducing genomic instability. Our findings highly suggest that epigenetic inactivation of HLTF, as found in most human colon cancers, could play an important role in the progression of colon tumors to malignant cancer.

  10. Intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolodi, Gabriel Cleve; Trippia, Cesar Rodrigo; Caboclo, Maria Fernanda F.S.; Castro, Francisco Gomes de; Miller, Wagner Peitl; Lima, Raphael Rodrigues de; Tazima, Leandro; Geraldo, Jamylle, E-mail: gabrielnicolodi@gmail.com [Hospital Sao Vicente - Funef, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Objective: To identify the computed tomography findings suggestive of intestinal perforation by an ingested foreign body. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of four cases of surgically proven intestinal perforation by a foreign body, comparing the computed tomography findings with those described in the literature. Results: None of the patients reported having ingested a foreign body, all were over 60 years of age, three of the four patients used a dental prosthesis, and all of the foreign bodies were elongated and sharp. In all four patients, there were findings indicative of acute abdomen. None of the foreign bodies were identified on conventional X-rays. The computed tomography findings suggestive of perforation were thickening of the intestinal walls (in all four cases), increased density of mesenteric fat (in all four cases), identification of the foreign body passing through the intestinal wall (in three cases), and gas in the peritoneal cavity (in one case). Conclusion: In cases of foreign body ingestion, intestinal perforation is more common when the foreign body is elongated and sharp. Although patients typically do not report having ingested such foreign bodies, the scenario should be suspected in elderly individuals who use dental prostheses. A computed tomography scan can detect foreign bodies, locate perforations, and guide treatment. The findings that suggest perforation are thickening of the intestinal walls, increased mesenteric fat density, and, less frequently, gas in the peritoneal cavity, often restricted to the point of perforation. (author)

  11. The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Lin, Grace; Fu, Gui Hong; Wan, Zi Yi; Lee, May; Wang, Le; Liu, Xiao Jun; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-04-05

    Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host's intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To address this shortcoming, we determined the microbial gene catalogue, and investigated changes in the microbial composition and host-microbe interactions in the intestine of Asian seabass in response to starvation. We found 33 phyla, 66 classes, 130 orders and 278 families in the intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria (48.8%), Firmicutes (15.3%) and Bacteroidetes (8.2%) were the three most abundant bacteria taxa. Comparative analyses of the microbiome revealed shifts in bacteria communities, with dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes, but significant depletion of Betaproteobacteria in starved intestines. In addition, significant differences in clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories and orthologous groups were observed. Genes related to antibiotic activity in the microbiome were significantly enriched in response to starvation, and host genes related to the immune response were generally up-regulated. This study provides the first insights into the fish intestinal microbiome and its changes under starvation. Further detailed study on interactions between intestinal microbiomes and hosts under dynamic conditions will shed new light on how the hosts and microbes respond to the changing environment.

  12. Fecal markers of intestinal inflammation and intestinal permeability are elevated in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiertz, Andreas; Spiegel, Jörg; Dillmann, Ulrich; Grundmann, David; Bürmann, Jan; Faßbender, Klaus; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Unger, Marcus M

    2018-02-12

    Intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability (both possibly fueled by dysbiosis) have been suggested to be implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of the current study was to investigate whether fecal markers of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function corroborate this pathogenic aspect of PD. In a case-control study, we quantitatively analyzed established fecal markers of intestinal inflammation (calprotectin and lactoferrin) and fecal markers of intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) in PD patients (n = 34) and controls (n = 28, group-matched for age) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study design controlled for potential confounding factors. Calprotectin, a fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, and two fecal markers of increased intestinal permeability (alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin) were significantly elevated in PD patients compared to age-matched controls. Lactoferrin, as a second fecal marker of intestinal inflammation, showed a non-significant trend towards elevated concentrations in PD patients. None of the four fecal markers correlated with disease severity, PD subtype, dopaminergic therapy, or presence of constipation. Fecal markers reflecting intestinal inflammation and increased intestinal permeability have been primarily investigated in inflammatory bowel disease so far. Our data indicate that calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin could be useful non-invasive markers in PD as well. Even though these markers are not disease-specific, they corroborate the hypothesis of an intestinal inflammation as contributing factor in the pathogenesis of PD. Further investigations are needed to determine whether calprotectin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and zonulin can be used to define PD subgroups and to monitor the effect of interventions in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  14. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  15. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations increase following intestinal ischemia in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewold, T.A.; Meinen, M.; Meulen, van der J.

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is an intracellular epithelial protein in the intestinal mucosa of many animals. IFABP appears in the circulation following epithelial damage, and in humans, is proven to be a parameter for damage to the mucosa. In this paper, an ELISA test designed for

  16. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G; Poley, Marten J; Olieman, Joanne F; Scheenstra, René; Krabbe, Paul Fm; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond Hhm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  17. Intestinal rehabilitation for children with intestinal failure is cost-effective : a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Henk; Neelis, Esther G.; Poley, Marten J.; Olieman, Joanne F.; Scheenstra, Rene; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    Background: Children with intestinal failure (IF) depend on parenteral nutrition (PN). The goal in the treatment of IF is to wean children off PN through intestinal rehabilitation (IR). Although the healthcare burden of IF is enormous, to our knowledge there has been no previous cost-effectiveness

  18. [Myosin B ATPase activity of the intestinal smooth muscle in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal smooth myosin B was prepared from muscle layers around the lesion in dogs with experimental colonic stenosis and in patients with congenital intestinal obstruction. Mg2+-ATPase activity of the myosin B was compared between the proximal dilated segment and distal segment to obstruction. Experimental colonic stenosis: In early period after surgery, proximal colons showed higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal colons, decreasing to less than distal colon as time passed. Congenital intestinal obstruction: In three cases, whose atresia might have occurred at earlier period of gestation, proximal bowels showed less activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. However, in two cases, whose atresia might have occurred at later period of gestation, and two cases with intestinal stenosis, proximal bowels indicated higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. These data suggested that the contractibility of the proximal intestine was depending on the duration of obstruction, and it was depressed in the former patients and was accelerated in the latter patients. These results suggested that the extensive resection of dilated proximal bowel in the congenital atresia is not always necessary to obtain good postoperative intestinal dynamics at the operation of the atresial lesions which may be induced at later period of gestation. They also suggested that surgery for intestinal obstruction should be performed before the depression of intestinal contractibility to get good bowel function.

  19. Coagulation of sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, C A; Johnston, M G; Nelson, W

    1988-06-01

    We have determined the most suitable method for the automated analysis of the clotting parameters in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph as defined by the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times (APTT; measure of intrinsic coagulation pathway) and the Prothrombin Times (PT; measure of extrinsic coagulation pathway). As opposed to optical density systems, the use of a Fibro-System Fibrometer was found to provide the most consistent assessment of coagulation with the endpoint being the time to fibrin strand formation. We measured APTT in sheep intestinal and prefemoral lymph of 59.78 +/- 7.69 seconds and 51.03 +/- 10.49 seconds respectively. These values were more prolonged than those obtained from sheep blood plasma but only in the case of intestinal lymph were the differences significant (p less than 0.025). Human blood APTT values were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.05) and sheep intestinal (p less than 0.001) and prefemoral lymph (p less than 0.01). PT values were found to be 21.56 +/- 1.14 seconds in intestinal and 22.00 +/- 1.88 seconds in prefemoral lymph. These values were also significantly greater than those obtained from sheep blood (both p less than 0.001). Human blood PTs were significantly less than both sheep blood (p less than 0.001) and intestinal and prefemoral lymph (both p less than 0.001). Measurement of APTT and PT values in intestinal lymph and PT determinations in prefemoral lymph were not affected by storage in the refrigerator or freezer. There was some indication that APTT values in prefemoral samples were susceptible to storage artifacts; however, the differences in coagulation times were not significant.

  20. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  1. CT evaluation of mechanical intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sung Tag; Kim, Ho Kyun; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Kim, Young Tong [Gollege of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis and treatment planning of mechanical intestinal obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who were clinically suspected of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had undergone abdominal CT. The CT scans were evaluated for the absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction. CT findings were compared with the results of laparotomy, barium study and clinical course. The absence or presence and severity of intestinal obstruction were classified into no obstruction, partial obstruction, complete obstruction. Diagnosis was established by means of laparotomy in 20 cases, barium study in 9 cases and clinical course in 9 cases. Of 38 cases, 7(18.4%) showed no obstruction, 22(57.9%) showed partial obstruction, and 9(23.7%) showed complete obstruction. The presence or absence and severity on CT scans were correctly predicted in 36 of 38 cases (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 97 %, accuracy 96 %) (in case of no obstruction: sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94%, accuracy 95%; in case of partial obstruction : sensitivity 91%, specificity 100%, accuracy 95%; in case of complete obstruction : sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, accuracy 100%). All 9 cases with complete obstruction underwent prompt and immediate laparotomy. 13 cases, excluding those with mass around the site of transition and adhesion with strangulation, with partial obstruction improved with conservative treatment without laparotomy. The causes of obstruction were adhesion in 13, hernia in 6, primary cancer in 5, metastatic cancer in 3, abscess in 2, intestinal tbc in 1, and Crohn's disease in 1. The cause of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 27 of 31 cases (87.1 %). The sites of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 22 of 26 cases (84.6%). CT is valuable in the evaluation of absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction, and is considered to be helpful in treatment

  2. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  3. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-10-12

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Finkbeiner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome (SBS is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, called human intestinal organoids (HIOs, have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue.

  5. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in 6 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacuto, A C; Pesavento, P A; Hill, S; McAlister, A; Rosenthal, K; Cherbinsky, O; Marks, S L

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in humans and animals. To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Six client-owned dogs. Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to describe signalment, clinicopathologic and imaging findings, histopathologic diagnoses, treatment, and outcome. All biopsy specimens were reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. Median age of dogs was 5.4 years (range, 15 months-9 years). Consistent clinical signs included vomiting (6/6), regurgitation (2/6), and small bowel diarrhea (3/6). Median duration of clinical signs before presentation was 13 days (range, 5-150 days). Diagnostic imaging showed marked gastric distension with dilated small intestines in 4/6 dogs. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies were obtained in all dogs by laparotomy. Histopathology of the stomach and intestines disclosed mononuclear inflammation, myofiber degeneration and necrosis, and fibrosis centered within the region of myofiber loss in the intestinal muscularis propria. All dogs received various combinations of immunomodulatory and prokinetic treatment, antimicrobial agents, antiemetics, and IV fluids, but none of the dogs showed a clinically relevant improvement with treatment. Median survival was 19 days after diagnosis (range, 3-270 days). Intestinal leiomyositis is a cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction and must be diagnosed by full-thickness intestinal biopsy. This disease should be considered in dogs with acute and chronic vomiting, regurgitation, and small bowel diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  7. Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Calum C; Mowat, Allan McI

    2014-01-01

    The intestine contains the largest pool of macrophages in the body which are essential for maintaining mucosal homeostasis in the face of the microbiota and the constant need for epithelial renewal but are also important components of protective immunity and are involved in the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, defining the biological roles of intestinal macrophages has been impeded by problems in defining the phenotype and origins of different populations of myeloid cells in the mucosa. Here, we discuss how multiple parameters can be used in combination to discriminate between functionally distinct myeloid cells and discuss the roles of macrophages during homeostasis and how these may change when inflammation ensues. We also discuss the evidence that intestinal macrophages do not fit the current paradigm that tissue-resident macrophages are derived from embryonic precursors that self-renew in situ, but require constant replenishment by blood monocytes. We describe our recent work demonstrating that classical monocytes constantly enter the intestinal mucosa and how the environment dictates their subsequent fate. We believe that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD. PMID:24942685

  8. Glutamine and Its Effects on the Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E Hardy

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine, an amino acid, is the principal energy substrate for small intestinal cells. It also acts as a nitrogen carrier through its amide nitrogen. Arterial glutamine is supported by net synthesis in skeletal muscle. Glutamine is rapidly metabolized by the intestine, whether supplied from the lumen or from the arterial circulation. Intestinal uptake of glutamine increases after trauma and operative stress. The consumption of glutamine by the gut may in large part be dependent on mucosal glutaminase activity and on enterocyte glutamine transport. Glutaminc has been shown to improve gut morphology and outcome in animal models of encerocolitis. It may play a similar role in aiding repair of human intestinal injury in persons with sufficient glutamine in their diet compared to those who arc glutamine deficient. Glutamine may have a positive effect on the immune function of the intestinal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Glutamine is not currently available in nutritional preparations for routine clinical use, yet it has recently been shown to benefit maintenance of nitrogen balance in humans. Due to the instability and low solubility of glutamine, dipeptides have been studied. L-alanyl-L-glutamine seems to be the most promising glutamine precursor for parenteral use in humans, as it is safe and rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo to release free glutamine. The exact role of glutamine as a therapeutic agent to promote intetitinal well-being has yet to be determined. However, preliminary evidence suggests that glutaminc will be helpful in a variety of clinical scenarios.

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  10. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  11. Tissue response after radiation exposure. Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal syndrome followed by 'gut death' is due to intestinal disorders. This syndrome is induced by high-dose (>10 Gy) of ionizing radiation. Recovery from the gastrointestinal syndrome would depend on the number of survived clonogens and regeneration capability of crypts. These tissue alterations can be observed by high-dose radiation, however, cellular dynamics in crypts can be affected by low-dose radiation. For example, Potten et al. found that low-dose radiation induce apoptosis of intestinal stem cells, which produce all differentiated function cells. Recently, intestinal stem cells are characterized by molecular markers such as Lgr5. Since intestinal adenomas can be induced by deletion of Apc gene in Lgr5 + stem cells, it is widely recognized that Lgr5 + stem cells are the cell-of-origin of cancer. Duodenal Lgr5 + stem cells are known as radioresistant cells, however, we found that ionizing radiation significantly induces the turnover of colonic Lgr5 + stem cells. Combined with the knowledge of other radioresistant markers, stem-cell dynamics in tissue after irradiation are becoming clear. The present review introduces the history of gastrointestinal syndrome and intestinal stem cells, and discusses those future perspectives. (author)

  12. Intestinal endocrine cells in radiation enteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietroletti, R.; Blaauwgeers, J.L.; Taat, C.W.; Simi, M.; Brummelkamp, W.H.; Becker, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the intestinal endocrine cells were investigated in 13 surgical specimens affected by radiation enteritis. Endocrine cells were studied by means of Grimelius' silver staining and immunostaining for chromogranin, a general marker of endocrine cells. Positively stained cells were quantified by counting their number per unit length of muscularis mucosa. Results in radiation enteritis were compared with matched control specimens by using Student's t test. Chromogranin immunostaining showed a statistically significant increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis specimens compared with controls both in small and large intestine (ileum, 67.5 +/- 23.5 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 17.0 +/- 6.1 in controls; colon, 40.9 +/- 13.7 cells per unit length of muscularis mucosa in radiation enteritis versus 9.5 +/- 4.1 in controls--p less than 0.005 in both instances). Increase of endocrine cells was demonstrated also by Grimelius' staining; however, without reaching statistical significance. It is not clear whether or not the increase of endocrine cells in radiation enteritis reported in this study is caused by a hyperplastic response or by a sparing phenomenon. We should consider that increased endocrine cells, when abnormally secreting their products, may be involved in some of the clinical features of radiation enteropathy. In addition, as intestinal endocrine cells produce trophic substances to the intestine, their increase could be responsible for the raised risk of developing carcinoma of the intestine in long standing radiation enteritis

  13. Measures to minimize small intestine injury in the irradiated pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.; Iba, G.; Smith, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Small intestine injury causes long-term suffering and high mortality. Five of 187 of our patients had developed serious small intestine injury. Four patients had corrective surgery. Three patients died. All were women. Subsequently, all patients who received definitive pelvic irradiation had small intestine roentgenograms to determine its location and mobility. Female patients, thin patients, and elderly patients had larger amounts of small intestine in the whole pelvis, a deeper cul de sac, and a greater incidence of relatively immobile small intestine. Patients with relatively immobile small intestine in the treatment field may be predisposed to injury. There was no relationship of the incidence of relatively immobile small intestine to prior pelvic surgery. We used the findings from the small intestine roentgenograms to modify individually the radiotherapy regimen so as to minimize the risk for small intestine injury. Patients were placed in the prone position to displace the small intestine out of the treatment fields used for booster dose irradiation. The treatment field was modified to exclude the small intestine. The total tumor dose delivered was determined by expectations for cure vs complications. To date, none of the patients in this study group has developed small intestine injury. Cadaver studies showed the feasibility of elective shortening of the pelvic cul de sac. The small intestine can be displaced away from the bladder, prostate, or cervix. (U.S.)

  14. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  15. Radiodiagnosis of early radiation intestinal changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodina, G.I.; Abdulkhakova, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray examination of the colon in 102 patients and of the small intestine in 62 was performed during combined radiation therapy of cervical cancer and at different time after its discontinuation. Early radiation functional and morphological changes in the ileum and colon were detected. Radiation changes in the ileac mucosa were noted in 52% of the patients, changes of various degree in the rectal, sigmoid and cecal mucosa were noted in 41.2%. Moderate radiation changes in the ascending, descending and horizontal parts of the colon were noted in 10.7%. Early radiation intestinal injuries in the form of erosions and ulcers were revealed in 5.8% of the patients. In most of the patients radiation intestinal changes were without noticeable clinical manifestations. All these patients could be defined as a group at risk of developing late radiation changes

  16. Recent Advances in Intestinal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2017-09-01

    The intestine is a dynamic organ with rapid stem cell division generating epithelial cells that mature and apoptose in 3-5 days. Rapid turnover maintains the epithelial barrier and homeostasis. Current insights on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and their regulation are discussed here. The Lgr5+ ISCs maintain intestinal homeostasis by dividing asymmetrically, but also divide symmetrically to extinguish or replace ISCs. Following radiation or mucosal injury, reserve BMI1+ ISCs as well as other crypt cells can de-differentiate into Lgr5+ ISCs. ISC niche cells, including Paneth, immune and myofibroblast cells secrete factors that regulate ISC proliferation. Finally, several studies indicate that the microbiome metabolites regulate ISC growth. ISC cells can be plastic and integrate a complexity of environmental/niche cues to trigger or suppress proliferation as needed.

  17. Intestinal infarction: A complication of endovascular therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, Andrew [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: andrew.england@smtr.nhs.uk; Butterfield, John S. [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Sukumar, Sathi [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Thompson, David [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Roulson, Jo-An [Department of Histopathology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Pritchard, Susan [Department of Histopathology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom); Ashleigh, Raymond J. [Department of Radiology, South Manchester University Hospitals NHS Trust, Southmoor Road, Wythenshawe, Manchester M23 9LT (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a rare case of intestinal infarction following endovascular therapy. A female patient who had undergone an internal carotid artery stenting procedure presented suddenly with abdominal pain. Radiological and clinical examinations at the time suggested a picture of intestinal ischaemia, in view of the patient's general conditions and co-existing morbidities surgical intervention was not considered to be an option. The patient died 4 days after the carotid stenting procedure, post-mortem examination revealed infarction of the ileum and caecum. The learning outcomes are if performing endovascular therapy in a patient with diffuse atherosclerotic disease early consideration of intestinal ischaemia should be given to any patient who presents with acute post-procedural abdominal pain.

  18. Intestinal infarction: A complication of endovascular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, Andrew; Butterfield, John S.; Sukumar, Sathi; Thompson, David; Roulson, Jo-An; Pritchard, Susan; Ashleigh, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of intestinal infarction following endovascular therapy. A female patient who had undergone an internal carotid artery stenting procedure presented suddenly with abdominal pain. Radiological and clinical examinations at the time suggested a picture of intestinal ischaemia, in view of the patient's general conditions and co-existing morbidities surgical intervention was not considered to be an option. The patient died 4 days after the carotid stenting procedure, post-mortem examination revealed infarction of the ileum and caecum. The learning outcomes are if performing endovascular therapy in a patient with diffuse atherosclerotic disease early consideration of intestinal ischaemia should be given to any patient who presents with acute post-procedural abdominal pain

  19. Seronegative Intestinal Villous Atrophy: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Martins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is the most important cause of intestinal villous atrophy. Seronegative intestinal villous atrophy, including those that are nonresponsive to a gluten-free diet, is a diagnostic challenge. In these cases, before establishing the diagnosis of seronegative celiac disease, alternative etiologies of atrophic enteropathy should be considered. Recently, a new clinical entity responsible for seronegative villous atrophy was described—olmesartan-induced sprue-like enteropathy. Herein, we report two uncommon cases of atrophic enteropathy in patients with arterial hypertension under olmesartan, who presented with severe chronic diarrhea and significant involuntary weight loss. Further investigation revealed intestinal villous atrophy and intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Celiac disease and other causes of villous atrophy were ruled out. Drug-induced enteropathy was suspected and clinical improvement and histologic recovery were verified after olmesartan withdrawal. These cases highlight the importance for clinicians to maintain a high index of suspicion for olmesartan as a precipitant of sprue-like enteropathy.

  20. Viability of the vascularly perfused, recirculating rat intestine and intestine-liver preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, H.; Xu, X.; Pang, K.S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    Function and stability of vascularly perfused, recirculating in situ rat intestine (I) and intestine-liver (IL) preparations were evaluated in fasted and nonfasted rats because these techniques may be readily applied in drug metabolism studies. The rat intestine was perfused with blood medium (7.5 ml/min) via the superior mesenteric artery, with the venous outflow draining into the portal vein, which, together with hepatic arterial flow (2.5 ml/min), constituted the total blood flow (10 ml/min) to the liver. Maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity was observed. Rapid ({sup 14}C)glucose absorption against a concentration gradient and a lack of ({sup 3}H)-polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000, less than 4%) and Evans blue absorption by the recirculating I and IL preparations resulted after bolus injections of these markers into the pyloric end of the duodenum. Other indexes that revealed stable intestinal and liver functions were the following: preservation of reservoir perfusate volume, constancy in perfusion pressure, bile flow, and hemoglobin concentrations, evidence of intestinal glucose utilization and liver glucose production, and a lack of significant leakage of serum glutamic oxalic transaminase. The intestine and liver consumed oxygen at relatively constant rates, but the consumption rates for the fasted tissues (I or L) were significantly higher than those for nonfasted tissues. These results indicate that the vascularly perfused I and IL preparations were maintained in a viable and stable state for a 2-h perfusion period.

  1. Radiologic study on differential diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis and intestinal Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Kim, Young Goo; Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung

    1986-01-01

    Radiologic findings in 30 patients with intestinal tuberculosis and 10 patients with intestinal Behcet's disease, who had been diagnosed at Seoul National University Hospital during the recent 5 years, were analysed retrospectively to evaluate the radiologic differential diagnosis of the two diseases. Intestinal tuberculosis severely involved the cecum, the ileocecal valve, the distal ileum and colons, but Behcet's disease mainly involved the distal ileum and infrequently the ileocecal valve and the cecum. The ulcers in tuberculosis were usually multiple small barium collected areas among pseudopolyps, on the contrary, those in Behcet's disease were multiple, discrete, well marinated, geographic, ring-like deep penetrating or collar-button shaped. Intestinal tuberculosis tended to involved long segments of intestines, with severer mucosal irregularity and deformity of the ileocecal valve and the ascending colon in comparison with Behcet's disease. Mesenteric and/or peritoneal involvement were accompanied in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis, and active pulmonary tuberculosis or pleural effusion also in 1/3 cases of intestinal tuberculosis.

