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Sample records for intestinal worm infections

  1. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of total, single and multiple intestinal worm infections among the primary school children in Nairobi City. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from ...

  2. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trichiura infections. Conclusion: Prevalence of total, single and multiple infections showed a downward trend when compared to the previous studies with Ascaris lumbricoides persisting with the highest prevalence. Keywords: Intestinal worms, infections, school children, Nairobi City East African Journal of Public Health Vol.

  3. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... unreported 10 kDa band, specific to the L2 larval stage and egg hatch fluid, emerged in all pigs after challenge, while the major adult body fluid constituent, ABA-1, remained unrecognized. No significant effect of an intestinal adult worm burden on the larval recovery after a challenge inoculation...... or on the immune response before or after challenge inoculation could be detected. These results indicate that a significant protective memory immune response to A. suum challenge inoculation can be induced in pigs, and that this protective immunity is not significantly modulated by the presence of adult parasites...

  4. Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the Intestinal Worm (Helminthiasis) infestation in a Central Nigerian Rural Community. JC Anosike, VO Zaccheaus, CM Adeiyongo, OC Abanobi, EO Dada, EE Oku, IR Keke, JC Uwaezuoke, OU Amajuoyi, CE Obiukwu, DC Nsowu, FI Ogbusu ...

  5. Recall of intestinal helminthiasis by HIV-infected South Africans and avoidance of possible misinterpretation of egg excretion in worm/HIV co-infection analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Merwe Lize

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascariasis and HIV/AIDS are often co-endemic under conditions of poverty in South Africa; and discordant immune responses to the respective infections could theoretically be affecting the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in various ways. It is well-known that sensitisation to helminthic antigens can aggravate or ameliorate several non-helminthic diseases and impair immunisation against cholera, tetanus and tuberculosis. The human genotype can influence immune responses to Ascaris strongly. With these factors in mind, we have started to document the extent of long-term exposure to Ascaris and other helminths in a community where HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent. In more advanced studies, objectives are to analyse relevant immunological variables (e.g. cytokine activity and immunoglobulin levels. We postulate that when Ascaris is hyperendemic, analysis of possible consequences of co-infection by HIV cannot be based primarily on excretion vs non-excretion of eggs. Methods Recall of worms seen in faeces was documented in relation to the age of adult volunteers who were either seropositive (n = 170 or seronegative (n = 65 for HIV. Reasons for HIV testing, deworming treatments used or not used, date and place of birth, and duration of residence in Cape Town, were recorded. Confidence intervals were calculated both for group percentages and the inter-group differences, and were used to make statistical comparisons. Results In both groups, more than 70% of participants were aware of having passed worms, often both when a child and as an adult. Most of the descriptions fitted Ascaris. Evidence for significantly prolonged exposure to helminthic infection in HIV-positives was supported by more recall of deworming treatment in this group (p Conclusion There was a long-term history of ascariasis (and probably other helminthic infections in both of the groups that were studied. In women in the same community, and in children living where housing and

  6. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

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    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  7. The effect of fermentable carbohydrates on experimental swine dysentery and whip worm infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lisbeth E.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown ingredie......An experiment was conducted to study the effect of diets with contrasting fermentability in the large intestine on experimental infections with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative agent of swine dysentery, and the whip worm, Trichuris suis, in pigs. Two diets with organically grown...

  8. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  9. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  10. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  11. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.M.; Subhani, A.; Hassan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  12. [Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Dan; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Sheng-Zhu; Lan, Wei-Min; Chen, Yi-Yang

    2012-10-01

    To explore the relationship between fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumbricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41% and 23.75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher the probability to got egg in the feces. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.

  13. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo assay of IgE activities on the expulsion of intestinal adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    A physiological role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is to promote parasitic helminth expulsion. This assertion is largely based on a series of studies carried out by Capron's laboratory. They observed that IgE is an essential component of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni larvae both in vitro and in vivo. Then, another group reported that IgE-deficient mice show higher worm burdens than wild-type (WT) mice when mice are infected with Trichinella spiralis. Although these studies indicate anti-helminth activities of IgE targeted on larvae forms, they do not prove the fighting effects of IgE on adult worms. In contrast, a recent study demonstrates an expelling activity of IgE for adult worms through an adoptive transfer of immune serum-derived IgE into Strongyloides venezuelensis-infected mice. Here, I describe how IgE is purified from S. venezuelensis-immune sera and is transferred into infected mice to examine its effect on worm expulsion. This method will be used to advance our understanding the mechanism of S. venezuelensis expulsion and explore S. venezuelensis antigens recognized by IgE. Moreover, adoptive transfers of IgE purified from immune sera will be applicable to other helminth infection models to investigate physiological roles of IgE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction of faecal worm egg count, worm numbers and worm fecundity in sheep selected for worm resistance following artificial infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, K E; Palmer, D G; Liu, S M; Greeff, J C; Bishop, S C; Karlsson, L J E

    2010-08-04

    We examined the changes to populations of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Teledorsagia circumcincta in mature sheep selected for reduced faecal worm egg count (WEC). Worm resistant (n=19) and control (n=10) genotype sheep were penned and dosed with a total of 10,000 T. colubriformis and 10,000 T. circumcincta per week for 18-weeks. Sheep genotypes were from lines previously bred over 15 years for either low WEC (resistant) or non-selected (control). Weekly WEC and the proportion of larvae from each species in faecal culture were measured during weeks 3-17. Egg hatchability was assessed on a pooled faecal sample from worm resistant or control genotype sheep at weeks 7, 9, 10, 13, 14 and 17. At week 18 the number of adult and immature worms (early and late 4th, and 5th stage), and indicators of worm fecundity (female worm length and number of eggs in utero) were assessed at necropsy. Results show that resistant sheep had reduced mean WEC to only 18% of the control (PWEC and different prediction equations for WEC from necropsy traits for the two sheep genotypes (PWEC. We conclude that lower WEC is achieved through reduced number of adult worms for both species and reduced fecundity for T. circumcincta. These results support the hypotheses that worm resistant sheep with a strong immune function can regulate T. colubriformis by rejecting adult worms but that T. circumcincta is regulated through a combination of suppressed development and reduced female fecundity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Defence Mechanisms during Intestinal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Buret

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.

  17. Intestinal intussusception due to concurrent infections with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat was anorexic and depressed with rough hair coat, and died before the commencement of the experiment. Grossly, the intussusception was 7 cm in length and 27 cm caudal to the stomach and 81cm to the ileo-caecal junction. The affected part of the small intestine was moderately distended with worms and the ...

  18. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  19. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  20. Chronic Trichuris muris infection decreases diversity of the intestinal microbiota and concomitantly increases the abundance of lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of th...

  1. Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    .27 kg more; 38,392 participants, 10 trials, low quality evidence). The effects were variable across trials; one trial from a low prevalence setting carried out in 1995 found an increase in weight, but nine trials carried out since then found no effect, including five from moderate and high prevalence areas. There is also reasonable evidence that regular treatment probably has no effect on average height (MD 0.02 cm higher, 95% CI 0.14 lower to 0.17 cm higher; 7057 participants, seven trials, moderate quality evidence); average haemoglobin (MD 0.02 g/dL lower; 95% CI 0.08 g/dL lower to 0.04 g/dL higher; 3595 participants, seven trials, low quality evidence); formal tests of cognition (32,486 participants, five trials, moderate quality evidence); exam performance (32,659 participants, two trials, moderate quality evidence); or mortality (1,005,135 participants, three trials, low quality evidence). There is very limited evidence assessing an effect on school attendance and the findings are inconsistent, and at risk of bias (mean attendance 2% higher, 95% CI 4% lower to 8% higher; 20,243 participants, two trials, very low quality evidence). In a sensitivity analysis that only included trials with adequate allocation concealment, there was no evidence of any effect for the main outcomes. Authors' conclusions Treating children known to have worm infection may have some nutritional benefits for the individual. However, in mass treatment of all children in endemic areas, there is now substantial evidence that this does not improve average nutritional status, haemoglobin, cognition, school performance, or survival. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Deworming school children in developing countries In this Cochrane Review, Cochrane researchers examined the effects of deworming children in areas where intestinal worm infection is common. After searching for relevant trials up to April 2015, we included 44 trials with a total of 67,672 participants, and an additional trial of one million

  2. Caecal worm, Aulonocephalus pennula, infection in the northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Dunham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes that infect quail have been understudied and long been dismissed as a problem in quail management. Within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, an area that has experienced quail population “boom and bust” cycles and ultimately a general decline, the need to determine why Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus populations are diminishing has increased in priority. Previously, caecal parasites have been documented to cause inactivity, weight loss, reduced growth, inflammation to the caecal mucosa, and even death. The caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula is an intestinal nematode parasite that is commonly found within the caecum of quail, as well as many other avian species. In the Rolling Plains ecoregion, A. pennula has been documented to have as high as a 98% prevalence in bobwhite quail samples; however, the effect it has on its host is not well understood. The present study documents A. pennula causes no pathological changes within the caeca of the Northern bobwhite. However, there is concern for disruption of digestion and the possible implications of infection for wild bobwhite quail survival are discussed.

  3. An Epidemic Model of Computer Worms with Time Delay and Variable Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of Internet, network security issues become increasingly serious. Temporary patches have been put on the infectious hosts, which may lose efficacy on occasions. This leads to a time delay when vaccinated hosts change to susceptible hosts. On the other hand, the worm infection is usually a nonlinear process. Considering the actual situation, a variable infection rate is introduced to describe the spread process of worms. According to above aspects, we propose a time-delayed worm propagation model with variable infection rate. Then the existence condition and the stability of the positive equilibrium are derived. Due to the existence of time delay, the worm propagation system may be unstable and out of control. Moreover, the threshold τ0 of Hopf bifurcation is obtained. The worm propagation system is stable if time delay is less than τ0. When time delay is over τ0, the system will be unstable. In addition, numerical experiments have been performed, which can match the conclusions we deduce. The numerical experiments also show that there exists a threshold in the parameter a, which implies that we should choose appropriate infection rate β(t to constrain worm prevalence. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out to prove the validity of our conclusions.

  4. Proteomic analysis of Trichinella spiralis adult worm excretory-secretory proteins recognized by early infection sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Sun, Ge Ge; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Liu, Xiao Lin; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-11-15

    At the intestinal stage of a Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection, the excretory-secretory (ES) antigens produced by adult worms (AWs) result in an early exposure to the host's immune system and elicit the production of specific antibodies; the AW ES proteins might provide early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to identify early serodiagnostic markers from T. spiralis AW ES antigens. T. spiralis AWs were collected at 72h post infection, and their ES antigens were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Then, the immunoreactive bands were subjected to shotgun LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analyses. Our results showed that only one protein band (33kDa) was recognized by the sera of mice infected with T. spiralis at 8 days after infection. The shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis identified 23 proteins that were then clustered into 10 types; these proteins had molecular weights of 28.13-71.62kDa and pI 5.05-9.20. Certain enzymes (e.g., serine protease, adult-specific deoxyribonuclease [DNase] II, peptidase S1A subfamily, and multi cystatin-like domain protein) were found to be highly represented. The functions of the 10 proteins were further analysed: of the 6 annotated proteins, 3 had serine hydrolase activity and 2 had DNase II activity. These results provide a valuable basis for identifying early diagnostic antigens and vaccine candidates for trichinellosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  6. Pin Worm Survey on Infant School Children in Gunma Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 久美子; 阿部, 美幸; 伊藤, 恵美; 金田, 聡子; 関口, 直美; 深町, 容子; 松渕, ユカ子; 柳, 博美; 鈴木, 守

    1991-01-01

    Pin worms (Enterobius vermicularis) are the commonest intestinal parasite in Japan. Examination of this worm infection is usually made by microscopic observation on the swab taken on a scothch tape. We conducted a survey of pin worm infection among infant school children of 4-6 years old. Suitable days for swab examination were studied by comparing the detection rate according to the consecutive days tested. Results were summarized as follows: 1. Three hundred sixteen children (172 boys and 1...

  7. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  8. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects...... of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery...

  9. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  10. Oral vaccination of mice with recombinant Schistosoma japonicum proteins induces specific anti-parasite antibodies and damage to adult worms after a challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W; Gobert, G N; McManus, D P

    1997-07-01

    Mucosal immunisation by the oral route represents a cheap and simple method for delivering protective antigens to a host against gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens. In the case of schistosome (bloodfluke) worms, 2 life-cycle stages may be exposed to the host's mucosa; the larval schistosomulum is exposed to the respiratory mucosa and, depending on the species, the egg may come into contact with the intestinal or urinogenital mucosa. Both IgA and some Isotypes of IgG have been implicated in protective immunity against schistosomiasis in humans and in experimental animal models. We have used a novel approach to determine whether schistosome-specific antibodies and protective immunity could be generated in mice by oral administration of bacterial lysates containing recombinant Schistosoma japonicum proteins. The mice produced specific antibodies to paramyosin and GST26, 2 important vaccine candidates for schistosomiasis, but there was no significant reduction in worm burdens in groups of mice immunised with either protein. Significantly, however, transmission electron microscopy revealed damage to the teguments of adult female and male S. japonicum worms obtained from mice vaccinated with recombinant paramyosin; there was also extensive damage to the tegument of male worms recovered from mice vaccinated with recombinant GST26. Our observations that oral vaccination with bacterial lysates containing recombinant proteins induced particular classes and subclasses of circulating antibodies with resultant damage to the surface of adult worms may have important implications for the future development of oral vaccines against a systemic infection such as schistosomiasis.

  11. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  12. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  13. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  14. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  15. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  16. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  18. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  19. Morphological allometry and intersexuality in horsehair-worm-infected mantids, Hierodula formosana (Mantodea: Mantidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming-Chung; Huang, Chin-Gi; Wu, Wen-Jer; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2015-07-01

    Parasitic castration is a strategy used by parasites to minimize damage to the host by consuming its reproductive system, which results in the morphological alteration of the host. We determined that the forewing shape and density of the antennal sensilla of field-collected adult male mantids (Hierodula formosana), infected by horsehair worms (Chordodes formosanus) was partially feminized (intersexuality), and both male and female mantids infected by horsehair worms exhibited allometric changes in their wings and walking legs. In addition, the testes of most infected male adults disappeared or reduced in size, whereas the number of ovarioles in infected female adults was unaffected. The infection mainly influenced the structures related to host reproduction and locomotion, suggesting unbalanced energy exploitation and the reduction of parasitic virulence. In addition, the intersexuality of infected male adults indicated that sexual differentiation in insects, which researchers have considered to be an autonomous process, was influenced by the infection. The similarity of the antennae of infected male adults with those of last-instar female nymphs suggested that parasitic juvenilization may cause such feminization, but the mechanism of parasitic influence on insect sex characteristics should be studied further.

  20. Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections in Sengerema

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections are common health problems among the people of Lake. Victoria basin particularly in Mwanza ... these infections is largely lacking and that biomedical studies give only a partial ... sampling procedure was such that in each sub-village. ' Correspondence: Joseph R.

  1. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  2. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  4. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  6. Intestinal Worms And Nutritional Status Of Under–Fives In Jos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out in Naraguta village a periurban settlement in November, 1999 to determine the relationship between nutritional status and intestinal helminthiasis. Method; A total of 256 children aged 12- 56 months were studied. The subjects were selected through a house – to house visit. Their weight ...

  7. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  8. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  9. Using experimental de-worming to measure the immunological and pathological impacts of lungworm infection in cane toads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick B. Finnerty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The immunological and pathological consequences of parasite infection can be more rigorously assessed from experimental manipulation than from correlational studies of natural infections. We used anthelmintic treatment to experimentally decrease intensities of lungworm infection in captive and free-ranging wild cane toads to assess parasite impacts on host immune responses. First, we administered the anthelmintic drug Ivermectin to both infected and uninfected toads, to distinguish drug effects per se from the impacts of killing lungworms. Worms began dying and decomposing <48 h after injection. The only immunological variables that were affected by anthelmintic treatment were bactericidal capacity of the blood which increased in parasitized toads (presumably triggered by decomposing worms in the lungs, and the phagocytic capacity of blood (which increased in both infected and uninfected toads; the latter effect presumably was caused by the injection of Ivermectin per se rather than removal of parasites. Second, we looked at correlates of variation in the infection intensity induced by de-worming (in both captive and free-ranging toads over an eight-week period. Heavier lungworm infection was associated with increased phagocytic ability of the host's blood, and a reduction in the host's liver mass (and hence, energy stores. Experimental de-worming thus revealed pathological and immunological costs of the presence of lungworms, and of their removal by anthelmintic injection. Keywords: Rhinella marina, Bufo marinus, Host, Parasite, Nematode

  10. DNA typing of ancient parasite eggs from environmental samples identifies human and animal worm infections in Viking-age settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    Human worm infections have, to a large extent, been eradicated in countries with high sanitary standards by preventing the fecal-oral transmission of infective eggs. It is possible to study parasite infections among past populations by retrieving and analyzing parasite eggs using paleoparasitolog......-age. Further, eggs of the Liver Fluke (Fasciola hepatica), whose primary hosts are cows and sheep, are identified indicating that grazing animals were kept in close proximity of the settlement....

  11. Water-seeking behavior in worm-infected crickets and reversibility of parasitic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton, Fleur; Lefèvre, Thierry; Guerin, Patrick M.; Lebarbenchon, Camille; Duneau, David; Biron, David G.; Thomas, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    One of the most fascinating examples of parasite-induced host manipulation is that of hairworms, first, because they induce a spectacular “suicide” water-seeking behavior in their terrestrial insect hosts and, second, because the emergence of the parasite is not lethal per se for the host that can live several months following parasite release. The mechanisms hairworms use to increase the encounter rate between their host and water remain, however, poorly understood. Considering the selective landscape in which nematomorph manipulation has evolved as well as previously obtained proteomics data, we predicted that crickets harboring mature hairworms would display a modified behavioral response to light. Since following parasite emergence in water, the cricket host and parasitic worm do not interact physiologically anymore, we also predicted that the host would recover from the modified behaviors. We examined the effect of hairworm infection on different behavioral responses of the host when stimulated by light to record responses from uninfected, infected, and ex-infected crickets. We showed that hairworm infection fundamentally modifies cricket behavior by inducing directed responses to light, a condition from which they mostly recover once the parasite is released. This study supports the idea that host manipulation by parasites is subtle, complex, and multidimensional. PMID:22476265

  12. Protective immunity to Schistosoma haematobium infection is primarily an anti-fecundity response stimulated by the death of adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kate M; Mutapi, Francisca; Savill, Nicholas J; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2012-08-14

    Protective immunity against human schistosome infection develops slowly, for reasons that are not yet fully understood. For many decades, researchers have attempted to infer properties of the immune response from epidemiological studies, with mathematical models frequently being used to bridge the gap between immunological theory and population-level data on schistosome infection and immune responses. Here, building upon earlier model findings, stochastic individual-based models were used to identify model structures consistent with observed field patterns of Schistosoma haematobium infection and antibody responses, including their distributions in cross-sectional surveys, and the observed treatment-induced antibody switch. We found that the observed patterns of infection and antibody were most consistent with models in which a long-lived protective antibody response is stimulated by the death of adult S. haematobium worms and reduces worm fecundity. These findings are discussed with regard to current understanding of human immune responses to schistosome infection.

  13. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  14. Influence of Parasitic Worm Infections on Allergy Diagnosis in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Abena S; Boakye, Daniel A; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Ree, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiological studies from Sub-Saharan Africa indicate that allergies are on the rise in this region especially in urban compared to rural areas. This increase has been linked to improved hygiene, lifestyle changes, and lower exposure to pathogens in childhood. Reduced exposure to parasitic worm (helminth) infections and allergy outcomes has been the focus of a number of population studies over the years. Paradoxically, there are parallels in the immune responses to helminths and to allergies. Both conditions are associated with elevated levels of immunoglobulin E, high numbers of T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, and mast cells. These immune parallels have meant that the diagnosis of allergies in parts of the world where helminths are endemic can be hampered. The aim of this review is to examine observations from population studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa that demonstrate how helminth infections influence the parameters used to diagnose allergy outcomes in this region. We explore specifically how helminth infections hinder the in vitro diagnosis of allergic sensitization, influence the clinical manifestations of allergy, and also the effect of anthelmintic treatment on allergy outcomes. Advancing our understanding of how helminths influence allergy diagnosis is imperative for the development of improved tools to assess, diagnose, and treat allergic disorders in both helminth-endemic and non-endemic countries worldwide.

