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Sample records for intestine liver salivary

  1. Stem cell injury and restitution after ionizing irradiation in intestine, liver, salivary gland, mesenteric lymph node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Lee, Sun Joo; Jang, Won Suk

    1998-01-01

    There is little information about radiation injury on stem cell resident in other organs. In addition there is little experimental model in which radiation plays a role on proliferation stem cell in adult organ. This study was carried out to evaluate the early response of tissue injury and restitution in intestine, liver, salivary gland and lymph node, and to develop in vivo model to investigate stem cell biology by irradiation. The study is to assay the early response to radiation and setup an animal model for radiation effect on cellular response. Duodenal intestine, liver, submandibular salivary gland and mesenteric lymph node were selected to compare apoptosis and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression to radiosensitivity. For the effect of radiation on cellular responses, rats were irradiated during starvation. Conclusionly, this study showed the value of apoptosis in detection system for evaluating cellular damage against radiation injury. Because apoptosis was regularly inducted depending on tissue-specific pattern, dose and time sequence as well as cellular activity. Furthermore in vivo model in the study will be helped in the further study to elucidate the relationship between radiation injury and starvation or malnutrition. (author). 22 refs., 6 figs

  2. Relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Ruijuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microecosystem is composed of natural microflora, intestinal epithelial cells, and intestinal mucosal immune system. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is a metabolic stress-induced liver injury associated with insulin resistance and genetic susceptibility. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence showing the involvement of imbalanced intestinal microflora in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Overgrowth of intestinal microflora, increased permeability of intestinal mucosa, intestinal endotoxemia, and production of inflammatory cytokines play important roles in the development of NAFLD. Further studies on the relationship between intestinal microflora imbalance and the pathogenesis of NAFLD may shed light on the treatment and prevention of NAFLD.

  3. Repairing organs: lessons from intestine and liver

    OpenAIRE

    Gehart Helmuth; Clevers Hans

    2015-01-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and liver have uncovered significant plasticity in epithelial tissues. Harnessing this knowledge researchers have recently created culture systems that enable the expansion of stem cells into transplantab...

  4. Repairing organs: lessons from intestine and liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and liver have uncovered significant plasticity in epithelial tissues. Harnessing this knowledge, researchers have recently created culture systems that enable the expansion of stem cells into transplantable tissue in vitro. Here we discuss how the growing tool set of stem cell biology can bring organ repair from fictitious narrative to medical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabl, Bernd; Brenner, David A

    2014-05-01

    The human intestine harbors a diverse community of microbes that promote metabolism and digestion in their symbiotic relationship with the host. Disturbance of its homeostasis can result in disease. We review factors that disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatohepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and cirrhosis. Liver disease has long been associated with qualitative and quantitative (overgrowth) dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota. Extrinsic factors, such as the Western diet and alcohol, contribute to these changes. Dysbiosis results in intestinal inflammation, a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, and translocation of microbial products in animal models. However, the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to liver disease goes beyond simple translocation of bacterial products that promote hepatic injury and inflammation. Microbial metabolites produced in a dysbiotic intestinal environment and host factors are equally important in the pathogenesis of liver disease. We review how the combination of liver insult and disruptions in intestinal homeostasis contribute to liver disease. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Cathleen M; Warner, Brad W

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this review is to provide updates on the definition, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) that are relevant to care of pediatric patients. Current literature emphasizes the multifactorial nature of IFALD. The pathogenesis is still largely unknown; however, molecular pathways have been identified. Key to these pathways are proinflammatory cytokines involved in hepatic inflammation and bile acids synthesis such as Toll-like receptor 4 and farnesoid X receptor, respectively. Research for prevention and treatment is aimed at alleviating risk factors associated with IFALD, principally those associated with parental nutrition. Multiple nutrients and amino acids are relevant to the development of IFALD, but lipid composition has been the primary focus. Lipid emulsions with a lower ratio of omega-6-to-omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) appear to improve bile flow and decrease intrahepatic inflammation. Long-term consequences of these alternative lipid emulsions are yet to be determined. IFALD remains the greatest contributor of mortality in patients with intestinal failure. Many factors contribute to its development, namely, alterations in the gut microbiome, sepsis, and lack of enteral intake. Novel combinations of lipid formulations are promising alternatives to purely soy-based formulas to reduce cholestasis.

  7. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpela, K.; Mutanen, A.; Salonen, A.; Savilahti, E.; Vos, de W.M.; Pakarinen, M.P.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. METHODS: We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent

  8. Bile acids and intestinal microbiota in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Tang, Ruqi; Leung, Patrick S C; Gershwin, M Eric; Ma, Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases, including primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), are manifested as an impairment of normal bile flow and excessive accumulation of potentially toxic bile acids. Endogenous bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis and progression of cholestasis. Consequently, chronic cholestasis affects the expression of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptors, and results in liver injury. Several lines of evidence suggest that intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of cholestatic liver diseases by regulating metabolism and immune responses. However, progression of the disease may also affect the composition of gut microbiota, which in turn exacerbates the progression of cholestasis. In addition, the interaction between intestinal microbiota and bile acids is not unidirectional. Bile acids can shape the gut microbiota community, and in turn, intestinal microbes are able to alter bile acid pool. In general, gut microbiota actively communicates with bile acids, and together play an important role in the pathogenesis of PBC and PSC. Targeting the link between bile acids and intestinal microbiota offers exciting new perspectives for the treatment of those cholestatic liver diseases. This review highlights current understanding of the interactions between bile acids and intestinal microbiota and their roles in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases. Further, we postulate a bile acids-intestinal microbiota-cholestasis triangle in the pathogenesis of autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases and potential therapeutic strategies by targeting this triangle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, An-Ming; Inamine, Tatsuo; Hochrath, Katrin; Chen, Peng; Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Bluemel, Sena; Hartmann, Phillipp; Koyama, Yukinori; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Torralba, Manolito G.; Moncera, Kelvin; Beeri, Karen; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Freese, Kim; Hellerbrand, Claus; Lee, Serene M.L.; Hoffman, Hal M.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Brown, Gordon D.; Bataller, Ramon; Stärkel, Peter; Fouts, Derrick E.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin–like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow–derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ethanol-induced liver disease. We observed that alcohol-dependent patients displayed reduced intestinal fungal diversity and Candida overgrowth. Compared with healthy individuals and patients with non–alcohol-related cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis patients had increased systemic exposure and immune response to mycobiota. Moreover, the levels of extraintestinal exposure and immune response correlated with mortality. Thus, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an altered mycobiota and translocation of fungal products. Manipulating the intestinal mycobiome might be an effective strategy for attenuating alcohol-related liver disease. PMID:28530644

  10. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated With Histological Liver Steatosis in Pediatric-Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpela, Katri; Mutanen, Annika; Salonen, Anne; Savilahti, Erkki; de Vos, Willem M; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-01

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD) is the major cause of mortality in IF. The link between intestinal microbiota and IFALD is unclear. We compared intestinal microbiota of patients with IF (n = 23) with healthy controls (n = 58) using culture-independent phylogenetic microarray analysis. The microbiota was related to histological liver injury, fecal markers of intestinal inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and calprotectin, and disease characteristics. Overabundance of Lactobacilli, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria was observed in IF, whereas bacteria related to Clostridium clusters III, IV, and XIVa along with overall diversity and richness were reduced. Patients were segregated into 3 subgroups based on dominating bacteria: Clostridium cluster XIVa, Proteobacteria, and bacteria related to Lactobacillus plantarum. In addition to liver steatosis and fibrosis, Proteobacteria were associated with prolonged current parenteral nutrition (PN) as well as liver and intestinal inflammation. Lactobacilli were related to advanced steatosis and fibrosis mostly after weaning off PN without associated inflammation. In multivariate permutational analysis of variance, liver steatosis, bowel length, PN calories, and antibiotic treatment best explained the microbiota variation among patients with IF. Intestinal microbiota composition was associated with liver steatosis in IF and better predicted steatosis than duration of PN or length of the remaining intestine. Our results may be explained by a model in which steatosis is initiated during PN in response to proinflammatory lipopolysaccharides produced by Proteobacteria and progresses after weaning off PN, as the L plantarum group Lactobacilli becomes dominant and affects lipid metabolism by altering bile acid signaling.

  11. Viability of the vascularly perfused, recirculating rat intestine and intestine-liver preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, H.; Xu, X.; Pang, K.S. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-08-01

    Function and stability of vascularly perfused, recirculating in situ rat intestine (I) and intestine-liver (IL) preparations were evaluated in fasted and nonfasted rats because these techniques may be readily applied in drug metabolism studies. The rat intestine was perfused with blood medium (7.5 ml/min) via the superior mesenteric artery, with the venous outflow draining into the portal vein, which, together with hepatic arterial flow (2.5 ml/min), constituted the total blood flow (10 ml/min) to the liver. Maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity was observed. Rapid ({sup 14}C)glucose absorption against a concentration gradient and a lack of ({sup 3}H)-polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000, less than 4%) and Evans blue absorption by the recirculating I and IL preparations resulted after bolus injections of these markers into the pyloric end of the duodenum. Other indexes that revealed stable intestinal and liver functions were the following: preservation of reservoir perfusate volume, constancy in perfusion pressure, bile flow, and hemoglobin concentrations, evidence of intestinal glucose utilization and liver glucose production, and a lack of significant leakage of serum glutamic oxalic transaminase. The intestine and liver consumed oxygen at relatively constant rates, but the consumption rates for the fasted tissues (I or L) were significantly higher than those for nonfasted tissues. These results indicate that the vascularly perfused I and IL preparations were maintained in a viable and stable state for a 2-h perfusion period.

  12. Mucosal pH, dental findings, and salivary composition in pediatric liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovich, Esti; Asher, Ran; Shapira, Joseph; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Shapiro, Rivka

    2013-07-15

    Oral health and dental maintenance have become part of the standard of care for pediatric liver transplant recipients. These individuals tend to suffer particularly from dental problems, such as gingival enlargement, gingivitis, poor oral hygiene, dental hypoplasia, and caries. Saliva composition influences oral hygiene and disease states. We investigated saliva composition and its association with the oral health of young recipients of liver transplants. In 70 patients, 36 liver transplant recipients (ages 2-23 years) and 34 healthy controls (ages 4-21 years), we measured the following variables: (a) oral hygiene, (b) gingival inflammation, (c) caries status, (d) dental calculus formation, (e) oral mucosal pH, and (f) salivary protein composition. Lower mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (P=0.0038), higher mean gingival index (P=0.0001), and higher mean calculus score (P=0.003) were found in the transplanted study group compared with the control. The mean mucosal pH for seven intraoral sites was higher in the transplant group (P=0.0006). The median salivary albumin concentration was significantly lower in the transplant group (P=0.01), as was the median salivary albumin/total protein ratio (P=0.0002). In post-liver transplant pediatric recipients, low incidence of caries, together with high incidence of dental calculus, could be attributed to elevated oral mucosal pH. Salivary albumin and immunoglobulin A levels were relatively low in these patients. Clinicians should pay particular attention to the oral health and dental care of liver transplanted children.

  13. Repairing organs : lessons from intestine and liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and

  14. Repairing organs : lessons from intestine and liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehart, Helmuth; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The concept of organ regeneration has fascinated humanity from ancient mythology to modern science fiction. Recent advances offer the potential to soon bring such technology within the grasp of clinical medicine. Rapidly expanding insights into the intrinsic repair processes of the intestine and

  15. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ampicillin on rat intestinal microflora and liver in the presence of high carbohydrate and protein diets. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control, the second group was treated with ampicillin (50 mg/kg for 3 weeks) and fed with a ...

  16. Does liver-intestine significantly degrade circulating endogenous substance P in man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P was determi......Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P....... The results indicate that degradation of circulating endogenous substance P in man is not confined to liver-intestine or kidney but may take place in many tissues....

  17. Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Pulp Phenolic Extract Provides Protection against Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice by Alleviating Intestinal Microbiota Dysbiosis, Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction, and Liver Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Juan; Zhang, Ruifen; Zhou, Qiuyun; Liu, Lei; Huang, Fei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Ma, Yongxuan; Wei, Zhencheng; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Mingwei

    2017-11-08

    Liver injury is the most common consequence of alcohol abuse, which is promoted by the inflammatory response triggered by gut-derived endotoxins produced as a consequence of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether modulation of intestinal microbiota and barrier function, and liver inflammation contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of lychee pulp phenolic extract (LPPE) in alcohol-fed mice. Mice were treated with an ethanol-containing liquid diet alone or in combination with LPPE for 8 weeks. LPPE supplementation alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and downregulated key markers of inflammation. Moreover, LPPE supplementation reversed the ethanol-induced alteration of intestinal microbiota composition and increased the expression of intestinal tight junction proteins, mucus protecting proteins, and antimicrobial proteins. Furthermore, in addition to decreasing serum endotoxin level, LPPE supplementation suppressed CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 expression, and repressed the activation of nuclear factor-κB p65 in the liver. These data suggest that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis, intestinal barrier dysfunction, and liver inflammation are improved by LPPE, and therefore, the intake of LPPE or Litchi pulp may be an effective strategy to alleviate the susceptibility to alcohol-induced hepatic diseases.

  18. Does liver-intestine significantly degrade circulating endogenous substance P in man?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of circulating substance P in patients with liver insufficiency have been ascribed to decreased hepatic degradation. To establish a possible biodegradation of the peptide in liver-intestine and kidneys, the concentration of endogenous immunoreactive substance P...... was determined in various vascular beds during a right-sided catheterization in 13 subjects without liver insufficiency. All subjects had normal values of circulating substance P, and no significant difference was found between systemic plasma and hepatic venous or renal venous concentrations of substance P....... The results indicate that degradation of circulating endogenous substance P in man is not confined to liver-intestine or kidney but may take place in many tissues....

  19. The role of intestinal endotoxemia in liver failure and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Fangyuan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have found that endotoxin not only activates immune response, exacerbates liver injury, and induces liver failure, but also plays an important role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and other fatal complications. The recent progress in research on the pathogenesis of intestinal endotoxemia (IETM and its impact on the development and progression of liver failure is reviewed and summarized. It is suggested that seeking effective methods to prevent and control IETM holds promise as the key to treating severe liver disease and liver failure successfully.

  20. Protection of Radiation-Induced Damage to the Hematopoietic System, Small Intestine and Salivary Glands in Rats by JNJ7777120 Compound, a Histamine H4 Ligand

    OpenAIRE

    Martinel Lamas, Diego J.; Carabajal, Eliana; Prestifilippo, Juan P.; Rossi, Luis; Elverdin, Juan C.; Merani, Susana; Bergoc, Rosa M.; Rivera, Elena S.; Medina, Vanina A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on previous data on the histamine radioprotective effect on highly radiosensitive tissues, in the present work we aimed at investigating the radioprotective potential of the H4R ligand, JNJ7777120, on ionizing radiation-induced injury and genotoxic damage in small intestine, salivary glands and hematopoietic tissue. For that purpose, rats were divided into 4 groups. JNJ7777120 and JNJ7777120-irradiated groups received a daily subcutaneous JNJ7777120 injection (10 mg/kg) starting 24 h be...

  1. Predictors of failure of fish-oil therapy for intestinal failure–associated liver disease in children12

    OpenAIRE

    Nandivada, Prathima; Baker, Meredith A; Mitchell, Paul D; O’Loughlin, Alison A; Potemkin, Alexis K; Anez-Bustillos, Lorenzo; Carlson, Sarah J; Dao, Duy T; Fell, Gillian L; Gura, Kathleen M; Puder, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parenteral fish-oil (FO) therapy is a safe and effective treatment for intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD). Patients whose cholestasis does not resolve with FO may progress to end-stage liver disease.

  2. Macrophages and dendritic cells emerge in the liver during intestinal inflammation and predispose the liver to inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Mikami

    Full Text Available The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/- mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells; and IL-10(-/- mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-CD11c(lowPDCA-1(+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+CD45RB(high T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/- mice and IL-10(-/- mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs and conventional DCs (cDCs. Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+ T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.

  3. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto

    2016-01-01

    ) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip...

  4. Multi-modality curative treatment of salivary gland cancer liver metastases with drug-eluting bead chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, and surgical resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzorakoleftherakis Evaggelos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Liver metastases are rare in salivary gland tumors and have been reported only once to be the first manifestation of the disease. They are usually treated with surgical resection of the primary tumor and systemic chemotherapy. Drug-eluting bead chemoembolization has an evolving role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as in the treatment of metastatic disease of the liver. Nevertheless, it has never been used in a patient with salivary gland liver metastases. Case presentation We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian Greek woman who presented to our hospital with liver metastases as the first manifestation of an adenoid cystic carcinoma of the left submandibular gland. The liver lesions were deemed inoperable because of their size and multi-focality and proved resistant to systemic chemotherapy. She was curatively treated with a combination of doxorubicin eluting bead (DC Beads chemoembolization, intra-operative and percutaneous radiofrequency ablation, and radiofrequency-assisted surgical resection. The patient remained disease-free one year after the surgical resection. Conclusion In conclusion, this complex case is an example of inoperable liver metastatic disease from the salivary glands that was refractory to systemic chemotherapy but was curatively treated with a combination of locoregional therapies and surgery. A multi-disciplinary approach and the adoption of modern radiological techniques produced good results after conventional therapies failed and there were no other available treatment modalities.

  5. Reversal of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Christian; Kodjabashia, Kamelia; Nixon, Emma

    2016-01-01

    in an adult patient with IF secondary to severe Crohn's disease and multiple small bowel resections. The patient developed liver dysfunction and pathology consistent with IFALD. Multiple causal factors were implicated, including nutrition-related factors, catheter sepsis and the use of hepatotoxic medications....... Multidisciplinary treatment in a tertiary IF referral centre included aggressive sepsis management, discontinuation of hepatotoxic medications and a reduction of parenteral nutrition dependency through optimisation of enteral nutrition via distal enteral tube feeding. Upon this, liver function tests normalised....

  6. Intestinal microbiota regulate xenobiotic metabolism in the liver.

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    Britta Björkholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The liver is the central organ for xenobiotic metabolism (XM and is regulated by nuclear receptors such as CAR and PXR, which control the metabolism of drugs. Here we report that gut microbiota influences liver gene expression and alters xenobiotic metabolism in animals exposed to barbiturates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing hepatic gene expression on microarrays from germfree (GF and conventionally-raised mice (SPF, we identified a cluster of 112 differentially expressed target genes predominantly connected to xenobiotic metabolism and pathways inhibiting RXR function. These findings were functionally validated by exposing GF and SPF mice to pentobarbital which confirmed that xenobiotic metabolism in GF mice is significantly more efficient (shorter time of anesthesia when compared to the SPF group. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate that gut microbiota modulates hepatic gene expression and function by altering its xenobiotic response to drugs without direct contact with the liver.

  7. Severe Sarcopenia and Increased Fat Stores in Pediatric Patients With Liver, Kidney, or Intestine Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangus, Richard S; Bush, Weston J; Miller, Christina; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A

    2017-11-01

    Malnutrition and wasting predict clinical outcomes in children with severe chronic illness. Objectively calculated malnutrition in children with end-stage organ failure has not been well studied. This analysis compares children with kidney, liver or intestine failure to healthy controls to quantitate the disparity in muscle and fat stores. Children younger than 19 years with end-stage liver, kidney, or intestine failure and with pretransplant computed tomography (CT) imaging were selected from the transplant database. Age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected from the trauma database. Measures of nutrition status included a scaled scoring of core muscle mass, and visceral and subcutaneous fat stores. Analysis was conducted using the pooled and individually matched subject-control differences. There were 81 subjects included in the final analysis (liver [n = 35], kidney [n = 20], and intestine [n = 26]). Children with end-stage liver disease had a 23% reduction in muscle mass, a 69% increase in visceral fat, and a 29% increase in subcutaneous fat. End-stage renal disease patients had a 19% reduction in muscle mass and a 258% increase in subcutaneous fat. Intestine failure patients had a 24% reduction in muscle mass, a 30% increase in visceral fat, and a 46% increase in subcutaneous fat. These results demonstrate significant sarcopenia and increased fat stores in end-stage organ failure patients, which supports the idea of an active physiologic mechanism to store fat while losing muscle mass. Sarcopenia may be related to total protein loss from a catabolic state, or from decreased synthesis (liver), wasting (kidney), or malabsorption (intestine).

  8. Total intermittent Pringle maneuver during liver resection can induce intestinal epithelial cell damage and endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A W G Dello

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The intermittent Pringle maneuver (IPM is frequently applied to minimize blood loss during liver transection. Clamping the hepatoduodenal ligament blocks the hepatic inflow, which leads to a non circulating (hepatosplanchnic outflow. Also, IPM blocks the mesenteric venous drainage (as well as the splenic drainage with raising pressure in the microvascular network of the intestinal structures. It is unknown whether the IPM is harmful to the gut. The aim was to investigate intestinal epithelial cell damage reflected by circulating intestinal fatty acid binding protein levels (I-FABP in patients undergoing liver resection with IPM. METHODS: Patients who underwent liver surgery received total IPM (total-IPM or selective IPM (sel-IPM. A selective IPM was performed by selectively clamping the right portal pedicle. Patients without IPM served as controls (no-IPM. Arterial blood samples were taken immediately after incision, ischemia and reperfusion of the liver, transection, 8 hours after start of surgery and on the first post-operative day. RESULTS: 24 patients (13 males were included. 7 patients received cycles of 15 minutes and 5 patients received cycles of 30 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion. 6 patients received cycles of 15 minutes selective hepatic occlusion and 6 patients underwent surgery without inflow occlusion. Application of total-IPM resulted in a significant increase in I-FABP 8 hours after start of surgery compared to baseline (p<0.005. In the no-IPM group and sel-IPM group no significant increase in I-FABP at any time point compared to baseline was observed. CONCLUSION: Total-IPM in patients undergoing liver resection is associated with a substantial increase in arterial I-FABP, pointing to intestinal epithelial injury during liver surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01099475.

  9. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum hepatospecific markers (AST, ALT and ALP) were estimated. The antioxidant status of liver tissues was estimated for GSH, MDA, GST, LDH and vitamin C l, in addition to sodium and potassium. Results: Administration of orogastric dose of ampicillin for 3 weeks induced inhibition of E.coli, yeasts, total anaerobes, and ...

  10. Liver Inflammation Relates to Decreased Canalicular Bile Transporter Expression in Pediatric Onset Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-02-23

    Although liver disease is a major complication of parenteral nutrition (PN) for intestinal failure (IF), its pathogenesis remains unclear. We investigated potential molecular mechanisms of liver injury in pediatric onset IF. Liver expression of canalicular phospholipid (ABCB4), bile acid (ABCB11), and sterol (ABCG5/8) transporters, their upstream regulators LXR and FXR as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were investigated among patients with IF [age median 3.8 (IQR 1.2 to 11)] in relation to biochemical and histologic liver injury, PN, serum plant sterols, fibroblast growth factor 19, and α-tocopherol. Patients receiving PN currently (n = 18) showed more advanced liver injury than patients after weaning off PN (n = 30). Histologic portal inflammation strongly segregated PN-dependent (44%) from weaned off patients (3%, P = 0.001) and coupled with progression of cholestasis and liver fibrosis. Patients with portal inflammation demonstrated markedly induced liver RNA expression of IL6 and TNF, repression of FXR and its canalicular bile transporter target gene RNA expression, including ABCB4 and ABCB11 as well as decreased protein expression of ABCB11 and ABCB4. Furthermore, upregulation of LXR and ABCG5/8 RNA expression was suppressed in patients with portal inflammation. Current PN, increased serum levels of plant sterols stigmasterol, avenasterol, and sitosterol along with serum citrulline, a marker of enterocyte mass, predicted portal inflammation. In pediatric onset IF, current PN delivery synergistically with intestinal compromise promote liver inflammation, which associates with progression of biochemical and histologic liver injury, while reducing expression of canalicular bile transporters.

  11. Intestinal and liver morphometry of the Yellow Tail Tetra (Astyanax altiparanae fed with oregano oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POLLYANNA M.F. FERREIRA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oregano oil on the intestinal and liver morphometry of yellow tail tetra, Astyanax altiparanae. Fish (1.46 ± 0.09 g were kept in a 60-L aquaria, at a stocking density of 0.5 fi sh L-1. Six diets containing varying amounts of oregano oil were evaluated (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 g of oregano oil kg-1. At the end of 90 days, the fi sh were euthanised. Four intestines and four livers were collected per treatment, which were fi xed in Bouin and embedded in resin. For height and width folds, the absorption surface area and thickness of the muscular layer a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. A decrescent linear effect on the total number of goblet cells was also observed. For the cytoplasmic percentage of hepatocytes and liver glycogen, a positive linear effect of oregano oil was observed. There was a decreasing linear effect on the percentage of nuclei in the hepatocytes and capillaries. Thus, the oregano essential oil promotes increased absorption areas, modulates the amount of goblet cells involved in protecting the intestinal mucosa and promotes cytoplasmic increase with greater deposition of liver glycogen in yellow tail tetra.

  12. The State of Pancreatobiliary System and Intestinal Microflora in Children with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavgorodnya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD combines with a variety of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis, and acts as hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Not only the liver is a target organ in the formation of metabolic syndrome: also exist a possibility of gallbladder, pancreas and biliary tract steatosis. Fatty infiltration of the pancreatobiliary system associates with disturbance of digestive processes that promotes dysbiotic changes and intestinal disorders. Changes in intestinal microbiota, in turn, may induce systemic inflammatory response and promote NAFLD development and progression. Objective: to explore the structural and functional state of the pancreatobiliary system and changes of the enteric microflora in children with NAFLD. Methods. In 34 children with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, we have determined controlled attenuation parameter by means of FibroScan. Assessment of functional status of biliary tract was performed using an ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs with test meal in order to determine gallbladder contractility and the sphincter of Oddi function. To characterize the state of the enteric microbiota, there was carried out a hydrogen breath test with glucose or lactose loading. Children were divided into groups according to the the transient elastography of the liver (FibroScan: the control group was represented by 21 patients without liver steatosis, the main group — 13 patients with liver steatosis. Results. Children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease had signs of not only liver pathology, but also of the bile ducts and the pancreas. Biliary tract dysfunction in patients with NAFLD more often manifested as hypotension of the sphincter of Oddi and the gallbladder hypokinesia. Lesions of the pancreas function in children with NAFLD can be explained by the sphincter of Oddi disorders and manifestations of pancreatic

  13. Enhanced gastrointestinal expression of cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1 induces intestinal and liver lipogenic gene expression and intestinal cell proliferation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Dwairi

    Full Text Available The small intestine participates in lipid digestion, metabolism and transport. Cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1 is an enzyme that generates NADPH used in fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Previous work has correlated liver and adipose ME1 expression with susceptibility to obesity and diabetes; however, the contributions of intestine-expressed ME1 to these conditions are unknown. We generated transgenic (Tg mice expressing rat ME1 in the gastrointestinal epithelium under the control of the murine villin1 promoter/enhancer. Levels of intestinal ME1 protein (endogenous plus transgene were greater in Tg than wildtype (WT littermates. Effects of elevated intestinal ME1 on body weight, circulating insulin, select adipocytokines, blood glucose, and metabolism-related genes were examined. Male Tg mice fed a high-fat (HF diet gained significantly more body weight than WT male littermates and had heavier livers. ME1-Tg mice had deeper intestinal and colon crypts, a greater intestinal 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling index, and increased expression of intestinal lipogenic (Fasn, Srebf1 and cholesterol biosynthetic (Hmgcsr, Hmgcs1, genes. The livers from HF diet-fed Tg mice also exhibited an induction of cholesterol and lipogenic pathway genes and altered measures (Irs1, Irs2, Prkce of insulin sensitivity. Results indicate that gastrointestinal ME1 via its influence on intestinal epithelial proliferation, and lipogenic and cholesterologenic genes may concomitantly impact signaling in liver to modify this tissue's metabolic state. Our work highlights a new mouse model to address the role of intestine-expressed ME1 in whole body metabolism, hepatomegaly, and crypt cell proliferation. Intestinal ME1 may thus constitute a therapeutic target to reduce obesity-associated pathologies.

  14. Fatty acid-binding protein in liver and small intestine of the preruminant calf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    Cytosol obtained from differential centrifugation of homogenates from liver and small intestine mucosa was incubated with 1-[ 14 C] oleic acid or 1-[ 14 C] palmitic acid and filtered through Sephadex G-75. Elution profiles for both tissues showed radioactivity in two main peaks, the first corresponding to binding of fatty acid to high molecular weight proteins and the second to a protein fraction with a molecular weight of approximately 12,000 daltons. The low molecular weight fraction had high fatty acid-binding activity, which was greater for oleic than palmitic acid. The findings demonstrate the presence of fatty acid-binding protein in liver and intestinal mucosa of the preruminant calf

  15. Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-[2,3- 3 H]-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO 3 with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter

  16. Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.

  17. NKD1 marks intestinal and liver tumors linked to aberrant Wnt signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stančíková, Jitka; Krausová, Michaela; Kolář, Michal; Fafílek, Bohumil; Švec, Jiří; Sedláček, Radislav; Neroldová, M.; Dobeš, Jan; Horázná, Monika; Janečková, Lucie; Vojtěchová, Martina; Oliverius, M.; Jirsa, M.; Kořínek, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2015), s. 245-256 ISSN 1873-3913 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/11/1780; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011032 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Wnt signaling * NKD 1 * Intestine * Liver * Colorectal cancer * Hepatocellular carcinoma Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology

  18. FEATURES OF THE LARGE INTESTINE MICROFLORA OF CHILDREN – DONOR LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Gabrielyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study microecology of the large intestine of children with cirrhosis before transplantation of the share liver. Materials and methods. Studied the flora of the colon 157 children of 1 to 17 years admitted to hospital for liver transplantation fragment from a related donor. Identification was carried out using microbial panels BD Crystal and databases BBL Crystal MIND. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were determined by their sensiti- vity to oxacillin and cefoxitin. Beta-lactamase activity was tested using discs with ceftazidime and ceftazidime/ clavulanic acid. Results. Microecological revealed deep irregularities in the large intestine transplantation in children up lobe of the liver on a spectrum and composition of the microflora. Among the resident microflora decreased levels of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and coliform bacteria, especially in children under one year. A sig- nificant portion of the children surveyed (over 60–70% had an increase of frequency of finding stateally bacteria, especially Klebsiella and enterobacteria in third children – non-fermenting bacteria – Pseudomonas and Acine- tobacter spp. Revealed the spread of strains of gram-negative bacteria with extended-spectrum betalaktamaz.Conclusion. Expressed microecological violations in the large intestine in children with higher levels of bac- teria are conditionally risk factor reeks of infectious complications in the postoperative period and require are complex tools to assist in eliminatsii.s given antibiotic resistance of bacteria. 

  19. Transesterification of a series of 12 parabens by liver and small-intestinal microsomes of rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Chieri; Watanabe, Yoko; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    Hydrolytic transformation of parabens (4-hydroxybenzoic acid esters; used as antibacterial agents) to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and alcohols by tissue microsomes is well-known both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we investigated transesterification reactions of parabens catalyzed by rat and human microsomes, using a series of 12 parabens with C1-C12 alcohol side chains. Transesterification of parabens by rat liver and small-intestinal microsomes occurred in the presence of alcohols in the microsomal incubation mixture. Among the 12 parabens, propylparaben was most effectively transesterified by rat liver microsomes with methanol or ethanol, followed by butylparaben. Relatively low activity was observed with longer-side-chain parabens. In contrast, small-intestinal microsomes exhibited higher activity towards moderately long side-chain parabens, and showed the highest activity toward octylparaben. When parabens were incubated with liver or small-intestinal microsomes in the presence of C1-C12 alcohols, ethanol and decanol were most effectively transferred to parabens by rat liver microsomes and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Human liver and small-intestinal microsomes also exhibited significant transesterification activities with different substrate specificities, like rat microsomes. Carboxylesterase isoforms, CES1b and CES1c, and CES2, exhibited significant transesterification activity toward parabens, and showed similar substrate specificity to human liver and small-intestinal microsomes, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction of Drug or Food with Drug Transporters in Intestine and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2015-01-01

    Oral bioavailability (F) is determined as fraction of the drug dose absorbed through the gastrointestinal membranes (Fa), the unmetabolized fraction of the absorbed dose that passes through the gut into the portal blood (Fg), and the hepatic first pass availability (Fh), namely F is expressed as the product of Fa, Fg and Fh (F = Fa.Fg.Fh). Current evidence suggests that transporter proteins play a role in intestinal absorption and hepatobiliary clearance of drugs. Among those transporters, this review will focus on PEPT1 and OATP2B1 as influx transporter and p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and BCRP as efflux transporter in intestinal epithelial cells, and on OATP1B1 and 1B3 as influx transporter and MRP2 as efflux transporter in hepatocytes, respectively, because drug-drug (DDI) and -food (DFI) interactions on these transporter are considered to affect bioavailability of their substrate drugs. DDI and DFI may reduce systemic exposure to drug by blocking influx transporters in intestine, but increase it by modulating influx and efflux transporters in liver and efflux transporters in intestines. Namely, drug disposition and efficacy are likely affected by DDI and DFI, resulting in treatment failures or increase in adverse effect. Therefore, it is of significantly importance to understand precise mechanism of DDI and DFI. This review will present information about transporter-based DDI and DFI in the processes of intestinal absorption and hepatic clearance of drugs, and discuss about their clinical implication.

  1. Mucosal pH, dental findings, and salivary composition in pediatric liver transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovich, E.; Asher, R.; Shapira, J.; Brand, H.S.; Veerman, E.C.I.; Shapiro, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Oral health and dental maintenance have become part of the standard of care for pediatric liver transplant recipients. These individuals tend to suffer particularly from dental problems, such as gingival enlargement, gingivitis, poor oral hygiene, dental hypoplasia, and caries. Saliva

  2. Altered systemic bile acid homeostasis contributes to liver disease in pediatric patients with intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yong-Tao; Cao, Yi; Zhou, Ke-Jun; Lu, Li-Na; Cai, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Intestinal failure (IF)-associated liver disease (IFALD), as a major complication, contributes to significant morbidity in pediatric IF patients. However, the pathogenesis of IFALD is still uncertain. We here investigate the roles of bile acid (BA) dysmetabolism in the unclear pathogenesis of IFALD. It found that the histological evidence of pediatric IF patients exhibited liver injury, which was characterized by liver bile duct proliferation, inflammatory infiltration, hepatocyte apoptosis and different stages of fibrosis. The BA compositions were altered in serum and liver of pediatric IF patients, as reflected by a primary BA dominant composition. In IF patients, the serum FGF19 levels decreased significantly, and were conversely correlated with ileal inflammation grades (r = -0.50, p liver, the expression of induction of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile salt synthesis, cytochrome P450 7a1 (CYP7A1) increased evidently. In conclusion, ileum inflammation decreases FXR expression corresponding to reduce serum FGF19 concentration, along with increased hepatic bile acid synthesis, leading to liver damages in IF patients.

  3. Specific microbiome changes in a mouse model of parenteral nutrition associated liver injury and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Kirk; El Kasmi, Karim C; Anderson, Aimee L; Devereaux, Michael W; Fillon, Sophie A; Robertson, Charles E; Wagner, Brandie D; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R; Sokol, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been a life-saving treatment in infants intolerant of enteral feedings. However, PN is associated with liver injury (PN Associated Liver Injury: PNALI) in a significant number of PN-dependent infants. We have previously reported a novel PNALI mouse model in which PN infusion combined with intestinal injury results in liver injury. In this model, lipopolysaccharide activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling, soy oil-derived plant sterols, and pro-inflammatory activation of Kupffer cells (KCs) played key roles. The objective of this study was to explore changes in the intestinal microbiome associated with PNALI. Microbiome analysis in the PNALI mouse identified specific alterations within colonic microbiota associated with PNALI and further association of these communities with the lipid composition of the PN solution. Intestinal inflammation or soy oil-based PN infusion alone (in the absence of enteral feeds) caused shifts within the gut microbiota. However, the combination resulted in accumulation of a specific taxon, Erysipelotrichaceae (23.8% vs. 1.7% in saline infused controls), in PNALI mice. Moreover, PNALI was markedly attenuated by enteral antibiotic treatment, which also was associated with significant reduction of Erysipelotrichaceae (0.6%) and a Gram-negative constituent, the S24-7 lineage of Bacteroidetes (53.5% in PNALI vs. 0.8%). Importantly, removal of soy oil based-lipid emulsion from the PN solution resulted in significant reduction of Erysipelotrichaceae as well as attenuation of PNALI. Finally, addition of soy-derived plant sterol (stigmasterol) to fish oil-based PN restored Erysipelotrichaceae abundance and PNALI. Soy oil-derived plant sterols and the associated specific bacterial groups in the colonic microbiota are associated with PNALI. Products from these bacteria may directly trigger activation of KCs and promote PNALI. Furthermore, the results indicate that lipid modification of PN solutions may alter

  4. Intestinal endotoxins as co-factors of liver injury in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, B B; Tatlicioglu, E; Akyol, G; Uluoglu, O; Sultan, N; Yilmaz, E; Celebi, M; Taneri, F; Ferahkose, Z

    1996-01-01

    The concept of endotoxin-mediated rather than direct liver injury in biliary obstruction was investigated using the experimental rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Small identical doses of intravenous endotoxin (bacterial LPS) caused a significantly more severe liver injury in rats with BDL, compared with sham-operated rats, suggesting the possible contribution of LPS in this type of liver damage. BDL was then combined with surgically created jejunal self-filling blind loops, which resulted in SBBO. Plasma LPS level increased significantly, and once again a more severe liver injury, determined by liver histology and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, was observed compared with the control group of rats with BDL+self-emptying blind loops. The data presented suggest that small amounts of exogenous LPS and/or the ordinarily innocous amounts of LPS constantly absorbed from the intestinal tract may be critical in the hepatic damage caused by obstruction of the biliary tract.

  5. Persistent abnormal liver fibrosis after weaning off parenteral nutrition in pediatric intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Koivusalo, Antti I; Rintala, Risto J; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of pediatric intestinal failure (IF) on liver histology. Altogether, 38 IF patients (median age: 7.2 years; range, 0.2-27) underwent liver biopsy, gastroscopy, abdominal ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Sixteen patients were on parenteral nutrition (PN) after 74 PN months (range, 2.5-204). Twenty-two had weaned off PN 8.8 years (range, 0.3-27) earlier, after 35 PN months (range, 0.7-250). Fifteen transplant donor livers served as controls. Abnormal liver histology was found in 94% of patients on PN and 77% of patients weaned off PN (P = 0.370). During PN, liver histology weighted with cholestasis (38% of patients on PN versus 0% of patients weaned off PN; P = 0.003) and portal inflammation (38% versus 9%; P = 0.050) were found. Fibrosis (88% versus 64%; P = 0.143; Metavir stage: 1.6 [range, 0-4] versus 1.1 [range, 0-2]; P = 0.089) and steatosis (50% versus 45%; P = 1.000) were equally common during and after weaning off PN. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (78 U/L [range, 19-204] versus 34 [range, 9-129]; P = 0.009) and conjugated bilirubin (43 μmol/L [range, 1-215] versus 4 [range, 1-23]; P = 0.037) were significantly higher during than after weaning off PN. Esophageal varices were encountered in 1 patient after weaning off PN. Metavir stage was associated with small bowel length (r = -0.486; P = 0.002) and number of septic episodes (r = 0.480; P = 0.002). In a multivariate analysis, age-adjusted small bowel length (ß = -0.533; P = 0.001), portal inflammation (ß = 0.291; P = 0.030), and absence of an ileocecal valve (ß = 0.267; P = 0.048) were predictive for fibrosis stage. Despite resolution of cholestasis and portal inflammation, significant liver fibrosis and steatosis persist after weaning off PN. Extensive small intestinal resection was the major predictor for liver fibrosis stage. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Hop Paul Brousse, INSERM, Hepatobiliary Ctr, U785, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Univ Paris Sud, Fac Med, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [INSERM, U803, F-91400 Orsay (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, Lab Imagerie Mol Expt, F-91400 Orsay (France); Roux, J.; Cales, P. [Univ Angers, UPRES EA 3859, Lab Hemodynam Interact Fibrose et Invas Tumorale H, Angers (France); Clerc, J. [Hop Cochin, AP HP, Dept Nucl Med, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas (HIP) gene, also called pancreatitis-associated protein-1 (PAP1) or Reg III {alpha}, is activated in most human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not in normal liver, which suggests that HIP regulatory sequence could be used as efficient liver tumor-specific promoters to express a therapeutic polynucleotide in liver cancer. The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS), which has recognized therapeutic and reporter gene properties, is appropriate to evaluate the transcriptional strength and specificity of the HIP promoter in HCC. For this purpose, we constructed a recombinant rat HIP-NIS adeno-viral vector (AdrHIP-NIS), and evaluated its performance as a mediator of selective radio-iodide uptake in tumor hepatocytes. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and iodide uptake assays were performed in AdrHIP-NIS-infected primary hepatocytes and transformed hepatic and non-hepatic cells. Nuclear imaging, tissue counting and immuno-histo-chemistry were performed in normal and HCC-bearing Wistar rats infected with AdrHIP-NIS intra-tumorally or via the hepatic artery. In AdrHIP-NIS-infected transformed hepatic cells, functional NIS was strongly expressed, as in cells infected with a cytomegalovirus-NIS vector. No NIS expression was found in AdrHIP-NIS-infected normal hepatocytes or transformed non-hepatic cells. In rats bearing multi-nodular HCC, AdrHIP-NIS triggered functional NIS expression that was preferential in tumor hepatocytes. Administration of 18 mCi of {sup 131}I resulted in the destruction of AdrHIP-NIS-injected nodules. This study has identified the rHIP regulatory sequence as a potent liver tumor-specific promoter for the transfer of therapeutic genes, and AdrHIP-NIS-mediated. {sup 131}I therapy as a valuable option for the treatment of multi-nodular HCC. (authors)

  7. The Intestinal Microbiome and the Liver Transplant Recipient: What We Know and What We Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, Iliana; Leise, Michael D; Watt, Kymberly D

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiome and immune system are in close symbiotic relationship in health. Gut microbiota plays a role in many chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis. However, alterations in the gut microbiome after liver transplantation and the implications for liver transplant recipients are not well understood and rely mainly on experimental animal studies. Recent advances in molecular techniques have identified that increased intestinal permeability, decreased beneficial bacteria, and increased pathogenic species may play important roles in the early posttransplant period. The associations between microbiota perturbation and postliver transplant infections and acute rejection are evolving. The link with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and cardiac disease in the general population require translation into the transplant recipient. This review focuses on our current knowledge of the known and potential interaction of the microbiome in the liver transplant recipient. Future human studies focused on microbiota changes in liver transplant patients are warranted and expected.

  8. The Role of Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth in Obesity-Related Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. Ferolla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is a progressive disorder involving a spectrum of conditions that include pure steatosis without inflammation, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, fibrosis and cirrhosis. The key factor in the pathophysiology of NAFLD is insulin resistance that determines lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes, which may be followed by lipid peroxidation, production of reactive oxygen species and consequent inflammation. Recent studies suggest that the characteristics of the gut microbiota are altered in NAFLD, and also, that small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO contributes to the pathogenesis of this condition. This review presents the chief findings from all the controlled studies that evaluated SIBO, gut permeability and endotoxemia in human NAFLD. We also discuss the possible mechanisms involving SIBO, lipid accumulation and development of NASH. The understanding of these mechanisms may allow the development of new targets for NASH treatment in the future.

  9. ASSOCIATION OF INTESTINAL AMOEBIASIS WITH NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE (NAFLD- A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarendra Narayan Choudhary

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Little work has been done to show the association of intestinal amoebiasis with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There are so many factors, which are related with the causation of NAFLD as for example obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesteraemia and sedentary living. Besides these, there are many unknown or little known factors, which should be studied. Amoebiasis is very common infection in North India including Gangetic plain of Bihar. These two conditions are very frequently observed together in a same person; therefore, a case-control study was done to confirm the association between these two conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study, 120 cases of diagnosed NAFLD were taken of the age group between 30 years to 60 years, both male and female. 130 persons who were not suffering from NAFLD were taken as a control group in the same age and sex composition in the same community. Stool examination of all these 250 persons were done and cases of amoebiasis were diagnosed after getting at least two positive findings out of three examinations. RESULTS Prevalence of amoebiasis was clearly in excess in the NAFLD group in comparison to control group. This difference was tested statistically by calculating standard error of difference between two proportions and Chi-square test. The result showed a positive, strong and statistically significant association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis. CONCLUSION There is a strong association between NAFLD and intestinal amoebiasis and further study is needed to show the biological plausibility to establish the causation.

  10. Hydrolysis of Pyrethroids by Human and Rat Tissues: Examination of Intestinal, Liver and Serum Carboxylesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver, and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ~2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (~40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin, and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected. Together

  11. Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ∼ 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (∼ 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected

  12. Intestinal flora imbalance promotes alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by the TGFβ/smad signaling pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Hao, Xiuxian; Xu, Lili; Cui, Jing; Xue, Li; Tian, Zibin

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal flora performs a crucial role in human health and its imbalance may cause numerous pathological changes. The liver can also affect the intestinal function through bile secretion via the enterohepatic cycle. The pathophysiological association between the gut and the liver is described as the gut-liver axis. The present study investigated the role of intestinal flora in alcohol-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 36 C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 different dietary regimes: Group I (alcohol injury; received alcohol); group II (alcohol injury with flora imbalance; received alcohol plus lincomycin hydrochloride) and group III (alcohol injury with corrected flora imbalance; received alcohol, lincomycin hydrochloride and extra probiotics). The present study then investigated several indicators of liver damage. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice serum were studied. Masson staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was also performed, and the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (smad) 3 and smad4 proteins in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the mice was examined using western blot analysis. The levels of serum ALP, AST and ALT were the highest in group II mice, and all 3 levels decreased in group III mice compared with those from group II. The degree of liver fibrosis was aggravated in group II mice compared with group I mice. The apoptosis of HSCs was significantly inhibited in group II mice, but was increased in group III mice. The HSCs in group II mice exhibited higher expression of smad3 and smad4, whilst group III mice (with corrected intestinal flora imbalance) exhibited downregulated expression of smad3 and smad4. The present data indicates that the intestinal flora perform a significant role in maintaining liver homeostasis. Furthermore, an imbalance of intestinal flora can exacerbate alcohol

  13. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly des...

  14. Modulation of intestinal and liver fatty acid-binding proteins in Caco-2 cells by lipids, hormones and cytokines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dube, N.; Delvin, E.; Yotov, W.; Garofalo, C.; Bendayan, M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Levy, E.