  2. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  3. Neural regulation of intestinal nutrient absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Saadé, Nayef E

    2011-10-01

    The nervous system and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract share several common features including reciprocal interconnections and several neurotransmitters and peptides known as gut peptides, neuropeptides or hormones. The processes of digestion, secretion of digestive enzymes and then absorption are regulated by the neuro-endocrine system. Luminal glucose enhances its own absorption through a neuronal reflex that involves capsaicin sensitive primary afferent (CSPA) fibres. Absorbed glucose stimulates insulin release that activates hepatoenteric neural pathways leading to an increase in the expression of glucose transporters. Adrenergic innervation increases glucose absorption through α1 and β receptors and decreases absorption through activation of α2 receptors. The vagus nerve plays an important role in the regulation of diurnal variation in transporter expression and in anticipation to food intake. Vagal CSPAs exert tonic inhibitory effects on amino acid absorption. It also plays an important role in the mediation of the inhibitory effect of intestinal amino acids on their own absorption at the level of proximal or distal segment. However, chronic extrinsic denervation leads to a decrease in intestinal amino acid absorption. Conversely, adrenergic agonists as well as activation of CSPA fibres enhance peptides uptake through the peptide transporter PEPT1. Finally, intestinal innervation plays a minimal role in the absorption of fat digestion products. Intestinal absorption of nutrients is a basic vital mechanism that depends essentially on the function of intestinal mucosa. However, intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms that rely on several redundant loops are involved in immediate and long-term control of the outcome of intestinal function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacteria, bile salts, and intestinal monosaccharide malabsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Oshin, Ademola; Barker, Judith; Glasgow, Eric F.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal monosaccharide transport was studied in a series of rats with a self-filling jejunal blind loop using 3mM arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-B-glucoside) or 1mM D-fructose as substrate in vitro and 10 mM arbutin or 5mM D-fructose in vivo. These results were compared with changes in the bacterial flora and state of conjugation of intraluminal bile salts in those animals. Observations were also made of the microscopic and ultrastructural appearances of the small-intestinal epithelium. In the small intestine of blind-loop rats intestinal monosaccharide transport is impaired, and in vitro is most marked in the blind loop, less so in the efferent jejunum, and not significantly altered in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of disturbed monosaccharide absorption was demonstrated by perfusions in vivo. The degree of the transport defect correlates closely with the luxuriance of the anaerobic flora, which averaged 108 per millilitre in the blind loop, 107 in the efferent jejunum, and 106 in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of abnormality of bile salt conjugation occurred. In the blind loop the ratio of free to conjugated bile salts was grossly abnormal; this disturbance was somewhat less marked in the efferent jejunum and considerably less in the intraluminal contents of the afferent jejunum. An irregularly distributed lesion, consisting of swelling and vacuolation of microvilli and intracellular organelles, was demonstrated in the small-intestinal epithelium of blind-loop animals. Impaired absorption of monosaccharides is a further consequence of bacterial contamination of the upper gut. It is suggested that this defect is caused by the presence of high levels of deconjugated bile salts produced by an abnormal anaerobic bacterial flora in the small intestine. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4329096

  5. The effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Meilan; Ji, Xinqiang; Liang, Hui; Liu, Ying; Wang, Bing; Sun, Lingling; Li, Weiwei

    2018-02-21

    Recent research studies have shown that the intestinal flora are related to the occurrence and progress of breast cancer. This study investigates the effect of fucoidan on intestinal flora and intestinal barrier function in rats with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancers. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, and the F1 and F2 groups, which were fed fucoidan at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg per kg bw (body weight), respectively. Intestinal histopathological analysis was performed and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing was used to provide an overview of the intestinal flora composition. The contents of d-lactic acid (d-LA), diamine oxidase (DAO) and endotoxin in plasma were detected by ELISA. Expression levels of the tight junction (TJ) proteins, phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were measured using western blotting. Our results suggested that the intestinal wall of the model group was damaged. However, after fucoidan intervention, the villi were gradually restored. ELISA showed that the levels of plasma endotoxin, d-LA and DAO decreased in the F1 and F2 groups compared to those in the model group. Fucoidan treatment also increased the expressions of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-8. Furthermore, the expression levels of phosphorylated p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 were upregulated in fucoidan treatment groups. The results of 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing indicated that fucoidan increased the diversity of the intestinal microbiota and induced changes in microbial composition, with the increased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes phylum ratio. In conclusion, the supplement of fucoidan could improve the fecal microbiota composition and repair the intestinal barrier function. The study suggested the use of fucoidan as an intestinal flora modulator for potential prevention of breast cancer.

  6. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  7. Relationships between intestinal parasitosis and handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Hakan; Dane, Senol; Uyanik, M Hamidullah; Ayyildiz, Ahmet

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate if there is a possible relation between intestinal parasitosis and handedness in patients with suspected intestinal parasitosis. Hand preference was assessed on the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Stool samples were examined microscopically for the presence of parasite. In the present study right-handers had many more helminth infections and left-handers had many more protozoon infections. Lower rate of helminth infections in the present study, and higher asthma incidences in the left-handed population in literature, may be associated with different immune machinery in left-handed people than in right-handed ones.

  8. Translational control of an intestinal microvillar enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Sjöström, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of biosynthesis of adult and foetal pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) were compared to determine at which level the expression of the microvillar enzyme is developmentally controlled. In organ-cultured explants, the rate of biosynthesis of foetal aminopeptidase N is only...... about 3% of the adult rate. The small amount synthesized occurs in a high-mannose-glycosylated, membrane-bound, form that is processed to the mature, complex-glycosylated, form at a markedly slower rate than that of the adult enzyme. Extracts of total RNA from adult and foetal intestine contained...

  9. Verification of chronic intestinal ischemia by angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, T.; Sandmann, W.

    1982-06-25

    With chronical occlusion of an intestianal artery (coeliac artery, superior and inferior mesenteric artery) functionally acting and organ-supplying collateral circulations may develop. When this collateral circulation provides a sufficient blood supply, uncharacteristic (10) and absent or minor clinical symptomatology (21) result and therefore in many cases such vascular occlusions are not detected in older people. Consequently, the possible existence of an intestinal ischaemia should be taken into consideration when indefinite complaints occur in older patients, particularly in those cases, where arterial occlusions exist in the lower extremities. With chronical intestinal (arteriosclerotic) ischaemia an acute thrombo-embolism has always to be regarded as a possible complication.

  10. Transcriptome changes during intestinal cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadjali, Mehrdad; Seidelin, Jakob B; Olsen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change in the transc......The expression of 18149 genes have been analysed during the differentiation of the human intestinal cell line Caco-2. cDNA probes from undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were separately hybridised to EST DNAs spotted in an array on a nylon membrane. A remarkable change...

  11. Intestinal tuberculosis sometimes mimics Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Shojaei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal tuberculosis is an uncommon presentation of tuberculosis (TB and has clinicopathological similarities with Crohn's disease. In regions where TB is endemic clinicians must aware of this condition and fully evaluate their patients when Crohn's disease is diagnosed. We recommend all pathologic specimens be evaluate effectively for TB.Smear,culture and PCR for Mycobacterium.tuberculosis from samples aside the pathological reviews help for better diagnosis. Here we present a case of intestinal tuberculosis which initially diagnosed as Crohn's disease but after starting immunosuppressive agents he presented with disseminated tuberculosis.

  12. A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhout, Joost; van de Steeg, Evita; Grossouw, Dimitri; Zeijdner, Evelijn E; Krul, Cyrille A M; Verwei, Miriam; Wortelboer, Heleen M

    2014-10-15

    A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption, however, is often insufficient, especially when food-drug interactions are evaluated. Ideally, for this purpose healthy human intestinal tissue is used, but due to its limited availability there is a need for alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of healthy porcine intestinal tissue mounted in a newly developed InTESTine™ system to predict human intestinal absorption of compounds with different chemical characteristics, and within biorelevant matrices. To that end, first, a representative set of compounds was chosen of which the apparent permeability (Papp) data in both Caco-2 cells and human intestinal tissue mounted in the Ussing chamber system, and absolute human oral bioavailability were reported. Thereafter, Papp values of the subset were determined in both porcine jejunal tissue and our own Caco-2 cells. In addition, the feasibility of this new approach to study regional differences (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) in permeability of compounds and to study the effects of luminal factors on permeability was also investigated. For the latter, a comparison was made between the compatibility of porcine intestinal tissue, Caco-2 cells, and Caco-2 cells co-cultured with the mucin producing HT29-MTX cells with biorelevant samples as collected from an in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM). The results demonstrated that for the paracellularly transported compounds atenolol, cimetidine, mannitol and ranitidine porcine Papp values are within 3-fold difference of human Papp values, whereas the Caco-2 Papp values are beyond 3-fold difference. Overall, the porcine intestinal tissue Papp values are more comparable to human Papp values (9 out

  13. Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Muñoz; J. A. Solís Herruzo

    2007-01-01

    El síndrome de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica se caracteriza por la presencia de cuadros clínicos recidivantes que simulan una obstrucción intestinal pero en ausencia de proceso obstructivo anatómico. Es poco frecuente pero determina una alta morbilidad. Se origina como consecuencia de una alteración de la motilidad intestinal que no puede hacer progresar su contenido debido a la afectación de su componente muscular, neurológico o de ambos. Son más frecuentes los casos secundarios a un...

  14. Sodium recirculation and isotonic transport in toad small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Signe Nielsen; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, Hans H.

    1999-01-01

    Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi......Small intestine; leaky epithelia; solute-coupled water transport; Na*O+ recirculation; lateral intercellular space; flux ratio analysi...

  15. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, B. van den; Erkus, O.; Boekhorst, J.; Goffau, M. de; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M

    2013-01-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  16. Surgical management and autologous intestinal reconstruction in short bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommel, Matthijs J.; van Baren, Robertine; Haveman, Jan Willem

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. When treatment with parenteral nutrition fails and life-threatening complications occur, autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) should be considered before intestinal transplantation (ITx). Single or

  17. Plasmodium berghei ANKA causes intestinal malaria associated with dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Miyauchi, Eiji; Nakamura, Shota; Hirai, Makoto; Suzue, Kazutomo; Imai, Takashi; Nomura, Takahiro; Handa, Tadashi; Okada, Hiroko; Shimokawa, Chikako; Onishi, Risa; Olia, Alex; Hirata, Jun; Tomita, Haruyoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Horii, Toshihiro; Hisaeda, Hajime

    2015-10-27

    Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea, are frequently observed in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the correlation between malaria intestinal pathology and intestinal microbiota has not been investigated. In the present study, infection of C57BL/6 mice with P. berghei ANKA (PbA) caused intestinal pathological changes, such as detachment of epithelia in the small intestines and increased intestinal permeability, which correlated with development with experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). Notably, an apparent dysbiosis occurred, characterized by a reduction of Firmicutes and an increase in Proteobacteria. Furthermore, some genera of microbiota correlated with parasite growth and/or ECM development. By contrast, BALB/c mice are resistant to ECM and exhibit milder intestinal pathology and dysbiosis. These results indicate that the severity of cerebral and intestinal pathology coincides with the degree of alteration in microbiota. This is the first report demonstrating that malaria affects intestinal microbiota and causes dysbiosis.

  18. Surgical aspects of intestinal tuberculosis in children: Our experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    constrained countries. Intestinal TB is especially notorious as a number of cases have to be dealt surgically, which too have morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to identify various presentations of intestinal TB necessitating surgical ...

  19. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  20. Dimethyloxalylglycine preserves the intestinal microvasculature and protects against intestinal injury in a neonatal mouse NEC model: role of VEGF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Rakhee M; Yan, Xiaocai; Managlia, Elizabeth; Liu, Shirley X L; Marek, Catherine; Tan, Xiao-Di; De Plaen, Isabelle G

    2018-02-01

    BackgroundNecrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating neonatal disease characterized by intestinal necrosis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has a critical role in cellular oxygen homeostasis. Here, we hypothesized that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition, which stabilizes HIF-1α, protects against NEC by promoting intestinal endothelial cell proliferation and improving intestinal microvascular integrity via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.MethodsTo assess the role of PHD inhibition in a neonatal mouse NEC model, we administered dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) or vehicle to pups before or during the NEC protocol, and determined mortality and incidence of severe intestinal injury. We assessed intestinal VEGF by western blot analysis and quantified endothelial cell and epithelial cell proliferation following immunofluorescence.ResultsDMOG decreased mortality and incidence of severe NEC, increased intestinal VEGF expression, and increased intestinal villus endothelial and epithelial cell proliferation in experimental NEC. Inhibiting VEGFR2 signaling eliminated DMOG's protective effect on intestinal injury severity, survival, and endothelial cell proliferation while sparing DMOG's protective effect on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation.ConclusionDMOG upregulates intestinal VEGF, promotes endothelial cell proliferation, and protects against intestinal injury and mortality in experimental NEC in a VEGFR2 dependent manner. DMOG's protective effect on the neonatal intestinal mucosa may be mediated via VEGFR2 dependent improvement of the intestinal microvasculature.

  1. Commensal Bacteria and Epithelial Cross Talk in the Developing Intestine

    OpenAIRE

    Rautava, Samuli; Walker, W. Allan

    2007-01-01

    Indigenous intestinal microbes have co-evolved with the intestinal immune system to form a symbiotic ecosystem. In the postnatal period, intestinal microbes provide the developing gut with stimuli that are necessary for healthy maturation of the intestinal immune system. Cross talk between the host and commensal microbes is an essential component of gut homeostasis mechanisms also in later life. During recent years, innovative research has shed light on the molecular mechanisms of these inter...

  2. Intestinal sclerosis with pseudo-obstruction in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Carpenter, J

    1984-04-01

    Intestinal sclerosis causing chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed in 3 dogs. The pseudo-obstruction was characterized by vomiting and weight loss of 2 weeks' to 3 months' duration. A patent intestinal lumen was determined by contrast radiography and verified at surgery. Intestinal biopsy revealed diffuse atrophy, fibrosis, and mononuclear cell infiltration of the tunica muscularis. Each dog was euthanatized because of a progressive, deteriorating clinical course.

  3. Microdialysis in the assessment of regional intestinal ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Thorbjørn

     The Ph.D.thesis “Microdialysis in the assessment of regional intestinal ischemia” is based on three scientific papers. The diagnosis of intestinal ischemia remains a diagnostic challenge, since no technique has been able to monitor the intestinal perfusion continuously with a high sensitivity an...

  4. Intestinal failure in childhood | Goulet | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal failure (IF) requires the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) for as long as it persists and in case of irreversible IF may be an indication for intestinal transplantation (ITx). Biological evaluation of IF is becoming possible with the use of plasma citrulline as a marker of intestinal mass. Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is the ...

  5. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    evaluating the effects of these changes on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome , mycobiome...immune cells associated with the intestine and their interactions with the normal microbial contents of the gut. 2. KEYWORDS Radiation, microbiome ... microbiome following TBI. At the end of the experiment, we also harvested the intestines and mesenteric lymph nodes for multiparametric flow cytometry and

  6. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

    Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine.

  7. The small intestine microbiota, nutritional modulation and relevance for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    The intestinal microbiota plays a profound role in human health and extensive research has been dedicated to identify microbiota aberrations that are associated with disease. Most of this work has been targeting the large intestine and fecal microbiota, while the small intestine microbiota may also

  8. Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun State. ... This study thus advocates routine periodic screening even of the healthy pupils for intestinal parasitosis to minimize morbidity and mortality and improve ... Key Words: intestinal parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, School, Nigeria ...

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and bacteria among food handlers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23%) stool specimens were positive for intestinal para¬sites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9%) was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in ...

  10. Observations on the origin of congenital intestinal atresia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article by Louw and Barnard entitled 'Congenital intestinal atresia – observations on its origin' published in The Lancet in. 19951 was a landmark paper that elucidated the pathogenesis of intestinal atresia and radically altered the surgical treatment of the condition. As a result of a review of cases of intestinal atresia at.

  11. Pattern Of Intestinal Obstruction In A Semiurban Nigerian Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhesive intestinal obstruction is the commonest cause in this semi-urban population which was studied. Obstructed hernia is becoming increasingly less common as a cause of intestinal obstruction. Keywords: Pattern, Intestinal Obstruction, Semiurban Hospital. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol. 11 (4) 2008: pp.

  12. Intestinal schistosomiasis associated with intussusception: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: We report a case of intestinal schistosomiasis associated with iliocaecal intussusception resulting from obstructions of the terminal part of the ileum by schistosome egg-induced fibrosis. A 7- year-old boy presented with the history of abdominal pain and difficulties in passing stool for two months. Ultrasound ...

  13. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  14. Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Intestinal Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance, nutrient utilization and intestinal environment of weaned rabbits fed diets supplemented with organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid and formic acid) were investigated with 24 (6-week old) rabbits in a completely randomized design. The control diet was not supplemented while others were supplemented ...

  15. Colonoscopic features of early intestinal tuberculosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-02

    Mar 2, 1991 ... resembled sessile polyps. They occurred ... the colonoscopic diagnosis of intestinal tuberculosis has, until recently ... Transverse colon. Ascending colon. Rectum. Caecum. Transverse colon. Caecum and ascending colon. Caecum and transverse colon*. Caecum, ascending and transverse colon*. Caecum ...

  16. Repairing organs : lessons from intestine and liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and

  17. Repairing organs : lessons from intestine and liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and

  18. Rage mediated DAMP signaling in intestinal tumorigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, Jarom; Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2012-01-01

    In the intestine, a large variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can instigate innate immune responses, which have been shown to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. We have recently demonstrated an important role for the receptor for

  19. Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome And Intestinal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to progressive hypercapnia and sustained hypoxaemia. Neonates with this condition experience hypoventilation or apnoea while asleep. Patients may also have congenital intestinal aganglionosis (CIA), aganglionic megacolon or Hirschsprung's disease, suggesting an aberrant phenotype arising from a defect of migration ...

  20. characterization of intestinal microbiota in celiac children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Lahcene1*, A. Tir Touil Meddah1, K. Bouziane-Nedjadi2, B. Meddah1, A. Leke3

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... In this study, 13 Samples of intestinal biopsy, ... Research Article. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. ... disease are caused by several factors among, the ingestion of gluten, and it has been suggested.

  1. Postoperative Adhesive Intestinal Obstruction from Gossypiboma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of 41.year.old female admitted with features of intestinal obstruction and had a previous history of hysterectomy performed 2 months back at another hospital. Pathologists must be aware of this entity and its proper reporting as the cases are liable to go to court. Surgeons must recognize the risk factors that ...

  2. Intestinal amino acid metabolism in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G.; Wattimena, Darcos; Schierbeek, Henk; Schaart, Maaike W.; Riedijk, Maaike A.; van der Lugt, Jasper

    2006-01-01

    The portal-drained viscera (stomach, intestine, pancreas and spleen) have a much higher rate of both energy expenditure and protein synthesis than can be estimated on the basis of their weight. A high utilization rate of dietary nutrients by the portal-drained viscera might result in a low systemic

  3. Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction | Zikavska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many causes of intestinal obstruction in the neonatal age. The most common types are mechanical and result from congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. However, functional disorders also occur. In some cases, diagnosis can be made prenatally but in others manifestation occurs after birth. The aim ...

  4. Pig models on intestinal development and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Lanmei; Yang, Huansheng; Li, Jianzhong; Li, Yali; Ding, Xueqing; Wu, Guoyao; Yin, Yulong

    2017-12-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in nutrient supply, digestion, and absorption, and has a crucial impact on the entire organism. Much attention is being paid to utilize animal models to study the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases in response to intestinal development and health. The piglet has a body size similar to that of the human and is an omnivorous animal with comparable anatomy, nutritional requirements, and digestive and associated inflammatory processes, and displays similarities to the human intestinal microbial ecosystem, which make piglets more appropriate as an animal model for human than other non-primate animals. Therefore, the objective of this review is to summarize key attributes of the piglet model with which to study human intestinal development and intestinal health through probing into the etiology of several gastrointestinal diseases, thus providing a theoretical and hopefully practical, basis for further studies on mammalian nutrition, health, and disease, and therapeutics. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young piglets and humans, the piglet has been used as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Because of similarities in anatomy and physiology between pigs and mankind, more emphasises are put on how to use the piglet model for human organ transplantation research.

  5. Peritoneal drainage for newborn intestinal perforation: primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: intestinal perforation in newborn, necrotizing enterocolitis, primary peritoneal drainage. Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University. HSC, El Paso, Texas, USA. Correspondence to Donald E. Meier, MD, Department of Surgery, Paul L. Foster. School of Medicine, Texas Tech ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branching network of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton , which gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. ... 2 actin protein is found in smooth muscle cells of the intestinal and urinary ... filaments in the cytoskeleton and reduce the ability of smooth muscles in ...

  7. Intestinal Parasites of the Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal content of the animals were examined with the aid of a hand lens, a microscope and direct smear method. The parasites identified include helminthes such as Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris sp., Ascaris sp., Hymenolepis sp. and Schistosoma haematobium, and protozoans such as Giardia sp. and Entamoeba sp.

  8. What's new in Osmosin and intestinal perforation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidler, P; Maslin, S C; Gilhome, R W

    1985-07-01

    New formulations of drugs may have unexpected side effects. Osmosin is a new osmotic-pump controlled-release formulation of Indomethacin, designed to prevent gastrointestinal irritation. However, in a small number of cases the use of Osmosin has coincided with perforation of the small and large intestine, probably because passage of the tablet through the gastrointestinal tract was impeded.

  9. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, frequent assessment of the magnitude and associated factors for intestinal parasitosis is essential for the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending Arba Minch Hospital Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Clinic from March to June 2016.

  10. Intestinal obstruction secondary to infantile polyarteritis nodosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotising vasculitis of medium and small-sized arteries. Patients typically present with systemic symptoms. Obstructive intestinal symptoms are described but usually resolve with treatment of the underlying vascular disease. We report a case of a one year old boy with multiple ...

  11. Assessment of intestinal peristalsis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Cristina; Poli, Enzo

    2012-11-01

    The protocol detailed in this unit is designed to assess intestinal peristaltic motility in the isolated small intestine in vitro and to measure the effects of drugs able to interfere with gut propulsive activity. The procedure is based on Trendelenburg's classic technique, described at the beginning of the 20th century in the isolated guinea pig ileum and, later on, extended to other intestinal preparations from the same animal and other animal species. This unit illustrates the basic procedures for setting up the intestinal preparation, recording peristalsis under near-physiologic conditions, and testing the pharmaco-toxicological effects of drugs and pollutants on the contractile behavior of the gut wall. The protocol allows evaluating the action of drugs affecting sensory and/or motor neurons of the enteric nervous system and how these neurons control the development of the motor program of the gut wall. This model can be exploited to investigate novel compounds undergoing preclinical development and both inhibitors and stimulants of gastrointestinal peristaltic activity, as well as environmental or alimentary pollutants, like xenobiotics and naturally-occurring toxins, endowed with noxious activity with regard to digestive functions.

  12. Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections in Sengerema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections are common health problems among the people of Lake. Victoria basin particularly in Mwanza ... these infections is largely lacking and that biomedical studies give only a partial ... sampling procedure was such that in each sub-village. ' Correspondence: Joseph R.

  13. Periarrest intestinal bacterial translocation and resuscitation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Scheetz, Marc H; Gulati, Anil; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-02-01

    During the periarrest period, intestinal ischemia may result in barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation, which has clear mechanistic links to inflammation and cascade stimulation, especially in patients who are treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Despite optimal management, periarrest bacterial translocation may worsen the outcome of cardiac arrest victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  15. Intestinal intussusception due to concurrent infections with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat was anorexic and depressed with rough hair coat, and died before the commencement of the experiment. Grossly, the intussusception was 7 cm in length and 27 cm caudal to the stomach and 81cm to the ileo-caecal junction. The affected part of the small intestine was moderately distended with worms and the ...

  16. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  17. intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Government Area to determine the prevalence rate of intestinal hjelminth infection among malnourished school children. Stool samples and finger prick blood .... in both male and female school children compared with a marked depreciation clue to the .... -rnalnutrition among India children. He submitted that control of such ...

  18. Intestinal Infarctus following Dilatation and Uterine Curettage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Ngowe

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of intestinal infarctus through the vagina. This was a consequence of induced abortion done clandestinely. The main objective was to point out the surgical complications of uterine dilatation and curettage by means of this rare case.

  19. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) on the morphology and function of intestine after cardiac arrest and resuscitation, 45 male rats were randomly assigned into three groups: (1) normothermia group, animals underwent ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with the rectal ...