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  16. Effects of size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections on histopathology of the mucosa along the whole small intestine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Mallet, S

    1990-11-01

    The influence of population size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis on the structures of the small intestine, especially with regard to the development and origin of an intestinal adaptive response, was examined in experimentally infected rabbits. The effects of low (500 L3) and high (50,000 L3) infection on histological (villous length, mucosa to serosa ratio, crypt surface) and biochemical (protein content, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities) aspects of the mucosa were assessed along the whole small intestine. The presence of a small number of worms induced only minor mucosal changes, indicating a regenerative response of the intestinal epithelium. The role of a local small population of T. colubriformis in the development of a previously described adaptive response appeared thus to be limited. On the other hand, the 50,000 L3 inoculum was associated with severe lesions of villi, marked crypt hyperplasia and with a major reduction of enzyme activities. The changes were found along the whole length of the small intestine. These results suggest that the generally recognized dose-dependent pathogenicity of the intestinal nematode infections could be ascribed to two different processes: firstly, a greater severity of the lesions; secondly, more extensive damage leading to the disappearance of any adaptive intestinal region.

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  18. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-16

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection by sectioning of the small intestine and caecum into four parts. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs. The worm establishment ranged from 15 to 121 flukes (3-24%, mean 12%). Faecal egg excretion was measured in all eight infected dogs but no more than two eggs per g faeces (epg) were found at any time. Infections lasted for at least two months as documented by the presence of adult flukes in all three dogs necropsied on day 58 post infection. The predilection site of the flukes was identified as the lower part of jejunum (93% of total worm burden). The results of the haematological tests did not differ between the infected and uninfected group. Further, no clinical symptoms were observed in the infected group and no macroscopic pathological changes could be assigned to the trematode infections, neither did histopathological examination of the intestine reveal any differences between the infected and the control dogs. This study provides the first basic knowledge on the establishment

  19. Inducible deletion of CD28 prior to secondary nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection impairs worm expulsion and recall of protective memory CD4⁺ T cell responses.

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    Hlumani Ndlovu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available IL-13 driven Th2 immunity is indispensable for host protection against infection with the gastrointestinal nematode Nippostronglus brasiliensis. Disruption of CD28 mediated costimulation impairs development of adequate Th2 immunity, showing an importance for CD28 during the initiation of an immune response against this pathogen. In this study, we used global CD28⁻/⁻ mice and a recently established mouse model that allows for inducible deletion of the cd28 gene by oral administration of tamoxifen (CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻+TM to resolve the controversy surrounding the requirement of CD28 costimulation for recall of protective memory responses against pathogenic infections. Following primary infection with N. brasiliensis, CD28⁻/⁻ mice had delayed expulsion of adult worms in the small intestine compared to wild-type C57BL/6 mice that cleared the infection by day 9 post-infection. Delayed expulsion was associated with reduced production of IL-13 and reduced serum levels of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE. Interestingly, abrogation of CD28 costimulation in CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice by oral administration of tamoxifen prior to secondary infection with N. brasiliensis resulted in impaired worm expulsion, similarly to infected CD28⁻/⁻ mice. This was associated with reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, diminished serum titres of antigen specific IgG1 and total IgE and a reduced CXCR5⁺ T(FH cell population. Furthermore, total number of CD4⁺ T cells and B220⁺ B cells secreting Th1 and Th2 cytokines were significantly reduced in CD28⁻/⁻ mice and tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice compared to C57BL/6 mice. Importantly, interfering with CD28 costimulatory signalling before re-infection impaired the recruitment and/or expansion of central and effector memory CD4⁺ T cells and follicular B cells to the draining lymph node of tamoxifen treated CD28(-/loxCre⁺/⁻ mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that CD28

  20. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Kelly S; Cliffe, Laura J; Bancroft, Alison J; Forman, Simon P; Thompson, Seona; Booth, Cath; Grencis, Richard K

    2017-06-01

    Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  1. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Hayes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj City, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Esmailnia, Kasra; Karim, Gholamreza; Nasir, Mehdi; Akhavan, Omid

    2009-09-01

    Karaj is an area with large influx of refugee people in Iran. To increase knowledge about parasitic infections, we carried out this research during 2006-2008. We recorded the stool examination results and some of their personal characteristics. A total of 13,915 human stools were examined, and 649 (4.7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Among them, 13 (0.09%) had worm and 636 (4.6%) had protozoan infections. Maximum infections belonged to Giardia intestinalis, and 534 (3.8%) samples had this infection. Other parasitic infections included Entamoeba coli (0.39%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.021%), Blastocystis hominis (0.08%), Trichomonas hominis (0.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.06%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.007%), Endolimax nana (0.05%), Enterobius spp. eggs (0.028%), Taenia proglottids (0.028%), and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (0.03%). The maximum numbers of referred people to laboratories were in July and the maximum percentage of infections was in August. There is a point that all 5 Strongyloides stercoralis infections were pertained to 2008. With attention to the rate of parasitic infections (4.7%), it seems that we should take additional educational information to wide spectrum of people living in this city.

  3. The effect of grazing forage containing condensed tannins on gastro-intestinal parasite infection and milk composition in Angora does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Hart, S P; Miller, D; Tomita, G M; Loetz, E; Sahlu, T

    2005-06-10

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of the condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage sericea lespedeza (sericea lespedeza (SL); Lespedeza cuneata; 15.2% CT), on fecal egg count (FEC), larval development (larvae/10 g of feces), worm burden and immune response compared with a crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)/Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; control forage (CTF)) forage low in CT (0.32% CT) in grazing Angora does and their kids. Fifty worm-free mixed-age does were randomly allocated to three treatments. One treatment (10 does; initial liveweight (LW) = 45+/-1.5 kg) entailed grazing of SL forage from April 25 to July 15, 2002 with a second treatment of CTF (20 does; initial LW = 43+/-1.4 kg) grazing during the same period. Does of the third treatment (20 does; initial LW = 44+/-1.4 kg) grazed a sward of SL for 2 weeks and then one of CTF for 2 weeks followed by alternating between the two pastures every 2-week rotational grazing (ROT). To gauge levels of infective larvae on pasture, three worm-free Angora kids (initial LW = 3.6+/-0.2 kg) were randomly selected as tracers. Tracers grazed for final 60 days and were euthanized for determination of worm burden. The immune response of does was measured by skin thickness reaction after the intradermal injection of 250 microg phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Mean FEC for SL and ROT were substantially lower (P kids was lower (P milk somatic cell counts (SCC) than does grazing non-CT-containing forage. In summary, grazing CT forages reduced FEC, larval development and worm burden, and also appeared to enhance immune response. The CT-containing forage SL reduced gastro-intestinal parasite infections of Angora does and kids.

  4. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  5. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  6. Instruction in behavior modification can significantly alter soil-transmitted helminth (STH) re-infection following therapeutic de-worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Julia W; Basaric-Keys, Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Five elementary ("prototypic") schools located in five districts in central Java were selected and the children examined for helminth infections (Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm). They were de-wormed with a course of mebendazole and provided with 6-7 months of "behavioral remediation instruction" (BRI). In other ("control") schools, children were treated with mebendazole but were not provided BRI. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of BRI in minimizing infection/re-infection following deworming. After the 6-7 month course of BRI in the prototypic schools, all the children (in both the prototypic and control schools) were re-examined for geohelminth infection. The schools in two of the five districts were omitted from further analysis because the overall prevalence of infection was low (<10%) and the infections were dominated by hookworm which are only moderately susceptible to mebendazole. Comparisons of prototypic and control schools in the other three districts provided compelling evidence that BRI was quite effective in reducing both the frequency and intensity of infection with Ascaris and Trichuris. We suggest that instructing children and adults corrects personal habits which are conducive to infection and can be an effective and safe substitute for repeated deworming, reducing the opportunity for the emergence of drug-resistant helminthes, which should prolong the time benzimidazoles may be used for treatment of geohelminth infection.

  7. Intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit value and worm density in subjects were determined to rate level of infectivity in the individual. The study shows that there are three common intestinal worms in the area Ascaris lumbricoides has the highest prevalence rate of 40.7% followed by Tribchuris trichiura (4.8%) and hookworm (4.4%). Age and sex ...

  8. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, ...

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2010 and February 2011 to assess the prevalence of intestinal nematode infections among children aged 1 – 14 years living in two communities of rural Ebonyi State, Nigeria, characterize the risk factors for infection and develop environmental ...

  10. Dietary modulation of the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are still a major health problem, not only in developing countries. Even in Europe and the United States about 10-15 % of the population contracts an intestinal infection each year, mostly of foodborne origin. The growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics

  11. Antigen detection of entamoeba histolytica intestinal infection: cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Laboratory diagnosis of Entamoeba histolytica infection is still being made through compound light microscopy in resource limited countries despite the associated flaws. This study is aimed at applying and determining the usefulness of ELISA antigen detection technique for E. histolytica intestinal infection ...

  12. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

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    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  13. intestinal helminth infections among pregnant cameroonian women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 88 No. 11 November 2011. INTESTINAL HELMINTH ... The pregnant women received mebendazole and iron tablets on the day of enrollment at the antenatal clinic to control helminth ... malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, diarrhoea and iron-deficiency anaemia (3,1). Pregnant women and.

  14. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  16. Age and Sex Distribution of Intestinal Parasitic Infection Among HIV Infected Subjects in Abeokuta, Nigeria

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    Herbert Obi Okpala

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of disease in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The distribution of intestinal parasite among two hundred and fifteen (215 subjects with mean age of 32 years, comprising of 35 HIV-seropositive and 180 HIV seronegative patients was carried out using microscopic method to examine their stool specimens for presence of trophozoites, ova, cysts, larvae and oocysts of intestinal parasites. Overall parasitic infection rate was 28.4%. Infection rate among HIV seropositve subjects (42.9% was statistically higher than that among HIV seronegative subjects (25.6% (P0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the parasitic infection between HIV-seropositive males and females and among the various age groups (P>0.05. Adequate treatment, proper health education and good hygiene will help in reducing intestinal parasitic infection

  17. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  18. Intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in Ekwulumili Community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, between April and July 2012. Five primary schools were involved in the study namely, Bethel Nursery and Primary ...

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections in three geographical zones of Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children was assessed in three geographical zones (rural, semi-urban and urban) in Rivers State, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected following ethical approval and consent from parents and teachers of the pupils and analyzed using both wet ...

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient's level of immunity. The most ..... Conflict of interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  1. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections and factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors established to be independently associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infection were: age 11-15 years P<0.001, use of plain water for hand washing P<0.05, eating food without spoon P<0.05, consuming raw vegetables P<0.001, untrimmed finger nails P<0.001 and source of drinking water [river ...

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt, in the period from December 2012 till November 2013. The study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. Fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot gram chromotrope stain for Microsporidia. Also they were processed by Kato-Katz and formol ethyl acetate techniques for intestinal helminths. Additionally, blood samples were collected for measuring hemoglobin levels. Out of 200 mentally handicapped individuals, 87 (43.5%) were infected. The infection rates were 44.6% and 42.6% for non-institutionalized and institutionalized people, respectively. Regarding gender, 46.7% and 38.5% were reported for the males and females respectively. The most common parasites detected were: Cryptosporidium sp. (23.5%), microsporidia (15%), Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Dientamoeba fragilis (8%), Cyclospora cyatanensis (7.5%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.5%) and Entamoeba coli (2.5%). Rates for Isospora belli and Enterobius vermicularis were estimated to be 1.5% for each, while lower rate was reported for Iodamoeba butschlii (1.0%). Prevalence of infections among mentally handicapped individuals are indications for several risk factors, including improper sanitary hygiene and illiteracy about personal hygiene. Therefore, frequent investigations, health care and medical intervention are needed.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine ...

  4. Intestinal Protozoan Infection in HIV Patients in Jimeta, Yola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incriminated protozoan parasites were Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolitica, Trichomonas hominis and Entamoeba coli. Helminthes parasites were mainly present in HIV negative patients who constituted the control group. Potential risk factors for intestinal parasite infection revealed that though occupation played ...

  5. Intestinal immune response to human Cryptosporidium sp. infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Guerrant. 2007. Heavy cryptosporidial infections in children in northeast Brazil: comparison of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum...Asgharpour, C. T. Ng, D. P. Calfee, R. L. Guerrant, V. Maro, S. Ole-Nguyaine, and J. F. Shao. 2005. Short report: asymptomatic Cryptosporidium hominis ...JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intestinal immune response to human Cryptosporidium sp. infection 5a

  6. [Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the acetonemia syndrome in children with severe acute intestinal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zriachkin, N I; Chudakova, T K; Buchkova, T N

    2012-12-01

    A total of 55 children suffering from acute intestinal infection severe in age from 3 months to 7 years; of these, 37 patients with atsetonemicheskim syndrome (AS). Found that the development AS in children with acute intestinal infections severe, aggravate the disease. In children with acute intestinal infection with the syndrome, the duration of atsetonemicheskim main symptoms of intoxication in the 1,2-1,5 times longer than those of children suffering from acute intestinal infection without atsetonemicheskogo syndrome.

  7. Ocular oxyspirurosis of primates in zoos: intermediate host, worm morphology, and probable origin of the infection in the Moscow zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, only two cases of ocular oxyspirurosis were recorded in primates, both in zoos, and two species were described: in Berlin, Germany, Oxyspirura (O. conjunctivalis from the lemurid Microcebus murinus, later also found in the lorisid Loris gracilis; in Jacksonville, Florida, O. (O. youngi from the cercopithecid monkey Erythrocebus patas. In the present case from the Moscow zoo, oxyspirurosis was recorded in several species of Old World lemuriforms and lorisiforms, and some South American monkeys. i The intermediate host was discovered to be a cockroach, as for O. (O. mansoni, a parasite of poultry. The complete sequence identity between ITS-1 rDNA from adult nematodes of the primate and that of the larval worms from the vector, Nauphoete cinerea, confirmed their conspecificity. ii Parasites from Moscow zoo recovered from Nycticebus c. coucang were compared morphologically to those from other zoos. The length and shape of the gubernaculum, used previously as a distinct character, were found to be variable. However, the vulvar bosses arrangement, the distal extremity of left spicule and the position of papillae of the first postcloacal pair showed that the worms in the different samples were not exactly identical and that each set seemed characteristic of a particular zoo. iii The presence of longitudinal cuticular crests in the infective stage as well as in adult worms was recorded. Together with several other morphological and biological characters (long tail and oesophagus, cockroach vector, this confirmed that Oxyspirura is not closely related to Thelazia, another ocular parasite genus. iv The disease in the Moscow zoo is thought to have started with Nycticebus pygmaeus imported fromVietnam, thus the suggestion was that Asiatic lorisids were at the origin of the Moscow set of cases. The natural host(s for the Berlin and Jacksonville cases remain unknown but they are unlikely to be the species found infected in zoos

  8. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyun Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  10. Dot-blot immunoassay of Fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kDa and adult worm regurge antigens in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hanan H; Saad, Ghada A; Sarhan, Rania M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-Kilodalton (KDa) antigen versus Fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a DOT-Blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in Egyptian patients. Fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(KDa) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution SDS-PAGE. A Dot-Blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with F. gigantica in Egypt. Control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers to assess the test and compare between the antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Dot-Blot using the adult worm regurge were 80%, 90%, 94.1%, and 69.2% respectively, while those using 27-KDa were 100% which confirms the diagnostic potential of this antigen. All patients infected with Fasciola were positive, with cross reactivity reported with Schistosoma mansoni serum samples. This 27-KDa Dot-Blot assay showed to be a promising test which can be used for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis in Egyptian patients especially, those presenting with hepatic disease. It is specific, sensitive and easy to perform method for the rapid diagnosis particularly when more complex laboratory tests are unavailable.

  11. Antigens of worms and eggs showed a differentiated detection of specific IgG according to the time of Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The correlation between the immunological assay and the antibody titer can offer a tool for the experimental analysis of different phases of the disease. METHODS: Two simple immunological assays for Schistosoma mansoni in mice sera samples based on specific IgG detection for worms soluble antigens and eggs soluble antigens were standardized and evaluated in our laboratory. Fifty mice were used in negative and positive groups and the results obtained by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA assays were compared with the number of worms counted and the IgG titers at different times of infection. RESULTS: Data showed that ELISA using adult worm antigens (ELISA-SWAP presented a satisfactory correlation between the absorbance value of IgG titers and the individual number of worms counted after perfusion technique (R²=0.62. In addition, ELISA-SWAP differentially detected positive samples with 30 and 60 days post infection (p=0.011 and 0.003, respectively, whereas ELISA using egg antigens (ELISA-SEA detected samples after 140 days (p=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the use of different antigens in immunological methods can be used as potential tools for the analysis of the chronological evolution of S. mansoni infection in murine schistosomiasis. Correlations with human schistosomiasis are discussed.

  12. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  13. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  14. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Computed tomography for diagnosis of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Schonlau, R.; Moedder, U.

    1994-01-01

    To check the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the intestine, CT findings in ten patients with coloscopically proven CMV infection were reviewed. All patients were chronically ill men with AIDS. In nine of the ten cases CT scans of the small intestine and/or colon disclosed abnormalities. The predominant alteration (9/9) was a symmetric wall thickening in the bowel segments involved (10-30 mm). The location and extent showed good agreement with the inflammatory areas seen on coloscopy. The cecum and terminal ileum were the regions most frequently affected. In seven of the nine patients with CT abnormalities CT revealed pericolonic inflammation, particularly around the cecum. Lymph nodes were increased but not enlarged. Comparison of the findings in intestinal CMV infection with those in other AIDS-related diseases suggests that CT may be to limit the differential diagnosis. Abdominal CT serves as suitable primary imaging modality for the initial evaluation of patients with AIDS and abdominal symptoms of unknow etiology. (orig.)

  16. Intestinal antimicrobial peptides during homeostasis, infection and disease

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    Luciana R Muniz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, including defensins and cathelicidins, constitute an arsenal of innate regulators of paramount importance in the gut. The intestinal epithelium is exposed to myriad of enteric pathogens and these endogenous peptides are essential to fend off microbes and protect against infections. It is becoming increasingly evident that AMPs shape the composition of the commensal microbiota and help maintain intestinal homeostasis. They contribute to innate immunity, hence playing important functions in health and disease. AMP expression is tightly controlled by the engagement of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs and their impairment is linked to abnormal host responses to infection and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In this review, we provide an overview of the mucosal immune barriers and the intricate crosstalk between the host and the microbiota during homeostasis. We focus on the AMPs and pay particular attention to how PRRs promote their secretion in the intestine. Furthermore, we discuss their production and main functions in three different scenarios, at steady state, throughout infection with enteric pathogens and IBD.

  17. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections and swamp development in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbakima, Aiah A.

    1994-11-01

    The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.

  19. The distribution of SNP marker effects for faecal worm egg count in sheep, and the feasibility of using these markers to predict genetic merit for resistance to worm infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Kathryn E; Emery, David L; Bishop, Stephen C; Oddy, Hutton; Hayes, Benjamin J; Dominik, Sonja; Henshall, John M; Goddard, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    SummaryGenetic resistance to gastrointestinal worms is a complex trait of great importance in both livestock and humans. In order to gain insights into the genetic architecture of this trait, a mixed breed population of sheep was artificially infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis (n=3326) and then Haemonchus contortus (n=2669) to measure faecal worm egg count (WEC). The population was genotyped with the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip and 48 640 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers passed the quality controls. An independent population of 316 sires of mixed breeds with accurate estimated breeding values for WEC were genotyped for the same SNP to assess the results obtained from the first population. We used principal components from the genomic relationship matrix among genotyped individuals to account for population stratification, and a novel approach to directly account for the sampling error associated with each SNP marker regression. The largest marker effects were estimated to explain an average of 0·48% (T. colubriformis) or 0·08% (H. contortus) of the phenotypic variance in WEC. These effects are small but consistent with results from other complex traits. We also demonstrated that methods which use all markers simultaneously can successfully predict genetic merit for resistance to worms, despite the small effects of individual markers. Correlations of genomic predictions with breeding values of the industry sires reached a maximum of 0·32. We estimate that effective across-breed predictions of genetic merit with multi-breed populations will require an average marker spacing of approximately 10 kbp.