    2001-01-01

    Intestinal and liver fatty acid binding proteins (I- and L-FABP) are thought to play a role in enterocyte fatty acid (FA) trafficking. Their modulation by cell differentiation and various potential effectors was investigated in the human Caco-2 cell line. With the acquisition of enterocytic

  15. Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus through Combined Liver-Small Intestine-Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monique A; Weil, Lauren M; Jin, Sherry; Johnson, Thomas; Hayden-Mixson, Tonya R; Khudyakov, Yury; Annambhotla, Pallavi D; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kamili, Saleem; Ritter, Jana M; Nelson, Noele; Mazariegos, George; Green, Michael; Himes, Ryan W; Kuhar, David T; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Miller, Jeffrey A; Wiseman, Rachel; Moorman, Anne C

    2017-04-01

    Although transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) through blood transfusion has been documented, transmission through organ transplantation has not been reported. In August 2015, state health officials in Texas, USA, were notified of 2 home health nurses with HAV infection whose only common exposure was a child who had undergone multi-visceral organ transplantation 9 months earlier. Specimens from the nurses, organ donor, and all organ recipients were tested and medical records reviewed to determine a possible infection source. Identical HAV RNA sequences were detected from the serum of both nurses and the organ donor, as well as from the multi-visceral organ recipient's serum and feces; this recipient's posttransplant liver and intestine biopsy specimens also had detectable virus. The other organ recipients tested negative for HAV RNA. Vaccination of the donor might have prevented infection in the recipient and subsequent transmission to the healthcare workers.

  16. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzeri, Erika; Usai, Paolo

    2017-06-14

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites. Thus leading to so-called topical effects, which, in turn, lead to an impairment of the intestinal barrier. This process determines bacterial translocation and toxic substances of intestinal origin in the portal circulation, leading to an endotoxaemia. This condition could determine a liver inflammatory response and might promote the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, mostly in patients with risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and a high fat diet, which may induce a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiota may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related disorders in two ways: firstly causing a malfunction of the tight junctions that play a critical role in the increase of intestinal permeability, and then secondly leading to the development of insulin resistance, body weight gain, lipogenesis, fibrogenesis and hepatic oxidative stress.

  17. Serum plant sterols, cholestanol, and cholesterol precursors associate with histological liver injury in pediatric onset intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Nissinen, Markku J; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Gylling, Helena; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2014-10-01

    Increased serum concentrations of plant sterols, including stigmasterol, during parenteral nutrition (PN) have been linked with serum biochemical signs of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), whereas clinical data on their correlation to histologic liver injury have been limited. We studied interrelations between serum noncholesterol sterols and histologic liver injury in pediatric-onset intestinal failure (IF). Serum plant sterols (stigmasterol, avenasterol, sitosterol, and campesterol), cholestanol, and cholesterol precursors (cholestenol, lathosterol, and desmosterol) were measured in 50 IF patients at a median age 7.3 y and in 86 matched controls. Forty patients underwent liver biopsies. Sixteen patients had been receiving PN for 45 mo, and 34 patients had received PN for 9.1 mo but had not received PN for 5.4 y. Serum plant sterols were higher in patients who were currently receiving PN than in controls and were related to conjugated bilirubin (r = 0.799-0.541, P 2-fold higher in patients with persistent liver steatosis than in those without steatosis or controls (P liver steatosis after weaning off PN. Serum cholestanol reflects liver injury in IF patients. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Effect of colibacillosis or coccidiosis on expression of breast cancer resistance protein in small intestine and liver of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L; Dong, L; Bughio, S; Guo, M; Wang, L

    2014-02-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) is a member of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter superfamily that occurs in a variety of tissues including liver and small intestine of animals. As BCRP is involved in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination, modulation of its expression may affect the clinical efficacy of drugs. However, little is known about the effects of coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection on the levels of BCRP expression in chickens. Here, we studied the effect of infection with Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Eimeriida mixture (E. necatrix and E. tenella) on the expression levels of ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP in the different segments of small intestine and liver in chickens. Expression of ABCG2 mRNA or BCRP was detected in the entire small intestine and liver of healthy chickens, and the expression levels in liver and ileum were significantly higher than duodenum and jejunum. Infection with E. coli or Eimeriida mixture resulted in significant decrease in ABCG2 mRNA and BCRP expression in liver, ileum, and jejunum, but not in duodenum, in comparison with noninfection control. The results indicate that coccidiosis or colibacillosis infection inhibits BCRP expression in chickens, which may consequently influence drug distribution and therapeutic efficacy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The extent of intestinal failure-associated liver disease in patients referred for intestinal rehabilitation is associated with increased mortality: an analysis of the pediatric intestinal failure consortium database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Patrick J; Oron, Assaf P; Duggan, Christopher; Squires, Robert H; Horslen, Simon P

    2017-09-05

    The advent of regional multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation programs has been associated with improved survival in pediatric intestinal failure. Yet, the optimal timing of referral for intestinal rehabilitation remains unknown. We hypothesized that the degree of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) at initiation of intestinal rehabilitation would be associated with overall outcome. The multicenter, retrospective Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium (PIFCon) database was used to identify all subjects with baseline bilirubin data. Conjugated bilirubin (CBili) was used as a marker for IFALD, and we stratified baseline bilirubin values as CBili4 mg/dL. The association between baseline CBili and mortality was examined using Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 272 subjects in the database, 191 (70%) children had baseline bilirubin data collected. 38% and 28% of patients had CBili >4 mg/dL and CBili 4 mg/dL, prematurity, race, and small bowel atresia. On regression analysis controlling for age, prematurity, and diagnosis, the risk of mortality was increased by 3-fold for baseline CBili 2-4 mg/dL (HR 3.25 [1.07-9.92], p=0.04) and 4-fold for baseline CBili >4 mg/dL (HR 4.24 [1.51-11.92], p=0.006). On secondary analysis, CBili >4 mg/dL at baseline was associated with a lower chance of attaining enteral autonomy. In children with intestinal failure treated at intestinal rehabilitation programs, more advanced IFALD at referral is associated with increased mortality and decreased prospect of attaining enteral autonomy. Early referral of children with intestinal failure to intestinal rehabilitation programs should be strongly encouraged. Treatment Study, Level III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expert beliefs regarding novel lipid-based approaches to pediatric intestinal failure-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Ivan R; Grant, Robert C; Feldman, Brian M; Tomlinson, George A; Pencharz, Paul B; Ling, Simon C; Moore, Aideen M; Wales, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    To determine expert beliefs regarding the probability of intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) with novel lipid-based approaches (lipid minimization/ω-3 lipids) in managing IFALD to facilitate Bayesian analyses of clinical trials of these therapies. Structured interviews were conducted using a validated approach to belief elicitation with 60 intestinal failure (IF) experts from across North America. Participants were asked to estimate, in an average population of infants referred for management of IF with early IFALD, the probability of advanced IFALD at 3 months following referral in each of 3 scenarios: (1) conventional lipid, (2) ω-3 lipids, and (3) lipid minimization. Probability distributions of the risk of advanced IFALD with each strategy were developed. Distributions of the elicited treatment effect for the novel approaches, relative to conventional lipid, were calculated. Median duration of experience of participants managing patients with IF was 8.5 (range, 2-35) years. The median probability of advanced IFALD using conventional lipid was 32.5%; ω-3 lipids, 17.5%; and lipid minimization, 13%. The median of the elicited treatment effects relative to conventional lipid was a relative risk of 0.53 for the ω-3 lipid and 0.45 for lipid minimization. There was consistent expert opinion that the novel lipid-based approaches are superior to conventional therapy, with similar estimates of treatment efficacy for the 2 approaches. The distributions of the elicited treatment effects can be used as prior distributions in Bayesian analyses of clinical trials of these novel strategies. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Induction of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A by St John's Wort in the Rat Liver and Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuong Tran Phan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been well reported that complementary medicines can significantly alter the way the body handles conventional drugs, leading to potential fatal herb-drug interactions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of drug interactions involving St John's wort (SJW (Hypericum perforatum L , a popular herbal medicine widely used for depression, particularly examining changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 CYP3A, the most abundant drug metabolising CYP enzymes in man. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were assigned randomly into 3 groups (n = 6/group: control, low dose and high dose (500 and 1000 mg/kg/day of SJW, equal to 1500 and 3000 µg/kg/day of Hypericin. Each group was treated with SJW or control preparation, by gastric gavage, for 14 consecutive days. Liver and intestinal CYP3A activity and protein and mRNA levels, from five segments of the intestine, were examined using CYP3A-dependent erythromycin N-demethylation activity assay, quantitative immuno-blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Increase in CYP3A activity and protein level by SJW was observed in some intestinal regions, with a 3.0 fold increase in liver CYP3A activity and a 10.6 fold increase in liver CYP3A1 mRNA (p < 0.05 in a dose dependent manner. The results suggested that up regulation of liver CYP3A mRNA and differential induction of intestinal CYP3A play an important role in the molecular mechanism of herb-drug interactions.

  2. Wnt Ligands as a Part of the Stem Cell Niche in the Intestine and the Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmenci, Bahar; Hausmann, George; Valenta, Tomas; Basler, Konrad

    2018-01-01

    The term "Wnt signaling" does not refer to one uniform signal transduction cascade. Instead, it describes the multiple discrete signals elicited by Wnt ligands following their interaction with distinct receptor complexes. The interaction of stem cells with niche cells is coordinated by the involvement of different signaling pathways, including Wnt signaling. The stem cell populations are highly sensitive to modulation of Wnt pathway activity. Wnt signaling is of paramount importance for stem cell self-renewal, survival, proliferation, differentiation, movement, and cell polarity. Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is associated with the pathology of many types of cancer, such as colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Importantly, although often initiated by mutation(s) downstream of the Wnt-receptor complex, the progression of colorectal cancer still seems to be augmented by Wnt ligand-mediated signaling. This chapter focuses on the role of Wnt ligands in the intestine and the liver during homeostasis and cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carboxylated nanodiamonds are neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic on liver, kidney, intestine and lung human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, V; Sergent, J A; Grall, R; Altmeyer-Morel, S; Girard, H A; Petit, T; Gesset, C; Mermoux, M; Bergonzo, P; Arnault, J C; Chevillard, S

    2014-08-01

    Although nanodiamonds (NDs) appear as one of the most promising nanocarbon materials available so far for biomedical applications, their risk for human health remains unknown. Our work was aimed at defining the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of two sets of commercial carboxylated NDs with diameters below 20 and 100 nm, on six human cell lines chosen as representative of potential target organs: HepG2 and Hep3B (liver), Caki-1 and Hek-293 (kidney), HT29 (intestine) and A549 (lung). Cytotoxicity of NDs was assessed by measuring cell impedance (xCELLigence® system) and cell survival/death by flow cytometry while genotoxicity was assessed by γ-H2Ax foci detection, which is considered the most sensitive technique for studying DNA double-strand breaks. To validate and check the sensitivity of the techniques, aminated polystyrene nanobeads were used as positive control in all assays. Cell incorporation of NDs was also studied by flow cytometry and luminescent N-V center photoluminescence (confirmed by Raman microscopy), to ensure that nanoparticles entered the cells. Overall, we show that NDs effectively entered the cells but NDs do not induce any significant cytotoxic or genotoxic effects on the six cell lines up to an exposure dose of 250 µg/mL. Taken together these results strongly support the huge potential of NDs for human nanomedicine but also their potential as negative control in nanotoxicology studies.

  4. Utility of Aminotransferase/Platelet Ratio Index to Predict Liver Fibrosis in Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbo, Carolina; Martinez, María Inés; Cabanne, Ana; Trentadue, Julio; Fernández, Adriana; Gondolesi, Gabriel

    2017-07-01

    Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a frequent indication for intestinal transplantation. Liver biopsy (LBX) is the gold standard test for its diagnosis. Identifying noninvasive markers of fibrosis progression would be of considerable clinical use. Aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) has a good correlation in adult patients with chronic liver disease; few studies have been performed in children with IFALD. To evaluate APRI in a cohort of children with IFALD. Retrospective analysis of a prospective database of patients failure and at least 1 LBX, registered in our unit from March 2006 to December 2014. Forty-nine LBX were done on 36 patients: 20 were male, and 31 had short gut. Fibrosis was found in 71% of LBX. Biopsies were grouped according to the fibrosis stage (METAVIR [M]): (1) group 1 (G1) LBX with M 0, 1, 2 (n = 33) and (2) group 2 (G2) LBX with M 3, 4 (n = 16). The median APRI score was 0.92 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.63-1.50) for G1 and 2.50 (IQR 1.81-5.82) for G2 ( P = .001) The c statistic of the receiving operating characteristic curve was 0.79 (95% CI 0.64-0.94; P 1.6 correlates with advanced fibrosis.

  5. Inhibition of miR122a by Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant increases intestinal occludin expression and protects mice from alcoholic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyang; Zhao, Cuiqing; Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Fengyuan; Li, Xiaokun; McClain, Craig; Yang, Shulin; Feng, Wenke

    2015-05-05

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has a high morbidity and mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption causes disruption of intestinal microflora homeostasis, intestinal tight junction barrier dysfunction, increased endotoxemia, and eventually liver steatosis/steatohepatitis. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the bacteria-free LGG culture supernatant (LGGs) have been shown to promote intestinal epithelial integrity and protect intestinal barrier function in ALD. However, little is known about how LGGs mechanistically works to increase intestinal tight junction proteins. Here we show that chronic ethanol exposure increased intestinal miR122a expression, which decreased occludin expression leading to increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, LGGs supplementation decreased ethanol-elevated miR122a level and attenuated ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. Similar to the effect of ethanol exposure, overexpression of miR122a in Caco-2 monolayers markedly decreased occludin protein levels. In contrast, inhibition of miR122a increased occludin expression. We conclude that LGGs supplementation functions in intestinal integrity by inhibition of miR122a, leading to occludin restoration in mice exposed to chronic ethanol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression in red-tailed phascogale (Phascogale calura liver, lung, small intestine and spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oselyne T.W. Ong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Reference genes serve an important role as an endogenous control/standard for data normalisation in gene expression studies. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for marsupials, independent analysis of reference genes on different immune tissues is yet to be tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes is needed for the selection of stable, expressed genes across different marsupial tissues. Methods The study was conducted on red-tailed phascogales (Phascogale calura using five juvenile and five adult males. The stability of five reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH; β-actin, ACTB; 18S rRNA, 18S; 28S rRNA, 28S; and ribosomal protein L13A, RPL13A was investigated using SYBR Green and analysed with the geNorm application available in qBasePLUS software. Results Gene stability for juvenile and adult tissue samples combined show that GAPDH was most stable in liver and lung tissue, and 18S in small intestine and spleen. While all reference genes were suitable for small intestine and spleen tissues, all reference genes except 28S were stable for lung and only 18S and 28S were stable for liver tissue. Separating the two age groups, we found that two different reference genes were considered stable in juveniles (ACTB and GAPDH and adults (18S and 28S, and RPL13A was not stable for juvenile small intestine tissue. Except for 28S, all reference genes were stable in juvenile and adult lungs, and all five reference genes were stable in spleen tissue. Discussion Based on expression stability, ACTB and GAPDH are suitable for all tissues when studying the expression of marsupials in two age groups, except for adult liver tissues. The expression stability between juvenile and adult liver tissue was most unstable, as the stable reference genes for juveniles and adults were different. Juvenile and adult lung, small intestine and spleen share similar stable reference genes, except for small intestine

  7. [Changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y X; Yu, L; Liu, H J; Cheng, M L

    2017-04-20

    Objective: To investigate the changes in the composition of intestinal microbiota in mice with acute liver failure and identify characteristic bacteria, and to provide a basis for the diagnosis and treatment of acute liver failure with intestinal microbiota disorders. Methods: A total of 30 specific pathogen-free male BALB/c mice were used in this study, including 25 mice in the model group and 5 mice in the control group. An acute liver failure model was induced by D-galactosamine. Microbial DNA was extracted from intestinal contents in different segments of the lower digestive tract (ileum and colon) and feces and then were amplified using PCR. The regions of 16S V3-V4 were subjected to high-throughput sequencing, followed by bioinformatics analyses, including OTU hierarchical clustering, species annotation, alpha-diversity analysis, and LEfSe (LDA Effect Size) analysis. Comparison of continuous data was made using t-test, while comparison of categorical data was made using χ2 test. Results: A total of 10 mice survived in the two groups, with 80% mortality rate in the model group. The alpha-diversity analysis revealed increased bacterial diversity and abundance in the ileum, increased bacterial diversity and reduced bacterial abundance in the colon, and reduced bacterial diversity and insignificantly changed bacterial abundance in feces in the model group compared with the control group. Based on the optimized classification level, significantly reduced abundance of Clostridiaceae (44.95% ± 19.28% vs 7.51% ± 16.57%, P = 0.011) in the ileum, whereas significantly increased abundance of Rikenellaceae (1.08% ± 1.01% vs 4.18% ± 2.39%, P = 0.028), S24-7 (4.75% ± 4.87% vs 22.77% ± 13.05%, P = 0.020), and F16 (0.24% ± 0.28% vs 2.18% ± 1.61%, P = 0.029) in the colon were found in model group compared with the control group. The LEfSe analysis demonstrated that there were significant differences in Staphylococcaceae and S24-7 between the two groups, and S24

  8. Development of intraepithelial T lymphocytes in the intestine of irradiated SCID mice by adult liver hematopoietic stem cells from normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Seki, Shuhji; Shirai, Katsuaki; Yoshida, Yuhei; Miyaji, Chikako; Watanabe, Hisami; Abo, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: We recently reported the adult mouse liver to contain c-kit + stem cells that can give rise to multilineage leukocytes. This study was designed to determine whether or not adult mouse liver stem cells can generate intraepithelial T cells in the intestine as well as to examine the possibility that adult liver c-kit + stem cells originate from the fetal liver. Methods: Adult liver mononuclear cells, bone marrow (BM) cells, liver c-kit + cells or bone BM c-kit + cells of BALB/c mice were i.v. transferred into 4 Gy irradiated CB17/-SCID mice. In other experiments, fetal liver cells from Ly5.1 C57BL/6 mice and T cell depleted adult BM cells from Ly5.2 C57BL/6 mice were simultaneously transferred into irradiated C57BL/6 SCID mice (Ly5.2). At 1 to 8 weeks after cell transfer, the SCID mice were examined. Results: Not only BM cells and BM c-kit + cells but also liver mononuclear cells and liver c-kit + cells reconstituted γδT cells, CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells and CDiα + β - T cells of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes of SCID mice. Injection of a mixture of fetal liver cells from Ly5.1 C57BL/6 mice and adult BM cells from Ly5.2 C57BL/6 mice into Ly5.2 C57BL/6 SCID mice induced both Ly5.1 and Ly5.2 T cells, while also generating c-kit + cells of both Ly5.1 and Ly5.2 origins in the liver. Conclusions: Adult mouse liver stem cells were able to generate intestinal intraepithelial T cells of the SCID mice, and it is thus suggested that some adult liver stem cells may indeed be derived from the fetal liver. (au)

  9. The Protective Role of Starch on Modulating Toxic Effects of Citrullus Colocynthis on Rat Liver and Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Eskandarzade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite using Citrullus colocynthis on treatment of various diseases, serious gastrointestinal disorders like bleeding are reported. In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM, administering equal weights of starch with this plant is suggested to produce more tolerable preparations from it. Hence, we assessed histopathological changes in rat liver and intestine after using starch as corrective agent. Methods: We designed three experiments in Veterinary Medicine School of Shahid Bahonar University in Kerman, Iran in 2016. The procedure was applied in 2016 for 15 days. In the first experiment, group No. 2 and 3 received single daily dose of alcoholic pulp extract of C. colocynthis at 300 and 600 mg/kg extract consecutively. In the second experiment, group No. 4 and 5 received 300 and 600 mg/kg extract plus the same amount of starch consecutively. In the third experiment, group No. 6 and 7 received extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg plus the three times weight of starch consecutively. The live rats were euthanized and their liver and intestine were removed for histopathology examination. The samples were stained with hematoxyline-eosin (H&E. Results: Rats in all of the groups died from bleeding and diarrhea except for group No.6 that showed no symptoms seen in other rats. Microscopic examination of their intestine showed no histopathological lesions or other degenerative changes of the epithelium. Conclusion: Clearly further works in modern phytotherapy will be required to delineate the role of starch in reducing C. colocynthis toxicity. Consumption of adequate weight of starch with the toxic dose of C. colocynthis make it safe for digestive system but could not prevent necrotic changes in the liver.

  10. Obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherothrombosis: a role for the intestinal microbiota?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, M.; Kootte, R.S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Levi, M.; Stroes, E.S.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas the association between intestinal microorganisms and health has been widely accepted in the area of infectious disease, recent advances have now implied a role for the intestinal microbiota in human energy balance. In fact, numerous studies support an intricate relationship between the

  11. Diabetic cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased bile acids in liver and activation of bile acid signaling in intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Fangyu; Zhang, Yidan; Xiong, Hui; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhuang, Pengwei; Zhang, Youcai

    2018-05-01

    Impaired regulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis has been suggested to be associated with adverse metabolic consequences. However, whether BA homeostasis is altered in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction (DCD) remains unknown. In the present study, mice were divided into four groups, namely normal control (NC) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, diabetes without cognitive dysfunction (unDCD) group, and DCD group. Compared to HFD mice, the concentration of total BAs in liver was higher in unDCD and DCD mice, due to increased intestinal BA absorption. DCD mice tended to have higher BA concentrations in both liver and ileum than unDCD mice. Consequently, DCD mice had increased basolateral BA efflux (Ostα, Ostβ, and Mrp4) and decreased BA synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Cyp7b1) in the liver as well as activated Fxr-Fgf15 signaling in the ileum. DCD mice also had increased BA hydroxylation (Cyp3a11) and BA sulfation (Sult2a1) in the liver compared to HFD mice. Furthermore, the bacterial community composition was altered in the cecum of DCD mice, characterized with a marked increase in Defferribacteres and Candidatus Saccharibacteria. In summary, the present study provides the first comprehensive analysis of BA homeostasis in DCD mice, and revealed a potential role of BAs in DCD development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...

  13. Intestinal Endotoxins as Co-Factors of Liver Injury in Obstructive Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Menteş, B. Bülent; Tatlicioğlu, Ertan; Akyol, Gülen; Uluoğlu, Ömer; Sultan, Nedim; Yilmaz, Erdal; Çelebi, Murat; Taneri, Ferit; Ferahköşe, Zafer

    1996-01-01

    The concept of endotoxin-mediated rather than direct liver injury in biliary obsruction was investigated using the experimental rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Small identical doses of intravenous endotoxin (bacterial LPS) caused a significantly more severe liver injury in rats with BDL, compared with sham-operated rats, suggesting the possible contribution of LPS in this type of liver damage. BDL was then combined with surgica...

  14. Basal induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1/1A2 in cells of the liver, small intestinal villi, and lymph nodes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Yu I; Maiborodin, I V; Safina, A F; Strunkin, D N

    2006-06-01

    Rat liver, small intestinal wall, mesenteric, mediastinal, and popliteal lymph nodes of rats were studied by indirect immunoperoxidase method with monoclonal antibodies to cytochrome P-450 1A1/1A2. These cytochrome forms were detected in low concentrations in hepatocytes, macrophages of the small intestinal villi and mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes of intact animals. Basal induction of monooxygenase enzymes can be caused by cytochrome inductors entering with air (environmental pollution) or food.

  15. Raloxifene glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans and monkeys: contribution of UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    1. Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2. Although the K(m) and CL(int) values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans > monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans monkeys) were observed, no significant differences were noted in the K(m) or S50, Vmax and CL(int) or CLmax values for the 4'-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3. The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1 > UGT1A8 >UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4. These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys.

  16. Intestinal first pass metabolism of midazolam in liver cirrhosis --effect of grapefruit juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Natalie; Larsen, Niels-Erik

    2002-01-01

    subjects after ingestion of grapefruit juice. However, this interaction has not been studied in patients with impaired liver function. Accordingly, the effect of grapefruit juice on the AUC of midazolam and the metabolite alpha-hydroxymidazolam was studied in patients with cirrhosis of the liver....

  17. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on the expression of the regulatory genes of ketogenesis in intestine and liver of suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, G; Asins, G; Hegardt, F G; Serra, D

    1998-01-01

    The influence of the injection of dexamethasone on ketogenesis in 12 day old suckling rats was studied in intestine and liver by determining mRNA levels and enzyme activity of the two genes responsible for regulation of ketogenesis: carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) and mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase. Dexamethasone produced a 2 fold increase in mRNA and activity of CPT I in intestine, but led to a decrease in mit. HMG-CoA synthase. In liver the mRNA levels and activity of both CPT I and mit. HMG-CoA synthase decreased. Comparison of these values with the ketogenic rate of both tissues following dexamethasone treatment suggests that mit. HMG-CoA synthase could be the main gene responsible for the regulation of ketogenesis in suckling rats. The changes produced in serum ketone bodies by dexamethasone, with a profile that is more similar to the ketogenic rate in the liver than that in the intestine, indicate that liver contributes more to ketone body synthesis in suckling rats. Two day treatment with dexamethasone produced no change in mRNA or activity levels for CPT I in liver or intestine. While mRNA levels for mit. HMG-CoA synthase changed little, the enzyme activity is decreased in both tissues.

  18. Liver disease associated with intestinal failure in the small bowel syndrome Doença hepática associada à falência intestinal na síndrome do intestino curto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Kemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN has given rise to a new hope in the treatment of intestinal failure (LF associated with the Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS. However, together with the TPN and the increase of survival of these patients, new problems and questions have emerged, as well as new therapeutical procedures. Taking into consideration this emerging reality, this paper has the purpose to undertake a review of current concepts and available treatments for patients with IF associated-liver disease. Although TPN provides an increase of survival of patients with intestinal failure, it is a potential source of complication such as: septicemia, hyperglycemia, venous thrombosis and liver disease. There are several hypothesis conceived to explain the liver disease associated to intestinal failure, however the only definite treatment as a potential to reverse the non-cirrhotic liver disease is the small intestine transplantation. Despite indications for intestine transplantation are not entirely defined in literature, the trend is its early indication in high-risk patients, preserving the liver integrity and preventing the eventual need of both liver and intestine transplantations altogether.A introdução da Nutrição Parenteral Total (NPT despertou uma nova esperança para o tratamento da falência intestina (FI associada a Síndrome do Intestino Curto (SIC. No entanto, junto com a NPT e o aumento da sobrevida destes pacientes, novos problemas e perguntas emergiram, assim como novas terapêuticas. Tendo em vista esta realidade emergente, o intuito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão dos conceitos atuais e dos tratamentos disponíveis para pacientes com doença hepática associada a FI. A NPT apesar de proporcionar aumento da sobrevida nos pacientes com falência intestinal é fonte potencial de complicações, como: septicemia, hiperglicemia, trombose venosa e doença hepática. Diversas são as hipóteses aventadas para

  19. Effect of gastric anacidity on the intestinal absorption of liver bound 57Co-labelled cobalamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittang, E.

    1987-01-01

    57 Co-labelled cyanocobalamin injected in rabbit was transformed within the liver to 57 Co-labelled desoxyadenosylcobalamin and methylcovalamin. The absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins could be determined with acceptable accuracy by the double isotope fecal excretion method. Treatment with the H 2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, did not result in decreased absorption of 57 Co-labelled liver bound cobalamins in healthy individuals. R-protein and the R-proteincobalamin complex were determined by the FPLC Mono S chromatography method with a high degree of correlation to the charcoal method in saliva, gastric and duodenal juice, and with a high degree of reproducibility. Omeprazole markedly inhibited the gastric acid and pepsin secretion, but did nor inhibit the IF secretion. Omeprazole treatment resulted in anacidity in 14 of 17 individuals, but did not reduce the absorption of liver bound 57 Co-labelled cobalamins. The intrinsic factor concentration in gastric aspirates measured during the study was unchanged during omeprazole treatment. The release of cobalamins from liver homogenate was markedly inhibited by neutralized gastric juice in vitro, probably due to decreased pepsin mediated proteolysis. In vivo the cobalamin release from liver homogenate was modestly inhibited in the stomach but was unaffected in jejunum during omeprazole treatment. The major part of 57 Co-labelled liver cobalamins bound to R-protein in acid and neutral gastric juice in vitro, and omeprazole induced anacidity, did not influence the cobalamin binding either in gastric or jejunal juice in vivo

  20. Effects of long-term parenteral nutrition on serum lipids, plant sterols, cholesterol metabolism, and liver histology in pediatric intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvinen, Annika; Nissinen, Markku J; Gylling, Helena; Miettinen, Tatu A; Lampela, Hanna; Koivusalo, Antti I; Rintala, Risto J; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2011-10-01

    Plant sterols (PS) in parenteral nutrition (PN) may contribute to intestinal failure-associated liver disease. We investigated interrelations between serum PS, liver function and histology, cholesterol metabolism, and characteristics of PN. Eleven patients with intestinal failure (mean age 6.3 years) receiving long-term PN were studied prospectively (mean 254 days) and underwent repeated measurements of serum lipids, noncholesterol sterols, including PS, and liver enzymes. PS contents of PN were analyzed. Liver biopsy was obtained in 8 patients. Twenty healthy children (mean age 5.7 years) served as controls. Median percentage of parenteral energy of total daily energy (PN%) was 48%, including 0.9 g · kg(-1) · day(-1) of lipids. Respective amounts of PN sitosterol, campesterol, avenasterol, and stigmasterol were 683, 71, 57, and 45 μg · kg(-1) · day(-1). Median serum concentrations of sitosterol (48 vs 7.5 μmol/L, P liver enzymes remained close to normal range. Glutamyl transferase correlated with serum PS (r = 0.61-0.62, P Liver fibrosis in 5 patients reflected increased serum PS (r = 0.55-0.60, P = 0.16-0.12). Serum PS moderately increase during olive oil-based PN, and correlate positively with PN% and glutamyl transferase. Despite well-preserved liver function, histology often revealed significant liver damage.

  1. Grape Seed Procyanidins and Cholestyramine Differentially Alter Bile Acid and Cholesterol Homeostatic Gene Expression in Mouse Intestine and Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M Heidker

    Full Text Available Bile acid (BA sequestrants, lipid-lowering agents, may be prescribed as a monotherapy or combination therapy to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease. Over 33% of adults in the United States use complementary and alternative medicine strategies, and we recently reported that grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE reduces enterohepatic BA recirculation as a means to reduce serum triglyceride (TG levels. The current study was therefore designed to assess the effects on BA, cholesterol and TG homeostatic gene expression following co-administration with GSPE and the BA sequestrant, cholestyramine (CHY. Eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were treated for 4 weeks with either a control or 2% CHY-supplemented diet, after which, they were administered vehicle or GSPE for 14 hours. Liver and intestines were harvested and gene expression was analyzed. BA, cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acid and TG levels were also analyzed in serum and feces. Results reveal that GSPE treatment alone, and co-administration with CHY, regulates BA, cholesterol and TG metabolism differently than CHY administration alone. Notably, GSPE decreased intestinal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (Asbt gene expression, while CHY significantly induced expression. Administration with GSPE or CHY robustly induced hepatic BA biosynthetic gene expression, especially cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, compared to control, while co-administration further enhanced expression. Treatment with CHY induced both intestinal and hepatic cholesterologenic gene expression, while co-administration with GSPE attenuated the CHY-induced increase in the liver but not intestine. CHY also induced hepatic lipogenic gene expression, which was attenuated by co-administration with GSPE. Consequently, a 25% decrease in serum TG levels was observed in the CHY+GSPE group, compared to the CHY group. Collectively, this study presents novel evidence demonstrating that GSPE provides additive and

  2. The effects of selected flavonoids on cytochromes P450 in rat liver and small intestine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, J.; Burdová, K.; Stiborová, M.; Křen, Vladimír; Hodek, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2009), s. 201-204 ISSN 1337-6853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD305/09/H008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : flavonoids * cytochrome p450 * small intestine Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  3. Circulating endogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in patients with uraemia and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Borg Mogensen, N

    1986-01-01

    The concentration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in peripheral venous plasma was median 6.0 pmol l-1 (range 0-20) in 112 normal subjects. In fifty-three patients with decreased kidney function plasma VIP was significantly increased (median 15.0 pmol l-1, range 0.5-70, P less than 0...

  4. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 triggered vitamin D receptor and Farnesoid X Receptor-like effects in rat intestine, liver, and kidney in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Edwin C. Y.; Maeng, Han-Joo; Khan, Ansar; Groothuis, Genoveva; Pang, K. Sandy

    2009-01-01

    1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Triggered Vitamin D Receptor and Farnesoid X Receptor-like Effects in Rat Intestine, Liver, and Kidney In Vivo E. C. Chow 1, H-J. Maeng 1, A. A. Khan 2, G. M. Groothuis 2, K. S. Pang 1 1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of

  5. Validation of reference genes for expression analysis in the salivary gland and the intestine of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae under different experimental conditions by quantitative real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paim Rafaela M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Recently, genomic resources for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens have increased significantly, and R. prolixus has been one of the main species studied among the triatomines. However, the paucity of information on many of the fundamental molecular aspects of this species limits the use of the available genomic information. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for the normalization of mRNA expression data from qPCR. Results The expression stability of five candidate reference genes (18S rRNA, GAPDH, β-actin, α-tubulin and ribosomal protein L26 was evaluated by qPCR in two tissues (salivary gland and intestine and under different physiological conditions: before and after blood feeding and after infection with T. cruzi or T. rangeli. The results were analyzed with three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. All of the evaluated candidate genes proved to be acceptable as reference genes, but some were found to be more appropriate depending on the experimental conditions. 18S, GAPDH and α-tubulin showed acceptable stability for studies in all of the tissues and experimental conditions evaluated. β-actin, one of the most widely used reference genes, was confirmed to be one of the most suitable reference genes in studies with salivary glands, but it had the lowest expression stability in the intestine after insect blood feeding. L26 was identified as the poorest reference gene in the studies performed. Conclusions The expression stability of the genes varies in different tissue samples and under different experimental conditions. The results provided by three statistical packages emphasize the suitability of all five of the tested reference genes in both the crop and the salivary glands with a few exceptions

  6. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Ajay Kumar; Stoll, Barbara; Burrin, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly...... described metabolic hormone fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) and also glucagon-like peptides-1 and -2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2). We tested the effects of restoring bile acids by treating a neonatal piglet PNALD model with chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). Neonatal pigs received enteral feeding (EN), TPN, or TPN...... growth marked by weight and villus/crypt ratio was significantly reduced in the TPN group compared with the EN group, and CDCA treatment increased both parameters. These results suggest that decreased circulating FGF19 during TPN may contribute to PNALD. Moreover, we show that enteral CDCA not only...

  7. Elevation of HO-1 Expression Mitigates Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Restores Tight Junction Function in a Rat Liver Transplantation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjin Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. This study was aimed at investigating whether elevation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression could lead to restoring intestinal tight junction (TJ function in a rat liver transplantation model. Methods. Intestinal mucosa injury was induced by orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemin (a potent HO-1 activator and zinc-protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, were separately administered in selected groups before OALT. The serum and intestinal mucosa samples were collected at 8 hours after the operation for analysis. Results. Hemin pretreatment significantly reduced the inflammation and oxidative stress in the mucosal tissue after OALT by elevating HO-1 protein expression, while ZnPP pretreatment aggravated the OALT mucosa injury. Meanwhile, the restriction on the expression of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin was removed after hemin pretreatment. These molecular events led to significant improvement on intestinal barrier function, which was proved to be through increasing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and reducing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB in intestinal injured mucosa. Summary. Our study demonstrated that elevation of HO-1 expression reduced the OALT-induced intestinal mucosa injury and TJ dysfunction. The HO-1 protective function was likely mediated through its effects of anti-inflammation and antioxidative stress.

  8. Elevation of HO-1 Expression Mitigates Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Restores Tight Junction Function in a Rat Liver Transplantation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinjin; Yao, Weifeng; Xia, Hua; Jin, Yi; Li, Xi; Cai, Jun; Hei, Ziqing

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study was aimed at investigating whether elevation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression could lead to restoring intestinal tight junction (TJ) function in a rat liver transplantation model. Methods. Intestinal mucosa injury was induced by orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT) on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemin (a potent HO-1 activator) and zinc-protoporphyrin (ZnPP, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor), were separately administered in selected groups before OALT. The serum and intestinal mucosa samples were collected at 8 hours after the operation for analysis. Results. Hemin pretreatment significantly reduced the inflammation and oxidative stress in the mucosal tissue after OALT by elevating HO-1 protein expression, while ZnPP pretreatment aggravated the OALT mucosa injury. Meanwhile, the restriction on the expression of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and occludin was removed after hemin pretreatment. These molecular events led to significant improvement on intestinal barrier function, which was proved to be through increasing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and reducing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in intestinal injured mucosa. Summary. Our study demonstrated that elevation of HO-1 expression reduced the OALT-induced intestinal mucosa injury and TJ dysfunction. The HO-1 protective function was likely mediated through its effects of anti-inflammation and antioxidative stress. PMID:26064429

  9. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  10. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55 increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions.

  11. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christides, Tatiana; Sharp, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sugars enhance iron bioavailability, possibly through either chelation or altering the oxidation state of the metal, however, results have been inconclusive. Sugar intake in the last 20 years has increased dramatically, and iron status disorders are significant public health problems worldwide; therefore understanding the nutritional implications of iron-sugar interactions is particularly relevant. In this study we measured the effects of sugars on non-heme iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells using ferritin formation as a surrogate marker for iron uptake. The effect of sugars on iron oxidation state was examined by measuring ferrous iron formation in different sugar-iron solutions with a ferrozine-based assay. Fructose significantly increased iron-induced ferritin formation in both Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. In addition, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55) increased Caco-2 cell iron-induced ferritin; these effects were negated by the addition of either tannic acid or phytic acid. Fructose combined with FeCl3 increased ferrozine-chelatable ferrous iron levels by approximately 300%. In conclusion, fructose increases iron bioavailability in human intestinal Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. Given the large amount of simple and rapidly digestible sugars in the modern diet their effects on iron bioavailability may have important patho-physiological consequences. Further studies are warranted to characterize these interactions.

  12. Salivary gland tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and neck glands References National Cancer Institute. PDQ salivary gland cancer treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Last modified ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Salivary Gland Cancer Read more Salivary Gland Disorders Read more NIH ...

  13. A.S.P.E.N. clinical guidelines: support of pediatric patients with intestinal failure at risk of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Paul W; Allen, Nancy; Worthington, Patricia; George, Donald; Compher, Charlene; Teitelbaum, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Children with severe intestinal failure and prolonged dependence on parenteral nutrition are susceptible to the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). The purpose of this clinical guideline is to develop recommendations for the care of children with PN-dependent intestinal failure that have the potential to prevent PNALD or improve its treatment. A systematic review of the best available evidence to answer a series of questions regarding clinical management of children with intestinal failure receiving parenteral or enteral nutrition was undertaken and evaluated using concepts adopted from the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. A consensus process was used to develop the clinical guideline recommendations prior to external and internal review and approval by the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Board of Directors. (1) Is ethanol lock effective in preventing bloodstream infection and catheter removal in children at risk of PNALD? (2) What fat emulsion strategies can be used in pediatric patients with intestinal failure to reduce the risk of or treat PNALD? (3) Can enteral ursodeoxycholic acid improve the treatment of PNALD in pediatric patients with intestinal failure? (4) Are PNALD outcomes improved when patients are managed by a multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation team? © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  14. Variability of resting energy expenditure in infants and young children with intestinal failure-associated liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Debora; Mitchell, Paul D; Mehta, Nilesh M; Bechard, Lori J; Yu, Yong-Ming; Jaksic, Tom; Duggan, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine, in a cohort of young children with intestinal failure (IF), whether the estimates of basal metabolic rate (BMR) by standard equations can approximate measured resting energy expenditure (REE) by indirect calorimetry (IC). IC was performed using the dilutional canopy technique. REE measurements were compared with standard, age-based estimation equations (World Health Organization) for BMR. Subjects were classified as hypermetabolic (REE > 110% BMR), hypometabolic (REE BMR), or normal (REE = 90%-110% BMR). Twenty-eight IF patients (11 girls, 17 boys) had an underlying diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 10) or a congenital gastrointestinal defect (n = 18). Median age was 5.3 months. Median interquartile range (IQR) REE was 46 (42-58) kcal · kg · day. Median (IQR) total energy intake provided 209% (172%-257%) of REE, with parenteral nutrition providing 76% (23%) of total energy intake. REE was variable, with 39% (n = 11) of measurements hypermetabolic, 39% (n = 11) hypometabolic, and the remaining 21% (n = 6) normal. Although REE was well correlated with estimated BMR (r = 0.82, P BMR was not consistently an adequate predictor of REE. BMR over- or underestimated REE by >10 kcal · kg · day in 15 of 28 (54%) patients. REE was not significantly correlated with severity of liver disease, nutritional status, total energy intake, or gestational age. Energy expenditure is variable among children with IF and IF-associated liver disease, with approximately 80% of our cohort exhibiting either hypo- or hypermetabolism. Standard estimation equations frequently do not correctly predict individual REE. Longitudinal studies of energy expenditure and body composition may be needed to guide provision of nutrition regimens.

  15. Chia Seed Shows Good Protein Quality, Hypoglycemic Effect and Improves the Lipid Profile and Liver and Intestinal Morphology of Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Toledo, Renata Celi Lopes; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Lucia, Ceres Mattos Della; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-09-01

    Chia has been consumed by the world population due to its high fiber, lipids and proteins content. The objective was to evaluate the protein quality of chia untreated (seed and flour) and heat treated (90 °C/20 min), their influence on glucose and lipid homeostasis and integrity of liver and intestinal morphology of Wistar rats. 36 male rats, weanling, divided into six groups which received control diet (casein), free protein diet (aproteic) and four diet tests (chia seed; chia seed with heat treatment; chia flour and chia flour with heat treatment) for 14 days were used. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) were evaluated. The biochemical variables and liver and intestinal morphologies of animals were determined. The values of PER, NPR and TD did not differ among the animals that were fed with chia and were lower than the control group. The animals that were fed with chia showed lower concentrations of glucose; triacylglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the control group. The liver weight of animals that were fed with chia was lower than the control group. Crypt depth and thickness of intestinal muscle layers were higher in groups that were fed with chia. The consumption of chia has shown good digestibility, hypoglycemic effect, improved lipid and glycemic profiles and reduced fat deposition in liver of animals, and also promoted changes in intestinal tissue that enhanced its functionality.

  16. The Dietary Effects of Fermented (CBT on Production Performance, Liver Lipids and Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zheng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris CBT® was evaluated for its effects on egg production, egg quality, liver lipids and intestinal microflora in laying hens. One hundred and eight Hy-line Brown layers (n = 108, 80 wk of age, were fed a basal diet supplemented with CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 42 d. Egg production was measured daily and egg quality was measured every two weeks. Five eggs from each replicate were collected randomly to determine egg quality. Egg production increased linearly with increasing levels of CBT® supplementation (p<0.05, although there was no significant effect of treatment on feed intake. Egg yolk color (p<0.001 and Haugh unit (p<0.01 improved linearly with increasing dietary CBT®. Hepatic triacylglycerol level was linearly decreased with increasing dietary CBT® (p<0.05. The supplemental CBT® resulted in linear (p<0.001 and quadratic (p<0.01 response in population of cecal lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, fermented Chlorella vulgaris supplemented to laying hen diets improved egg production, egg yolk color, Haugh unit and positively affected the contents of hepatic triacylglycerol and the profiles of cecal microflora.

  17. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-Induced Apoptosis and Antioxidant Gene Expression in the Gills, Liver, and Intestine of Oryzias latipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wuk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs have many attractive properties with potential applications in various fields. Despite their usefulness, however, the associated waste can be hazardous to the environment. To examine adverse effects in aquatic environments, Oryzias latipes were exposed to MWCNTs dispersed in water for 14 days and apoptosis and antioxidant gene expression were observed. This work showed that in gills exposed to 100 mg/L MWCNTs for 4 days, there was significant p53, caspase-3 (Cas3, caspase-8 (Cas8, and caspase-9 (Cas9 gene expression relative to the controls, while catalase (CAT and glutathione-S-transferase (GST expression were reduced. At 14 days, CAT, GST, and metallothionein (MT were induced significantly in the gills and Cas3, Cas8, and Cas9 were induced in the liver. No significant gene induction was seen in intestine. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were increased significantly only at 14 days. Histologically, no apoptosis was observed with exposure to 100 mg/L MWCNTs for 21 days. The gills were more sensitive to MWCNT toxicity than the other organs. Males had higher apoptosis gene induction than females. These results demonstrated that MWCNTs could cause apoptosis in a manner influenced by tissue and gender in aqueous environments.

  18. Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-Induced Apoptosis and Antioxidant Gene Expression in the Gills, Liver, and Intestine of Oryzias latipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Kim, Rosa; Lee, Sung Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have many attractive properties with potential applications in various fields. Despite their usefulness, however, the associated waste can be hazardous to the environment. To examine adverse effects in aquatic environments, Oryzias latipes were exposed to MWCNTs dispersed in water for 14 days and apoptosis and antioxidant gene expression were observed. This work showed that in gills exposed to 100 mg/L MWCNTs for 4 days, there was significant p53, caspase-3 (Cas3), caspase-8 (Cas8), and caspase-9 (Cas9) gene expression relative to the controls, while catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) expression were reduced. At 14 days, CAT, GST, and metallothionein (MT) were induced significantly in the gills and Cas3, Cas8, and Cas9 were induced in the liver. No significant gene induction was seen in intestine. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased significantly only at 14 days. Histologically, no apoptosis was observed with exposure to 100 mg/L MWCNTs for 21 days. The gills were more sensitive to MWCNT toxicity than the other organs. Males had higher apoptosis gene induction than females. These results demonstrated that MWCNTs could cause apoptosis in a manner influenced by tissue and gender in aqueous environments. PMID:26146619

  19. Zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, is increased in association with liver enzymes in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hee; Heo, Ju Sun; Baek, Kyung Suk; Kim, Soo-Yeon; Kim, Jung Hyun; Baek, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Ki Eun; Sheen, Youn Ho

    2018-06-01

    Zonulin is acknowledged as the only physiological mediator established to reversibly regulate intestinal permeability through modulation of intercellular tight junctions. We aimed to determine whether there are differences in zonulin levels between 74 subjects with overweight or obesity and 76 with normal-weight and to assess correlations of circulating zonulin levels with anthropometric measures and obesity-related biomarkers. We assessed anthropometric and laboratory measures, including body mass index (BMI) z-score, blood pressure, liver enzymes, lipid profiles, and insulin resistance. Serum zonulin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the participants was 12.8 ± 1.5 years. Circulating serum zonulin levels were significantly increased in subjects with overweight/obesity compared with those of normal-weight (P = 0.03). Zonulin levels were significantly and positively associated with BMI z-score, alanine aminotransferase levels, triglyceride, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (all P zonulin levels in adolescents with overweight or obesity (P zonulin levels in this subgroup analysis (P = 0.06). Serum zonulin is a biomarker associated with hepatic metabolic disturbances in young adolescents with overweight or obesity. The positive relationship suggests a potentially relevant pathophysiological mechanism linking zonulin to hepatic metabolism in this age group of young adolescents with overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential expression patterns of Nqo1, AKR1B8 and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice treated with sulforaphane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled “butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice” (Luo et al., 2015 [1], which defined the basal and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA-induced expression patterns of Phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinylbutane] (SFN, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase II cytoprotective enzymes. This dataset reports the histological changes of Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT and Nrf2-/- mice induced by SFN. The mice were given a 25 mg/kg single oral dose of SFN for 24 h and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, SFN increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes with slight higher staining in the pericentral region. The induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located predominately in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 appeared more obvious in the villus than that in the crypt.