  20. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  1. intestinal helminth infections among pregnant cameroonian women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 11 November 2011. INTESTINAL HELMINTH ... The pregnant women received mebendazole and iron tablets on the day of enrollment at the antenatal clinic to control helminth ... malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, diarrhoea and iron-deficiency anaemia (3,1). Pregnant women and.

  2. Metabolic complications in the small intestine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Rafael; Orozco, Reynaldo

    2000-01-01

    Metabolic complications in the syndrome of small intestine is presented in a patient of masculine sex, 27 years old, who consulted for a square of inflammation gingival, migraine, fever, anorexia and adinamia for three days, followed by maculopapular-eritematose eruption for 8 days, coincident with the ampicillin ingestion, and later on severe abdominal pain and diarrhea

  3. Therapeutic hypothermia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... diamine oxidase (DAO) and apoptosis rate of intestinal epithelial cells were tested by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. ... The interruption and restoration of blood flow, induced by. *Corresponding author. ... intubated with a 14-gauge cannula (Abbocath-T, Abbott Hospital. Products Division; North ...

  4. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  5. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  6. Intestinal colonisation, microbiota and future probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salminen, S.; Benno, Y.; Vos, de W.M.

    2006-01-01

    The human intestine is colonized by a large number of microorganisms, collectively termed microbiota, which support a variety of physiological functions. As the major part of the microbiota has not yet been cultured, molecular methods are required to determine microbial composition and the impact of

  7. Intestinal obstruction in germ-free dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J B; Robinson, J W; Menge, H; Winistörfer, B

    1981-08-01

    Mechanical occlusions were created in the intestines of four germ-free dogs. At the time of the operation, a control loop of mid-intestine was perfused in vivo and then excised for examinations in vitro, which included the determination of the equilibrium uptake of phenylalanine and of beta-methyl-glucoside, the influx kinetics of phenylalanine and morphometric analysis of the mucosa by microdissection and stereological techniques. Seven days after establishment of the occlusion the abdomen was reopened, and loops above and below the occlusion were perfused, and then excised for the same tests in vitro. Unlike occluded loops of conventional dogs, the intestine of the germ-free animal above the occlusion does not secrete water and electrolytes into the lumen. Its transport properties in vitro do not differ from those of the control loop, and the morphometric analyses reveal only slight changes in villus structure. The loop below the obstruction undergoes marked atrophy, as has been observed in conventional dogs. The results suggest that the copious secretion that occurs above an intestinal obstruction in normal animals is due to the presence of an abundant bacterial population in the obstruction fluid.

  8. Temporal changes in the intestinal growth promoting effects of glucagon-like peptide 2 following intestinal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaji, Tatsuru; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Redstone, Heather

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of variations in the postresection timing of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) administration on intestinal morphology and activity. METHODS: A rat model of 90% intestinal resection (SBR) with exclusively parenteral nutritional (TPN) was used. Early versus late...... that the intestinal adaptive and growth promoting actions of GLP-2 may be mediated by non-neuronal effector pathways. Although further studies are required, early treatment with GLP-2 following resection may maximize intestinal growth....

  9. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J W de Wit

    Full Text Available Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP technique to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd and white onion extracts (WOd were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies.

  10. Exploring food effects on indinavir absorption with human intestinal fluids in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstock, Nico; De Bruyn, Tom; Bevernage, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Mols, Raf; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2013-04-11

    Food can have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered drugs, as it may affect drug solubility as well as permeability. Since fed state conditions cannot easily be implemented in the presently available permeability tools, including the frequently used Caco-2 system, exploring food effects during drug development can be quite challenging. In this study, we investigated the effect of fasted and fed state conditions on the intestinal absorption of the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir using simulated and human intestinal fluids in the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice. Although the solubility of indinavir was 6-fold higher in fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) as compared to fasted state HIF (FaHIF), the intestinal permeation of indinavir was 22-fold lower in FeHIF as compared to FaHIF. Dialysis experiments showed that only a small fraction of indinavir is accessible for absorption in FeHIF due to micellar entrapment, possibly explaining its low intestinal permeation. The presence of ritonavir, a known P-gp inhibitor, increased the intestinal permeation of indinavir by 2-fold in FaHIF, while there was no increase when using FeHIF. These data confirm that drug-food interactions form a complex interplay between solubility and permeability effects. The use of HIF in in situ intestinal perfusions holds great promise for biorelevant absorption evaluation as it allows to directly explore this complex solubility/permeability interplay on drug absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiurong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intestinal chronic rejection (CR is the major limitation to long-term survival of transplanted organs. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity in chronic rejection of intestinal transplantation, and to find out whether fish oil enhances recovery of intestinal microbiota and epithelial integrity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The luminal and mucosal microbiota composition of CR rats were characterized by DGGE analysis at 190 days after intestinal transplant. The specific bacterial species were determined by sequence analysis. Furthermore, changes in the localization of intestinal TJ proteins were examined by immunofluorescent staining. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that gut microbiota in CR rats had a shift towards Escherichia coli, Bacteroides spp and Clostridium spp and a decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillales bacteria in the intestines. Fish oil supplementation could enhance the recovery of gut microbiota, showing a significant decrease of gut bacterial proportions of E. coli and Bacteroides spp and an increase of Lactobacillales spp. In addition, CR rats showed pronounced alteration of tight junction, depicted by marked changes in epithelial cell ultrastructure and redistribution of occuldin and claudins as well as disruption in TJ barrier function. Fish oil administration ameliorated disruption of epithelial integrity in CR, which was associated with an improvement of the mucosal structure leading to improved tight junctions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study have presented novel evidence that fish oil is involved in the maintenance of epithelial TJ integrity and recovery of gut microbiota, which may have therapeutic potential against CR in intestinal transplantation.

  12. Effects of Digested Onion Extracts on Intestinal Gene Expression: An Interspecies Comparison Using Different Intestine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Nicole J W; Hulst, Marcel; Govers, Coen; van der Meulen, Jan; van Hoef, Angeline; Stoopen, Geert; Hamers, Astrid; Hoekman, Arjan; de Vos, Ric; Bovee, Toine F H; Smits, Mari; Mes, Jurriaan J; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Human intestinal tissue samples are barely accessible to study potential health benefits of nutritional compounds. Numbers of animals used in animal trials, however, need to be minimalized. Therefore, we explored the applicability of in vitro (human Caco-2 cells) and ex vivo intestine models (rat precision cut intestine slices and the pig in-situ small intestinal segment perfusion (SISP) technique) to study the effect of food compounds. In vitro digested yellow (YOd) and white onion extracts (WOd) were used as model food compounds and transcriptomics was applied to obtain more insight into which extent mode of actions depend on the model. The three intestine models shared 9,140 genes which were used to compare the responses to digested onions between the models. Unsupervised clustering analysis showed that genes up- or down-regulated by WOd in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices were similarly regulated by YOd, indicating comparable modes of action for the two onion species. Highly variable responses to onion were found in the pig SISP model. By focussing only on genes with significant differential expression, in combination with a fold change > 1.5, 15 genes showed similar onion-induced expression in human Caco-2 cells and rat intestine slices and 2 overlapping genes were found between the human Caco-2 and pig SISP model. Pathway analyses revealed that mainly processes related to oxidative stress, and especially the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway, were affected by onions in all three models. Our data fit with previous in vivo studies showing that the beneficial effects of onions are mostly linked to their antioxidant properties. Taken together, our data indicate that each of the in vitro and ex vivo intestine models used in this study, taking into account their limitations, can be used to determine modes of action of nutritional compounds and can thereby reduce the number of animals used in conventional nutritional intervention studies.

  13. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  14. [The complications of intestinal stoma in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaev, S V; Bykov, N I; Isaeva, A V; Kachanov, A V; Tovkan, E A; Filip'yeva, N V; Gerasimenko, I N

    To investigate the complications of intestinal stoma in children and to develop measures for decrease of their incidence. The study included 152 children with congenital and acquired gastrointestinal pathology requiring surgical treatment with the imposition of intestinal stoma. Atresia of intestinal tube was observed in 28 (18.4%) children, meconium ileus - in 10 (6.6%) cases, Hirschsprung's disease - in 11 (7.2%)cases, anorectal malformations - in 39 (25.7%) cases, multiple malformations - in 11 (7.2%) patients, necrotic enterocolitis - in 56 (36.8%) patients, other reasons - in 7 (4.6%) cases. The average age of patients was 12,3±7,2 days. There were 93 (61.2%) boys and 59 (38.8%) girls. Ileostomy, ileocolostomy and colostomy were made in 37 (24.3%), 46 (30.3%) and 69 (45.4%) cases respectively. Time of intestinal stoma function was 18-217 days. Early complications were dehiscence in the area of stoma in 4 (2.6%) children, evagination in 7 (4.6%) patients, marginal necrosis of stoma in 2 (1.3%) cases, retraction of stomy into abdominal cavity in 1 (0.6%) child and abdominal skin maceration in 8 (5.2%) patients. Remote complications included dermatitis around stomy in 35 (23.1%) children, stenosis of stoma in 9 (5.9%) cases, evagination of stoma in 12 (7.9%) patients. Also, 5 patients were unable to use the colostomy bag due to vicious overlaying of intestinal stoma. Using the colostomy bags «Coloplast» and skin care products around the stoma significantly reduced (pstoma depends on not only technical aspects but also obligatory care performance with timely correction of complications.

  15. Role of Smooth Muscle in Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Collins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion that smooth muscle function is altered in inflammation is prompted by clinical observations of altered motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. While altered motility may reflect inflammation-induced changes in intrinsic or extrinsic nerves to the gut, changes in gut hormone release and changes in muscle function, recent studies have provided in vitro evidence of altered muscle contractility in muscle resected from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. In addition, the observation that smooth muscle cells are more numerous and prominent in the strictured bowel of IBD patients compared with controls suggests that inflammation may alter the growth of intestinal smooth muscle. Thus, inflammation is associated with changes in smooth muscle growth and contractility that, in turn, contribute to important symptoms of IBD including diarrhea (from altered motility and pain (via either altered motility or stricture formation. The involvement of smooth muscle in this context may be as an innocent bystander, where cells and products of the inflammatory process induce alterations in muscle contractility and growth. However, it is likely that intestinal muscle cells play a more active role in the inflammatory process via the elaboration of mediators and trophic factors, including cytokines, and via the production of collagen. The concept of muscle cells as active participants in the intestinal inflammatory process is a new concept that is under intense study. This report summarizes current knowledge as it relates to these two aspects of altered muscle function (growth and contractility in the inflamed intestine, and will focus on mechanisms underlying these changes, based on data obtained from animal models of intestinal inflammation.

  16. Determination of Intestine Inflammation Markers in Diagnostic Search in Children with Intestinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Pavlenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Prevalence of bowel diseases in children is the second, trailing only the diseases of gastroduodenal zone and growing in recent years. Actual one is the problem of differential diagnosis of functional and inflammatory intestinal diseases using non-invasive methods on the prehospital stage and as a screening. Objective. Comparative analysis of fecal markers of the bowel inflammation (lactoferrine and calprotectine with endoscopy and morphology of intestinal mucosa in children. Matherials and methods. 49 children aged 6–18 years were examined. All patients underwent endoscopic and morphological study of the intestine, coprotest, determination of fecal markers of bowel inflammation (lactoferrin and calprotectine. Results. It is shown that in young children, the intestinal mucosa mainly hadn’t endoscopic changes, coprotest and morphological examination didn’t reveal the signs of inflammation, fecal intestinal inflammation markers were negative (p < 0.05. In the group of older children, moderate or marked catarrhal changes were found endoscopically, coprotest results were typical of inflammation in the intestines, it was morphologically proved the presence of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon with signs of atrophy, the results of lactoferrin and calprotectine determination were positive (p < 0.05. Conclusion. The findings suggest that the evaluation of calprotectine and lactoferrin can be used in pediatric patients because of its non-invasiveness as diagnostic screening for the selection of patients for the further endoscopic examination and diagnostic search.

  17. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal

  18. Alternative Functional In Vitro Models of Human Intestinal Epithelia

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    Amanda L Kauffman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We sought to evaluate and compare two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, our previously described 3-dimensional intestinal organogenesis method was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

  19. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Guo, Feng; Ma, Yinyan; Zhu, Hongling; Wang, Freddy; Xue, Bingzhong; Shi, Hang; Yang, Jian; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58), a lipid droplet (LD)-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  20. Farewell to Animal Testing: Innovations on Human Intestinal Microphysiological Systems

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    Tae Hyun Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The human intestine is a dynamic organ where the complex host-microbe interactions that orchestrate intestinal homeostasis occur. Major contributing factors associated with intestinal health and diseases include metabolically-active gut microbiota, intestinal epithelium, immune components, and rhythmical bowel movement known as peristalsis. Human intestinal disease models have been developed; however, a considerable number of existing models often fail to reproducibly predict human intestinal pathophysiology in response to biological and chemical perturbations or clinical interventions. Intestinal organoid models have provided promising cytodifferentiation and regeneration, but the lack of luminal flow and physical bowel movements seriously hamper mimicking complex host-microbe crosstalk. Here, we discuss recent advances of human intestinal microphysiological systems, such as the biomimetic human “Gut-on-a-Chip” that can employ key intestinal components, such as villus epithelium, gut microbiota, and immune components under peristalsis-like motions and flow, to reconstitute the transmural 3D lumen-capillary tissue interface. By encompassing cutting-edge tools in microfluidics, tissue engineering, and clinical microbiology, gut-on-a-chip has been leveraged not only to recapitulate organ-level intestinal functions, but also emulate the pathophysiology of intestinal disorders, such as chronic inflammation. Finally, we provide potential perspectives of the next generation microphysiological systems as a personalized platform to validate the efficacy, safety, metabolism, and therapeutic responses of new drug compounds in the preclinical stage.

  1. Intestinal Cgi-58 deficiency reduces postprandial lipid absorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Xie

    Full Text Available Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58, a lipid droplet (LD-associated protein, promotes intracellular triglyceride (TG hydrolysis in vitro. Mutations in human CGI-58 cause TG accumulation in numerous tissues including intestine. Enterocytes are thought not to store TG-rich LDs, but a fatty meal does induce temporary cytosolic accumulation of LDs. Accumulated LDs are eventually cleared out, implying existence of TG hydrolytic machinery in enterocytes. However, identities of proteins responsible for LD-TG hydrolysis remain unknown. Here we report that intestine-specific inactivation of CGI-58 in mice significantly reduces postprandial plasma TG concentrations and intestinal TG hydrolase activity, which is associated with a 4-fold increase in intestinal TG content and large cytosolic LD accumulation in absorptive enterocytes during the fasting state. Intestine-specific CGI-58 knockout mice also display mild yet significant decreases in intestinal fatty acid absorption and oxidation. Surprisingly, inactivation of CGI-58 in intestine significantly raises plasma and intestinal cholesterol, and reduces hepatic cholesterol, without altering intestinal cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, intestinal CGI-58 is required for efficient postprandial lipoprotein-TG secretion and for maintaining hepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis. Our animal model will serve as a valuable tool to further define how intestinal fat metabolism influences the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  2. Surgical management of radiation injury to the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, R.W.; Fowler, W.C. Jr., Boronow, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Severe injury of the small intestine represents one of the most tragic complications of radiation of the pelvis and abdomen. Not uncommonly, patients die from the radiation or the treatment of its intestinal complications. More commonly, patients become intestinal cripples, secondary to chronic partial obstruction of the small intestine and malnutrition associated with the stagnant loop syndrome, as previously reported by one of us. Management results have been discouraging, usually because of a general lack of clinical recognition and understanding of radiation injury to the intestine. Medical management has not been satisfactory. It may provide temporary relief from symptoms, but not long-lasting. Surgical management, although frequently curative, has been associated with high death and morbidity rates. Many surgical procedures have been used in treating radiation injury to the small intestine. Generally, these fall into two categories: first, intestinal resection with primary anastomosis; and second, enteroenteric or enterocolic bypass. In the literature are reflected advocates for each method of surgical management.

  3. Intestinal mucus accumulation in a child with acutemyeloblastic leukemia

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    Namık Özbek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal mucus accumulation is a very rare situation observed in some solid tumors, intestinal inflammation, mucosal hyperplasia, elevated intestinal pressure, and various other diseases. However, it has never been described in acute myeloblastic leukemia. The pathogenesis of intestinal mucus accumulation is still not clear. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl with acute myeloblastic leukemia and febrile neutropenia in addition to typhlitis. She was also immobilized due to joint contractures of the lower extremities and had intestinal mucus accumulation, which was, at first, misdiagnosed as intestinal parasitosis. We speculate that typhlitis, immobilization and decreased intestinal motility due to usage of antiemetic drugs might have been the potential etiologic factors in this case. However, its impact on prognosis of the primary disease is unknown.

  4. Regulation of intestinal homeostasis by innate immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-12-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple innate immune cells have been shown to maintain gut homeostasis by preventing inadequate adaptive immune responses in the murine intestine. Additionally, several innate immune subsets, which promote Th1 and Th17 responses and are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD, have recently been identified in the human intestinal mucosa. The demonstration of both murine and human intestinal innate immune subsets contributing to regulation of adaptive immunity emphasizes the conserved innate immune functions across species and might promote development of the intestinal innate immunity-based clinical therapy.

  5. Robust bioengineered 3D functional human intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Lin, Yinan; Davis, Kimberly M; Wang, Qianrui; Rnjak-Kovacina, Jelena; Li, Chunmei; Isberg, Ralph R; Kumamoto, Carol A; Mecsas, Joan; Kaplan, David L

    2015-09-16

    Intestinal functions are central to human physiology, health and disease. Options to study these functions with direct relevance to the human condition remain severely limited when using conventional cell cultures, microfluidic systems, organoids, animal surrogates or human studies. To replicate in vitro the tissue architecture and microenvironments of native intestine, we developed a 3D porous protein scaffolding system, containing a geometrically-engineered hollow lumen, with adaptability to both large and small intestines. These intestinal tissues demonstrated representative human responses by permitting continuous accumulation of mucous secretions on the epithelial surface, establishing low oxygen tension in the lumen, and interacting with gut-colonizing bacteria. The newly developed 3D intestine model enabled months-long sustained access to these intestinal functions in vitro, readily integrable with a multitude of different organ mimics and will therefore ensure a reliable ex vivo tissue system for studies in a broad context of human intestinal diseases and treatments.

  6. Mechanisms of Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoseph, Benyam P; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Breed, Elise R; Burd, Eileen M; Mittal, Rohit; Dominguez, Jessica A; Petrie, Benjamin; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-07-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction is thought to contribute to the development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in sepsis. Although there are similarities in clinical course following sepsis, there are significant differences in the host response depending on the initiating organism and time course of the disease, and pathways of gut injury vary widely in different preclinical models of sepsis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the timecourse and mechanisms of intestinal barrier dysfunction are similar in disparate mouse models of sepsis with similar mortalities. FVB/N mice were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy, and permeability was measured to fluoresceinisothiocyanate conjugated-dextran (FD-4) six to 48 h later. Intestinal permeability was elevated following CLP at all timepoints measured, peaking at 6 to 12 h. Tight junction proteins claudin 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 13, and 15, Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A), occludin, and ZO-1 were than assayed by Western blot, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry 12 h after CLP to determine potential mechanisms underlying increases in intestinal permeability. Claudin 2 and JAM-A were increased by sepsis, whereas claudin-5 and occludin were decreased by sepsis. All other tight junction proteins were unchanged. A further timecourse experiment demonstrated that alterations in claudin-2 and occludin were detectable as early as 1 h after the onset of sepsis. Similar experiments were then performed in a different group of mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Mice with pneumonia had an increase in intestinal permeability similar in timecourse and magnitude to that seen in CLP. Similar changes in tight junction proteins were seen in both models of sepsis although mice subjected to pneumonia also had a marked decrease in ZO-1 not seen in CLP. These results indicate that two disparate, clinically relevant models of sepsis

  7. [Intestinal transplant: in what phase are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés Moreno, A M; Ramos, E; Hernández, F; Encinas, J L; Leal, N; Gámez, M L; Martínez, L; Sarriá, J; Molina, M; Martínez-Ojinaga, E; Murcia, J; Frauca, E; Delgado, M; Prieto, G; López Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2010-07-01

    To analyze the evolution of Small Bowel Transplantation program since the beginning of the program. [corrected] All children who underwent intestinal transplantation between 1997 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed: epidemiological data, status before transplant, surgical technique, immunosupression, results, survival and long.term quality of life were analysed. Fifty-two intestinal transplants were performed in 46 children (20 isolated bowel, 20 combined liver and intestine, and 12 multivisceral); median age was 32m (range 7m-19a); weight 12,3 kg (range 3,9-60); 31 had short gut syndrome, 8 dismotility, 5 intractable diarrhea, and two were miscellaneous. Intestinal adaptation was initially attempted in 26 patients, without success, 20 were directly listed for transplant. The modality of transplant was modified in 17 while listed. Baseline immunosupression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids, although 5 required conversion to Sirolimus later. Six died during the first month, due to sepsis/multiorganic failure (poor status at transplant); 13 died during the long-term follow-up. Acute rejection was seen in 20, chronic rejection in 3, PTLD in 8 (6 died) and GVHD in 5 patients (3 died). Overall survival after 5 years of follow-up is 65,2 % (51,7% for the graft). From 2006 to 2008, overall patient/graft survival at 6 m, 1 and 3 years after transplant is 88,7/84,1, 81,2/81,2 and 81,2/71,1%, respectively. After a median follw-up of 39 +/- 29 months, 27 patients are alive (59%), off TPN, (70% had their ostomy taken down), go to school, are scarcely hospitalized and enjoy a good quality of life. Intestinal transplantation has consolided itself as a good choice for irreversible intestinal failure, being feasible to achieve a normal life. Although overall survival diminishes over time, the center experience has improved the results. These patients need a very close follow-up, once transplant is over, in order to get an early diagnose of immunological complications.

  8. Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.

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    Bo Gun Jang

    Full Text Available Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

  9. Sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy

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    Danyelle Braga Rodrigues Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the experience of sexuality and other everyday life aspects for people with intestinal ostomy. Methods: qualitative, descriptive study with ten participants of the Specialized Reference Unit who gave interviews with inductive content analysis. Results: the established themes were Physical, emotional and socio-cultural changes, Changes in the exercise of sexuality of people with intestinal ostomy and Importance of the interdisciplinary support of the new sexuality. These changes are linked to body image, the self-esteem and interpersonal relationships with the partner, family and friends, going beyond the visible with the emergence of fear, rejection, difficulty with new relationships, body shame, embarrassment by the collector equipment, fear of the sexual act causes damage to the stoma and difficult to talk about the condition. Conclusion: the ostomy condition requires adaptation process, requiring trained interdisciplinary team in physiological and psychosocial problems resulting from surgical and therapeutic adjuvant treatment, which hinder the sexuality of these individuals.

  10. [Rational approach to correction of intestinal microflora].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, V M; Smeianov, V V; Efimov, B A

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the present notions of the mechanisms of probiotics' action and analyzes selective approaches to correcting the intestinal microflora, such as the use of antibiotic-resistant and highly-adhesive probiotics, treatment with autostrains of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, and the application of fermented-milk probiotics. Methods for optimization of the intestinal microflora in the newborns by using the maternal strains of bifidobacteria and the drug Zlemik that contains highly-adhesive lactobacilli are discussed. It is shown that parameters of immunotropic activity and involvement in the bacteriocin-mediated interactions may be used to design new probiotics. In future, the application of gene engineering methods will aid in designing a new generation of probiotics with predicted biological properties.

  11. Intestinal micropatches for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Wong, Jessica; Gogoi, Rohan; Brown, Tyler; Mitragotri, Samir

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health issue that has almost reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Injectable insulin has been typically utilized for the management of this chronic disease. However, lack of patient compliance with injectable formulations has spurred the development of oral insulin formulations, which although appealing, face several delivery challenges. We have developed novel mucoadhesive intestinal patches, several hundred micrometers in dimension (micropatches) that address the challenges of oral insulin delivery. The micropatches adhere to the intestinal mucosa, release their drug load rapidly within 30 min and are effective in lowering blood glucose levels in vivo. When insulin-loaded micropatches were administered with a permeation enhancer and protease inhibitor, a peak efficacy of 34% drop in blood glucose levels was observed within 3 h. Efficacy further improved to 41% when micropatches were administered in multiple doses. Here, we describe the design of micropatches as an oral insulin formulation and report their in vivo efficacy.