  20. Poliovirus mutants excreted by a chronically infected hypogammaglobulinemic patient establish persistent infections in human intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Karine; Pelletier, Isabelle; Saulnier, Aure; Martin, Javier; Colbere-Garapin, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Immunodeficient patients whose gut is chronically infected by vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) may excrete large amounts of virus for years. To investigate how poliovirus (PV) establishes chronic infections in the gut, we tested whether it is possible to establish persistent VDPV infections in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Four type 3 VDPV mutants, representative of the viral evolution in the gut of a hypogammaglobulinemic patient over almost 2 years [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 3001], were used to infect both undifferentiated, dividing cells, and differentiated, polarized enterocytes. A VDPV mutant excreted 36 days postvaccination by the patient was lytic in both types of intestinal cell cultures, like the parental Sabin 3 (S3) strain. In contrast, three VDPVs excreted 136, 442, and 637 days postvaccination, established persistent infections both in undifferentiated cells and in enterocytes. Thus, viral determinants selected between day 36 and 136 conferred on VDPV mutants the capacity to infect intestinal cells persistently. The percentage of persistently VDPV-infected cultures was higher in enterocytes than in undifferentiated cells, implicating cellular determinants involved in the differentiation of enterocytes in persistent VDPV infections. The establishment of persistent infections in enterocytes was not due to poor replication of VDPVs in these cells, but was associated with reduced viral adsorption to the cell surface

  1. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  2. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

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    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  3. Nodular worm infection in wild chimpanzees in Western Uganda: a risk for human health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Krief

    Full Text Available This study focused on Oeosophagostomum sp., and more especially on O. bifurcum, as a parasite that can be lethal to humans and is widespread among humans and monkeys in endemic regions, but has not yet been documented in apes. Its epidemiology and the role played by non-human primates in its transmission are still poorly understood. O. stephanostomum was the only species diagnosed so far in chimpanzees. Until recently, O. bifurcum was assumed to have a high zoonotic potential, but recent findings tend to demonstrate that O. bifurcum of non-human primates and humans might be genetically distinct. As the closest relative to human beings, and a species living in spatial proximity to humans in the field site studied, Pan troglodytes is thus an interesting host to investigate. Recently, a role for chimpanzees in the emergence of HIV and malaria in humans has been documented. In the framework of our long-term health monitoring of wild chimpanzees from Kibale National Park in Western Uganda, we analysed 311 samples of faeces. Coproscopy revealed that high-ranking males are more infected than other individuals. These chimpanzees are also the more frequent crop-raiders. Results from PCR assays conducted on larvae and dried faeces also revealed that O. stephanostomum as well as O. bifurcum are infecting chimpanzees, both species co-existing in the same individuals. Because contacts between humans and great apes are increasing with ecotourism and forest fragmentation in areas of high population density, this paper emphasizes that the presence of potential zoonotic parasites should be viewed as a major concern for public health. Investigations of the parasite status of people living around the park or working inside as well as sympatric non-human primates should be planned, and further research might reveal this as a promising aspect of efforts to reinforce measures against crop-raiding.

  4. Intestinal Helminthes Infections and Re-Infections with Special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    small town of Waja, northern Ethiopia, stool samples were collected from primary school children in two rounds (in .... (mid September 2004), we re-visited the school and re-examined the same children that could be traced. ..... Evidence for the segregation of a major gene in human us-susceptibility/resistance to infection by.

  5. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38), in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50). This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM) site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM) site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and illustrate more complex

  6. Curiouser and Curiouser: The Macrocyclic Lactone, Abamectin, Is also a Potent Inhibitor of Pyrantel/Tribendimidine Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors of Gastro-Intestinal Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Abongwa

    Full Text Available Nematode parasites may be controlled with drugs, but their regular application has given rise to concerns about the development of resistance. Drug combinations may be more effective than single drugs and delay the onset of resistance. A combination of the nicotinic antagonist, derquantel, and the macrocyclic lactone, abamectin, has been found to have synergistic anthelmintic effects against gastro-intestinal nematode parasites. We have observed in previous contraction and electrophysiological experiments that derquantel is a potent selective antagonist of nematode parasite muscle nicotinic receptors; and that abamectin is an inhibitor of the same nicotinic receptors. To explore these inhibitory effects further, we expressed muscle nicotinic receptors of the nodular worm, Oesophagostomum dentatum (Ode-UNC-29:Ode-UNC-63:Ode-UNC-38, in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and tested effects of abamectin on pyrantel and acetylcholine responses. The receptors were antagonized by 0.03 μM abamectin in a non-competitive manner (reduced Rmax, no change in EC50. This antagonism increased when abamectin was increased to 0.1 μM. However, when we increased the concentration of abamectin further to 0.3 μM, 1 μM or 10 μM, we found that the antagonism decreased and was less than with 0.1 μM abamectin. The bi-phasic effects of abamectin suggest that abamectin acts at two allosteric sites: one high affinity negative allosteric (NAM site causing antagonism, and another lower affinity positive allosteric (PAM site causing a reduction in antagonism. We also tested the effects of 0.1 μM derquantel alone and in combination with 0.3 μM abamectin. We found that derquantel on these receptors, like abamectin, acted as a non-competitive antagonist, and that the combination of derquantel and abamectin produced greater inhibition. These observations confirm the antagonistic effects of abamectin on nematode nicotinic receptors in addition to GluCl effects, and

  7. Intestinal helminth infections amongst HIV-infected adults in Mthatha General Hospital, South Africa

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    Olukayode A. Adeleke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, studies on the prevalence of intestinal helminth co-infection amongst HIV-infected patients as well as possible interactions between these two infection sare limited.Aim: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal helminth infestation amongst adults living with HIV or AIDS at Mthatha General Hospital.Setting: Study participants were recruited at the outpatient department of Mthatha General Hospital, Mthatha, South Africa.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2013 amongst consecutive consenting HIV-positive adult patients. Socio-demographic and clinical information were obtained using data collection forms and structured interviews. Stool samples were collected to investigate the presence of helminths whilst blood samples were obtained for the measurement of CD4+ T-cell count and viral load.Results: Data were obtained on 231 participants, with a mean age of 34.9 years, a mean CD4 count of 348 cells/μL and a mean viral load of 4.8 log10 copies/mL. Intestinal helminth prevalence was 24.7%, with Ascaris Lumbricoides (42.1% the most prevalent identified species. Statistically significant association was found between CD4 count of less than 200 cells/ μLand helminth infection (p = 0.05. No statistically significant association was found between intestinal helminth infection and the mean CD4 count (p = 0.79 or the mean viral load (p = 0.98.Conclusion: A high prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was observed amongst the study population. Therefore, screening and treatment of helminths should be considered as part of the management of HIV and AIDS in primary health care.

  8. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria.

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    Ayodele Adedoja

    Full Text Available Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria.Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4-15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data.Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4% of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%. The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%, Hymenolepis species (9.8%, Schistosoma mansoni (2.9% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%. The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062. The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049 and hookworm (p = 0.034 infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10-15 years recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively. Children who were

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Infection strategies of intestinal parasite pathogens and host cell responses

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    Bruno Martorell Di Genova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading cause worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these tree pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways and cell death.

  11. Establishment of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in free-range chickens: a longitudinal on farm study.

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    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Daş, Gürbüz; Moors, Eva; Sohnrey, Birgit; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor establishment and development of gastro-intestinal helminth infections in chickens over two production years (PY) on a free-range farm in Lower Saxony, Germany. The data were collected between July 2010 and June 2011 (PY1) and July 2011 and January 2013 (PY2), respectively. During PY1, Lohmann Brown classic (LB classic, N = 450) was tested, while in PY2 two different genotypes (230 LB classic, 230 LB plus) were used. The hens were kept in two mobile stalls that were moved to a new position at regular intervals. In both PY1 and PY2, 20 individual faecal samples per stall were randomly collected at monthly intervals in order to calculate the number of internal parasite eggs per gram of faeces (EPG). At the end of the laying periods, approximately 10% (N = 42) or more than 50% (N = 265) of hens were subjected to post-mortem parasitological examinations in PY1 and PY2, respectively. No parasite eggs were found in the faecal samples during PY1, whereas almost all of the hens (97.6%) were infected with Heterakis gallinarum (36 worms/hen) at the end of the period. In PY2, nematode eggs in faeces were found from the third month onwards at a low level, increasing considerably towards the final three months. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes of brown hens neither for EPG (P = 0.456) or for overall prevalence (P = 0.177). Mortality rate ranged from 18.3 to 27.4% but did not differ significantly between genotypes or production years. Average worm burden was 207 worms/hen in PY2. The most prevalent species were H. gallinarum (98.5%) followed by Ascaridia galli (96.2%) and Capillaria spp. (86.1%). Furthermore, three Capillaria species, C. obsignata, C. bursata and C. caudinflata were differentiated. In conclusion chickens kept on free-range farms are exposed to high risks of nematode infections and have high mortality rates with no obvious link to parasite infections. Once the farm environment is contaminated

  12. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

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    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections in Okada rural community, Edo State, Nigeria: a four year retrospective study

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    Bankole H. Oladeinde

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is sparse in rural Nigeria. Against this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections within a four year period in the rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Fecal samples obtained from 1528 patients (consisting of 740 males and 788 females presenting with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis at the Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada were examined for presence of ova, cyst and trophozoites of parasites using standard methods. Patient’s age ranged from 6 months to 73 years. Study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections increased significantly (P=0.003 from 14.7% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2010. In the study period, gender did not affect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (P>0.05. Patients within <1-10 years had significantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent, while Schistosoma japonicum was the least prevalent. With respect to parasite, males were observed to have consistently higher prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed to significantly increase from 2007 to 2010. Age was a risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent in all years of study. Control and prevention measures are advocated.

  14. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Individuals Referred to the Medical Center Laboratories in Nahavand City, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

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    Ali Haghighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014.  The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level.  Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories.  Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

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    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  16. Activation of intestinal epithelial Stat3 orchestrates tissue defense during gastrointestinal infection.

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    Nadine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  17. Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

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    Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2004-12-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  19. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women

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    AO Egwunyenga

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.

  20. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

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    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  1. Etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler breeding center.

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    Ardasheliya, S N; Kalashnikova, V A; Dzhikidze, E K

    2011-10-01

    We studied etiologic structure of bacterial intestinal infections in monkeys of Adler nursery. A total of 533 monkeys with diarrhea syndrome and monkeys dead from intestinal infections, as well as clinically healthy monkeys and animals dead from other pathologies were examined by bacteriological and molecular-genetic methods. Pathogenic enterobacteria Shigella and Salmonella and microaerophile Campylobacter were found in 5 and 19%, respectively. A high percentage (49%) of intestinal diseases of unknown etiology was revealed in monkeys. The fact that the number of detected opportunistic enterobacteria did not differ in healthy and diseased monkeys suggests that they are not involved into the etiology of intestinal disease.

  2. Drosophila C virus systemic infection leads to intestinal obstruction.

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    Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Lamiable, Olivier; Lee, Kwang-Zin; Galiana, Delphine; Troxler, Laurent; Meignin, Carine; Hetru, Charles; Hoffmann, Jules A; Daeffler, Laurent; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which results from intestinal obstruction with the accumulation of peritrophic matrix at the entry of the midgut and the accumulation of the food ingested in the crop, a blind muscular food storage organ. The related virus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), which efficiently grows in Drosophila, does not trigger this pathology. We show that DCV, but not CrPV, infects the smooth muscles surrounding the crop, causing extensive cytopathology and strongly reducing the rate of contractions. We conclude that the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection results from the tropism of the virus for an important organ within the foregut of dipteran insects, the crop. DCV is one of the few identified natural viral pathogens affecting the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. As such, it is an important virus for the deciphering of host-virus interactions in insects. We characterize here the pathogenesis associated with DCV infection in flies and show that it results from the tropism of the

  3. Molecular characterization of some new E. coli strains theoretically responsible for both intestinal and extraintestinal infections

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    Ghaleb Adwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strains of E. coli are divided into 3 major groups; commensal strains, diarrheagenic (intestinal E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli are unlike diarrheagenic pathotypes, they have not ability to cause intestinal disease in human, but they have normal ability for long-term colonization in the gut. This study aimed to spotlight on that intestinal and extraintestinal infections are not restricted to intestinal pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, respectively. A total of 102 uropathogenic E. coli isolates were collected during 2012 and 2015. A multiplex PCR was used to detect phylogenetic groups, virulence factors for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and intestinal E. coli pathotypes genes. Results of this research showed that 12 (11.8% uropathogenic E. coli isolates had genes that are theoretically responsible for intestinal diseases, were 10 of these isolates belonged to phylogentic group D and 2 isolates to phylogentic group A. We conclude from these results, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli that theoretically can cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections simultaneously. The presence of these strains has a great impact on public health. More studies are necessary before definitive conclusions if these strains are a different clone that theoretically have ability to cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections and belonged to phylogenetic groups other than A and D. Products of diarrheagenic genes in UPEC strains need further studies to detect their effects in intestinal infections

  4. Outbreak of Intestinal Infection Due to Rhizopus microsporus▿

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    Cheng, Vincent C. C.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Ngan, Antonio H. Y.; To, Kelvin K. W.; Leung, S. Y.; Tsoi, H. W.; Yam, W. C.; Tai, Josepha W. M.; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Tse, Herman; Li, Iris W. S.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Leung, Anskar Y. H.; Lie, Albert K. W.; Liang, Raymond H. S.; Que, T. L.; Ho, P. L.; Yuen, K. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Sinopulmonary and rhinocerebral zygomycosis has been increasingly found in patients with hematological malignancies and bone marrow transplantation, but intestinal zygomycosis remains very rare in the literature. We investigated an outbreak of intestinal infection due to Rhizopus microsporus in 12 patients on treatment for hematological malignancies over a period of 6 months in a teaching hospital. The intake of allopurinol during hospitalization (P Rhizopus microsporus, which was confirmed by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA gene cluster (internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) sequencing. The mean viable fungal counts of allopurinol obtained from wards and pharmacy were 4.22 × 103 CFU/g of tablet (range, 3.07 × 103 to 5.48 × 103) and 3.24 × 103 CFU/g of tablet (range, 2.68 × 103 to 3.72 × 103), respectively, which were much higher than the mean count of 2 × 102 CFU/g of food. Phylogenetic analysis by ITS sequencing showed multiple clones from isolates of contaminated allopurinol tablets and ready-to-eat food, of which some were identical to patients' isolates, and with one isolate in the cornstarch used as an excipient for manufacture of this drug. We attempted to type the isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis, with limited evidence of clonal distribution. The primary source of the contaminating fungus was likely to be the cornstarch used in the manufacturing of allopurinol tablets or ready-to-eat food. Rhizopus microsporus is thermotolerant and can multiply even at 50°C. The long holding time of the intermediates during the manufacturing process of allopurinol amplified the fungal load. Microbiological monitoring of drugs manufactured for highly immunosuppressed patients should be considered. PMID:19641069

  5. Induction of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni infection by antigens purified from PIII, a fraction of adult worm, associated to the downregulation of granuloma formation

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    Gustavson Shauma

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define Schistosoma mansoni antigens able to function as modulator agents in BALB/c mice granulomatous hypersensitivity to parasite egg. The antigens P-24, P-35 and P-97 were purified by affinity chromatography from a fraction of S. mansoni adult worm antigenic preparation, denominated PIII, involved in the inhibition of granulomatous response to eggs. Immunization of mice with these antigens, in the presence of Corynebacterium parvum and Al(OH3 as adjuvant, induced a significant protection degree against challenge infection, as observed by the decrease on worm burden recovered from portal system. In vitro blastogenesis assays revealed that purified antigens were able to induce significant proliferation of spleen cells from S. mansoni-infected mice. This protection was correlated to significant decrease in granuloma size induced by PIII. From these results, we concluded that PIII preparation contains antigens capable of mediating protective anti-parasite immunity and down-regulating granulomatous hypersensitivity to S. mansoni eggs.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED IN THE CLINIC IN MOSCOW

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    O. B. Kovalev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study of the etiological structure and clinical features of acute intestinal infections of viral, bacterial and mixed etiology in children hospitalized in a specialized department of Children's Clinical Hospital №9 named G. N. Speransky, city of Moscow in 2008—2016. It was found that during 9 years of follow-up, the number of hospitalized patients with acute intestinal infections does not have an obvious tendency to decrease. More than half of hos-pitalized patients are children 1—7 years old. Among the reasons for acute intestinal infections of established etiology, viral agents (rotaviruses and noroviruses prevail. Among bacterial intestinal infections, the most urgent are salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and staphylococcal infection.  

  7. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

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    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  10. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  11. TLR2 signal influences the iNOS/NO responses and worm development in C57BL/6J mice infected with Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Li; Shen, Ji-Qing; Jiang, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Yun-Liang; Wan, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Yi-Chao

    2017-08-07

    Although the responses of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and associated cytokine after Clonorchis sinensis infection have been studied recently, their mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signals on iNOS/nitric oxide (NO) responses after C. sinensis infection. We also evaluated the correlations between iNOS responses and worm development, which are possibly regulated by TLR2 signal. TLR2 wild-type and mutant C57BL/6 J mice were infected with 60 C. sinensis metacercariae, and the samples were collected at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days post-infection (dpi). The total serum NO levels were detected using Griess reagent after nitrate was reduced to nitrite. Hepatic tissue samples from the infected mice were sliced and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) to observe worm development in the intrahepatic bile ducts. The iNOS mRNA transcripts in the splenocytes were examined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and iNOS expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. Developing C. sinensis juvenile worms were more abundant in the intrahepatic bile ducts of TLR2 mutant mice than those of TLR2 wild-type mice. However, no eggs were found in the faeces of both mice samples. The serum levels of total NO significantly increased in TLR2 mutant mice infected with C. sinensis at 30 (t (5)  = 2.595, P = 0.049), 60 (t (5)  = 7.838, P = 0.001) and 90 dpi (t (5)  = 3.032, P = 0.029). Meanwhile, no changes occurred in TLR2 wild-type mice compared with uninfected controls during the experiment. The iNOS expression in splenocytes showed unexpected higher background levels in TLR2 mutant mice than those in TLR2 wild-type mice. Furthermore, the iNOS mRNA transcripts in splenocytes were significantly increased in the TLR2 wild-type mice infected with C. sinensis at 30 (t (5)  = 5.139, P = 0.004), 60 (t (5)  = 6.138, P = 0.002) and 90 dpi (t (5)  = 6

  12. Vitamin D receptor regulates intestinal inflammatory response in mice infected with blood stage malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubaraki, Murad A; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Hafiz, Taghreed A; Khalil, Mona F; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Delic, Denis; Elshaikh, Kamal; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2018-04-01

    Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 10 6 P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. Mice were sacrificed on day 8 post-infection. The infected mice experienced a significant body weight loss and parasitaemia affecting about 46% of RBCs. Infection caused marked pathological changes in the intestinal tissue indicated by shortening of the intestine and villi. Moreover, the phagocytic activity of macrophages increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the infected villi compared to the non-infected ones. Infection by the parasite also induced marked upregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Vitamin D Receptor, interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma-mRNA. It can be implied from this that vitamin D receptor has a role in regulating malarial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  14. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  15. Effect of condensed tannins supplementation through leaf meal mixture on voluntary feed intake, immune response and worm burden in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, A K; Dutta, Narayan; Banerjee, P S; Goswami, T K; Sharma, K

    2016-03-01

    The study was carried out to assess the effect of condensed tannins (CT) supplementation through leaf meal mixture (LMM) on feed intake, humoral [Immunoglobulin G (IgG)], cell mediated immune response (CMI) and faecal egg counts in Haemonchus contortus infected sheep. Eighteen sheep were randomly divided into three groups (negative control-NC, infected control-C and Infected treatment-T) of six animals in each group in a completely randomized block design for a period of 90 days. Twelve H. contortus infected adult sheep were allocated into two equal groups C and T, supplemented with 0 and 1.5 % of CT, respectively. Six non-infected sheep of similar age and body weight of NC group were included in this study to compare their immune response with H. contortus C and CT supplemented T groups. Intake of dry matter and organic matter (g day(-1) and % live weight) was statistically similar (P response was higher in T group as compared to C group. The mean faecal egg counts was significantly (P immune response and decreased worm load in H. contortus infected sheep.