  1. The effect of fasting/refeeding and insulin treatment on the expression of the regulatory genes of ketogenesis in intestine and liver of suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, G; Asins, G; Hegardt, F G; Serra, D

    1997-04-15

    The influence of fasting/refeeding and insulin treatment on ketogenesis in 12-day-old suckling rats was studied in intestine and liver by determining mRNA levels and enzyme activity of the two genes responsible for regulation of ketogenesis: carnitine palmitoyl transferase I (CPT I) and mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase. Fasting produced hardly any change in mRNA or activity of CPT 1 in intestine, but led to a decrease in mitochondrial (mit.) HMG-CoA synthase. In liver, while mRNA levels and activity for CPT I increased, neither parameter was changed in HMG-CoA synthase. The comparison of these values with the ketogenic rate of both tissues under the fasting/refeeding treatment shows that HMG-CoA synthase could be the main gene responsible for regulation of ketogenesis in suckling rats. The small changes produced in serum ketone bodies in fasting/refeeding, with a profile similar to the ketogenic rate of the liver, indicate that liver contributes most to ketone body synthesis in suckling rats under these experimental conditions. Short-term insulin treatment produced increases in mRNA levels and activity in CPT I in intestine, but it also decreased both parameters in mit. HMG-CoA synthase. In liver, graphs of mRNA and activity were nearly identical in both genes. There was a marked decrease in mRNA levels and activity, resembling those values observed in adult rats. As in fasting/refeeding, the ketogenic rate correlated better to mit. HMG-CoA synthase than CPT I, and liver was the main organ regulating ketogenesis after insulin treatment. Serum ketone body concentrations were decreased by insulin but recovered after the second hour. Long-term insulin treatment had little effect on the mRNA levels for CPT I or mit. HMG-CoA synthase, but both the expressed and total activities of mit. HMG-CoA synthase were reduced by half in both intestine and liver. The ketogenic rate of both organs was decreased to 40% by long-term insulin treatment. The different effects of refeeding

  2. Biliary-duodenal anastomosis using magnetic compression following massive resection of small intestine due to strangulated ileus after living donor liver transplantation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ryusuke; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Seiichi; Ohira, Masahiro; Ide, Kentaro; Ishiyama, Kohei; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2017-12-01

    Despite the improvements of surgical techniques and postoperative management of patients with liver transplantation, biliary complications are one of the most common and important adverse events. We present a first case of choledochoduodenostomy using magnetic compression following a massive resection of the small intestine due to strangulated ileus after living donor liver transplantation. The 54-year-old female patient had end-stage liver disease, secondary to liver cirrhosis, due to primary sclerosing cholangitis with ulcerative colitis. Five years earlier, she had received living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft, with resection of the extrahepatic bile duct and Roux-en-Y anastomosis. The patient experienced sudden onset of intense abdominal pain. An emergency surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was confirmed as strangulated ileus due to twisting of the mesentery. Resection of the massive small intestine, including choledochojejunostomy, was performed. Only 70 cm of the small intestine remained. She was transferred to our hospital with an external drainage tube from the biliary cavity and jejunostomy. We initiated total parenteral nutrition, and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was established to treat the cholangitis. Computed tomography revealed that the biliary duct was close to the duodenum; hence, we planned magnetic compression anastomosis of the biliary duct and the duodenum. The daughter magnet was placed in the biliary drainage tube, and the parent magnet was positioned in the bulbus duodeni using a fiberscope. Anastomosis between the left hepatic duct and the duodenum was accomplished after 25 days, and the biliary drainage stent was placed over the anastomosis to prevent re-stenosis. Contributions to the successful withdrawal of parenteral nutrition were closure of the ileostomy in the adaptive period, preservation of the ileocecal valve, internal drainage of bile, and side-to-side anastomosis

  3. Effects of duration of phenytoin administration on mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein in the liver and small intestine of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kawase

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin; DPH induces expression of cytochromes P450 (CYPs. Interactions between DPH and tacrolimus suggested that the persistence of CYP induction after discontinuation of DPH is dependent on the history of administration and dosing period of DPH. However, the relationship between the duration of DPH administration and expression of CYPs in the liver and small intestine of rats is not known. Alterations in levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1; ABCB1 as well as CYPs cause drug interactions in the small intestine. We examined the effects of the duration of DPH administration on expression of CYPs and P-gp in the liver and small intestine of rats. Rats were treated with DPH (100 mg/kg, peroral (p.o. twice a day (b.d. for 2, 4, 8, and 16 d. mRNA levels of CYPs and P-gp were examined using the total RNA extracted from the liver and duodenum 2 h and 24 h after the final administration of DPH. CYP3A activities were determined using microsomes. DPH administration for 2 d and 4 d markedly increased mRNA levels of CYPs such as CYP3A1, CYP3A2, CYP2B1, and CYP2B2 in the liver. A relatively long duration of DPH administration (8 d and 16 d resulted in abolition of the induction of hepatic CYP but increased CYP3A activities were maintained. These results suggest that the duration of DPH administration could be an important determinant of hepatic CYP induction.

  4. Effects of physical form of starter and forage provision to young calves on blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, H; Mahdavi, A H; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Oskoueian, E; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of physical form of starter feed and forage provision on the performance, blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 52; body weight = 41.5 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 13 per treatment) to one of the following four treatments: (i) ground starter feed (GS; mean particle size = 0.72 mm in diameter), (ii) textured starter feed (TS; mean particle size = 3.61 mm in diameter, including steam-flaked corn and barley), (iii) pelleted starter feed (PS; mean particle size = 4.53 mm in diameter) and (iv) ground starter feed with chopped alfalfa hay (GS + AH; mean particle size = 1.02 mm in diameter). The calves fed GS + AH diets had greater (p intake, final body weight and average daily gain compared with the other groups, while GS and TS groups both had greater (p intake than the PS group. Feed efficiency was found to be better (p calves fed GS + AH had the highest blood concentrations of total protein, globulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), T3 : T4 ratio (p calves fed GS + AH exhibited a greater muscle layer thickness (p calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Enzymes in intestinal juice from patients with liver diseases and colon polyps: measurement of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Y; Saitoh, H; Ying, H; Tamai, Y; Ono, F; Yoshiike, M; Munakata, A; Yoshida, Y

    1996-02-01

    Since the amounts of hepatogenous enzymes discharged into the intestinal tract remain unknown, this study was initiated to evaluate the amounts of the enzymes in the intestinal tract. Whole gut lavage fluid (polyethyleneglycol electrolyte solution) was administered orally to 42 subjects, consisting of 5 patients with hepatoma, 10 with chronic hepatitis, 10 with colon polyps, and 17 control subjects without liver disease. Two hr after the large intestinal lavage, the digestive tract juice was aspirated by colonoscopy, and the bilirubin (Bil), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the aspirates were measured. A positive correlation between the AST and LDH values was found, and a significant difference in these values between the hepatic disorders and the normal controls was noticed. A significant positive correlation between the ALP and Bil values was found, and a statistical difference in these values between the group of colon polyps and the controls and other groups was observed. This lavage fluid technique enables to estimate the amounts of hepatic enzymes discharged into the intestinal tract, thereby opening a new avenue for future enzyme research.

  6. Altered cytochrome P450 activities and expression levels in the liver and intestines of the monosodium glutamate-induced mouse model of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomankova, Veronika; Liskova, Barbora; Skalova, Lenka; Bartikova, Hana; Bousova, Iva; Jourova, Lenka; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Ulrichova, Jitka; Anzenbacherova, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes present from bacteria to man involved in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds incl. drugs. Our objective was to assess whether obesity leads to changes in activities and expression of CYPs in the mouse liver, small intestine and colon. An obese mouse model with repeated injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to newborns was used. Controls were treated with saline. All mice were sacrificed at 8 months. In the liver and intestines, levels of CYP mRNA and proteins were analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Activities of CYP enzymes were measured with specific substrates of human orthologous forms. At the end of the experiment, body weight, plasma insulin and leptin levels as well as the specific content of hepatic CYP enzymes were increased in obese mice. Among CYP enzymes, hepatic CYP2A5 activity, protein and mRNA expression increased most significantly in obese animals. Higher activities and protein levels of hepatic CYP2E1 and 3A in the obese mice were also found. No or a weak effect on CYPs 2C and 2D was observed. In the small intestine and colon, no changes of CYP enzymes were detected except for increased expression of CYP2E1 and decreased expression of CYP3A mRNAs in the colon of the obese mice. Results of our study suggest that the specific content and activities of some liver CYP enzymes (especially CYP2A5) can be increased in obese mice. Higher activity of CYP2A5 (CYP2A6 human ortholog) could lead to altered metabolism of drug substrates of this enzyme (valproic acid, nicotine, methoxyflurane). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The roles of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in colon tight junction protein expression and intestinal mucosa structure in a mouse model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Sa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is a common clinical disease and one of the most severe complications of acute liver failure (ALF. Although the mechanism responsible for SBP is unclear, cytokines play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α on the structure of the intestinal mucosa and the expression of tight junction (Zona Occludens 1; ZO-1 protein in a mouse model of ALF. Methods We induced ALF using D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α and assessed the results using transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, ELISA and real-time quantitative PCR. The effects of administration of anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-TNF-α R1 antibody before administration of GalN/LPS or GalN/TNF-α, respectively, on TNF-α were also assessed. Results Morphological abnormalities in the intestinal mucosa of ALF mice were positively correlated with serum TNF-α level. Electron microscopic analysis revealed tight junction (TJ disruptions, epithelial cell swelling, and atrophy of intestinal villi. Gut bacteria invaded the body at sites where TJ disruptions occurred. Expression of ZO-1 mRNA was significantly decreased in both ALF models, as was the level of ZO-1 protein. Prophylactic treatment with either anti-TNF-α IgG antibody or anti-tumor necrosis factor-a receptor1 (anti-TNF-α R1 antibody prevented changes in intestinal tissue ultrastructure and ZO-1 expression. Conclusion TNF-α affects the structure of the intestinal mucosa, decreases expression of ZO-1, and affects the morphology of the colon in a mouse model of ALF. It also may participate in the pathophysiological mechanism of SBP complicated to ALF.

  8. [Role of intestinal microbiocenosis and endotoxemia in the development of accompanying diseases and functional status of liver in patients after hemicolectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, L B; Li, I A; Varvanina, G G

    2011-01-01

    The state of dynamic equilibrium between the host micro-organisms, it settled, and the environment called "eubiosis" in which human health is at an optimum level. The development of the gastrointestinal tract requiring surgical intervention was determined not only by the degree of pathological process activity, endotoxemia level dysbiotic bowel disturbances, but also disturbances in the patient's immune system. The aim of our study was to examine the influence of gut microbiota and endotoxemia on the development of comorbidity and functional status of the liver in patients after hemicolectomy. Were studied a total of 365 patients after undergoing surgery hemicolectomy (right-and left-handed). violations in microbiocenosis intestine, which is most frequently observed in patients after left-sided hemicolectomy, leads to the development of endotoxemia, its toxic effects on the liver, were realized in the development of liver steatosis and steatohepatitis. Thus, the left-sided hemicolectomy increases the risk of steatohepatitis in the late period, which may affect the core functions of the liver and the development of other metabolic disorders. Hyperendotoxemia that was developed in patients as a result of violations of microbiota after left-sided hemicolectomy, increases the risk of developing diseases pancreat-duodenal zone and cardiovascular changes. Certainly, the pathogenesis of these diseases was not determined by left-sided hemicolectomy, but her conduct contributed to the development and progression of these diseases.

  9. Dysbiosis gut microbiota associated with inflammation and impaired mucosal immune function in intestine of humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Wu, Na; Wang, Xuemei; Chi, Yujing; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Xinyun; Hu, Ying; Li, Jing; Liu, Yulan

    2015-02-03

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been considered to be under the influence of the gut microbiota, which might exert toxic effects on the human host after intestinal absorption and delivery to the liver via the portal vein. In this study, the composition of the gut microbiota in NAFLD patients and healthy subjects was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Among those taxa displaying greater than 0.1% average abundance in all samples, five genera, including Alistipes and Prevotella, were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of healthy subjects compared to NAFLD patients. Alternatively, Escherichia, Anaerobacter, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus were increased in the gut microbiota of NAFLD patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ were detected in the NAFLD group compared to the healthy group. Furthermore, irregularly arranged microvilli and widened tight junctions were observed in the gut mucosa of the NAFLD patients via transmission electron microscopy. We postulate that aside from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, gut microbiota-mediated inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and the related impairment in mucosal immune function play an important role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  10. Influence of dietary fatty acids on endocannabinoid and N-acylethanolamine levels in rat brain, liver and small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Andreas; Petersen, Gitte; Hellgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    acid in brain, jejunum and liver. The OA-diet increased brain levels of anandamide and oleoylethanolamide (not 2-arachidonoylglycerol) without changing tissue fatty acid composition. The same diet increased oleoylethanolamide in liver. All five dietary fats decreased oleoylethanolamide in jejunum...... (AA)) on tissue levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, stearoylethanolamide, linoleoylethanolamide, eicosapentaenoylethanolamide, docosahexaenoylethanolamide and tissue fatty acid composition. The LA-diet increased linoleoylethanolamide and linoleic...... without changing levels of anandamide, suggesting that dietary fat may have an orexigenic effect. The AA-diet increased anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in jejunum without effect on liver. The FO-diet decreased liver levels of all N-acylethanolamines (except eicosapentaenoylethanolamide...

  11. Histopathological alterations in the liver and intestine of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus exposed to long-term sublethal concentrations of cadmium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Elsayed; Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab; Al-Asgah, Nasser; Ebaid, Hossam

    2015-07-01

    Fingerlings of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were exposed to 1.68, 3.36, and 5.04 mg/L cadmium (as CdCl2), which represent 10%, 20%, and 30% of their previously determined 96-h LC50. After exposure for 20 days, sections of the liver and intestine of treated fish were examined histologically. Histopathological changes varied from slight to severe structural modification, depending on the exposure concentration. The hepatic tissues of fish exposed to 10% LC50 showed markedly increased vacuolation of the hepatocytes and coarse granulation of their cytoplasm. Abundant erythrocytic infiltration among the hepatocytes was observed in fish exposed to 20% LC50. In the intestinal tissues of fish exposed to all doses, goblet cells proliferated and were greatly increased in size, the longitudinal muscularis mucosa was disturbed and, in the crypts of the sub-mucosal layer, apoptosis increased, indicated by large numbers of degenerated nuclei. Large numbers of inflammatory cells and dilated blood vessels were observed in the intestine of the group treated with 30% LC50.

  12. Lack of evidence for a liver or intestinal miRNA regulation involved in the hypertriglyceridemic effect of APOC3 3'UTR variant SstI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, Marine; Caussy, Cyrielle; Di Filippo, Mathilde; Moulin, Philippe; Marçais, Christophe; Charrière, Sybil

    2016-12-01

    APOC3 is a major regulator of triglycerides metabolism. Several APOC3 variants are associated with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Our aim was to establish the potential regulation of APOC3 3'UTR variants associated with HTG by liver or intestinal miRNAs. We sequenced APOC3 3'UTR in 100 type 2 diabetic (TD2) patients with severe HTG (TG > 15 mmol/L) (HTG group) compared to 100 normotriglyceridemic patients (NTG group). We performed in silico studies to identify potential loss of miRNA binding induced by APOC3 3'UTR variants. We also performed in vitro studies to test the functionality of miRNA/APOC3 variants interactions: APOC3 3'UTR plasmids coupled with a firefly luciferase reporter were transfected in HepG2, HuH-7 and Caco-2 cells. We identified only two variants: SstI (rs5128) and BbvI (rs5225) in APOC3 3'UTR in the 2 groups of patients. Only the SstI-S2 rare allele was significantly associated with HTG (allele frequency 19,5% in HTG group vs. 9,5% in NTG group, p = 0.0045). In silico studies predicted a potential loss in the binding of 5 miRNAs induced by the S2 variant. These 5 miRNAs are all endogenously expressed in human liver and intestine, as well as in the cell models studied. However, in vitro, the S2 variant did not modulate APOC3 3'UTR reporter gene expression in HepG2, HuH-7 and Caco-2 cells. Our results do not confirm the hypothesis of a direct regulation of the APOC3 SstI variant by hepatic or intestinal miRNAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intermittent clamping of the hepatic pedicle in simultaneous ultrasonography-guided liver resection and colorectal resection with intestinal anastomosis: is it safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raffele, Emilio; Mirarchi, Mariateresa; Vaccari, Samuele; Cuicchi, Dajana; Lecce, Ferdinando; Dalla Via, Barbara; Cola, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    In patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and synchronous colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) potentially candidates to combined liver (LR) and colorectal resection (CRR), the extent of LR and the need of hepatic pedicle clamping (HPC) in selected cases are considered risk factors for the outcome of the intestinal anastomosis. This study aimed to determine whether intermittent HPC is predictive of anastomotic leakage (AL) and has an adverse effect on the clinical outcome in patients undergoing combined restorative CRR and LR. One hundred six LR have been performed for CRLM in our unit from July 2005. Patients who received CRR with anastomosis and simultaneous intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS)-guided LR/ablation for resectable CRLM were included in this study. CRR was performed first. Intermittent HPC was decided at the discretion of the liver surgeon. The perioperative outcome was evaluated according to occurrence of AL and overall postoperative morbidity and mortality. Thirty-eight patients underwent simultaneous IOUS-guided LR/ablation and CRR with intestinal anastomosis; 19 underwent intermittent HPC (group ICHPY) while 19 did not (group ICHPN); the mean ± SD (range) duration of clamping in group ICHPY was 58.6 ± 32.2 (10.0-125.0) min. Postoperative results were similar between groups. One asymptomatic AL occurred in group ICHPY (5.2 %). Major postoperative complications were none in group ICHPY and one (5.2 %) in group ICHPN, respectively. One patient in group ICHPY died postoperatively (5.2 %). This study suggests that intermittent HPC during LR is not predictive of AL and has no adverse effect on the overall clinical outcome in patients undergoing combined restorative colorectal surgery and hepatectomy for advanced CRC.

  14. Differential gene expression in liver and small intestine from lactating rats compared to age-matched virgin controls detects increased mRNA of cholesterol biosynthetic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsuwadee Paiboon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactation increases energy demands four- to five-fold, leading to a two- to three-fold increase in food consumption, requiring a proportional adjustment in the ability of the lactating dam to absorb nutrients and to synthesize critical biomolecules, such as cholesterol, to meet the dietary needs of both the offspring and the dam. The size and hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool increases during lactation, implying an increased absorption and disposition of lipids, sterols, nutrients, and xenobiotics. In order to investigate changes at the transcriptomics level, we utilized an exon array and calculated expression levels to investigate changes in gene expression in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of lactating dams when compared against age-matched virgin controls. Results A two-way mixed models ANOVA was applied to detect differentially expressed genes. Significance calls were defined as a p Cyp7a1, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway, was also significantly increased in liver. In addition, decreased levels of mRNA associated with T-cell signaling were found in the jejunum and ileum. Several members of the Solute Carrier (SLC and Adenosine Triphosphate Binding Cassette (ABC superfamilies of membrane transporters were found to be differentially expressed; these genes may play a role in differences in nutrient and xenobiotic absorption and disposition. mRNA expression of SLC39a4_predicted, a zinc transporter, was increased in all tissues, suggesting that it is involved in increased zinc uptake during lactation. Microarray data are available through GEO under GSE19175. Conclusions We detected differential expression of mRNA from several pathways in lactating dams, including upregulation of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in liver and intestine, consistent with Srebp activation. Differential T-Cell signaling in the two most distal regions of the small intestine (ileum and

  15. Loss of ileum decreases serum fibroblast growth factor 19 in relation to liver inflammation and fibrosis in pediatric onset intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanen, Annika; Lohi, Jouko; Heikkilä, Päivi; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2015-06-01

    The pathogenesis of intestinal failure (IF) associated liver disease (IFALD) is uncertain, we therefore investigated the role of FGF19 and pro-inflammatory cytokines has on this disease state. Serum FGF19, IL-6 and, TNF-α were measured in 52 IF patients at median age 6.0 years (IQR 2.2-13) after 10 months (4.1-39) on parenteral nutrition (PN). Thirty-nine patients underwent liver biopsies. In IF patients, FGF19 concentrations were lower and those of IL-6 and TNF-α higher compared to healthy matched controls (p ⩽ 0.001 for all). FGF19 concentrations were further decreased in patients without a remaining ileum [37 pg/ml (IQR 30-68) vs. 74 (35-135) p=0.028], and correlated with remaining ileum length (r = 0.333, p = 0.018) and markers of cholesterol synthesis (r = -0.552 to -0.643, p pediatric onset of IF, total or partial loss of ileum decreases serum FGF19 concentration corresponding to hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, along with increased cholesterol synthesis. In contrast, serum IL-6 increases during PN and may associate with concurrent cholestasis. These data suggests that FGF19 may contribute to the pathogenesis of IFALD. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The gut-liver axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschers, Ruben G. J.; Luyer, Misha D.; Schaap, Frank G.; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Soeters, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    The liver adaptively responds to extra-intestinal and intestinal inflammation. In recent years, the role of the autonomic nervous system, intestinal failure and gut microbiota has been investigated in the development of hepatic, intestinal and extra-intestinal disease. The autonomic nervous system

  17. [A rare differential diagnosis of a somatoform autonomous disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract: the hepatocellular liver carcinoma in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Renate

    2008-07-01

    A severely ill 11-year-old boy came to the child psychiatric outpatient department of the Fachkrankenhaus Neckargemünd with the diagnosis of a somatoform disorder. Main symptoms included nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. He wished to be examined in order to enter the Stephen-Hawking-School for physically handicapped children in the town of Neckargemünd. Manual examination revealed a palpable mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, which was imaged as a tumour of the liver. During the subsequent operation, a 500 ml hepatocellular carcinoma was found. The symptoms of the hepatocellular carcinoma, which rarely occurs in childhood, can perfectly mimic those of a somatoform disorder of the gastro-intestinal tract.

  18. Localizations of Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 in human kidney and of SGLT1 in human small intestine, liver, lung, and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrhovac, Ivana; Balen Eror, Daniela; Klessen, Dirk; Burger, Christa; Breljak, Davorka; Kraus, Ognjen; Radović, Nikola; Jadrijević, Stipe; Aleksic, Ivan; Walles, Thorsten; Sauvant, Christoph; Sabolić, Ivan; Koepsell, Hermann

    2015-09-01

    Novel affinity-purified antibodies against human SGLT1 (hSGLT1) and SGLT2 (hSGLT2) were used to localize hSGLT2 in human kidney and hSGLT1 in human kidney, small intestine, liver, lung, and heart. The renal locations of both transporters largely resembled those in rats and mice; hSGLT2 and SGLT1 were localized to the brush border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubule S1/S2 and S3 segments, respectively. Different to rodents, the renal expression of hSGLT1 was absent in thick ascending limb of Henle (TALH) and macula densa, and the expression of both hSGLTs was sex-independent. In small intestinal enterocytes, hSGLT1 was localized to the BBM and subapical vesicles. Performing double labeling with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), hSGLT1 was localized to GLP-1-secreting L cells and GIP-secreting K cells as has been shown in mice. In liver, hSGLT1 was localized to biliary duct cells as has been shown in rats. In lung, hSGLT1 was localized to alveolar epithelial type 2 cells and to bronchiolar Clara cells. Expression of hSGLT1 in Clara cells was verified by double labeling with the Clara cell secretory protein CC10. Double labeling of human heart with aquaporin 1 immunolocalized the hSGLT1 protein in heart capillaries rather than in previously assumed myocyte sarcolemma. The newly identified locations of hSGLT1 implicate several extra renal functions of this transporter, such as fluid absorption in the lung, energy supply to Clara cells, regulation of enteroendocrine cells secretion, and release of glucose from heart capillaries. These functions may be blocked by reversible SGLT1 inhibitors which are under development.

  19. Improved application of the electrophoretic tissue clearing technology, CLARITY, to intact solid organs including brain, pancreas, liver, kidney, lung, and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunsu; Park, Jae-Hyung; Seo, Incheol; Park, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Shin

    2014-12-21

    Mapping of tissue structure at the cellular, circuit, and organ-wide scale is important for understanding physiological and biological functions. A bio-electrochemical technique known as CLARITY used for three-dimensional anatomical and phenotypical mapping within transparent intact tissues has been recently developed. This method provided a major advance in understanding the structure-function relationships in circuits of the nervous system and organs by using whole-body clearing. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to improve the original CLARITY procedure and developed specific CLARITY protocols for various intact organs. We determined the optimal conditions for reducing bubble formation, discoloration, and depositing of black particles on the surface of tissue, which allowed production of clearer organ images. We also determined the appropriate replacement cycles of clearing solution for each type of organ, and convincingly demonstrated that 250-280 mA is the ideal range of electrical current for tissue clearing. We then acquired each type of cleared organs including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, kidney, and intestine. Additionally, we determined the images of axon fibers of hippocampal region, the Purkinje layer of cerebellum, and vessels and cellular nuclei of pancreas. CLARITY is an innovative biochemical technology for the structural and molecular analysis of various types of tissue. We developed improved CLARITY methods for clearing of the brain, pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and kidney, and identified the appropriate experimental conditions for clearing of each specific tissue type. These optimized methods will be useful for the application of CLARITY to various types of organs.

  20. Salivary gland infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections will return. Complications are not common. Possible Complications Complications may include: Abscess of salivary gland Infection returns ... cases, salivary gland infections cannot be prevented. Good oral hygiene may prevent some cases of bacterial infection. ... BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  1. Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains antibodies that can kill germs. Salivary gland cancer is a type of head and neck cancer. It is rare. It may not cause any ... pain in your face Doctors diagnose salivary gland cancer using a physical exam, imaging tests, and a ...

  2. Protective effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice is mediated by modulating intestinal microbiota imbalance and related gut-liver axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, David; Nistal, Esther; Martínez-Flórez, Susana; Pisonero-Vaquero, Sandra; Olcoz, José Luis; Jover, Ramiro; González-Gallego, Javier; García-Mediavilla, María Victoria; Sánchez-Campos, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota is involved in obesity, metabolic syndrome and the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been recently suggested that the flavonoid quercetin may have the ability to modulate the intestinal microbiota composition, suggesting a prebiotic capacity which highlights a great therapeutic potential in NAFLD. The present study aims to investigate benefits of experimental treatment with quercetin on gut microbial balance and related gut-liver axis activation in a nutritional animal model of NAFLD associated to obesity. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with high fat diet (HFD) supplemented or not with quercetin for 16 weeks. HFD induced obesity, metabolic syndrome and the development of hepatic steatosis as main hepatic histological finding. Increased accumulation of intrahepatic lipids was associated with altered gene expression related to lipid metabolism, as a result of deregulation of their major modulators. Quercetin supplementation decreased insulin resistance and NAFLD activity score, by reducing the intrahepatic lipid accumulation through its ability to modulate lipid metabolism gene expression, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)-dependent lipoperoxidation and related lipotoxicity. Microbiota composition was determined via 16S ribosomal RNA Illumina next-generation sequencing. Metagenomic studies revealed HFD-dependent differences at phylum, class and genus levels leading to dysbiosis, characterized by an increase in Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and in Gram-negative bacteria, and a dramatically increased detection of Helicobacter genus. Dysbiosis was accompanied by endotoxemia, intestinal barrier dysfunction and gut-liver axis alteration and subsequent inflammatory gene overexpression. Dysbiosis-mediated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-NF-κB signaling pathway activation was associated with inflammasome initiation response and reticulum stress pathway induction. Quercetin reverted gut microbiota imbalance and related endotoxemia

  3. Salivary changes in medically compromised patients: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehoshuva R Tummuru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medically compromised patients require special attention when dental procedures are performed on them. These individuals may require modified or slightly altered techniques. Aims and Objectives: The present study was taken up with two main objectives. The first one being examining and recording various oral manifestations in medically compromised patients, and the second objective was to collect samples of saliva from such patients and to analyze and establish any salivary changes in such medically compromised patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were selected for the study. These patients were divided into four groups of 25 patients each: diabetes mellitus group, chronic renal failure group, liver cirrhosis group and control group. All the selected patients were subjected to a detailed general and intra oral examinations and the relevant data was recorded on a specially designed proforma; salivary analysis was done to know the flow rate, pH, total salivary proteins, sodium, potassium, and LDH levels. Results: From the findings, it can be inferred that salivary changes namely changes in salivary pH, salivary flow rates, salivary sodium, salivary potassium, salivary total proteins, and salivary lactate dehydrogenase are significant in medically compromised patients namely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cirrhosis of liver compared to the control group. Conclusion: pH of saliva was elevated in chronic renal failure patients. Salivary flow rates and sodium were decreased in diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, and cirrhosis of liver patients. There was a significant elevation of salivary potassium in chronic renal failure patients. LDH elevation was significant in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.

  4. Salivary gland biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy References Miloro M, Kolokythas A. Diagnosis and management of salivary gland disorders. In: Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, ...

  5. Campylobacter hepaticus, the cause of spotty liver disease in chickens, is present throughout the small intestine and caeca of infected birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Gor, Mian-Chee; Anwar, Arif; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2017-08-01

    Spotty liver disease (SLD) causes significant egg production losses and mortality in chickens and is therefore a disease of concern for some sectors of the poultry industry. Although the first reports of the disease came from the United States in the 1950s it is only recently that the organism that causes the disease was identified, isolated, and characterised as a new bacterial species, Campylobacter hepaticus. The first isolations of C. hepaticus were from the livers and bile of SLD affected birds. Isolates could only be recovered from samples that had a monoculture of C. hepaticus in the tissues, as a selective culturing method has not yet been developed. In non-selective growth conditions the slow growing C. hepaticus is quickly outgrown by many other members of the chicken microbiota. Therefore, it is currently not possible to use a culturing approach to evaluate C. hepaticus carriage in tissues, such as the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), that also carry complex microbial populations. As it is suspected that birds become infected via the faecal-oral route it is important that pathogen carriage in the GIT is investigated. In the present study, a specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCR assay, based on the glycerol kinase gene of C. hepaticus, was developed. The assay facilitated the detection and quantification of C. hepaticus in tissue samples from clinical cases of SLD. It was shown that in infected birds C. hepaticus colonises the small intestine, increasing in abundance from duodenum to ileum, and is at highest levels within the ceaca. C. hepaticus was also readily detected in cloacal swabs, indicating that thecl-oral infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Stress and Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keremi, Beata; Beck, Anita; Fabian, Tibor Karoly; Fabian, Gabor; Szabo, Geza; Nagy, Akos; Varga, Gabor

    2017-10-30

    Salivary glands produce a bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive and protective proteins and other components to be delivered into the gastrointestinal tract. Its function is under strict control of the autonomic nervous system. Salivary electrolyte and fluid secretion are primarily controlled by parasympathetic activity, while protein secretion is primaily triggered by sympathetic stimulation. Stress activates the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis. The peripheral limb of this axis is the efferent sympathetic/adrenomedullary system. Stress reaction, even if it is sustained for long, does not cause obvious damage to salivary glands. However, stress induces dramatic changes in the constituents of secreted saliva. Since salivary protein secretion is strongly dependent on sympathetic control, changes in saliva can be utilized as sensitive stress indicators. Some of the secreted compounds are known for their protective effect in the mouth and the gut, while others may just pass through the glands from blood plasma because of their chemical nature and the presence of transcellular salivary transporting systems. Indeed, most compounds that appear in blood circulation can also be identified in saliva, although at different concentrations. This work overviews the presently recognized salivary stress biosensors, such as amylase, cortisol, heat shock proteins and other compounds. It also demonstrates that saliva is widely recognised as a diagnostic tool for early and sensitive discovery of salivary and systemic conditions and disorders. At present it may be too early to introduce most of these biomarkers in daily routine diagnostic applications, but advances in salivary biomarker standardisation should permit their wide-range utilization in the future including safe, reliable and non-invasive estimation of acute and chronic stress levels in patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Salivary lipids: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matczuk, Jan; Żendzian-Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Kurek, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Saliva is produced by both large and small salivary glands and may be considered one of the most important factors influencing the behavior of oral cavity homeostasis. Secretion of saliva plays an important role in numerous significant biological processes. Saliva facilitates chewing and bolus formation as well as performs protective functions and determines the buffering and antibacterial prosperities of the oral environment. Salivary lipids appear to be a very important component of saliva, as their qualitative and quantitative composition can be changed in various pathological states and human diseases. It has been shown that disturbances in salivary lipid homeostasis are involved in periodontal diseases as well as various systemic disorders (e.g. cystic fibrosis, diabetes and Sjögren's syndrome). However, little is known about the role and composition of salivary lipids and their interaction with other important ingredients of human saliva, including proteins, glycoproteins and salivary mucins. The purpose of this review paper is to present the latest knowledge on salivary lipids in healthy conditions and in oral and systemic diseases.

  8. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic ...

  9. Genome-wide DNA Methylation Profiles of Small Intestine and Liver in Fast-growing and Slow-growing Weaning Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woori Kwak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Although growth rate is one of the main economic traits of concern in pig production, there is limited knowledge on its epigenetic regulation, such as DNA methylation. In this study, we conducted methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-seq to compare genome-wide DNA methylation profile of small intestine and liver tissue between fast- and slow-growing weaning piglets. The genome-wide methylation pattern between the two different growing groups showed similar proportion of CpG (regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide occurs next to a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence coverage, genomic regions, and gene regions. Differentially methylated regions and genes were also identified for downstream analysis. In canonical pathway analysis using differentially methylated genes, pathways (triacylglycerol pathway, some cell cycle related pathways, and insulin receptor signaling pathway expected to be related to growth rate were enriched in the two organ tissues. Differentially methylated genes were also organized in gene networks related to the cellular development, growth, and carbohydrate metabolism. Even though further study is required, the result of this study may contribute to the understanding of epigenetic regulation in pig growth.

  10. The effects of estrogen on various organs: therapeutic approach for sepsis, trauma, and reperfusion injury. Part 2: liver, intestine, spleen, and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takashi; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2012-12-01

    Several clinical studies show a gender dimorphism of immune and organ responsiveness in the susceptibility to and morbidity from shock, trauma, and sepsis. However, there are conflicting reports on the role of gender in outcomes. Animal studies of shock, trauma, and sepsis have confirmed that alterations in immune and organ functions are more markedly depressed in adult males and in ovariectomized and aged females. In this review, we discuss the effect of estrogen on liver, intestinal, splenic, and renal functions in an experimental model of sepsis, trauma, and reperfusion injury. To establish the role of gender in the outcome of these patients, more studies in clinical and experimental settings are required to determine whether gender-specific responses are global across the injuries or are observed in specific injury situations. Studies are also needed to delineate underlying mechanisms responsible for differences between males and females. The findings gained from the experimental studies will help in designing innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of sepsis, trauma, and reperfusion injury patients.

  11. A pilot study on post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses and ready-to-sell livers and intestines (mala with Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in a high-throughput South African poultry abattoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Bartkowiak-Higgo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available To assess post-evisceration contamination of broiler carcasses, 300 samples were randomly selected during routine slaughter in the winter of 2004. The samples originated from 50 chicken carcasses, taken directly after evisceration, as well as 25 samples from ready-to-sell packages of fresh intestines (mala and livers. The samples were taken in batches over a period of 4 weeks to allow randomised sampling from different farms of origin. Conventional culture-based detection methods of Campylobacter spp. usually need 4-6 days to produce a result. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR used for this study took less than 32 hours. The average contamination rates with Campylobacter in both the skin and liver samples were 24 %, and 28%for intestines. Chicken and chicken products, especially livers and intestines, forman integral part of the traditional diet of many Black South Africans, as they are cheap and readily available in bulk and un-chilled for direct distribution, mainly through street vending and other informal retail outlets. This sudy showed that Campylobacter spp. are prevalent in poultry in South Africa. The handling of poultry meat and products contaminated with this organism in households and the potential for cross-contamination of other foods presents a high risk of infection to consumers in South Africa. The study also emphasised the need for further research in this field.

  12. Intestinal translocation of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in a rat model of bacterial colonization and liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M van der Heijden

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop a rat model of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing E. coli and to evaluate intestinal translocation to blood and tissues after total and partial hepatic ischemia. Methods - We developed a model of rat colonization with VRE and ESBL-E coli. Then we studied four groups of colonized rats: Group I (with hepatic pedicle occlusion causing complete liver ischemia and intestinal stasis; Group II (with partial liver ischemia without intestinal stasis; Group III (surgical manipulation without hepatic ischemia or intestinal stasis; Group IV (anesthetized without surgical manipulation. After sacrifice, portal and systemic blood, large intestine, small intestine, spleen, liver, lungs, and cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes were cultured. Endotoxin concentrations in portal and systemic blood were determined. Results - The best inocula were: VRE: 2.4×10(10 cfu and ESBL-E. coli: 1.12×10(10 cfu. The best results occurred 24 hours after inoculation and antibiotic doses of 750 µg/mL of water for vancomycin and 2.1 mg/mL for ceftriaxone. There was a significantly higher proportion of positive cultures for ESBL-E. coli in the lungs in Groups I, II and III when compared with Group IV (67%; 60%; 75% and 13%, respectively; p:0.04. VRE growth was more frequent in mesenteric lymph nodes for Groups I (67% and III (38% than for Groups II (13% and IV (none (p:0.002. LPS was significantly higher in systemic blood of Group I (9.761 ± 13.804 EU/mL-p:0.01. No differences for endotoxin occurred in portal blood. Conclusion -We developed a model of rats colonized with resistant bacteria useful to study intestinal translocation. Translocation occurred in surgical procedures with and without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and probably occurred via the bloodstream. Translocation was probably lymphatic in the ischemia-reperfusion groups

  13. Salivary glands: a new player in phosphorus metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Santoro, Giuseppe; Muraca, Ugo; Davis, Paul A; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In uremic patients, hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular calcification and increased cardiovascular mortality. Despite the use of phosphate binders and dietary phosphate limitation in addition to dialysis, only 50% of dialysis patients achieve recommended serum phosphate levels. The identification of other approaches for serum phosphorus reduction is therefore necessary. We have approached this issue by taking into account the relationships between serum phosphate, kidney function, and saliva. Saliva was chosen because the anatomy and/or physiology of acini, the secretive units of salivary glands, shares similarities with that of the renal tubules. Salivary fluid contains electrolytes including phosphate that, when related with the amount of salivary secretion per day, raises the interest in identifying another possible approach for phosphorus removal in uremic patients. This article reports studies from our laboratory in the last 3 to 4 years, which have demonstrated a hyperphosphoric salivary content in patients with chronic renal failure and those with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis that, in patients with chronic renal failure, linearly correlates with serum phosphate in patients with chronic renal failure and negatively with GFR. The ingestion of the saliva and later its absorption in the intestinal tract starts a vicious circle between salivary phosphate secretion and fasting phosphate absorption, thereby worsening hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, salivary phosphate binding could be a useful approach to serum phosphate level reduction in dialysis patients. The reduction of salivary phosphate with the salivary phosphate binder, chitosan-loaded chewing gum, chewed during fasting periods, as an add-on to phosphate binders could lead to a better control of hyperphosphatemia, as demonstrated in our study, which confirms the importance of this approach. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Intravenous Fish Oil and Pediatric Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease: Changes in Plasma Phytosterols, Cytokines, and Bile Acids and Erythrocyte Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Kara L; DeBarber, Andrea; Steiner, Robert D; Flores, Martiniano J; Grogan, Tristan R; Henning, Susanne M; Reyen, Laurie; Venick, Robert S

    2017-05-01

    Soybean oil (SO) emulsions are associated with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD); fish oil (FO) emulsions are used to treat IFALD. SO and FO differ with respect to their fatty acid and phytosterol content. In children with IFALD whose SO was replaced with FO, we aimed to (1) quantify changes in erythrocyte fatty acids and plasma phytosterols, cytokines, and bile acids and (2) correlate these changes with direct bilirubin (DB). This study enrolled IFALD children who received 6 months of FO. Blood samples were collected prior to FO, and after 2 weeks and 3 and 6 months of FO. The primary outcome was 3-month vs baseline biomarker concentrations. At study initiation, the median patient age was 3 months (interquartile range, 3-17 months), and mean ± standard deviation DB was 5.6 ± 0.7 mg/dL (n = 14). Cholestasis reversed in 79% of subjects. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid was greater than baseline ( P < .001, all time points). Linoleic and arachidonic acid and sitosterol and stigmasterol were less than baseline ( P < .05, all time points). Three- and 6-month interleukin-8 (IL-8) and total and conjugated bile acids were less than baseline ( P < .05). Baseline IL-8 was correlated with baseline DB ( r = 0.71, P < .01). Early changes in stigmasterol and IL-8 were correlated with later DB changes ( r = 0.68 and 0.75, P < .05). Specific fat emulsion components may play a role in IFALD. Stigmasterol and IL-8 may predict FO treatment response.

  15. [Intestinal failure: from adaptation to transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, B; Corcos, O; Amiot, A; Joly, F

    2009-01-01

    Optimised Home Parenteral Nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the of benign but chronic Intestinal Failure. A better recognition of chronic Intestinal Failure, in its multiple facets, is warranted for a better approach of associated treatment to Home Parenteral Nutrition, i.e., intestinal trophic factors (growth hormone, Glucagon Like Peptide-2), rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end stage intestinal failure patients). Boundaries of permanent, judged irreversible, intestinal failure will be certainly modified in the following years by combining the various and effective therapies which optimise management by ameliorating absorption of the remnant short gut. The work done on short bowel syndrome in the past 20 years should be done in the next years for chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction patients presenting with intestinal failure on a large European scale because chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction is a group of heterogeneous but rare intestinal diseases. Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indication especially in case of Home Parenteral Nutrition failure (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease) where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, "preemptive" indication for intestinal transplantation alone will be discussed before home parenteral nutrition complications occur. No doubt that, for improving overall outcome in intestinal failure patients, reference centres should have in expert hands the whole spectrum of medicosurgical therapies for intestinal failure.

  16. Effects of Diclofenac, L-NAME, L-Arginine, and Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on Gastrointestinal, Liver, and Brain Lesions, Failed Anastomosis, and Intestinal Adaptation Deterioration in 24 Hour-Short-Bowel Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojo, Nermin; Rasic, Zarko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Kolenc, Danijela; Vukusic, Darko; Drmic, Domagoj; Zoricic, Ivan; Sever, Marko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was previously used to ameliorate wound healing following major surgery and counteract diclofenac toxicity. To resolve the increasing early risks following major massive small bowel resectioning surgery, diclofenac combined with nitric oxide (NO) system blockade was used, suggesting therapy with BPC 157 and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS substrate) L-arginine, is efficacious. Immediately after anastomosis creation, short-bowel rats were untreated or administered intraperitoneal diclofenac (12 mg/kg), BPC 157 (10 μg/kg or 10 ng/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), L-arginine (100 mg/kg) alone or combined, and assessed 24 h later. Short-bowel rats exhibited poor anastomosis healing, failed intestine adaptation, and gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions, which worsened with diclofenac. This was gradually ameliorated by immediate therapy with BPC 157 and L-arginine. Contrastingly, NOS-blocker L-NAME induced further aggravation and lesions gradually worsened. Specifically, rats with surgery alone exhibited mild stomach/duodenum lesions, considerable liver lesions, and severe cerebral/hippocampal lesions while those also administered diclofenac showed widespread severe lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, cerebellar nuclear/Purkinje cells, and cerebrum/hippocampus. Rats subjected to surgery, diclofenac, and L-NAME exhibited the mentioned lesions, worsening anastomosis, and macro/microscopical necrosis. Thus, rats subjected to surgery alone showed evidence of deterioration. Furtheremore, rats subjected to surgery and administered diclofenac showed worse symptoms, than the rats subjected to surgery alone did. Rats subjected to surgery combined with diclofenac and L-NAME showed the worst deterioration. Rats subjected to surgery exhibited habitual adaptation of the remaining small intestine, which was markedly reversed in rats subjected to surgery and diclofenac, and those with surgery, diclofenac, and

  17. Salivary Gland Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taste in your mouth Difficulty opening your mouth Dry mouth Pain in your face or mouth Swelling of your face or neck Causes of salivary gland problems include infections, obstruction, or cancer. Problems can also be due to other disorders, such as mumps or Sjogren's syndrome.

  18. Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, H.; Hamilton-Dutoit, S.; Jakel, K.T.

    2004-01-01

    Undifferentiated salivary gland carcinomas may be divided into small cell and large cell types. Among large cell undifferentiated carcinomas, lymphoepithelial carcinomas have to be distinguished, the latter of which are endemic in the Arctic regions and southern China where virtually all cases of...... at other primary sites, particularly when expressing the thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) Udgivelsesdato: 2004...