  12. Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger

    2001-01-01

    The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a target for increasing intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by creating prodrugs designed for the transporter. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro...... with a pH of approximately 6.0, but still release the model drug at the intercellular and blood pH of approximately 7.4. Even though benzyl alcohol is not a low molecular weight drug molecule, these results indicate that the dipeptide prodrug principle is a promising drug delivery concept. However......, the physico-chemical properties such as electronegativity, solubility, and log P of the drug molecule may also have an influence on the potential of these kinds of prodrugs. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the model drug electronegativity, estimated as Taft substitution parameter...

  13. Aberrant intestinal microbiota in individuals with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H.; Tremaroli, Valentina; Caesar, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Individuals with type 2 diabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota. However, recent studies suggest that metformin alters the composition and functional potential of gut microbiota, thereby interfering with the diabetes-related microbial signatures. We tested whether specific gut...... microbiota profiles are associated with prediabetes (defined as fasting plasma glucose of 6.1–7.0 mmol/l or HbA1c of 42–48 mmol/mol [6.0–6.5%]) and a range of clinical biomarkers of poor metabolic health. Methods: In the present case–control study, we analysed the gut microbiota of 134 Danish adults...... impaired glucose regulation in recipient mice. Conclusions/interpretation: Collectively, our data show that individuals with prediabetes have aberrant intestinal microbiota characterised by a decreased abundance of the genus Clostridium and the mucin-degrading bacterium A. muciniphila. Our findings...

  14. Intestinal obstruction for biliary lithiasis: case report

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    Miguel Enrique Rodriguez Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biliary ileum is an infrequent complication of cholelithiasis, that is manifested as an intestinal obstruction, is more prevalent in aged people. The clinical square of the biliary ileum is diffuse and the Triad of Rigler is observed in less than 30% of the patient one. The surgical treatment goes from enterotomía and litotricia to the colecistectomía with treatment of the water-pipe. The case of a female, 86-year-old patient is presented that after a week of symptoms and of medical treatment it was detected the presence of a mechanical intestinal obstruction for which the patient underwent emergency surgery. As the cause of occlusion it was found a thick gallstone in a jejunal loop.

  15. [Explosion of intestinal gas during surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Y Y; Haberer, J P; Schutz, R; Simon, R; Vanwynsberghe, B; Mercier, R

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of colonic gas explosion during surgery are reported. The treatment of the lesions required a partial colectomy in one case and a total colectomy in the other case. The different factors involved in such accidents are discussed. Three factors are necessary to trigger off an explosion of intestinal gases: the presence of combustible gases (hydrogen, methane), the presence of combustive gases (oxygen, nitrous oxide) and an initiating heat source (endoscopic or surgical electrocautery). The mannitol used for bowel cleansing undergoes partial colonic bacterial fermentation increasing the intraluminal concentration of hydrogen. During anaesthesia the oxygen-nitrous oxide mixture increases the intestinal concentration of these two major combustive gases. Electrocautery provides the spark triggering the explosion. The use of mannitol for colonic preparation should be questioned; the use of electrocautery to open the colon is advised against.

  16. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  17. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Onal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF intraperitoneally (ip for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine∖xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, malondyaldehide (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PCO were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy

  18. Autophagy and tight junction proteins in the intestine and intestinal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-An A. Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium (IE forms an indispensible barrier and interface between the intestinal interstitium and the luminal environment. The IE regulates water, ion and nutrient transport while providing a barrier against toxins, pathogens (bacteria, fungi and virus and antigens. The apical intercellular tight junctions (TJ are responsible for the paracellular barrier function and regulate trans-epithelial flux of ions and solutes between adjacent cells. Increased intestinal permeability caused by defects in the IE TJ barrier is considered an important pathogenic factor for the development of intestinal inflammation, diarrhea and malnutrition in humans and animals. In fact, defects in the IE TJ barrier allow increased antigenic penetration, resulting in an amplified inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, necrotizing enterocolitis and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, the beneficial enhancement of the intestinal TJ barrier has been shown to resolve intestinal inflammation and apoptosis in both animal models of IBD and human IBD. Autophagy (self-eating mechanism is an intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation and recycling pathway essential for cell survival and homeostasis. Dysregulated autophagy has been shown to be directly associated with many pathological processes, including IBD. Importantly, the crosstalk between IE TJ and autophagy has been revealed recently. We showed that autophagy enhanced IE TJ barrier function by increasing transepithelial resistance and reducing the paracellular permeability of small solutes and ions, which is, in part, by targeting claudin-2, a cation-selective, pore-forming, transmembrane TJ protein, for lysosome (autophagy-mediated degradation. Interestingly, previous studies have shown that the inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with active IBD has increased claudin-2 expression. In addition, inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6

  19. Alterations in Intestinal Permeability After Thermal Injury,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    circulation, remain un- intestinal mucosal blood flow is markedly decreased after metabolized , and are excreted by the kidney. Mannitol is thermal...is a positive correlation between burn 6. Menzles IS, Pounder R, Laker MP, et al. Abnormal Intes- size and endotoxemia , not every burned patient...develops tinal permeability to sugars In villous atrophy. Lancet. 1979; endotoxemia during the postburn course. It is possible 2:1107-1109. that a

  20. Repairing organs: lessons from intestine and liver

    OpenAIRE

    Gehart Helmuth; Clevers Hans

    2015-01-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and liver have uncovered significant plasticity in epithelial tissues. Harnessing this knowledge researchers have recently created culture systems that enable the expansion of stem cells into transplantab...

  1. Innate Immune Activation in Intestinal Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Oliver J.; Maloy, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of intestinal immune regulation leading to aberrant immune responses to the commensal microbiota are believed to precipitate the chronic inflammation observed in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Innate immune receptors that recognize conserved components derived from the microbiota are widely expressed by both epithelial cells and leucocytes of the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in host prot...

  2. Prevalence of Opportunistic Intestinal Parasites and Associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... identified intestinal parasites, Cryptosporidium species accounts for the highest frequency (19/220, 8.63%), followed by Cyclospora species (13/220, 5.90%). Presence of domestic animals (AOR=2.07,. 95%CI:1.07-8.40, P= 0.032) and CD4+ T-cell count <500cell/µl. (AOR=4.66, 95%CI:1.17-5.35, P= 0.001) ...

  3. Protective effects of ischemic postconditioning on intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Jun-tao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To explore the protective effects of two types of ischemic postconditioning (IP on intestinal mucosa barrier in rabbits with crush injury of the hind limb. Methods: This study was conducted between August and December 2008 in the Department of Trauma Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. The model of crush injury to the hind limb of rabbits was firstly developed by a 25 kg object with the right hind limbs fixed by wooden splints, and then two types of IP were established, including occluding/opening the common iliac artery and vein alternatively (traditional IP, IP A and binding/loosening the proximum of the injured hind limb alternatively (modified IP, IP B. Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: IP A group, IP B group and control group, with 12 rabbits in each group. The serum levels of diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP were detected at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury. Pathological changes of ileum were examined at 24 hours after injury. Results: The serum levels of I-FABP at 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after injury in both IP A and IP B groups had a significant decrease, compared with control group. DAO levels also showed the same change trend at 2 and 6 hours after injury, but showed no significant difference between two IP groups. No difference in pathological changes of ileum was found among the three groups. Conclusions: IP can protect intestinal mucosa barrier function on the model of hind limb crush injury in rabbits. Meanwhile the modified IP B shows the same protection as the traditional IP A, and is worth applying in clinic. Key words: Ischemic postconditioning; Crush syndrome; Intestinal mucosa

  4. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  6. Intestinal Colonization by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    lactogenic imunity as described 2-7 above, live ETEC can induce active intestinal immunity. Human volunteers challenged orally with ETEC were immune to...assay (Elisa) for detection of the antigen in calf faeces and for titration of-specific’ antibody. Proc. 2nd Int Symp Neonatal Diarrhea, Vet Infect Dis...production of corpro-antibody in human volunteers. J Immunol 91:724-729, 1963. 27. Moreau MC, Ducluzeau R, Guy-Grand D: Increase in the population of

  7. Translational control of an intestinal microvillar enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Cowell, G M; Sjöström, H

    1986-01-01

    The rates of biosynthesis of adult and foetal pig small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) were compared to determine at which level the expression of the microvillar enzyme is developmentally controlled. In organ-cultured explants, the rate of biosynthesis of foetal aminopeptidase N is on...... comparable amounts of aminopeptidase N mRNA, encoding gel-electrophoretically identical primary translation products. Together, these data indicate that the expression of aminopeptidase N is controlled at a translational level....

  8. Intestinal spirochetosis and colon diverticulosis Espiroquetose intestinal e diverticulose do cólon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Aurelho de Lima

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A case of intestinal spirochetosis in a 62-year-old white male is reported. The condition was characterized by chronic flatulence and episodes of intestinal hemorrhage, in addition to the evidence of hypotonic diverticular disease, with a large number of slender organisms in the colon epithelium and cryptae. Spirochetes were demonstrated by Whartin-Starry stain. The serologic tests for syphilis and HIV were positive. Spirochetosis was treated with penicillin G, and the patient remains free of intestinal complaints 20 months later.Um caso de espiroquetose intestinal é relatado em um homem branco de 62 anos. A condição foi caracterizada por flatulência crônica e episódios de hemorragia intestinal, além da evidência de doença diverticular hipotônica dos cólons, com numerosos organismos filamentosos no epitélio e nas criptas do cólon. Os espiroquetas foram demonstrados pela coloração de Whartin-Starry. Os testes sorológicos para sífilis e HIV foram positivos. A espiroquetose foi tratada com penicilina G e o paciente permanece sem queixas intestinais após 20 meses.

  9. [An experimental assessment of methods for applying intestinal sutures in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadudinov, M G

    1992-04-01

    The results of various methods used in applying intestinal sutures in obturation were studied. Three series of experiments were conducted on 30 dogs--resection of the intestine after obstruction with the formation of anastomoses by means of double-row suture (Albert--Shmiden--Lambert) in the first series (10 dogs), by a single-row suture after V. M. Mateshchuk [correction of Mateshuku] in the second series, and bu a single-row stretching suture suggested by the author in the third series. The postoperative complications and the parameters of physical airtightness of the intestinal anastomosis were studied in dynamics in the experimental animals. The results of the study: incompetence of the anastomosis sutures in the first series 6, in the second 4, and in the third series one. Adhesions occurred in all animals of the first and second series and in 2 of the third series. Six dogs of the first series died, 4 of the second, and one of the third. Study of the dynamics of the results showed a direct connection of the complications with the parameters of the physical airtightness of the anastomosis, and the last-named with the method of the intestinal suture. Relatively better results were noted in formation of the anastomosis by means of our suggested stretshing continuous suture passed through the serous, muscular, and submucous coats of the intestine.

  10. Foreign body-associated intestinal pyogranuloma resulting in intestinal obstruction in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, L G; Tontis, D; Loukopoulos, P; Patsikas, M N; Hermanns, W; Kouti, V; Timotheou, T; Liapis, I; Tziris, N; Rallis, T S

    2010-04-17

    Intestinal obstruction resulting from an intramural foreign body-associated pyogranuloma was diagnosed in four dogs. Vomiting and weight loss were the main clinical signs. On physical examination, a mass in the abdomen was detected in three dogs. Abdominal radiography demonstrated the presence of soft tissue opacity in three of the dogs and gas-filled dilated intestinal loops in all four dogs. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperkinetic fluid-filled dilated intestinal loops and a hypoechoic small intestinal mass in all the dogs. Exploratory coeliotomy confirmed the presence of a jejunal mass, which was removed by resection and anastomosis in all the dogs. In one of the dogs a linear foreign body was also found cranial to the mass and was removed through a separate enterotomy incision. The lesions were diagnosed as foreign body-associated intestinal pyogranulomas on histological examination. Three dogs recovered without complications, but the fourth showed signs of septic peritonitis four days after surgery and was euthanased at the owner's request. The other three dogs remained disease-free 12 to 42 months after surgery.

  11. Characterization of Mucosal Disaccharidases from Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a brush border membrane (BBM preparation from human small intestine to analyze the proportion and the activity of major intestinal disaccharidases, including sucrase-isomaltase (SI, maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH. SI, MGAM and LPH respectively constituted 8.2%, 2.7% and 1.4% of total BBM protein. The activity of SI and LPH decreased threefold after purification from the brush border membrane, which highlights the effect of membrane microdomains on the functional capacity of these enzymes. All of the disaccharidases showed optimal activity at pH 6, over 50% residual activity between pH 5 to pH 7, and increasing activity with rising temperatures up to 45 °C, along with a stable functional structure. Therefore the enzymes can withstand mild intraluminal pH alterations with adequate function, and are able to increase their activity with elevated core body temperature. Our data provide a functional measure for characterization of intestinal disaccharidases under different physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  13. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  14. Evolutionary insights into postembryonic development of adult intestinal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizuya-Oka Atsuko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult vertebrate intestine, multi-potent stem cells continuously generate all of the epithelial cells throughout the adulthood. While it has long been known that the frog intestine is formed via the development of adult intestinal stem cells during thyroid hormone (TH-dependent metamorphosis, the basic structure of the adult intestine is formed by birth in mammals and it is unclear if the subsequent maturation of the intestine involves any changes in the intestinal stem cells. Two recent papers showing that B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1 regulates postnatal epithelial stem cell reprogramming during mouse intestinal maturation support the model that adult intestinal stem cells are developed during postembryonic development in mammals, in a TH-dependent process similar to intestinal remodeling during amphibian metamorphosis. Since the formation of the adult intestine in both mammals and amphibians is closely associated with the adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial life during the peak of endogenous TH levels, the molecular mechanisms by which the adult stem cells are developed are likely evolutionally conserved.

  15. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased intestinal marker absorption due to regional permeability changes and decreased intestinal transit during sepsis in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Q.; Pantzar, N.; Jeppson, B.; Westroem, B.R.; Karlsson, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    The intestinal barrier properties are impaired during inflammation and sepsis, but the mechanisms behind this are unknown and were therefore investigated during experimental sepsis in rats. The different-sized intestinal absorption markers 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ovalbumin were gavaged to rats made septic by intra-abdominal bacterial implantation and to sham-operated rats. Regional tissue permeability was measured in diffusion chambers, and intestinal transit was evaluated by intestinal accumulation of gavaged 51 Cr-EDTA. In comparison with the sham-operated rats, septic rats had higher 51 Cr-EDTA levels in blood and urine and showed a prolonged intestinal transit. Septic rats also had a lower tissue permeability to both markers in the small intestines but higher permeability to ovalbumin in the colon. Rats receiving morphine to decrease intestinal motility showed similar changes, with a decreased intestinal transit and increased marker absorption. Thr results suggest that the increased intestinal absorption during sepsis was due to regional permeability changes and prolonged intestinal transit. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support the growth of intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Ye Lei

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs are the focus of recent intense study. Current in vitro models rely on supplementation with the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 to support robust growth, ISC self-renewal, and differentiation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs are important supportive cells within the ISC niche. We hypothesized that co-culture with ISEMF enhances the growth of ISCs in vitro and allows for their successful in vivo implantation and engraftment. ISC-containing small intestinal crypts, FACS-sorted single ISCs, and ISEMFs were procured from C57BL/6 mice. Crypts and single ISCs were grown in vitro into enteroids, in the presence or absence of ISEMFs. ISEMFs enhanced the growth of intestinal epithelium in vitro in a proximity-dependent fashion, with co-cultures giving rise to larger enteroids than monocultures. Co-culture of ISCs with supportive ISEMFs relinquished the requirement of exogenous R-spondin1 to sustain long-term growth and differentiation of ISCs. Mono- and co-cultures were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. Co-culture with ISEMFs proved necessary for successful in vivo engraftment and proliferation of enteroids; implants without ISEMFs did not survive. ISEMF whole transcriptome sequencing and qPCR demonstrated high expression of specific R-spondins, well-described Wnt agonists that supports ISC growth. Specific non-supportive ISEMF populations had reduced expression of R-spondins. The addition of ISEMFs in intestinal epithelial culture therefore recapitulates a critical element of the intestinal stem cell niche and allows for its experimental interrogation and biodesign-driven manipulation.

  18. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support the growth of intestinal epithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Nan Ye; Jabaji, Ziyad; Wang, Jiafang; Joshi, Vaidehi S; Brinkley, Garrett J; Khalil, Hassan; Wang, Fengchao; Jaroszewicz, Artur; Pellegrini, Matteo; Li, Linheng; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Dunn, James C Y; Martín, Martín G

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial stem cells (ISCs) are the focus of recent intense study. Current in vitro models rely on supplementation with the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 to support robust growth, ISC self-renewal, and differentiation. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) are important supportive cells within the ISC niche. We hypothesized that co-culture with ISEMF enhances the growth of ISCs in vitro and allows for their successful in vivo implantation and engraftment. ISC-containing small intestinal crypts, FACS-sorted single ISCs, and ISEMFs were procured from C57BL/6 mice. Crypts and single ISCs were grown in vitro into enteroids, in the presence or absence of ISEMFs. ISEMFs enhanced the growth of intestinal epithelium in vitro in a proximity-dependent fashion, with co-cultures giving rise to larger enteroids than monocultures. Co-culture of ISCs with supportive ISEMFs relinquished the requirement of exogenous R-spondin1 to sustain long-term growth and differentiation of ISCs. Mono- and co-cultures were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic mice. Co-culture with ISEMFs proved necessary for successful in vivo engraftment and proliferation of enteroids; implants without ISEMFs did not survive. ISEMF whole transcriptome sequencing and qPCR demonstrated high expression of specific R-spondins, well-described Wnt agonists that supports ISC growth. Specific non-supportive ISEMF populations had reduced expression of R-spondins. The addition of ISEMFs in intestinal epithelial culture therefore recapitulates a critical element of the intestinal stem cell niche and allows for its experimental interrogation and biodesign-driven manipulation.

  19. Effects of intestinal mucosal blood flow and motility on intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Liu, Jing; Yang, Zhao-Xu

    2011-02-07

    To investigate the role of intestinal mucosal blood flow (IMBF) and motility in the damage of intestinal mucosal barrier in rats with traumatic brain injury. Sixty-four healthy male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: traumatic brain injury (TBI) group (n=32), rats with traumatic brain injury; and control group (n=32), rats with sham-operation. Each group was divided into four subgroups (n=8) as 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after operation. Intestinal motility was measured by the propulsion ratio of a semi-solid colored marker (carbon-ink). IMBF was measured with the laser-Doppler technique. Endotoxin and D-xylose levels in plasma were measured to evaluate the change of intestinal mucosal barrier function following TBI. The level of endotoxin was significantly higher in TBI group than in the control group at each time point (0.382±0.014 EU/mL vs 0.102±0.007 EU/mL, 0.466±0.018 EU/mL vs 0.114±0.021 EU/mL, 0.478±0.029 EU/mL vs 0.112±0.018 EU/mL and 0.412±0.036 EU/mL vs 0.108±0.011 EU/mL, Ppermeability is increased obviously in TBI rats. Decrease of intestinal motility and IMBF occur early in TBI, both are important pathogenic factors for stress-related damage of the intestinal mucosal barrier in TBI.

  20. Effect of taurine on intestinal recovery following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhotnik, I; Aranovich, I; Ben Shahar, Y; Bitterman, N; Pollak, Y; Berkowitz, D; Chepurov, D; Coran, A G; Bitterman, A

    2016-02-01

    Taurine (TAU) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. Several studies have established that treatment with TAU significantly protects cerebral, cardiac and testicular injury from ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of TAU on intestinal recovery and enterocyte turnover after intestinal IR injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) Sham rats that underwent laparotomy, (2) Sham-TAU rats that underwent laparotomy and were treated with intraperitoneal (IP) TAU (250 mg/kg); (3) IR-rats that underwent occlusion of both superior mesenteric artery and portal vein for 30 min followed by 48 h of reperfusion, and (4) IR-TAU rats that underwent IR and were treated with IP TAU (250 mg/kg) immediately before abdominal closure. Intestinal structural changes, Park's injury score, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 24 h following IR. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, p-ERK and caspase-3 in the intestinal mucosa was determined using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Treatment with TAU resulted in a significant decrease in Park's injury score compared to IR animals. IR-TAU rats also demonstrated a significant increase in mucosal weight in jejunum and ileum, villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum compared to IR animals. IR-TAU rats also experienced significantly lower apoptotic indices in jejunum and ileum which was accompanied by a higher Bcl-2/Bax ratio compared to IR animals. Treatment with taurine prevents gut mucosal damage and inhibits intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis following intestinal IR in a rat.

  1. TNF suppresses acute intestinal inflammation by inducing local glucocorticoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph; Berger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (α) (TNF) exerts proinflammatory activities in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, there is increasing evidence for antiinflammatory actions of TNF. In contrast, glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that suppress inflammation, at least in part by regulating the expression and action of TNF. We report that TNF induces extraadrenal production of immunoregulatory GCs in the intestinal mucosa during acute intestinal inflammation. The absence of TNF results in a lack of colonic GC synthesis and exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. TNF seems to promote local steroidogenesis by directly inducing steroidogenic enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells. Therapeutic administration of TNF induces GC synthesis in oxazolone-induced colitis and ameliorates intestinal inflammation, whereas inhibition of intestinal GC synthesis abrogates the therapeutic effect of TNF. These data show that TNF suppresses the pathogenesis of acute intestinal inflammation by promoting local steroidogenesis. PMID:20439544

  2. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  3. Ileum Histoplasmosis Mimicking Intestinal Tuberculosis and Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xin-Bo; Wang, Zhen-Jiang; Dong, Qi-Chao; Lin, Xu; Chen, Yu-Ping; Gong, Fei-Yue; Liang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Gastrointestinal histoplasmosis (GIH) without pulmonary and bone marrow involvement is very rare worldwide. It can be misdiagnosed as intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease. There are just few case reports of GIH in patients with a positive HIV antibody test. Here, we report a patient who presented to our hospital with repeated intestinal obstruction. The suspicious diagnosis was intestinal tuberculosis or Crohn's disease due to unspecific clinical manifestations and radiologic images. Our patient's HIV antibody test was negative. She had no medical prescriptions. Therefore, our differential diagnosis needed to include ileum histoplasmosis besides intestinal lymphoma, intestinal tuberculosis, and Crohn's disease. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with ileum histoplasmosis due to surgical resection. It is important to be aware of potential infectious diseases, such as ileum histoplasmosis, when making a differential diagnosis. Moreover, surgical resection might be the final approach for small-intestine stricture with fibrosis.

  4. Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A 1 c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

  5. Ultrasonography of small intestinal obstructions: a contemporary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, D A A; Froes, T R; Vilani, R G D O C; Guérios, S D; Obladen, A

    2011-09-01

    To assess the accuracy of intestinal ultrasound for diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in dogs and cats. A prospective clinical study was performed. Inclusion criteria were dogs and cats with clinical signs suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction. Animals with no obstruction detected on ultrasound were excluded if they could not be monitored for 48 hours to confirm absence of obstruction. Sonographic diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction was based on identification of at least two findings suggestive of intestinal obstruction. Ninety-two patients suspected of having intestinal obstruction were included. Correct diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was made in 21 cases (23%), and in 68 (74%) this diagnosis was excluded. Interpretation of the images on prospective analysis had sensitivity, positive predictive, specificity and negative predictive values of 100%, 87.5%, 95.8% and 100%, respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent method for investigation of animals with gastrointestinal disorders, and is particularly useful for excluding obstructive processes. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. Microbiota intestinal en la enfermedad renal crónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarran Guldris

    2017-01-01

    En este artículo se revisan la situación de la microflora intestinal en la ERC, la alteración de la barrera intestinal y sus consecuencias clínicas, los efectos deletéreos de las toxinas urémicas derivadas de la microflora intestinal, así como las posibles opciones terapéuticas para mejorar esta disbiosis y reducir las complicaciones de la ERC.