  16. Caracterização de cepas de Schistosoma mansoni por morfometria de vermes adultos provenientes de infecção unissexual Characterization of Schistosoma mansoni strains by morphometry of adult worms derived from single-sex infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Camundongos foram infectados com cercárias, de um único sexo, de cepas simpátricas do Schistosoma mansoni. Nos vermes adultos, foram encontradas diferenças significativas (pMice were infected with only one sex cercaria derived from sympatric strains of Schistosoma mansoni. Adult worms presented significative differences (p<0.05 regarding suckers, testicular lobes, ovary and thickness of the tegument. Data show that morphometric study of unisexual infection worms can be also used for characterization of Schistosoma mansoni strains.

  17. Development of Taenia asiatica cysticerci to infective stage and adult stage in Mongolian gerbils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S L; Ooi, H K; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M; Oku, Y

    2006-09-01

    The development of metacestodes and adult worms of Taenia asiatica in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were observed. Cysticerci were recovered from gerbils subcutaneously injected with hatched oncospheres. The recovery rate ranged from 0.1 to 3.2%. No cysticerci were recovered from the orally inoculated gerbils. The infectivity of the cysticerci recovered at 48 weeks post-infection was evaluated. Tapeworms were recovered on day 14 post-infection from the small intestine of 5 of 11 gerbils, with a recovery rate of 27% (6 worms recovered/22 worms inoculated). Three and four adult worms were recovered from two human volunteers who ingested five cysticerci after 4 months post-infection. In worms recovered from gerbils, segmentation and genital primordia in the posterior proglottids and hooklets in the residual rostellum were observed. The results indicate that gerbils can serve as an alternative intermediate host and that partial development of the adult worm stage occurs in gerbils.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harazi, Talal; Ghani, Mohamed Kamel Abd; Othman, Hidayatulfathi

    2013-12-01

    The current study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among the Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. The overall intestinal protozoan infection rate was 85% (261 out of 307). The highest prevalence rates were due to Entamoeba coli (24.4%), Giardia lamblia (21.8%), Blastocystis hominis (21.2%) and Entamoeba histolytica (15.0%). The prevalence of Iodamoeba butschlii was only 2.9%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with B. hominis and E. histolytica was 3.3%, B. hominis and G. lamblia was 2.9%, G. lamblia and E. histolytica was 2.0% and triple infections (B. hominis, G. lamblia and E. histolytica) was 1.0 %. The prevalence of the infection was high in all age groups (6-14 years old). Thus, we can conclude that intestinal protozoan infections are still representing a serious public health problem in aboriginal communities, especially among children.

  19. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents...... technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs....... The worm establishment ranged from 3 – 24% (mean 12%). Faecal egg excretion was measured in all eight infected dogs but no more than 2 eggs per g (epg) were found at any time. Infections lasted for at least two months as documented by the presence of adult flukes in three dogs necropsied on day 58 post...

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Moreover, there is little information on maternal awareness about intestinal parasitosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among under-five children, and assess maternal awareness about it in Shesha .... local language using open-ended questions by data the collectors selected from the study ...

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IPIs due to intestinal protozoa and helminths are re- sponsible for some of the most devastating and preva- lent diseases of humans, i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, collectively referred to as soil- transmitted helminths (STHs), and are the most common intestinal parasites4; while Giardia ...

  3. How common is intestinal parasitism in HIV-infected patients in Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, I; Johari, S; Sim, Benedict L H; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2011-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have greater susceptibility to infections by a myriad of microorganisms which can cause significant morbidity and mortality compared to immunocompetent individuals. Of these microbial infections, intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) however are receiving less attention than bacterial and viral infections, hence, the lack of information of parasitic infections in HIV individuals. Prevalence of IPIs among 346 HIV-infected individuals in Malaysia was determined in this study. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 37.9% (131 of 346) with protozoa infections (18.8%) being more common compared to helminth infections (7.5%). Observed protozoa include Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.8%), Cryptosporidium parvum (12.4%), Isospora belli (10.1%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.9%) and Giardia duodenalis (intestinalis) (3.2%) whilst helminthes which were detected comprised of Ascaris lumbricoides (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%) and hookworms (0.6%). Among those 131 infected, 50.4% had multiple infections and 48.9% had single parasitic infection. The CD4 counts were significantly lower (i.e., 200 cells/mm³) in patients harbouring IPIs. Of those individuals infected with intestinal parasites, 49% were intravenous drug users and 58% were not on any antiretroviral therapy. Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections (OIs) mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These results confirmed that IPIs are ubiquitous among HIV-infected individuals, especially those presenting with low CD4 T cells counts, and provide useful insights into the epidemiology of these infections among HIV-infected patients in Malaysia. It is therefore recommended, that diagnosis of these intestinal parasitic pathogens should be conducted on a routine basis for better management of gastrointestinal illnesses among HIV individuals.

  4. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-03-20

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans.

  5. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans. PMID:25791315

  6. The WORM site: worm.csirc.net

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    2000-01-01

    The Write One, Run Many (WORM) site (worm.csirc.net) is the on-line home of the WORM language and is hosted by the Criticality Safety Information Resource Center (CSIRC) (www.csirc.net). The purpose of this web site is to create an on-line community for WORM users to gather, share, and archive WORM-related information. WORM is an embedded, functional, programming language designed to facilitate the creation of input decks for computer codes that take standard ASCII text files as input. A functional programming language is one that emphasizes the evaluation of expressions, rather than execution of commands. The simplest and perhaps most common example of a functional language is a spreadsheet such as Microsoft Excel. The spreadsheet user specifies expressions to be evaluated, while the spreadsheet itself determines the commands to execute, as well as the order of execution/evaluation. WORM functions in a similar fashion and, as a result, is very simple to use and easy to learn. WORM improves the efficiency of today's criticality safety analyst by allowing: (1) input decks for parameter studies to be created quickly and easily; (2) calculations and variables to be embedded into any input deck, thus allowing for meaningful parameter specifications; (3) problems to be specified using any combination of units; and (4) complex mathematically defined models to be created. WORM is completely written in Perl. Running on all variants of UNIX, Windows, MS-DOS, MacOS, and many other operating systems, Perl is one of the most portable programming languages available. As such, WORM works on practically any computer platform

  7. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Divina Barda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania. Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear, whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  8. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Ephantus W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.

  9. Respiratory influenza virus infection induces intestinal immune injury via microbiota-mediated Th17 cell–dependent inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Fengqi; Wei, Haiming; Lian, Zhe-Xiong; Sun, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Influenza in humans is often accompanied by gastroenteritis-like symptoms such as diarrhea, but the underlying mechanism is not yet understood. We explored the occurrence of gastroenteritis-like symptoms using a mouse model of respiratory influenza infection. We found that respiratory influenza infection caused intestinal injury when lung injury occurred, which was not due to direct intestinal viral infection. Influenza infection altered the intestinal microbiota composition, which was mediated by IFN-γ produced by lung-derived CCR9+CD4+ T cells recruited into the small intestine. Th17 cells markedly increased in the small intestine after PR8 infection, and neutralizing IL-17A reduced intestinal injury. Moreover, antibiotic depletion of intestinal microbiota reduced IL-17A production and attenuated influenza-caused intestinal injury. Further study showed that the alteration of intestinal microbiota significantly stimulated IL-15 production from intestinal epithelial cells, which subsequently promoted Th17 cell polarization in the small intestine in situ. Thus, our findings provide new insights into an undescribed mechanism by which respiratory influenza infection causes intestinal disease. PMID:25366965

  10. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  11. The Father Christmas worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Sisson, Patricia L.

    1989-01-01

    Given here is an overview analysis of the Father Christmas Worm, a computer worm that was released onto the DECnet Internet three days before Christmas 1988. The purpose behind the worm was to send an electronic mail message to all users on the computer system running the worm. The message was a Christmas greeting and was signed 'Father Christmas'. From the investigation, it was determined that the worm was released from a computer (node number 20597::) at a university in Switzerland. The worm was designed to travel quickly. Estimates are that it was copied to over 6,000 computer nodes. However, it was believed to have executed on only a fraction of those computers. Within ten minutes after it was released, the worm was detected at the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN), NASA's largest space and Earth science network. Once the source program was captured, a procedural cure, using the existing functionality of the computer operating systems, was quickly devised and distributed. A combination of existing computer security measures, the quick and accurate procedures devised to stop copies of the worm from executing, and the network itself, were used to rapidly provide the cure. These were the main reasons why the worm executed on such a small percentage of nodes. This overview of the analysis of the events concerning the worm is based on an investigation made by the SPAN Security Team and provides some insight into future security measures that will be taken to handle computer worms and viruses that may hit similar networks.

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryani, Ahmad; Hosseini-Teshnizi, Saeed; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mizani, Azadeh; Gholami, Sara; Sharif, Mehdi

    2017-05-01

    Parasitic infections are a serious public health problem because they cause anemia, growth retardation, aggression, weight loss, and other physical and mental health problems, especially in children. Numerous studies have been performed on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children. However, no study has gathered and analyzed this information systematically. The aim of this study was to provide summary estimates for the available data on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian children. We searched 9 English and Persian databases, unpublished data, abstracts of scientific congresses during 1996-2015 using the terms intestinal parasite, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Enterobiusvermicularis, oxyure, school, children, preschool, and Iran. We conducted meta-analysis using STATA, and for all statistical tests, p-value less than 0.05was considered significant. Among the 68,532 publications searched as a result, 103 were eligible for inclusion in the study. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 38% (95% CI- 33%, 43%). Prevalence of protozoa, helminthic intestinal infections, and non-pathogenic parasites was 16.9%, 9.48%, and 18.5%, respectively, which affected 14.27% males and 15.3% females. The rate of infection in preschool and school children was 38.19% and 43.37% respectively. Giardia, Enterobiusvermicularis and Entamoeba coli were the most common among protozoa, helminthic, and non-pathogenic infections (15.1%, 16.5%, and 7.1%, respectively). The data analyses indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is decreasing in Iranian preschool and school children. Improvement of sanitation, personal hygiene, increased awareness of people, seasonal variations, and health education can be effective in reducing parasitic infections in different communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  14. DISTURBANCE OF METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND LOCAL IMMUNITY OF ROTAVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the research on metabolic activity of intestinal microflora and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA content in coprofiltrate of rotavirus infection patients depending on disease course. It is established that a long-lasting clinical oppression of metabolic processes of microbiocenosis and local immunity deficiency define a rough course of rotavirus infection

  15. DISTURBANCE OF METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND LOCAL IMMUNITY OF ROTAVIRUS INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    G. P. Martynova; N. V. Kogan; I. A. Solovyeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the research on metabolic activity of intestinal microflora and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) content in coprofiltrate of rotavirus infection patients depending on disease course. It is established that a long-lasting clinical oppression of metabolic processes of microbiocenosis and local immunity deficiency define a rough course of rotavirus infection

  16. Opportunistic intestinal parasites and CD4 count in HIV infected people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Amatya

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic intestinal infections cause a significant morbidity and mortality among the HIV infected people. The present study was undertaken to find the prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections among the HIV infected populace in eastern Nepal and to correlate the occurrence with the CD4 T cell counts. Materials and Methods: Stool from 122 HIV infected people were examined microscopically for the presence of parasitic ova/cyst. CD4 T cell enumeration was done using FACS Count (Becton Dickinson. Stool from 100 age matched HIV negative controls were also examined. Results: A male preponderance in the parasite positivity was seen. Twenty five of symptomatic and 2.8% of asymptomatic harboured one or more intestinal parasites.12.3% of the study population had intestinal parasitoses with 7.3% being infected with opportunistic parasites. The mean CD4 count of the subjects was 307 while those with parasitoses were 204. A statistically significant difference was seen between the CD4 counts of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion: Coccidian parasites are frequent opportunistic intestinal parasites infecting HIV infected patients. A lowered CD4 count predisposes to acquisition of these agents. Regular monitoring of CD4 counts and screening for these opportunistic agents in the HIV infected will help reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with infections by these agents. Keywords: HIV; Opportunistic infection; CD4 count; AIDS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v1i2.5405 JPN 2011; 1(2: 118-121

  17. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  18. Status of intestinal parasites infection among primary school children in Kampongcham, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Bae, Yong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Hun-Joo; Im, Kyung-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2002-09-01

    A survey was made to find the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Kampongcham, Cambodia in February 2002. A total of 251 fecal specimens were collected from Tonlebat primary school children and examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 54.2% (males, 57.3%; females, 50.8%). The infection rate of intestinal helminths by the species were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 26.3%, Echinostoma sp. 15.6%, hookworm 6.4%, Opisthorchis sp. 4.0%, Rhabditis sp. 2.4%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.4%. The infection rate of intestinal protozoa were as follows: E. coli 7.6%, G. lamblia 3.2%, I. butschlii 3.2%, and E. histolytica 0.8%. More than two different kinds of parasites were found in 16.7% of the stool samples. All the children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel and metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in this area.

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V

    2009-08-01

    Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will

  20. Intestinal Innate Antiviral Immunity and Immunobiotics: Beneficial Effects against Rotavirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Villena, Julio; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria Guadalupe; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs), which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both bene...

  1. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+)/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Mirjalali; Mehdi Mohebali; Hossein Mirhendi; Rashid Gholami; Hossein Keshavarz; Ahmad Reza Meamar; Mostafa Rezaeian

    2014-01-01

    Background Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods. Methods Stool samples were collected from HIV+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with...

  2. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-value0.05).

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huat, Lim Boon; Mitra, Amal K; Jamil, Noor Izani Noor; Dam, Pim Chau; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Out of 79 samples, 29 (37%) were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less) (P=0.015), eating raw salad (P=0.03), and no physical activities (P=0.03) were found independent risk factors for the child's helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019). In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02) and eating raw salad (P=0.04) remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother's poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  4. Paracalc® - a novel tool to evaluate the economic importance of worm infections on the dairy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, C.; Voort, van der J.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Vercruysse, J.

    2012-01-01

    linical infections with gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke are important causes of production losses in grazing cattle. Although there is an extensive compilation of literature describing the effect of these infections on animal performance, only a few attempts have been made to convert

  5. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  6. Distributed Software-Attestation Defense against Sensor Worm Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to sensor worm attacks in which the attacker compromises a few nodes and makes these compromised nodes initiate worm spread over the network, targeting the worm infection of the whole nodes in the network. Several defense mechanisms have been proposed to prevent worm propagation in wireless sensor networks. Although these proposed schemes use software diversity technique for worm propagation prevention under the belief that different software versions do not have common vulnerability, they have fundamental drawback in which it is difficult to realize the aforementioned belief in sensor motes. To resolve this problem, we propose on-demand software-attestation based scheme to defend against worm propagation in sensor network. The main idea of our proposed scheme is to perform software attestations against sensor nodes in on-demand manner and detect the infected nodes by worm, resulting in worm propagation block in the network. Through analysis, we show that our proposed scheme defends against worm propagation in efficient and robust manner. Through simulation, we demonstrate that our proposed scheme stops worm propagation at the reasonable overhead while preventing a majority of sensor nodes from being infected by worm.

  7. Intestinal innate antiviral immunity and immunobiotics: beneficial effects against rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs, which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RVs infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs like Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and striking secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RVs diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics to protect against intestinal infections such as those caused by RVs, are among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on RVs infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RVs infections.

  8. Intestinal Innate Antiviral Immunity and Immunobiotics: Beneficial Effects against Rotavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Julio; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria Guadalupe; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RV), which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now, it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RV infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and striking secretion of proinflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RV diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics) to protect against intestinal infections, such as those caused by RVs, is among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics and their beneficial impact on RV infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RV infections.

  9. Comparative study of intestinal parasitic infections in asymptomatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using structured questionnaire and laboratory diagnostic techniques, blood samples and stool specimens of 371 patients attending selected hospitals and medical laboratories in Jimeta, a suburb of Yola, Nigeria, were screened for HIV antibodies and intestinal parasites. HIV tests were conducted on blood sera using ...

  10. Clinical consequences of PCR based diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsman, Lucas H; Monkelbaan, Jan F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344499383; Kusters, Johannes G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074307428

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based diagnostics of intestinal protozoa have led to higher sensitivity and (subtype) specificity, more convenient sampling and the possibility for high-throughput screening. An increasing number of clinical laboratories use PCR for routine

  11. The prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Breivika, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences,. Alemaya .... quantity, time, and procedure of collection. ... J.Health Dev. 2005;19(2). Table 1: Prevalence of intestinal helminths among Babile town schoolchildren, Eastern. Ethiopia, 2001. Parasite species. Males.

  12. Humoral intestinal immunity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Microsporidia) infection in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sak, Bohumil; Ditrich, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, 1/2 (2005), s. 158-162 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : microsporidiosis * intestinal immunity * Encephalitozoon cuniculi Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  13. Low prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal helminthiasis are endemic in Côte d'Ivoire and represent a real health problem because of health burden particularly in children. In order to eliminate the disease as a public health problem the Ministry of Health and Public Hygiene has been implementing mass drug administration in primary schools since 2012.

  14. Prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasite infections in HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We wanted to establish the relationship of the immunologic status and the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled for antiretroviral therapy at the Vom Christian health centre. Materials & Methods: With their consent, stool samples of 205 subjects were collected and examined parasitologically by ...

  15. Community assembly of the worm gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    It has become increasingly clear that human health is strongly influenced by the bacteria that live within the gut, known collectively as the gut microbiome. This complex community varies tremendously between individuals, but understanding the sources that lead to this heterogeneity is challenging. To address this challenge, we are using a bottom-up approach to develop a predictive understanding of how the microbiome assembles and functions within a simple and experimentally tractable gut, the gut of the worm C. elegans. We have found that stochastic community assembly in the C. elegansintestine is sufficient to produce strong inter-worm heterogeneity in community composition. When worms are fed with two neutrally-competing fluorescently labeled bacterial strains, we observe stochastically-driven bimodality in community composition, where approximately half of the worms are dominated by each bacterial strain. A simple model incorporating stochastic colonization suggests that heterogeneity between worms is driven by the low rate at which bacteria successfully establish new intestinal colonies. We can increase this rate experimentally by feeding worms at high bacterial density; in these conditions the bimodality disappears. We have also characterized all pairwise interspecies competitions among a set of eleven bacterial species, illuminating the rules governing interspecies community assembly. These results demonstrate the potential importance of stochastic processes in bacterial community formation and suggest a role for C. elegans as a model system for ecology of host-associated communities.

  16. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection stimulates Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanenko, Valeriy; Malyukova, Irina; Hubbard, Ann; Delannoy, Michael; Boedeker, Edgar; Zhu, Chengru; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

    2011-11-01

    Gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxins producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli causes the spectrum of gastrointestinal and systemic complications, including hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is fatal in ∼10% of patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of Stx endocytosis by enterocytes and the toxins cross the intestinal epithelium are largely uncharacterized. We have studied Shiga toxin 1 entry into enterohemorrhagic E. coli-infected intestinal epithelial cells and found that bacteria stimulate Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis through actin remodeling. This enterohemorrhagic E. coli-caused macropinocytosis occurs through a nonmuscle myosin II and cell division control 42 (Cdc42)-dependent mechanism. Macropinocytosis of Shiga toxin 1 is followed by its transcytosis to the basolateral environment, a step that is necessary for its systemic spread. Inhibition of Shiga toxin 1 macropinocytosis significantly decreases toxin uptake by intestinal epithelial cells and in this way provides an attractive, antibiotic-independent strategy for prevention of the harmful consequences of enterohemorrhagic E. coli infection.