  19. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  20. Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Poorly Differentiated Carcinoma; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer

  1. Biokinetics and dose estimation of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M. [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Homma-Takeda, S. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan); Nishimura, Y. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    ICRP is revising its recommendations for radiological protection and has added salivary and secretory glands as new target organs. However, little information is available on the distributions of radionuclides in the salivary gland, secretory glands and male reproductive organs. This study deals with the distribution of {sup 65}Zn in the salivary gland and male reproductive organs as a function of time after a single intravenous and oral administration. For the study, 64 Wistar strain male rats, eight weeks of age were used. The rats were periodically sacrificed, the liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas, thymus, salivary gland, testis, epididymitis and prostate gland sampled and the radioactivity of these organs measured with an NaI scintillation counter. The relative concentration of {sup 65}Zn was highest in the prostate gland. We estimated the radiation dose in humans using rat data for the salivary and secretory glands as well as reproductive organs after intake of {sup 65}Zn. (authors)

  2. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  3. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  4. [Salivary calculi in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerena, J; Sancho, M A; Cáceres, F; Krauel, L; Parri, F; Morales, L

    2007-04-01

    The main salivary glands are the submaxillary, sublingual and parotid glands. Infectious and tumoral conditions are prominent in the parotid gland whilst calculi are in submaxillary and sublingual glands. METHODS. Medical record review of 18 cases with a diagnosis of salivary calculi over a 13 year period. Data collected consisted in, clinical presentation, ultrasound (US), sialography (SG) and computarized tomography (CT), and treatment. 13 male and 5 female. Mean age was 7.2 years. All of them presented with pain and tenderness. Parotid gland was affected in 10 cases. An infectious cause for calculi was found in 7 while 3 presented calculi with no underlying infectious cause. Submaxillary gland was affected in 6 and sublingual in 2. No infectious condition was associated to submaxillary and sublingual calculi. Surgical treatment consisted in duct canalization for calculi removal and was performed in all patients after initial treatment with antibiotics. Neither complications nor relapse was found after surgical removal. Diagnosis of salivary calculi is made by clinical symptoms and imaging exams. Treatment is surgical and has to be performed after medical treatment for infection and inflamation.

  5. Dyslipidaemia--hepatic and intestinal cross-talk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tomkin, Gerald H

    2010-06-01

    Cholesterol metabolism is tightly regulated with the majority of de novo cholesterol synthesis occurring in the liver and intestine. 3 Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, a major enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, is raised in both liver and intestine in diabetic animals. Niemann PickC1-like1 protein regulates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and facilitates cholesterol transport through the liver. There is evidence to suggest that the effect of inhibition of Niemann PickC1-like1 lowers cholesterol through its effect not only in the intestine but also in the liver. ATP binding cassette proteins G5\\/G8 regulate cholesterol re-excretion in the intestine and in the liver, cholesterol excretion into the bile. Diabetes is associated with reduced ATP binding cassette protein G5\\/G8 expression in both the liver and intestine in animal models. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein is central to the formation of the chylomicron in the intestine and VLDL in the liver. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA is increased in diabetes in both the intestine and liver. Cross-talk between the intestine and liver is poorly documented in humans due to the difficulty in obtaining liver biopsies but animal studies are fairly consistent in showing relationships that explain in part mechanisms involved in cholesterol homeostasis.

  6. Salivary enzymes in peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Mojdeh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Sariri, Reyhaneh; Vesal, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Peptic ulcer, the common disease of the upper gastro-intestinal tract, occurs in about 5-10% of the world's population. Therefore, diagnosis of trace disease progression with a noninvasive method is of prime importance in the field of healthcare research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of salivary enzymes as noninvasive biomarkers for peptic ulcer. In practice, 34 peptic ulcer patients and 30 healthy subjects donated their un-stimulated saliva samples after 8 h of fasting. The activity of some selected enzymes was measured using appropriate enzymatic assay methods. The results indicated an overall alternation in enzymatic activity of saliva in patients suffering from peptic ulcer. Biological activity of a-amylase, peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase, showed significantly higher values in almost all patients as compared to control subjects. Based on the results of salivary enzyme activity, it was concluded that besides the influence of their peptic ulcer on enzyme activity of saliva, the considerably higher activity of a-amylase could also be related to the major role of the enzyme on physiological oxidative stress.

  7. Comparing the effects of different dietary organic acids on the growth, intestinal short-chain fatty acids, and liver histopathology of red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) and potential use of these as preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Daeman, Nor Hafizah; Chong, Chou Min; Karami, Ali; Kumar, Vikas; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Romano, Nicholas

    2017-08-01

    Dietary organic acids are increasingly being investigated as a potential means of improving growth and nutrient utilization in aquatic animals. A 9-week study was performed to compare equal amounts (2%) of different organic acids (sodium butyrate, acetate, propionate, or formate) on the growth, muscle proximate composition, fatty acid composition, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation, differential cell counts, plasma biochemistry, intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level, and liver histopathology to red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) (initial mean weight of 2.87 g). A second experiment was performed to determine their effects on lipid peroxidation and trimethylamine (TMA) when added at 1% to tilapia meat and left out for 24 h. The results of the first experiment showed no treatment effect to growth, feeding efficiencies, or muscle fatty acid composition, but all dietary organic acids significantly decreased intestinal SCFA. Dietary butyrate and propionate significantly decreased muscle lipid peroxidation compared to the control group, but the dietary formate treatment had the lowest lipid peroxidation compared to all treatments. Muscle crude protein and lipid in tilapia fed the formate diet were significantly lower and higher, respectively, and showed evidence of stress based on the differential cell counts, significantly higher plasma glucose and liver glycogen, as well as inflammatory responses in the liver. Although a potential benefit of dietary organic acids was a reduction to lipid peroxidation, this could be accomplished post-harvest by direct additions to the meat. In addition, inclusions of butyrate and propionate to tilapia meat significantly decreased TMA, which might be a more cost-effective option to improve the shelf life of tilapia products.

  8. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Protects Salivary Glands against Structural Injury and Secretory Dysfunction via IL-17A and AQP5 Regulation in a Model of Sjögren Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyin; Zhu, Fenglin; Wu, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2018-04-04

    Sjögren syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease involving exocrine glands. Currently, drugs that can improve both abnormal immunity and exocrine gland function are needed. The study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the immune response and exocrine gland function in SS. We investigated the effects of VIP on the immune response and secretory function of submandibular glands using NOD mice, and analyzed the expression of IL-17A and AQP5 (aquaporin 5). The submandibular gland cells from healthy 8-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were used to observe the influence of VIP on AQP5 expression. Our study shows that treatment with VIP in an SS mouse model could not only reduce the immune injury to exocrine glands but also improve the secretory function of these glands. Furthermore, VIP was shown to improve the abnormal immune status by downregulating IL-17A expression in the exocrine glands. It also enhanced the secretory function of exocrine glands by upregulating AQP5 expression. Using a model of SS, we found that VIP could not only modulate the immune response but also affect exocrine gland function, and that these therapeutic effects were associated with IL-17A and AQP5 regulation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Salivary gland carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Gosau, Martin; Reichert, Torsten E

    2012-09-01

    Salivary gland carcinomas are rare tumours of heterogeneous morphology that require distinctive surgical and adjuvant therapy. Relevant studies were electronically searched in PubMed and reviewed for innovative and important information. Recent insights in genetic alterations like chromosomal aberrations, expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, malfunction of tumour suppressor genes or DNA promoter methylations increased the knowledge about aetiology and pathogenesis. New histological subtypes are recognised, and a three-tiered grading system seems reasonable. Ultrasound remains the basic diagnostic imaging procedure. New developments comprise the diffusion-weighed magnetic resonance imaging, while fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows good diagnostic accuracy in detecting distant metastases and local recurrence. Fine-needle aspiration cytology helps in differentiating a neoplasia from a non-neoplastic lesion while being unreliable in recognising malignancy. In contrast, additional core needle biopsy and/or intraoperative frozen section diagnosis increase the accuracy in diagnosing a malignant lesion. Conservative parotid surgery with nerve monitoring remains state-of-the-art. Free flaps or musculoaponeurotic flaps are proposed for prevention of Frey's syndrome. As parotid cancer often shows skip metastases, complete ipsilateral neck dissection (level I-V) is indicated particularly in high-grade lesions. Adjuvant radio(chemo)therapy increases local tumour control, whereas overall survival is not necessarily improved. Current results of systemic chemotherapy or targeted therapy in advanced tumour stages are disappointing. Despite several developments, salivary gland carcinomas remain a heterogeneous group of tumours challenging both pathologists and clinicians.

  10. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  11. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kubo

    Full Text Available The use of lavender oil (LO--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham, a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold- and down (≦ 0.75-fold-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules, to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  12. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO)--a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate--in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and liver

  13. Salivary Cortisol, Salivary Alpha Amylase, and the Dental Anxiety Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...

  14. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  15. Intestinal failure: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Philip; Lal, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is the inability of the gut to absorb necessary water, macronutrients (carbohydrate, protein, and fat), micronutrients, and electrolytes sufficient to sustain life and requiring intravenous supplementation or replacement. Acute IF (types 1 and 2) is the initial phase of the illness and may last for weeks to a few months, and chronic IF (type 3) from months to years. The challenge of caring for patients with IF is not merely the management of the underlying condition leading to IF or the correct provision of appropriate nutrition or both but also the prevention of complications, whether thromboembolic phenomenon (for example, venous occlusion), central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection, IF-associated liver disease, or metabolic bone disease. This review looks at recent questions regarding chronic IF (type 3), its diagnosis and management, the role of the multidisciplinary team, and novel therapies, including hormonal treatment for short bowel syndrome but also surgical options for intestinal lengthening and intestinal transplant. PMID:29399329

  16. Salivary cortisol in panic attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandelow, B; Wedekind, D; Pauls, J; Broocks, A; Hajak, G; Ruther, E

    Objective: Documentation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbance in panic disorder has been inconsistent. Increased cortisol levels have been associated with altered HPA function due to stress. The authors examined salivary cortisol levels in spontaneously occurring, unprovoked

  17. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...

  18. Cancers of major salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Aru; Kozel, Jessica A; Lydiatt, William M

    2015-07-01

    Major salivary gland malignancies are a rare but histologically diverse group of entities. Establishing the diagnosis of a malignant salivary neoplasm may be challenging because of the often minimally symptomatic nature of the disease, and limitations of imaging modalities and cytology. Treatment is centered on surgical therapy and adjuvant radiation in selected scenarios. Systemic therapy with chemotherapeutic agents and monoclonal antibodies lacks evidence in support of its routine use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Dietary Intake of Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens Has Low Impact on Intestinal Morphometry and Hepatic Histology, and Shows Limited Transfer to Liver Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Fraeyman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B is a so-called emerging mycotoxin frequently contaminating poultry feed. To investigate the impact of chronic ENN B exposure on animal health, broiler chickens were fed either a diet naturally contaminated with ENN B (2352 µg/kg or a control diet (135 µg/kg for 2, 7, 14, or 21 days. ENN B concentrations were determined in plasma and liver using a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry UHPLC-MS/MS method. Liver was evaluated histologically, and the villus length and crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured. Histopathology of the livers did not reveal major abnormalities. Feeding an ENN B-contaminated diet could possibly inhibit the proliferation of enterocytes in the duodenal crypts, but did not affect villus length, crypt depth, or villus length-crypt depth ratio of the jejunum and ileum. ENN B levels in plasma and liver were significantly higher in the ENN B-fed group and ranged between <25–264 pg/mL and <0.05–0.85 ng/g, respectively. ENN B carry-over rates from feed to liver tissue were 0.005–0.014% and 0.034–0.109% in the ENN B and control group, respectively. Carry-over rates were low and indicated a limited contribution of poultry tissue-derived products to the total dietary ENN B intake for humans. The above results support the opinion of the European Food Safety Authority stating that adverse health effects from ENN B in broiler chickens are unlikely.

  20. Intestinal cholesterol secretion: future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  1. Intestinal cholesterol secretion : future clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.; Besseling, J.; Stroes, E. S. G.; Groen, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    Together with the liver, the intestine serves as a homeostatic organ in cholesterol metabolism. Recent evidence has substantiated the pivotal role of the intestine in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). RCT is a fundamental antiatherogenic pathway, mediating the removal of cholesterol from tissues

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'heygere, Emmanuel; Meulemans, Jeroen; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2018-01-25

    The review puts new information on geno- and phenotype of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) in the perspective of the updated 2017 WHO classification. The proportion of SDC is increasing. This may be because of a true rise in incidence, but certainly to better diagnostic tests and changed WHO definitions. In this light, a substantial proportion of carcinoma expleomorphic adenoma is now attributed to the category of SDC. 'Low-grade SDC' and 'SDC in-situ' of the former WHO classification, are now named low-grade and high-grade intraductal carcinoma (IDC), respectively. Recent series quantify biologic aggressiveness: perineural growth, vascular invasion, and extracapsular extension in lymph node metastasis are each observed in two out of three patients with SDC. Most patients die within 3 years, but once 5-year disease-free survival is reached, further disease activity is exceptional. The typical molecular biological profile with high human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and androgen receptor expression is increasingly successfully exploited in clinical trials for advanced SDC. The aggressive SDC is increasingly diagnosed. Despite intensive combined surgery and radiation therapy, many patients recur, for whom new bullets, targeting the molecular biological mechanisms, are the subject of ongoing clinical trials.

  3. Intestinal absorption, liver uptake, and excretion of 3H-folic acid in folic acid-deficient, alcohol-consuming nonhuman primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocker, D.E.; Thenen, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nonhuman primates fed folic acid-deficient diets +/- 30% kcal ethanol were used to determine alcohol effects on megaloblastic anemia development and folate bioavailability. Lower hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) counts and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV) occurred after 13 wk in alcohol-fed monkeys, later in controls. Plasma, RBC, and liver folate declined and urinary formiminoglutamic acid (FIGLU) was elevated in both groups with FIGLU increasing more among alcohol-fed monkeys at 38 wk. After 40 wk, the bioavailability of oral 3 H-folic acid was investigated and showed increased fecal and reduced urinary tritium excretion in alcohol-fed monkeys compared with controls while plasma uptake and liver and whole body tritium retention were similar in both groups. These observations demonstrate that chronic alcohol consumption impairs folate coenzymes, accelerates appearance of hematologic indices of megaloblastic anemia, and causes possible malabsorption of enterohepatically circulated folates in folate deficiency even when other essential nutrients are provided

  4. Anatomy, biogenesis, and regeneration of salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Holmberg, Kyle V.; Hoffman, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients per year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients’ quality o...

  5. Innovative Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Therapy for Intestinal Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Hau D.; Fallon, Erica M.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Malkan, Alpin D.; Puder, Mark; Gura, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Children with intestinal failure suffer from insufficient intestinal length or function, making them dependent on parenteral nutrition (PN) for growth and survival. PN and its components are associated with many complications ranging from simple electrolyte abnormalities to life-threatening PN-associated liver disease, which is also called intestinal failure-associated liver disease (ILALD). From a nutrition perspective, the ultimate goal is to provide adequate caloric requirements and make t...

  6. Histogenesis of salivary gland neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Batsakis, J G

    1977-06-01

    In an attempt to explain the histogenesis of salivary gland tumors, a bicellular theory of origin has been presented. This theory is supported by indirect evidence from light and electron microscopy. Two cells, the excretory duct reserve cell and the intercalated duct reserve cell, are presented as the hypothetical cells of origin for salivary gland neoplasms. It is argued that the excretory duct reserve cell gives rise to squamous cell carcinomas and mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and that the intercalated duct reserve cell gives rise to all others. It It is also shown that myoepithelial cells are responsible in part for the wide histologic variation of these neoplasms.

  7. Intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeja Pintar

    2011-02-01

    Conclusion: Intestine transplantation is reserved for patients with irreversible intestinal failure due to short gut syndrome requiring total paranteral nutrition with no possibility of discontinuation and loss of venous access for patient maintenance. In these patients complications of underlying disease and long-term total parenteral nutrition are present.

  8. Small intestinal transplantation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M

    2012-02-03

    The past few years have witnessed a considerable shift in the clinical status of intestinal transplantation. A great deal of experience has been gained at the most active centers, and results comparable with those reported at a similar stage in the development of other solid-organ graft programs are now being achieved by these highly proficient transplant teams. Rejection and its inevitable associate, sepsis, remain ubiquitous, and new immunosuppressant regimes are urgently needed; some may already be on the near horizon. The recent success of isolated intestinal grafts, together with the mortality and morbidity attendant upon the development of advanced liver disease related to total parenteral nutrition, has prompted the bold proposal that patients at risk for this complication should be identified and should receive isolated small bowel grafts before the onset of end-stage hepatic failure. The very fact that such a suggestion has begun to emerge reflects real progress in this challenging field.

  9. Chitosan adsorption to salivary pellicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mei, Henderina; Engels, Eefje; de Vries, Jacob; Dijkstra, Rene JB; Busscher, Hendrik

    The salivary pellicle is a negatively charged protein film, to which oral bacteria readily adhere. Chitosans are cationic biomolecules with known antimicrobial properties that can be modified in different ways to enhance its antimicrobial activity. Here, we determined the changes in surface chemical

  10. Salivary Heparanase Level Is a Potential Biomarker to Diagnose and Prognose the Malignant Salivary Gland Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Wu

    Full Text Available Upregulation of heparanase has been reported in an increasing number of human cancer tissues. However, the level of salivary heparanase and its clinical significance in patients with salivary gland tumors remain unclear.Salivary heparanase levels in patients with salivary gland tumors were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and the clinical significance was evaluated by analyzing the correlations among salivary heparanase levels, clinicopathological parameters, and clinical outcomes.The levels of salivary heparanase were significantly higher in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors than in benign tumors and normal controls (P<0.0001. High salivary heparanase levels were positively correlated with increased lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0235 and poorer tumor node metastasis stage (TNM (P = 0.0183. Survival analyses revealed that high salivary heparanase levels were associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.0023 and disease-free survival (DFS (P = 0.0025.The study shows that salivary heparanase levels, as detected by the ELISAs, can be used to diagnose and provide an accurate prognosis for malignant salivary gland tumors. Salivary heparanase level was an independent predictor in patients with malignant salivary gland tumors.

  11. Anatomy, biogenesis and regeneration of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Kyle V; Hoffman, Matthew P

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the anatomy and biogenesis of salivary glands is important in order to understand the physiology, functions and disorders associated with saliva. A major disorder of salivary glands is salivary hypofunction and resulting xerostomia, or dry mouth, which affects hundreds of thousands of patients each year who suffer from salivary gland diseases or undergo head and neck cancer treatment. There is currently no curative therapy for these patients. To improve these patients' quality of life, new therapies are being developed based on findings in salivary gland cell and developmental biology. Here we discuss the anatomy and biogenesis of the major human salivary glands and the rodent submandibular gland, which has been used extensively as a research model. We also include a review of recent research on the identification and function of stem cells in salivary glands, and the emerging field of research suggesting that nerves play an instructive role during development and may be essential for adult gland repair and regeneration. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in gland biogenesis provides a template for regenerating, repairing or reengineering diseased or damaged adult human salivary glands. We provide an overview of 3 general approaches currently being developed to regenerate damaged salivary tissue, including gene therapy, stem cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. In the future, it may be that a combination of all three will be used to repair, regenerate and reengineer functional salivary glands in patients to increase the secretion of their saliva, the focus of this monograph.

  12. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss Intestinal ischemia Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  13. Salivary Gluten Degradation and Oral Microbial Profiles in Healthy Individuals and Celiac Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Faller, Lina; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Bosch, Jos A; Wei, Guoxian; Paster, Bruce J; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2017-03-15

    Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after the colon. We hypothesized that enzymes produced by oral bacteria may be involved in gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease. The aim of this study was to investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects versus patients with classical and refractory CD. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from patients with CD in remission ( n = 21) and refractory CD (RCD; n = 8) and was compared to healthy controls (HC; n = 20) and subjects with functional GI complaints ( n = 12). Salivary gluten-degrading activities were monitored with the tripeptide substrate Z-Tyr-Pro-Gln-pNA and the α-gliadin-derived immunogenic 33-mer peptide. The oral microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA-based MiSeq analysis. Salivary glutenase activities were higher in CD patients compared to controls, both before and after normalization for protein concentration or bacterial load. The oral microbiomes of CD and RCD patients showed significant differences from that of healthy subjects, e.g., higher salivary levels of lactobacilli ( P gluten-degrading activities. While the pathophysiological link between the oral and gut microbiomes in CD needs further exploration, the presented data suggest that oral microbe-derived enzyme activities are elevated in subjects with CD, which may impact gluten processing and the presentation of immunogenic gluten epitopes to the immune system in the small intestine. IMPORTANCE Ingested gluten proteins are the triggers of intestinal inflammation in celiac disease (CD). Certain immunogenic gluten domains are resistant to intestinal proteases but can be hydrolyzed by oral microbial enzymes. Very little is known about the endogenous proteolytic processing of gluten proteins in the oral cavity

  14. Intestinal Coccidia

    OpenAIRE

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycl...

  15. Salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase, and the dental anxiety scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/dental history questionnaire. A saliva sample, utilizing the method of passive drooling, was then collected in 2-mL cryovials. Samples were analyzed for salivary cortisol and sAA levels by Salimetrics. Significant associations were observed between DAS scores and presence of pain and history of traumatic dental experience. However, no significant correlations were observed between DAS, cortisol, and sAA levels. Our study reconfirms that dental anxiety is associated with presence of pain and a history of traumatic dental experience. On the other hand, our study was the first to our knowledge to test the correlation between the DAS and sAA; nevertheless, our results failed to show any significant correlation between dental anxiety, cortisol, and sAA levels.

  16. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  17. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome......This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...

  18. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  19. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  20. Salivary gammagraphy in Sjogren Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, R.

    1983-01-01

    Bearing in mind that the Tc-99m pertecnate is taken up by the active glandular tissues of the salivary glands, we evaluate and objectivate the decrease of this captation in the case of chronic inflammation of distinct evolution of the parotid. Our results are encouraging in that sense that the experiment is not invasive and thus there are no risks for the patient nor for the doctor

  1. Liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases ... through the probe that causes ice crystals to form around the probe. The cancer cells are frozen ...

  2. Clinical science workshop: targeting the gut-liver-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vishal C; White, Helen; Støy, Sidsel; Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Shawcross, Debbie L

    2016-12-01

    A clinical science workshop was held at the ISHEN meeting in London on Friday 11th September 2014 with the aim of thrashing out how we might translate what we know about the central role of the gut-liver-brain axis into targets which we can use in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This review summarises the integral role that inter-organ ammonia metabolism plays in the pathogenesis of HE with specific discussion of the roles that the small and large intestine, liver, brain, kidney and muscle assume in ammonia and glutamine metabolism. Most recently, the salivary and gut microbiome have been shown to underpin the pathophysiological changes which culminate in HE and patients with advanced cirrhosis present with enteric dysbiosis with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and translocation of bacteria and their products across a leaky gut epithelial barrier. Resident macrophages within the liver are able to sense bacterial degradation products initiating a pro-inflammatory response within the hepatic parenchyma and release of cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 into the systemic circulation. The endotoxemia and systemic inflammatory response that are generated predispose both to the development of infection as well as the manifestation of covert and overt HE. Co-morbidities such as diabetes and insulin resistance, which commonly accompany cirrhosis, may promote slow gut transit, promote bacterial overgrowth and increase glutaminase activity and may need to be acknowledged in HE risk stratification assessments and therapeutic regimens. Therapies are discussed which target ammonia production, utilisation or excretion at an individual organ level, or which reduce systemic inflammation and endotoxemia which are known to exacerbate the cerebral effects of ammonia in HE. The ideal therapeutic strategy would be to use an agent that can reduce hyperammonemia and reduce systemic inflammation or perhaps to adopt a combination of

  3. Salivary alterations in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients: Salivary glucose could be noninvasive tool for monitoring diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahbaz

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: There are definite changes in salivary composition with increased levels of salivary glucose, total protein and albumin in T1DM patients compared with healthy controls. Salivary glucose could be used for monitoring of DM.

  4. Parenteral Nutrition and Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska, Barbara; Allard, Johane P

    2017-05-06

    Severe short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a major cause of chronic (Type 3) intestinal failure (IF) where structural and functional changes contribute to malabsorption and risk of micronutrient deficiencies. Chronic IF may be reversible, depending on anatomy and intestinal adaptation, but most patients require long-term nutritional support, generally in the form of parenteral nutrition (PN). SBS management begins with dietary changes and pharmacologic therapies taking into account individual anatomy and physiology, but these are rarely sufficient to avoid PN. New hormonal therapies targeting intestinal adaptation hold promise. Surgical options for SBS including intestinal transplant are available, but have significant limitations. Home PN (HPN) is therefore the mainstay of treatment for severe SBS. HPN involves chronic administration of macronutrients, micronutrients, fluid, and electrolytes via central venous access in the patient's home. HPN requires careful clinical and biochemical monitoring. Main complications of HPN are related to venous access (infection, thrombosis) and metabolic complications including intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). Although HPN significantly impacts quality of life, outcomes are generally good and survival is mostly determined by the underlying disease. As chronic intestinal failure is a rare disease, registries are a promising strategy for studying HPN patients to improve outcomes.

  5. May salivary gland secretory proteins from hematophagous leeches (Hirudo verbana reach pharmacologically relevant concentrations in the vertebrate host?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lemke

    Full Text Available Saliva of hematophagous leeches (Hirudo sp. contains bioactive proteins which allow the leech proper feeding and storage of ingested blood, but may also exert effects in the host. Leech therapy is used to treat many different ailments in humans, although only a small fraction of salivary proteins are characterized yet. Moreover, we do not know whether complete transfer of salivary proteins stored in the unicellular salivary glands in a leech to the host during feeding may generate concentrations that are sufficiently high to affect physiological processes in the host. Our 3D reconstruction of a portion of internal leech tissue from histological sections revealed that one leech contains approx. 37,000 salivary gland cells. Using tissue slices from pig liver and mouse skeletal muscle for reference, we obtained data for protein densities in leech salivary gland cells. As individual salivary cells are voluminous (67,000 µm(3 and the stored proteins are densely packed (approx. 500 µg/mm(3, we extrapolated that a single leech may contain up to 1.2 mg of salivary proteins. Analyzing protein extracts of unfed or fed leeches by 2D electrophoresis, we calculated the relative molar amounts of individual salivary proteins in the mass range of 17-60 kDa which may be released from a single leech during feeding. Distribution of these salivary proteins in the host (assumed plasma volume of 5 l may result in concentrations of individual compounds between 3 and 236 pmol/l. Such concentrations seem sufficiently high to exert biochemical interactions with target molecules in the host.

  6. Histologia do rim, fígado e intestino de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana alimentados com dietas contendo própolis Histology of kidney, liver and intestine of bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana fed with diets containing propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ricardo Romero Arauco

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a ocorrência de possíveis alterações no fígado, rim e intestino de girinos de rã-touro no estágio 42, alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes concentrações (0,0; 0,2; 0,5; 1,0; e 1,5% de extrato hidroalcoólico de própolis. O experimento foi conduzido no laboratório de Nutrição de Organismos Aquáticos do Centro de Aqüicultura da UNESP, onde foram utilizados 1.400 girinos no estágio 26, distribuídos em vinte tanques experimentais. No final do experimento (60 dias, foram sacrificados três girinos de cada repetição e retiradas amostras de rim, fígado e intestino para processamento de lâminas histológicas no Laboratório de Histologia do Departamento de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal da FCAV - UNESP. As amostras foram fixadas, desidratadas, coradas com HE, analisadas, fotomicrografadas e medida a espessura do epitélio intestinal. Não foram observadas alterações histológicas no intestino, rins e fígado dos girinos. A espessura do epitélio do intestino dos mesmos não foi influenciada (P>0,05 pelas concentrações de própolis.This research was aimed at verifying the occurrence of possible alterations in liver, kidney and intestine of bullfrog tadpoles in stage 42 fed with diets containing different concentrations (0.0; 0.2; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5% of propolis hydroalcoholic extract. The experiment was carried out in laboratory of Aquatic Organisms Nutrition from Aquaculture Center of UNESP, where 1,400 tadpoles in stage 26 were used and distributed in twenty experimental aquariums. In the end of experiment (60 days three tadpoles from each repetition were sacrificed and kidney, liver and intestine samples were collected to processing of histological slices in Histology´s Laboratory pertaining to Department of Morphology and Physiology from FCAV - UNESP. Samples were fixed, dehydrated, stained in HE, analysed, photomicrographed and thickness of intestinal epithelium was measured

  7. Salivary function after radioiodine therapy: poor correlation between symptoms and salivary scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eJonklaas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a correlation between salivary symptoms and salivary functioning following radioiodine therapy. Fifteen patients receiving radioactive iodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer completed a questionnaire assessing their salivary and nasal symptoms and underwent salivary scanning prior to therapy and 3 and 12 months after therapy. Measures of salivary gland accumulation and secretion were correlated with scores of salivary and nasal symptomatology. The mean number of salivary, nasal, and total symptoms at 3 months increased significantly over the number of symptoms at baseline by 3.7, 2.7, and 6.3 symptoms respectively (p values 0.001, 0.0046, and <0.001. The mean right parotid gland accumulation and secretion of radioisotope declined significantly at 3 months, compared with baseline. There was no association between the increase in salivary, nasal, or total symptoms and the change in scintigraphy measures. The increases in nasal and total symptoms were significant in those with co-existent Hashimoto’s disease, compared with those without this condition (p values 0.01 and 0.04. Nasal symptoms decreased (p value 0.04 in those who used sour candies, compared with those who did not. Increasing body mass index was significantly associated with increasing nasal symptoms (p value 0.05. Greater decline in salivary parameters at 3 months compared with baseline was generally associated with heavier body weight, decreased thyroid cancer stage, absence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and pre-menopausal status. Although salivary and nasal symptoms increased and salivary scintigraphy parameters decreased after radioiodine therapy, the variables associated with symptoms and changes in salivary scan parameters differed. A better understanding of the relationship between salivary gland symptoms and functioning, and the factors affecting susceptibility to salivary and nasal damage after radioiodine

  8. Imaging for salivary gland sparing radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major side effects of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck area is a reduced saliva production due to the high radiation-sensitivity of the salivary glands. The reduced salivary flow induces difficulties in swallowing, eating, speaking, and often induces dental caries. This thesis addresses

  9. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Adenoid Cystic Cancer or Other Salivary Gland Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    High-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; High-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Low-grade Salivary Gland Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Salivary Gland Acinic Cell Tumor; Salivary Gland Adenocarcinoma; Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Malignant Mixed Cell Type Tumor

  10. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic/Recurrent ACC of All Sites and Non-ACC Salivary Gland Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Minor Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma

  11. Uncovering stem cell differentiation factors for salivary gland regeneration by quantitative analysis of differential proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jong Park

    Full Text Available Severe xerostomia (dry mouth compromises the quality of life in patients with Sjögren's syndrome or radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A clinical management of xerostomia is often unsatisfactory as most interventions are palliative with limited efficacy. Following up our previous study demonstrating that mouse BM-MSCs are capable of differentiating into salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system, we further explored the molecular basis that governs the MSC reprogramming by utilizing high-throughput iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomics. Our data revealed the novel induction of pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1α, muscle, intestine and stomach expression-1 (MIST-1, and achaete-scute complex homolog 3 (ASCL3 in 7 day co-cultured MSCs but not in control MSCs. More importantly, a common notion of pancreatic-specific expression of PTF1 α was challenged for the first time by our verification of PTF1 α expression in the mouse salivary glands. Furthermore, a molecular network simulation of our selected putative MSC reprogramming factors demonstrated evidence for their perspective roles in salivary gland development. In conclusion, quantitative proteomics with extensive data analyses narrowed down a set of MSC reprograming factors potentially contributing to salivary gland regeneration. Identification of their differential/synergistic impact on MSC conversion warrants further investigation.

  12. Pathology of head and neck tumors: salivary glands. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batsakis, J.G.; Regezi, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    The authors present a concept of histogenesis and classification as well as an analysis of (1) salivary-gland tumors in children, (2) the relationship between breast carcinoma and salivary-gland carcinoma, (3) the status of radiation induction of salivary-gland tumors, and (4) the clinicopathologic aspects of tumors of the salivary oncocyte.

  13. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  14. In vitro methods to study intestinal drug metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Although the liver has long been thought to play the major role in drug metabolism, also the metabolic capacity of the intestine is more and more recognized. In vivo studies eventually pointed out not only the significance of first-pass metabolism by the intestinal wall for the bioavailability of

  15. Intestinal growth and function of broiler chicks fed sorghum based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Margret Rukuni

    Weekly measurements of body weight (LW) and feed intake (FI) for each replicate of the treatments were taken. At days 7, 14, 21, 42 and 56 two chicks from each replicate were killed after starving them for 12 hours to limit intestinal throughput. To ensure clean histology samples, the liver and intestinal samples were ...

  16. Central venous line associated osteomyelitis in children with intestinal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with intestinal failure often require long-term central venous access for parenteral nutrition. Line-related complications often include liver dysfunction, sepsis, and loss of venous access. Osteomyelitis is a rare complication that has been reported in adults with intestinal failure. There has been little focus, however, on the development of osteomyelitis in the pediatric population. In this study we present 2 case studies of patients with intestinal failure requiring parenteral nutrition who subsequently developed acute osteomyelitis.

  17. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury augments intestinal mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksek, Yunus Nadi; Kologlu, Murat; Daglar, Gül; Doganay, Mutlu; Dolapci, Istar; Bilgihan, Ayse; Dolapçi, Mete; Kama, Nuri Aydin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate local effects and degree of bacterial translocation related with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat obstructive jaundice model. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were divided into three groups; including Group 1 (jaundice group), Group 2 (jaundice-ischemia group) and Group 3 (ischemia group). All rats had 2 laparotomies. After experimental interventions, tissue samples for translocation; liver and ileum samples for histopathological examination, 25 cm of small intestine for mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels and blood samples for biochemical analysis were obtained. Jaundiced rats had increased liver enzyme levels and total and direct bilirubin levels (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde levels were found to be high in intestinal ischemia-reperfusion groups (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosal damage was more severe in rats with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion after bile duct ligation (p<0.05). Degree of bacterial translocation was also found to be significantly high in these rats (p<0.05). Intestinal mucosa is disturbed more severely in obstructive jaundice with the development of ischemia and reperfusion. Development of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in obstructive jaundice increases bacterial translocation.

  18. Iatrogenic causes of salivary gland dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.M.; Izutsu, K.T.

    1987-01-01

    Saliva is important for maintaining oral health and function. There are instances when medical therapy is intended to decrease salivary flow, such as during general anesthesia, but most instances of iatrogenic salivary gland dysfunction represent untoward or unavoidable side-effects. The clinical expression of the salivary dysfunction can range from very minor transient alteration in saliva flow to a total loss of salivary function. The most common forms of therapy that interfere with salivation are drug therapies, cancer therapies (radiation or chemotherapy), and surgical therapy. These therapies can affect salivation by a number of different mechanisms that include: disruption of autonomic nerve function related to salivation, interference with acinar or ductal cell functions related to salivation, cytotoxicity, indirect effects (vasoconstriction/dilation, fluid and electrolyte balance, etc.), and physical trauma to salivary glands and nerves. A wide variety of drugs is capable of increasing or decreasing salivary flow by mimicking autonomic nervous system actions or by directly acting on cellular processes necessary for salivation: drugs can also indirectly affect salivation by altering fluid and electrolyte balance or by affecting blood flow to the glands. Ionizing radiation can cause permanent damage to salivary glands, damage that is manifest as acinar cell destruction with subsequent atrophy and fibrosis of the glands. Cancer chemotherapy can cause changes in salivation, but the changes are usually much less severe and only transient. Finally, surgical and traumatic injuries interfere with salivation because of either disruption of gland innervation or gross physical damage (or removal) of glandular tissue (including ducts)

  19. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  20. Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Minor Salivary Gland: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare invasive malignancy arising in the ductal epithelium of the salivary glands. Nearly 85% of the cases occur in the parotid gland followed by submandibular gland. Rarely is it described in the hard palate. Salivary duct carcinomas affecting the minor salivary glands have been reported in only 4% of the SDC cases and constitute 2% of all the salivary gland malignant neoplasms. It is characterized by aggressive behavior with early metastasis, local recurrence and significant mortality. The tumor has predilection for older men in the 6th to 7th decades of life. In this article; we report a case of a salivary gland carcinoma which was present in the right posterior region of the maxilla of a 50 year old female patient. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(4.000: 222-226

  1. Caries Experience and Salivary Parameters among Overweight Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele B. Diniz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by excess body fat, which can lead to other health problems, including insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, asthma, heart attack, stroke, atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. Currently, obesity and dental caries are major public health concerns and dietary habits are a very important common component of their etiological factors, showing some correlation with the sociodemographic characteristics of individuals presenting these diseases. In relation to caries experience, the literature suggests a correlation between obesity and dental caries in children and adolescents, in primary and/or permanent dentition, though divergent results exist regarding assessment based on the method recommended by the WHO (1997, i.e., restricted to carious lesions with cavitation. Some studies indicate greater prevalence of proximal carious lesions in obese adolescents compared with those with normal weight. Salivary changes, such as the concentrations of phosphate, sialic acid, proteins and immunoglobulins and in peroxidase activity could explain the increased probability of obese children presenting greater risk of dental caries. Thus, it is important to consider the contribution of salivary parameters in caries experience of overweight children and adolescents and the implementation of preventive measures in this population.

  2. Salivary duct carcinoma of the palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponniah I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare high-grade neoplasm that more frequently affects the parotid gland. Though neoplasms of this type are infrequent in minor salivary glands, they are less aggressive and may lead to early diagnosis before distant metastases could occur. Salivary duct carcinoma is also the most frequent epithelial component of carcinosarcoma. The present article reports a case of SDC of the palate in a 26-year-old male and discusses SDC as a malignant epithelial component in carcinosarcoma.

  3. [Salivary gland drainage into the thyroglossal duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siem, G; Natvig, K; Kolbenstvedt, A; Lømo, J

    2001-01-20

    Failure in regression of the thyroglossal duct is one of the most common reasons for midline swellings in the neck. Several authors have described recurrent thyroglossal duct remnants with persisting draining sinuses. However, few have described accessory salivary glands that drain into the thyroglossal duct. In this article we report two such cases with midline salivary glands in the floor of the mouth. These two patients were subsequently successfully treated with radical tissue resection in the area between the hyoid bone and foramen cecum. Preoperative fistulography or sinography was useful to demonstrate the ductal ramification of the salivary glands, and use of methylene blue during surgery proved of significant value for the result.

  4. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  5. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and 137 Cs γ rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and γ-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome

  6. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Neuroscience meets salivary bioscience: An integrative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Sabrina K

    2016-04-01

    Advances in salivary bioscience enable unique opportunities to explore individual differences in biological mechanisms related to learning and memory, psychiatric disorders, and more recently neurodegenerative diseases, neurotrauma/stroke, pain, and sleep. Sampling oral fluid is not only minimally invasive, but specimens can be collected easily and quickly in clinical and field settings. Salivary analytes allow neuroscientists to index endocrine, autonomic, immune, metabolic, and inflammatory processes within close proximity of discrete behavioral, biological, and social events, which is particularly important to advancing our understanding of human neuroscience. This review provides an update on the advances in salivary bioscience for specialty fields within neuroscience, presents novel salivary analytes of interest to neuroscience and the status of their development, and outlines a procedural framework to facilitate integration of these concepts and methods into neuroscience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are different methods for the assessment of salivary gland hypofunction; however, none of them are considered to be standard procedure. This article reviews the value of common methods in the assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands. PMID:21511748

  9. Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Krogh; Bjørndal, Kristine; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Salivary gland carcinomas of the larynx are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a national series of laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma patients and to bring a review of recent literature. METHODS: By merging The Danish Cancer Registry, The National Pathology Registry...... a review of literature from 1991 to 2010 was performed. RESULTS: Six Danish patients with a malignant salivary gland tumor in the larynx were identified resulting in an incidence of 0.001/100,000 inhabitants/year. Four had adenoid cystic carcinoma and two a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. All patients were male....... female ratio was 2:1, the most common location was the supraglottic region (52%) and the most predominant histological subtypes were adenoid cystic carcinoma (46%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (35%) and adenocarcinoma NOS (12%). CONCLUSION: Laryngeal salivary gland carcinoma is a rare disease with a male...

  10. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-24

    Jun 24, 2011 ... Keywords: androstenedione, obesity, physical activity, women, girls. Abstract. Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body.

  11. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  12. Insulin Resistance and Obesity Affect Lipid Profile in the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Matczuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world wrong nutritional habits together with a low level of physical activity have given rise to the development of obesity and its comorbidity, insulin resistance. More specifically, many researches indicate that lipids are vitally involved in the onset of a peripheral tissue (e.g., skeletal muscle, heart, and liver insulin resistance. Moreover, it seems that diabetes can also induce changes in respect of lipid composition of both the salivary glands and saliva. However, judging by the number of research articles, the salivary glands lipid profile still has not been sufficiently explored. In the current study we aim to assess the changes in the main lipid fractions, namely, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, free fatty acids, and diacylglycerols, in the parotid and the submandibular salivary glands of rats exposed to a 5-week high fat diet regimen. We observed that the high caloric fat diet caused a significant change in the salivary glands lipid composition, especially with respect to PH and TG, but not DAG or FFAs, classes. The observed reduction in PH concentration is an interesting phenomenon frequently signifying the atrophy and malfunctions in the saliva secreting organs. On the other hand, the increased accumulation of TG in the glands may be an important clinical manifestation of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    dental caries or swelling. Imaging plays an important role in visualization of morphology and function, to establish a diagnosis, for treatment, and for surgical planning. There are several options for diagnostic imaging: plain radiography, sialography, ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI......), computed tomography (CT), salivary gland scintigraphy and (18) F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET). We present an overview of the modalities in relation to common salivary gland disease....

  14. Assessment of post-radiotherapy salivary glands

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, S C H; Wu, V W C; Kwong, D L W; Ying, M T C

    2011-01-01

    Salivary glands are usually irradiated during radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, which can lead to radiation-induced damage. Radiation-induced xerostomia (oral dryness) is the most common post-radiotherapy complication for head and neck cancer patients and can reduce the patient’s quality of life. Accurate and efficient salivary gland assessment methods provide a better understanding of the cause and degree of xerostomia, and may help in patient management. At present, there are differen...

  15. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  16. Salivary exoglycosidases as markers of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Zalewska, Anna; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szulc, Agata; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Some salivary markers of alcohol abuse/dependence have been proposed so far: aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyltransferase, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, sialic acid, β-hexosaminidase A, oral peroxidase, methanol, diethylene/ethylene glycol, α-amylase, clusterin, haptoglobin, heavy/light chains of immunoglobulins and transferrin. To investigate the effect of chronic alcohol drinking and smoking on the activity (pKat/ml) and output (pKat/min) of salivary lysosomal exoglycosidases: α-fucosidase (FUC), α-mannosidase (MAN), β-galactosidase (GAL), and β-glucuronidase (GLU), and their applicability as markers of alcohol dependence. The activity of FUC, MAN, GAL and GLU was measured colorimetrically in the saliva of healthy social drinkers, alcohol-dependent non-smokers and alcohol-dependent smokers. We observed an increased salivary activity of FUC, GAL, GLU and MAN, as well as an increased output of GAL and GLU, in comparison with controls. The highest increase in the activity/output was found in salivary GLU and MAN (GLU, even 7- to 18-fold), and the least in GAL. We found an excellent sensitivity and specificity and a high accuracy (measured by the area under the ROC curve) for salivary FUC, GLU and MAN activities. The salivary GLU activity positively correlated with the number of days of last alcohol intoxication. Salivary activity of FUC, GAL and MAN, but not GLU, positively correlated with the periodontal parameters such as gingival index and papilla bleeding index. Although we found an excellent sensitivity and specificity as well as a high accuracy for the salivary activity of FUC, GLU and MAN, the GLU activity seems to be mostly applicable as a marker of chronic alcohol drinking (alcohol dependence). © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  18. Salivary electrolytes in psoriasis: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurcharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few isolated studies on alteration of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis but this subject has not been pursued extensively. Purpose: The present study was conducted to assess any alteration in the levels of salivary electrolytes in psoriasis and to correlate the same with type and severity of the disease. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients of uncomplicated psoriasis and 12 age and sex matched controls attending the outpatient department of R.L.J.H. and S.N.R. Hospitals, Kolar, India were included for analysis of salivary electrolytes. PASI scoring was used to assess the severity of the disease. Student′s t-test ( P < 0.05; significant was utilized for statistical evaluation of results. Results: Salivary sodium levels were significantly elevated in psoriasis ( P value 0.002, whereas there was no significant rise in levels of salivary potassium. However, potassium levels correlated significantly with severity of the disease ( P value 0.043. Conclusion: There was elevation of salivary sodium levels in patients of psoriasis and potassium levels correlated with severity of the disease. Limitation: Unicentre hospital based study with small sample size; hence the results cannot be generalized.

  19. Sarcomatoid salivary duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland: A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamilselvi R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old female presented with swelling in the soft palate. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC revealed pleomorphic adenoma, and on histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma/salivary duct carcinoma in the minor salivary gland, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical stains. We report this case for its rarity.

  20. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome) What is intestinal failure? Intestinal failure occurs when a significant portion of the small ... intestine does. Who is at risk for intestinal failure? N Babies (usually premature) who have had surgery ...

  1. Salivary duct carcinoma of the palatal salivary glands: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Charles L; Dunlap, Shara M

    2014-01-01

    There are many variants of salivary gland tumors; however, salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) ranks among those with the worst prognoses. The parotid glands are the most common site of origin. Minor salivary glands account for only 10% of SDC, and the palatal glands are the most vulnerable. If it is not recognized and treated early, SDC metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and eventually to distant organs. The histologic features are unusual in that the tumor cells exhibit comedonecrosis, a type of necrosis seldom if ever seen with other types of oral cancer. This article presents a case involving ductal carcinoma of palatal salivary glands, a rare and virulent type of salivary gland tumor, the patient's unwillingness to undergo conventional treatment, and the final outcome.