  7. Regulation of Intestinal Homeostasis by Innate Immune Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kayama, Hisako; Nishimura, Junichi; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal immune system has an ability to distinguish between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria, and then activate pro-inflammatory pathways against pathogens for host defense while remaining unresponsive to the microbiota and dietary antigens. In the intestine, abnormal activation of innate immunity causes development of several inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thus, activity of innate immunity is finely regulated in the intestine. To date, multiple...

  8. Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0300 TITLE: Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Effects of Radiation on the Microbiota and Intestinal Inflammatory Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0300 5c...changes in the microbiota on intestinal susceptibility to inflammatory disease . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radiation, microbiome, mycobiome, colitis, cancer 16

  9. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-02-28

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

  10. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  11. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Poston; Bhuiyan, Nasir U.; Redd, R. Alex; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-01-01

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents

  12. The Human Intestinal Microbiome: A New Frontier of Human Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Masahira; Taylor, Todd D.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the vast number and variety of microorganisms inhabiting the human intestine, emerging metagenomic technologies are extremely powerful. The intestinal microbes are taxonomically complex and constitute an ecologically dynamic community (microbiota) that has long been believed to possess a strong impact on human physiology. Furthermore, they are heavily involved in the maturation and proliferation of human intestinal cells, helping to maintain their homeostasis and can be causative o...

  13. Quantitation of small intestinal permeability during normal human drug absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, David G

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the quantitative relationship between a drug?s physical chemical properties and its rate of intestinal absorption (QSAR) is critical for selecting candidate drugs. Because of limited experimental human small intestinal permeability data, approximate surrogates such as the fraction absorbed or Caco-2 permeability are used, both of which have limitations. Methods Given the blood concentration following an oral and intravenous dose, the time course of intestinal absorpti...

  14. Central venous line associated osteomyelitis in children with intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with intestinal failure often require long-term central venous access for parenteral nutrition. Line-related complications often include liver dysfunction, sepsis, and loss of venous access. Osteomyelitis is a rare complication that has been reported in adults with intestinal failure. There has been little focus, however, on the development of osteomyelitis in the pediatric population. In this study we present 2 case studies of patients with intestinal failure requiring parenteral nutrition who subsequently developed acute osteomyelitis.

  15. Innovative Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Therapy for Intestinal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hau D.; Fallon, Erica M.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Malkan, Alpin D.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Children with intestinal failure suffer from insufficient intestinal length or function, making them dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) for growth and survival. PN and its components are associated with many complications ranging from simple electrolyte abnormalities to life-threatening PN-associated liver disease, which is also called intestinal failure-associated liver disease (ILALD). From a nutrition perspective, the ultimate goal is to provide adequate caloric requirements and make t...

  16. Abdominoscrotal Hydrocele with Intestinal Malrotation: A Rare Association

    OpenAIRE

    Sonal Jain; Ragini Singh; Surendra Kumar Singh; Vikram Singh; Kumar Shantanu

    2012-01-01

    Abdominoscrotal hydrocele is an uncommon clinical entity and so is intestinal malrotation. We report a case of 15 year old boy who presented with lump in abdomen previously diagnosed as mesenteric cyst on ultrasound. A multislice CT scan and repeat ultrasound not only diagnosed the case as abdominoscrotal hydrocele but also detected intestinal malrotation with positive whirl sign. This is the first reported case of abdominoscrotal hydrocele with intestinal malrotation.

  17. Comparison of intestinal investigations by normal and double contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautz, W.; Schindler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The experiences from a total of 303 small intestine examinations of different techniques show that especially the double-contrast representation using barium sulfate and air achieves the best diagnostical findings. The double-contrast representation can be achieved by an antegrade small intestine enema (enteroclysis) or within the conventional small intestine passage by retrograde air insufflation. These examination techniques make optimal fine diagnostics especially of the lower ileum possible. THe indications for the different methods are explained. (orig.)

  18. [Metabolism of mangiferin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huixue; Tan, Zhenyuan; Deng, Jiagang; Liang, Qiuyun; Nong, Yumei; Song, Nianmei

    2011-02-01

    To study the metabolism of mangiferin by human intestinal bacteria in vitro. Human intestinal bacteria and mangiferin were incubated under anaerobic conditions in vitro. The metabolite was separated and purified by D101 macroporous resin column and preparation high performance liquid chromatography, and its structure was identified by MS and NMR. After 12 h incubation with human intestinal bacteria, the content of mangiferin metabolite reached the maximum, and it was determined as 1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthen by MS and NMR. Mangiferin can be metabolized in vitro by human intestinal bacteria into its aglycone (1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthen).

  19. The ESRP1-GPR137 axis contributes to intestinal pathogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mager, Lukas Franz; Kölzer, Viktor Hendrik; Stuber Roos, Regula; Thoo Sin Lang, Lester; Keller, Irene; Köck, Ivonne; Langenegger, Maya; Simillion, Cedric; Pfister, Simona P; Faderl, Martin Richard; Genitsch Gratwohl, Vera; Tcymbarevich, Irina; Juillerat, Pascal; Li, Xiaohong; Xia, Yu

    2017-01-01

    eLife digest The lining of the intestine is just one cell thick, and yet it can act as an effective barrier between the inside of the body and the contents of the digestive system. This lining is often disturbed during bowel cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and other intestinal diseases, causing the barrier to fail and the gut to become leaky. These diseases often reduce patient life expectancy and quality of life. Intestinal epithelial cells make up the lining of the intestine and the norm...

  20. Dyslipidaemia--hepatic and intestinal cross-talk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated with the majority of de novo cholesterol synthesis occurring in the liver and intestine. 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a major enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, is raised in both liver and intestine in diabetic animals. Niemann PickC1-like1 protein regulates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and facilitates cholesterol transport through the liver. There is evidence to suggest that the effect of inhibition of Niemann PickC1-like1 lowers cholesterol through its effect not only in the intestine but also in the liver. ATP binding cassette proteins G5\\/G8 regulate cholesterol re-excretion in the intestine and in the liver, cholesterol excretion into the bile. Diabetes is associated with reduced ATP binding cassette protein G5\\/G8 expression in both the liver and intestine in animal models. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is central to the formation of the chylomicron in the intestine and VLDL in the liver. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA is increased in diabetes in both the intestine and liver. Cross-talk between the intestine and liver is poorly documented in humans due to the difficulty in obtaining liver biopsies but animal studies are fairly consistent in showing relationships that explain in part mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis.

  1. The role of CDX2 in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Troelsen, Jesper Thorvald; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    a causal role in a large number of diseases and developmental disorders. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronically inflamed mucosa caused by dysregulation of the intestinal immune homeostasis. The aetiology of IBD is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors......, including luminal bacteria. The Caudal-related homeobox transcription factor 2 (CDX2) is critical in early intestinal differentiation and has been implicated as a master regulator of the intestinal homeostasis and permeability in adults. When expressed, CDX2 modulates a diverse set of processes including...... of the intestinal homeostasis and further to reveal its potential role in inflammation....

  2. Fetal MRI of hereditary multiple intestinal atresia with postnatal correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Githu, Tangayi [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Radiology of Huntsville, P.C., Huntsville, AL (United States); Merrow, Arnold C.; Lee, Jason K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Garrison, Aaron P. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgical Services, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Akron Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Surgery, Akron, OH (United States); Brown, Rebeccah L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgical Services, Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Hereditary multiple intestinal atresia (HMIA) is an extremely uncommon cause of congenital bowel obstruction. The morbidity and mortality of this disease differ significantly from those of isolated intestinal atresias and non-hereditary forms of multiple intestinal atresia. Most notably, despite successful operative repairs of the atresias found in this disease, HMIA maintains a 100% lethality rate from continued post-operative intestinal failure and an associated severe immunodeficiency. We present a case of HMIA evaluated with fetal MRI and subsequently diagnosed by a combination of corroborative postnatal imaging with surgical exploration and pathological examination. (orig.)

  3. Fetal MRI of hereditary multiple intestinal atresia with postnatal correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Githu, Tangayi; Merrow, Arnold C.; Lee, Jason K.; Garrison, Aaron P.; Brown, Rebeccah L.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary multiple intestinal atresia (HMIA) is an extremely uncommon cause of congenital bowel obstruction. The morbidity and mortality of this disease differ significantly from those of isolated intestinal atresias and non-hereditary forms of multiple intestinal atresia. Most notably, despite successful operative repairs of the atresias found in this disease, HMIA maintains a 100% lethality rate from continued post-operative intestinal failure and an associated severe immunodeficiency. We present a case of HMIA evaluated with fetal MRI and subsequently diagnosed by a combination of corroborative postnatal imaging with surgical exploration and pathological examination. (orig.)

  4. Intramural intestinal hematoma causing obstruction in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Carpenter, J

    1984-01-15

    Intramural hematoma of the intestine caused intestinal obstruction in three dogs. Two dogs were examined because of vomiting and anorexia of several weeks' duration. In one of these, an intramural hematoma of the duodenum was associated with chronic pancreatitis. A cause was not found in the second dog. The third dog, which had clinical and radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation, was found at surgery to have hemoperitoneum associated with a ruptured intramural intestinal hematoma. In 1 dog, the hematoma was evacuated through a serosal incision. In the other 2 dogs, the problem was resolved by resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by anastomosis. All 3 dogs recovered without complications.

  5. Laminated Intestinal Calculi – A Rare Complication of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male with a 36-year history of Crohn's disease and repeated resections for small intestinal strictures developed anemia and symptoms of an intermittent partial bowel obstruction. Barium studies showed recurrent small intestinal strictures as well as filling defects in a dilated loop proximal to a stenosed segment. Subsequent abdominal films and a computed tomographic study suggested laminated radiopaque calculi with peripheral calcification in the dilated small intestinal loop. Resection of the strictured segment confirmed the presence of intestinal enterolithiasis.

  6. MRI diagnosis of small intestinal Crohn's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Xiaojun; Zhang Shizheng; Zhang Qiaowei; Liu Hai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of small intestinal Crohn's disease. Methods: The MRI findings in 13 cases of small intestinal Crohn's disease proved by surgery and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. The patients included 12 men and 1 woman, and their age ranged from 17 to 64 years. The MR images were reviewed for the number, location, and mural thickness of diseased bowel segments, for the ratio of signal intensity of diseased bowel wall to normal bowel wall after the IV administration of Gd-DTPA or enhanced ratio of diseased bowel wall, and for the complications (phlegmon, inflammatory mass, abscess, and fistula). Six patients received air-infused MR enteroclysis-enhanced scan was performed directly in the fat saturated coronal and axial plane after about 1000 ml of air was infused into small bowel through a nasoenteric catheter. Another 7 patients received small intestinal hydro-MRI--MR images were obtained in fat saturated enhanced coronal and axial plane as well as in unenhanced coronal plane.Twenty mg of IV anisodamine was given to reduce peristalsis in all patients, and fat saturation was used in all sequences. Results: The diseased bowel segment of every case was demonstrated in MRI. The sensitivity was 100%. Thirty-six inflammatory segments were revealed in all (mean 2.8 segments per patient). The MRI findings of small intestinal Crohn's disease were that the enhancement of diseased bowel wall increased significantly. The ratios of signal intensity of diseased bowel wall to normal bowel wall were 1.9-2.5 (mean, 2.1) in the group of air-infused enteroclysis. The ratios of signal intensity of diseased bowel wall to normal bowel wall were 1.3-2.9 (mean, 1.9) and the enhanced ratios of diseased bowel wall were 96%-223% (mean, 133%), but the enhanced ratios of normal bowel wall were 31%-78% (mean, 59%). Thirty-three segments (92%) of diseased bowel wall thickened (thickness between 5-27 mm), and the

  7. Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Migration in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Liang, Zhe; Lyons, John D; Fay, Katherine T; Chen, Ching-Wen; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2018-02-08

    The gut is a continuously renewing organ, with cell proliferation, migration and death occurring rapidly under basal conditions. Since the impact of critical illness on cell movement from crypt base to villus tip is poorly understood, the purpose of this study was to determine how sepsis alters enterocyte migration. Wild type, transgenic and knockout mice were injected with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label cells in S phase before and after the onset of cecal ligation and puncture and were sacrificed at pre-determined endpoints to determine distance proliferating cells migrated up the crypt-villus unit. Enterocyte migration rate was decreased from 24-96 hours following sepsis. BrdU was not detectable on villi 6 days after sham laparotomy, meaning all cells had migrated the length of the gut and been exfoliated into its lumen. However, BrdU positive cells were detectable on villi 10 days after sepsis. Multiple components of gut integrity altered enterocyte migration. Sepsis decreased crypt proliferation, which further slowed enterocyte transit as mice injected with BrdU after the onset of sepsis (decreased proliferation) had slower migration than mice injected with BrdU prior to the onset of sepsis (normal proliferation). Decreasing intestinal apoptosis via gut-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented sepsis-induced slowing of enterocyte migration. In contrast, worsened intestinal hyperpermeability by genetic deletion of JAM-A increased enterocyte migration. Sepsis therefore significantly slows enterocyte migration, and intestinal proliferation, apoptosis and permeability all affect migration time, which can potentially be targeted both genetically and pharmacologically.

  8. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  9. Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the

  10. Precision-cut intestinal slices as an in vitro model to predict NSAID induced intestinal toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; van der Bijl, Henk; Groothuis, Geny; de Graaf, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with high prevalence of gastro-intestinal side-effects. In vivo studies suggest that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is an important cause of the toxicity and that the toxicity is aggravated by enterohepatic circulation.

  11. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    , villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed...

  12. Hemolytic porcine intestinal Escherichia coli without virulence-associated genes typical of intestinal pathogenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Weinreich, Joerg; Ewers, Christa; Tachu, Babila; Nicholson, Bryon; Barth, Stefanie

    2011-12-01

    Testing 1,666 fecal or intestinal samples from healthy and diarrheic pigs, we obtained hemolytic Escherichia coli isolates from 593 samples. Focusing on hemolytic E. coli isolates without virulence-associated genes (VAGs) typical for enteropathogens, we found that such isolates carried a broad variety of VAGs typical for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli.

  13. Intestinal Disaccharidase Activity in Patients with Autism: Effect of Age, Gender, and Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushak, Rafail I.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Winter, Harland S.; Buie, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Intestinal disaccharidase activities were measured in 199 individuals with autism to determine the frequency of enzyme deficiency. All patients had duodenal biopsies that were evaluated morphologically and assayed for lactase, sucrase, and maltase activity. Frequency of lactase deficiency was 58% in autistic children less than or equal to 5 years…

  14. Fermentation in the Small Intestine Contributes Substantially to Intestinal Starch Disappearance in Calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, Myrthe S.; Pantophlet, Andre J.; Berends, Harma; Pluschke, Anton M.; van den Borne, Joost J. G. C.; Hendriks, Wouter H.; Schols, Henk A.; Gerrits, Walter J. J.

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  15. Fermentation in the small intestine contributes substantially to intestinal starch disappearance in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Berends, H.; Pluschke, A.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The proportion of starch disappearing from the small intestinal lumen is generally lower in ruminants than in monogastric animals, and there are indications that the starch digestion capacity in ruminants is limited. Objectives: Milk-fed calves were used to study the rate-limiting enzyme

  16. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption metabolic rate (BMR), wet......, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment....

  17. Repairing organs: lessons from intestine and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and liver have uncovered significant plasticity in epithelial tissues. Harnessing this knowledge, researchers have recently created culture systems that enable the expansion of stem cells into transplantable tissue in vitro. Here we discuss how the growing tool set of stem cell biology can bring organ repair from fictitious narrative to medical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intestinal tuberculosis simulating Crohn's disease: Differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Natalia; García-Campos, María; Cordón, Gisselle; Iborra, Marisa

    2018-03-13

    Tuberculosis is a public health's problema in the world. Its incidence is increasing in our environment due to inmigration and the use of inmunosupressors. It's a systemic disease that can affect rarely the gastrointestinal tract. We should take into account the epidemiological and clinical context of each patient, because the differential diagnosis is broad. It can mimic with other diseases, such as Crohn's disease. We report a case of intestinal tuberculosis, and underline the importance of the differential diagnosis of these patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Comparative gene expression of intestinal metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Cho, Hee-Jung; Yi, Hee; Cho, Soo-Min; Lee, Dong-Goo; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Jin-Suk; Sun, Duxin; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression profiles of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the intestine of mouse, rat and human. Total RNA was isolated from the duodenum and the mRNA expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays. Detected genes from the intestine of mouse, rat and human were ca. 60% of 22690 sequences, 40% of 8739 and 47% of 12559, respectively. Total genes of metabolizing enzymes subjected in this study were 95, 33 and 68 genes in mouse, rat and human, respectively. Of phase I enzymes, the mouse exhibited abundant gene expressions for Cyp3a25, Cyp4v3, Cyp2d26, followed by Cyp2b20, Cyp2c65 and Cyp4f14, whereas, the rat showed higher expression profiles of Cyp3a9, Cyp2b19, Cyp4f1, Cyp17a1, Cyp2d18, Cyp27a1 and Cyp4f6. However, the highly expressed P450 enzymes were CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F3, CYP2C18, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A7, CYP11B1 and CYP2B6 in the human. For phase II enzymes, glucuronosyltransferase Ugt1a6, glutathione S-transferases Gstp1, Gstm3 and Gsta2, sulfotransferase Sult1b1 and acyltransferase Dgat1 were highly expressed in the mouse. The rat revealed predominant expression of glucuronosyltransferases Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a7, sulfotransferase Sult1b1, acetyltransferase Dlat and acyltransferase Dgat1. On the other hand, in human, glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, glutathione S-transferases MGST3, GSTP1, GSTA2 and GSTM4, sulfotransferases ST1A3 and SULT1A2, acetyltransferases SAT1 and CRAT, and acyltransferase AGPAT2 were dominantly detected. Therefore, current data indicated substantial interspecies differences in the pattern of intestinal gene expression both for P450 enzymes and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes. This genomic database is expected to improve our understanding of interspecies variations in estimating intestinal prehepatic clearance of oral drugs.

  1. Intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Fredrik Eric Olof; Pedersen, Jannie; Jørgensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of antimicrobial peptides. Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with life-long morbidity for affected patients, and both the incidence and prevalence is increasing globally, resulting in substantial economic strain for society. Mucosal healing and re-establishment of barrier integrity is associated......, novel treatment strategies to accomplish mucosal healing and to re-establish normal barrier integrity in inflammatory bowel disease are warranted, and luminal stem cell-based approaches might have an intriguing potential. Transplantation of in vitro expanded intestinal epithelial stem cells derived...

  2. Irf4-dependent CD103+CD11b+ dendritic cells and the intestinal microbiome regulate monocyte and macrophage activation and intestinal peristalsis in postoperative ileus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Judith Mira; Gutweiler, Sebastian; Thiebes, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    and large intestinal POI suggested a potential role of the intestinal microbiota. Indeed, antibiotic treatment reduced iNOS levels and ameliorated POI. Conclusions: Our findings reveal that CD103+CD11b+ DCs and the intestinal microbiome are a prerequisite for the activation of intestinal monocytes...

  3. BVES Regulates Intestinal Stem Cell Programs and Intestinal Crypt Viability after Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vishruth K.; Short, Sarah P.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Keating, Cody E.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Harris, Elizabeth I.; Revetta, Frank; Bader, David M.; Brand, Thomas; Washington, M. Kay; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance (BVES/Popdc1) is a junctional-associated transmembrane protein that is underexpressed in a number of malignancies and regulates epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We previously identified a role for BVES in regulation of the Wnt pathway, a modulator of intestinal stem cell programs, but its role in small intestinal (SI) biology remains unexplored. We hypothesized that BVES influences intestinal stem cell programs and is critical to SI homeostasis after radiation injury. At baseline, Bves−/− mice demonstrated increased crypt height, as well as elevated proliferation and expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5 compared to wildtype (WT) mice. Intercross with Lgr5-EGFP reporter mice confirmed expansion of the stem cell compartment in Bves−/− mice. To examine stem cell function after BVES deletion, we employed ex vivo 3D-enteroid cultures. Bves−/− enteroids demonstrated increased stemness compared to WT, when examining parameters such as plating efficiency, stem spheroid formation, and retention of peripheral cystic structures. Furthermore, we observed increased proliferation, expression of crypt-base columnar “CBC” and “+4” stem cell markers, amplified Wnt signaling, and responsiveness to Wnt activation in the Bves−/− enteroids. Bves expression was downregulated after radiation in WT mice. Moreover, after radiation, Bves−/− mice demonstrated significantly greater small intestinal crypt viability, proliferation, and amplified Wnt signaling in comparison to WT mice. Bves−/− mice also demonstrated elevations in Lgr5 and Ascl2 expression, and putative damage-responsive stem cell populations marked by Bmi1 and TERT. Therefore, BVES is a key regulator of intestinal stem cell programs and mucosal homeostasis. PMID:26891025

  4. Arginine consumption by the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis reduces proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G

    2012-01-01

    In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that

  5. Intestinal permeability and carrier-mediated monosaccharide absorption in preterm neonates during the early postnatal period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouwet, Ellen V.; Heineman, Erik; Buurman, Wim A.; ter Riet, Gerben; Ramsay, Graham; Blanco, Carlos E.

    2002-01-01

    Immaturity of intestinal epithelial barrier function and absorptive capacity may play a role in the pathophysiology of intestinal complications in preterm neonates during the early postnatal period. We determined the intestinal permeability and carrier-mediated absorption of monosaccharides in

  6. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_adenoma [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. Intestinal permeability in exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis or chronic pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanElburg, RM; Uil, JJ; vanAalderen, WMC; Mulder, CJJ; Heymans, HSA

    Disturbances of the intestinal integrity, reflected by an increased intestinal permeability, are reported in cystic fibrosis (CF). Controversy exists whether the increased intestinal permeability is due to CF itself or a consequence of the concomitant exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (PI). We

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  11. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestine,_Small [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. Wine consumption and intestinal redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Deiana, Monica; Guina, Tina; Gamba, Paola; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella; Poli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Regular consumption of moderate doses of wine is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, which has long been considered to provide remarkable health benefits. Wine׳s beneficial effect has been attributed principally to its non-alcoholic portion, which has antioxidant properties, and contains a wide variety of phenolics, generally called polyphenols. Wine phenolics may prevent or delay the progression of intestinal diseases characterized by oxidative stress and inflammation, especially because they reach higher concentrations in the gut than in other tissues. They act as both free radical scavengers and modulators of specific inflammation-related genes involved in cellular redox signaling. In addition, the importance of wine polyphenols has recently been stressed for their ability to act as prebiotics and antimicrobial agents. Wine components have been proposed as an alternative natural approach to prevent or treat inflammatory bowel diseases. The difficulty remains to distinguish whether these positive properties are due only to polyphenols in wine or also to the alcohol intake, since many studies have reported ethanol to possess various beneficial effects. Our knowledge of the use of wine components in managing human intestinal inflammatory diseases is still quite limited, and further clinical studies may afford more solid evidence of their beneficial effects. PMID:25009781

  13. Parasitismo intestinal en manipuladores de alimentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nicolás Gómez Vital

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El parasitismo intestinal representa un significativo problema en la salud mundial. Se realiza un estudio epidemiológico descriptivo en manipuladores de alimentos de los principales centros de elaboración de la ciudad de Santa Clara, provincia Villa Clara, durante 1998. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados por orden de frecuencia fueron la Giardia lamblia y la Entamoeba hitolytica; detectados por método directo y de ritchie para dichos parásitos. La técnica de kato katz fue más eficaz para el diagnóstico de los geohelmintos. Se resalta la función del personal médico en centros de trabajo.Intestinal parasitism is a significant problem for world health. An epidemiological and descriptive study was conducted among food handlers at the main centers of elaboration in the city of Santa Clara, Villa Clara province, during 1998. The pathogenic enteroparasites found by order of frequency were Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba hitolytica, which were detected by using Ritchie's and direct method for such parasites. The Katokatz's technique was more efficient for the diagnosis of geohelminth. It was underlined the function of the medical team at the working centers.