  17. Perturbation of the intestinal microbiota of mice infected with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Refaat; Huynh, Kevin; Desoky, Enas; Badawy, Ahmed; Widmer, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the interaction between the intestinal microbiota (microbiome) and enteric pathogens is of interest in the development of alternative treatments that do not rely on chemotherapy and do not lead to drug resistance. We undertook research in a rodent model of cryptosporidiosis to assess whether the bacterial gut microbiota is impacted by infection with the protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. The profile of the faecal bacterial microbiota in infected and uninfected animals was compared using 16S amplicon sequencing. In four independent experiments, the intestinal microbiota of infected mice differed from that of uninfected animals, regardless of the C. parvum isolate used to infect mice. The use of replicated treatment groups demonstrated that microbiota divergence between treatments was driven by the infection and did not result from spontaneous changes in the intestinal ecosystem unrelated to the infection. Microbiota perturbation induced by C. parvum appeared to be reversible, as we observed a tendency for the phylogenetic distance between infected and uninfected mice to diminish after mice cleared the infection. As mice infected with C. parvum do not develop diarrhoea, these observations indicate that microbiota perturbation results from other mechanisms than an accelerated movement of gut content. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria R Ghai

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans. However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum.We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively, and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis, and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species. Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates.Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of this neglected STH among primates, including zoonotic

  19. Microarray analysis of the intestinal host response in Giardia duodenalis assemblage E infected calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Leentje; Rinaldi, Manuela; Chiers, Koen; Li, Robert; Geurden, Thomas; Van den Broeck, Wim; Goddeeris, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite Giardia duodenalis being one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals, little is known about the host-parasite interactions in its natural hosts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, using a bovine high-density oligo microarray to analyze global gene expression in the small intestine. The resulting microarray data suggested a decrease in inflammation, immune response, and immune cell migration in infected animals. These findings were examined in more detail by histological analyses combined with quantitative real-time PCR on a panel of cytokines. The transcription levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ showed a trend of being downregulated in the jejunum of infected animals compared to the negative controls. No immune cell recruitment could be seen after infection, and no intestinal pathologies, such as villus shortening or increased levels of apoptosis. Possible regulators of this intestinal response are the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα), and gamma (PPARγ) and the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA), all for which an upregulated expression was found in the microarray and qRT-PCR analyses.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchi ldren in Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisit Suntaravitun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schoolchildren in rural areas from Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2017 among 203 schoolchildren in four rural schools using purposive sampling. All stool samples were examined using simple direct smear method and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 14.8% (30/203. Seven intestinal parasite species (two helminths and five protozoa were identified in the stool samples. The most common intestinal protozoa in schoolchildren was Giardia intestinalis (n = 11, 5.4% followed by Blastocystis hominis (n = 9, 4.4%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (n = 5, 2.5%, Entamoeba coli (n = 2, 1.0% and Endolimax nana (n = 1, 0.5%. Hookworm (n = 1, 0.5% and Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1, 0.5% were the most frequent helminths. No significant statistical differences in the prevalence rates of infections were observed by gender, age and school location (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in rural areas of Thailand. Therefore, health education and environmental sanitation improvement are recommended as preventive control measures.

  1. Microarray analysis of the intestinal host response in Giardia duodenalis assemblage E infected calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leentje Dreesen

    Full Text Available Despite Giardia duodenalis being one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals, little is known about the host-parasite interactions in its natural hosts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, using a bovine high-density oligo microarray to analyze global gene expression in the small intestine. The resulting microarray data suggested a decrease in inflammation, immune response, and immune cell migration in infected animals. These findings were examined in more detail by histological analyses combined with quantitative real-time PCR on a panel of cytokines. The transcription levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ showed a trend of being downregulated in the jejunum of infected animals compared to the negative controls. No immune cell recruitment could be seen after infection, and no intestinal pathologies, such as villus shortening or increased levels of apoptosis. Possible regulators of this intestinal response are the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα, and gamma (PPARγ and the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, all for which an upregulated expression was found in the microarray and qRT-PCR analyses.

  2. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  3. Parasitic worms stimulate host NADPH oxidases to produce reactive oxygen species that limit plant cell death and promote infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Shahid; Matera, Christiane; Radakovic, Zoran S; Hasan, M Shamim; Gutbrod, Philipp; Rozanska, Elzbieta; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Torres, Miguel Angel; Grundler, Florian M W

    2014-04-08

    Plants and animals produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to infection. In plants, ROS not only activate defense responses and promote cell death to limit the spread of pathogens but also restrict the amount of cell death in response to pathogen recognition. Plants also use hormones, such as salicylic acid, to mediate immune responses to infection. However, there are long-lasting biotrophic plant-pathogen interactions, such as the interaction between parasitic nematodes and plant roots during which defense responses are suppressed and root cells are reorganized to specific nurse cell systems. In plants, ROS are primarily generated by plasma membrane-localized NADPH (reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidases, and loss of NADPH oxidase activity compromises immune responses and cell death. We found that infection of Arabidopsis thaliana by the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii activated the NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF to produce ROS, which was necessary to restrict infected plant cell death and promote nurse cell formation. RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants exhibited larger regions of cell death in response to nematode infection, and nurse cell formation was greatly reduced. Genetic disruption of SID2, which is required for salicylic acid accumulation and immune activation in nematode-infected plants, led to the increased size of nematodes in RbohD- and RbohF-deficient plants, but did not decrease plant cell death. Thus, by stimulating NADPH oxidase-generated ROS, parasitic nematodes fine-tune the pattern of plant cell death during the destructive root invasion and may antagonize salicylic acid-induced defense responses during biotrophic life stages.

  4. Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ding, Siyuan; Wang, Penghua; Wei, Zheng; Pan, Wen; Palm, Noah W; Yang, Yi; Yu, Hua; Li, Hua-Bing; Wang, Geng; Lei, Xuqiu; de Zoete, Marcel R; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Haiwei; Zhao, Yujiao; Jurado, Kellie A; Feng, Ningguo; Shan, Liang; Kluger, Yuval; Lu, Jun; Abraham, Clara; Fikrig, Erol; Greenberg, Harry B; Flavell, Richard A

    2017-06-29

    Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. Conditional depletion of Nlrp9b or other inflammasome components in the intestine in vivo resulted in enhanced susceptibility of mice to rotavirus replication. Our study highlights an important innate immune signalling pathway that functions in intestinal epithelial cells and may present useful targets in the modulation of host defences against viral pathogens.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  6. High prevalence of intestinal worms in children up to 5 years of age in Huaphan province, Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphavanh Nanthavong

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Such a high prevalence of helminth infection indicates that the national deworming campaign is not adequate in the remote areas, in particular in villages distant from health care centres. It is necessary to ensure the proper administration of anti-helminthics to all children and to adapt the implementation of deworming campaigns to the specificities of each province.

  7. Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

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    Davoud Balarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.

  9. Intestinal accumulation of /sup 111/In-granulocytes in patients studied because of occult infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syrjaelae, M.T.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Gripenberg, J.

    1987-06-01

    /sup 111/In-granulocyte scintigraphy was performed on 245 patients in whom a localized infection was suspected. In 123 patients scintigraphy was positive and of these 35 (28%) had intestinal accumulations of /sup 111/In-granulocytes. Specific local causes for the intestinal uptake of radioactivity were antibiotic associated colitis (eight patients), local pyogenic bowel infection (four patients), systemic disease (two patients), bowel necrosis (two patients), colonic cancer (one patient) and Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (one patient). Nonspecific mechanisms of bowel accumulation were desquamation of labelled granulocytes (12 patients) and bleeding (two patients). In three cases the mechanism of colonic accumulation of granulocytes was not revealed. These results show that unexpected accumulations of labelled granulocytes in the gut is not a rare phenomenon and is often due to clinically significant intestinal inflammation or other disease, especially in patients who do not have signs of respiratory, pancreatic or oesophageal inflammation causing desquamated granulocytes to accumulate in the gut.

  10. [Human infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths in Calbuco County, X Region, Chile, 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; Otto, J P; Musleh, M; Pérez, M

    1997-01-01

    By the performance of parasitological examination of one fecal sample per individual, a total of 256 persons from a rural county in the X Region (41 degrees 50 minutes South lat., 73 degrees 05 minutes West long.) were studied. The general rates of infection by intestinal parasite and/or commensal protozoa and helminths found were: Giardia intestinalis 14.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 11.7%, Blastocystis hominis 36.0%, Entamoeba coli 9.8%, Endolimax nana 16.4%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 1.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 13.7% and Trichuris trichiura 9.8%. The prevalence rates of intestinal infection led us to conclude that environmental conditions favorable for its transmission remain and show that intestinal parasitoses are still a public health problem in this region, affecting mostly children.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5B protein is highly efficacious as a single-dose therapy against an intestinal roundworm infection in mice.

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    Yan Hu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic nematode diseases are one of the great diseases of our time. Intestinal roundworm parasites, including hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, infect well over 1 billion people and cause significant morbidity, especially in children and pregnant women. To date, there is only one drug, albendazole, with adequate efficacy against these parasites to be used in mass drug administration, although tribendimidine may emerge as a second. Given the hundreds of millions of people to be treated, the threat of parasite resistance, and the inadequacy of current treatments, new anthelmintics are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crystal (Cry proteins are the most common used biologically produced insecticides in the world and are considered non-toxic to vertebrates.Here we study the ability of a nematicidal Cry protein, Cry5B, to effect a cure in mice of a chronic roundworm infection caused by the natural intestinal parasite, Heligmosomoides bakeri (formerly polygyrus. We show that Cry5B produced from either of two Bt strains can act as an anthelmintic in vivo when administered as a single dose, achieving a approximately 98% reduction in parasite egg production and approximately 70% reduction in worm burdens when delivered per os at approximately 700 nmoles/kg (90-100 mg/kg. Furthermore, our data, combined with the findings of others, suggest that the relative efficacy of Cry5B is either comparable or superior to current anthelmintics. We also demonstrate that Cry5B is likely to be degraded quite rapidly in the stomach, suggesting that the actual dose reaching the parasites is very small.This study indicates that Bt Cry proteins such as Cry5B have excellent anthelmintic properties in vivo and that proper formulation of the protein is likely to reveal a superior anthelmintic.

  12. State of Antiendotoxic Immunity Antiendotoxin and Metabolic Intoxication in Acute Intestinal Infections

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    T.N. Odinets

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparative analysis of antiendotoxic immunity parameters and free-radical oxidation in the blood of 34 patients with acute intestinal infections of rotavirus and rotavirus-bacterial etiology depending on the severity of the disease and its duration.

  13. Intestinal helminth infection in an ethnic minority commune in southern Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Hung, Q.; de Vries, Peter J.; Giao, Phan T.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2005-01-01

    A program to control intestinal helminth infections, based on stool surveys, mass treatment of children below 17 years, improvement of sanitation and health education was performed between 1997 and 1999 in Phan Tien, an ethnic minority community in mountainous southern Vietnam. Before intervention,

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected adult patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea. Objective: The objective of ...

  15. Can the composition of the intestinal microbiota predict the development of urinary tract infections?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Casper Dj; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Prins, Jan M.; Beerepoot, Marielle A. J.; Stobberingh, Ellen E.; Penders, John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether intestinal microbiota predicts the development of new-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) in postmenopausal women with prior recurrent UTIs (rUTIs). Fecal samples (n = 40) originated from women with rUTI who received 12 months' prophylaxis of either

  16. Usage of low-power laser irradiation in the complex treatment of acute intestinal infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvorostukhina, Alla I.; Shuldyakov, Andrey A.; Brill, Gregory E.; Zaytseva, Irina A.

    2002-07-01

    46 children with acute intestinal infections were studied. The development of pathological process was associated with the activation of lipid peroxidation, the decrease of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in erythrocytes as well as with the fall of vitamin E content in blood plasma. Vitamin E and IR laser irradiation use in complex treatment showed the best therapeutic effect.

  17. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  18. Associations of cocaine use and HIV infection with the intestinal microbiota, microbial translocation, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gretchen E; Ward, Honorine; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Dinh, Duy; Bhalchandra, Seema; Wanke, Christine; Kane, Anne V

    2014-03-01

    HIV and illicit drug use have been associated with altered nutrition, immune function, and metabolism. We hypothesized that altered composition and decreased diversity of the intestinal microbiota, along with microbial translocation, contribute to nutritional compromise in HIV-infected drug users. We enrolled 26 men and 6 women, 15 HIV infected and 17 HIV uninfected, in this exploratory, cross-sectional study; 7 HIV-infected and 7 HIV-uninfected participants had used cocaine within the previous month. We examined the independent effects of cocaine use and HIV infection on the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota, determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Using dietary records, anthropometrics, and dual x-ray absorptiometry, we examined the additional effects of nutritional indices on the intestinal microbiota. We compared markers of inflammation and microbial translocation between groups. Cocaine users had a higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes (M ± SD = 57.0% ± 21 vs. 37.1% ± 23, p = .02) than nonusers. HIV-infected individuals had a higher relative abundance of Proteobacteria (Mdn [interquartile range] = 1.56% [0.5, 2.2] vs. 0.36% [0.2, 0.7], p = .03), higher levels of soluble CD14 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and lower levels of anti-endotoxin core antibodies than uninfected subjects. HIV-infected cocaine users had higher interferon-γ levels than all other groups. Food insecurity was higher in HIV-infected cocaine users. We identified differences in the relative abundance of major phyla of the intestinal microbiota, as well as markers of inflammation and microbial translocation, based on cocaine use and HIV infection. Nutritional factors, including alcohol use and lean body mass, may contribute to these differences.

  19. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Molecular Control of Innate Immune Response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by Intestinal let-7 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoyong; Wang, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) let-7 is an important miRNA identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and has been shown to be involved in the control of innate immunity. The underlying molecular mechanisms for let-7 regulation of innate immunity remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for intestinal let-7 in the regulation of innate immunity. Infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 decreased let-7::GFP expression. Intestine- or neuron-specific activity of let-7 was required for its function in the regulation of innate immunity. During the control of innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection, SDZ-24 was identified as a direct target for intestinal let-7. SDZ-24 was found to be predominantly expressed in the intestine, and P. aeruginosa PA14 infection increased SDZ-24::GFP expression. Intestinal let-7 regulated innate immune response to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection by suppressing both the expression and the function of SDZ-24. Knockout or RNA interference knockdown of sdz-24 dampened the resistance of let-7 mutant to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Intestinal overexpression of sdz-24 lacking 3’-UTR inhibited the susceptibility of nematodes overexpressing intestinal let-7 to P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. In contrast, we could observed the effects of intestinal let-7 on innate immunity in P. aeruginosa PA14 infected transgenic strain overexpressing sdz-24 containing 3’-UTR. In the intestine, certain SDZ-24-mediated signaling cascades were formed for nematodes against the P. aeruginosa PA14 infection. Our results highlight the crucial role of intestinal miRNAs in the regulation of the innate immune response to pathogenic infection. PMID:28095464

  1. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  2. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

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    Begna TULU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems

  4. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Persons in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Tchameni, Sandrine Mboula; Nkenfou, Carine Nguefeu; Djataou, Patrice; Simo, Ulrich Florian; Nkoum, Alexandre Benjamin; Estrin, William

    2017-09-01

    The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively. Of 235 participants, 68 (28.9%) were HIV positive, 38 of them on antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 32.3%. Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients. Univariate analysis showed no difference between the prevalence of intestinal parasites among PLHIV and HIV-negative patients ( P = 0.69). ART was not associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Multivariate analysis showed that the quality of water and the personal hygiene were the major risk factors associated to intestinal parasitosis. The level of education was associated with HIV serostatus: the higher the level of education, the lower the risk of being infected with HIV ( P = 0.00). PLHIV and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasitic co-infections in HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis; Omoregie, Richard

    2012-05-14

    Human co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum and helminthes is ubiquitous throughout Africa. This study aimed to determine the co-infections of Plasmodium falciparum infection in HIV and intestinal parasitic infections, and their immunological distribution, in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 2,000 stool specimens from HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals) were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites using standard procedures. In addition, patients' blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry and examined for Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy. The prevalence of single parasitic infection among HIV patients was 18.1% in males and 16.9% among females with no significant difference (p = 0.536) while gender was a risk factor in multiple parasitic infections (male versus female: 4.2% and 1.8% OR = 2.384; 95% CI = 1.371, 4.147) (p = 0.0025). Increasing age was not associated with increased risk of both single and multiple parasitic infections (p = 0.083; p = 0.248). CD4 + T cell count less than 200 cells/µl was a risk factor for acquiring single and multiple parasitic infections among HIV patients (OR = 5.565; 95% CI = 4.136, 7.486; p = 0.0001; OR = 4.283; 95% CI = 2.424, 7.566; p = 0.0001). The most common co-infection observed was between Plasmodium falciparum and Ascaris lumbricoides 43% (10) among HIV patients. This study provides evidence of co-infections between Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasites. Diagnosis of parasitic infections among HIV patients is advocated as this will enhance better management of HIV-infected patients.

  6. The Role of Sphingolipids on Innate Immunity to Intestinal Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Chen

    2017-08-07

    Salmonella spp. remains a major public health problem for the whole world. To reduce the use of antimicrobial agents and drug-resistant Salmonella , a better strategy is to explore alternative therapy rather than to discover another antibiotic. Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains attract signaling proteins and orchestrate them toward cell signaling and membrane trafficking pathways. Recent studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity against infecting pathogens. It is therefore mandatory to exploit the role of the membrane sphingolipids in the innate immunity of intestinal epithelia infected by this pathogen. In the present review, we focus on the role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity of intestinal epithelia against Salmonella infection, including adhesion, autophagy, bactericidal effect, barrier function, membrane trafficking, cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression. The intervention of sphingolipid-enhanced foods to make our life healthy or pharmacological agents regulating sphingolipids is provided at the end.

  7. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  9. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  10. Emerging extra-intestinal infections with Aeromonas hydrophila in coastal region of southern Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods usually isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. They have been occasionally reported as a cause of extra-intestinal infections such as cellulitis, cholangitis, necrotizing fascitis, meningitis, bacteremia, or peritonitis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients . Aim: To determine the role and possible pathogenesis of Aeromonas in extra-intestinal infections.Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis carried out at Kasturba Hospital Manipal, Karnataka in the months of January and February 2007. Materials and Methods: Clinical manifestations and management of eight cases of extra-intestinal infections caused by A. hydrophila , from the south Karnataka coastal region were reviewed. The isolates were identified with the help of biochemical tests using standard guidelines.Results: All patients acquired Aeromonas infections in the community. Five (62.5% had underlying illnesses, such as liver disease, diabetes mellitus or malignancy. Five (62.5% had polymicrobial infections, and three (37.5% were complicated with bacteremia. These included three patients with ulcers or abscess over the lower leg, two with cellulitis due to snake bite and one each with pelvic inflammatory disease, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia. A. hydrophila was found to be a causative agent of pelvic inflammatory disease or cellulitis following sea snake bite, and such a clinical scenario has not been previously described. Seven patients survived the illness. Conclusions: Isolation of A. hydrophila from extra-intestinal specimens demands utmost clinical and microbiological vigilance in diagnosis, since the organism can cause serious infections among immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent individuals.

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Primary School Children in Bushehr, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barazesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.

  12. Status of intestinal parasites infection in schoolchildren at Yauri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Others encountered included Trichuris trichura (0.92%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.22%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), Schistosoma mansoni (1.22%), Fasciola gigantica (0.92%), Taenia saginata (0.31%), Entamoeba coli (1.53%), Balantidium coli (2.14%). Only two cases of mixed infections were observed. By this ...

  13. Implications of malaria and intestinal parasitic co-infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria and gastrointestinal parasitic infections in out-patients of Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri Specialist Hospital, was studied between the months of January and June 2004. A total of 1,200 patients made up of preschool children (400), school children (400) and adults (400) were enlisted for the ...

  14. Prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections in school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helminth species identified were Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia and Trichostrongylus. Ascaris lumbricoides was commonest species observed (40.9%), while Trichostrongylus species was least common (2.3%). Intensity of infection was light. Children aged 6 – 10 years ...

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dispar, and Entamoeba coli infections as determined by formol-ether concentration method were 0.69%, 13.2%, 0.35%, and 2.1%, respectively. Most mothers were reasonably aware of the mode of transmission of ascariasis, amoebiasis and ...

  16. Human Intestinal Parasite Infections In Ishiagu, A Lead Mining Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decreasing to the least in the > 51 years (27.02 %). This gave a significant age related infection (P < 0.05). The findings were discussed in relation to the rural nature of the community and the activities at the head mining stes. Keywords: Parasites, Heavy metal mining, Stool specimens. Animal Research International Vol.

  17. L-Glutamine and L-arginine protect against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection via intestinal innate immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Ren, Wenkai; Fang, Jun; Hu, Chien-An Andy; Guan, Guiping; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yin, Jie; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Chen, Shuai; Peng, Yuanyi; Yin, Yulong

    2017-12-01

    Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells. ETEC colonized in mouse small intestine, including duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and inhibited the mRNA expression of intestinal immune factors, such as polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), cryptdin-related sequence 1C (CRS1C), and Reg3γ. We found that dietary Gln or Arg supplementation decreased bacterial colonization and promoted the activation of innate immunity (e.g., the mRNA expression of pIgR, CRS1C, and Reg3γ) in the intestine of ETEC-infected mice. Our results suggest that dietary arginine or glutamine supplementation may inhibit intestinal ETEC infection through intestinal innate immunity.