  2. Gut-liver axis at the frontier of host-microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Katharina; Kumar, Vipin; Eckmann, Lars

    2017-05-01

    Liver and intestine are tightly linked through the venous system of the portal circulation. Consequently, the liver is the primary recipient of gut-derived products, most prominently dietary nutrients and microbial components. It functions as a secondary "firewall" and protects the body from intestinal pathogens and other microbial products that have crossed the primary barrier of the intestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal barrier enhances microbial exposure of the liver, which can have detrimental or beneficial effects in the organ depending on the specific circumstances. Conversely, the liver also exerts influence over intestinal microbial communities via secretion of bile acids and IgA antibodies. This mini-review highlights key findings and concepts in the area of host-microbial interactions as pertinent to the bilateral communication between liver and gut and highlights the concept of the gut-liver axis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Recurrent Benign Salivary Gland Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Robert Lee; Nicolai, Piero

    2016-01-01

    The most important causes of recurrence of benign pleomorphic adenoma are enucleation with intraoperative spillage and incomplete tumor excision in association with characteristic histologic findings for the lesion (incomplete pseudocapsule and the presence of pseudopodia). Most recurrent pleomorphic adenomas (RPAs) are multinodular. MRI is the imaging method of choice for their assessment. Nerve integrity monitoring may reduce morbidity of RPA surgery. Although treatment of RPA must be individualized, total parotidectomy is generally recommended given the multicentricity of the lesions. However, surgery alone may be inadequate for controlling RPA over the long term. There is growing evidence from retrospective series that postoperative radiotherapy results in significantly better local control. A high percentage of RPAs are incurable. All patients should therefore be informed about the possibility of needing multiple treatment procedures, with possible impairment of facial nerve function, and radiation therapy for RPA. Reappearance of Warthin tumor is a metachronous occurrence of a new focus or residual incomplete excision of all primary multicentric foci of Warthin tumor. Selected cases can be observed. Conservative surgical management can include partial superficial parotidectomy or extracapsular dissection. Not uncommonly, other major and minor salivary gland neoplasms, including myoepithelioma, basal cell adenoma, oncocytoma, canalicular adenoma, cystadenoma, and ductal papilloma, follow an indolent course after surgical resection, with rare cases of recurrence. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The impact of FDG-PET in the management of patients with salivary gland malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Hideaki; Graham, M.M.; Kogame, Masahiro; Nishitani, Hiromu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET in the management of patients with salivary gland malignancy. We performed 45 FDG PET studies in 31 patients with salivary malignant tumors, using PET (33 studies) and PET/CT (12 studies). Patients comprised 21 males and 10 females with a mean age of 69 y (range 38-89). Nineteen patients had a single study, ten patients had 2 and two patients had 3 studies. Twelve studies were performed for initial staging and 33 studies for restaging. Four patients of the initial staging group were restaged with PET after therapy. Histology consisted of 8 adenocarcinomas, 8 squamous cell carcinomas, 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas, 4 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas, 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 2 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 1 salivary duct carcinoma, 1 lymphoepithelial carcinoma and 1 melanoma. PET findings were reviewed with the clinical and radiologic findings and the impact of PET on staging and patient management was determined. In the initial staging group, all 12 primary lesions (100%) showed positive FDG uptake (5 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenocarcinomas, 2 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 1 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, 1 salivary duct carcinoma, 1 lymphoepithelial carcinoma). Three patients (25%) had FDG positive distant disease (liver, bone, lymph nodes); surgery was canceled and therapy changed to chemoradiation. One patient (9%) with no FDG uptake in the neck nodes avoided a planned neck dissection. In the restaging group (33 studies in 23 patients), 5 patients (22%) had FDG positive distant disease, which changed the treatment from surgery to chemoradiation or other. A second primary lesion was detected in one patient (4%). One patient (4%) with clinically suspected recurrence was able to avoid other invasive procedures because of the negative PET. Overall, FDG PET resulted in a major change in management in 11 of 31 patients (35%). This study shows that FDG PET has a

  5. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association with toll-like receptor 4 expression and plasma levels of interleukin 8.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanab, Ahmed Abu

    2011-05-01

    Experimental and clinical studies suggest an association between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Liver injury and fibrosis could be related to exposure to bacterial products of intestinal origin and, most notably, endotoxin, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

  6. Effects of radiation on parotid salivary function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, J.E.; Davis, C.C.; Gottsman, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    Postoperative electron beam irradiation of patients with parotid cancer has been used regularly at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology to spare the opposite parotid and to preserve salivary function. Only anecdotal reports of amount of radiation required to ablate salivary function exist. To establish a dose-response curve for the human parotid, selective measurements of right and left parotid salivary flow were done for 15 age-matched control patients whose parotids were not irradiated, 17 patients who had both parotids irradiated, and 12 whose parotids were irradiated by unilateral electron beam technique. Point calculations of absorbed dose 1 cm below the surface were done for all 88 parotids and correlated with stimulated parotid salivary flow, pH, and secretory IgA (SIgA). Increasing doses of radiation resulted in progressive reduction of parotid salivary flow, pH, and SIgA. The technique, dosimetry, and clinical application of unilateral electron beam irradiation to spare the opposite parotid will be discussed

  7. The Case for Primary Salivary Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew eGeltzeiler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas of the parotid and submandibular glands have the histological appearance of a skeletal muscle tumor yet can be found in tissue with no striated muscular elements. We examine the potential cell-of-origin for rhabdomyosarcoma and whether salivary tumors represent primary malignancy or metastasis. We have previously established genetically-engineered mouse models of rhabdomyosarcoma. In these mice, rhabdomyosarcoma is only induced when a Pax3:Fox01 fusion oncogene is activated with concurrent loss of p53 function (for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma or loss of p53 function alone (for embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma using Cre-lox technology. These mutations are only activated under the control of promoters specific for selected cell lineages, previously thought to be myogenesis-restricted. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry for lineage-specific promoter gene products reveal these promoters are active in wild-type mouse salivary gland. Given that mouse rhabdomyosarcoma frequently originates in the salivary glands and these myogenic–related promoters are normally expressed in salivary tissue, a high likelihood exists that the salivary gland contains a cell-of-origin of this muscle-related cancer.

  8. Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the

  9. Efficacy of herbal toothpastes on salivary pH and salivary glucose – A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Khairnar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to dearth of literature on the effect of herbal toothpaste on saliva and salivary constituents, the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the effect of three different herbal toothpastes with the focus on on salivary pH and salivary glucose. Forty five subjects in the age group of 19–21 years were randomly divided into 3 groups (15 in each group and were randomly intervened with three different herbal toothpastes (Dant Kanti, Himalaya Complete Care and Vicco Vajradanti. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before and after brushing and salivary glucose and pH levels were assessed at an interval of one week each for a period of 4 weeks starting from day 1. All the three toothpastes were effective in reducing the overall (p < 0.05 levels as well as levels of salivary glucose from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval (p < 0.05 and in increasing the overall levels as well as levels of salivary pH (p < 0.05 from pre-brushing to post-brushing at each interval. Herbal toothpastes were effective in reducing salivary levels of glucose and improving pH of the saliva.

  10. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  11. Does salivary duct repositioning prevent complications after tumor resection or salivary gland surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Furudoi, Shungo; Komori, Takahide

    2015-05-01

    Tissue that is resected for the treatment of oral tumors often includes salivary gland ducts. At their institution, the authors conserve and transfer as much of the salivary duct as possible during these procedures to avoid obstructive complications. Differentiating these obstructive complications from a metastatic node can be challenging and can confound subsequent oncologic management. This study compared and examined the effectiveness of salivary duct repositioning in decreasing the incidence of obstructive complications. Cases of oromandibular disease treated with salivary duct resection at Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine from 2008 to 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Thirty-two cases (25 patients) of Wharton duct resection and 31 cases (31 patients) of Stensen duct resection were included. The incidence of complications after salivary duct repositioning, duct ligation, and retention of the sublingual gland around the Wharton duct was compared. Wharton ducts were repositioned in 30 cases and ligated in 2 cases. Complications, including oral swelling at the Wharton duct, were observed in 5 cases of repositioning and 2 cases of ligation. Stensen ducts were repositioned in 9 cases and ligated in 22 cases. The only complication reported was a single case of salivary fistula after ligation. Salivary duct repositioning is performed to prevent blockage of physiologic salivary discharge. Complications were more frequently associated with Wharton ducts than with Stensen ducts because of the unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics of the Wharton duct. Repositioning of the salivary duct is a suitable method for preventing complications associated with the Wharton duct. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  13. Plexiform Neurofibroma: A Rare Tumor of Submandibular Salivary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A provisional diagnosis of sialadenitis with sialolithiasis was made. Excised mass was reported histopathologically as plexiform neurofibroma of submandibular salivary gland. Plexiform neurofibroma of the salivary gland is a rare benign tumor often present in the parotid gland. It is very rare in submandibular salivary gland.

  14. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  15. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bee; electron microscopy; larval salivary gland; light microscopy; polarized light microscopy; silk gland. Abstract. The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well ...

  16. Microbiota-Liver Axis in Hepatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Gewirtz, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota, long appreciated to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, is also playing a key role in chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Such studies have yielded a general central hypothesis whereby microbiota products activate the innate immune system to drive pro-inflammatory gene expression thus promoting chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. This article reviews the background supporting this hypothesis, outlines how it can potentially explain classic and newly emerging epidemiological chronic inflammatory liver disease, and discusses potential therapeutic means to manipulate the microbiota so as to prevent and/or treat liver disease. PMID:23703735

  17. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  18. RNA Sequencing Analysis of Salivary Extracellular RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majem, Blanca; Li, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wong, David T W

    2017-01-01

    Salivary biomarkers for disease detection, diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. In this chapter we explain the current leading technology that has been used to characterize salivary non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) from the extracellular RNA (exRNA) fraction: HiSeq from Illumina® platform for RNA sequencing. Therefore, the chapter is divided into two main sections regarding the type of the library constructed (small and long ncRNA libraries), from saliva collection, RNA extraction and quantification to cDNA library generation and corresponding QCs. Using these invaluable technical tools, one can identify thousands of ncRNA species in saliva. These methods indicate that salivary exRNA provides an efficient medium for biomarker discovery of oral and systemic diseases.

  19. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...... during hospitalization. His blood type was O, RH+, Le (a-, b+) and he was a secretor of H-substance, which may be associated with rising API activity after fat-loading. In this case API was unchanged after fat-loading. Neither intestinal nor liver diseases were found, and no other cause for the elevated...

  20. Postnatal ontogeny of intestinal GCPII and the RFC in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafizadeh, Tracy B; Halsted, Charles H

    2009-03-01

    In humans and pigs, hydrolysis of dietary polyglutamyl folates is carried out by intestinal brush border folate hydrolase [glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII)], whereas the transport of the monoglutamyl folate derivatives occurs via the intestinal brush border reduced folate carrier (RFC). The study objective was to measure the expression of intestinal GCPII and RFC during postnatal development of pigs and their effects on plasma and liver folate concentrations. Duodenum, jejunum, ileum, liver, and plasma samples were collected from female Yorkshire pigs at birth, 24 h, 1 wk, 3 wk, and 6 mo (n=6 at each time point). GCPII mRNA transcripts and protein (normalized using beta-actin), and enzyme activity (normalized per mg mucosal protein) were highest in all segments of small intestine at birth and were undetectable in ileum after 1 wk, whereas jejunal protein and activity predominated at 6 mo. RFC mRNA transcripts were present in all segments of small intestine at birth and declined significantly throughout development to 6 mo. Conversely, RFC protein increased twofold during the first 24 h and remained constant throughout development in all segments of small intestine. Liver RFC mRNA transcripts were detected at birth but were reduced by 6 mo. Liver folate concentration increased throughout postnatal development, whereas plasma folate levels increased during the first 24 h but decreased over time, reflecting the pattern of RFC expression in small intestine. These findings show that intestinal GCPII and intestinal and hepatic RFC all exhibit ontogenic changes in the pig that are reflected in postnatal folate status.

  1. Histopathological Pattern of Salivary Gland Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shrestha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tumors of the salivary glands are uncommon head and neck neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative frequencies, types, site distribution and the histopathological features of salivary gland tumors. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 176 cases of salivary gland tumors collected from medical record section and department of pathology at B.P.Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2010. Tumors were analyzed based on demographics, anatomic location and histopathological type. Results: Out of 176 cases, 66 (37.5 % were benign and 110 (62.5 % were malignant with M:F ratio of 1.7:1. The mean age observed was 44.76 years with age range of 12 to 75 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was found to be the commonest benign tumor (72.7 %, followed by Warthin tumor (15.1%, monomorphic adenoma (3.0 % and basal cell adenoma (3.0 %. The mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumor (38.1 %, followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (25.4%, acinic cell carcinoma (10.9%, adenocarcinoma NOS (6.3%, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (5.4% and unclassified malignant tumor (4.5 %. Parotid was the most common site for the location of tumors (70.4% followed by submandibular (19.3% and minor salivary glands (10.2 %. Conclusion: Pleomorphic adenoma was the commonest salivary gland tumor observed in both sexes. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant salivary gland tumor. The parotid gland was the most common site of origin in both benign and malignant tumors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v4i7.10291 Journal of Pathology of Nepal (2014 Vol. 4, 520-524

  2. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  3. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  4. Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Rarely, fat accumulates in the liver during late pregnancy. This disorder, called fatty liver of pregnancy or ...

  5. Imaging of Submandibular and Sublingual Salivary Glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Amit K; Kanekar, Sangam G

    2018-05-01

    The submandibular and sublingual salivary glands are major salivary glands with a wide spectrum of pathologic conditions. The corresponding spaces along the floor of mouth have complex anatomy, best evaluated with cross-sectional imaging. The spectrum of diseases in these regions varies from simple infection to advanced malignancy, not just from the gland itself but also from the surrounding structures. The most common abnormalities in these spaces are inflammatory and infectious, and computed tomography is currently the most common imaging modality used. The anatomy of these spaces is much better depicted with MR; however, all the modalities have their unique roles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Folate, alcohol, and liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H

    2013-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of ALD with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism, which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of ALD based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Omics for Understanding the Gut-Liver-Microbiome Axis and Precision Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human metabolic disease opens a new view to understanding the contribution of the intestinal microbiome to drug metabolism and drug-induced toxicity in gut-liver function. Gut microbiota, a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, also plays a direct role in chronic inflammation and liver disease...

  8. Liver Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... instrument called a cannula to remove the liver tissue sample. What is the liver and what does it do? ... who specializes in diagnosing diseases—looks at the tissue with a microscope and sends a report to the person's health care provider. What are the risks of liver biopsy? The risks ...

  9. Melatonin reduces changes to small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansink, Maren Oude; Patyk, Vivien; de Groot, Herbert; Effenberger-Neidnicht, Katharina

    2017-05-01

    Systemic inflammation is known to impair the microcirculation in intestine and other organs as a result of multifactorial events. Here, we show that melatonin selectively reduces changes to the small intestinal microvasculature during systemic inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was infused at a rate of 0.5 mg/kg × h to induce systemic inflammation in male Wistar rats. Melatonin (single dose: 3 mg/kg × 15 min) was intravenously administered before as well as 120 and 240 min after the beginning of the LPS infusion. Systemic parameters were determined in regular intervals. Small intestine, liver, and kidney were histologically (structure of the microvessels, intravascular blood accumulation, and hemorrhages) and immunohistochemically (mast cells, granulocytes, and macrophages) analyzed. Continuous infusion of LPS resulted in dilated microvessels with intravascular blood accumulation (congestion) in liver and small intestine, the latter being particularly pronounced. Blood vessel walls remained intact, there were no hemorrhages. Melatonin significantly reduced these changes to the microvasculature in small intestine, but not in liver. It further reduced mast cell and granulocytes count in small intestine enhanced by LPS. However, except for the systemic blood pressure, melatonin neither improved LPS-dependent changes to systemic parameters nor mortality. Changes to the microvasculature during systemic inflammation are most pronounced in small intestine. Melatonin selectively diminishes these changes to small intestinal microvasculature, probably by reducing the local immune cells recruitment. However, changes to the small intestine are not decisive for the survival. We assume that the therapeutic benefit of melatonin is more likely in local intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  11. Salivary Cortisol and Salivary Flow Rate in Clinical Types of Oral Lichen Planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Najafi, Shamsoulmolouk; Nojoumi, Nazila; Parhami, Parisa; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2018-01-01

    Patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) may develop immune sialadenitis that causes a dry mouth. The role of cortisol in autoimmune diseases is well known; yet studies on this subject are controversial. In this study, the salivary flow rate and salivary cortisol level were compared among subtypes of OLP. This study involved three groups of patients: (1) 11 with reticular OLP, (2) 20 with atrophic-erosive OLP, and (3) 30 with no apparent oral lesion. The salivary flow rate in the control group was significantly higher than in OLP patients. The mean level of cortisol in atrophic-erosive cases was higher than in reticular cases and in the control group; however, there was no significant difference between the three study groups. In a previous study, there was moderate to severe acinar atrophy in two-thirds of patients with OLP, which may explain the decreased salivary flow rate in these patients.

  12. Haemorrhage and intestinal lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia M. Pizzini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of coeliac disease is around 1% in general population but this is often unrecognised. The classical presentation of adult coeliac disease is characterized by diarrhoea and malabsorption syndrome, but atypical presentations are probably more common and are characterized by iron deficiency anaemia, weight loss, fatigue, infertility, arthralgia, peripheral neuropathy and osteoporosis. Unusual are the coagulation disorders (prevalence 20% and these are due to vitamin K malabsorption (prolonged prothrombin time. Clinical case: A 64-year-old man was admitted to our Department for an extensive spontaneous haematoma of the right leg. He had a history of a small bowel resection for T-cell lymphoma, with a negative follow-up and he didn’t report any personal or familiar history of bleeding. Laboratory tests showed markedly prolonged prothrombin (PT and partial-thromboplastin time (PTT, corrected by mixing studies, and whereas platelet count and liver tests was normal. A single dose (10 mg of intravenous vitamin K normalized the PT. Several days before the patient had been exposed to a superwarfarin pesticide, but diagnostic tests for brodifacoum, bromadiolone or difenacoum were negative. Diagnosis of multiple vitamin K-dependent coagulationfactor deficiencies (II, VII, IX, X due to intestinal malabsorption was made and coeliac disease was detected. Therefore the previous lymphoma diagnosis might be closely related to coeliac disease. Conclusions: A gluten free diet improves quality of life and restores normal nutritional and biochemical status and protects against these complications.

  13. Salivary lead in relation to caries, salivary factors and cariogenic bacteria in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youravong, Nattaporn; Teanpaisan, Rawee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-06-01

    Saliva has been suggested as a useful biomarker of environmental contamination, including exposure to lead. The study examined the associations between salivary lead level and the following factors: blood lead level, the number of decayed and filled surfaces (dfs) on deciduous and permanent teeth (DMFS), salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts. One hundred and twenty saliva samples of children living in a shipyard area (known to be an area contaminated with lead) were analysed for lead. Clinical oral examination was conducted to define carious lesions in accordance with the criteria of the World Health Organisation. The analysis revealed detectable levels of lead in a range of 0.16-28.52 μg/dl with a mean concentration of 2.26 ± 3.67 μg/dl. No significant differences in salivary lead concentrations were found in relation to gender and age. The salivary lead level significantly correlated with the blood lead level (Rs = 0.18, P = 0.05). There was no association between the salivary lead levels and dfs or DMFS. The results indicated that children with high salivary lead levels did not differ in flow rate, pH, buffer capacity of saliva from those with low lead levels. However, the number of mutans streptococci were reduced in the high salivary lead groups, while the lactobacilli count was not associated with the salivary lead levels. The current finding suggests that saliva may not have potential to be an appropriate alternative for biological monitoring of lead exposure. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Molecular cues for development and regeneration of salivary glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    The hypofunction of salivary glands caused by Sjögren’s Syndrome or radiotherapy for head and neck cancer significantly compromises the quality of life of millions patients. Currently no curative treatment is available for the irreversible hyposalivation, whereas regenerative strategies targeting salivary stem/progenitor cells are promising. However, the success of these strategies is constrained by the lack of insights on the molecular cues of salivary gland regeneration. Recent advances in the molecular controls of salivary gland morphogenesis provided valuable clues for identifying potential regenerative cues. A complicated network of signaling molecules between epithelia, mesenchyme, endothelia, extracellular matrix and innervating nerves orchestrate the salivary gland organogenesis. Here we discuss the roles of several cross-talking intercellular signaling pathways, i.e., FGF, Wnt, Hedgehog, Eda, Notch, Chrm1/HB-EGF and Laminin/Integrin pathways, in the development of salivary glands and their potentials to promote salivary regeneration. PMID:24189993

  15. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. "eating breakfast" and "mental stress" were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from the viewpoint of the prevention of oral disease.A highly significant correlation (r=0.97; p<0.01) between the salivary cortisol levels and the cortisol secretion rates when controlled for the salivary secretion rates was also observed. This suggests that there is a high correlation between the intact salivary cortisol levels and the total cortisol quantity per unit time. Therefore, both these values can be used as a good index for the salivary cortisol determination.

  16. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos Bezirtzoglou

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytochromes P450 (CYPs enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80% followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450 cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status.

  17. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  18. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  19. On the mechanism of salivary gland radiosensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, AWT; Coppes, RP; Vissink, A

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the understanding of the enigmatic radiosensitivity of the salivary glands by analysis of appropriate literature, especially with respect to mechanisms of action of early radiation damage, and to supply information on the possibilities of amelioration of radiation damage to

  20. Relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High androgenic activity in adolescent girls and adult women is associated with adiposity and metabolic disturbances. This study examined the relationship between salivary androstenedione levels, body composition, and physical activity levels in young girls. Method: Twenty-three girls (8.4 ± 0.9 years), nine ...

  1. Minor salivary gland tumours in Kaduna, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overall recurrcnce rate of 4.48%. Conclusion: Minor salivaiy gland tumours are rare. Follow-up in this environment is. 13001'. There is a need to educate the patients about the importance of early presentation and recall visits. Key worclsz Salivary glands, minor, tumour, treatment liitroduction. U f-;;i|i\\ar§, land tumours are ...

  2. Suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suprasellar salivary gland-Like pleomorphic adenoma is not a common disease and seldom reported so far. We are reporting a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrent suprasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma, who underwent an operation of subtotal, subfrontal resection under the wrong pathology diagnosis of benign teratoma in another hospital 4-year-ago. Four years later, he was admitted to our hospital for additional visual loss of the right eye (left, 1.0; right, 0.4 resulting from tumor regrowth. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that suprasellar extension and compressed optic chiasm resulted in visual disturbance of the patient. The tumor was totally excised and histological examination evidenced the pathological features of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma. The patient did not receive any further treatment and he is free from tumor recurrence for 30 months after the operation. From this point of view, clinical prognosis of intrasellar salivary gland-like pleomorphic adenoma was good after total surgical resection.

  3. Osteopontin expression in salivary gland carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Kristine; Larsen, Stine R; Godballe, Christian

    2011-01-01

    :  Osteopontin was expressed in all salivary gland carcinomas. Adenoid cystic carcinomas had the highest mean sum score (7.3) and a significantly higher proportion of carcinomas with high OPN sum score than both mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma. Correlation of OPN expression with known...

  4. Excretory function of salivary gland during static salivary scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate: a correlation study with salivary flow rate in sjogrens syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S. J.; Lee, W. W.; Lee, Y. J.; So, Y.; Jeong, J. G.; Lee, M. C.; Kim, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of xerostomia. To identify the relevant and clinically applicable parameter for the evaluation of xerostomia, we performed static salivary scintigraphy using Tc-99m and compared it with salivary flow rate in patients with xerostomia. Twenty-three female patients (age 51.2±10.4 years) who suffered from xerostomia were investigated. Nine patients were classified as Sjogrens syndrome (SS) by clinical criteria, and 14 patients were classified as non-Sjogrens syndrome. Un-stimulated salivary flow rate and simulated salivary flow rate were checked. Salivary scintigraphy was performed with injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m pertechnetate after injection anterior static image was obtained over face as basal uptake. ROIs were drawn over each salivary gland with background subtraction by square ROI drawn over skull. We used the mean data of right and left salivary glands for analysis. Percent excretion of salivary gland was calculated. Un-stimulated salivary flow rates(SFR) were different between groups (p 0.05): 5.88±4.07 ml/15 min in SS, and 10.31±6.49 ml/15 min in non-SS. The uptake value in submandibular gland revealed significant difference between the groups. The percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated salivary flow rate (r=0.534, p=0.009), and that of parotid gland was also positive correlation (r=0.437, p=0.037). The result of multiple regression analysis revealed only percent excretion of submandibular gland was single determinant of unstimulated SFR. Percent excretion of submandibular gland had positive correlation with un-stimulated SFR. Thus, excretory function of submandibular gland assessed by salivary scintigraphy appears more related with xerostomia than parotid gland

  5. Intestinal microbiome landscaping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Lahti, Leo; Smidt, Hauke; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    High individuality, large complexity and limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying human intestinal microbiome function remain the major challenges for designing beneficial modulation strategies. Exemplified by the analysis of intestinal bacteria in a thousand Western adults, we discuss

  6. Mistakes in ultrasound examination of salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa J. Białek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography is the first imaging method applied in the case of diseases of the salivary glands. The article discusses basic mistakes that can be made during an ultrasound examination of these structures. The reasons for these mistakes may be examiner-dependent or may be beyond their control. The latter may include, inter alia, difficult conditions during examination (technical or patient-related, similarity of ultrasound images in different diseases, the lack of clinical and laboratory data as well as the lack of results of other examinations, their insufficient number or incorrectness. Doctor-related mistakes include: the lack of knowledge of normal anatomy, characteristics of ultrasound images in various salivary gland diseases and statistical incidence of diseases, but also attaching excessive importance to such statistical data. The complex anatomical structures of the floor of the oral cavity may be mistaken for benign or malignant tumors. Fragments of correct anatomical structures (bones, arterial wall fibrosis, air bubbles in the mouth can be wrongly interpreted as deposits in the salivary gland or in its excretory duct. Correct lymph nodes in the parotid glands may be treated as pathologic structures. Lesions not being a simple cyst, e.g. lymphoma, benign or malignant tumors of the salivary glands or metastatic lymph nodes, can be mistaken for one. The image of disseminated focal changes, both anechoic and solid, is not pathognomonic for specific diseases in the salivary glands. However, in part, it occurs typically and requires an extended differential diagnosis. Small focal changes and infiltrative lesions pose a diagnostic problem because their etiology cannot be safely suggested on the basis of an ultrasound examination itself. The safest approach is to refer patients with abnormal focal changes for an ultrasoundguided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  7. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  8. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  9. Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Na; Leffler, Daniel A; Kelly, Ciaran P; Hansen, Joshua; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A; Schuppan, Detlef; Helmerhorst, Eva J

    2015-12-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory disorder triggered by ingested gluten, causing immune-mediated damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Gluten proteins are strikingly similar in amino acid composition and sequence to proline-rich proteins (PRPs) in human saliva. On the basis of this feature and their shared destination in the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that salivary PRPs may modulate gluten-mediated immune responses in CD. Parotid salivary secretions were collected from CD patients, refractory CD patients, non-CD patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints, and healthy controls. Structural similarities of PRPs with gluten were probed with anti-gliadin antibodies. Immune responses to PRPs were investigated toward CD patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in a humanized transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. Anti-gliadin antibodies weakly cross-reacted with the abundant salivary amylase but not with PRPs. Likewise, the R5 antibody, recognizing potential antigenic gluten epitopes, showed negligible reactivity to salivary proteins from all groups. Inflammatory responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were provoked by gliadins whereas responses to PRPs were similar to control levels, and PRPs did not compete with gliadins in immune stimulation. In vivo, PRP peptides were well tolerated and nonimmunogenic in the transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model. Collectively, although structurally similar to dietary gluten, salivary PRPs were nonimmunogenic in CD patients and in a transgenic HLA-DQ2/DQ8 mouse model for CD. It is possible that salivary PRPs play a role in tolerance induction to gluten early in life. Deciphering the structural basis for the lack of immunogenicity of salivary PRPs may further our understanding of the toxicity of gluten. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Clear cell myoepithelial carcinoma of salivary glands showing EWSR1 rearrangement: molecular analysis of 94 salivary gland carcinomas with prominent clear cell component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skálová, Alena; Weinreb, Ilan; Hyrcza, Martin; Simpson, Roderick H W; Laco, Jan; Agaimy, Abbas; Vazmitel, Marina; Majewska, Hanna; Vanecek, Tomas; Talarčik, Peter; Manajlovic, Spomenka; Losito, Simona N; Šteiner, Petr; Klimkova, Adela; Michal, Michal

    2015-03-01

    within 5 months to 4 years after diagnosis (mean 22 mo), distant metastases were noted in 7 patients with invasion of orbit (2 cases), and in 1 case each metastasis to the neck soft tissues, liver, lungs, mediastinum, and thoracic vertebra was noted. We describe for the first time EWSR1 gene rearrangement in a subset of myoepithelial carcinomas arising in minor and major salivary glands. The EWSR1-rearranged CCMC represents a distinctive aggressive variant composed predominantly of clear cells with frequent necrosis. Most EWSR1-rearranged CCMCs of salivary glands are characterized by poor clinical outcomes.

  11. Use of nucleotides in weanling rats with diarrhea induced by a lactose overload: effect on the evolution of diarrhea and weight and on the histopathology of intestine, liver and spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, dietary sources of nucleotides were thought not to be essential for good nutrition. Certain states with higher metabolic demands may require larger amounts that cannot be provided by endogenous production. The objective of the present study was to determine the action of nucleotides on the recovery from lactose-induced diarrhea in weaned rats. Thirty-six weanling Fisher rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a standard diet and group 2 received a diet containing lactose in place of starch. On the 10th day, six animals per group were sacrificed for histopathological evaluation. The remaining animals were divided into two other subgroups, each with 6 animals, receiving a control diet, a control diet with nucleotides (0.05% adenosine monophosphate, 0.05% guanosine monophosphate, 0.05% cytidine monophosphate, 0.05% uridine monophosphate and 0.05% inosine monophosphate, a diet with lactose, and a diet with lactose and nucleotides. On the 32nd day of the experiment all animals were sacrificed. Animals with diarrhea weighed less than animals without diarrhea. The introduction of nucleotides did not lead to weight gain. Mean diet consumption was lower in the group that continued to ingest lactose, with the group receiving lactose plus nucleotides showing a lower mean consumption. Animals receiving lactose had inflammatory reaction and deposits of periodic acid-Schiff-positive material in intestinal, hepatic and splenic tissues. The introduction of nucleotides led to an improvement of the intestinal inflammatory reaction. In lactose-induced diarrhea, when the stimulus is maintained - lactose overload - the nucleotides have a limited action on the weight gain and on recovery of intestinal morphology, although they have a protective effect on hepatic injury and improve the inflammatory response.

  12. Dental caries and salivary alterations in Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, K; Hegde, A M; Kamath, A; Shetty, S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is a severe disease that raises blood glucose levels because of hyperglycemia and insulinopenia. Fluctuations in water and electrolyte levels may result in xerostomia and other changes in the salivary composition. Since diabetes has an influence on oral health, it is important for the dentist to be aware of newer advances in the field of diabetes and to recognize specific oral problems related to diabetes. Thus, the dentist becomes an important part of the health care team for the patients with diabetes. The present study correlated salivary flow rate, salivary pH and total salivary antioxidant levels and dental caries in type I diabetic patients. A total of 200 children that included 100 known diabetic children (study group) and 100 healthy children (controls) of both the sexes and from similar socioeconomic backgrounds formed the part of this study. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT index. The salivary total anti-oxidant level was estimated using phospho molybdic acid using spectrophotometric method. The salivary flow rate was recorded using the Zunt method and the salivary pH using the pH indicating paper. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. The analyzed parameters showed increase in salivary anti-oxidant levels, reduced salivary flow rate, increase incidence of dental caries, salivary pH was decreased when compared to the control group.

  13. Salivary cortisol concentrations in healthy dogs and dogs with hypercortisolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger-Riggenbach, B; Boretti, F S; Quante, S; Schellenberg, S; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of salivary cortisol is a useful diagnostic test for hypercortisolism (HC) in humans. To determine whether measurement of salivary cortisol concentration is a practical alternative to plasma cortisol to diagnose HC, to validate the use of salivary cortisol, and to examine the effect of time of day and sampling location on salivary cortisol. Thirty healthy dogs and 6 dogs with HC. Prospective, observational clinical trial including healthy volunteer dogs and dogs newly diagnosed with HC. Salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured with an immunoassay analyzer. Intra- and interassay variability, linearity, and correlation between salivary and plasma cortisol concentrations were determined. The required 300 microL of saliva could not be obtained in 88/326 samples from healthy dogs and in 15/30 samples from dogs with HC. The intra-assay variability for measurement of salivary cortisol was 5-17.7%, the interassay variability 8.5 and 17.3%, and the observed to expected ratio 89-125%. The correlation (r) between salivary and plasma cortisol was 0.98. The time of day and location of collection did not affect salivary cortisol concentrations. Dogs with HC had significantly higher salivary cortisol values than healthy dogs (10.2 +/- 7.3 nmol/L versus 1.54 +/- 0.97 nmol/L; P cortisol in dogs. However, a broad clinical application of the method seems limited, because of the large sample volume required.

  14. Factors of salivary gland tumor influence on salivary gland function. Studies on salivary scintigraphy using 99mTcO4-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Michio; Katada, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Togashi, Masatoshi; Tsuchimochi, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to show clearly what factors such as tumor size, duration of illness, location, and tumor invasion in salivary gland tumor affect salivary gland function. The study cases were 42 salivary gland tumor patients who underwent computed tomography (CT) and sialoscintigraphy. Salivary gland tumor was confirmed histopathologically. The patients were 24 males and 18 females, aged from 16 to 82 years old (mean age: 52.8 years old). There were 23 patients with parotid gland tumors and 19 patients with submandibular gland tumors (27 benign tumors, 15 malignant tumors). By using 99m TcO 4 - sialoscintigraphy, the salivary gland function was classified into three different types according to stimulatory selection ratio which was expressed as the ratio of pre- to post-stimulation counts on the salivary gland, namely, normal, lower functional, and no functional types. Then the normal type was judged abnormal function, and the lower and no functional types were judged as abnormal function. The results were as follows: There was a significant difference between malignant tumor and benign tumor in salivary gland function (P<0.0001). Depending on tumor size, abnormal function was significantly higher than normal function (P<0.05). There was no statistical significant difference among duration of illness, location of tumor, and salivary gland function. There was a significant difference between tumor invasion and salivary gland function (P<0.0001). The results showed that salivary gland function was disturbed in salivary gland tumor with larger size and positive invasion. (author)

  15. Host-Microbe Interactions and Defense Mechanisms in the Development of Amoebic Liver Abscesses

    OpenAIRE

    Santi-Rocca, Julien; Rigothier, Marie-Christine; Guillén, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Amoebiasis by Entamoeba histolytica is a major public health problem in developing countries and leads to several thousand deaths per year. The parasite invades the intestine (provoking diarrhea and dysentery) and the liver, where it forms abscesses (amoebic liver abscesses [ALAs]). The liver is the organ responsible for filtering blood coming from the intestinal tract, a task that implies a particular structure and immune features. Amoebae use the portal route and break through the ...

  16. Abnormal Nuclear Pore Formation Triggers Apoptosis in the Intestinal Epithelium of elys-Deficient Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Parslow, Adam C.; Trotter, Andrew J.; Hall, Nathan E.; Verkade, Heather; Tabone, Tania; Christie, Elizabeth L.; Crowhurst, Meredith O.; Layton, Judith E.; Shepherd, Iain T.; Nixon, Susan J.; Parton, Robert G.; Zon, Leonard I.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Lieschke, Graham J.; Heath, Joan K.

    Background & Aims: Zebrafish mutants generated by ethylnitrosourea-mutagenesis provide a powerful toot for dissecting the genetic regulation of developmental processes, including organogenesis. One zebrafish mutant, "flotte lotte" (flo), displays striking defects in intestinal, liver, pancreas, and

  17. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Biliary Cholangitis Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Liver Transplant View or Print All Sections Definition & ...

  18. Surgical management and autologous intestinal reconstruction in short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Matthijs J; van Baren, Robertine; Haveman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a serious condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. When treatment with parenteral nutrition fails and life-threatening complications occur, autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) should be considered before intestinal transplantation (ITx). Single or combined ITx should be reserved for patients with severe liver disease and as last resort in the treatment of SBS. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has proven its value in AIR, but its availability depends on the expertise of the surgeons. Serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) has similar success rates as LILT and fewer patients progress to ITx. STEP is also applicable at small bowel dilatation in ultra-short bowel syndrome. The scope may be widened when duodenal dilatation can be treated as well. Spiral intestinal lengthening and tailoring (SILT) is a promising alternative. More research is needed to confirm these findings. Therefore we suggest an international data registry for all intestinal lengthening procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of Momordica charantia on the liver in streptozotocin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... the liver histopathological changes in neonatal rats streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus type. II. Diabetes mellitus was .... glucose transport via the brush border of small intestine in albino rats. Wu and Ng .... macrovesicular vacuoles and cell necrosis in the liver were scored in 10 fields of each H ...

  20. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  1. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands. The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands. PMID:23209333

  2. Parotid salivary secretory pattern in bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riad, M; Barton, J R; Wilson, J A; Freeman, C P; Maran, A G

    1991-01-01

    Parotid gland enlargement occurs in about 25% of patients with the binge eating syndrome of bulimia nervosa. The parotid salivary secretory patterns in 28 bulimics were determined in order to investigate the functional abnormality in the glands. Bulimia patients had a reduced resting flow rate. Bulimics who developed sialadenosis (4 patients) had reduced resting and stimulated flow rates. The salivary amylase activity was increased in both the resting and stimulated states in bulimics and the sialadenosis group. The resting total protein levels were greater in the bulimics. The electrolyte and immunoglobulin levels were within normal limits. The possibility of protein and enzymatic secretory disturbances due to autonomic nerve disorders as an explanation for the development of sialadenosis in bulimia nervosa is discussed.

  3. Salivary gland doses from dental radiographic exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Kato, Kazuo; Wada, Takuro; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Salivary gland doses incurred during dental radiography were measured by phantom dosimetry, and these dose data and data obtained during a two-week survey of Hiroshima and Nagasaki dental hospitals and clinics were used to estimate the respective doses to members of the populations of the two cities. The results obtained were used to supplement previously determined doses to the thyroid gland, lens, and pituitary gland from dental radiography. No significant differences in doses were observed by age, sex or city. Doses to the salivary glands during dental radiography are probably not sufficiently large to cause bias in assessments of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects. However, the steadily increasing use of dental radiography underscores the need for continued monitoring of dental radiography doses in the interests of these assessments. (author)

  4. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  5. Chromatographic separation of human salivary peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, K K; Tenovuo, J

    1976-01-01

    A series of rapid and simple chromatographic purification procedures for peroxidase-like enzymes occurring in the human oral cavity is presented. Samples of whole saliva, parotid saliva, gingival exudate and various bacterial preparations contain peroxidases which were purified using molecular exclusion and ion exchange chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Salivary lactoperoxidase can be easily separated from bacterial and leucocyte peroxidase activity by the methods presented.

  6. Effect of two mouthwashes on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Paola A; Morelatto, Rosana A; Benavidez, Tomás E; Baruzzi, Ana M; López de Blanc, Silvia A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the effect of two mouthwashes on salivary pH and correlate it with age, buffer capacity and saliva flow rate in healthy volunteers, a crossover phase IV clinical study involving three age-based groups was designed. Two commercial mouthwashes (MW), Cool Mint ListerineR (MWa) and Periobacter R (MWb) were used. The unstimulated saliva of each individual was first characterized by measuring flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity. Salivary pH was evaluated before rinsing with a given MW, immediately after rinsing, 5 minutes later, and then every 10 min (at 15, 25, 35 min) until the baseline pH was recovered. Paired t-test, ANOVA with a randomized block design, and Pearson correlation tests were used. Averages were 0.63 mL/min, 7.06, and 0.87 for flow rate, pH, and buffer capacity, respectively. An immediate significant increase in salivary pH was observed after rinsing, reaching average values of 7.24 (MWb) and 7.30 (MWa), which declined to an almost stable value 15 minutes. The great increase in salivary pH, after MW use shows that saliva is a dynamic system, and that the organism is capable of responding to a stimulus with changes in its composition. It is thus evident that pH of the external agent alone is not a good indicator for its erosive potential because biological systems tend to neutralize it. The results of this study enhance the importance of in vivo measurements and reinforce the concept of the protective action of saliva.

  7. Lifestyle, mental health status and salivary secretion rates

    OpenAIRE

    Toda, Masahiro; Morimoto, Kanehisa; Fukuda, Sanae; Hayakawa, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    The relations between salivary variables, lifestyle and mental health status were investigated for 61 healthy female university students. The salivary secretion rates were significantly higher in the good lifestyle groups compared with the poor lifestyle groups. Among the 8 lifestyle items tested. “eating breakfast” and “mental stress” were significantly related to the salivary secretion rates. The present findings suggest that the acquisition of a good lifestyle is also very important from t...

  8. The Role Of Salivary Glands In Phosphate Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomo Mukai

    2012-06-01

    In Npt2b+/- mice, the salivary Pi concentrations were significantly increased compared with those in Npt2b+/+ mice. Npt2b+/- mice with adenine-induced renal failure had low plasma and salivary Pi levels, and plasma creatinine and BUN levels compared with Npt2b+/+ mice treated with adenine. In conclusion, Npt2b is involved in Pi secretion by salivary glands.

  9. The role of metabolism in Diclofenac-induced intestinal toxicity in human ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Makkinje, Miriam; de Graaf, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva

    2012-01-01

    The use of Diclofenac (DCF: 2-(2,6-dichloranilino) phenyl acetic acid ), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is associated with severe gastro-intestinal side-effects. In vivo rat studies suggest that reactive metabolites of DCF, produced by the liver, play an important role in the intestinal

  10. Consequences of Mrp2 deficiency for diclofenac-induced toxicity in rat intestine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; van de Vegte, Dennis; Makkinje, Miriam; de Graaf, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva

    Diclofenac (DCF), a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is associated with high prevalence of severe intestinal side-effects. The reactive metabolite diclofenac acylglucuronide (DAG) formed in the liver, and transported by bile into the intestine was reported to be involved in

  11. Morphometry of the Gastro-intestinal Tract in Broiler Finisher Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometric analysis showed a significant difference (P<0.05) only in length of the liver with birds on control diet (11.43) having higher mean values. The proventriculus, small ... gastro-intestinal tract. Keywords: Exogenous enzymes, Fiber utilization, Growth performance, Poultry diets, Gastro- intestinal morphometry ...

  12. Candidate genes for limiting cholestatic intestinal injury identified by gene expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Alaish, Samuel M; Timmons, Jennifer; Smith, Alexis; Buzza, Marguerite S; Murphy, Ebony; Zhao, Aiping; Sun, Yezhou; Turner, Douglas J; Shea-Donahue, Terez; Antalis, Toni M; Cross, Alan; Dorsey, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    The lack of bile flow from the liver into the intestine can have devastating complications including hepatic failure, sepsis, and even death. This pathologic condition known as cholestasis can result from etiologies as diverse as total parenteral nutrition (TPN), hepatitis, and pancreatic cancer. The intestinal injury associated with cholestasis has been shown to result in decreased intestinal resistance, increased bacterial translocation, and increased endotoxemia. Anecdotal clinical evidenc...

  13. Salivary abnormalities in Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Poshva, C. [Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Although abnormal saliva is a well documented finding in PWS, little is known about the saliva in these individuals. We have recently undertaken a study to characterize the salivary composition from PW patients and to see if there is any correlation with their underlying molecular diagnosis (deletion vs. disomy). We have collected whole saliva on 3 patients; 2 had normal high-resolution karyotype analysis (Cases 1 & 3) and 1 had a deletion of 15q11q13 (Case 3). For all parameters, Case 3`s values were notably different from those of his unaffected sibling. The salivary flow rates and concentrations for all 3 PW patients are similar and are significantly different from normal controls (mean {plus_minus} SE) (p<0.05). Although this data is from only 3 PW patients, it provides valuable information. First, decreased flow appears to be due to an effect of PWS and not medications since Cases 2 & 3 are not on any medications. Second, decreased flow appears to be present in younger as well as older individuals. Third, deviations from normal in the salivary composition are evident. It is possible that these alterations are concentration effects relative to a decrease in flow rate. We are currently obtaining saliva from more PW individuals to see if these alterations are present in all PW patients and whether they can be applied as a screening test.

  14. SALIVARY ANTIMICROBIAL PROTEIN RESPONSE TO PROLONGED RUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exercise may compromise immunity through a reduction of salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs. Salivary IgA (IgA has been extensively studied, but little is known about the effect of acute, prolonged exercise on AMPs including lysozyme (Lys and lactoferrin (Lac. Objective: To determine the effect of a 50-km trail race on salivary cortisol (Cort, IgA, Lys, and Lac. Methods: 14 subjects: (6 females, 8 males completed a 50km ultramarathon. Saliva was collected pre, immediately after (post and 1.5 hrs post race ( 1.5. Results: Lac concentration was higher at 1.5 hrs post race compared to post exercise (p0.05. IgA concentration, secretion rate, and IgA/Osm were lower 1.5 hrs post compared to pre race (p<0.05. Cort concentration was higher at post compared to 1.5 (p<0.05, but was unaltered from pre race levels. Subjects finished in 7.81 ± 1.2 hrs. Saliva flow rate did not differ between time points. Saliva Osm increased at post (p<0.05 compared to pre race. Conclusions: The intensity could have been too low to alter Lys and Lac secretion rates and thus, may not be as sensitive as IgA to changes in response to prolonged running. Results expand our understanding of the mucosal immune system and may have implications for predicting illness after prolonged running.

  15. Methods of collection for salivary cortisol measurement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreschel, Nancy A; Granger, Douglas A

    2009-01-01

    Salivary cortisol has been increasingly used as a measure of stress response in studies of welfare, reaction to stress and human-animal interactions in dogs and other species. While it can be a very useful measure, there are a number of saliva collection issues made evident through studies in the human and animal fields which have not been investigated in the canine species. Collection materials and the volume of saliva that is collected; the use of salivary stimulants; and the effect of food contamination can all dramatically impact cortisol measurement, leading to spurious results. In order to further examine the limitations of the collection method and the effects of collection material and salivary stimulant on salivary cortisol levels, a series of clinical, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. It was found that there is a large amount of inter- and intra-individual variation in salivary cortisol measurement. Beef flavoring of collection materials leads to unpredictable variability in salivary cortisol concentration. Using salivary stimulants such as citric acid also has the potential to affect cortisol concentration measurement in saliva. Hydrocellulose appears to be a useful collection material for salivary cortisol determination. Recommendations for collection materials and use of salivary stimulants are presented.