  14. Pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Cathleen M; Warner, Brad W

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively. Research for prevention and treatment is aimed at alleviating risk factors associated with IFALD, principally those associated with parental nutrition. Multiple nutrients and amino acids are relevant to the development of IFALD, but lipid composition has been the primary focus. Lipid emulsions with a lower ratio of omega-6-to-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) appear to improve bile flow and decrease intrahepatic inflammation. Long-term consequences of these alternative lipid emulsions are yet to be determined. IFALD remains the greatest contributor of mortality in patients with intestinal failure. Many factors contribute to its development, namely, alterations in the gut microbiome, sepsis, and lack of enteral intake. Novel combinations of lipid formulations are promising alternatives to purely soy-based formulas to reduce cholestasis.

  15. Gastro-intestinal involvement in systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kedia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tract can be involved in up to 90% of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc and is the leading cause of morbidity and third most common cause of mortality in these patients. The GI involvement can occur in the absence of cutaneous manifestations in 10% of patients. Vasculopathy, cellular and humoral immunity, and diffuse fibrosis are the principal pathogenetic mechanisms in SSc and begin with autoantibody-mediated neuronal damage followed by muscular damage and fibrosis. This leads to progressive dysmotility of the entire GI tract from mouth to anus and is responsible for the clinical manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia due to esophageal involvement, gastroparesis, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation due to colonic and fecal incontinence due to anorectal involvement. The clinical features resulting from the involvement of these organs often overlap and multiple areas may be involved simultaneously. The treatment remains mostly symptomatic because effective disease-modifying therapies are lacking. These patients are at a risk of malnutrition and nutritional screening, and thus rehabilitation is very important. Refractory cases require nutritional support in the form of enteral nutrition and/or home parenteral nutrition. Future research is needed in the pathogenesis, development of biomarkers for early identification of GI involvement at the asymptomatic stage, and targeted disease-modifying therapies, which can alter/halt the disease progression.

  16. Newer diagnostic approaches to intestinal protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Lisette; Verweij, Jaco J

    2010-10-01

    To update the reader on the latest developments in the laboratory diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. Correct identification of a diarrhoea causing pathogens is essential for the choice of treatment in an individual patient as well as to map the aetiology of diarrhoea in a variety of patient populations. Classical diagnosis of diarrhoea causing protozoa by microscopic examination of a stool sample lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Alternative diagnostic platforms are discussed. Recent literature on the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa has focused mainly on nucleic acid-based assays, in particular the specific detection of parasite DNA in stool samples using real-time PCR. In addition, the trend has been moving from single pathogen detection to a multiplex approach, allowing simultaneous identification of multiple parasites. Different combinations of targets can be used within a routine diagnostic setting, depending on the patient population, such as children, immunocompromised individuals and those who have been travelling to tropical regions. Large-scale monitoring and evaluation of control strategies become feasible due to automation and high-throughput facilities. Improved technology also has become available for differentiating protozoa subspecies, which facilitates outbreak investigations and extensive research in molecular epidemiology.

  17. Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and human gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Antonella; Russo, Francesco

    2013-06-01

    Cancers of the gastrointestinal tract account for 25 % of all cancers and for 9 % of all causes of cancer death in the world, so gastrointestinal cancers represent a major health problem. In the past decades, an emerging role has been attributed to the interactions between the gastrointestinal content and the onset of neoplasia. Thus, exogenous microbial administration of peculiar bacterial strains (probiotics) has been suggested as having a profound influence on multiple processes associated with a change in cancer risk. Probiotics are mono or mixed cultures of live microorganisms that might beneficially affect the host by improving the characteristics of indigenous microflora. Although the effects of probiotic administration has been intensively investigated in vitro, in animal models, in healthy volunteers, and in some human gastrointestinal diseases, very little is still known about the possible cross-interactions among probiotic administration, changes of intestinal flora, and the neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa. Theoretically, probiotics are able to reduce cancer risk by a number of mechanisms: (a) binding and degradation of potential carcinogens; (b) quantitative, qualitative and metabolic alterations of the intestinal microflora; (c) production of anti-tumorigenic or anti-mutagenic compounds; (d) competitive action towards pathogenic bacteria; (e) enhancement of the host's immune response; (f) direct effects on cell proliferation. This review will attempt to highlight the literature on the most widely recognized effects of probiotics against neoplastic transformation of gastrointestinal mucosa and in particular on their effects on cell proliferation.

  18. "Melanosis" in the small and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh-James

    2008-07-21

    Deposition of pigment in the intestinal mucosa is commonly observed by the endoscopist, especially within the colon, and particularly during investigations for constipation. Pigment may also be detected in the small intestine. Although labeled as melanosis, electron microscopy and X-ray analytical methods have provided evidence that this pigment is not melanin at all, but lipofuscin. Often, herbal remedies or anthracene containing laxatives are often historically implicated, and experimental studies in both humans and animal models have also confirmed the intimate relationship with these pharmacological or pseudo-pharmacological remedies. The appearance of melanosis coli during colonoscopy is largely due to pigment granule deposition in macrophages located in the colonic mucosa. The pigment intensity is not uniform, being more intense in the cecum and proximal colon compared to the distal colon. Possibly, this reflects higher luminal concentrations of an offending agent in the proximal compared to distal colon, differential absorption along the length of the colon, or finally, differences in macrophage distribution within the colon. Mucosal lymphoid aggregates normally display a distinct absence of pigment producing a "starry sky" appearance, especially in the rectosigmoid region. Interestingly, some focal, usually sessile, colonic mucosal neoplastic lesions, rather than submucosal lesions, may be better appreciated as pigment deposition may be absent or limited. If detected, removal and further histopathologic analysis of the polyp may be facilitated.

  19. INTESTINAL MALROTATION IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso

    Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual

  20. Intestinal CREBH overexpression prevents high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia by reducing Npc1l1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kikuchi

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Intestinal CREBH regulates dietary cholesterol flow from the small intestine by controlling the expression of multiple intestinal transporters. We propose that intestinal CREBH could be a therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.

  1. Changes in intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism coincide with increased intestinal permeability in young adults under prolonged physiological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, J Philip; Margolis, Lee M; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Murphy, Nancy E; Castellani, John W; Gundersen, Yngvar; Hoke, Allison V; Levangie, Michael W; Kumar, Raina; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Gautam, Aarti; Hammamieh, Rasha; Martini, Svein; Montain, Scott J; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-06-01

    The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiological effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiological stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and a multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiological stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, as well as intestinal permeability (IP). Soldiers ( n = 73) were provided three rations per day with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a 4-day cross-country ski-march (STRESS). IP was measured before and during STRESS. Blood and stool samples were collected before and after STRESS to measure inflammation, stool microbiota, and stool and plasma global metabolite profiles. IP increased 62 ± 57% (mean ± SD, P Intestinal microbiota responses were characterized by increased α-diversity and changes in the relative abundance of >50% of identified genera, including increased abundance of less dominant taxa at the expense of more dominant taxa such as Bacteroides Changes in intestinal microbiota composition were linked to 23% of metabolites that were significantly altered in stool after STRESS. Together, pre-STRESS Actinobacteria relative abundance and changes in serum IL-6 and stool cysteine concentrations accounted for 84% of the variability in the change in IP. Findings demonstrate that a multiple-stressor military training environment induced increases in IP that were associated with alterations in markers of inflammation and with intestinal microbiota composition and metabolism. Associations between IP, the pre-STRESS microbiota, and microbiota metabolites suggest that targeting the intestinal microbiota could provide novel strategies for preserving IP during physiological stress. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Military training, a unique model for studying temporal dynamics of intestinal barrier and intestinal microbiota responses to stress, resulted in increased intestinal permeability concomitant with

  2. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Jalanka-Tuovinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability, core microbiota and relation with intestinal symptoms. We carried out a longitudinal study by following a set of 15 healthy Finnish subjects for seven weeks and regularly assessed their intestinal bacteria and archaea with the Human Intestinal Tract (HIT Chip, a phylogenetic microarray, in conjunction with qPCR analyses. The health perception and occurrence of intestinal symptoms was recorded by questionnaire at each sampling point. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A high overall temporal stability of the microbiota was observed. Five subjects showed transient microbiota destabilization, which correlated not only with the intake of antibiotics but also with overseas travelling and temporary illness, expanding the hitherto known factors affecting the intestinal microbiota. We identified significant correlations between the microbiota and common intestinal symptoms, including abdominal pain and bloating. The most striking finding was the inverse correlation between Bifidobacteria and abdominal pain: subjects who experienced pain had over five-fold less Bifidobacteria compared to those without pain. Finally, a novel computational approach was used to define the common core microbiota, highlighting the role of the analysis depth in finding the phylogenetic core and estimating its size. The in-depth analysis suggested that we share a substantial number of our intestinal phylotypes but as they represent highly variable proportions of the total community, many of them often remain undetected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A global and high-resolution microbiota analysis was carried out to determine the temporal stability, the associations with intestinal symptoms, and the

  3. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults - diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disorder, characterized by abnormal dilation of intestinal lymphatic vessels and extensive enteric loss of lymph rich in plasma proteins, lymphocytes and chylomicrons. The main characteristics of the disease are hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphocytopenia, and more rarely, the deficit of liposoluble vitamins and anemia. Except for primary, there are secondary lymphangiectasia, associated with celiac disease, malignant, infective and inflammatory diseases of the small intestine, fibrosis, liver and cardiovascular diseases. Case report. A male, 33 years of age, presented for his medical examination suffering from diarrhea and edema. The diagnosis was established upon the histological examination of a small intestine biopsy during double balloon enteroscopy, which revealed changes only in one segment of the intestine examined. Such a finding was later confirmed by the video endoscopy capsule. Conclusion. The diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia is usually established before the age of 3, but it can also be diagnosed in adults. The diagnosis is based on the histological analysis of the intestinal mucosa biopsy, obtained by endoscopic procedures. The diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is also made upon the exclusion of secondary causes.

  4. Intestinal Ralstonia pickettii augments glucose intolerance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udayappan, Shanthadevi D; Kovatcheva-Datchary, Petia; Bakker, Guido J

    2017-01-01

    An altered intestinal microbiota composition has been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Low grade inflammation, potentially initiated by the intestinal microbiota, has been suggested to be a driving force in the development ...

  5. Advancing Intestinal Organoid Technology Toward Regenerative Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Nakamura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of technologies to culture intestinal epithelial cells in vitro as various forms of intestinal organoids, there is growing interest in using such cultured intestinal cells as a source for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. One such approach would be to combine the organoid technology with methodologies to engineer the culture environment, particularly the three-dimensional scaffold materials, to generate intestines that exquisitely recapitulate their original structures and functions. Another approach to use organoids for regenerative medicine would be to urge them to mature into functional intestines by implanting them into hosts. This process includes the tissue-engineered small intestine that uses synthetic scaffolds for tissue regeneration and direct organoid transplantation that takes advantage of submucosal tissues in the native intestines as a scaffold. Further study in these subfields could lead to the development of therapeutic options to use different types of organoids with various cell types in regenerative medicine for intestinal diseases in humans.

  6. The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The friendly bacteria within us Commensal bacteria of the intestine: Roles in health and disease B.S. Ramakrishna Professor & Head Gastroenterology & Hepatology Christian Medical College Vellore · Slide 2 · Intestinal bacteria: the hidden organ · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · The normal bacterial flora prevents GI disease · Slide 7.

  7. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  8. Mesenteric Cysts Presenting with Acute Intestinal Obstruction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 3 children needed bowel resection with primary anastomosis. All made uneventful recovery. A high index of suspicion is important when managing children with acute intestinal obstruction as mesenteric cyst may be an uncommon cause. (Key words: Mesenteric Cyst: Intestinal Obstruction). Sahel Medical Journal ...

  9. Protective effect of salvianolic acid B against intestinal ischemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Salvianolic acid B, Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion, Antioxidants, Inflammation, Intestinal ... Rats were sacrificed by cervical decapitation under pentabarbotal sodium at the dose of 50 mg/kg via i.p after IIRI induction. Blood samples were collected in a heparinized .... lipid peroxidation [17] and hence the levels of.

  10. Intestinal permeability - a new target for disease prevention and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bischoff, S.C.; Barbara, G.; Buurman, W.; Ockhuizen, T.; Schulzke, J.D.; Serino, M.; Tilg, H.; Watson, A.; Wells, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Data are accumulating that emphasize the important role of the intestinal barrier and intestinal permeability for health and disease. However, these terms are poorly defined, their assessment is a matter of debate, and their clinical significance is not clearly established. In the present review,

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Moreover, there is little information on maternal awareness about intestinal parasitosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among under-five children, and assess maternal awareness about it in Shesha .... local language using open-ended questions by data the collectors selected from the study ...

  12. Early oral feeding following intestinal anastomoses in children is safe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral feeding following intestinal anastomoses is frequently delayed. In settings with limited utilisation of parenteral nutrition, this policy is problematic. This report evaluates the safety of early oral feeding following intestinal anastomoses in children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study including 64 ...

  13. Gene expression profiling of chicken intestinal host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, van S.

    2007-01-01

    Chicken lines differ in genetic disease susceptibility. The scope of the research described in this thesis was to identify genes involved in genetic disease resistance in the chicken intestine. Therefore gene expression in the jejunum was investigated using a microarray approach. An intestine

  14. Influence of atropine and loperamide on reduced intestinal transit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of Calotropis procera latex alone and in the presence of loperamide and atropine on intestinal transit in rats were determined to elucidate the action of C. procera on intestinal transit. Six groups of rats containing ten rats per group were used. Each rat in the control group (I) received 0.5 ml of normal saline.

  15. Intestinal parasitosis among Kara and Kwego semipastoralist tribes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Survey of intestinal parasites provides information about the burden of parasites in a community and helps in making decisions for intervention. Nevertheless, such information on the communities living in the Lower Omo Valley is scanty. Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among ...

  16. STUDY ON INTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN SEVEN VILLAGES OF BANDARABASS

    OpenAIRE

    J.Sheiban; M.Rezaian

    1981-01-01

    A survey was carried out in seven villages around Bandarabass, on Persion Gulf, to determine the prevalence of the intestinal protozoa infections. Out of the 835 stool specimens examined, 676 samples were positive with single and multiple infections. The most prevalent of intestinal protozoa in Bandarabass were Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lambia and Iodamoeba butschlii.

  17. Lactic Acid Bacteria and the Human Intestinal Microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douillard, F.P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2015-01-01

    The great interest in the human microbiome has revived attention paid to LAB presence in the human intestine. This chapter first discusses the LAB associated with the human intestinal microbiota and their potential roles in health and diseases. It then addresses recent metagenomic studies that

  18. Factoring the intestinal microbiome into the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Albert J

    2016-11-14

    The intestinal microbiome is a reservoir of microbial antigens and activated immune cells. The aims of this review were to describe the role of the intestinal microbiome in generating innate and adaptive immune responses, indicate how these responses contribute to the development of systemic immune-mediated diseases, and encourage investigations that improve the understanding and management of autoimmune hepatitis. Alterations in the composition of the intestinal microflora (dysbiosis) can disrupt intestinal and systemic immune tolerances for commensal bacteria. Toll-like receptors within the intestine can recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns and shape subsets of T helper lymphocytes that may cross-react with host antigens (molecular mimicry). Activated gut-derived lymphocytes can migrate to lymph nodes, and gut-derived microbial antigens can translocate to extra-intestinal sites. Inflammasomes can form within hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, and they can drive the pro-inflammatory, immune-mediated, and fibrotic responses. Diet, designer probiotics, vitamin supplements, re-colonization methods, antibiotics, drugs that decrease intestinal permeability, and molecular interventions that block signaling pathways may emerge as adjunctive regimens that complement conventional immunosuppressive management. In conclusion, investigations of the intestinal microbiome are warranted in autoimmune hepatitis and promise to clarify pathogenic mechanisms and suggest alternative management strategies.

  19. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary inhibitors of histone deacetylases in intestinal immunity anc homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderink, R.; Verseijden, C.; de Jonge, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are integral players in homeostasis of immunity and host defense in the gut and are under influence of the intestinal microbiome. Microbial metabolites and dietary components, including short chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, SCFAs), have an

  1. Intestinal dendritic cells in the regulation of mucosal immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Vasileios; Persson, Emma K.; Agace, William Winston

    2014-01-01

    The intestine presents a huge surface area to the outside environment, a property that is of critical importance for its key functions in nutrient digestion, absorption, and waste disposal. As such, the intestine is constantly exposed to dietary and microbial-derived foreign antigens, to which im...... of the role these subsets play in the regulation of intestinal immune homeostasis and inflammation will help to define novel strategies for the treatment of intestinal pathologies and contribute to improved rational design of mucosal vaccines....... immune cells within the mucosa must suitably respond to maintain intestinal integrity, while also providing the ability to mount effective immune responses to potential pathogens. Dendritic cells (DCs) are sentinel immune cells that play a central role in the initiation and differentiation of adaptive...... immune responses. In the intestinal mucosa, DCs are located diffusely throughout the intestinal lamina propria, within gut-associated lymphoid tissues, including Peyer's patches and smaller lymphoid aggregates, as well as in intestinal-draining lymph nodes, including mesenteric lymph nodes...

  2. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  5. Risks of intestinal helminthiasis in children living in orphanages in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hand washing with water and soap after defeacation was significantly associated with decreased prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis (p = 0.016). Conclusion: Behavioural modification, good personal hygiene and provision of towels for each child living in the orphanage should be integral part of intestinal helminths ...

  6. Intestinal Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury and Semen Characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    This study investigates the effect of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion (IIR) injury on semen characteristics ... Increasing incidence of gastro-intestinal emergencies in sheep and goat are due to difficulties which include .... The semen characteristics of West African dwarf bucks infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Bull. Anim.

  7. Effect of Host Condition on Intestinal Parasite Load and Prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...

  8. Estimation of true intestinal digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    True intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), rumen-undegraded dietary protein (UDP) and amino acids of cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and Brachystegia spiciformis (musasa) were estimated. The true intestinal digestibility was calculated as the difference between the content of a bag that was preincubated in the rumen ...

  9. Developmental morphology of the small intestine in Yangzhou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the development of the weight and the morphological development of the small intestine in Yangzhou geese. The weight, length and perimeter of the small intestine, height and width of the villi, depth of the crypts were measured when geese were 1, 14, 28, 42, 56 and 70 days of ...

  10. Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Jan Paul; Vermeulen, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The identification of intestinal stem cells as well as their malignant counterparts, colon cancer stem cells, has undergone rapid development in recent years. Under physiological conditions, intestinal homeostasis is a carefully balanced and efficient interplay between stem cells, their progeny and

  11. Study of Human Gastro-Intestinal Parasites Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results suggest a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis (40.9%) among the pupils. Four different intestinal parasites were encountered. The respective infection rates of each parasite were; Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (13.7%), Trichuris trichiura (6.9%) and hookworms (5.4%). Infections ...

  12. Circadian regulation of epithelial functions in the intestine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pácha, Jiří; Sumová, Alena

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 1 (2013), s. 11-24 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/10/0969; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : circadian rhythms * intestine * colon * proliferation * digestion * intestinal transport Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  13. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Intestinal Helminth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This studydetermined the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among school-aged children. ... Using logistic regression, the following factors showed significant effect (p<0.05) as predisposing factors to intestinal helminth infections: water treatment, sanitary habits, refuse disposal, parental ...

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different regions/localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren found in a rural area ...

  15. Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding: Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifang; Lu, Wei; Sun, Yinping; Liang, Junrong; Feng, Shanshan; Shi, Yongquan; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jianhong; Wu, Kaichun

    2018-03-01

    Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding is an important reason for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGB) , in addition to tumor and vascular diseases. Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding is difficult to detect by barium meal and angiographic methods and has been regarded as an important cause of obscure gastrointestinal tract bleeding in adolescents. Because of its complicated etiology and non-specific clinical manifestations, it is relatively difficult to detect small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding, especially in patients with a large amount of bleeding and hemodynamic instability. This retrospective study collects clinical statistics of 19 patients admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2016. Patients who had small intestinal diverticulum patients with bleeding were included in this study. Patients who were taking anticoagulants were excluded DIAGNOSES:: Small intestinal diverticulum patients with bleeding. This retrospective study describes the clinical features of patients with small intestinal diverticulum whose main symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding and analyze the literature on this topic, with particular reference to the clinical characteristics, pathological features, and choice of examination methods. Small intestinal diverticulum with bleeding is a common cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but it is difficult to detect using normal examination methods. For patients with repeated gastrointestinal bleeding and no positive results found on gastroscopy and colonoscopy, endoscopy of the small intestine and CTE with contrast can be considered as a diagnostic modality.

  16. Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic intestinal protozoa in school age children in Pategi, Pategi LGA of Kwara state, Nigeria. ... Results: One hundred and ninety seven (26.3%) of the samples were positive for intestinal protozoan parasite. The distribution of the parasites ... Key words: Asymptomatic, amoebiasis, giardiasis, rural area, children.

  17. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.0% of barrow-pushers alone. About 2.3% of van-loaders were infected with ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of intestinal parasites. Sahel Medical ...

  18. The comparison of the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Insulin has been reported to have positive effects on intestinal adaptation after short bowel syndrome when applicated oral or subcutaneously. The purpose of this study is to compare the intestinal adaptation effects of subcutaneous and oral routes of insulin in rats with short bowel syndrome. Materials and Methods: ...

  19. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, B.D.; Clevers, H.

    2011-01-01

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine

  20. prevalence and predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... Gilgel Gibe Hydroelectric Power to determine the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among school children. This study is conducted as sub-study to the main study; the objective of which was to determine the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis, and related factors such as risk ...

  1. A Retrospective Study Of Intestinal Helminthosis As A Cause Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 10-year (1994-2003) retrospective study was carried out to investigate the occurrence of clinical cases due to intestinal helminths in dogs treated at Sokoine University of Agriculture Veterinary Clinic, Morogoro, Tanzania. A total of 546 clinical cases of intestinal helminthosis in dogs were examined and these included 295 ...

  2. Typhoid intestinal perforation: 24 perforations in one patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typhoid intestinal perforation: 24 perforations in one patient. AK Sharma, RK Sharma, SK Sharma, A Sharma, D Soni. Abstract. Intestine perforation is one of the most dreaded and common complication of typhoid fever remarkably so in developing world; it usually leads to diffuse peritonitis, requiring early surgical ...

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV patients in Baringo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P<0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability ...

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Edo State | Mordi | International ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    questionnaire, factors which disposed to increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasites were investigated between. April 2007 and March 2008. Results: High prevalence (11.3%) of intestinal parasites was recorded in the study. Those drinking well water had the highest prevalence, followed by those who used tap water

  5. In vitro methods to study intestinal drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although the liver has long been thought to play the major role in drug metabolism, also the metabolic capacity of the intestine is more and more recognized. In vivo studies eventually pointed out not only the significance of first-pass metabolism by the intestinal wall for the bioavailability of

  6. Angiographic diagnosis of hemorrhage tumours of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadon, G.; Ehngloner, L.; Petri, K.

    1980-01-01

    2 angiographic investigations in small intestine tumors, accompanied with hemorrhage are considered. Conclusion is made that the most suitable moment for estimation of small intestine hemorrhage, according to the proper and literature data, is selective angiography. Wide application of the technique for preoperative detection of gastro-inestinal hemorrhage is recommended

  7. Intestinal growth and function of broiler chicks fed sorghum based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Margret Rukuni

    Weekly measurements of body weight (LW) and feed intake (FI) for each replicate of the treatments were taken. At days 7, 14, 21, 42 and 56 two chicks from each replicate were killed after starving them for 12 hours to limit intestinal throughput. To ensure clean histology samples, the liver and intestinal samples were ...