  18. Particularly acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis. Case-control study

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    S. V. Khaliullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim — determine the clinical and laboratory features of acute intestinal infection in children, occurring in conjunction with atopic dermatitis (AD.Material and methods. We conducted a study of «case-control», which included observation of 144 children hospitalized in the infectious hospital with a clinic of acute infectious diarrhea in the period from January to December 2012. In the study group were selected 72 children with atopic dermatitis clinic and acute infectious diarrhea in a couple of which, from the group of patients without burdened premorbid background were selected 72 «controls» matched by sex, age and etiology developed acute intestinal infection. The observation time was 5±2 days, which corresponds to the average length of stay of the child, patients with moderate forms of acute intestinal infection in the hospital.Results and discussion. About 2 times more often than in the control, acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis lesions were characterized by clinic middle and lower gastrointestinal — 31.9% (CI 21,1–42,7 vs. 15.3% (CI 7–23 6, p=0.03. A number of bowel movements 6 or more times per day significantly more frequently observed in children with a combination of acute intestinal infections and atopic dermatitis — 54.1% (CI 42,6–65,6 vs. 33.3% (CI 22,4–43.9 in the control, p=0.011. The duration of diarrhea was higher in the study group (Med 6 IQR 4–7 days and Med 5 IQR 3–6 days, respectively, p=0.046. The proportion of patients with high fever was also higher in the study group than in the controls –15.3% (CI 7–23,6 vs. 2,8% (CI 1–6,6, p=0.016.Conclusion. Acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis have a more pronounced clinical symptoms, which is characterized by clinic enterocolitis, severity and duration of diarrhea syndrome, usually accompanied by a high fever. 

  19. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection alters intestinal immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangwu; Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Fen; Chen, Shuai; Tang, Wuliang; Zhang, Decai; Liu, Shaojun

    2016-07-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in humans and piglets. However, research regarding alterations of intestinal immunity following ETEC infection remains limited and the results controversial. The present study investigated the effects of ETEC on the expression levels of pro‑inflammatory cytokines and innate immune regulators from plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells, and the activation of toll‑like receptor 4-nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, in a mouse model infected with a porcine isolated ETEC strain. ETEC infection significantly reduced the expression of pro‑inflammatory cytokines in the mouse jejunum (Pinfection significantly affected the expression of immune regulators of plasma cells, goblet cells and Paneth cells in the mouse intestine (Pimmunity via the NF‑κB and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, ETEC colonization affects intestinal immunity as observed in a mouse model. This study provides a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of ETEC infection in animals and humans.

  20. Pediatric infection and intestinal carriage due to extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerr, Danielle M; Qin, Xuan; Oron, Assaf P; Adler, Amanda L; Wolter, Daniel J; Berry, Jessica E; Hoffman, Lucas; Weissman, Scott J

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of intestinal carriage with extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children with index infections with these organisms. Patients with resistant Escherichia coli or Klebsiella bacteria isolated from the urine or a normally sterile site between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in this study. Available infection and stool isolates underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization. Clinical data relevant to the infections were collected and analyzed. Overall, 105 patients were identified with 106 extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (n = 92) or Klebsiella (n = 14) strains isolated from urine or a sterile site. Among the 27 patients who also had stool screening for resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 17 (63%) had intestinal carriage lasting a median of 199 days (range, 62 to 1,576). There were no significant differences in demographic, clinical, and microbiological variables between those with and those without intestinal carriage. Eighteen (17%) patients had 37 subsequent resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections identified: 31 urine and 6 blood. In a multivariable analysis, antibiotic intake in the 91 days prior to subsequent urine culture was significantly associated with subsequent urinary tract infection with a resistant organism (hazard ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 130.6). Intestinal carriage and reinfection were most commonly due to bacterial strains of the same sequence type and with the same resistance determinants as the index extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, but carriage and reinfection with different resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains also occurred. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  2. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  3. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  4. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  5. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  6. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.

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    Chin-An Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined.In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment.Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.

  7. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-An; Liang, Chao; Lin, Chia-Li; Hsiao, Chiung-Tzu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected) first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment. Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.

  8. Circulating LOXL2 Levels Reflect Severity of Intestinal Fibrosis and GALT CD4+ T Lymphocyte Depletion in Treated HIV Infection

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    Sophie Seang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Circulating LOXL2 levels may be a noninvasive measure of intestinal fibrosis and GALT CD4+T lymphocyte depletion in treated HIV infection. LOXL2 crosslinks elastin and collagen, and elevated LOXL2 levels occur in pathologic states, making LOXL2 inhibition a potential interventional target for intestinal fibrosis and its sequelae.

  9. Parasitic intestinal infections in humans between 2006 and 2007

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    Maria Letizia D’Annibale

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2006-07 faecal specimens of 2.132 subjects (1.508 adults and 624 children were examined for ova & parasites, using direct and after formalin-ethylacetate concentration microscopy, and permanent specific stains. 380 bubjects (17.8 % were infected: 313 adults (20.8 % and 67 children (10.7 %. 331 cases (15.5 % were infected by pathogens, 275 adults (18.2 % and 56 children (9.0 %. 389 pathogenic or not pathogenic protozoa (18.2 % and 60 helminths (2.8 % were identified, more among adults than children (21.0 % vs 11.5 % and 3.2 % vs 1.8 % respectively.Among protozoa, D. fragilis was in all observed in 145 cases (6.8 %, G. duodenalis in 74 cases (3.5 %, other were very rare.Among helminths nematodes were more frequent than trematodes and cestodes, with S. stercoralis (14 cases and E. vermicularis (13 cases the most frequent ones. 2.302 subjects (1.505 adults and 797 children were examined for microbiological tests because affected by acute or prolonged diarrhoea. 82 cases (3.6 % of protozoal infections were observed, 70 among adults (4.7 % and 12 among children (1.5 %. D. fragilis was in all prevalent (2.0 % in respect of G. duodenalis (1.0 % or other ones (0.6 %. For S. stercoralis specific investigation, modified Baermann method / larvae colture were performed: 20/189 cases (10.6 % od strongyloidiasis was diagnosed in adults. For E. vermicularis investigation, scotch test was performer: 43/179 cases (24.0% of enterobiasis was diagnosed. The Authors underline the application of standard operative procedures for O & P with permanent specific stains in subject affected by enterites too, and the analysis of more specimens for each subjects for good diagnostical performances.

  10. Status of intestinal helminthic infections of borderline residents in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyu; Shen, Chenghua; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Yoon, Hiwon; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2006-09-01

    The present authors investigated intestinal parasitic infections among North Korean residents and refugees in China in 2003. The Kato-Katz method was applied to 236 residents and soldiers in a town on the North Korea-China border and to 46 people at a refugee camp in China. Only eggs of Ascaris and Trichuris were detected, with egg positive rates of 41.1% and 37.6%, respectively. The total egg positive rate was 55.0% and most of those who were egg positive were only lightly infected. Women of 61.2% and men of 53.1% were egg positive. The refugees from rural areas showed higher egg positive rates than those from urban areas. The present investigation confirmed high prevalence of soil-transmitted intestinal helminths in rural borderline areas of North Korea.

  11. Extra-intestinal and long term consequences of Giardia duodenalis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliez, Marie C M; Buret, André G

    2013-12-21

    Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations.

  12. Criptosporidiosis intestinal en niños con HIV/SIDA Intestinal cryptosporidiosis in HIV infected children

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    Graciela Barboni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El Cryptosporidium parvum, protozoo parásito intracelular, infecta el epitelio gastrointestinal produciendo diarrea autolimitada en individuos inmunocompetentes pero potencialmente grave en pacientes inmunocomprometidos, especialmente en aquellos con Sida. En este trabajo se evaluó, durante un lap-so de 6 años, la incidencia de infección intestinal por C. parvum en una población pediátrica con HIV/Sida analizando las características clínicas e inmunológicas de la coinfección. Todos los pacientes iniciaron o continuaron el tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia HAART durante el período de estudio, mientras que la infección intestinal fue tratada con azitromicina. La incidencia de criptosporidiosis fue de 13.7%. 33 de los 240 niños en seguimiento presentaron diarrea crónica de más de 14 días de evolución o recurrente, sin complicaciones hidroelectrolíticas. Los pacientes evaluados presentaron niveles porcentuales variables de células T CD4+ en sangre periférica, y la presencia del parásito no estuvo en relación con el compromiso inmunitario. Al momento del cuadro entérico 31 de los 33 pacientes tuvieron niveles plasmáticos de carga viral que superaban el límite de detección. Se observó eosinofilia leve o moderada en el 23% de los pacientes y la coinfección con otros parásitos fue detectada en 11 niños. No se obtuvieron diferencias significativas al relacionar el número de episodios intestinales con los estadios clínico-inmunológicos de los pacientes. La correcta implementación del HAART con la subsecuente restauración de la función inmune se relacionaría con la ausencia de cuadros diarreicos agudos y de las complicaciones hidroelectrolíticas derivadas de la coinfección con C. parvum.Cryptosporydium parvum is an intracellular parasite that infects gastrointestinal epithelium and produces diarrhea that is self-limited in immunocompetent persons but potentially life-threatening in immunocompromised

  13. [INTESTINAL FAILURE AND YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS TRANSLOCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENTOF EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, I Yu; Pogorelky, I P; Lundovskikh, I A; Darmov, I V; Gorshkov, A S; Shabalina, M R

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in experimental pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice, as well as pathological manifestation of it as a response to the adhesion and colonization of the mucosus membrane by pathogenic bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis. Experimental models of pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice used the pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis 147 serotype I strain, containing a calcium-dependence plasmid with a molecular weight of 47 MDa. Cultivation of the pseudotuberculosis pathogen given its psychrophilic was performed on Hottinger agar at a temperature of (4-5) °C. The lactobacilli strain L plantarum 8P-A3 was isolated from a lyophilized commercial probiotic Lactobacterin (manufactured by "NPO Microgen", Russia) and used to obtain native culture supernatant fluid of lactobacilli, the composition of which was detected by gas-liquid chromatography with mass-selective detection. Gentamicin for parenteral administration was manufactured by JSC "Biochemist", Russia. Pathomorphological examination was performed on the 4-6th day of the experiment. Fragments of the small intestine, liver, kidneys, and lungs from dead animals were chosen for examination. Tissues were fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dehydrated in isopropanol and embedded in paraffin. Preparations were stained with Ehrlich hematoxylin and eosin, examined on the microscope "Mikmed-2" (JSC "LOMO", Russia) under magnification x 200-x1000. Statistical processing of the experimental results was carried out according to the method of Kerber in modification of I.P. Ashmarin and A.A. Vorobyov. The role of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in animals has been found. It has been proved that the oral administration of supernatant

  14. Microscopic inter-observer reliability of intestinal parasitic infections in trained laboratory technicians, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Monárrez-Espino; Devy Elling; María Angélica Cárdenas-Dimaté; Andres Balleza-Carreón

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL), Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed) are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of ...

  15. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chin-An; Liang, Chao; Lin, Chia-Li; Hsiao, Chiung-Tzu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. Methodology/Findings In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 ...

  16. A rabbit eye model for in vivo transformation of progenetic metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum into ovigerous adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, A; Zaidi, Z A; Alam, M M; Zafar, A; Shareef, P A A; Saifullah, M K; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2014-03-01

    Clinostomum complanatum is a digenetic trematode that causes yellow grub disease in some fish species and also shows zoonotic potential by sporadically infecting humans. In this study, progenetic metacercariae of C. complanatum were obtained from the fish Trichogaster fasciatus, and were aseptically placed in conjunctival incisions made in the superior and inferior fornices of the eye of rabbits, which served as the experimental hosts. Worms were harvested without necropsy of the host on days 4 and 8 post infection, to observe in vivo transformation of the progenetic metacercariae into ovigerous adult worms. The worms appeared to cause minimal damage to the host although they were tenaciously attached. In vivo maturation was evident by the development of the vitellaria, enlargement of gonads, the presence of a large number of shelled eggs in a distended uterus and ramifications of the intestinal caeca. Obtaining mature ovigerous worms without sacrificing the host clearly gives the rabbit eye model an advantage over those described previously. Due to the relative advantage of the short time required for maturation and the prolific egg production by C. complanatum, it is suggested that this host-parasite system could be used as an excellent model for classroom teaching of trematode biology and to investigate the cues involved in in vivo transformation and host-parasite interactions.

  17. Anemia and intestinal parasitic infections in primary school students in Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuoka, R; Bailey, J W; Nery Guimarães, A M; Gurgel, R Q; Cuevas, L E

    1999-01-01

    Anemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. The main causes are parasitic infections, malaria, and low iron intake. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, parasitic infections, and nutritional status of children attending public primary schools in Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Of 360 students, 26.7% were anemic, and prevalence was higher in children under 8 and over 15 years of age. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42%, with Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%), Trichuris trichiura (15.6%), and hookworm (1. 7%) most frequently found. There was an association between parasitic infections and poor sanitary conditions, but there was no association between anemia and presence of intestinal parasites. Height-for-age Z scores were lower than the NCHS standard, and prevalence of stunting was 5.4%. Although intestinal parasites were not associated with anemia, children with parasites had lower nutritional indices (weight- and height-for-age Z scores) than those without parasites.

  18. Intestinal worms eating neuropsychiatric disorders? Apparently so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Henry H; Parker, William

    2018-02-02

    A number of factors in Western society, including inflammatory diets, sedentary lifestyles, vitamin D deficiency and chronic psychological stress, are known to induce inflammation and to be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. One factor that is emerging as a potential inflammation inducing factor is biota depletion, or loss of biodiversity from the ecosystem of the human body as a result of industrialization. Originally known as the "hygiene hypothesis", biota alteration theory describes the effects of biota alteration on the human immune system. Work on this topic has pinpointed depletion of helminths as a key loss to the body's ecosystem in Western society, and suggests that some exposure to helminths, ubiquitous prior to the modern era, may be necessary for normal immune system development. Socio-medical studies of humans "self-treating" with helminths as well as limited studies in animal models strongly suggest that helminth therapy may be a productive approach toward treating a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including chronic fatigue, migraine headaches, depression and anxiety disorders. However, helminth therapy faces some daunting hurdles, including the lack of a financial incentive for development, despite a tremendous potential market for the organisms. It is argued that benevolent donation for early trials as well as changes in regulatory policy to accommodate helminth therapy may be important for the field to develop. It is hoped that future success with some high-profile trials can propel the field, now dominated more by self-treatment than by clinical trials, forward into the main stream of medicine. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the urban slums of a city in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobha, Misra; Bithika, Duttaroy; Bhavesh, Shroff

    2013-04-01

    There is scant information available on the prevalence of parasitic infections in Gujarat, a state in Western India. The present community-based study was undertaken in the urban slums of a city in Gujarat to determine the following parameters: (a) the prevalence and type of pathogenic intestinal parasites and (b) the availability of sanitary facilities in the study population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008, and the study participants were urban slum dwellers. Considering an expected infection prevalence of 30% among slum dwellers, an allowable error of 10% and an anticipated design effect of two, the sample size for the cluster design was set to 1800 participants from 30 clusters and 360 households (HHs). Stool samples were examined using both direct wet mount and the formalin-ether sedimentation concentration technique, followed by trichrome staining for protozoan cysts. Toilet facilities were utilized by 56% of the HHs, while 44% of the HHs resorted to open air defecation. The overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 15.19%. Parasitic infections due to protozoa were observed in 70.71% of the study participants. Helminth infections were detected in 25.71% of the participants, and multiple parasitic infections were detected in 3.57%. Diarrhea was the most common complaint (9.56%) in the study population. This study demonstrates that poor sanitation and inadequate environmental conditions are the main determining factors that predispose the population to intestinal parasites. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  1. END THE OF HORROR WORM: Dracunculus medinensis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dracunculus medinensis is a nematode that causes dracunculiasis. It is also known as the guinea worm disease and is caused by the large female nematode which is the longest nematode infecting humans. The adult female is longer than the male and can grow up to about 1m in length inside the body of the human host.

  2. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    Morphologically characterized by the presence of a dorsal covering of paired segmental scales (=elytra), scale worms are well represented throughout the scientific literature, and are a result of one of the most successful radiations of annelids. However, the phylogenetic relationships of elytrig......Morphologically characterized by the presence of a dorsal covering of paired segmental scales (=elytra), scale worms are well represented throughout the scientific literature, and are a result of one of the most successful radiations of annelids. However, the phylogenetic relationships...... to improve the overall resolution of the phylogenetic relationships within Aphroditiformia. To date, this is the largest and most diverse phylogenetic sampling of scale worms, being the first to include anchialine as well as several previously neglected interstitial representatives. Using combined and total...... evidence approaches, our phylogenetic analyses integrated morphological and molecular datasets, with subsequent sensitivity analyses to identify those groups with unstable positioning. Our inclusion of species from extreme environments showed several independent radiations among the deep sea, (anchialine...

  3. Resiniferatoxin modulates the Th1 immune response and protects the host during intestinal nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intestinal parasite infection in children from primary school in Florianopolis (SC – environmental and health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto S. A. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  5. Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Carl J; Renshaw, Hilary; Frezal, Lise; Jiang, Yanfang; Félix, Marie-Anne; Wang, David

    2014-01-05

    The discoveries of Orsay, Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses, three viruses infecting either Caenorhabditis elegans or its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae, enable the study of virus-host interactions using natural pathogens of these two well-established model organisms. We characterized the tissue tropism of infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes by these viruses. Using immunofluorescence assays targeting proteins from each of the viruses, and in situ hybridization, we demonstrate viral proteins and RNAs localize to intestinal cells in larval stage Caenorhabditis nematodes. Viral proteins were detected in one to six of the 20 intestinal cells present in Caenorhabditis nematodes. In Orsay virus-infected C. elegans, viral proteins were detected as early as 6h post-infection. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and capsid proteins of Orsay virus exhibited different subcellular localization patterns. Collectively, these observations provide the first experimental insights into viral protein expression in any nematode host, and broaden our understanding of viral infection in Caenorhabditis nematodes. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural Inhabitants of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections, particularly in the rural areas, are one of the most important indices of the hygiene status and sanitation level of the society. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections among rural inhabitant of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012. Patients and Methods A total of 228 fecal samples were collected from 50 families in seven villages that were directly and indirectly involved in raising livestock and other domestic animals in spring of 2012. The demographic data were collected by interview and included age, sex, educational level, place of keeping animals, direct or indirect contact with animals, and occupation. Fecal samples were concentrated using formol-ether sedimentation technique and examined by iodine-stained wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples were assessed by trichrome staining method. Results Among 228 samples, 80 (35.1% were diagnosed with parasitic infection, which separately included 43 cases of Entamoeba coli (18.9%, 32 Blastocystis hominis (14%, 16 Endolimax nana (7%, nine Iodamoeba butschlii (3.9%, five Giardia lamblia (2.2%, two Taenia species (0.9%, two Hymenolepis nana (0.9%, one Chilomastix mesnili (0.4%, one Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, and one Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.4%. No significant difference in infection rate was observed with regard to indirect or direct contact with livestock. Coinfection of E. coli and B. hominis, E. coli and I. butschlii, and E. nana and G. lamblia were statistically significant. Interestingly, no Ascaris lumbricoides ovum was seen in this population. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of some infections with intestinal parasites is high in the Hamadan City. Considering that most of the parasites are nonpathogenic, pathogenic ones have been reduced generally in comparison to the previous reports. Nevertheless, the existence of Taenia species and H. nana could not

  9. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this

  10. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  11. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  12. THE CHANGES OF LARGE INTESTINE CAVITY’S MICROBIOTA IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savinova O.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infections of the gastrointestinal tract are caused by a wide range of fungi, viruses and bacteria. The great value has the ratio of microorganisms. There are certain regularities in microecological system of intestinal microflora. Thus, bifidous bacteria should be more than lactobacterium; enterobacteria – more than enterococcus; E.faecalis more than E.faecium. However, these differences should be at least one or two orders of magnitude. An important indicator is the ratio of enterobacteria and enterococcus. Material & methods. In the paper were used following materials and methods: bacteriological and statistical. The conditions of intestinal microbiocenosis were evaluated according to the methodical instructions about researches of fecal masses on dysbiosis and modern methods of correction of intestinal dysbiosis that included identifying of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, staphylococci, enterococci, opportunistic enterobacteria, Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp., P.aeruginosa, C.albicans. Bacterial cultures were identified by standard techniques. Statistical analysis of the results was performed by the standard method of determining the average value and its standard deviation (M + m and Student's t-test. The reliability of the difference was evaluated at the level of probability p 104 CFU/grams in 11,8 + 5,53%, S.epidermidis in amount of > 105 CFU/grams in 32,4 + 8,03%, C.albicans in amount of > 104 CFU/grams in 11,1 + 6,59% and 1 patient had Clostridium in amount > 103 CFU/grams, which was 3 + 2,93%. These data show that patients with HIV infection is detected at the same time reducing number of anaerobic microflora (bifidus bacteria and lactobacilli and aerobic microflora, a leading representative of which is intestinal E.coli irrespective of the clinical stage of the disease. Association of these microorganisms is 56%. To this attach indicators of reduction E.faecalis and E.faecium. Taking into account the

  13. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bravo-Tello

    Full Text Available Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts; Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt; Chlorella sp (Ch; Nannochloropsis oculata (No; or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen.