  16. [Application scintigraphy in evaluation of salivary gland function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsak, Małgorzata Natalia; Rogowski, Franciszek

    2010-03-01

    The salivary glands belong to the exocrine glands. There are tree main pairs of salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual. Several modalities are used for salivary gland imaging, such as sonography, computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of these methods is mainly to present morphological impairment. Parenchymal function and excretion function of all salivary glands can be quantified by scintigraphy. After single intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate sequential images are acquired up to 25-40 minutes. Usually about fifteen minutes postinjection 3 ml of lemon juice are administered intraorally as sialogogue. Salivary scintigraphy can estimate the severity of salivary gland involvement and function disorders, which may not be accurately reflected by the morphological damage. The clinical impact of scintigraphy has been reported in multiple salivary glands diseases, such as Sjogren's syndrome, sialolithiasis with or without parenchymal damage, iatrogenic irradiation of the salivary glands for therapy of head and neck tumors or radioiodine treatment of thyroid cancer. No other method can give so much information about function of salivary glands. Scintigraphy is noninvasive examination, easy to perform, reproducible and well-tolerated by the patient.

  17. Anatomy and histology of rodent and human major salivary glands: -overview of the Japan salivary gland society-sponsored workshop-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-10-31

    MAJOR SALIVARY GLANDS OF BOTH HUMANS AND RODENTS CONSIST OF THREE PAIRS OF MACROSCOPIC GLANDS: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638-1686), Thomas Wharton (1614-1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655-1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as salivary glands. Recent investigations have revealed the endocrine functions of parotin and a variety of cell growth factors produced by salivary glands.The present review aims to describe macroscopic findings on the major salivary glands of rodents and the microscopic differences between those of humans and rodents, which review should be of interest to those researchers studying salivary glands.

  18. The salivary microbiome is altered in the presence of a high salivary glucose concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Max Goodson

    Full Text Available Type II diabetes (T2D has been associated with changes in oral bacterial diversity and frequency. It is not known whether these changes are part of the etiology of T2D, or one of its effects.We measured the glucose concentration, bacterial counts, and relative frequencies of 42 bacterial species in whole saliva samples from 8,173 Kuwaiti adolescents (mean age 10.00 ± 0.67 years using DNA probe analysis. In addition, clinical data related to obesity, dental caries, and gingivitis were collected. Data were compared between adolescents with high salivary glucose (HSG; glucose concentration ≥ 1.0 mg/d, n = 175 and those with low salivary glucose (LSG, glucose concentration < 0.1 mg/dL n = 2,537.HSG was associated with dental caries and gingivitis in the study population. The overall salivary bacterial load in saliva decreased with increasing salivary glucose concentration. Under HSG conditions, the bacterial count for 35 (83% of 42 species was significantly reduced, and relative bacterial frequencies in 27 species (64% were altered, as compared with LSG conditions. These alterations were stronger predictors of high salivary glucose than measures of oral disease, obesity, sleep or fitness.HSG was associated with a reduction in overall bacterial load and alterations to many relative bacterial frequencies in saliva when compared with LSG in samples from adolescents. We propose that hyperglycemia due to obesity and/or T2D results in HSG and subsequent acidification of the oral environment, leading to a generalized perturbation in the oral microbiome. This suggests a basis for the observation that hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of dental erosion, dental caries, and gingivitis. We conclude that HSG in adolescents may be predicted from salivary microbial diversity or frequency, and that the changes in the oral microbial composition seen in adolescents with developing metabolic disease may the consequence of hyperglycemia.

  19. Dietary glutamine supplementation effects on amino acid metabolism, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity and antioxidant response of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, F; Castro, C; Rufino-Palomares, E; Ordóñez-Grande, B; Gallardo, M A; Oliva-Teles, A; Peres, H

    2016-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate dietary glutamine supplementation effects on gilthead sea bream performance, intestinal nutrient absorption capacity, hepatic and intestinal glutamine metabolism and oxidative status. For that purpose gilthead sea bream juveniles (mean weight 13.0g) were fed four isolipidic (18% lipid) and isonitrogenous (43% protein) diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1 and 2% glutamine for 6weeks. Fish performance, body composition and intestinal nutrient absorption capacity were not affected by dietary glutamine levels. Hepatic and intestinal glutaminase (GlNase), glutamine synthetase (GSase), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were also unaffected by dietary glutamine supplementation. In the intestine GlNase activity was higher and GSase/GlNase ratio was two-fold lower than in the liver, suggesting a higher use of glutamine for energy production by the intestine than by the liver. The liver showed higher catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, while the intestine presented higher glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities and oxidised glutathione content, which seems to reveal a higher glutathione dependency of the intestinal antioxidant response. Total and reduced glutathione contents in liver and intestine and superoxide dismutase activity in the intestine were enhanced by dietary glutamine, though lipid peroxidation values were not affected. Overall, differences between liver and intestine glutamine metabolism and antioxidant response were identified and the potential of dietary glutamine supplementation to gilthead sea bream's antioxidant response was elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200μm-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using

  1. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  2. The role of gut-liver axis in the pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Seok Seo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the anatomical position and its unique vascular system, the liver is susceptible to the exposure to the microbial products from the gut. Although large amount of microbes colonize in the gut, translocation of the microbes or microbial products into the liver and systemic circulation is prevented by gut epithelial barrier function and cleansing and detoxifying functions of the liver in healthy subjects. However, when the intestinal barrier function is disrupted, large amount of bacterial products can enter into the liver and systemic circulation and induce inflammation through their receptors. Nowadays, there have been various reports suggesting the role of gut flora and bacterial translocation in the pathogenesis of chronic liver disease and portal hypertension. This review summarizes the current knowledge about bacterial translocation and its contribution to the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases and portal hypertension.

  3. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  4. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 705 salivary glands neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Magdalena; Bień, Stanisław; Okła, Sławomir; Zyłka, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiological data concerning the rare group of tumors derived from salivary glands recorded in the National Cancer Registry is insufficient because it records only malignant salivary glands tumors. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 699 patients with salivary glands tumors (n=705). The data were retrieved from ENT Department District Hospital in Kielce (01.09.1989-28.02.2001) and from Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Holy Cross Cancer Centre in Kielce (01.03.2001-31.12.2008). In the analyzed group of 699 patients with 705 salivary glands tumors women predominated, consisting 54,2% of all group. The average age in group of malignant tumors was higher than in nonmalignant group. The risk of malignant neoplasms development increased with patient age. In the analyzed group of 705 salivary glands tumors the nonmalignant neoplasms dominated-78,3%. Out of all cases, 547 (77,6%) were localized in the parotid gland, 80 (11,3%) in submandibular gland and 78 (11,1%) in minor salivary glands. Nonmalignant tumors were more frequent in the parotid gland (82,8%) and submandibular gland (71,3%), whereas in minor salivary glands nonmalignant and malignant neoplasms the occurrence was nearly the same. In general-the smaller the salivary gland, the risk of development malignant tumors was higher. In group of nonmalignant salivary gland tumors two histopathological types dominated - pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumor, which comprised 91,8% of the whole group. In the group of 153 malignant salivary gland tumors the most common histopathology were - adenoid cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. In the analyzed period of 20 years' time, the incidence of salivary glands tumors increased with high siginificance, both for nonmalignant, as well malignant tumors. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia in adults - diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocić Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disorder, characterized by abnormal dilation of intestinal lymphatic vessels and extensive enteric loss of lymph rich in plasma proteins, lymphocytes and chylomicrons. The main characteristics of the disease are hypoalbuminemia, hypogammaglobulinemia, lymphocytopenia, and more rarely, the deficit of liposoluble vitamins and anemia. Except for primary, there are secondary lymphangiectasia, associated with celiac disease, malignant, infective and inflammatory diseases of the small intestine, fibrosis, liver and cardiovascular diseases. Case report. A male, 33 years of age, presented for his medical examination suffering from diarrhea and edema. The diagnosis was established upon the histological examination of a small intestine biopsy during double balloon enteroscopy, which revealed changes only in one segment of the intestine examined. Such a finding was later confirmed by the video endoscopy capsule. Conclusion. The diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia is usually established before the age of 3, but it can also be diagnosed in adults. The diagnosis is based on the histological analysis of the intestinal mucosa biopsy, obtained by endoscopic procedures. The diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is also made upon the exclusion of secondary causes.

  6. Activation of Rat Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase by Taurine May be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    targets for the gut mucosal defense factor intestinal alkaline phosphatase. American Journal of. Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology,. 299(2): G467–G475. Corrigan, J.J., Ray, W.L and May, N. (1968). Changes in the blood coagulation system associated with septicemia. The New England Journal of Medicine,.

  7. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a liver becomes available. Make sure that, no matter where you are going, you can be contacted ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  8. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Liver Transplant Back In ...

  9. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  10. Influence of gastric pH modifiers on development of intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Okamoto, Taro; Fudaba, Yasuhiro; Ogundigie, P.S.; Ito, Akihiro

    1993-01-01

    The influence of gastric pH on intestinal metaplasia was examined in male Crj:CD(SD) rats. At the age of 5 weeks, animals were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3-day interval (total 20 Gy), and 6 months after irradiation, received either secretin or histamine in silicon tubes for 2 months or had their bilateral submandibular salivary glands removed. The incidences of intestinal metaplasia in the fundus of animals after administration of secretin or histamine, or removal of the salivary glands were reduced, along with the pH values, as compared with values for rats given X-rays alone. In both the pyloric and the fundic gland mucosae, the numbers of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive foci and type B metaplasias (intestinal crypts without Paneth cells) were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). In a second experiment, started six months after irradiation, rats were kept on 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) diet for 6 months. Subsequent removal of salivary glands along with histamine treatment brought about a marked drop in pH and in numbers of ALP-positive foci after three and five days. The present results thus indicated that development and maintenance of intestinal metaplasia can be influenced by a decrease of pH value. (author)

  11. Influence of gastric pH modifiers on development of intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Okamoto, Taro; Fudaba, Yasuhiro; Ogundigie, P.S.; Ito, Akihiro (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1993-10-01

    The influence of gastric pH on intestinal metaplasia was examined in male Crj:CD(SD) rats. At the age of 5 weeks, animals were irradiated with two 10 Gy doses of X-rays to the gastric region at a 3-day interval (total 20 Gy), and 6 months after irradiation, received either secretin or histamine in silicon tubes for 2 months or had their bilateral submandibular salivary glands removed. The incidences of intestinal metaplasia in the fundus of animals after administration of secretin or histamine, or removal of the salivary glands were reduced, along with the pH values, as compared with values for rats given X-rays alone. In both the pyloric and the fundic gland mucosae, the numbers of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive foci and type B metaplasias (intestinal crypts without Paneth cells) were also significantly decreased (P<0.01). In a second experiment, started six months after irradiation, rats were kept on 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) diet for 6 months. Subsequent removal of salivary glands along with histamine treatment brought about a marked drop in pH and in numbers of ALP-positive foci after three and five days. The present results thus indicated that development and maintenance of intestinal metaplasia can be influenced by a decrease of pH value. (author).

  12. Protein synthesis and intestinal flora in piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namioka, Shigeo

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) by the flora in piglet colon was studied by administration of 15 N-urea and 15 N-ammonium salt to aseptic piglets and to SPF piglets which had been acclimatized to a clean environment after settling of intestinal flora. Administration of 15 N-urea did not result in 15 N uptake by any tissue-constituting protein at any site of the aseptic piglets, almost all 15 N being excreted into the urine. In contrast, the tissue and skeletal muscle of the SPF piglets showed incorporated 15 N from urea. Urea was converted, by urease of the intestinal flora, into NH 3 , which was absorbed from the mucosa of the intestinal tract to reach the liver where it was synthesized into glutamic acid, followed by conversion into various amino acids. 15 N-ammonium administration produced a significant amount of 15 N even in the tissue protein of the aseptic piglets. After NPN administration, the liver protein-constituting amino acid fraction showed 15 N-labeling of almost all essential, as well as non-essential amino acids. Culture of colonic flora with 15 N-urea revealed 15 N-labeling of all amino acids that constituted bacterial cells, indicating the presence of urea recycling mediated by bacterial urease in single rumen animals.(Chiba, N.)

  13. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne; Stokman, Monique A.; van Gosliga, Djoke; Zwart, Erik; Witjes, Max J. H.; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Rob P.

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG)

  14. Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive pattern of Benign Salivary Gland Tumours in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos: A ten-year retrospective study. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Objectives: This study is aimed at describing the histological pattern, age, sex and site distribution of benign salivary gland

  15. comparative analysis of salivary glucose and electrolytes in diabetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevalent among diabetics, most studies do not relate the salivary composition in diabetic patients to periodontitis. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SALIVARY GLUCOSE AND ELECTROLYTES IN. DIABETIC INDIVIDUALS WITH PERIODONTITIS. 1. Department of Physiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 2. Department of ...

  16. Impact of Oral Hygiene Discontinuation on Supragingival and Salivary Microbiomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, D; Sembler-Møller, M L; Grande, M A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize and compare supragingival and salivary microbiotas during a 10-d period of oral hygiene discontinuation. We tested the hypothesis that the composition of the salivary microbiota will reflect local microbial changes associated with accumulated b...... from this study highlight the necessity of regular oral hygiene in the maintenance of oral homeostasis....

  17. Secretion of salivary statherin is compromised in uncontrolled diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Izumi

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions and general significance: The results show that synthesis and secretion of statherin is reduced in diabetics and this reduction is salivary gland specific. As compromised salivary statherin secretion leads to increased oral health risk, this study indicates that routine oral health assessment of these patients is warranted.

  18. Silk formation mechanisms in the larval salivary glands of Apis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The mechanism of silk formation in Apis mellifera salivary glands, during the 5th instar, was studied. Larval salivary glands were dissected and prepared for light and polarized light microscopy, as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that silk formation starts at the middle of the 5th ...

  19. Infiltrative Oncocytoma arising from minor salivary glands of palate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncocytoma of salivary gland origin is an uncommon tumor found mainly in the parotid gland. On rare occasions, oncocytoma arise in the intra-oral minor salivary glands; having a greater tendency for locally aggressive behavior and infiltrating the adjacent tissues due to incomplete encapsulation. The current case is of ...

  20. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of synthetic salivary peptides against voice prosthetic microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elving, GJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Amerongen, AV; Veerman, ECI; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, FWJ

    Objectives: To investigate whether synthetic salivary antimicrobial peptides have an inhibitory effect on the growth of bacteria and yeasts isolated from used silicone rubber voice prostheses. Methods: The antimicrobial activities of six synthetic salivary peptides (histatin 5, dhvar1, dhvar4,

  2. Progression of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, J.; Kalk, W. W. I.; Bootsma, H.; Spijkervet, F. K. L.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Vissink, A.

    Background: Salivary gland dysfunction is one of the key manifestations of Sjogren's syndrome. Objectives: (1) To assess prospectively loss of function of individual salivary glands in patients with primary and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in relation to disease duration and use of immunomodulatory

  3. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  4. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  5. Exercise does not increase salivary lymphocytes, monocytes, or granulocytes, but does increase salivary lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillum, Trevor; Kuennen, Matthew; McKenna, Zachary; Castillo, Micaela; Jordan-Patterson, Alex; Bohnert, Caitlin

    2017-07-01

    An increase in salivary leukocytes may contribute to the exercise-induced increase in salivary antimicrobial proteins (AMPs). However, exercise-induced changes in salivary leukocytes have not been studied. The purpose of the study was to describe salivary leukocyte changes with exercise. Participants (n = 11, 20.3 ± 0.8 years, 57.2 ± 7.6 ml kg -1  min -1 peak oxygen uptake ((VO) ̇ 2 peak), 11.1 ± 3.9% body fat) ran for 45 min at 75% of VO 2peak . Stimulated saliva (12 mL) was collected pre- and immediately post exercise. Saliva was filtered through a 30 µm filter before analysis of leukocytes (CD45 + ), granulocytes (CD45 + CD15 + ), monocytes (CD45 + CD14 + ), T-cells (CD45 + CD3 + ), and B-cells (CD45 + CD20 + ) using flow cytometry. Saliva was analysed for Lysozyme (Lys) using ELISA. Exercise did not alter any leukocyte subset. The major constituent of leukocytes pre-exercise were granulocytes (57.9 ± 30.3% compared with monocytes: 5.1 ± 2.7%, T-cells: 17.1 ± 8.9%, B-cells: 12.1 ± 10.2%) (P exercise (pre: 5,170 ± 5,215 ng/min; post: 7,639 ± 4,140 ng/min) (P Exercise does not result in increased granulocytes, but does increase Lys. Further, these data suggest that an increase in salivary leukocytes is not needed to increase Lys.

  6. Assessment of salivary gland dysfunction following chemoradiotherapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Satoh, Michinao; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Uematsu, Minoru; Kusano, Shoichi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To assess chemoradiotherapy-induced salivary gland dysfunction using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS), and whether QSGS is capable of predicting the grade of persistent salivary dysfunction after chemoradiotherapy. Methods: From a time-activity curve using a stimulation test, the washout rate (WR) calculated was assessed. All glands (n = 155) were classified into four groups: a no-therapy group (n = 18), a chemotherapy alone group (n = 31), a radiotherapy alone group (n = 50), and a chemoradiotherapy group (n = 56). Subjective descriptions of xerostomia were recorded 1 year after the completion of the treatment period, and the 32 glands subjected to irradiation with or without chemotherapy were assessed. Results: The WR values were significantly lower in glands that received chemoradiotherapy than in glands treated with radiotherapy alone (mean: 0.75 x 10 -3 , n = 40 vs. 0.22, n = 36, p < 0.015), but there was no significant difference in the WR values between the no-therapy group and the chemotherapy alone group. The mean values of WR were lower in the chemoradiotherapy glands than in the radiotherapy alone glands in each of cumulative dose ranges of 1-20, 21-30, and 31-60 Gy. With regard to recovery from xerostomia, the WR values at a cumulative dose range of 20 to 40 Gy were significantly lower in the not improved group (-0.418, n = 16) than in the improved group (0.245, n = 16) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Chemotherapy per se has no or little adverse effect on salivary function, but combination chemotherapy can deteriorate radiation-induced injury of the salivary glands. QSGS appears useful in predicting the grade of persistent xerostomia following chemoradiotherapy

  7. Evaluation of the effects of quercetin on damaged salivary secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Takahashi

    Full Text Available With the aim of discovering an effective method to treat dry mouth, we analyzed the effects of quercetin on salivary secretion and its mechanism of action. We created a mouse model with impaired salivary secretion by exposure to radiation and found that impaired secretion is suppressed by quercetin intake. Moreover, secretion levels were enhanced in quercetin-fed normal mice. To elucidate the mechanisms of these effects on salivary secretion, we conducted an analysis using mouse submandibular gland tissues, a human salivary gland epithelial cell line (HSY, and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs. The results showed that quercetin augments aquaporin 5 (AQP5 expression and calcium uptake, and suppresses oxidative stress and inflammatory responses induced by radiation exposure, suggesting that quercetin intake may be an effective method to treat impaired salivary secretion.

  8. Salivary microflora and mode of delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boustedt, Katarina; Roswall, Josefine; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested that the mode of delivery can influence the composition of oral microflora. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the salivary colonization in vaginally delivered children with children delivered by Caesarian section (C...... months. A saliva sample from the mothers was obtained 6 months after delivery. The parents were asked to complete a questionnaire on socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, and hygiene at baseline and throughout the study period. All samples were analyzed with 13 pre-determined bacterial probes using...

  9. Intestinal Barrier and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, M; Bravo, J A

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal barrier function contributes to gut homeostasis by modulating absorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the lumen into the circulation while restricting the passage of noxious luminal substances and microorganisms. Chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease are associated to intestinal barrier dysfunction. Here, the hypothesis is that a leaky intestinal wall allowing for indiscriminate passage of intraluminal compounds to the vascular compartment could in turn lead to systemic inflammation. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the association between gut permeability and CNS disorders, under the premise that translocation of intestinal luminal contents could affect CNS function, either directly or indirectly. Still, it is unknown whether disruption of intestinal barrier is a causative agent or a consequence in these situations. Here, we discuss the latest evidence pointing to an association between increased gut permeability and disrupted behavioral responses. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: curtisklaassenphd@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation.

  11. Effect of various antibiotics on modulation of intestinal microbiota and bile acid profile in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Renaud, Helen J.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic treatments have been used to modulate intestinal bacteria and investigate the role of intestinal bacteria on bile acid (BA) homeostasis. However, knowledge on which intestinal bacteria and bile acids are modified by antibiotics is limited. In the present study, mice were administered various antibiotics, 47 of the most abundant bacterial species in intestine, as well as individual BAs in plasma, liver, and intestine were quantified. Compared to the two antibiotic combinations (vancomycin + imipenem and cephalothin + neomycin), the three single antibiotics (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and aztreonam) have less effect on intestinal bacterial profiles, and thus on host BA profiles and mRNA expression of genes that are important for BA homeostasis. The two antibiotic combinations decreased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes in intestine, as well as most secondary BAs in serum, liver and intestine. Additionally, the two antibiotic combinations significantly increased mRNA of the hepatic BA uptake transporters (Ntcp and Oatp1b2) and canalicular BA efflux transporters (Bsep and Mrp2), but decreased mRNA of the hepatic BA synthetic enzyme Cyp8b1, suggesting an elevated enterohepatic circulation of BAs. Interestingly, the two antibiotic combinations tended to have opposite effect on the mRNAs of most intestinal genes, which tended to be inhibited by vancomycin + imipenem but stimulated by cephalothin + neomycin. To conclude, the present study clearly shows that various antibiotics have distinct effects on modulating intestinal bacteria and host BA metabolism. - Highlights: • Various antibiotics have different effects on intestinal bacteria. • Antibiotics alter bile acid composition in mouse liver and intestine. • Antibiotics influence genes involved in bile acid homeostasis. • Clostridia appear to be important for secondary bile acid formation

  12. Gut-liver axis, nutrition, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpich, Irina A; Marsano, Luis S; McClain, Craig J

    2015-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a spectrum of diseases involving hepatic fat accumulation, inflammation with the potential progression to fibrosis and cirrhosis over time. NAFLD is often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The interactions between the liver and the gut, the so-called "gut-liver axis", play a critical role in NAFLD onset and progression. Compelling evidence links the gut microbiome, intestinal barrier integrity, and NAFLD. The dietary factors may alter the gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function, favoring the occurrence of metabolic endotoxemia and low grade inflammation, thereby contributing to the development of obesity and obesity-associated fatty liver disease. Therapeutic manipulations with prebiotics and probiotics to modulate the gut microbiota and maintain intestinal barrier integrity are potential agents for NAFLD management. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the complex interplay between the gut microbiota, intestinal barrier, and dietary factors in NAFLD pathogenesis. The concepts addressed in this review have important clinical implications, although more work needs to be done to understand how dietary factors affect the gut barrier and microbiota, and to comprehend how microbe-derived components may interfere with the host's metabolism contributing to NAFLD development. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. All rights reserved.

  13. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  14. Scintigraphic assessment of salivary function and excretion response in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Keus, R. B.; Takes, R. P.; van Tinteren, H.; Baris, G.; Hilgers, F. J.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Both loss of the secretory function and impairment of the excretion may play a role in radiation-induced injury of the major salivary glands after radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies. Therefore, quantitative 99mTc-pertechnetate (99mTc) salivary scintigraphy to assess trapping, secretion, and

  15. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1(SAG) expression is up-regulated in the presence of salivary gland tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, F.J.; van der Wal, J. E.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Mollenhauer, J.; Blieck-Hogervorst, J.M.A.; van der Waal, I.; Poustka, A.; Amerongen, A.V.N.; de Blieck-Hogervorst, JMA

    2004-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin (SAG) is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) and represents the salivary variant of DMBT1 (DMBT1SAG). While SAG is a bona fide anti-caries factor, DMBT1 was proposed as a candidate tumor-suppressor for brain, digestive tract, and lung cancer. Though

  16. Impact of multidisciplinary teams for management of intestinal failure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, Christina; Wales, Paul W

    2017-06-01

    To review the recent literature related to the impact of an intestinal rehabilitation program (IRP) on the management of intestinal failure in children. As publication of a systematic review of pediatric IRPs in 2013, there have been four publications further describing the impact of IRPs in children with intestinal failure. The results continue to support an improvement in survival and enteral autonomy, and a decrease in complications related to liver dysfunction, central venous catheters, and transplantation. Pediatric IRPs offer significant advantage to outcomes of children with intestinal failure. The literature is difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations. IRP collaboration is necessary to further advance the field.

  17. Ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations in a premature neonate with gestational alloimmune liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    McAdams, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN) that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD), a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with il...

  18. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjith Parameswaran Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed.

  19. Salivary RNA Signatures in Oral Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC are common malignancies that affect almost a million people every year. The key issue in reducing mortality and morbidity associated with OSCC is to develop novel strategies to identify OSCC at an early stage. One such strategy is the identification of biomarkers. So far, more than 100 biomarkers are recognized in the detection of oral cancer and they range from proteins to nucleic acids (DNAs, RNAs. Detection of ribose nucleic acids in saliva is a recent trend in diagnosing oral cancer. Studies have shown statistically significant changes in the levels of salivary transcriptomes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas. These biomarkers have displayed high sensitivity and specificity. Also, new point-of-care platforms such as oral fluid nanosensor test are now available that will soon emerge as chair-side tools for early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of salivary transcriptomes in oral cancer detection.

  20. Mycotoxins and the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  1. Acute Liver Failure Due to Regorafenib May Be Caused by Impaired Liver Blood Flow: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamine, Takaki; Ando, Koji; Oki, Eiji; Saeki, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Imamura, Y U; Ohgaki, Kippei; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2015-07-01

    Regorafenib has been approved for treatment of patients with unresectable or recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors resistant to imatinib or sunitinib. However, regorafenib has severe side-effects, including acute liver failure. We describe the case of a patient with multiple liver metastases of a small intestinal stromal tumor who experienced acute liver failure while being treated with regorafenib. A 50-year-old patient with an unresectable small intestinal stromal tumor resistant to prior treatment with imatinib and sunitinib was started on regorafenib, but experienced acute liver failure 10 days later. Plasma exchange and steroid pulse treatment improved her liver function. During liver failure, abdominal ultrasonography showed to-and-fro flow in the portal vein. Lactate dehydrogenase concentration was markedly elevated to 1633 U/l. These findings indicate that liver failure in this patient was due to impaired liver blood flow. Regorafenib may impair liver blood flow, inducing acute liver failure. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of boiled oil as dietary supplements for Japanese Quail on serum protein fractions and intestinal and hepatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faramawy, A.A.; Soliman, S.M.; Fahmy, Y.M.O.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the levels of serum protein fractions and testosterone, in addition to histopathological changes of small intestine and liver of Japanese quail following feeding with diets containing different concentrations of boiled oil (BO). Male Japanese quails (n=120), arranged into four groups each of three replicates, were supplemented with BO at 1%, 2% and 4% at the expense of 4% cotton seed oil (CSO). At the end of the experiment (10 weeks), three birds from each replicate were slaughtered and serum, small intestine and liver were collected for the determination of total testosterone, total protein, albumin and globulin fractions and fat studying the histology of small intestine and liver. The data revealed that feeding with BO led to decrease of total proteins and β-globulins in addition to cellular damages of small intestine and liver. This effect was increased with increasing the BO concentration in the diet

  3. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...... membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption...

  4. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    membrane transporters in the small intestine in order to increase oral bioavailabilities of drug or prodrug, the major influence on in vivo pharmacokinetics is suggested to be dose-dependent increase in bioavailability as well as prolonged blood circulation due to large capacity facilitated absorption......A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and...

  5. Salivary gland NK cells are phenotypically and functionally unique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlowe S Tessmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells and CD8(+ T cells play vital roles in containing and eliminating systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV. However, CMV has a tropism for the salivary gland acinar epithelial cells and persists in this organ for several weeks after primary infection. Here we characterize a distinct NK cell population that resides in the salivary gland, uncommon to any described to date, expressing both mature and immature NK cell markers. Using RORγt reporter mice and nude mice, we also show that the salivary gland NK cells are not lymphoid tissue inducer NK-like cells and are not thymic derived. During the course of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV infection, we found that salivary gland NK cells detect the infection and acquire activation markers, but have limited capacity to produce IFN-γ and degranulate. Salivary gland NK cell effector functions are not regulated by iNKT or T(reg cells, which are mostly absent in the salivary gland. Additionally, we demonstrate that peripheral NK cells are not recruited to this organ even after the systemic infection has been controlled. Altogether, these results indicate that viral persistence and latency in the salivary glands may be due in part to the presence of unfit NK cells and the lack of recruitment of peripheral NK cells.

  6. Evolution of the salivary apyrases of blood-feeding arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Austin L

    2013-09-15

    Phylogenetic analyses of three families of arthropod apyrases were used to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships of salivary-expressed apyrases, which have an anti-coagulant function in blood-feeding arthropods. Members of the 5'nucleotidase family were recruited for salivary expression in blood-feeding species at least five separate times in the history of arthropods, while members of the Cimex-type apyrase family have been recruited at least twice. In spite of these independent events of recruitment for salivary function, neither of these families showed evidence of convergent amino acid sequence evolution in salivary-expressed members. On the contrary, in the 5'-nucleotide family, salivary-expressed proteins conserved ancestral amino acid residues to a significantly greater extent than related proteins without salivary function, implying parallel evolution by conservation of ancestral characters. This unusual pattern of sequence evolution suggests the hypothesis that purifying selection favoring conservation of ancestral residues is particularly strong in salivary-expressed members of the 5'-nucleotidase family of arthropods because of constraints arising from expression within the vertebrate host. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamali, Irene; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia K; Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2012-01-01

    Hormonal determination in saliva offers several advantages. Peptides enter the salivary glands either by active transport mechanisms or are expressed and secreted by the salivary glands themselves. The collection of saliva is a noninvasive, easily repeatable and less stressful technique than blood withdrawal. The purpose of the present study was to introduce a method for measuring salivary resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels and to evaluate their associations with serum levels. Resistin, visfatin and adiponectin levels were measured in serum and saliva of 50 healthy adult volunteers (17 male and 33 female) using commercial enzyme immunoassay kits for serum with minor modifications. The present study documented the determination of resistin and adiponectin levels in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary levels with serum levels (r=0.441, p<0.01 and r=0.347, p<0.05, respectively). Moreover, the identification of visfatin in saliva was achieved, but no significant correlation with serum visfatin levels was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the determination of resistin and visfatin in saliva and the significant correlation of salivary resistin with serum levels, while it confirmed the significant association between salivary and serum adiponectin. The introduction of salivary determinations of adipokines could contribute to the elucidation of the physiology and the role of the specific adipokines in various clinical conditions (obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, reproduction, energy imbalance and stress response). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking influences salivary histamine levels in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertl, K; Haririan, H; Laky, M; Matejka, M; Andrukhov, O; Rausch-Fan, X

    2012-05-01

    Histamine, a potent vasoactive amine, is increased in saliva of periodontitis patients. The present study aimed to further investigate the diagnostic potential of histamine for periodontal disease and assessed smoking, a major risk factor of periodontitis, as a possible influencing factor. Salivary and serum samples of 106 participants (60 periodontitis patients, 46 controls) were collected. Salivary histamine was determined by a commercially available ELISA kit, and serum C-reactive protein was measured by a routine laboratory test. Cigarettes per day and packyears were assessed as smoking exposure parameters. Statistically significantly increased levels of salivary histamine and serum C-reactive protein were detected between the patient and control group (P = 0.022 and P = 0.001). Salivary histamine levels were significantly higher in smoking compared with non-smoking patients (P smoking exposure parameters (P Smoking, an established and common risk factor of periodontitis, was assessed as a possible influencing factor for salivary histamine. Most interestingly, salivary histamine differed highly significantly between smoking and non-smoking periodontitis patients. Our results suggest a possible involvement of histamine in tobacco-exacerbated periodontal disease, but do not suggest salivary histamine as a reliable diagnostic marker for periodontitis. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Comparison of serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The importance of saliva for oral health is well known. Diabetes mellitus affects the salivary gland functioning and thus alters the salivary constituents. For many years the question of the presence of glucose in saliva has been a subject of debate and only few people found correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose in diabetics. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate and correlate salivary glucose concentration and serum glucose concentration in diabetics and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: 60 newly diagnosed diabetic patients and 60 age and sex matched control subjects were included in the study. Blood and saliva samples from both the groups were collected at least two hours after the breakfast. The samples were centrifuged and subjected to glucose analysis using Semiautoanalyzer (BioSystems BTS-310 Photometer. For experimental group, the samples were collected again after the control of diabetes mellitus. The statistical comparisons were performed using paired and unpaired t -test. Results: A highly significant correlation was found between salivary glucose and serum glucose before the treatment and also after the control of diabetes. The correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose was also highly significant in controls. The levels of salivary glucose did not vary with age and sex. Conclusion and Interpretation: As there was significant correlation between salivary glucose and serum glucose, salivary glucose holds the potential of being a marker in diabetes. Further, it has an added advantage of being non-invasive procedure with no need of special equipments and with fewer compliance problems as compared with collection of blood.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of the salivary glands of an invasive whitefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun-Lin; Li, Jun-Min; Li, Meng; Luan, Jun-Bo; Ye, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Some species of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex cause tremendous losses to crops worldwide through feeding directly and virus transmission indirectly. The primary salivary glands of whiteflies are critical for their feeding and virus transmission. However, partly due to their tiny size, research on whitefly salivary glands is limited and our knowledge on these glands is scarce. We sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of the Mediterranean species of B. tabaci complex using an effective cDNA amplification method in combination with short read sequencing (Illumina). In a single run, we obtained 13,615 unigenes. The quantity of the unigenes obtained from the salivary glands of the whitefly is at least four folds of the salivary gland genes from other plant-sucking insects. To reveal the functions of the primary glands, sequence similarity search and comparisons with the whole transcriptome of the whitefly were performed. The results demonstrated that the genes related to metabolism and transport were significantly enriched in the primary salivary glands. Furthermore, we found that a number of highly expressed genes in the salivary glands might be involved in secretory protein processing, secretion and virus transmission. To identify potential proteins of whitefly saliva, the translated unigenes were put into secretory protein prediction. Finally, 295 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins and some of them might play important roles in whitefly feeding. The combined method of cDNA amplification, Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly is suitable for transcriptomic analysis of tiny organs in insects. Through analysis of the transcriptome, genomic features of the primary salivary glands were dissected and biologically important proteins, especially secreted proteins, were predicted. Our findings provide substantial sequence information for the primary salivary glands of whiteflies and will be the basis for future studies on whitefly

  11. Toll-like receptors: a novel target for therapeutic intervention in intestinal and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Ioanna; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Klonaris, Chris; Perrea, Despina; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2010-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane proteins that act mainly as sensors of microbes, orchestrating an organism's defense against infections, while they sense also host tissue injury by recognizing products of dying cells. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents one of these tissue damage states in which TLR-mediated mechanisms might be implicated. The most recent data on TLR signaling and the latest knowledge regarding the involvement of TLRs in the pathogenesis and progression of intestinal and hepatic IRI are presented. The potential effectiveness of TLR-modulating therapy in intestinal and liver IRI is also analyzed. A comprehensive summary of the data suggesting TLR involvement in intestinal and hepatic IRI. Knowledge required for developing TLR modulation strategies against intestinal and hepatic IRI. TLRS play a significant role in both intestinal and hepatic IRI pathophysiology. Better understanding of TLR involvement in such processes may enable the invention of novel TLR-based therapies for IRI in the intestine and liver.

  12. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    to treat special cases of intestinal failure. AIM: This review highlights recent developments in the area of small bowel transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Over 600 reports on clinical and experimental small bowel transplantation were reviewed. Aspects concerning research development, different immunosuppressive strategies, patient and graft monitoring, and improvements in surgical techniques are discussed. RESULTS: About 700 small bowel transplantation were performed in 55 transplant centers, 44% intestine-liver, 41% isolated intestinal graft and 15% multivisceral transplantation. Rejection and infection are the main limitation of this procedure. Actual 5 years post transplantation graft survival of the total international experience is 46% for isolated intestinal graft, 43% for combined intestine-liver and nearly 30% for multivisceral transplantation. Higher graft and patient survival are seen at the more experienced centers. In a series of 165 intestinal transplantation at University of Pittsburgh, PA, USA, actuarial patient survival was reported to be over 75% at one year, 54% at 5 years and 42% at 10 years. Over 90% patients from Pittsburgh program resume an unrestricted oral diet. CONCLUSION: Small bowel transplantation has advanced from an experimental strategy to a feasible alternative for patients with permanent intestinal failure. Further refinements in graft acceptance, immunosuppressive regiments, infection management and prophylaxis, surgical techniques as well as appropriated patient referral and selection are crucial to improve outcomes.

  13. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Prasad, Ramnarayan Belur; Sharma, Akhilesh; Babu, Harsha Mysore

    2013-05-01

    Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer.

  14. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribova, O. V.; Musabaeva, L. I.; Choynzonov, E. L.; Lisin, V. A.; Novikov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  15. Neutron therapy for salivary and thyroid gland cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribova, O. V., E-mail: gribova79@mail.ru; Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: nii@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Musabaeva, L. I., E-mail: musabaevaLI@oncology.tomsk.ru; Lisin, V. A., E-mail: Lisin@oncology.tomsk.ru; Novikov, V. A., E-mail: dr.vanovikov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the results of the combined modality treatment and radiation therapy using 6.3 MeV fast neutrons for salivary gland cancer and prognostically unfavorable thyroid gland cancer. The study group comprised 127 patients with salivary gland cancer and 46 patients with thyroid gland cancer, who received neutron therapy alone and in combination with surgery. The results obtained demonstrated that the combined modality treatment including fast neutron therapy led to encouraging local control in patients with salivary and thyroid gland cancers.

  16. A benign salivary gland tumor of minor salivary gland mimicking an epithelial malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleomorphic adenoma (PA is the most common benign tumor of major or minor salivary glands. Microscopically, PA exhibits a great diversity of morphological aspects. Here, we present an unusual case of PA with extensive squamous metaplasia and keratin-filled cysts in the left retromolar region of a 50-year-old edentulous person whose microscopic finding may represent a diagnostic dilemma for pathologists.

  17. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  18. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  19. Human Salivary Micro-RNA in Patients with Parotid Salivary Gland Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Janice; Wang, Xiaoyan; Elashoff, David; Leemans, C. René; Pegtel, Michiel D.; Wong, David T. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, clinical examination, ultrasound scanning (with or without fine needle aspiration cytology), preoperative CT-scan and MRI are available for the differential diagnosis of parotid gland swelling. A preliminary non-invasive salivary diagnostic tool may be helpful in the clinical decision making process. Altered salivary micro-RNA (miRNA) expression levels have been observed in saliva from patients with various cancers. Therefore, we investigated miRNA expression levels in saliva samples from patients with a parotid gland neoplasm using Human miRNA cards in comparison to controls. Results In the discovery phase, eight miRNAs were identified having different expression levels in patients compared to controls. In the validation phase, the differences in miRNA expression levels between patients and controls were confirmed for seven out of eight discovered miRNAs (p parotid saliva revealed that expression of these miRNAs differ between whole saliva and parotid saliva. Conclusions A two miRNA combination can predict the presence of a parotid gland neoplasm. Furthermore, this study suggested that the identified, patient-specific, salivary miRNAs were not derived from the parotid gland itself. PMID:26544193

  20. [Characteristics of the intestinal dysbiosis and endotoxemia after hemicolectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, I A; Drozdov, V N; Sil'vestrova, S Iu; Varvanina, G G

    2011-01-01

    The normal intestinal microflora important for maintaining the optimum level of metabolic processes in the human body, the immune system, as well as to create a high colonization resistance against the pathogenic microbes. With aging, changes microbiocaenosis intestine, resulting in an increase in the total number of microbes in the gut and profound changes in the functional properties of microorganisms. Under physiological conditions, the main reservoir of endotoxin in the human body is the intestine. Endotoxins, penetrating through the intestinal mucosa, arrive first at the local (intestinal), and then through the portal system in the liver, are able to initiate it various lesions, including fatty degeneration of the parenchyma. Based on clinical and laboratory studies to determine changes in gut microbiota and the level of endotoxemia in elderly patients in the remote period after undergoing surgery--hemicolectomy. Metabolic activity of microflora in the colon according to the concentrations of short chain fatty acids in the feces of elderly patients in distant periods after hemicolectomy revealed in various degrees of violation of the microbiota of the colon. Violation of gut microbiota leads to endotoxaemia, which has a toxic effect on liver function, level of endotoxin and protein that binds to endotoxin was significantly higher in patients who underwent left-sided hemicolectomy.

  1. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail. Shock. Overwhelming infection (sepsis) and shock can severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure. Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent ... liver failure often causes complications, including: ...

  2. Microbiota regulate intestinal absorption and metabolism of fatty acids in the zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semova, Ivana; Carten, Juliana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Mackey, Lantz C; Knight, Rob; Farber, Steven A; Rawls, John F

    2012-09-13

    Regulation of intestinal dietary fat absorption is critical to maintaining energy balance. While intestinal microbiota clearly impact the host's energy balance, their role in intestinal absorption and extraintestinal metabolism of dietary fat is less clear. Using in vivo imaging of fluorescent fatty acid (FA) analogs delivered to gnotobiotic zebrafish hosts, we reveal that microbiota stimulate FA uptake and lipid droplet (LD) formation in the intestinal epithelium and liver. Microbiota increase epithelial LD number in a diet-dependent manner. The presence of food led to the intestinal enrichment of bacteria from the phylum Firmicutes. Diet-enriched Firmicutes and their products were sufficient to increase epithelial LD number, whereas LD size was increased by other bacterial types. Thus, different members of the intestinal microbiota promote FA absorption via distinct mechanisms. Diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition might influence fat absorption, providing mechanistic insight into how microbiota-diet interactions regulate host energy balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal tissue complication probability for salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of radiotherapy is to make a profitable balance between the morbidity (due to side effects of radiation) and cure of malignancy. To achieve this, one needs to know the relation between NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) and various treatment variables of a schedule viz. daily dose, duration of treatment, total dose and fractionation along with tissue conditions. Prospective studies require that a large number of patients be treated with varied schedule parameters and a statistically acceptable number of patients develop complications so that a true relation between NTCP and a particular variable is established. In this study Salivary Glands Complications have been considered. The cases treated in 60 Co teletherapy machine during the period 1994 to 2002 were analyzed and the clinicians judgement in ascertaining the end points was the only means of observations. The only end points were early and late xerestomia which were considered for NTCP evaluations for a period of 5 years

  4. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  5. Long-term stability of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of salivary cortisol provides a simple, non-invasive, and stress-free measure frequently used in studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. In research projects, samples are often required to be stored for longer periods of time either because of the protocol...... of the project or because of lack of funding for analysis. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of long-term storage of samples on the amounts of measurable cortisol. Ten pools of saliva were collected on polyester Salivette tampons from five subjects. After centrifugation the samples were...... either stored in small vials or spiked to polyester Salivette tampons before analysis for cortisol using Spectria RIA kits. The effects of storage were evaluated by a linear regression model (mixed procedure) on a logarithmic scale. No effects on cortisol concentrations were found after storage of saliva...

  6. Radioprotective effect of thymoquinone on salivary gland of rats exposed to total cranial irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Baysal, Elif; Demir, Elif; Alkis, Hilal; Akan, Muslum; Binici, Habip; Karatas, Zeynel Abidin

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effects of thymoquinone against radiation-induced damage in the salivary glands of rats exposed to total cranial gamma irradiation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups to test the radioprotective effectiveness of thymoquinone by intraperitoneal injection. An appropriate control group was also studied. Biochemical parameters in liver tissue of rats were determined by spectrophotometer. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), total (enzymatic plus nonenzymatic) superoxide scavenger activity (TSSA), nonenzymatic superoxide scavenger activity (NSSA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were significantly decreased, whereas xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide synthase activities, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite levels were significantly increased in the irradiation group when compared to the control and sham control groups. Results showed that thymoquinone reduces oxidative and nitrosative stress parameters and has antioxidant effects and a free radical scavenging activity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterquist, W; Pedroletti, C; Lundberg, J O; Alving, K

    1999-02-01

    Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), pnitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, pnitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (pnitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (pnitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide.

  8. Quantitative prediction of intestinal metabolism in humans from a simplified intestinal availability model and empirical scaling factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadono, Keitaro; Akabane, Takafumi; Tabata, Kenji; Gato, Katsuhiko; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to establish a practical and convenient method of predicting intestinal availability (F(g)) in humans for highly permeable compounds at the drug discovery stage, with a focus on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. We constructed a "simplified F(g) model," described using only metabolic parameters, assuming that passive diffusion is dominant when permeability is high and that the effect of transporters in epithelial cells is negligible. Five substrates for CYP3A4 (alprazolam, amlodipine, clonazepam, midazolam, and nifedipine) and four for both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (nicardipine, quinidine, tacrolimus, and verapamil) were used as model compounds. Observed fraction of drug absorbed (F(a)F(g)) values for these compounds were calculated from in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, whereas in vitro intestinal intrinsic clearance (CL(int,intestine)) was determined using human intestinal microsomes. The CL(int,intestine) for the model compounds corrected with that of midazolam was defined as CL(m,index) and incorporated into a simplified F(g) model with empirical scaling factor. Regardless of whether the compound was a P-gp substrate, the F(a)F(g) could be reasonably fitted by the simplified F(g) model, and the value of the empirical scaling factor was well estimated. These results suggest that the effects of P-gp on F(a) and F(g) are substantially minor, at least in the case of highly permeable compounds. Furthermore, liver intrinsic clearance (CL(int,liver)) can be used as a surrogate index of intestinal metabolism based on the relationship between CL(int,liver) and CL(m,index). F(g) can be easily predicted using a simplified F(g) model with the empirical scaling factor, enabling more confident selection of drug candidates with desirable PK profiles in humans.

  9. Detection of dentin antigenic fractions by salivary immunoglobulin G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of dentin antigenic fractions by salivary immunoglobulin G in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. TMP Soares da Costa, S de Paula Ramos, MM Hidalgo, A Consolaro, SA Khan, EN Itano ...