  8. Effects of L-arginine on intestinal development and endogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... the underlying mechanism includes dietary L-arginine supplementation which regulated the productions of intestinal polyamine in jejunum, and stimulated endogenous arginine-synthesizing enzymes in neonatal piglets. Key words: Neonatal pig, L-arginine, intestinal development, arginine-synthetases.

  9. Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) fed on diets with both cotton and sunflower seed cakes. ... The formulations with 10%CSC25%SFSC and 20%CSC15%SFSC could be used for making Nile tilapia diets. Keywords: Plant protein, intestine histology, ...

  10. Spore Preparation Protocol for Enrichment of Clostridia from Murine Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Eric M; Rivera-Chávez, Fabian; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2017-05-20

    In recent years, many spore-forming commensal Clostridia found in the gut have been discovered to promote host physiology, immune development, and protection against infections. We provide a detailed protocol for rapid enrichment of spore-forming bacteria from murine intestine. Briefly, contents from the intestinal cecum are collected aerobically, diluted and finally treated with chloroform to enrich for Clostridia spores.

  11. Prevalence Of Intestinal Helminthiasis In Nursery And Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Intestinal helminthiasis affect the nutritional status of school aged children. Objective: o determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in nursery and primary school children in Enugu. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on 460 nursery and primary school children from Enugu metropolis. The prevalence of ...

  12. Signal transduction pathways involved in intestinal salt and water secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Berghe (Nina)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes some novel aspects of the regulation of salt and water secretion in the intestinal epithelium. This process is not unique for the intestine, but a common and necessary function of many other organs, including the stomach (gastric juice), kidney (urine), sweatglands

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPIs due to intestinal protozoa and helminths are re- sponsible for some of the most devastating and preva- lent diseases of humans, i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, collectively referred to as soil- transmitted helminths (STHs), and are the most common intestinal parasites4; while Giardia ...

  14. Assessment of intestinal parasites in goats slaughtered at Abakaliki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal helminth parasites constitute a serious impediment to small scale animal production by causing high mortality and low production in flocks. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthes in goats slaughtered in Abakaliki Abattoir, Ebonyi State, Nigeria between October and ...

  15. Small intestinal MUC2 synthesis in human preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, Maaike W.; de Bruijn, Adrianus C. J. M.; Schierbeek, Henk; Tibboel, Dick; Renes, Ingrid B.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2009-01-01

    Mucin 2 (MUC2) is the structural component of the intestinal protective mucus layer, which contains high amounts of threonine in its peptide backbone. MUC2 synthesis rate might be a potential parameter for intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aimed to determine whether systemic threonine

  16. Meckel's diverticulum: a rare cause of intestinal perforation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract. It is usually encountered as an incidental finding at operation or autopsy. Symptomatic cases usually present during infancy with intestinal obstruction, intestinal hemorrhage, diverticulitis, or perforation. We report on a preterm ...

  17. Desmoid tumour: a rare etiology of intestinal obstruction | Aggarwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumour: a rare etiology of intestinal obstruction. Gaurav Aggarwal, Sumit Shukla, Ankur Maheshwari, Rajkumar Mathur. Abstract. Intestinal obstruction is a frequently encountered entity in surgical practice. The signs & symptoms, many a times, are suggestive of the level of obstruction, making the diagnosis of ...

  18. Effect of regimes of dietary oxytetracycline on the intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal characteristics of broiler chicks fed Oxytetracycline powder in feed at 0.05g/kg for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks were studied. The control group received Oxytetracycline free feed daily throughout the 8 weeks of the experiment. The results showed that the mean diameter of the small intestines reduced significantly (P< ...

  19. Intestinal Anisakiasis Treated Successfully with Prednisolone and Olopatadine Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Toyoda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristic of gastrointestinal anisakiasis is severe abdominal pain after eating raw fish. Intestinal anisakiasis is more uncommon than gastric anisakiasis. Most patients with intestinal anisakiasis need hospitalization because anisakiasis can cause intestinal obstruction, ileus, peritonitis or intestinal perforation. We report a case of intestinal anisakiasis. A 43-year-old woman presented with symptoms of intermittent abdominal pain 2 days after eating raw fish. Her brother had eaten the same food and had been suffering from gastric anisakiasis. Abdominal ultrasonography in this patient showed localized jejunal wall thickening with dilated lumen of proximal jejunum and ascites. According to the clinical course and examinations, she was diagnosed with intestinal anisakiasis. Administration of prednisolone 5 mg/day and olopatadine hydrochloride 10 mg/day improved her symptoms quickly without hospitalization. Prednisolone was administered for 10 days, and olopatadine hydrochloride was administered for a total of 6 weeks according to ultrasonographic findings. Six months after the treatment, the abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated normal findings. This case demonstrates that ultrasonography was quite useful for the diagnosis and surveillance of intestinal anisakiasis. Furthermore, treatment with corticosteroid and an antiallergic agent could be an option for patients with intestinal anisakiasis.

  20. Typhoid Intestinal Perforations in a Tropical Tertiary Health Facility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite decades of improvement in patient care globally, typhoid intestinal perforation remains a frequently fatal illness in the developing world. This study aimed at determining the factors that influenced the outcome of surgical management of typhoid intestinal perforation in Sagamu, South-West Nigeria.

  1. Intestinal obstruction in children due to Ascariasis: A tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of worms per mouth or rectum and on x-ray and ultrasonography fi ndings. Only the patients of intestinal obstruction with documented evidence of roundworm infestation were included in the study and were followed for one year. Results: One hundred and three children with intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides

  2. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of total, single and multiple intestinal worm infections among the primary school children in Nairobi City. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from ...

  3. Oxazolone-Induced Intestinal Inflammation in Adult Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal

  4. Oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal

  5. Wnt, stem cells and cancer in the intestine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is a self-renewing tissue which represents a unique model for studying interconnected cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and carcinogenesis. Although the stem cells of the intestine have not yet been physically characterized or

  6. Related radiation effects on the intestine and their treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Kurpeshcheva, A.K.; Kaplan, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Late radiation injuries of the intestine are frequent after radiation therapy of malignant tumours of female genitalia and some other tumours due to which the intestine gets into the irradiation field. On the basis of the analysis of 80 patients with late radiation injuries of intestine which developed at remote terms after radiation therapy of cervix uteri cancer and corpus uteri (65 patients) and other tumours, peculiarities of the clinical course and treatment of radiation enterocolitis, rectosigmoidites and rectites are discussed. In 39 patients these injuries were concomitant with late radiation injuries of the skin and subcutaneous soft tissues. The clinical course of radiation unjuries of the intestine was defined by the character of the pathological process in the intestine and was more sharply marked in patients suffering from radiation enterocolites. It was established that one of the pathogenetic mechanisms of late radiation injuries of the intestine was a disorder of the absorption function of the intestine. Local treatment of radiation injuries of the intestine should be combined with a general one the important component of which is a parenteral diet

  7. [The intraoperative determination of intestinal vitality with a fluorescent indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A; Terziev, I

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to strangulation is induced in dogs under experimental conditions, with intestinal wall vitality assessment done on the ground of standard clinical criteria, using fluorescence dye and UV rays, as well as histological study. Sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of each of the methods employed are determined. The fluorescence method advantages are recorded, and the prospects of its clinical implementation are estimated.

  8. Obstrução intestinal no idoso Intestinal obstruction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O envelhecimento da população é realidade sentida na vivência diária, levando à necessidade associada de prover cuidados médicos eletivos e de emergência a um número cada vez maior de idosos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos de pacientes idosos com obstrução intestinal atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - UNESP. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de pacientes internados no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2006. Foram estudados 50 pacientes, 24 homens e 26 mulheres, com idade média de 74,7 ± 7,4 anos, analisando-se a diferenciação entre obstrução funcional e orgânica; a freqüência das causas obstrutivas; a mortalidade; a incidência dos sinais e sintomas; e correlação laboratorial. RESULTADOS: O quadro obstrutivo intestinal teve as seguintes causas: brida (38%, câncer de colon (24%, hérnias (12%, impactacão fecal (12%, carcinomatose (10% e volvo da sigmóide (4%. A mortalidade foi de 18% associada à complicações infecciosas em todos os pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: a A distinção entre a obstrução intestinal funcional e orgânica oferece dificuldade no idoso; b o câncer do colon constitui-se em importante causa de obstrução intestinal com quadro obstrutivo já na primeira manifestação clínica desse tumor; c bridas e hérnias são igualmente importantes na etiologia da obstrução intestinal; d os sinais clínicos obstrutivos são poucos evidentes no idoso e a leucometria é mais fidedigna para este diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: Population aging is a reality that is experienced daily, leading to an associated need for providing elective and emergency medical care to an increasing number of elderly individuals. AIM: To evaluate clinical, therapeutic and developmental aspects of patients with intestinal obstruction assisted at the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine - UNESP. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of

  9. Potential Role of Probiotics in Mechanism of Intestinal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput and Wei Fen Li*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are nonpathogenic bacteria exert a constructive influence on health or physiology of the host. Effect of probiotics in the intestinal defense against variety of diseases is well known. The probiotics are involved in the mechanism of intestinal defense, support as antagonist against pathogens, improve intestinal epithelial layer and boost the innate as well as adaptive immunity. However these responses are also exerted by intestinal components. The intestinal components as well as probiotics play a reciprocal role to enhance the immune response of the individual. The possibilities of mechanism of action include the stimulation of epithelial cells, activation of dendritic cells via toll-like receptors (TLRs, conversely produce cytokines. These observations reviewed together advocate that specific immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria should be focusing on mechanism of action via antigen presenting cells (APC.

  10. In vivo and In vitro Evaluations of Intestinal Gabapentin Absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malte Selch; Frølund, Sidsel; Nøhr, Martha Kampp

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Gabapentin exhibits saturable absorption kinetics, however, it remains unclear which transporters that are involved in the intestinal transport of gabapentin. Thus, the aim of the current study was to explore the mechanistic influence of transporters on the intestinal absorption...... cells. The effect of co-application of the LAT-inhibitor, BCH, and the b(0,+)-substrate, L-lysine, on intestinal transport of gabapentin was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Gabapentin showed dose-dependent oral absorption kinetics and dose-independent disposition kinetics. Co-application of BCH...... inhibited intestinal absorption in vivo and apical uptake in vitro, whereas no effect was observed following co-application of L-lysine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows for the first time that BCH was capable of inhibiting intestinal absorption of gabapentin in vivo. Furthermore, in Caco-2 cell...

  11. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  12. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Marín, J C; Colina, F; Ibarrola, C; López-Alonso, G; Martín, M A; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.

  13. Neuroimmune interaction and the regulation of intestinal immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijden, Simon; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2018-01-01

    Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion, and blood flow, are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuroimmune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function. In addition, both intrinsic and extrinsic neural mechanisms control intestinal immune homeostasis in different layers of the intestine, mainly by affecting macrophage activation through neurotransmitter release. In this mini-review, we discuss recent insights on immunomodulation by intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic innervation, with a particular focus on intestinal macrophages. In addition, we discuss the relevance of these novel mechanisms for intestinal immune homeostasis in physiological and pathological conditions, mainly focusing on motility disorders (gastroparesis and postoperative ileus) and inflammatory disorders (colitis).

  14. Surgical management and autologous intestinal reconstruction in short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Matthijs J; van Baren, Robertine; Haveman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. When treatment with parenteral nutrition fails and life-threatening complications occur, autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) should be considered before intestinal transplantation (ITx). Single or combined ITx should be reserved for patients with severe liver disease and as last resort in the treatment of SBS. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has proven its value in AIR, but its availability depends on the expertise of the surgeons. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) has similar success rates as LILT and fewer patients progress to ITx. STEP is also applicable at small bowel dilatation in ultra-short bowel syndrome. The scope may be widened when duodenal dilatation can be treated as well. Spiral intestinal lengthening and tailoring (SILT) is a promising alternative. More research is needed to confirm these findings. Therefore we suggest an international data registry for all intestinal lengthening procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of intestinal protein metabolism by amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Julien; Goichon, Alexis; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse

    2013-09-01

    Gut homeostasis plays a major role in health and may be regulated by quantitative and qualitative food intake. In the intestinal mucosa, an intense renewal of proteins occurs, at approximately 50% per day in humans. In some pathophysiological conditions, protein turnover is altered and may contribute to intestinal or systemic diseases. Amino acids are key effectors of gut protein turnover, both as constituents of proteins and as regulatory molecules limiting intestinal injury and maintaining intestinal functions. Many studies have focused on two amino acids: glutamine, known as the preferential substrate of rapidly dividing cells, and arginine, another conditionally essential amino acid. The effects of glutamine and arginine on protein synthesis appear to be model and condition dependent, as are the involved signaling pathways. The regulation of gut protein degradation by amino acids has been minimally documented until now. This review will examine recent data, helping to better understand how amino acids regulate intestinal protein metabolism, and will explore perspectives for future studies.

  16. Ultrasonographic findings of intestinal intussusception in seven cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsikas, M N; Papazoglou, L G; Papaioannou, N G; Savvas, I; Kazakos, G M; Dessiris, A K

    2003-12-01

    The medical records of seven cats with intestinal intussusception that were diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and exploratory laparotomy were reviewed. In transverse ultrasonographic sections the intussusception appeared as a target-like mass consisting of one, two or more hyperechoic and hypoechoic concentric rings surrounding a C-shaped, circular or non-specific shaped hyperechoic centre. Part of the intestine representing the inner intussusceptum, located close to the hyperechoic centre and surrounded by concentric rings, was also detected. In longitudinal sections the intussusception appeared as multiple hyperechoic and hypoechoic parallel lines in four cases and as an ovoid mass in three cases. In one case the ovoid mass had a 'kidney' configuration. Additional ultrasonographic findings associated with intestinal intussusception included an intestinal neoplasm in one cat. The results of the present study demonstrate that the ultrasonographic findings of intestinal intussusception in cats bear some similarities to those described in dogs and humans, are relatively consistent, and facilitate a specific diagnosis.

  17. Research Progress of Intestinal Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-shun YE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disseases (IBD are chronic recurrent diseases occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, mainly including ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CD. At present, the etiological factors and mechanism of IBD are still unclear yet. However, it is widely believed that IBD is caused by immune dysfunction, genetic factors, gut barrier dysfuction and dysbacteriosis, change of dietary structure, use of antibiotics, smoking, and environment. Studies suggest that breaking the accurate balance between host and intestinal microbiota in patients with IBD can trigger immuno-inflammatory responses in genetically susceptible individuals. Therefore, regulating intestinal microbiota disturbance and recovery of intestinal homeostasis between host and intestinal microbiota become a new treatment direction for IBD. This article mainly reviewed research progress of intestinal microbiota in pathogenetic mechanism and treatment of IBD.

  18. The neonatal intestinal vasculature: contributing factors to necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankervis, Craig A; Giannone, Peter J; Reber, Kristina M

    2008-04-01

    Based on the demonstration of coagulation necrosis, it is clear that intestinal ischemia plays a role in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intestinal vascular resistance is determined by a dynamic balance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory inputs. In the newborn, this balance heavily favors vasodilation secondary to the copious production of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO), a circumstance which serves to ensure adequate blood flow and thus oxygen delivery to the rapidly growing intestine. Endothelial cell injury could shift this balance in favor of endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction, leading to intestinal ischemia and tissue injury. Evidence obtained from animal models and from human tissue collected from infants with NEC implicates NO and ET-1 dysregulation in the pathogenesis of NEC. Strategies focused on maintaining the delicate balance favoring vasodilation in the newborn intestinal circulation may prove to be useful in the prevention and treatment of NEC.

  19. Sand impaction of the small intestine in eight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, A D; McGhite, A; Schaaf, O R; Read, R

    2010-01-01

    To describe signalment, clinical findings, imaging and treatment of intestinal sand impaction in the dog. Medical records of dogs with radiographic evidence of small intestinal sand impaction were reviewed. Sand impaction resulting in small intestinal obstruction was diagnosed in eight dogs. All dogs presented with signs of vomiting. Other clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy and abdominal pain. Radiographs confirmed the presence of radio-opaque material consistent with sand causing distension of the terminal small intestine in all dogs. Four dogs were treated surgically for their impaction and four dogs were managed medically. Seven of the eight dogs survived. Both medical and surgical management of intestinal sand impaction in the dog can be effective and both afford a good prognosis for recovery.

  20. Determination of intestinal viability by Doppler ultrasonography in venous infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, M; Martin, E W; Carey, L C

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy of Doppler ultrasound in predicting the viability of ischemic intestine secondary to venous obstruction was assessed. Twenty loops of ischemic intestine were created in dogs by temporarily obstructing venous return from the bowel. Doppler arterial flow signals within the intestine quickly disappeared following venous occlusion. In ten segments, arterial signals promptly returned following release of venous occlusion. Nine of these ten segments were viable at reoperation 24 hours later. In ten segments, no arterial signals could be detected following release of venous occlusion, and only one segment proved to be viable. Doppler ultrasound findings were far more accurate in distinguishing between viable and nonviable intestine thatn were clinical guides to intestinal viability. PMID:7352777

  1. HDAC1 and HDAC2 restrain the intestinal inflammatory response by regulating intestinal epithelial cell differentiation.

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    Naomie Turgeon

    Full Text Available Acetylation and deacetylation of histones and other proteins depends on histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs activities, leading to either positive or negative gene expression. HDAC inhibitors have uncovered a role for HDACs in proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, little is known of the roles of specific HDACs in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC. We investigated the consequences of ablating both HDAC1 and HDAC2 in murine IECs. Floxed Hdac1 and Hdac2 homozygous mice were crossed with villin-Cre mice. Mice deficient in both IEC HDAC1 and HDAC2 weighed less and survived more than a year. Colon and small intestinal sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, or with Alcian blue and Periodic Acid Schiff for goblet cell identification. Tissue sections from mice injected with BrdU for 2 h, 14 h and 48 h were stained with anti-BrdU. To determine intestinal permeability, 4-kDa FITC-labeled dextran was given by gavage for 3 h. Microarray analysis was performed on total colon RNAs. Inflammatory and IEC-specific gene expression was assessed by Western blot or semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qPCR with respectively total colon protein and total colon RNAs. HDAC1 and HDAC2-deficient mice displayed: 1 increased migration and proliferation, with elevated cyclin D1 expression and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, a downstream mTOR target; 2 tissue architecture defects with cell differentiation alterations, correlating with reduction of secretory Paneth and goblet cells in jejunum and goblet cells in colon, increased expression of enterocytic markers such as sucrase-isomaltase in the colon, increased expression of cleaved Notch1 and augmented intestinal permeability; 3 loss of tissue homeostasis, as evidenced by modifications of claudin 3 expression, caspase-3 cleavage and Stat3 phosphorylation; 4 chronic inflammation, as determined by inflammatory molecular expression signatures and altered inflammatory gene expression

  2. Biopharmaceutics classification and intestinal absorption study of apigenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Liu, Dapeng; Huang, Yanting; Gao, Yuan; Qian, Shuai

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the study was to characterize the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) category of apigenin (AP) using intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and rat intestinal permeability, and to investigate the intestinal absorption mechanism of AP in rats. In the present investigation, equilibrium solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of AP were estimated in phosphate buffers. Effective intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of AP was determined using single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in four segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) of rat intestine at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg/ml). The aqueous solubility of AP in tested phosphate buffers was very poor with maximum solubility of 2.16 μg/ml at pH 7.5. The IDR of AP was very low with a value of 0.006 mg/min/cm(2). The minimum and maximum P(eff)s determined by SPIP were 0.198×10(-4) and 0.713×10(-4) cm/s at jejunum and duodenum site, respectively. In addition, the concentration-dependent permeability behavior was observed in the duodenum and jejunum, which suggested that AP was transported by both passive and active carrier-mediated saturable mechanism in these two intestinal segments. However, the observed concentration-independent permeability behavior in ileum and colon indicated primarily passive transport mechanism of absorption of AP in the last two intestinal segments. AP was classified as class II drug of the BCS due to its low solubility and high intestinal permeability. AP could be well absorbed in the whole intestine with the main absorption site at duodenum. The absorption of AP in four intestinal segments exhibited different transport mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

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    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  4. Multifunctions of dietary polyphenols in the regulation of intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Shimizu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food for specified health use is a type of functional food approved by the Japanese government, with more than 1250 products in 10 health-claim categories being approved as of April 2016. Polyphenols are currently used as functional ingredients in seven of the 10 categories. Although they have not yet been used for the food-for-specified-health-use category of “gut health promotion,” polyphenols are expected to contribute to the future development of gut-modulating food. Intestinal functions include digestion/absorption, acting as a barrier, recognition of external factors, and signal transduction. Owing to incessant exposure to external stress factors including food substances, bacteria, and environmental chemicals, intestines are always inflammatory to some extent, which may cause damage to and dysfunction of intestinal tissues depending on the situation. We identified food factors that could suppress immoderate inflammation in the intestines. In addition to certain amino acids and peptides, polyphenols such as chlorogenic acid and isoflavones were found to suppress inflammation in intestinal cells. Intestinal inflammation is caused by various factors in diverse mechanisms. Recent studies revealed that activation of pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, in epithelial cells triggers intestinal inflammation. Intracellular receptors or signaling molecules controlling the intestinal detoxification system are also involved in the regulation of inflammation. Differentiation of regulatory T cells by activating a transcription factor Foxp-3 is known to suppress intestinal inflammation. A variety of phytochemicals including polyphenols modulate these receptors and signaling molecules, and are thus anti-inflammatory. Polyphenols affect epigenetic changes occurring in intestinal tissues by interacting with the enzymes responsible for DNA methylation and histone acetylation

  5. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodio, C.; Antico, E.; Montesi, A.; Zaccarelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  6. Intestinal obstruction: predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azri Mohd Suan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8 for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593 and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6 for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908. The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8, which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7. After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.

  7. Melatonin reduces changes to small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Maren Oude; Patyk, Vivien; de Groot, Herbert; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation is known to impair the microcirculation in intestine and other organs as a result of multifactorial events. Here, we show that melatonin selectively reduces changes to the small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg × h to induce systemic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Melatonin (single dose: 3 mg/kg × 15 min) was intravenously administered before as well as 120 and 240 min after the beginning of the LPS infusion. Systemic parameters were determined in regular intervals. Small intestine, liver, and kidney were histologically (structure of the microvessels, intravascular blood accumulation, and hemorrhages) and immunohistochemically (mast cells, granulocytes, and macrophages) analyzed. Continuous infusion of LPS resulted in dilated microvessels with intravascular blood accumulation (congestion) in liver and small intestine, the latter being particularly pronounced. Blood vessel walls remained intact, there were no hemorrhages. Melatonin significantly reduced these changes to the microvasculature in small intestine, but not in liver. It further reduced mast cell and granulocytes count in small intestine enhanced by LPS. However, except for the systemic blood pressure, melatonin neither improved LPS-dependent changes to systemic parameters nor mortality. Changes to the microvasculature during systemic inflammation are most pronounced in small intestine. Melatonin selectively diminishes these changes to small intestinal microvasculature, probably by reducing the local immune cells recruitment. However, changes to the small intestine are not decisive for the survival. We assume that the therapeutic benefit of melatonin is more likely in local intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico complicado por vasculite intestinal e pneumatose intestinal Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by intestinal vasculitis and pneumatosis intestinalis

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    Débora Karine Marinello

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available As manifestações gastrointestinais no lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES não são incomuns. Frequentemente são encontrados sintomas inespecíficos, como dor abdominal, náuseas, vômitos e diarreia. Por outro lado, a pneumatose intestinal, caracterizada por múltiplos cistos preenchidos por ar na parede intestinal, é uma condição raramente associada ao LES. Descreve-se a seguir o caso de um homem de 20 anos que foi internado por febre, perda ponderal, cefaleia e artrite, cuja investigação mostrou tratar-se de LES. Na evolução, apresentou quadro abdominal sugestivo de vasculite intestinal, com tomografia computadorizada de abdome revelando sinal do duplo halo ou do alvo e pneumatose intestinal. Realizado tratamento conservador com antibioticoterapia endovenosa, repouso intestinal e nutrição parenteral total, com resolução do quadro abdominal.Gastrointestinal manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are not uncommon. Non specific symptoms are often observed, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. On the other hand, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis, which is characterized by multiple gas-filled cysts located throughout the intestinal wall, is a rare condition in SLE. We describe a case of a 20-year-old man who was admitted with fever, weight loss, headache and arthralgia and had a diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. During his hospital stay, he developed abdominal symptoms that suggested intestinal vasculitis. The computed tomography of the abdomen showed the double halo sign, or target sign and pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. The patient presented complete recovery after conservative treatment, with intestinal rest and total parenteral nutrition.