  14. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  15. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, Camila J.; Ulloa, Pilar E.; Hedrera, Manuel; Pizarro-Guajardo, Marjorie; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio) of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts); Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt); Chlorella sp (Ch); Nannochloropsis oculata (No); or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng) as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen. PMID:29117213

  16. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  17. Making Worms Glow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    While much progress has been made in creatingsuch nano-architectures, the use of these structureswithin organisms had never been attempted. Our work is focusedon using a simple DNA-based pH sensor in worms toyield information about organelle activity in cells. The firstof its kind, this work set up a system to use DNA ...

  18. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  19. Intestinal detoxification time of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children with EV71 infection and the related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Lin, Xian-Yao; Shao, Qi-Min; Wang, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal viruses. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen that might cause severe symptoms and even death in children with HFMD. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection and its related factors. Sixty-five HFMD children with EV71 infection were followed up. Their stool samples were collected once every 4 to 7 days. Viral nucleic acids were detected by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction until the results became negative. The positive rates of viral nucleic acids were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log-rank test and Cox-Mantel test were used to analyze factors affecting the HFMD children with EV71 infection. On the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th week, the positive rates of viral nucleic acids in stool samples of the 65 children were 94.6%, 48.1%, 17.2% and 0, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the intestinal detoxification time of the children were related to gender, pre-admission disease course, severity of disease, and use of steroids or gamma globulin (Pdisease was an independent factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time (Pdisease was an important factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection. Severe HFMD children with EV71 infection had a longer intestinal detoxification time.

  20. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of BmCPV Infection on Silkworm Bombyx mori Intestinal Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenli Sun

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has a crucial role in the growth, development and environmental adaptation in the host insect. The objective of our work was to investigate the microbiota of the healthy silkworm Bombyx mori gut and changes after the infection of B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV. Intestinal contents of the infected and healthy larvae of B. mori of fifth instar were collected at 24, 72 and 144 h post infection with BmCPV. The gut bacteria were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. 147(135 and 113(103 genera were found in the gut content of the healthy control female (male larvae and BmCPV-infected female (male larvae, respectively. In general, the microbial communities in the gut content of healthy larvae were dominated by Enterococcus, Delftia, Pelomonas, Ralstonia and Staphylococcus, however the abundance change of each genus was depended on the developmental stage and gender. Microbial diversity reached minimum at 144 h of fifth instar larvae. The abundance of Enterococcus in the females was substantially lower and the abundance of Delftia, Aurantimonas and Staphylococcus was substantially higher compared to the males. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal contents decreased after post infection with BmCPV, whereas the abundance of both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus which belongs to Gram-positive were increased. Therefore, our findings suggested that observed changes in relative abundance was related to the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. Relevance analysis of plenty of the predominant genera showed the abundance of the Enterococcus genus was in negative correlation with the abundance of the most predominant genera. These results provided insight into the relationship between the gut microbiota and development of the BmCPV-infected silkworm.

  2. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  3. Infection levels of intestinal helminths in two commensal rodent species from rural households in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, J A; Hernández-Betancourt, S F; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Robles, M R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to calculate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminths in the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) trapped in rural households of Yucatan, Mexico. Sampling was conducted during the rainy season from October to December 2011 and the dry season from January to March 2012. A total of 154 M. musculus and 46 R. rattus were examined, with 84.2% of M. musculus being infected with helminths compared with a significantly lower prevalence of 52.2% in R. rattus (Pcommensal rodents present in households appears to constitute a low potential health risk to local inhabitants; however, it would be advisable to conduct further studies to better understand the public health risk posed by these rodent intestinal helminths.

  4. TACTICS OF BIOCENOSIS-SAVING THERAPY BY USE ANTIBIOTICS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 children aged from 3 to 67 months with acute intestinal infections receiving antibiotic therapy, were clinically and microbiologically examined using gas-liquid chromatographic test with the measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs in coprofiltrates. The influence on the biocenosis is assessed upon treatment with an-tidiarrhoeal medication Gelatin tannat (Adiarin, which acts by forming a protective film on the surface of intestinal mucosa preventing loss of body fluids and microbial toxins. 20 children in the control group received antibiotics, sorbents, probiotics. The study has proved the clinical effect of Gelatin tannat, resulting in reduction of time to normalization of diarrhea and intoxication for 2 days, and data on the probiotic effect of the drug, similar to that of probiotics in the control group which expands the indications for the use of Gelatin tannat for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  

  5. Is Host-Based Anomaly Detection + Temporal Correlation = Worm Causality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekar, Vyas; Xie, Yinglian; Reiter, Michael K; Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Epidemic-spreading attacks (e.g., worm and botnet propagation) have a natural notion of attack causality - a single network flow causes a victim host to get infected and subsequently spread the attack...

  6. Socio-environmental conditions, intestinal parasitic infections and nutritional status in children from a suburban neighborhood of La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, María I; Navone, Graciela T; Orden, Alicia B; Torres, María F; Castro, Luis E; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2011-06-01

    We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections in children aged 1-12 years from a poor neighborhood in La Plata, Argentina, and determined the correlations with their nutritional status and socio-environmental conditions. We performed parasitological analyses with anal brushed technique (for Enterobius vermicularis eggs) and fecal samples, employing the techniques of Ritchie, Carles Barthelemy and Willis. The worm burdens of nematodes were estimated by means of Kato Katz technique. Low weight-for-age (underweight), height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were calculated based on the 5th centile of the WHO 2006 (children under 5) and CDC 2000 (older children and adolescents) growth references. We also analyzed samples of soil, water, and canine feces and surveyed other domestic and environmental data using structured questionnaires to each child's parents. To associate the parasitological, anthropometric and socio-environmental data, a categorical analysis of principal components (catPCA) was conducted. In the first axis of catPCA, the correlations among socio-environmental variables showed a gradient of "relative welfare". The eigenvectors showed the most influential variables in the analysis were promiscuity (0.0765), father's education (-0.741), crowding (0.727), wastewater disposal (-0.658), mother's education (-0.574), and flooding (-0.409). The 85% of children were parasitized and 79.6% polyparasitized. The 27.7% of children had deficit in some nutritional status indicator, being the stunting the most prevalent deficit (16.8%). There also found parasites in 42% of the dog feces, 53% of the soil samples, and non-pathogenic amoebae in the water samples. The SEV was mainly associated with geohelminths and stunting, especially among the poorest children. The study evidences that living conditions are variable within this population. Part of these variations could be linked to the differences in the extent to which parents are able to use their scant

  7. Gene expression profiles of the small intestinal mucosa of dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Kouguchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data set presented in this article is related to a previous research article entitled “ The timing of worm exclusion in dogs repeatedly infected with the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis” (Kouguchi et al., 2016 [1]. This article describes the genes >2-fold up- or down-regulated in the first- and repeated-infection groups compared to the healthy controls group. The gene expression profiles were generated using the Agilent-021193 Canine (V2 Gene Expression Microarray (GPL15379. The raw and normalized microarray data have been deposited with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database under accession number GSE105098. Keywords: E. multilocularis, Microarray, Dog, Echinococcosis, Vaccine

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections and eosinophilia in an human immunedeficiency virus positive population in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina G Kaminsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.

  9. Passive avoidance response in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiore, M; Carere, C; Moroni, R; Aloe, L

    2002-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of humans and rodents affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. Following the onset of infection, the worms induce granulomas around schistosome eggs in the liver, intestine and central nervous system (both brain and spinal cord), which are likely to

  10. [Survey of infection situation of intestinal parasites of rural residents in plain area of Shandong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Feng; Zhang, Ben-guang; Wang, Yong-bin; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhang, Dian-bo; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Chen, Xi-xin; Xu, Yan; Liu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    To understand the current situation of infections of intestinal parasites of rural residents in four cities namely Dongying, Weifang, Jining and Heze of Shandong Province. Twenty-four villages were randomly selected as study areas. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to test the stool samples of adult residents and the cellophane tape anus method was applied to test the infection of Enterobius vermicularis of children aged 12 years or below. Fifty families were randomly selected from each village and surveyed with questionnaires for the general situation of the family, and the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites, and healthy behaviors of the family members. Totally 8,227 adult residents and 1,313 children were investigated and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 0.55% (45 cases). The infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichura, E. vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis were 0.15% (12 cases), 0.06% (5 cases), 0.09% (7 cases), 1.37% (18 cases) and 0.04% (3 cases), respectively. Totally 3,767 residents were surveyed with questionnaires, and the awareness rate of the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites was 28.72% (1,082 cases), the formation rates of washing hands before meal, washing hands after toilet, washing fruit and vegetables before eating, and never drinking unboiled water were 60.66% (2,285 cases), 50.17% (1,890 cases), 48.71% (1,835 cases), and 87.07% (3,280 cases), respectively. In the plain area of Shandong Province, the infection rates of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, T. trichura and C. sinensis are low but the infection rate of E. vermicularis of children is relatively high; the awareness rates of the knowledge of parasites as well as the formation rates of healthy behaviors are low. Therefore, the health education and promotion should be strengthened.

  11. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  12. Treatment of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Elderly and Mentally Retarded Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Rasti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The rate of person to person transmission of intestinal parasites is high in elderly and mentally retarded patients and lack of treatment may cause disease spread.This sudy was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of intestinal parasitic infections in elderly and mentallyretardedpatients of Golabchi center of Kashan. Methods & Materials: This descriptive study was carried out on 133 elderly and mentallyretardedpatients of Golabchi center of Kashan in 2007. Infected participants were treated according to the stool examination and scotch tape results. These tests were performedagain after one month and response to treatment wasdetermined. A questionnaire was completed during interview with patients to obtain the data of sex and age,clinical symptoms and side effects of drugs. Descriptive data analysis was performed to evaluate the results. Results: In general, 64.7% of patients were male and the rate of response to treatment was 93.2%. The response rate was highest (79.5% and lowest (26.7% in patients with 70 years of age respectively. Besides, theresponse rate was 93.6%, 89.2%, 90% and 100% in oxyur, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia anddientamoeba fragilis respectively. Conclusion: With regardsto the high rate of response to treatment,resistance to routin anti parasitic drugs seems unlikely. The lack of response to tratment can be either dut to high severity of the infection or due to incorrect using of drugs.

  13. Intestinal infection at onset of mycophenolic acid-associated chronic diarrhea in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Moos, S; Cippà, P E; Wüthrich, R P; Mueller, T F

    2016-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea after kidney transplantation is often attributed to mycophenolic acid (MPA) toxicity. We hypothesize that intestinal infections contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic MPA-associated diarrhea. In this retrospective study, all patients (n = 726) receiving a kidney transplant between 2000 and 2010 at the University Hospital Zurich were followed until July 2014 for occurrence of chronic diarrhea (≥4 weeks). Infectious triggers at diarrhea onset were assessed by reviewing medical history, stool microbiology, and histology of colon biopsies. In 46 patients (6.3% of the cohort), a total of 51 episodes of chronic diarrhea during MPA treatment were documented. The diarrhea episodes were often severe, as confirmed by significant weight loss. The cumulative incidence of chronic diarrhea was uniformly distributed throughout the post-transplant period, with 2.0%, 5.1%, and 9.6% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Evidence was found for intestinal infection at diarrhea onset in 38 episodes (74.5%). Occurrence of diarrhea onset showed a seasonal distribution with peaks in April and October/November. Specific antimicrobial treatment alone was associated with a 19% resolution rate only, whereas combination with dose reduction of MPA or switch from mycophenolate mofetil to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium resulted in a 22.7% and 76.5% resolution rate, respectively. Change to an MPA-free regimen was associated with a 100% resolution rate. These results provide first evidence for a contribution of intestinal infections in chronic post-transplant diarrhea associated with MPA treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  15. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  16. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTION AS A DISGUISE OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dyakonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and acute intestinal infections in contemporary medicine remains relevant for clinical practice of surgeons and pediatricians. Late diagnosis of appendicitis results in development of complicated forms of vermiform appendix inflammation. This prolongs operative intervention, duration of antibacterial therapy and duration of a child’s inpatient stay. The article presents clinical observation of three children treated for perforated appendix and generalized purulent peritonitis. The described cases demonstrate the need in multidisciplinary approach and complex diagnosis of patients with such complaints as abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea.

  17. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Normalizing effect of immunoglobulins in the treatment of endogenous infection and intestinal dysbacteriosis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemparskaya, N.N.; Pinegin, B.V.; Shal'nova, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    It was shown in experiments in 2160 CBA mice and mice of mixed breed, irradiated with LD 90/30 , that therapeutical administration (subcutaneous or intraperitoneal) of immunoglobulins - homologous (polyglobulin, IgG, IgM) or heterologous - polyglobulin, IgG (from human, equine, canine blood) repeated three times, i.e., 2, 24 and 48 hours after irradiation, not only induced longer survival, but also showed a normalizing effect on the commonly developing dysbacteriosis and increased the amount of intestinal microflora and, in addition, led to the suppression of postirradiation endogenous infection. Enterobacteria, enterococci, staphylococci and yeasts disappeared from the small intestine or their quantity decreased substantially in the treated irradiated mice in contrast to the untreated irradiated mice. In the large intestine, the number of these organisms decreased considerably while the content of lactobacteria increased; no microbes could be found in the internal organs and in the blood (or their content was small). Other conditions being equal, homologous immunoglobulins are more efficient in comparison with heterologous ones, this applying also to preparations containing normal antibodies to tissues. (author). 2 tabs., 14 refs

  19. Impact of the alterations in the interstitial cells of Cajal on intestinal motility in post-infection irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zhou, Xu-Chun; Lan, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are basic components of gastrointestinal motility. However, changes in ICC and their role in post‑infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI‑IBS) remain to be elucidated. To observe the impact of alterations in the ICC on intestinal motility in a PI‑IBS mouse model, female C57BL\\6 mice were infected by the oral administration of 400 Trichinella spiralis larvae. The abdominal withdrawal reflex, intestine transportation time (ITT), grain numbers, Bristol scores, wet/dry weights and the percentage water content of the mice feces every 2 h were used to assess changes in the intestinal motor function. The intestines were excised and sectioned for pathological and histochemical examination. These intestines were also used to quantify the protein and mRNA expression of c‑kit. The C57BL\\6 mouse can act as a PI‑IBS model at day 56 post‑infection. Compared with the control mice, the ITT was shorter, the grain numbers, Bristol scores, wet weights and water contents of the mice feces were higher and the dry weights were unchanged in the PI‑IBS mice. The protein and mRNA expression levels of c‑kit were upregulated in the entire PI‑IBS mouse intestines. Following immunohistochemical staining, the increased number of c‑kit‑positive cells were detected predominantly in the submucosa and myenteron. These results suggested that the alterations of the ICC resulted in the changes of the intestinal motility patterns in the PI‑IBS mouse models induced by Trichinella spiralis infection, which may be the main mechanism underlying intestinal motility disorders in PI‑IBS.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasite Infection among Schoolchildren in the Peripheral Highland Regions of Huanuco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byungjin; Kim, Bongyoung

    2017-10-01

    Schoolchildren in developing countries are at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors of intestinal parasite infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of Peru. A volunteer team from the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducted a campaign for parasite eradication called "Chao parasitos" at five schools in the peripheral highland regions of Huanuco in October 2013. The study collected questionnaires and stool samples from children of participating schools. Entamoeba coli , Iodamoeba buschii , and Chilomastix mesnil were classified as nonpathogenic parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the students was 100% (185/185). Among them, 25.9% (48/185) were infected only with nonpathogenic parasites whereas 74.1% (137/185) were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly detected (37.3%, 69/185), followed by Giardia lamblia (15.1%, 28/185) and I. buschii (11.9%, 22/185). Among lifestyle practices associated with parasitic infection, the rate of washing hands before meals was significantly lower in the students with pathogenic parasites compared to those with nonpathogenic parasites (77.4%, 106/137 vs. 93.8%, 45/48, p = 0.025). The prevalence of intestinal parasite was 100%. Both personal hygiene and water supply facilities are required to eradicate parasite infection in rural areas of Peru.

  1. Mycobacterium avium Subsp. avium Infection in Four Veal Calves: Differentiation from Intestinal Tuberculosis

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    Christine Goepfert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (Maa is an intracellular pathogen belonging to the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC. Reservoirs of MAC are the natural environment, wildlife and domestic animals. In adult bovine, MAC infections are typically caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map. Maa infections in bovine are rarely reported but may cause clinical disease and pathological lesions similar to those observed in paratuberculosis or those induced by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC. Therefore, differentiation of MAC from MTBC infection should be attempted, especially if unusual mycobacterial lesions are encountered. Four veal calves from a fattening farm dying with clinical signs of otitis media, fever, and weight loss were submitted for necropsy. Samples from affected organs were taken for histologic investigation, bacteriologic culture, and bacterial specification using PCR. Macroscopic thickening of the intestinal mucosa was induced by granulomatous enteritis and colitis. Intracytoplasmic acid-fast bacteria were detected by Ziehl-Neelsen stains and PCR revealed positive results for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Clinical and pathological changes of Maa infection in veal calves had features of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and the MTBC. Therefore, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infection should be considered in cases of granulomatous enteritis in calves.

  2. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

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    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  3. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  4. Damaged intestinal epithelial integrity linked to microbial translocation in pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

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    Jacob D Estes

    Full Text Available The chronic phase of HIV infection is marked by pathological activation of the immune system, the extent of which better predicts disease progression than either plasma viral load or CD4(+ T cell count. Recently, translocation of microbial products from the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed as an underlying cause of this immune activation, based on indirect evidence including the detection of microbial products and specific immune responses in the plasma of chronically HIV-infected humans or SIV-infected Asian macaques. We analyzed tissues from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs to provide direct in situ evidence for translocation of microbial constituents from the lumen of the intestine into the lamina propria and to draining and peripheral lymph nodes and liver, accompanied by local immune responses in affected tissues. In chronically SIV-infected RMs this translocation is associated with breakdown of the integrity of the epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and apparent inability of lamina propria macrophages to effectively phagocytose translocated microbial constituents. By contrast, in the chronic phase of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, we found no evidence of epithelial barrier breakdown, no increased microbial translocation and no pathological immune activation. Because immune activation is characteristic of the chronic phase of progressive HIV/SIV infections, these findings suggest that increased microbial translocation from the GI tract, in excess of capacity to clear the translocated microbial constituents, helps drive pathological immune activation. Novel therapeutic approaches to inhibit microbial translocation and/or attenuate chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals may complement treatments aimed at direct suppression of viral replication.

  5. The relationship between haematological indices, serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and glutamate dehydrogenase, visual hepatic damage and worm burden in cattle infected with Fasciola gigantica.

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    Molina, E C; Lozano, S P; Barraca, A P

    2006-09-01

    The association between visual hepatic damage, burden of Fasciola gigantica, serum levels of gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) is described from an abattoir study of 70 cattle in the Philippines. In another abattoir study of 60 cattle, the relationship between burden of F. gigantica and haematological indices was investigated. The degree of visual hepatic damage and burden of F. gigantica were significantly positively related to levels of GGT and GLDH. Red blood cell counts and packed cell volume were significantly inversely related to worm burden, but animals compensated for reduced numbers of red blood cells by increasing red cell haemoglobin content.