  10. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, C.; Benezery, K.; Bensadoun, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most a common complication of radiotherapy for head and neck cancers, affecting quality of life. Parotid glands produce approximately 60% of saliva and submandibular glands 20% of saliva while the rest is secreted by sublingual and accessory salivary glands. Methods of measuring the salivary output are collection of unstimulated or stimulated saliva or 99m Tc-pertechnate scintigraphy. Several studies demonstrated that late salivary dysfunction after radiotherapy has been correlated to the mean parotid gland dose, with recovery occurring with time. Severe xerostomia could be avoided if at one parotid gland is spared to a mean dose of less than approximately 25-30 Gy. Clinical benefit of submandibular gland sparing is more controversial. A mean dose less than 39 Gy could preserve submandibular gland function. This paper aims to review main studies evaluating tolerance dose of salivary glands. (authors)

  11. Gut Microbiota and Host Reaction in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol feeding produces evident intestinal microbial changes in animals, only some alcoholics show evident intestinal dysbiosis, a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria. Gut dysbiosis is related to intestinal hyperpermeability and endotoxemia in alcoholic patients. Alcoholics further exhibit reduced numbers of the beneficial Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Large amounts of endotoxins translocated from the gut strongly activate Toll-like receptor 4 in the liver and play an important role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD, especially in severe alcoholic liver injury. Gut microbiota and bacterial endotoxins are further involved in some of the mechanisms of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. There is experimental evidence that a high-fat diet causes characteristic dysbiosis of NAFLD, with a decrease in Bacteroidetes and increases in Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, and gut dysbiosis itself can induce hepatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome. Clinical data support the above dysbiosis, but the details are variable. Intestinal dysbiosis and endotoxemia greatly affect the cirrhotics in relation to major complications and prognosis. Metagenomic approaches to dysbiosis may be promising for the analysis of deranged host metabolism in NASH and cirrhosis. Management of dysbiosis may become a cornerstone for the future treatment of liver diseases.

  12. Minor salivary gland tumors. A histologic and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regezi, J A; Lloyd, R V; Zarbo, R J; McClatchey, K D

    1985-01-01

    Clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical data were reviewed and evaluated on 238 oral minor salivary gland tumors. Benign neoplasms accounted for 65% of the total. Pleomorphic adenomas were the most common of all neoplasms, and mucoepidermoid carcinomas were the most frequently encountered malignancies. Pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas stained positive for S-100 protein. Immunohistochemistry was believed to be of potential assistance in diagnosis of salivary gland tumors and in prediction of histogenesis.

  13. Anatomy and Histology of Rodent and Human Major Salivary Glands

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Osamu; Mizobe, Kenichi; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Major salivary glands of both humans and rodents consist of three pairs of macroscopic glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands secrete serous, mucous or mixed saliva via the proper main excretory ducts connecting the glandular bodies with the oral cavity. A series of discoveries about the salivary ducts in the 17th century by Niels Stensen (1638–1686), Thomas Wharton (1614–1673), and Caspar Bartholin (1655–1738) established the concept of exocrine secretion as well as sal...

  14. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  15. Salivary gland derived peptides as a new class of anti-inflammatory agents: review of preclinical pharmacology of C-terminal peptides of SMR1 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Befus A Dean

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limitations of steroidal and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have prompted investigation into other biologically based therapeutics, and identification of immune selective anti-inflammatory agents of salivary origin. The traditional view of salivary glands as accessory digestive structures is changing as their importance as sources of systemically active immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory factors is recognized. Salivary gland involvement in maintenance of whole body homeostasis is regulated by the nervous system and thus constitutes a "neuroendocrine axis". The potent anti-inflammatory activities, both in vivo and in vitro, of the tripeptide Phe-Glu-Gly (FEG are reviewed. FEG is a carboxyl terminal peptide of the prohormone SMR1 identified in the rat submandibular salivary gland, The D-isomeric form (feG mimics the activity of its L-isomer FEG. Macropharmacologically, feG attenuates the cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of endotoxemia and anaphylaxis, by inhibition of hypotension, leukocyte migration, vascular leak, and disruption of pulmonary function and intestinal motility. Mechanistically, feG affects activated inflammatory cells, especially neutrophils, by regulating integrins and inhibiting intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. Pharmacodynamically, feG is active at low doses (100 μg/kg and has a long (9-12 hour biological half life. As a therapeutic agent, feG shows promise in diseases characterized by over exuberant inflammatory responses such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other acute inflammatory diseases. Arthritis, sepsis, acute pancreatitis, asthma, acute respiratory inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, and equine laminitis are potential targets for this promising therapeutic peptide. The term "Immune Selective Anti-Inflammatory Derivatives" (ImSAIDs is proposed for salivary-derived peptides to distinguish this class of agents from corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti

  16. Malabsorption in cirrhosis of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwardhan R

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal function of absorption has been studied in twenty biopsy proved cases of cirrhosis of the liver. The gastro-intestinal function was assessed by means of glucose and lactose tolerance tests and by fecal fat, d-Xylose and Co 57 B 12 excretion tests. Steatorrhoea and lactose intolerance are common in cir-rhotics. The etiopathogenesis of this malabsorption in cirrhotics is discussed and appears multifactorial in origin.

  17. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsunaga

    Full Text Available Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others, we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative, as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative. Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking, which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  18. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants’ happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers’ attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels. PMID:28683075

  19. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Ishii, Keiko; Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Noguchi, Yasuki; Ochi, Misaki; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-01-01

    Although human saliva contains the monoamine serotonin, which plays a key role in the modulation of emotional states, the association between salivary serotonin and empathic ability remains unclear. In order to elucidate the associations between salivary serotonin levels, trait empathy, and the sharing effect of emotions (i.e., sharing emotional experiences with others), we performed a vignette-based study. Participants were asked to evaluate their happiness when they experience several hypothetical life events, whereby we manipulated the valence of the imagined event (positive, neutral, or negative), as well as the presence of a friend (absent, positive, or negative). Results indicated that the presence of a happy friend significantly enhanced participants' happiness. Correlation analysis demonstrated that salivary serotonin levels were negatively correlated with happiness when both the self and friend conditions were positive. Correlation analysis also indicated a negative relationship between salivary serotonin levels and trait empathy (particularly in perspective taking), which was measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Furthermore, an exploratory multiple regression analysis suggested that mothers' attention during childhood predicted salivary serotonin levels. Our findings indicate that empathic abilities and the social sharing of happiness decreases as a function of salivary serotonin levels.

  20. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  1. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions.

  2. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren's syndrome. HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions.

  3. Choice of Allograft in Patients Requiring Intestinal Transplantation: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Huard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal transplantation (ITx is indicated in patients with irreversible intestinal failure (IF and life-threatening complications related to total parenteral nutrition (TPN. ITx can be classified into three main types. Isolated intestinal transplantation (IITx, that is, transplantation of the jejunoileum, is indicated in patients with preserved liver function. Combined liver-intestine transplantation (L-ITx, that is, transplantation of the liver and the jejunoileum, is indicated in patients with liver failure related to TPN. Thus, patients with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis should receive a combined allograft, while patients with lower grades of liver fibrosis can usually safely undergo ITx. Reflecting their degree of sickness, the waitlist mortality rate and the early posttransplant outcomes of patients receiving L-ITx are worse than IITx. However, L-ITx is associated with better long-term graft and patient survival. Multivisceral transplantation (MVTx, that is, transplantation of the organs dependent on the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery, can be classified into full MVTx if it includes the liver and modified MVTx if it does not. The most common indications for MVTx are extensive portomesenteric thrombosis and diffuse gastrointestinal pathology such as motility disorders and polyposis syndrome. Every patient with IF should undergo a multidisciplinary evaluation by an experienced ITx team.

  4. Biotin absorption by distal rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1987-01-01

    We used the in vivo intestinal loop approach, with short (10-min) and long (3-h) incubations, to examine biotin absorption in proximal jejunum, distal ileum, cecum and proximal colon. In short-term studies, luminal biotin disappearance from rat ileum was about half that observed in the jejunum, whereas absorption by proximal colon was about 12% of that in the jejunum. In 3-h closed-loop studies, the absorption of 1.0 microM biotin varied regionally. Biotin absorption was nearly complete in the small intestine after 3 h; however, only about 15% of the dose had been absorbed in the cecum and 27% in the proximal colon after 3 h. Independent of site of administration, the major fraction of absorbed biotin was recovered in the liver; measurable amounts of radioactive biotin were also present in kidney and plasma. The results support the potential nutritional significance for the rat of biotin synthesized by bacteria in the distal intestine, by demonstrating directly an absorptive capability of mammalian large bowel for this vitamin

  5. Usefulness of computed tomography enteroclysis in the intestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoda, Hideko; Shimizu, Kensaku; Washida, Yasuo; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Higaki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Matsunaga, Takaharu; Sakaida, Isao

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate computed tomography enteroclysis (CTE) of the small intestinal tract. A total of 36 patients underwent CTE for further examination of small intestinal disease. The indications were obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) (n=16), suspected Crohn's disease (n=7), suspected and diagnosed by exclusion a small intestinal tumor (n=5), and others (n=8). Regarding OGIB, positive findings were observed in nine patients: angiodysplasia (n=2), suspected ileac tumor (n=2), colon cancer (n=1), colon diverticulosis and diverticulitis (n=2), Crohn's disease (n=1), and enteritis (n=1). As for Crohn's disease, hyperplasia of the small intestinal wall was shown in six patents. Positive findings of a small intestinal tumor were observed in two patients. In the 'others' category, colon diverticulitis was found in three patients and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in one of four patients with abdominal pain. Primary carcinoid was identified in the pancreas in one patient, with liver carcinoid metastasis in the remaining four patients. CT enteroclysis is a noninvasive method and useful approach in the diagnosis of small intestinal diseases. (author)

  6. The nonfermentable dietary fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose modulates intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Laura M; Cho, Ilseung; Young, Scott A; Anderson, W H Kerr; Waters, Bartholomew J; Hung, Shao-Ching; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Bihan, Monika; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Methé, Barbara A; Blaser, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Diet influences host metabolism and intestinal microbiota; however, detailed understanding of this tripartite interaction is limited. To determine whether the nonfermentable fiber hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) could alter the intestinal microbiota and whether such changes correlated with metabolic improvements, C57B/L6 mice were normalized to a high-fat diet (HFD), then either maintained on HFD (control), or switched to HFD supplemented with 10% HPMC, or a low-fat diet (LFD). Compared to control treatment, both LFD and HPMC reduced weight gain (11.8 and 5.7 g, respectively), plasma cholesterol (23.1 and 19.6%), and liver triglycerides (73.1 and 44.6%), and, as revealed by 454-pyrosequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene, decreased microbial α-diversity and differentially altered intestinal microbiota. Both LFD and HPMC increased intestinal Erysipelotrichaceae (7.3- and 12.4-fold) and decreased Lachnospiraceae (2.0- and 2.7-fold), while only HPMC increased Peptostreptococcaceae (3.4-fold) and decreased Ruminococcaceae (2.7-fold). Specific microorganisms were directly linked with weight change and metabolic parameters in HPMC and HFD mice, but not in LFD mice, indicating that the intestinal microbiota may play differing roles during the two dietary modulations. This work indicates that HPMC is a potential prebiotic fiber that influences intestinal microbiota and improves host metabolism.

  7. Towards a better understanding of salivary and meat juice acute phase proteins determination in pigs: an expression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, L; Gutiérrez, A; Müllebner, A; Cerón, J J; Duvigneau, J C

    2013-11-15

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) determination in different fluids like serum, saliva and meat juice measured with ultrasensitive assays can be used to evaluate the disease status of porcine populations under field conditions. Liver is the main production site of serum APPs, but the origin of APPs that can be determined in body fluids different from blood remains unknown. The objective of this study was to clarify the origin of three APPs: C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) in saliva and meat juice. The mRNA expression of these proteins was measured in liver, salivary gland and diaphragmatic muscle by quantitative PCR and compared with the protein levels in serum, saliva and meat juice, respectively in healthy and naturally diseased animals. As expected, concentrations of all APP were significantly higher in all body fluids from diseased animals. Levels of all APPs mRNA were very low in diaphragmatic muscle tissue, and the expression was independent of the disease status. In contrast, we found higher expression levels of SAA and Hp mRNA in the salivary gland of diseased animals, while CRP mRNA was not detected. Our data indicate that the APP present in meat juice derived predominantly from serum. This assumption is also supported by the good correlation of the levels of both proteins in meat juice with those in serum. Further, the lower variability of the APP levels within the two groups of animals, suggests meat juice as an alternate sampling material. The APP levels that are determined in saliva, however, appear to result from an increased local production except for CRP, indicating that the salivary gland responds to disease. These findings are relevant for the establishment of saliva as the preferred diagnostic sample for health monitoring programmes, due to the technical and ethical advantages of the collection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Salivary gland enlargement and sialorrhoea in dogs with spirocercosis: A retrospective and prospective study of 298 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesel L. van der Merwe

    2012-04-01

    transformation of the parasitic nodules even though they were over-represented as a breed. Mandibular salivary glands were affected in 86% of cases showing sialorrhoea. Histopathology revealed acinar hyperplasia in all cases with concurrent necrosis detected in only two cases.Sialorrhoea and salivary gland enlargement has an incidence of 11% (33/298 cases in canine spirocercosis. Small breeds (≤ 12 kg and particularly fox terrier breeds are over-represented in the group demonstrating sialorrhoea and this appeared to be the only risk factor.The conclusion was that sialorrhoea secondary to canine spirocercosis occurs frequently and its presence should prompt further investigation for oesophageal and gastro-intestinal disease. Severely affected patients can be managed with phenobarbitone to control the dysphagia in addition to the routine macrocyclic lactones treatment.

  9. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references

  10. ACINIC CELL CARCINOMA OF THE MINOR SALIVARY GLANDS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Saprina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acinic cell carcinomas (ACC constitute 5 to 11 % of all salivary gland cancers. ACCs arise from the reserve precursor cells of the terminal and intercalated ducts. The tumor results from the neoplastic proliferation and aberrant differentiation of reserve pluripotent cells that are normally located in the transition of acini into the intercalated ducts of the salivary gland and/or into the intercalated ducts proper of mature salivary glands. ACCs chiefly affect the major salivary glands; sporadic cases of its involvement of the minor salivary glands have been described in the literature. This paper presents a clinical case of ACC of the minor salivary glands.

  11. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Pretherapy interventions to modify salivary dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Atkinson, J.C.; Macynski, A.A.; Fox, P.C. (National Institute of Dental Research, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Salivary gland dysfunction is a common side effect of cancer therapies. Salivary secretions are reduced rapidly after starting head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland dysfunction has also been linked to bone marrow transplantation and to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Salivary gland stimulation during radiation has been suggested as a means of reducing radiation damage. Results of an ongoing study investigating the effects of pilocarpine on radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction suggest that parotid function was preserved, but not submandibular/sublingual function. Also, patients receiving pilocarpine had less frequent oral complaints. Further research is necessary to develop means of preventing or alleviating the salivary side effects of cancer therapies. 37 references.

  12. Assessment of parotid salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmana, B.; Preethi, G.; Naveen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy for cancer of the head and neck region often causes salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Several reports suggest that the submandibular and sublingual glands may be less radiosensitive than the parotid glands. The effect of radiotherapy on parotid gland function was studied by salivary scintigraphy in patients irradiated with different doses of radiation in the head and neck region. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differential dose of radiation effects on the parotid glands using quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy (QSGS). Methods: Thirty-five patients with head and neck tumours were enrolled in a prospective salivary function study using Scintigraphy. Twenty-seven of thirty-five patients received different doses of radiation and remaining 8 patients did not receive radiation and they were considered as control. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured in all the patients from scintigraphy of parotid glands. Results: Patients who received radiation dose of =50 Gy showed severe salivary dysfunction when compared to patients who received radiation dose <50 Gy. Overall, patients who received radiation showed significant dysfunction of parotid gland when compared to patients who did not receive radiotherapy. Conclusion: Dysfunction of the parotid salivary gland increases as the radiation dose increases . QSGS appears to be a useful toll in qualitatively and quantitatively evaluating the grade of dysfunction following radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Feline Intestinal Lymphosarcomas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Awadalla Salib

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Feline intestinal lymphosarcomas are mostly caused by Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV. Unfortunately, there is no available vaccine for FeLV in Egypt. The diagnosis of feline intestinal lymphosarcomas depends upon abdominal palpation, x-rays examination, ultrasonography, direct ELISA and histopathology of masses excised during laparotomy. The recorded clinical signs in intestinal lymphosarcoma affected cats were variable including vomiting, fever, anorexia, ascites, anemia, dyspnea, constipation and emaciation. The affected lymph nodes were mesenteric, mediastinal and retropharyngeal. The prevalence of intestinal lymphosarcomas in the examined cats was 4.03 % (11 out of 273 cats. The prevalence was higher in queens than toms (2.93 % and 0.73 % respectively. The Siamese cats had higher prevalence than the Sherazy ones (2.56 % and 1.47 % respectively. X-ray films and ultrasonographic images performed on the eleven cats suffered from intestinal lymphosarcomas revealed ascities and abdominal masses. The comparison of ELISA and histopathology (of excised masses results showed that 9 out of 11 intestinal lymphosarcoma affected cats were infected with FeLV that proved not all cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma were caused by FeLV. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ELISA to diagnose intestinal lymphosarcoma in cats were 81.81 %, 100 % and 92 % respectively. Gross autopsy of the collected lymph nodes, livers, kidneys revealed that gross lymphadenopathy involving one or more nodes, hepatomegaly and kidney enlargement. Microscopically, the examined tissues specimens showed that the normal architecture of the examined lymph nodes, livers, and kidneys has been replaced by a diffuse infiltrate of both lymphocytes and lymphoblasts. The vast majority of the cells are small lymphocyte-type cells with round basophilic nuclei and a sparse rim of cytoplasm. The eleven intestinal lymphosarcoma affected cats exposed to abdominal exploratory surgery (laparotomy

  14. Intestinal anisakidosis (anisakiosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Hidehiro; Powell, Suzanne Z

    2007-10-01

    A case of intestinal anisakidosis in a 42-year-old man in Japan is presented. His chief complaint was an acute onset of severe abdominal pain. Approximately 12 hours before the onset of this symptom, he had eaten sliced raw mackerel ("sashimi"). Upper endoscopy was unremarkable. At exploratory laparotomy, an edematous, diffusely thickened segment of jejunum was observed, which was resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. The segment of small intestine showed a granular indurated area on the mucosal surface, and microscopically, a helminthic larva penetrating the intestinal wall, which was surrounded by a cuff of numerous neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as diffuse acute serositis. A cross section of the larva revealed the internal structures, pathognomonic of Anisakis simplex. Although anisakidosis is rare in the United States, with the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine, the incidence is expected to increase, and pathologists should be familiar with this disease.

  15. Small intestine diverticuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomakov, P.; Risov, A.

    1991-01-01

    The routine method of contrast matter passage applied to 850 patients with different gastrointestinal diseases proved inefficient to detect any small-intestinal diverticuli. The following modiffications of the method have been tested in order to improve the diagnostic possibilities of the X-ray: study at short intervals, assisted passage, enteroclysm, pharmacodynamic impact, retrograde filling of the ileum by irrigoscopy. Twelve diverticuli of the small-intestinal loops were identified: 5 Meckel's diverticuli, 2 solitary of which one of the therminal ileum, 2 double diverticuli and 1 multiple diverticulosis of the jejunum. The results show that the short interval X-ray examination of the small intestines is the method of choice for identifying local changes in them. The solitary diverticuli are not casuistic scarcity, its occurrence is about 0.5% at purposeful X-ray investigation. The assisted passage method is proposed as a method of choice for detection of the Meckel's diverticulum. 5 figs., 3 tabs. 18 refs

  16. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok

    1992-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome

  17. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  18. High-fat Diet-induced Intestinal Hyperpermeability is Associated with Increased Bile Acids in the Large Intestine of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, which is associated with intestinal hyperpermeability. This study examined the effects of 3 high-fat diets (HFDs) composed of different fat sources (soybean oil and lard) on the intestinal permeability, tight junction (TJ) protein expression, and cecal bile acid (BA) concentrations in mice, and then analyzed their interrelations. C57/BL6 mice were fed the control diet, HFD (soybean oil), HFD (lard), and HFD (mix; containing equal concentrations of soybean oil and lard) for 8 wk. Glucose tolerance, intestinal permeability, TJ protein expression, and cecal BA concentration were evaluated. Feeding with the 3 HDFs similarly increased body weight, liver weight, and fat pad weight, and induced glucose intolerance and intestinal hyperpermeability. The expression of TJ proteins, zonula occludens-2 and junctional adhesion molecule-A, were lower in the colons of the 3 HFD groups than in the control group (P acid and ω-muricholic acids, were detected (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the HFD-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is associated with increased BA secretion. The abundance of SBAs in the large intestine may be responsible for the hyperpermeability. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The intestinal calcistat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main physiological function of vitamin D is maintenance of calcium homeostasis by its effect on calcium absorption, and bone health in association with parathyroid gland. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD is defined as serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD levels <20 ng/ml. Do all subjects with VDD have clinical disease according to this definition? We hypothesize that there exist an intestinal calcistat, which controls the calcium absorption independent of PTH levels. It consists of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR on intestinal brush border, which senses calcium in intestinal cells and vitamin D system in intestinal cells. CaSR dampens the generation of active vitamin D metabolite in intestinal cells and decrease active transcellular calcium transport. It also facilitates passive paracellular diffusion of calcium in intestine. This local adaptation adjusts the fractional calcium absorption according the body requirement. Failure of local adaptation due to decreased calcium intake, decreased supply of 25OHD, mutation in CaSR or vitamin D system decreases systemic calcium levels and systemic adaptations comes into the play. Systemic adaptations consist of rise in PTH and increase in active vitamin D metabolites. These adaptations lead to bone resorption and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Not all subjects with varying levels of VDD manifest with secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased in bone mineral density. We suggest that rise in PTH is first indicator of VDD along with decrease in BMD depending on duration of VDD. Hence, subjects with any degree of VDD with normal PTH and BMD should not be labeled as vitamin D deficient. These subjects can be called subclinical VDD, and further studies are required to assess beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation in this subset of population.

  20. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TP Backes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U • ml-1 and high intensity (284 ± 30 U • ml-1 as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U • ml-1 and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug • dL -1 as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug • dL -1 and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug • dL -1 . This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption.

  1. Human Salivary Gland Stem Cells Functionally Restore Radiation Damaged Salivary Glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pringle, Sarah; Maimets, Martti; van der Zwaag, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Adult stem cells are often touted as therapeutic agents in the regenerative medicine field, however data detailing both the engraftment and functional capabilities of solid tissue derived human adult epithelial stem cells is scarce. Here we show the isolation of adult human salivary gland (SG) st...... for the first time that salispheres cultured from human SGs contain stem/progenitor cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation and rescue of saliva production. Our study underpins the therapeutic promise of salisphere cell therapy for the treatment of xerostomia....

  2. Enterobius vermicularis infection of the liver in a patient with colorectal carcinoma with suspected liver metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnée, Edgar J B; Spoto, Clothaire; de Graaf, Melanie J; Smakman, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man diagnosed with cT3N2 adenocarcinoma of the rectum presented with a synchronous solitary liver metastasis on CT scan. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was started to downstage the primary tumour. Resection of the rectal tumour followed 3 months after the last radiotherapy session and primary resection of the isolated liver lesion was performed in the intervening period. Histopathological assessment of the liver lesion, however, showed no malignancy, but did reveal a necrotic infection due to Enterobius vermicularis. This parasite is frequently found in the intestines, but only rarely infects the liver. The patient was subsequently treated with the anthelmintic drug mebendazole 100 mg once a week for 2 weeks. Histopathological assessment of the rectal specimen showed complete regression after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy without evidence of remaining E. vermicularis, suggesting pinworm eradication. The patient recovered promptly after both surgical procedures. PMID:26546623

  3. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  5. Fish gut-liver immunity during homeostasis or inflammation revealed by integrative transcriptome and proteome studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Song, Yu-Long; Wang, Bei; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Wang, Ya-Li; Cheng, Ying-Yin; Chen, Dan-Dan; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Lu, Yi-Shan; Zhang, Yong-An

    2016-11-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue, connected with liver via bile and blood, constructs a local immune environment of both defense and tolerance. The gut-liver immunity has been well-studied in mammals, yet in fish remains largely unknown, even though enteritis as well as liver and gallbladder syndrome emerged as a limitation in aquaculture. In this study, we performed integrative bioinformatic analysis for both transcriptomic (gut and liver) and proteomic (intestinal mucus and bile) data, in both healthy and infected tilapias. We found more categories of immune transcripts in gut than liver, as well as more adaptive immune in gut meanwhile more innate in liver. Interestingly reduced differential immune transcripts between gut and liver upon inflammation were also revealed. In addition, more immune proteins in bile than intestinal mucus were identified. And bile probably providing immune effectors to intestinal mucus upon inflammation was deduced. Specifically, many key immune transcripts in gut or liver as well as key immune proteins in mucus or bile were demonstrated. Accordingly, we proposed a hypothesized profile of fish gut-liver immunity, during either homeostasis or inflammation. Current data suggested that fish gut and liver may collaborate immunologically while keep homeostasis using own strategies, including potential unique mechanisms.

  6. The gut microbiota of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: current methods and their interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Best, Niels; Jansen, Peter L.; Rensen, Sander S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of intestinal bacteria in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is increasingly acknowledged. Recently developed microbial profiling techniques are beginning to shed light on the nature of gut microbiota alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In this review, we

  7. Nanobacteria: An Infectious Cause for Salivary Stone Formation and Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A El Badry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanobacteria (NB contribute to pathological calcification in the human and animal body. It has been isolated from salivary stones and suggested that it may act as a nucleus for the initiation of these stones. In the present study, we examined its role in the recurrent salivary gland stones using immunodetection with NB-specific monoclonal antibodies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM hoping to provide a method for preventing the recurrence of these stones in the patient that has suffered from salivary stones. Our study comprised 30 patients with recurrent salivary gland stones (group I and 30 patients with salivary gland stones for the first time (group II, in addition to 30 normal controls (group III. We could detect 100–500 nm nanoparticles in 24/30 (80% cases in group I with significant difference <0.05 and <0.01 when compared with group II and group III in which they were detected in 19/30 (63.3% and 6/30 (20% respectively. Also there was a significant difference <0.05 between group II and group III. We proposed that salivary stone formation is a nanobacterial disease initiated by bacterial infection. This bacteria may play an important role in the recurrence of salivary stone. So the use of calcium chelator, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA, before or in combination with the suitable antibiotic that is given in an amount effective to inhibit or prevent the growth and development of nanobacteria may eradicate these stones and prevent their recurrence.

  8. FNAC AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN SALIVARY GLAND TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalivarapu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND FNAC of salivary gland tumours is an accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless procedure. The success of FNAC depends on the adequacy of sample and high-quality preparation. FNAC of salivary gland neoplasms provides essential information in decision making and management. AIM OF THE STUDY Know the role of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of salivary gland. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective study done at the tertiary care centre for a period of three years. A total number of 67 cases of clinically suspected salivary gland tumours were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology and correlated with histopathology. RESULTS A total number of 67 cases, clinically suspected as salivary gland tumours were subjected to FNAC and compared with histopathology. The observations of the study were as follows: Most of the tumours were observed between the age group of 31-40 years. The commonest gland involved was the parotid gland, 56 cases of benign, 10 cases of malignant and one case of inconclusive diagnosis was made on FNAC. In the present study, FNAC showed Sensitivity of 66.6%, Specificity of 98%, Positive predictive value; 90.9%, Negative predictive value; 91%, Percentage of false negative cases 33.3%, Percentage of false positive cases 1.9% and Overall Diagnostic Accuracy of 91%. CONCLUSION FNAC is a very useful, simple, cheap, accurate and repeatable technique in the preoperative diagnosis of various salivary gland neoplasms. Overall, diagnostic accuracy was 91%, in cystic lesions of salivary glands, combined FNAC and histopathology is essential for diagnosis.

  9. Biomacromolecule conjugated nanofiber scaffold for salivary gland tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathanam, Kavitha

    Xerostomia or dry mouth, resulting from loss of salivary gland secretion can be alleviated by tissue engineering approaches to restore glandular cell function. Engineering an artificial salivary gland structure requires closely mimicking the natural environment, both physically and functionally, to promote epithelial cell proliferation, monolayer formation and apico-basal polarization. While the physical structure of the salivary gland extracellular matrix (ECM) can be reconstructed using biocompatible nanofiber scaffolds, the chemical signals from ECM macromolecules are equally involved in the gland morphogenesis. In these glands, Hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomacromolecule that is a major component of the ECM, plays a crucial role in recruiting growth factors to improve cell viability and growth in these glands. Another molecule of interest that improved salivary epithelial cell viability and apico-basal differentiation is laminin, a major protein found in the basement membrane. We hypothesize that these biomacromolecules, when conjugated nanofiber scaffolds, will provide the essential chemical signals that promote cell viability, proliferation, polarity in the salivary cell line of interest. These morphological changes will in turn promote the secretory function (salivary production). The nanofiber scaffold consisting of poly(lactic-co-glycolic)acid is conjugated with HA using a polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamine crosslinker. This conjugation was confirmed using fluorescence spectrometry, water contact angle test and immunocytochemistry analysis using confocal microscopy. The effect of HA in promoting cell survival in-vitro was established with MTT assay using SIMS (mouse submandibular immortalized ductal SIMS cells) cells. The effect of HA in improving the apico - basal polarity of SIMS cells will be assessed. Chemical modification of synthetic nanopolymeric scaffolds with ECM molecules e.g., HA, laminin are the next step towards developing "smart scaffolds", that

  10. EFFECT BY INTESTINAL MICROBIOM ON THE PROGRESSION OF VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Polishchuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern concepts an intestinal microbiome has a significant effect on the functioning of the whole body including the immune system, digestive tract and liver in particular. This review displays current understanding of the intestinal microbiome impacting on the progression of chronic viral hepatitis caused by HCV- and HBV-infection, as well as changes in bowel microbiocenosis features depending on the duration of chronic process in the liver. It is indicated that chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis progression is accompanied by Bifidobacterium and strains of lactic acid (Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella number decreasing and overgrowth of opportunistic species such as Enterococcaceae, Veillonellaceae, Enterobactericeae, Candida spp., Clostridia spp. This phenomena caused by PAMPs entry into the bloodstream including various types of toxins playing a role in liver immune inflammation processes progression. Thus patients with HBV and HCV infection are increased the number of CD4+, CD25+ in the blood and liver significantly, FOXP3+ Treg cell providing an immunosuppressive effect, and the function of specific CD8 lymphocytes is reduced and insufficient leveling virus significantly. Microbial imbalance has a negative effect on the biosynthesis of bile acids and sterolbiom functioning of our body as a result of changes in the balance between Bacteroides/Firmicutes, overgrowth of pathogenic and opportunistic Enterobacteriaceae, Veillonellaceae, Alcaligeneaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridium cluster XIVa, Helicobacter spp. and Clostridium difficile. These toxins formation and various carcinogenic metabolites from these strains leads to the inflammation development in the intestines and as a consequence to the progression of the inflammatory process in the liver. In turn, the reduction in the bacteria number producing short-chain fatty acid contributes to intestinal colonization by pathogenic representatives

  11. [Intestinal transplant: in what phase are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés Moreno, A M; Ramos, E; Hernández, F; Encinas, J L; Leal, N; Gámez, M L; Martínez, L; Sarriá, J; Molina, M; Martínez-Ojinaga, E; Murcia, J; Frauca, E; Delgado, M; Prieto, G; López Santamaría, M; Tovar, J A

    2010-07-01

    To analyze the evolution of Small Bowel Transplantation program since the beginning of the program. [corrected] All children who underwent intestinal transplantation between 1997 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed: epidemiological data, status before transplant, surgical technique, immunosupression, results, survival and long.term quality of life were analysed. Fifty-two intestinal transplants were performed in 46 children (20 isolated bowel, 20 combined liver and intestine, and 12 multivisceral); median age was 32m (range 7m-19a); weight 12,3 kg (range 3,9-60); 31 had short gut syndrome, 8 dismotility, 5 intractable diarrhea, and two were miscellaneous. Intestinal adaptation was initially attempted in 26 patients, without success, 20 were directly listed for transplant. The modality of transplant was modified in 17 while listed. Baseline immunosupression consisted of tacrolimus and steroids, although 5 required conversion to Sirolimus later. Six died during the first month, due to sepsis/multiorganic failure (poor status at transplant); 13 died during the long-term follow-up. Acute rejection was seen in 20, chronic rejection in 3, PTLD in 8 (6 died) and GVHD in 5 patients (3 died). Overall survival after 5 years of follow-up is 65,2 % (51,7% for the graft). From 2006 to 2008, overall patient/graft survival at 6 m, 1 and 3 years after transplant is 88,7/84,1, 81,2/81,2 and 81,2/71,1%, respectively. After a median follw-up of 39 +/- 29 months, 27 patients are alive (59%), off TPN, (70% had their ostomy taken down), go to school, are scarcely hospitalized and enjoy a good quality of life. Intestinal transplantation has consolided itself as a good choice for irreversible intestinal failure, being feasible to achieve a normal life. Although overall survival diminishes over time, the center experience has improved the results. These patients need a very close follow-up, once transplant is over, in order to get an early diagnose of immunological complications.

  12. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... all of an organ that contains cancer. The resection may include the small intestine and nearby organs (if the cancer has spread). The doctor may remove the section of the small intestine that contains cancer and perform an anastomosis (joining the cut ends of the intestine together). ...

  13. Intestinal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal X-ray of patients 1, 3 and 4 demonstrated dilated small bowel loops with fluid levels in keeping with intestinal ... myxoid/vascular pattern characterised by a variable admixture of capillary-calibre blood vessels, .... in the present study had a past history of abdominal trauma or surgery. Ancillary histopathological ...

  14. Small intestine and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Paul D

    2011-03-01

    To highlight the recent studies which have enhanced our appreciation of the composition of the microbiota in the human small intestine and its relevance to the health of the host. In the past number of years, the composition of the microorganisms present in our small intestines has been the subject of greater scrutiny than ever before. These investigations have been possible as a consequence of the development and utilization of new molecular tools which have revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and have focused predominantly on the small intestinal microbiota associated with pediatric celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome and pouchitis. The impact of invasive procedures, such as small bowel transplant, ileostomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis, on the ileal microbiota has also been investigated. The ever greater appreciation of the link between the small intestinal microbiota and the health status of the host has the potential to lead to the development of new strategies to alter this microbiota in a targeted way to prevent or treat specific disorders.

  15. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge Low-fiber diet Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy When you have nausea ...

  16. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  17. Intestinal Complications of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... localized pocket of pus caused by infection from bacteria. More common in Crohn’s than in colitis, an abscess may form in the intestinal wall—sometimes causing it to bulge out. Visible abscesses, such as those around the anus, look like boils and treatment often involves lancing. Symptoms of ...

  18. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) was one of the first recognised conditions of protracted IF. With the increasing and successful use of long-term PN during the last three decades, several other causes of IF have emerged. Long-term PN and home-PN are the mainstay of therapy, independent of the nature of “Intestinal failure” ...

  19. Cryotherapy for liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Riemsma, Robert P; Wolff, Robert; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-06-05

    received cryotherapy and 60 received conventional surgery. There were 36 females and 87 males. The primary sites for the metastases were colorectal (66.6%), stomach (7.3%), breast (6.5%), melanoma (4.9%), ovarian adenocarcinoma (4.1%), uterus (3.3%), kidney (3.3%), intestinal (1.6%), pancreatic (1.6%), and unknown (0.8%). The tumours were resectable and non-resectable.The patients were followed for up to 10 years (minimum five months). Mortality at the last follow-up was 81% (51/63) in the cryotherapy group and 92% (55/60) in the conventional surgery group (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.02); that is, no statistically significant difference was observed. In the cryotherapy group, 60%, 44%, and 19% of the participants survived 3, 5, and 10 years respectively, while in the conventional surgery group the percentages were 51%, 36%, and 8%. The hazard ratio calculated using the Parmar method was 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.09). Recurrence in the liver was observed in 86% (54/63) of the patients in the cryotherapy group and 95% (57/60) of the patients in the conventional surgery group (relative risk (RR) 0.9; 95% CI 0.8 to 1.01); that is, no statistically significant difference was observed. Frequency of reported complications was similar between the cryotherapy group and the conventional surgery group except for postoperative pain. Both insignificant and pronounced pain were reported to be more common in the cryotherapy group while intense pain was reported to be more common in the control group. However, it was not reported by the authors whether the differences were significant. No intervention-related mortality and no bile leakage were observed. On the basis of one randomised clinical trial with high risk of bias, there is insufficient evidence to conclude if in patients with liver metastases from various primary sites cryotherapy brings any significant benefit in terms of survival or recurrence compared with conventional surgery. In addition, there is no

  20. Sex differences in hepatic and intestinal contributions to nevirapine biotransformation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P F; Marinho, A T; Antunes, A M M; Marques, M M; Pereira, S A; Miranda, J P

    2015-05-25

    The understanding of the intestine contribution to drug biotransformation improved significantly in recent years. However, the sources of inter-individual variability in intestinal drug biotransformation, namely sex-differences, are still elusive. Nevirapine (NVP) is an orally taken anti-HIV drug associated with severe idiosyncratic reactions elicited by toxic metabolites, with women at increased risk. As such, NVP is a good model to assess sex-dimorphic metabolism. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative profiling of NVP biotransformation in rat intestine and liver and evaluate whether or not it is organ- and sex-dependent. Therefore, nevirapine-containing solutions were perfused through the intestine, in a specially designed chamber, or incubated with liver slices, from male and female Wistar rats. The levels of NVP and its Phase I metabolites were quantified by HPLC-UV. Liver incubation experiments yielded the metabolites 2-, 3-, 8-, and 12-OH-NVP, being 12-OH-NVP and 2-OH-NVP the major metabolites in males and females, respectively. Inter-sex differences in the metabolic profile were also detected in the intestine perfusion experiments. Herein, the metabolites 3- and 12-OH-NVP were only found in male rats, whereas 2-OH-NVP levels were higher in females, both in extraluminal (pbiotransformation was observed, strengthening the relevance of the intestinal contribution in the biotransformation of orally taken-drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects and Mechanisms of Tastants on the Gustatory-Salivary Reflex in Human Minor Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5′-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation. Blood flow (BF in the nearby labial mucosa also increased following stimulation by each taste except bitter. The BF change and LMSG secretion in each participant showed a significant positive correlation with all tastes, including bitter. Administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate to the labial mucosa evoked a significant increase in both LMSG secretion and BF, while adrenaline, atropine, and pirenzepine decreased LMSG secretion and BF. The change in LMSG secretion and BF induced by each autonomic agent was significantly correlated in each participant. These results indicate that basic tastes can induce the gustatory-salivary reflex in human LMSGs and that parasympathetic regulation is involved in this mechanism.

  2. Psychosocial factors at home and at work and levels of salivary cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Netterstrøm, Bo; Hansen, Ase Marie

    2006-01-01

    Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years.......Salivary cortisol as a physiological measure of stress has attracted great interest in recent years....

  3. Salivary immunoglobulin classes in Nigerian cigarette smokers: Indication for increased risk of oral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Olatunde Olayanju

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Our study showed that there is decreased salivary IgM in smokers. This observation suggests that reduced salivary immunoglobulin level of IgM might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral diseases in cigarette smokers.

  4. Salivary characteristics and dental caries: evidence from general dental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Scott, JoAnna; Rothen, Marilynn; Mancl, Lloyd; Lawhorn, Timothy; Brossel, Kenneth; Berg, Joel

    2013-05-01

    Saliva is one of the intraoral host factors that influence caries development. The authors conducted a study to investigate whether salivary characteristics are associated with recent dental caries experience. Dentist-investigators and dental staff members collected data pertaining to a two-year cumulative incidence of dental caries (previous 24 months) and salivary characteristics during baseline assessment in an ongoing longitudinal study. The systematic random sample consisted of patients (n = 1,763) visiting general dental practices (n = 63) within the Northwest Practice-based REsearch Collaborative in Evidence-based DENTistry (PRECEDENT). The authors estimated adjusted rate ratios (RRs) by using generalized estimating equations log-linear regression to relate salivary characteristics to coronal carious lesions into dentin. Low resting pH (≤ 6.0) in the overall sample and low stimulated salivary flow rate (≤ 0.6 milliliter/minute) in older adults (≥ 65 years old) were associated with increased dental caries (RR, 1.6; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2; RR, 2.4; 95 percent CI, 1.5-3.8, respectively). Low buffering capacity was associated with decreased dental caries in children and adolescents (RR, 0.3; 95 percent CI, 0.1-1.0; RR, 0.2; 95 percent CI, 0.1-0.7, respectively). A thick, sticky or frothy salivary consistency also was associated with decreased dental caries in adults (RR, 0.6; 95 percent CI, 0.4-1.0). Associations between other salivary characteristics and dental caries for the overall sample and within each age group were not statistically significant. Salivary characteristics were associated weakly with previous dental caries experience, but the authors did not find consistent trends among the three age groups. Different salivary characteristics were associated with an increased caries experience in older adults and a lowered caries experience in children and adolescents and adults. Practical Implications. Further investigations are

  5. Effects of antioxidants consumption and low protein diets on liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of two types of antioxidants, a natural antioxidant (Eselenium) and a synthetic antioxidant (loxidan) in diets containing protein value lower than essential requirements, on performance and histopathological changes in the liver and intestine of Japanese quails. The experimental diets were: ...

  6. Liver transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100090.htm Liver transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver ...

  7. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  8. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds up ...

  9. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  10. Impact of Physical Stress on Salivary Buffering Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Nakashima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva has many properties and the buffering capacity is important for the neutralization of oral fluids. It is unclear whether stressful conditions directly affect salivary buffering capacity, and we investigated the impact of physical stress on salivary buffering capacity. Methods: Twelve participants were subjected to the physical stress of jogging and running. The salivary buffering capacity and flow rate of the participants were measured before and after exposure to stressful conditions. Salivary α-amylase activity was measured as a quantitative index of stress. Results: No change in buffering capacity was detected among each time point during the whole course under physically stressful conditions. Next, we examined the change in buffering capacity after jogging compared to baseline. Six participants showed an increase in buffering capacity (Group A, while the other six participants showed a decrease or no change (Group B after jogging. Group B showed a decrease in flow rate and increases in α-amylase activity and protein level after jogging, whereas Group A showed no changes in these properties. Conclusions: The results suggest that salivary buffering capacity changes following exposure to physically stressful conditions, and that the changes are dependent on the stress susceptibility of individuals.

  11. AKT3 drives adenoid cystic carcinoma development in salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboray, Katalin; Mohrherr, Julian; Stiedl, Patricia; Pranz, Klemens; Wandruszka, Laura; Grabner, Beatrice; Eferl, Robert; Moriggl, Richard; Stoiber, Dagmar; Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wagner, Kay-Uwe; Popper, Helmut; Casanova, Emilio; Moll, Herwig P

    2018-02-01

    Salivary gland cancer is an aggressive and painful cancer, but a rare tumor type accounting for only ~0.5% of cancer cases. Tumors of the salivary gland exhibit heterogeneous histologic and genetic features and they are subdivided into different subtypes, with adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) being one of the most abundant. Treatment of ACC patients is afflicted by high recurrence rates, the high potential of the tumors to metastasize, as well as the poor response of ACC to chemotherapy. A prerequisite for the development of targeted therapies is insightful genetic information for driver core cancer pathways. Here, we developed a transgenic mouse model toward establishment of a preclinical model. There is currently no available mouse model for adenoid cystic carcinomas as a rare disease entity to serve as a test system to block salivary gland tumors with targeted therapy. Based on tumor genomic data of ACC patients, a key role for the activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway was suggested in tumors of secretory glands. Therefore, we investigated the role of Akt3 expression in tumorigenesis and report that Akt3 overexpression results in ACC of salivary glands with 100% penetrance, while abrogation of transgenic Akt3 expression could revert the phenotype. In summary, our findings validate a novel mouse model to study ACC and highlight the druggable potential of AKT3 in the treatment of salivary gland patients. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Association between Salivary Leptin Levels and Taste Perception in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lénia Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI affects such relationship. Sweet and bitter taste sensitivity was assessed for 121 children aged 9-10 years and unstimulated whole saliva was collected for leptin quantification, using ELISA technique. Children females with lower sweet taste sensitivity presented higher salivary leptin levels, but this is only in the normal weight ones. For bitter taste, association between salivary leptin and caffeine threshold detection was observed only in preobese boys, with higher levels of salivary hormone in low sensitive individuals. This study is the first presenting evidences of a relationship between salivary leptin levels and taste perception, which is sex and BMI dependent. The mode of action of salivary leptin at taste receptor level should be elucidated in future studies.

  13. Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Oshiumi, Y.; Yonetsu, K.; Muranaka, T.; Sakai, K.; Kanda, S.; National Fukuoka Central Hospital

    1991-01-01

    Salivary SPECT and factor analysis in Sjoegren's syndrome were performed in 17 patients and 6 volunteers as controls. The ability of SPECT to detect small differences in the level of uptake can be used to separate glands from background even when uptake is reduced as in the patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. In control and probable Sjoegren's syndrome groups the uptake ratio of the submandibular gland to parotid gland on salivary SPECT (S/P ratio) was less than 1.0. However, in the definite Sjoergren's syndrome group, the ratio was more than 1.0. Moreover, the ratio in all patients with sialectasia, which is characteristic of Sjoegren's syndrome, was more than 1.0. Salivary factor analysis of normal parotid glands showed slowly increasing patterns of uptake and normal submandibular glands had rapidly increasing patterns of uptake. However, in the definite Sjoegren's syndrome group, the factor analysis patterns were altered, with slowly increasing patterns dominating both in the parotid and submandibular glands. These results suggest that the S/P ratio in salivary SPECT and salivary factor analysis provide additional radiologic criteria in diagnosing Sjoegren's syndrome. (orig.)

  14. [Mazindol effects on the salivary and gastric acid secretory mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, T

    1984-02-01

    The effects of mazindol on the salivary secretion of dogs was investigated. Mazindol (2 mg/kg, i.v.) decreased the volume and pressure of salivary secretion induced by either chemical (carpronium) stimulation or electrical nerve stimulation. It also reduced spontaneous salivary secretion. Secretion velocity in the mazindol treated group was significantly less than in the physiological saline administered control group at 4 to 6 min after injection. Saline and mazindol produced no significance differences in Na+, Cl- or K+ concentrations in the saliva or serum. Thus mazindol inhibition of salivary secretion was not caused by ion transport. The existence of some other inhibitory mechanism is suggested. The effects of mazindol on the peripheral and central control of gastric acid secretion was also investigated in rats. Gastric acid secretion induced by direct application of cholinergic agents on oxyntic cells was not affected by mazindol. Gastric acid secretion induced by insulin and/or 2-DG, on the other hand, was markedly inhibited by intra-hypothalamic injection or systemic (i.v.) injections of mazindol. Electro-osmotic mazindol mimicked the effects of glucose in the lateral (inhibition) and ventromedial (excitation) hypothalamus. The results suggest that the inhibitory effects of mazindol on salivary secretion may be through the hypothalamic feeding control centers. Mazindol also directly affected gastric acid secretory neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. It might thus be expected to be effective in the treatment of obesity.