  9. Intestinal integrity and Akkermansia muciniphila: a mucin-degrading member of the intestinal microbiota present in infants, adults and elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collado, M.C.; Derrien, M.M.N.; Isolauri, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Salminen, S.

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and real-time PCR analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Akkermansia muciniphila were performed to determine its presence in the human intestinal tract. These techniques revealed that an A. muciniphila-like bacterium is a common member of the human intestinal

  10. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction Treatment Promotes the Restoration of Intestinal Function after Obstruction by Regulating Intestinal Homeostasis

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    Xiangyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal obstruction is a common disease requiring abdominal surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, an effective medical treatment for obstruction, other than surgical resection or decompression, does not exist. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is a famous Chinese medicine used to replenish qi and invigorate the functions of the spleen. Modern pharmacological studies show that this prescription can improve gastrointestinal function and strengthen immune function. In this study, we investigated the effects of a famous Chinese herbal formula, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction, on the restoration of intestinal function after the relief of obstruction in a rabbit model. We found that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could reduce intestinal mucosal injury while promoting the recovery of the small intestine. Further, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could regulate the intestinal immune system. Our results suggest that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction promotes the restoration of intestinal function after obstruction by regulating intestinal homeostasis. Our observations indicate that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is potentially a therapeutic drug for intestinal obstruction.

  11. Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalanka-Tuovinen, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While our knowledge of the intestinal microbiota during disease is accumulating, basic information of the microbiota in healthy subjects is still scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the intestinal microbiota of healthy adults and specifically address its temporal stability,

  12. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Swam, I. van; Wels, M.W.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  13. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Swam, van I.; Wels, M.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  14. Differentiation-dependent activation of the human intestinal alkaline phosphatase promoter by HNF-4 in intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Bressendorff, Simon; Troelsen, Jesper T

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPI) encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme, which is highly upregulated during small intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. To identify new putative promoter motifs responsible for the regulation of ALPI expression during differentiation of the en...

  15. Differences between intestinal segments and soybean meal-induced changes in intestinal mucus composition of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, van der M.C.; Propsting, M.J.; Battermann, F.; Jung-Schroers, V.; Hubner, A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Steinhagen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The alimentary tract is a possible site where pathogens and toxins can enter. The alimentary tract is protected, amongst others, by mucus. In this study, tissue samples and crude mucus preparations from different parts of the intestinal tract of Cyprinus carpio (from intestinal bulb onto the

  16. PENDING ISSUES OF PATHOGENESIS IN CHILDREN’S INFLAMMATORY INTESTINAL DISEASES. THE ROLE OF INTESTINAL PARIETAL MICROFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Shumilov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory intestinal diseases are among the critical issues in modern pediatrics. The article discusses the specific nature of genetic predisposition and immune mechanisms of this pathology, as well as the impact of intestinal microflora on the development and evolution of inflammatory intestinal diseases in children. It outlines current views on pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease and non-specific ulcerative colitis. It describes in detail the local immune system functioning mechanism of the digestive tract system and functions of its individual components. It explains the phenomenon of food tolerance. It demonstrates the results of modern research and further problem study prospects.Key words: inflammatory intestinal diseases, non-specific ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, pathogenesis, intestinal microflora, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(5:54-58

  17. Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica se caracteriza por la presencia de cuadros clínicos recidivantes que simulan una obstrucción intestinal pero en ausencia de proceso obstructivo anatómico. Es poco frecuente pero determina una alta morbilidad. Se origina como consecuencia de una alteración de la motilidad intestinal que no puede hacer progresar su contenido debido a la afectación de su componente muscular, neurológico o de ambos. Son más frecuentes los casos secundarios a un proceso sistémico pero cada vez se describen más cuadros debidos a la afectación primaria de dichos componentes. El desarrollo de técnicas manométricas e histológicas más específicas ha permitido aclarar la patogenia de algunos de estos síndromes, entre los que se incluyen las manifestaciones paraneoplásicas y las enfermedades mitocondriales. La expresión clínica es variable y depende de la causa y de la localización y extensión de la afectación. El diagnóstico de esta entidad es habitualmente difícil lo que origina que a estos pacientes se les practiquen cirugías innecesarias, se les etiquete como enfermos psiquiátricos y el diagnóstico se realice varios años después del inicio de los síntomas. El tratamiento se dirige a mejorar los síntomas y a mantener su estado nutricional mediante medidas dietético-nutricionales, fármacos y actitudes endoscópico-quirúrgicas. La complejidad de estos enfermos aconseja su seguimiento multidisciplinar.Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical intestinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure of the intestinal motility is a consequence of muscular disorder, neurological disorder or both

  18. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTE IN AGOUTIS BRED IN CAPTIVITY MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL EM CUTIAS CRIADAS EM CATIVEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO LUÍS MARTINS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines are colonized by microorganisms, which vary according to the species and the intestinal region. Thus, due the lack of information about this subject in literature, this research was developed for better knowing some aspects of the intestinal microbiology of the agouti, considered one of the biggest Brazilian wild rodents. Three males and three not pregnant adult females, belonging to the Catanduva City Zoo, SP, went through laparotomy after anesthesia. Samples were collected with sterile swab in the medium thirds of the jejune, cecum and greater colon after enterotomy. They were cultivated in Sabouraud agar and in TSA (triptone-soy agar. In the jejune, the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was of 83.33%, Salmonella spp. of 66.67% and Clostridium spp. of 50.00% of the samples. In the cecum, they were identified Staphylococcus aureus in 33.33%, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Clostridium spp. in 100% and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples were identified. In the greater colon, the growth of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in 66.67%, Staphylococcus aureus in 83.33%, and Streptococcus spp. in 16.67% of the samples was observed, showing the occurrence of variations in the bacteriae proportion according to the intestinal region. 

    KEY WORDS: Dasyprocta azarae, intestines, microbiote.

    Os intestinos são colonizados por microorganismos, variáveis de acordo com a espécie e região intestinal. Assim, em virtude da ausência de informações sobre esse assunto na literatura, esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para melhor se conhecer alguns aspectos da microbiota intestinal da cutia, um dos maiores roedores selvagens brasileiros. Três machos e três fêmeas adultas vazias, pertencentes ao Zoológico Municipal de Catanduva, SP, foram submetidos a laparotomia mediante anestesia. Amostras com swab estéril foram coletadas nos terços médios do jejuno, ceco e c

  19. The intestinal microbiome in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, J L; Triplett, E W; Gevers, D; Xavier, R; Insel, R; Danska, J; Atkinson, M A

    2014-07-01

    Few concepts in recent years have garnered more disease research attention than that of the intestinal (i.e. 'gut') microbiome. This emerging interest has included investigations of the microbiome's role in the pathogenesis of a variety of autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Indeed, a growing number of recent studies of patients with T1D or at varying levels of risk for this disease, as well as in animal models of the disorder, lend increasing support to the notion that alterations in the microbiome precede T1D onset. Herein, we review these investigations, examining the mechanisms by which the microbiome may influence T1D development and explore how multi-disciplinary analysis of the microbiome and the host immune response may provide novel biomarkers and therapeutic options for prevention of T1D. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  20. [Aorto-intestinal fistulas. 4 case reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansky, G; Valli, C; Häcki, W H; Turina, M

    1984-09-15

    Four cases of aorto-enteric fistula are reported. The two primary types occurred after rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta into the duodenum and as a consequence of tumor infiltration of both the aorta and the intestinal wall in a woman with metastatic ovarian cancer. The two secondary types developed as a late complication of reconstructive surgery of the abdominal aorta. The condition was diagnosed or suspected on the basis of endoscopic findings in two cases. The pathogenetic role of graft infection in the development of secondary aorto-enteric fistula is emphasized. The generally poor prognosis can be considerably improved if prompt resection of the graft is combined with axillo-bifemoral anastomosis.

  1. Intestinal absorbtion from therapeutic iron doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.

    1977-01-01

    On a total of 105 persons with normal iron stores, iron depletion, and iron deficiency the intestinal absorption from therapeutic iron doses (100 mg Fe and 50 mg Fe as ferrous glycocoll sulphate) of a special galenic form was measured. The measurements were performed by means of a whole-body counter and preparations labelled with radio iron ( 59 Fe). Mean values of absorption rates from 100 mg Fe in healthy males were 5.0% and in healthy females 5.6% whereas in latent iron deficiency and in iron deficiency anemia mean values of 10% and 13% were obtained, respectively. The maximum absorption rate of 20 to 25% is reached already in the late stage of latent iron deficiency. Advancing severeness of iron deficiency is not followed by an increase of iron absorption. Investigations an 21 persons showed no significant difference between absorption rates of the galenic preparations used when administered orally before or after breakfast, respectively. (orig.) [de

  2. Intrinsic Defense Mechanisms of the Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanan, Deepshika; Cadwell, Ken

    2016-04-13

    The intestinal epithelium is a single cell layer that facilitates the absorption of nutrients but also provides a tight barrier to prevent pathogen invasion and dissemination of commensal microbes. Specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract achieve this frontline defense by working in concert with lymphoid, myeloid, and stromal cells to secrete an array of factors that limit direct contact between the epithelium and infectious agents. The importance of these mechanisms is underscored by the ability of enteric pathogens to target these mechanisms to achieve invasion and dissemination. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of these intricate molecular and cellular mechanisms adopted by these cells to promote spatial segregation and barrier maintenance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunological Consequences of Intestinal Fungal Dysbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Limon, Jose J; Bar, Agnieszka S; Leal, Christian A; Gargus, Matthew; Tang, Jie; Brown, Jordan; Funari, Vincent A; Wang, Hanlin L; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe; Underhill, David M; Iliev, Iliyan D

    2016-06-08

    Compared to bacteria, the role of fungi within the intestinal microbiota is poorly understood. In this study we investigated whether the presence of a "healthy" fungal community in the gut is important for modulating immune function. Prolonged oral treatment of mice with antifungal drugs resulted in increased disease severity in acute and chronic models of colitis, and also exacerbated the development of allergic airway disease. Microbiota profiling revealed restructuring of fungal and bacterial communities. Specifically, representation of Candida spp. was reduced, while Aspergillus, Wallemia, and Epicoccum spp. were increased. Oral supplementation with a mixture of three fungi found to expand during antifungal treatment (Aspergillus amstelodami, Epicoccum nigrum, and Wallemia sebi) was sufficient to recapitulate the exacerbating effects of antifungal drugs on allergic airway disease. Taken together, these results indicate that disruption of commensal fungal populations can influence local and peripheral immune responses and enhance relevant disease states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of metabolic balance studies in the objective discrimination between intestinal insufficiency and intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahm, August P; Brandt, Christopher F; Askov-Hansen, Carsten; Mortensen, Per B; Jeppesen, Palle B

    2017-09-01

    Background : In research settings that use metabolic balance studies (MBSs) of stable adult patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal failure (IF) and dependence on parenteral support (PS) have been defined objectively as energy absorption absorption Intestinal absorption was measured from April 2003 to March 2015 in 175 consecutive patients with intestinal insufficiency (INS) in 96-h MBSs. They had not received PS 3 mo before referral. Results: To avoid the need for PS, the minimum absorptive requirements were energy absorption of ≥81% of BMR and WW absorption of ≥21 g · kg body weight -1 · d -1 , which were equivalent to findings in research settings (differences of 3.6% and 8.7%; P = 0.65 and 0.60, respectively). Oral failure defined as energy intake absorption and WW absorption, respectively. Conclusions: In clinical settings, the borderlines between INS and IF were not significantly different from those in research settings, even in an unselected patient population in which oral failure was also a predominant cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis. MBSs may be recommended to identify the individual patient in the spectrum from INS to IF, to objectivize the cause of nutritional dyshomeostasis (oral failure, malabsorption, or both), and to quantify the effects of treatment. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. New therapeutic approach in the management of intestinal disease: probiotics in intestinal disease in paediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiara, S; Falconieri, P; Di Nardo, G; Parcelii, M A; Dito, L; Grandinetti, A

    2002-09-01

    Current evidence supports the view that oral administration of probiotics may be of therapeutic usefulness in several clinical disorders by reestablishing normal flora in the gastrointestinal tract. These entities include inflammatory and infectious diseases of the gut as well as extraintestinal disorders (such as atopic eczema) in which a defective intestinal permeability plays a role. The probiotic effects are attributed to restoration to normal of increased intestinal permeability, unbalanced gut microecology, improved immunological gut barrier function, downregulation of the intestinal inflammatory responses with reduced generation of proinflammatory cytokines. Entities for which the impact of probiotic administration can be considered as proven are Rotavirus diarrhoea, Clostridium difficile diarrhoea, post-antibiotic diarrhoea, allergic diseases. On the other hand, entities for which administration of probiotics is considered under investigation are inflammatory bowel disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, cystic fibrosis, small bowel bacterial contamination, functional gastrointestinal disorders. The value of probiotics as therapy for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders in childhood still needs to be investigated in detail, through well controlled and rigorous studies, including a placebo group and strict criteria of randomisation. Much work needs to be done in this area by clearly defining indications, delivery system, costs, safety long-term effects.

  6. Intestinal fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Roberto Koity Fujihara; Speridião, Patrícia da Graça Leite; Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; Morais, Mauro Batista de

    2017-10-28

    To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (pfructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5g/day (p=0.087). Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Intestinal Obstruction due to Complete Transmural Migration of a Retained Surgical Sponge into the Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman with a history of gynecological surgery for cervical cancer 18 years previously was referred to our hospital for colicky abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Intestinal obstruction was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT which showed dilation of the small intestine and suggested obstruction in the terminal ileum. In addition, CT showed a thick-walled cavitary lesion communicating with the proximal jejunum. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed abnormal uptake at the same location as the cavitary lesion revealed by CT. The patient underwent laparotomy for the ileus and resection of the cavitary lesion. At laparotomy, we found a retained surgical sponge in the ileum 60 cm from the ileocecal valve. The cavitary tumor had two fistulae communicating with the proximal jejunum. The tumor was resected en bloc together with the transverse colon, part of the jejunum and the duodenum. Microscopic examination revealed fibrous encapsulation and foreign body giant cell reaction. Since a retained surgical sponge without radiopaque markers is extremely difficult to diagnose, retained surgical sponge should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgery.

  8. Abnormal intestinal permeability in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Jordan J; Meddings, Jonathan; Heathcote, E Jenny

    2006-09-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) found in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) cross-react with bacterial proteins and hence molecular mimicry has been proposed as a mechanism for AMA development. Alterations in gastrointestinal permeability would provide a potential route for increased exposure of gut flora to the immune system. In this study we aimed to compare the measured gastrointestinal permeability in patients with PBC to that in patients with liver disease (hepatitis C) and healthy control populations. Subjects drank a mixture of sucrose, lactulose, and mannitol dissolved in water. Eight-hour urinary excretion of the sugars was measured to assess intestinal permeability. Antiendomysial antibody testing was performed to exclude subclinical celiac disease. Eighty-six patients with PBC were evaluated and compared to 69 hepatitis C patients and 155 healthy controls. The mean urinary excretion of sucrose in the PBC patients (133.89 +/- 72.56 mg) was significantly higher than that in hepatitis C patients (101.07+/-63.35) or healthy controls (89.46+/-41.76) (P=0.0001), suggesting abnormal gastric or proximal small intestinal permeability. Sucrose excretion was not increased among patients with hepatitis C compared to healthy controls. The ratio of lactulose:mannitol excretion, reflecting small bowel permeability, was also elevated in the PBC group (0.017+/-0.012) compared to healthy controls (0.012+/-0.007) (P=0.0001) but was equal to that found among patients with hepatitis C (0.016+/-0.011) (P=NS). We conclude that the permeability of both the stomach and the small bowel is increased in patients with PBC, however, it is unclear if it is a cause, consequence, or manifestation of the disease.

  9. Intestinal transport and metabolism of acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoedl, Bettina; Schmid, Diethart; Wassler, Georg; Gundacker, Claudia; Leibetseder, Valentin; Thalhammer, Theresia; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2007-01-01

    There has been an intensive debate whether dietary exposure to acrylamide could increase the risk of human cancer since the first description of the presence of acrylamide in food in 2002. As the intestinal mechanisms of acrylamide absorption are poorly investigated we studied the transport of acrylamide in differentiated Caco-2 cells and its effects on biotransformation enzymes (CYP2E1 and glutathione S-transferase) and glutathione levels. We found that the apparent permeability of [1- 14 C] acrylamide from the basal to the apical compartment was approximately 20% higher compared to that in the opposite direction. No differences were detected for apical-basal transport against a basal gradient. Transport rates from the apical to the basal chamber at 4 deg. C were about 50% lower than at 37 deg. C. Concentration dependent transport from apical to basal was linear. Predominantly, basal to apical transport was decreased when energy metabolism of the cells was inhibited by application of sodium azide and 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Finally, more acrylamide was transported at luminal pH 6 compared to pH 7.4 from basal to the apical direction. Increasing levels of acrylamide showed no effects on the activity of glutathione S-transferase but resulted in a depletion of total glutathione concentrations. In conclusion transport of acrylamide in the intestine is mediated primarily by passive processes possibly combined with a modest energy- and pH-dependent active secretory component. Depletion of cellular glutathione levels may be one potential mechanism for acrylamide (geno)toxicity

  10. Intestinal Epithelial Cells Synthesize Glucocorticoids and Regulate T Cell Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Igor; Corazza, Nadia; Dick, Bernhard; Fuhrer, Andrea; Herren, Simon; Jakob, Sabine; Ayuni, Erick; Mueller, Christoph; Brunner, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are important steroid hormones with widespread activities in metabolism, development, and immune regulation. The adrenal glands are the major source of GCs and release these hormones in response to psychological and immunological stress. However, there is increasing evidence that GCs may also be synthesized by nonadrenal tissues. Here, we report that the intestinal mucosa expresses steroidogenic enzymes and releases the GC corticosterone in response to T cell activation. T cell activation causes an increase in the intestinal expression of the steroidogenic enzymes required for GC synthesis. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that these enzymes are confined to the crypt region of the intestinal epithelial layer. Surprisingly, in situ–produced GCs exhibit both an inhibitory and a costimulatory role on intestinal T cell activation. In the absence of intestinal GCs in vivo, activation by anti-CD3 injection resulted in reduced CD69 expression and interferon-γ production by intestinal T cells, whereas activation by viral infection led to increased T cell activation. We conclude that the intestinal mucosa is a potent source of immunoregulatory GCs. PMID:15596520

  11. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  12. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  14. Intestinal triacylglycerol synthesis in fat absorption and systemic energy metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Nelson, David W.; Yen, Mei-I

    2015-01-01

    The intestine plays a prominent role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (triglyceride; TAG). Digested dietary TAG is repackaged in the intestine to form the hydrophobic core of chylomicrons, which deliver metabolic fuels, essential fatty acids, and other lipid-soluble nutrients to the peripheral tissues. By controlling the flux of dietary fat into the circulation, intestinal TAG synthesis can greatly impact systemic metabolism. Genes encoding many of the enzymes involved in TAG synthesis have been identified. Among TAG synthesis enzymes, acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 and acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT)1 are highly expressed in the intestine. Their physiological functions have been examined in the context of whole organisms using genetically engineered mice and, in the case of DGAT1, specific inhibitors. An emerging theme from recent findings is that limiting the rate of TAG synthesis in the intestine can modulate gut hormone secretion, lipid metabolism, and systemic energy balance. The underlying mechanisms and their implications for humans are yet to be explored. Pharmacological inhibition of TAG hydrolysis in the intestinal lumen has been employed to combat obesity and associated disorders with modest efficacy and unwanted side effects. The therapeutic potential of inhibiting specific enzymes involved in intestinal TAG synthesis warrants further investigation. PMID:25231105

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  16. Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen's agreement between microbiota and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricilli, Andrea Moro; Castoldi, Angela; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2014-02-15

    Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host's adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier.

  17. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and helminth parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L

    2016-01-01

    Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Developmental changes of prostaglandin processing in rat small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koldovsky, O.; Bedrick, A.

    1986-01-01

    Cytoprotective prostaglandins are present in milk and can be absorbed intact from the gastrointestinal tract in suckling animals. To examine developmental changes in intestinal metabolism of PGF/sub 2α/, everted sacs of small intestinal segments in suckling and weanling rats were prepared. Incubation (60 min) was performed in KRB buffer, pH 7.4 at 37 0 C. Bathing mucosal fluid (MF) contained 3 H-PGF/sub 2α/. MF, intestinal wall (IW) and serosal fluid (SF) were analyzed quantitatively for total radioactivity, and qualitatively by organic solvent extraction followed by thin layer chromatography. Changes in MF radioactivity were minimal after incubation. SU had greater capacity for PGF/sub 2α/ transfer into SF. Compared to WE, SU had greater proportion of intact, unmetabolized PGF/sub 2α/ present in IW of all intestinal segments; i.e., in middle segment: 32.9% +/- 4.5 (mean +/- SEM) vs 17.1% +/- 2.4 (N = 6/group; p < 0.2). WE had more nonpolar PGF/sub 2α/ degradation products present. In each age group, chromatographic patterns of IW and SF were similar for each intestinal region. Intestinal everted sacs of SU and WE transfer PGF/sub 2α/. SU have a greater proportion and amount of unmetabolized PGF/sub 2α/ present in IW and SF than WE. Possible functional significance to the integrity of intestinal mucosal of sucklings has to be considered

  19. Mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinyou; Shimogonya, Yuji; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2017-04-21

    Due to its transparency, the intestine of zebrafish larvae has been widely used in studies of gastrointestinal diseases and the microbial flora of the gut. However, transport phenomena in the intestine of zebrafish larvae have not been fully clarified. In this study, therefore, transport caused by peristaltic motion in the intestine of zebrafish larvae was investigated by numerical simulation. An anatomically realistic three-dimensional geometric model of the intestine at various times after feeding was constructed based on the experimental data of Field et al. (2009). The flow of digested chyme was analyzed using the governing equations of fluid mechanics, together with peristaltic motion and long-term contraction of the intestinal wall. The results showed that retrograde peristaltic motion was the main contributor to the mixing function. The dispersion caused by peristalsis over 30min was in the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s, which is greater than the Brownian diffusion of a sphere of 0.4µm diameter. In contrast, anterograde peristaltic motion contributed mainly to the pumping function. The pressure decrease due to peristalsis was in the order of millipascals, which may reduce the activation and maintenance heat of intestinal muscle. These findings enhance our understanding of the mixing and pumping functions of the intestine of zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of the Paneth cells in chicken small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Li, J; Li, J; Li, R X; Lv, C F; Li, S; Mi, Y L; Zhang, C Q

    2016-07-01

    The Paneth cells are highly specialized cells in the epithelium of the small intestine of many vertebrate species. These cells reside at the base of crypts of the Lieberkühn and contain abundant secretory granules. Previous studies suggesting the existence of Paneth cells in the chicken (Gallus gallus) remained controversial. Here we seek to identify the Paneth cells in the chicken small intestine through morphological examination and specific gene expression. Histological staining and transmission electron microscope confirmed the presence of granulated secretory cells at the base of the crypts in the chicken small intestine. Western blotting experiment also manifested the expression of lysozyme protein, which is specifically secreted by the Paneth cells in the small intestine. Moreover, lysozyme c and lysozyme g mRNAs were expressed in the small intestine of chickens at different ages. Lysozyme c mRNA, in particular, was located at the base of the small intestinal crypts as displayed by in situ hybridization. Collectively, we provide evidences that the Paneth cells indeed exist in the small intestine of the chicken. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.