  15. Applications of and limitations to salivary gland scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, W.; Boerner, W.

    1987-04-01

    Salivary gland functional imaging is a simple, non-invasive procedure which requires little in terms of time and money to clarify disorders of saliva production and elimination. With relatively low levels of radiation exposure, there is no reason to expect side effects to the patient, provided that a physiological taste stimulant such as lemon juice is used to stimulate saliva production. From a dynamic study we derived functional curves for the parotides and the submandibular glands using the ROI-technique. Typical curves allow to differentiate between inflammatory, degenerative and obstructive diseases of the salivary glands. In cases of salivary gland tumours, additional information of pre- or posttherapeutic relevance may be expected e.g. concerning the saliva flow patterns. However, for primary diagnosis, other imaging procedures are more useful. In combination with sonography, swellings and pain of the salivary glands may be reliably clarified. Except for time activity curves for the salivary glands, quantitative analysis of pertechnetate uptake is only of secondary importance. This is due to methodological problems (e.g. definition of ROI) on the one hand and to a considerable inter- and intra-individual variability of the secretory gland outputs of the parotides and submandibular glands on the other hand.

  16. Contribution and advantages of scintigraphy in salivary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naous, Hussein.

    1973-01-01

    Recent technical improvements, especially the use of the scintillation camera, enable kinetic studies to be carried out by isotopic exploration and salivary scintigraphy has become an easy, fast and painless method of functional investigation of the main salivary glands. This work outlines the results obtained by Tc 99m scintigraphy with a scintillation camera, relative to the most important salivary gland diseases. After an account of the anatomy and general pathology of the parotid glands and submaxillaries the chief characteristics of the tracer, the detection techniques and the method employed here are described briefly. The elementary scintigraphic aspects found in the different observations are reported, then discussed in connection with results already published. The conclusion drawn from this work is that it is possible in the vast majority of cases, by comparing and combining the morphological and kinetic study of the salivary glands by technetium 99m scintigraphy with the clinical context, to obtain very valuable information which no other complementary examination has so far been able to supply satisfactorily. Now that scintigraphy has become a method of functional and not only morphological exploration it occupies a vital place in the study of the salivary glands [fr

  17. PULMONARY AND LIVER DAMAGE DURING TREATMENT WITH ACETAMINOPHEN (PARACETAMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dvoretski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of pulmonary damage in the form of intestinal pneumonitis with severe respiratory failure during administration of acetaminophen (paracetamol. In addition, significant increase of ALT and AST levels without clinical signs of liver damage was observed in this patient. After glucocorticoids administration regression of radiological abnormal findings in the lungs along with normalization of liver enzymes values were registered. The rarity of interstitial pneumonitis induced by acetaminophen (paracetamol, especially in combination with liver damage, is emphasized. The presented patient history is the first case report of drug-induced hepatopulmonary syndrome during acetaminophen (paracetamol administration.

  18. Amoebic liver abscess

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2014-08-27

    intestinal sites include pleura, peri- cardium and rarely the ... lence of amoebic infections is worldwide, varies from 5. - 81%. Prevalence increases with poor personal hygiene, low socio-economic and sanitary standards. Intestinal.

  19. Genomics can advance the potential for probiotic cultures to improve liver and overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    The concept of probiotics has evolved immensely since it was first proposed a century ago. There are numerous potential health benefits attributed to certain probiotic bacteria, from preventing gastrointestinal (GI) infections to stimulating the immune system. Recent evidence is now quite compelling for a role of probiotics in enhancing liver health. Liver injury is on the rise worldwide with non-alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the fastest rising liver problem, due largely to the rise in obesity and type II diabetes. A damaged liver can progress to more serious conditions such as steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, and the intestinal microflora are believed to play a large role in this progression. When the intestinal microbial flora is high in facultative microbes, particularly the Enterobacteriaceae, and low in anaerobes such as bifidobacteria, higher levels of ammonia, endotoxins and other compounds enter the blood stream. This results in direct liver damage and also indirectly from pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha. Probiotics have been shown to modulate the intestinal microflora and decrease the urease producing gram negatives and increase the anaerobic population. While results have been obtained with current probiotic strains, more effective strains could be obtained if all the characteristics bacteria use to survive and compete successfully in the intestine were known. The genomics era is now providing the tools to more effectively understand probiotic interactions in the intestine. This will lead to a new generation of exciting probiotics in the future.

  20. Connecting liver and gut: murine liver sinusoidal endothelium induces gut tropism of CD4+ T cells via retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Kruse, Nils; Szilagyi, Balint; Erben, Ulrike; Rudolph, Christine; Flach, Anne; Zeitz, Martin; Hamann, Alf; Klugewitz, Katja

    2012-06-01

    Gut-activated T cells migrating into the liver can cause extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. T cells acquire a gut-homing phenotype dependent on retinoic acid (RA) provided by intestinal dendritic cells (DC). We investigated whether liver antigen-presenting cells can induce gut tropism supporting an enterohepatic lymphocyte circulation. Priming of CD4(+) T cells by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) supported migration into gut and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. As observed for T cells primed by intestinal DCs, this gut tropism depended on α(4) β(7) integrin and CC chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) expression by LSEC-primed CD4(+) T cells. The induction of gut-homing molecules was mediated by RA, a derivate of vitamin A that is stored in large amounts within the liver. LSECs expressed functional retinal dehydrogenases and could convert vitamin A to RA. Conversely, the lack of signaling via the RA receptor prevented the expression of α(4) β(7) integrin and CCR9 on LSEC-primed CD4(+) T cells, consequently reducing their in vivo migration to the intestine. Other liver antigen-presenting cells failed to support high expression of α(4) β(7) integrin on CD4(+) T cells, thus, the potential to induce gut homing is restricted to LSECs. The capacity to promote gut tropism via vitamin A use is not unique for intestinal DCs but is also a feature of LSECs. Our data support the assumption that CD4(+) T cells can migrate from the liver to the gut as one branch of a postulated enterohepatic lymphocyte circulation. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Radioprotective Effect of Thymol Against Salivary Glands Dysfunction Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Yarmand, Fateme; Motallebnejad, Mina; Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Moslemi, Dariush; Bijani, Ali; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of thymol as a natural product against salivary glands dysfunction induced by ionizing radiation in rats. The rats were treated with thymol at dose of 50 mg/Kg before exposure to ionizing radiation at dose 15 Gy. Salivary gland function was evaluated with radioisotope scintigraphy and then salivary gland to background counts ratio was calculated. Ionizing radiation caused significant salivary glands dysfunction at the 3th and...

  2. Sensitivity of Salivary Glands to Radiation: from Animal Models to Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Grundmann, O.; Mitchell, G.C.; Limesand, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy for head and neck cancer causes significant secondary side-effects in normal salivary glands, resulting in diminished quality of life for these individuals. Salivary glands are exquisitely sensitive to radiation and display acute and chronic responses to radiotherapy. This review will discuss clinical implications of radiosensitivity in normal salivary glands, compare animal models used to investigate radiation-induced salivary gland damage, address therapeutic advances, and...

  3. Malignant tumors of the major salivary glands among the population of the city of Belgrade

    OpenAIRE

    Videnović G.; Živković S.; Krasić D.; Tabaković S.; Matvijenko V.; Marjanović D.; Lazić V.

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the salivary glands are rare malignancies and most of them affect major salivary glands. The aim of this study was to analyze trends in age-standardized incidence rates of major salivary glands tumors among the Belgrade population. Data were obtained from The Serbian Cancer Registry. We analyzed all cases of malignant tumors of major salivary glands registered in Belgrade from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2010. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to define trends a...

  4. A hypothesis to relate salivary tumors with mammary and prostate neoplasias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Adriana B

    2005-01-01

    Salivary, mammary and prostate glands are sex hormone-dependent organs sharing common aspects in structure, hormonal responsiveness and tumor histopathology. Salivary tumors (especially the malignant types) are not as frequent as mammary and prostate neoplasias. Hence, prognosis of some salivary tumors is not always efficient. Here, we review the oncology of salivary gland and its putative relation to breast/prostate tumors. PMID:17597843

  5. Salivary gland-sparing helical tomotherapy for head and neck cancer: Preserved salivary function on quantitative salivary gland scintigraphy after tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, S; Berges, O; Belin, L; Zefkili, S; Petras, S; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Prospective evaluation of salivary gland preservation, overall survival and local recurrence-free survival after head and neck cancer treated by helical tomotherapy (HT). From March 2007 to February 2009, 30 patients with head and neck cancer were treated by HT. The salivary excretion fraction (SEF) was assessed by technetium salivary gland scintigraphy before, and 6, 12 and 18 months after HT to define salivary gland preservation rates. Patients were reviewed every 3 months to assess clinical toxicity. The median follow-up was 4.3 years. The mean dose to the ipsilateral parotid gland (IPG) was 25.4Gy. Good preservation of parotid gland function was observed in 84% of the 19 patients evaluated by scintigraphy at 18 months. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was 100% among the 6 patients who received a dose of more than 26Gy to the parotid gland. The 28-month LRFS was 33% in the group that received a dose of less than 20Gy versus 91% in the group that received a dose of more than 20Gy to the IPG. Helical tomotherapy reduced the incidence and severity of xerostomia. A mean dose to the parotid between 20 and 26Gy allowed preservation of salivary function without compromising treatment efficacy. However, parotid-sparing HT requiring a mean dose less than 20Gy is associated with an increased risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilization of donors who have suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation in intestinal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Cal S; Kaufman, Stuart S; Girlanda, Raffaele; Little, Cheryl M; Rekhtman, Yuliya; Raofi, Vandad; Laurin, Jaqueline M; Shetty, Kirti; Fennelly, Erin M; Johnson, Lynt B; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2008-10-15

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of a person destined to become an organ donor has been associated with overall poor donor quality, especially for the intestinal donor, as splanchnic vasoconstriction that is intended to preserve coronary and cerebral blood flow may result in clinically relevant intestinal ischemia. Outcomes of recipients who receive intestine grafts that have suffered CPR are unknown. We sought to analyze our clinical experience in using intestinal grafts from donors who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation and to evaluate the outcome of recipients of organs coming from resuscitated donors when compared with recipients of nonresuscitated donors. We retrospectively analyzed the donor and recipient charts of all of our intestinal transplants with regard to the performance of donor CPR. Sixty-seven intestinal transplants were performed in 65 patients from November 2003 to December 2007. Twelve donors (18%) were identified as having suffered cardiac arrest and subsequent CPR. Mean duration of CPR was 19.3+/-12.7 min. Terminal laboratory profiles of CPR donors and non-CPR donors were similar. Of the 12 resuscitated grafts, two were used for multivisceral, one for a modified multivisceral, seven for liver-intestine, and two for isolated intestinal transplant. There were no significant differences in outcome parameters such as operative time, blood use, ventilation days, length of stay, time to enteral independence, rejection, enteric bacteremia, and survival between the 12 resuscitated grafts and the 55 nonresuscitated grafts. A donor history of cardiac arrest should not automatically exclude the use of the intestine graft for transplantation.

  7. Cadmium binding components in the supernatant fraction of the small intestinal mucosa of rats administered cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Shosuke

    1978-01-01

    Cadmium binding protein was isolated by gel filtration from the supernatant fraction of the small intestines of rats continuously administered cadmium for 1, 3, 6, 9, 32 and 96 days. About two-thirds of the total amount of absorbed cadmium was associated with the cytosol of mucosal tissues scraped from the small intestines. Cadmium was almost always bound to proteins, molecular weights of which ranged from 5,400 to 9,800. Cadmium in livers and that in intestinal mucosa were in the same binding state, but as there was some lag period between the induction of the Cd-binding proteins of both tissues, the protein of the small intestinal mucosal cells must have been induced at the mucosa itself by contact with cadmium. The Cd-binding protein of the mucosal cells may play an important role in absorbing cadmium, because no other form of this metal was found in the mucosal cells of the small intestines. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Multivariate Regression of Liver on Intestine of Mice: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Key Words: Shistosomiasis; Multivariate Regression; Likelihood-Ratio. Statistics. Introduction. Schistosomiasis (Bilharziasis) is one of the world's major public health problems for rural and agricultural communities living near slow-moving water in the tropics and subtropics. Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by digenean ...

  9. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact...

  10. Maintained Salivary Function after Brachytherapy in Patients with Head and Neck Carcinomas Evaluation Using Quantitative Salivary Gland Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Yuji; Zhang, Lin; Ishida, Ryuji [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology] [and others

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not salivary gland dysfunction occurs within the first three months after brachytherapy in patients with head and neck carcinoma. Of the 20 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma included in this study, 11 were treated with brachytherapy and the remaining 9 patients received external irradiation. All the patients underwent a salivary gland scintigraphy before and after radiotherapy. The scintigraphic parameters of each major salivary gland were then compared before and after the radiotherapy. In the brachytherapy group, none of the scintigraphic functional parameters showed a significant change before and after the radiotherapy. In contrast, all of the parameters with the exception of the uptake ratio (UR) of the submandibular glands significantly decreased after external irradiation. This observation was to be expected owing to the different irradiation doses administered by the two techniques. The scintigraphic technique used to evaluate salivary gland function should be used in future intensity-modulated radiation therapy salivary-gland-sparing studies in order to evaluate both the acute and chronic effects of irradiation in head and neck cancer patients.

  11. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  12. An insight into salivary markers in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnarayan Belur Krishna Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary diagnostics has fascinated many researcheres and has been tested as a valuable tool in the diagnosis of many systemic conditions and for drug monitoring. Advances in the field of molecular biology, salivary genomics and proteomics have led to the discovery of new molecular markers for oral cancer diagnosis, therapeutics and prognosis. Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease and the outcome of the treatment and prognosis largely depends on early diagnosis. Abnormal cellular products elucidated from malignant cells can be detected and measured in various body fluids including saliva and constitute tumor markers. This article discusses the various salivary tumor markers and their role in oral pre-cancer and cancer.

  13. Temporal Stability of the Salivary Microbiota in Oral Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Saliva is a biological fluid suitable for biomarker analysis, and differences in the salivary microbiota in oral health and disease have been reported. For such comparative analyses, time of sampling is critical since the bacterial composition may vary throughout the day, i.e., diurnal...... variation. The purpose of this study is to compare the salivary microbiome over time to determine the optimal time for sampling. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 5 orally healthy individuals in 4 h intervals for 24 h, and collection was repeated 7 days later (number of samples per...... person, n = 12, total number of samples, n = 60). Salivary microbiota was analyzed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons...

  14. Loneliness depends on salivary estradiol levels in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nishitani, Shota; Obara, Tatsuro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Loneliness is one of the psychological characteristics in adolescence, during which sex hormones are elevated. The elevation of sex steroid hormones is known to sculpture and remodel neuronal circuits, which cause behavioral characteristics in adolescence. The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between loneliness and sex steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and 17β-estradiol (E2). Fifty-eight adolescents (28 boys and 30 girls) participated in this study. The salivary levels of T and E2 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Loneliness was assessed by the UCLA loneliness scale, which is widely used as a self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that Salivary E2 levels had positive relevance to loneliness in females, whereas there was no relationship in males. Salivary T level was not shown to be relevant with loneliness in either sex group. These findings suggest that E2 has gender specific effects on loneliness in adolescent females.

  15. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Hirota, Makoto; Iwai, Toshinori; Aoki, Shinjiro; Chikumaru, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Ryoichi; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2007-03-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a distinctive and aggressive neoplasm. The most frequent site of origin is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland. SDC originating in the minor salivary glands, particularly in the ectopic glands within the mandible, is extremely rare. We describe a 62-year-old man with SDC in the mandible, who presented with a painless lump in the right submandibular region (later identified as lymph node metastasis) and ipsilateral mental nerve palsy. Histologic examination after ablative surgery revealed SDC originating in the mandible and cervical nodal metastases spreading to levels I-III. The patient remains alive 59 months after presentation as a result of postoperative full-dose irradiation and regular intensive chemotherapy using TXT, 5-FU, and CDDP. However, the patient has local recurrence and distant metastases to the lung and brain. In this report, we also discuss the specific diagnostic criteria and developmental theories of intraosseous salivary gland tumors.

  16. Sjoegren's syndrome. A functional scintigraphic study of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrago, J.P.; Rain, J.D.; Rocher, F.; Vigneron, N.; Pecking, A.; Najean, Y.

    1984-01-01

    One-hundred and twenty patients with sicca syndrome, connective tissue disease or chronic graft-versus-host disease were investigated in the Saint-Louis Hospital Department of Nuclear Medicine. Technetium scanning of the salivary glands was performed in all patients. The results of the scintigraphic study were closely correlated with clinical and histological data in patients with Sjoegren's syndrome. This method, which accurately quantifies the salivary function without danger nor discomfort to the patients, has a number of advantages: (a) it is sensitive enough to detect minimal salivary gland dysfunction; (b) it differentiates between parotid gland and submandibular gland involvement demonstrates assymetry in pathological processes; (c) it helps in following up patients with Sjoegren's disease and in assessing the results of immunosuppressive or anti-inflammatory treatment [fr

  17. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung Yun; Lee, Kyung Ho; Kim, Dong Youn; Choi, Karp Shik

    1997-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant salivary gland tumor with typical histologic patterns. The majority of the se tumors occurs in the minor salivary glands, especially mucosa of the hard palate. The authors experienced the patients, who complained the tumor-like soft tissue masses on the palatal and mouth floor area. After careful analysis of clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, we diagnosed them as adenoid cystic carcinomas in the minor salivary glands, obtained results were as follows : 1. Main clinical symptoms were a slow growing soft tissue mass with normal intact mucosa on the palatal area, and soft tissue mass with mild pain on the mouth floor area. 2. In the radiographic examinations, soft tissue masses were observed with invasion to adjacent structures, and moderate defined, heterogeneous soft tissue mass with enhanced margin, respectively. 3. In the histopathologic examinations, dark-stained, small uniform ballad's cells in the hyaline or fibrous stroma were observed as solid and cribriform patterns, respectively.

  18. Ca2+-dependent K+ Channels in Exocrine Salivary Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Marcelo A.; Peña-Munzenmayer, Gaspar; Melvin, James E.

    2014-01-01

    In the last 15 years, remarkable progress has been realized in identifying the genes that encode the ion-transporting proteins involved in exocrine gland function, including salivary glands. Among these proteins, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels take part in key functions including membrane potential regulation, fluid movement and K+ secretion in exocrine glands. Two K+ channels have been identified in exocrine salivary glands: 1) a Ca2+-activated K+ channel of intermediate single channel conductance encoded by the KCNN4 gene; and, 2) a voltage- and Ca2+-dependent K+ channel of large single channel conductance encoded by the KCNMA1 gene. This review focuses on the physiological roles of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels in exocrine salivary glands. We also discuss interesting recent findings on the regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by protein-protein interactions that may significantly impact exocrine gland physiology. PMID:24559652

  19. Molecular characterization of apocrine salivary duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Williams, Lindsay; Griffith, Christopher C; Thompson, Lester D R; Weinreb, Ilan; Bauman, Julie E; Luvison, Alyssa; Roy, Somak; Seethala, Raja R; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary classification and treatment of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) require its thorough molecular characterization. Thirty apocrine SDCs were analyzed by the Ion Ampliseq Cancer HotSpot panel v2 for mutations in 50 cancer-related genes. Mutational findings were corroborated by immunohistochemistry (eg, TP53, BRAF, β-catenin, estrogen, and androgen receptors) or Sanger sequencing/SNaPshot polymerase chain reaction. ERBB2 (HER2), PTEN, FGFR1, CDKN2A/P16, CMET, EGFR, MDM2, and PIK3CA copy number changes were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization. TP53 mutations (15/27, 56%), PTEN loss (11/29, 38%, including 2 cases with PTEN mutation), PIK3CA hotspot mutations (10/30, 33%), HRAS hotspot mutations (10/29; 34%), and ERBB2 amplification (9/29, 31%, including 1 case with mutation) represented the 5 most common abnormalities. There was no correlation between genetic changes and clinicopathologic parameters. There was substantial overlap between genetic changes: 8 of 9 cases with ERBB2 amplification also harbored a PIK3CA, HRAS, and TP53 mutation and/or PTEN loss. Six of 10 cases with PIK3CA mutation also had an HRAS mutation. These findings provide a molecular rationale for dual targeting of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways in SDC. FGFR1 amplification (3/29, 10%) represents a new potential target. On the basis of studies of breast carcinomas, the efficacy of anti-ERBB2 therapy will likely be decreased in SDC with ERBB2 amplification co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation or PTEN loss. Therefore, isolated ERBB2 testing is insufficient for theranostic stratification of apocrine SDC. On the basis of the prevalence and type of genetic changes, apocrine SDC appears to resemble one subtype of breast carcinoma-"luminal androgen receptor positive/molecular apocrine."

  20. Gut-liver axis and probiotics: Their role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolella, Giulia; Mandato, Claudia; Pierri, Luca; Poeta, Marco; Di Stasi, Martina; Vajro, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of obesity and its related conditions, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), has dramatically increased in all age groups worldwide. Given the health consequences of these conditions, and the subsequent economic burden on healthcare systems, their prevention and treatment have become major priorities. Because standard dietary and lifestyle changes and pathogenically-oriented therapies (e.g., antioxidants, oral hypoglycemic agents, and lipid-lowering agents) often fail due to poor compliance and/or lack of efficacy, novel approaches directed toward other pathomechanisms are needed. Here we present several lines of evidence indicating that, by increasing energy extraction in some dysbiosis conditions or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, specific gut microbiota and/or a “low bacterial richness” may play a role in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver. Under conditions involving a damaged intestinal barrier (“leaky gut”), the gut-liver axis may enhance the natural interactions between intestinal bacteria/bacterial products and hepatic receptors (e.g., toll-like receptors), thus promoting the following cascade of events: oxidative stress, insulin-resistance, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis. We also discuss the possible modulation of gut microbiota by probiotics, as attempted in NAFLD animal model studies and in several pilot pediatric and adult human studies. Globally, this approach appears to be a promising and innovative add-on therapeutic tool for NAFLD in the context of multi-target therapy. PMID:25400436

  1. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estour, A.-B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases [fr

  2. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford-Banks, Candice A; Rotenberg, Dorith; Johnson, Brian R; Whitfield, Anna E; Ullman, Diane E

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (the western flower thrips) is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina) technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6) to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24%) of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome) against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways) of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the viruses they

  3. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  4. Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland, Locoregional Recurrence, and a Solitary Liver Metastasis More Than 30 Years Since Primary Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coupland

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a relatively rare tumour of the salivary glands, accounting for approximately 5%–10% of all salivary gland tumours. An important feature of ACCs is the long clinical course with a high rate of distant metastases. The preferential sites of metastases are the lung and bone, followed by the brain and liver. Most liver metastases are derived from nonparotid ACCs, and the presentation is often related to local recurrence or metastases to other organs. Solitary metastases to the liver are rare and optimal management is unknown. We present the case of a metastatic ACC to the liver with primary disease presentation at a young age. We discuss our management and other potential treatment modalities.

  5. Nutritional strategies to enhance adaptation in intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Georg; Bodammer, Peggy

    2016-04-01

    This article summarizes the current and potential future nutritional approaches to stimulate adaptation in intestinal failure. Adaptation in this context usually refers to intestinal adaptation but also involves changes in whole body physiology as well as in eating/drinking behavior. Adaptation largely depends on residual functional anatomy. Luminal exposure to complex nutrients is the most important trigger for intestinal adaptation. Enteral fat as well as enteral or parenteral short chain fatty acids have a specific stimulatory effect. Zinc and vitamin A status need to be optimized for adaptation to proceed and be maintained. In the context of maintaining sodium and water homeostasis, flushing the remnant intestine because of uncontrolled thirst/drinking must be avoided. Complications of nutritional care such as malnutrition, intestinal failure-associated liver disease, and recurrent line sepsis also need optimal management. Stimulation by luminal nutrients as well as prophylaxis against and treatment of (nutritional) complications are the cornerstones of adaptation to the short bowel situation. Based on ample data from animal studies but only limited evidence in humans specific nutritional stimulators need to be studied more rigorously. As long as such data are missing they can be tried on an individual basis.

  6. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  7. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a loss of stem cells that are no longer able to replenish saliva-producing acinar cells. Therefore, stem cell therapy could be utilized to prevent radiation-induced damage to the salivary gland. Bon...

  8. Salivary microbiota in individuals with different levels of caries experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    This study compared salivary bacterial profiles in two groups having a 10-fold difference in levels of caries experience, as it was hypothesized that the composition of the salivary microbiota might associate with the levels of caries experience. Bacterial profiles in stimulated saliva samples from...... 85 individuals with low levels of caries experience (healthy group) and 79 individuals with high levels of caries experience (caries group) were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbiome Identification Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique. Subsequently, saliva samples from caries......-free individuals in the healthy group (n = 57) and the caries group (n = 31) were compared. A significantly higher α-diversity (p caries group...

  9. Noise Induce Stress Assessment via Salivary Cortisol Measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Result: On the rest day and work day, between morning salivary cortisol was no significant difference in two groups. Comparing evening cortisol concentrations in work day with rest day a significant difference was observed, in worker group, but it was not significant in the other group. The evening cortisol in the working day in was significantly higher among workers than officers. .Conclusion: This study revealed that industrial noise exposure with levels higher than 80 dBA has a significant effect on salivary cortisol elevation.

  10. Cutaneous Metastases from Salivary Duct Carcinoma of the Submandibular Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahida Chakari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare and highly aggressive malignant neoplasm that frequently metastasises to other organs, but cutaneous metastasis is uncommon. There are only 6 cases reported in the literature with metastases to the skin and in all cases the tumour originates from the parotid gland. We present a case of skin metastases from the submandibular gland that was mistaken for basal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of salivary duct carcinoma arising from the submandibular gland with cutaneous metastases.

  11. Evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was the evaluation of non-microbial salivary caries activity parameters and salivary biochemical indicators in predicting dental caries. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out on 60 children, aged 4-6 years, selected from the schools of Panchkula district, Haryana, on the basis of their caries status. Level of hydration, flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, relative viscosity, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase levels in caries-free and caries-active children were evaluated. Results: Results showed that 90% of subjects in the caries-free group and 30% of subjects in the caries-active group had normal level of hydration value of less than 60 s and the difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Normal flow rate of stimulated saliva was found in 90% of the subjects in caries-free group and 33.3% subjects in the caries active group and difference was found to be statistically very highly significant. Adequate salivary pH was found in 100% subjects in caries-free group and 30% in caries-active group and the difference was statistically very highly significant. Conclusion: To conclude, within limitations of this study, it became clear that normal level of hydration and higher values for flow rate, pH, buffering capacity of saliva lead to good oral health and a reduced caries occurrence. Increased salivary viscosity plays a role in increasing caries incidence. Salivary biochemical indicators like calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase also play their respective role in determining caries susceptibility of an individual. These salivary parameters can be used as diagnostic tool for caries risk assessment.

  12. Intestinal gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain a physiological fasting glycemia in the absence of hepatic glucose production in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhoat, Armelle; Fayard, Laetitia; Stefanutti, Anne; Mithieux, Gilles; Rajas, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the liver and kidneys, the intestine has been strongly suggested to be a gluconeogenic organ. However, the precise contribution of the intestine to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains to be determined. To define the quantitative role of intestinal gluconeogenesis during long-term fasting, we compared changes in blood glucose during prolonged fasting in mice with a liver-deletion of the glucose-6 phosphatase catalytic (G6PC) subunit (LKO) and in mice with a combined deletion of G6PC in both the liver and the intestine (ILKO). The LKO and ILKO mice were studied after 6h and 40 h of fasting by measuring metabolic and hormonal plasmatic parameters, as well as the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver, kidneys and intestine. After a transient hypoglycemic episode (approximately 60 mg/dL) because of their incapacity to mobilize liver glycogen, the LKO mice progressively re-increased their plasma glucose to reach a glycemia comparable to that of wild-type mice (90 mg/dL) from 30 h of fasting. This increase was associated with a rapid induction of renal and intestinal gluconeogenic gene expression, driven by glucagon, glucocorticoids and acidosis. The ILKO mice exhibited a similar induction of renal gluconeogenesis. However, these mice failed to re-increase their glycemia and maintained a plasma glucose level of only 60 mg/dL throughout the 48 h-fasting period. These data indicate that intestinal glucose production is essential to maintain glucose homeostasis in the absence of hepatic glucose production during fasting. These data provide a definitive quantitative estimate of the capacity of intestinal gluconeogenesis to sustain EGP during long-term fasting. © 2013.

  13. PXR induces CYP27A1 and regulates cholesterol metabolism in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiangang; Chen, Wenling; Chiang, John Y L

    2007-02-01

    Mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) catalyzes oxidative cleavage of the sterol side chain in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol in most tissues. Recent studies suggest that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HOC) activates liver orphan receptor alpha (LXRalpha) and induces the cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages. The steroid- and bile acid-activated pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays critical roles in the detoxification of bile acids, cholesterol metabolites, and xenobiotics. The role of CYP27A1 in the intestine is not known. This study investigated PXR and CYP27A1 regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the human intestinal cell lines Caco2 and Ls174T. A human PXR ligand, rifampicin, induced CYP27A1 mRNA expression in intestine cells but not in liver cells. Rifampicin induced CYP27A1 gene transcription, increased intracellular 27-HOC levels, and induced ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression only in intestine cells. A functional PXR binding site was identified in the human CYP27A1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that rifampicin induced the PXR recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 to CYP27A1 chromatin. Cholesterol loading markedly increased intracellular 27-HOC levels in intestine cells. Rifampicin, 27-HOC, and a potent LXRalpha agonist, T0901317, induced ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and stimulated cholesterol efflux from intestine cells to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL. This study suggests an intestine-specific PXR/CYP27A1/LXRalpha pathway that regulates intestine cholesterol efflux and HDL assembly.

  14. Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Nidhi; Yazigi, Nada

    2017-06-01

    Excellent outcomes over the last 3 decades have made liver transplantation the treatment of choice for many advanced liver disorders. This success also opened liver transplantation to new indications such as liver tumors and metabolic disorders. The emergence of such new indications for liver transplantation is bringing a new stream of patients along with disease-specific challenges. The cumulative number of liver transplant recipients is peaking, requiring novel systems of health care delivery that meet the needs of this special patient population. This article reviews updates and new development in pediatric liver transplantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Small intestinal cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, L S; Fasco, M J

    1991-01-01

    Small intestinal cytochromes P450 (P450) provide the principal, initial source of biotransformation of ingested xenobiotics. The consequences of such biotransformation are detoxification by facilitating excretion, or toxification by bioactivation. P450s occur at highest concentrations in the duodenum, near the pylorus, and at decreasing concentrations distally--being lowest in the ileum. Highest concentrations occur from midvillus to villous tip, with little or none occurring in the crypts of Lieberkuehn. Microsomal P4503A, 2C8-10, and 2D6 forms have been identified in human small intestine, and P450s 2B1, possibly 2B2, 2A1, and 3A1/2 were located in endoplasmic reticulum of rodent small intestine, while P4502B4 has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from rabbit intestine. Some evidence indicates a differential distribution of P450 forms along the length of the small intestine and even along the villus. Rat intestinal P450s are inducible by xenobiotics--with phenobarbital (PB) inducing P4502B1, 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) inducing P4501A1, and dexamethasone inducing two forms of P4503A. Induction is most effectively achieved by oral administration of the agents, and is rapid--aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) was increased within 1 h of administration of, for example, 3-MC. AHH, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) have been used most frequently as substrates to characterize intestinal P450s. Dietary factors affect intestinal P450s markedly--iron restriction rapidly decreased intestinal P450 to beneath detectable values; selenium deficiency acted similarly but was less effective; Brussels sprouts increased intestinal AHH activity 9.8-fold, ECOD activity 3.2-fold, and P450 1.9-fold; fried meat and dietary fat significantly increased intestinal EROD activity; a vitamin A-deficient diet increased, and a vitamin A-rich diet decreased intestinal P450 activities; and excess cholesterol in the diet increased intestinal

  16. Liver disease in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-07-07

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.

  17. Rate of Salivary flow and secretion of immunoglobulin A, in cancer patients subjected to radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, M.S.; Iskandar, N.A.; Abd Latif, W.; Roushdy, H.M.; Ahmad, A.S.; Haggag, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The rate of salivary flow and salivary secretion of immunoglobulin A were studied in forty human male subjects, divided into two groups : The first consists of twenty male healthy volunteers. Whereas the second consists of twenty male patients suffering from squamous cell carcinoma affecting the head and neck region without direct involvement of the major salivary glands. patients of this group received radiotherapy as the sole line of treatment where the field of gamma irradiation involved the major salivary glands. The results revealed higher rate of salivary flow and salivary IgA in the cancer patients group as compared with the control group. A progressive decrease of both salivary flow rate and IgA was observed with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Immune mediated liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  19. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J.; Pineyro Gutierrez, A.; Taroco Medeiros, L.; Fein Kolodny, C.; Navarrete Pedocchi, H.

    1987-01-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit [es

  20. Contribution of Gut Bacteria to Liver Pathobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuhei Son

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests a strong interaction between the gut microbiota and health and disease. The interactions of the gut microbiota and the liver have only recently been investigated in detail. Receiving approximately 70% of its blood supply from the intestinal venous outflow, the liver represents the first line of defense against gut-derived antigens and is equipped with a broad array of immune cells (i.e., macrophages, lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells to accomplish this function. In the setting of tissue injury, whereby the liver is otherwise damaged (e.g., viral infection, toxin exposure, ischemic tissue damage, etc., these same immune cell populations and their interactions with the infiltrating gut bacteria likely contribute to and promote these pathologies. The following paper will highlight recent studies investigating the relationship between the gut microbiota, liver biology, and pathobiology. Defining these connections will likely provide new targets for therapy or prevention of a wide variety of acute and chronic liver pathologies.

  1. Salivary and fecal microbiota and metabolome of celiac children under gluten-free diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Maria; Vannini, Lucia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Cavallo, Noemi; Minervini, Fabio; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Ercolini, Danilo; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-12-19

    Celiac disease (CD) is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder resulting from the combination of genetic predisposition and gluten ingestion. A life-long gluten free diet (GFD) is the only therapeutic approach. Dysbiosis, which can precede the CD pathogenesis and/or persist when subjects are on GFD, is reviewed and discussed. Salivary microbiota and metabolome differed between healthy and celiac children treated under GFD (T-CD) for at least two years. The type of GFD (African- vs Italian-style) modified the microbiota and metabolome of Saharawi T-CD children. Different studies showed bacterial dysbiosis at duodenal and/or fecal level of patients with active untreated CD (U-CD) and T-CD compared to healthy subjects. The ratio of protective anti-inflammatory bacteria such as Lactobacillus-Bifidobacterium to potentially harmful Bacteroides-Enterobacteriaceae was the lowest in U-CD and T-CD children. In agreement with dysbiosis, serum, fecal and urinary metabolome from U-CD and T-CD patients showed altered levels of free amino acids and volatile organic compounds. However, consensus across studies defining specific bacteria and metabolites in U-CD or T-CD patients is still lacking. Future research efforts are required to determine the relationships between CD and oral and intestinal microbiotas to improve the composition of GFD for restoring the gut dysbiosis as a preventative or therapeutic approach for CD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self‑perceived oral health and whole salivary immunoglobulin G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-05

    Apr 5, 2015 ... Conclusions: Self-perceived oral health is worse and whole salivary IgG levels are higher in gutka-chewers compared to controls. Key words: .... control group), negative control (distilled water) and saliva samples were added to .... blood circulation and reaches the oral cavity by passively leaking mainly via.

  3. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila M F Torres

    Full Text Available To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups.36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups. Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins.2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups.Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  4. Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in depth catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Sheila M F; Furrow, Eva; Souza, Clarissa P; Granick, Jennifer L; de Jong, Ebbing P; Griffin, Timothy J; Wang, Xiong

    2018-01-01

    To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs, evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. 36 healthy dogs without evidence of periodontal disease representing four breed phylogeny groups, based upon single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes (ancient, herding/sighthound, and two miscellaneous groups). Saliva collected from dogs was pooled by phylogeny group and analyzed using nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Resulting tandem mass spectra were compared to databases for identification of endogenous peptides and inferred proteins. 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. The ancient breeds group was distinct in that it contained unique proteins and was missing many proteins and peptides present in the other groups. Using a sophisticated nanoscale liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we were able to identify 10-fold more salivary proteins than previously reported in dogs. Seven of the top 10 most abundant proteins or peptides serve immune functions and many more with various antimicrobial mechanisms were found. This is the most comprehensive analysis of healthy canine saliva to date, and will provide the groundwork for future studies analyzing salivary proteins and endogenous peptides in disease states.

  5. Clinico-pathological analysis of malignant salivary gland tumours in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case files of these patients were retrieved and informations such as age, stage during surgery and site of occurrence were gotten from the files. Data was analyzed using simple statistical formulas to determine mean and frequency. Deductions and observed were then discussed. RESULTS A total of 74 malignant salivary ...

  6. Adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland in a cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Breno S; Monteiro, Lidianne N; Grandi, Fabrizio; Nonogaki, Suely; Rocha, Rafael M; Rocha, Noeme S

    2012-09-01

    A 6-year-old Girolando dairy cow was presented for evaluation of a large subcutaneous facial mass. Fine-needle aspirates of the mass contained many neoplastic cells with high nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios arranged in sheets and loosely cohesive clusters with streaming erythrocytes and neutrophils in the background. Neoplastic cells were 13-25 μm in diameter and were round to cuboidal with variably distinct borders. Based on the signalment, anatomic location, and cytologic findings, differential diagnoses included salivary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The cow was euthanized and a necropsy was performed. The primary neoplasm arose from the left parotid salivary gland and meastatic tumor was found in the regional lymph nodes and lung. Histologically, the tumor was composed of anastomosing and irregular solid islets surrounded by scant stroma. Cells were negative for periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), PAS-diastase, and Alcian blue pH 2.5 stains, used to detect mucin. On immunohistochemical analysis, neoplastic luminal salivary gland cells expressed cytokeratin, but not S100, α-smooth muscle actin, or vimentin. Peripheral cells of neoplastic islets were immunoreactive for p63. The final diagnosis was nonsecretory adenocarcinoma of the parotid salivary gland. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  7. Distribution of Dendritic Cells in Normal Human Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, An; Saverin, Michele; Hand, Arthur R.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are believed to contribute to development of autoimmune sialadenitis, but little is known about their distribution in normal salivary glands. In this study, DC were identified and their distribution was determined in normal human parotid and submandibular glands. For light microscopy, salivary gland sections were stained with H&E or immunocytochemically using antibodies to DC markers. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to evaluate the ultrastructural characteristics of DC. In H&E sections, elongated, irregularly shaped nuclei were occasionally seen in the striated and excretory duct epithelium. Immunolabeling with anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD11c and anti-S100 revealed DC with numerous processes extending between ductal epithelial cells, often close to the lumen. Morphometric analyses indicated that HLA-DR-positive DC occupied approximately 4–11% of the duct wall volume. Similar reactive cells were present in acini, intercalated ducts and interstitial tissues. TEM observations revealed cells with indented nuclei containing dense chromatin, pale cytoplasm with few organelles, and lacking junctional attachments to adjacent cells. These results indicate that DC are abundant constituents of normal human salivary glands. Their location within ductal and acinar epithelium suggests a role in responding to foreign antigens and/or maintaining immunological tolerance to salivary proteins

  8. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results ...

  9. Salivary cortisol in depressed patients versus control persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2010-01-01

    salivary cortisol in depressed patients (0-29 nmol/l) and control persons (1-23 nmol/l) showed substantial overlap suggesting lack of discriminative capacity. These results should be interpreted with caution as the heterogeneity for the morning analysis was large and a funnel plot, suggested presence...

  10. Tumors of the Major Salivary Glands. A Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejías

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: the study of salivary gland neoplasms is one of the most complex issues of cancer of the head and neck. Objective: to determine the behavior of tumors of the major salivary glands. Method: an observational-descriptive-retrospective case series in the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Gustavo Lima Aldereguía of Cienfuegos, in the period from January 2000 through December 2009. Results: tumors of the major salivary glands occurred in the study population with a similarity between the sexes, with a slight predominance in males. The parotid gland was the most affected (93,55 %, pleomorphic adenoma was the most represented the benign tumor (58,06 %, while within the most frequent malignant adenocarcinoma (3,23 %. The most common surgical technique was subtotal parotidectomy. The (85,5 % of clinical diagnoses corresponded with histopathological and the type of tumor is found that of the 51 benign lesions (82,26 % are the largest percentage of agreement presented. In the present series were 61 patients (98,39 % alive without disease, only 1 patient (1,61 % had recurrence of their disease. We found no patient died during the study period. Conclusions: salivary gland tumors in the parotid gland predominate and are the most common benign tumors usually occur in adults.

  11. Effect of ciprofloxacin on single dose chloroquine salivary and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ciprofloxacin on the salivary and urinary concentrations of chloroquine (CQ) were investigated in six healthy volunteers, 20 to 30 years of age. Ciprofloxacin reduced the absorption, excretion rate and t1/2 of chloroquine in urine, Cmax and AUC in saliva but increased the Tmax in saliva. Thus, concurrent ...

  12. Norepinephrine transporter blocker atomoxetine increases salivary alpha amylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, C.M.; van den Brink, R.L.; Nieuwenhuis, S.; Bosch, J.A.

    It has been suggested that central norepinephrine (NE) activity may be inferred from increases in salivary alpha-amylase (SAA), but data in favor of this proposition are limited. We administered 40mg of atomoxetine, a selective NE transporter blocker that increases central NE levels, to 24 healthy

  13. Evaluation of biochemical changes in unstimulated salivary, calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TORNADO

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... protein of saliva is α-amylase which is secreted by parotid gland. Increasing trend of this enzyme activity may lead to increase microorganism substitution and reduced pH saliva during pregnancy (Sreebny, 2000). Ciejak et al. (2007) found no relation between amount of salivary protein concentration and ...

  14. Regeneration of irradiated salivary glands by stem cell therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, Isabelle Madeleine Armand

    2008-01-01

    Yearly, worldwide more than 500.000 new head and neck cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy. Co-irradiation of salivary glands may lead to xerostomia (=dry mouth syndrome), resulting in permanent loss of saliva production. This loss of gland function after radiation is thought to be due to a

  15. Assessment of salivary flow rate: biologic variation and measure error.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, P.H.; Limbeek, J. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applicability of the swab method in the measurement of salivary flow rate in multiple-handicap drooling children. To quantify the measurement error of the procedure and the biologic variation in the population. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: In a repeated

  16. Salivary Gland Neoplasms: Does Morphological Diversity Reflect Tumor Heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, Miguel; Fonseca, Isabel

    2017-09-21

    Salivary gland tumor classification encompasses a vast list of benign and malignant neoplasms. Their morphological diversity is recognized not only between different entities but also within individual tumors. Tumor categories as described by the World Health Organization reflect, in part, a true genetic heterogeneity (e.g., translocations involving CRTC1 and CRTC3-MAML2 genes in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and MYB-NFIB fusion in adenoid cystic carcinoma). Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma shows diversity in its histological appearance, but recurrent rearrangements on PLAG1 and HMGA2 are common to its benign precursor. More recently, new categories have been defined, like secretory carcinoma with the t(12;15) (p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation and clear-cell carcinoma with EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. Recent studies on cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary gland origin and epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma point to a correlation with their morphological features. All of these advances show that the search of a histogenetic and genetic basis for salivary gland tumors is helping to clarify morphological categories and unraveling new ones. Nevertheless, currently morphology is still the hallmark of tumor classification and the gold standard. The therapeutic options for advanced tumors remain very limited but the discovery of translocation-generated gene fusions and increased knowledge of the genomic information of salivary gland tumors is creating opportunities for the development of specific targeted therapies. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with ... MASC can be mistaken for acinic cell carcinoma; however, MASC does not have acinar cells with .... carcinoma of salivary glands: A report of 2 cases with expression of basal/myoepithelial markers (calponin, CD10 and p63 protein).

  18. Lithiasis of salivary glands treated with a CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesiak-Janas, Grazyna; Janas, Anna

    2003-10-01

    The study compares the results of classical surgical treatment with laserotherapy in lithiasis of submandibular salivary glands. The study included 48 patients, 26 of which were treated with application of a CO2 laser. The follow-up did not reveal any postoperative complications in the course of healing. No relapse of the disease was observed in patients.

  19. Self‑perceived oral health and whole salivary immunoglobulin G ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among controls, IgG levels in UWS were significantly higher among individuals who had BG than those who did not (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Self‑perceived oral health is worse and whole salivary IgG levels are higher in gutka‑chewers compared to controls. Key words: Alveolar bone loss, areca, inflammation, smokeless, ...

  20. Standards for the assessment of salivary glands – an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zajkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an update of 2011 Standards for Ultrasound Assessment of Salivary Glands, which were developed by the Polish Ultrasound Society. We have described current ultrasound technical requirements, assessment and measurement techniques as well as guidelines for ultrasound description. We have also discussed an ultrasound image of normal salivary glands as well as the most important pathologies, such as inflammation, sialosis, collagenosis, injuries and proliferative processes, with particular emphasis on lesions indicating high risk of malignancy. In acute bacterial inflammation, the salivary glands appear as hypoechoic, enlarged or normal-sized, with increased parenchymal flow. The echogenicity is significantly increased in viral infections. Degenerative lesions may be seen in chronic inflammations. Hyperechoic deposits with acoustic shadowing can be visualized in lithiasis. Parenchymal fibrosis is a dominant feature of sialosis. Sjögren syndrome produces different pictures of salivary gland parenchymal lesions at different stages of the disease. Pleomorphic adenomas are usually hypoechoic, well-defined and polycyclic in most cases. Warthin tumor usually presents as a hypoechoic, oval-shaped lesion with anechoic cystic spaces. Malignancies are characterized by blurred outlines, irregular shape, usually heterogeneous echogenicity and pathological neovascularization. The accompanying metastatic lesions are another indicator of malignancy, however, final diagnosis should be based on biopsy findings.