  6. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

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    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  7. Intestinal infections in humans in the Rocky Mountain region, United States.

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    Church, Cynthia; Neill, Andrea; Schotthoefer, Anna M

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the seasonal prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the western states of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Montana, fecal samples were examined as part of routine diagnostic testing from patients experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort in August (summer) 2006, January (winter), and April (spring) 2007. Parasite identification in positive samples was confirmed using light microscopy after wet mount and trichrome staining techniques. Seventy-eight of the 1,083 patients surveyed (7.2%) in August tested positive for at least 1 species of intestinal parasite. Forty-eight of 726 (6.6%) patients and 51 of 795 (6.4%) patients tested positive for at least 1 species in January and April, respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most prevalent, followed by Giardia lamblia. Approximately 25% of the parasite occurrences were multiple infections involving fecal-oral transmitted species. Co-infections with Entamoeba spp. and Blastocystis sp. were common, suggesting a possible fecal-oral transmission for the latter parasite. Entamoeba spp. were more likely to co-occur than independently. Other species detected included Endolimax nana, Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Iodamoeba butschlii.

  8. Stem Cell-Derived Human Intestinal Organoids as an Infection Model for Rotaviruses

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    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Utama, Budi; Atmar, Robert L.; Shroyer, Noah F.; Estes, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Directed differentiation of stem cell lines into intestine-like tissue called induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs) is now possible (J. R. Spence, C. N. Mayhew, S. A. Rankin, M. F. Kuhar, J. E. Vallance, K. Tolle, E. E. Hoskins, V. V. Kalinichenko, S. I. Wells, A. M. Zorn, N. F. Shroyer, and J. M. Wells, Nature 470:105-109, 2011). We tested iHIOs as a new model to cultivate and study fecal viruses. Protocols for infection of iHIOs with a laboratory strain of rotavirus, simian SA11, were developed. Proof-of-principle analyses showed that iHIOs support replication of a gastrointestinal virus, rotavirus, on the basis of detection of nonstructural viral proteins (nonstructural protein 4 [NSP4] and NSP2) by immunofluorescence, increased levels of viral RNA by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), and production of infectious progeny virus. iHIOs were also shown to support replication of 12/13 clinical rotavirus isolates directly from stool samples. An unexpected finding was the detection of rotavirus infection not only in the epithelial cells but also in the mesenchymal cell population of the iHIOs. This work demonstrates that iHIOs offer a promising new model to study rotaviruses and other gastrointestinal viruses. PMID:22761392

  9. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

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    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  10. Barriers to coliphage infection of commensal intestinal flora of laboratory mice

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    Kasman Laura M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth characteristics of coliphage viruses indicate that they are adapted to live with their Eschericia coli hosts in the intestinal tract. However, coliphage experimentally introduced by ingestion persist only transiently if at all in the gut of humans and other animals. This study attempted to identify the barriers to long term establishment of exogenous coliphage in the gastrointestinal (GI tracts of laboratory mice. Intestinal contents were screened for the presence of coliphage and host bacteria, and strains of E. coli bacteria from different segments of the GI tract were tested for susceptibility to six common laboratory coliphages. Results Contrary to expectations, coliphage were not evident in the GI tracts of laboratory mice, although they were occasionally detected in feces. Commensal flora showed extreme variability within groups of mice despite identical handling and diet. Less than 20% of 48 mice tested carried E. coli in their gut, and of 22 commensal E. coli strains isolated and tested, 59% were completely resistant to infection by lambda, M13, P1, T4, T7, and PhiX174 coliphage. Lysogeny could not be demonstrated in the commensal strains as mitomycin C failed to induce detectable phage. Pre-existing immunity to phages was not evident as sera and fecal washes did not contain significant antibody titers to six laboratory phage types. Conclusion Lack of sufficient susceptible host bacteria seems to be the most likely barrier to establishment of new coliphage infections in the mouse gut.

  11. Bovine intestinal cellular responses following primary and challenge infections with Calicophoron microbothrium metacercariae

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    N. Mavenyengwa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This studyw as carried out to establish whether cattle can develop resistance to re-infectionby Calicophoron microbothrium by assessing the response of intestinal mucosal globule leukocytese, osinophils, mast cells and basophils, and the establishment of the parasite in the host. A total of 241-year old Tuli steers were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and infected with C. microbothriumm etacercariae. On the first day of the study, animals in Groups I and II were immunized with 5000 metacercariae and then challenged with 15000 metacercariae on Day 150 post immunization. Animals in Group III were immunized with 15000 metacercariae at the same time that Groups I and II animals were challenged to act as a positive control group Animals in Group IV were left uninfected and acted as a negative control group. Three animals from each group were slaughtered on Day 28 post-challenge and the remainder were slaughtered on Day 42 post-challenge. The established amphistomes were recovered and histopathological and cytological examinations were done on the jejunum, duodenuma, bomasum and the rumen. The establishment rates of the challenge infection in the immunized and challenged groups were lower and ranged from 0 to 0.2% as compared to 6% from naive animals infected as positive controls. Animals immunized and then challenged with C. microbothrium had significantly higher eosinophil, mast cell and globule leukocytes counts in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05 as compared to those of the control group. The study indicates that cattle can develop resistance to C. microbothrium re-infection and that eosinophils and mast cells may be important cells in the rejection of the parasite.

  12. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

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    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  13. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

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    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

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    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  15. Mucosal Immune Responses of Mice Experimentally Infected with Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae)

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    Chai, Jong-Yil; Park, Young-Jin; Park, Jae-Hwan; Jung, Bong-Kwang

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immune responses against Pygidiopsis summa (Trematoda: Heterophyidae) infection were studied in ICR mice. Experimental groups consisted of group 1 (uninfected controls), group 2 (infection with 200 metacercariae), and group 3 (immunosuppression with Depo-Medrol and infection with 200 metacercariae). Worms were recovered in the small intestine at days 1, 3, 5, and 7 post-infection (PI). Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), mast cells, and goblet cells were counted in intestinal tissue sections stained with Giemsa, astra-blue, and periodic acid-Schiff, respectively. Mucosal IgA levels were measured by ELISA. Expulsion of P. summa from the mouse intestine began to occur from days 3-5 PI which sustained until day 7 PI. The worm expulsion was positively correlated with proliferation of IEL, mast cells, goblet cells, and increase of IgA, although in the case of mast cells significant increase was seen only at day 7 PI. Immunosuppression suppressed all these immune effectors and inhibited worm reduction in the intestine until day 7 PI. The results suggested that various immune effectors which include IEL, goblet cells, mast cells, and IgA play roles in regulating the intestinal mucosal immunity of ICR mice against P. summa infection. PMID:24623878

  16. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

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    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  17. Cathelicidin-WA Improves Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Function and Enhances Host Defense against Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection.

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    Yi, Hongbo; Hu, Wangyang; Chen, Shan; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-02-15

    Impaired epithelial barrier function disrupts immune homeostasis and increases inflammation in intestines, leading to many intestinal diseases. Cathelicidin peptides suppress intestinal inflammation and improve intestinal epithelial barrier function independently of their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cathelicidin-WA (CWA) on intestinal epithelial barrier function, as well as the underlying mechanism, by using enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)-infected mice and intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that CWA attenuated EHEC-induced clinical symptoms and intestinal colitis, as did enrofloxacin (Enro). CWA decreased IL-6 production in the serum, jejunum, and colon of EHEC-infected mice. Additionally, CWA alleviated the EHEC-induced disruption of mucin-2 and goblet cells in the intestine. Interestingly, CWA increased the mucus layer thickness, which was associated with increasing expression of trefoil factor 3, in the jejunum of EHEC-infected mice. CWA increased the expression of tight junction proteins in the jejunum of EHEC-infected mice. Using intestinal epithelial cells and a Rac1 inhibitor in vitro, we demonstrated that the CWA-mediated increases in the tight junction proteins might depend on the Rac1 pathway. Furthermore, CWA improved the microbiota and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the cecum of EHEC-infected mice. Although Enro and CWA had similar effects on intestinal inflammation, CWA was superior to Enro with regard to improving intestinal epithelial barrier and microbiota in the intestine. In conclusion, CWA attenuated EHEC-induced inflammation, intestinal epithelial barrier damage, and microbiota disruption in the intestine of mice, suggesting that CWA may be an effective therapy for many intestinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors among village health volunteers in rural communities of southern Thailand.

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    Punsawad, Chuchard; Phasuk, Nonthapan; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Thongtup, Kanjana; Siripakonuaong, Niramon; Nongnaul, Somchok

    2017-06-09

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain prevalent and constitute a public health problem in certain rural areas of Thailand. Village health volunteers (VHVs), who are members of a Thai healthcare alliance, function as key providers of health prevention measures, disease control, and health education and share national health promotion campaigns with community members. This study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infection in VHVs in order to design community awareness and health education campaigns for the target population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January to April 2016 among village health volunteers (VHVs) from four sub-districts of Nopphitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. Subjects for the study were selected using a simple random sampling method. Socio-demographic variables and risk factors were collected by a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques to determine the presence of parasites and modified Kato-Katz thick smear to determine the intensity of infection. A total of 324 VHVs were enrolled. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-13.0). The prevalence of hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura were 8.0% (95% CI: 5.3-11.5), 0.9% (95% CI: 0.2-2.7), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0-1.7), respectively. Mean intensity of hookworm infection was 1732 eggs per gram of stool. The prevalence was lower for protozoan infection than for helminth infection. Blastocystis hominis accounted for the highest percentage of intestinal protozoan infections 4.0% (95% CI: 2.2-6.8), followed by Giardia intestinalis 0.6% (95% CI: 0-2.2). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among sub-districts (p > 0.05). Having dogs at home was associated with soil

  19. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of intestinal parasite infection by Blastocystis hominis.

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    Ocaña-Losada, C; Cuenca-Gómez, J A; Cabezas-Fernández, M T; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Cabeza-Barrera, I; Salas-Coronas, J

    2018-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites isolated in humans. The parasite can cause gastrointestinal symptoms or, in most cases, remain asymptomatic. There are issues concerning the parasite's pathogenic character. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the parasite infection by B. hominis, with or without other parasitic co-infections. An observational retrospective study was conducted of B. hominis isolates in faeces from October 2004 to March 2016 in a tropical medicine unit. We reviewed all patients with a parasite infection, exclusively or not by B. hominis. We studied 3070 patients, 570 (18%) of whom were diagnosed with B. hominis infection, which was the only isolate in 245 (43%) of the 570 patients. A total of 325 (57%) patients presented other parasitic co-infections (Entamoeba histolytic or Entamoeba dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Schistosoma spp.). The main symptom was abdominal pain (41.8%). In 31.2% of cases, the parasite was detected in the imported diseases screening of asymptomatic patients. Of those who underwent treatment with metronidazole, 78.2% improved. The parasite was neutralised in 82.6% of the patients. Parasite infection by B. hominis is one of the most common diseases in our tropical medicine unit. Most patients are asymptomatic, or their symptoms can be attributed to other parasite infections. In those cases in which symptoms persist without being able to attribute them to other causes, a specific treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients from two health institutions in Abuja, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaver, D T; Nwobegahay, J M; Goon, D T; Iweriebor, B C; Anye, D N

    2011-08-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections play a vital role in the prognosis of HIV/AIDS in patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in HIV-infected individuals in two health facilities in Abuja-Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted in two sites: the GEDE AIDS and Infectious Diseases Research Institute (GAIDRI), and the Human Virology Institute-General Hospital Asokoro-Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 119 subjects were recruited (85 HIV infected and 34 HIV negative). Stool specimens collected were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically for consistency and the presence of enteric parasites. The overall prevalence rate of enteroparasites obtained in this study was 22.7% (27/119). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected patients was 24.7 %; while in HIV negative persons, it was 17.6%. However, the high rate obtained for HIV infected patients was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Although the prevalence rate of enteric parasites in HIV/AIDS patients was higher than in HIV negative individuals, this difference is not statistically significant. Even though there was no statistical difference in the two groups, parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients often result in debilitating illness.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).

  2. Worm Gear With Hydrostatic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1994-01-01

    In proposed worm-gear transmission, oil pumped at high pressure through meshes between teeth of gear and worm coil. Pressure in oil separates meshing surfaces slightly, and oil reduces friction between surfaces. Conceived for use in drive train between gas-turbine engine and rotor of helicopter. Useful in other applications in which weight critical. Test apparatus simulates and measures some loading conditions of proposed worm gear with hydrostatic engagement.

  3. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Susanne WF

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  4. STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF COMBINED DOSAGE FORM FOR THE TREATMENT OF INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

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    Bobritskaya LA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infection (II of various etiologies is among to the most widespread diseases in the world. The treatment regimen bacterial etiology involves the suppression of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic with the restoration of the normal intestinal microflora. For effective antibiotic pharmacotherapy of intestinal infections are widely used drug combinations with the additionof nifuroxazide, as well as enzymatic and normalizing bowel motility broad-spectrum drugs. Intestinal antiseptics nifuroxazide characterized by broad spectrum of antibacterial action against Staphylococcus spp, Clostridium spp, E. coli, Salmonella spp, Shigellaspp, Proteus spp, Klebsiellaspp, Enterobacter spp, V. cholerae, H. pylori, Yersinia spp, and also the lack of effect on the normal intestinal flora, high safety profile. Recently, for the treatment of intestinal infections nifuroxazide often combined with pre- and probiotics for complex correction of the intestinal microflora disorders. For complex therapy of intestinal infections, we have developed an original combined medicine "Diaplant", in the form of capsules, comprising as active ingredients nifuroxazide (200 mg in combination with plant substance plantaglucide (200 mg. Plantaglucide drug obtained from Plantago major has spasmolytic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, normalizes bowel peristalsis, while reducing the tone of smooth muscles of the stomach and intestines, reduces swelling folds of the gastric mucosa, and contained therein polysaccharides in the form of pectins have properties of prebiotic and have immunostimulatory effects. Aim of the work – study of antibacterial action of combined drug "Diaplant" containing nifuroxazide and plantaglucide in regard to test strains and clinical strains of microorganisms allocated from patients with bacterial diarrhea. Materials and methods. Estimation of antimicrobial activity was performed under conditions in vitro by method of serial dilutions

  5. A significant association between intestinal helminth infection and anaemia burden in children in rural communities of Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa, Favour; Ayo, Oguntade Michael; Imade, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia and evaluate the relationship of intestinal helminth infection on the anaemia status of children in the rural communities of Evbuomore, Isiohor, and Ekosodin. in the Ovia North East local government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Faecal samples and blood samples were obtained from 316 children aged 1-15 years. Faecal samples were examined using standard parasitological techniques, and anaemia was defined as blood haemoglobin <11 g/dL. Of the 316 children, 38.6% were anaemic: 75.9% of children in Evbuomore, 42.3% in Isiohor and 26.8% in Ekosodin. The overall parasite prevalence in the three communities were: Ascaris lumbricoides (75.6%), hookworm (16.19%) and Trichuris trichiura (7.3%). Malnutrition was patent; 37.0% of the children were stunted, 19.3% wasted, and 44.0% underweight. There was a statistically significant association between hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infection and anaemia (P < .001). Serum ferritin levels were more sensitive than haemoglobin in detecting anemia and were correlated with intestinal helminth infection. Intestinal helminth infection in a concomitant state of malnutrition is observed in this population. Intervention programmes should be aimed at control of intestinal helminth infection and iron supplementation.

  6. Intestinal commensal bacteria mediate lung mucosal immunity and promote resistance of newborn mice to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jerilyn; Oehrle, Katherine; Worthen, George; Alenghat, Theresa; Whitsett, Jeffrey; Deshmukh, Hitesh

    2017-02-08

    Immature mucosal defenses contribute to increased susceptibility of newborn infants to pathogens. Sparse knowledge of age-dependent changes in mucosal immunity has hampered improvements in neonatal morbidity because of infections. We report that exposure of neonatal mice to commensal bacteria immediately after birth is required for a robust host defense against bacterial pneumonia, the leading cause of death in newborn infants. This crucial window was characterized by an abrupt influx of interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (IL-22 + ILC3) into the lungs of newborn mice. This influx was dependent on sensing of commensal bacteria by intestinal mucosal dendritic cells. Disruption of postnatal commensal colonization or selective depletion of dendritic cells interrupted the migratory program of lung IL-22 + ILC3 and made the newborn mice more susceptible to pneumonia, which was reversed by transfer of commensal bacteria after birth. Thus, the resistance of newborn mice to pneumonia relied on commensal bacteria-directed ILC3 influx into the lungs, which mediated IL-22-dependent host resistance to pneumonia during this developmental window. These data establish that postnatal colonization by intestinal commensal bacteria is pivotal in the development of the lung defenses of newborns. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection but not small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a pathogenic role in rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, A; Ruocco, E; Lo Schiavo, A; Masarone, M; Tuccillo, C; Peccerillo, F; Miranda, A; Romano, L; de Sio, C; de Sio, I; Persico, M; Ruocco, V; Riegler, G; Loguercio, C; Romano, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Recent studies suggest a potential relationship between rosacea and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), but there is no firm evidence of an association between rosacea and H. pylori infection or SIBO. We performed a prospective study to assess the prevalence of H. pylori infection and/or SIBO in patients with rosacea and evaluated the effect of H. pylori or SIBO eradication on rosacea. Methods We enrolled 90 patients with rosacea from January 2012 to January 2013 and a control group consisting of 90 patients referred to us because of mapping of nevi during the same period. We used the 13C Urea Breath Test and H. pylori stool antigen (HpSA) test to assess H. pylori infection and the glucose breath test to assess SIBO. Patients infected by H. pylori were treated with clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy. Patients positive for SIBO were treated with rifaximin. Results We found that 44/90 (48.9%) patients with rosacea and 24/90 (26.7%) control subjects were infected with H. pylori (p = 0.003). Moreover, 9/90 (10%) patients with rosacea and 7/90 (7.8%) subjects in the control group had SIBO (p = 0.6). Within 10 weeks from the end of antibiotic therapy, the skin lesions of rosacea disappeared or decreased markedly in 35/36 (97.2%) patients after eradication of H. pylori and in 3/8 (37.5%) patients who did not eradicate the infection (p Rosacea skin lesions decreased markedly in 6/7 (85.7%) after eradication of SIBO whereas of the two patients who did not eradicate SIBO, one (50%) showed an improvement in rosacea (p = 0.284). Conclusions Prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in patients with rosacea than control group, whereas SIBO prevalence was comparable between the two groups. Eradication of H. pylori infection led to a significant improvement of skin symptoms in rosacea patients. PMID:25653855

  9. Insights into Campylobacter jejuni colonization of the mammalian intestinal tract using a novel mouse model of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Martin; Vallance, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    A lack of relevant disease models for Campylobacter jejuni has long been an obstacle to research into this common enteric pathogen. We recently published that mice deficient in Single IgG Interleukin-1 related receptor (SIGIRR), a repressor of MyD88-dependent innate immune signaling, were highly susceptible to enteric infection by murine bacterial pathogens. Subsequently, we successfully employed these mice as an animal model for the human pathogen C. jejuni and gained substantial new insights into infection by this pathogen. The infected mice developed significant intestinal inflammation, primarily via TLR4 stimulation. Furthermore, the resulting gastroenteritis was dependent on C. jejuni pathogenesis as bacterial strains suffering mutations in key virulence factors were attenuated in causing disease. The ability to infect SIGIRR-deficient mice with C. jejuni sheds new light onto how these bacteria colonize the mucus layer of the intestinal tract, invade epithelial cells, and raises new prospects for studying the virulence strategies and pathogenesis of C. jejuni.

  10. Cytokine gene expression profiles in chicken spleen and intestinal tissues during Ascaridia galli infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pleidrup, Janne A.; Norup, Liselotte R.; Dalgaard, Tina S.

    2014-01-01

    , the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta 4 and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17F were determined over a period of 3 weeks in A. galli and non-A. galli-infected chickens. A characteristic Th2 response was observed in the jejunum of A. galli-infected chickens with increased expression of IL-13...... and decreased expression of IFN-gamma from day 14 post infection. At the putative time of larvae invasion into the intestinal mucosa (day 7), an increased expression of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and TGF-beta 4 was observed in the spleen. At the putative onset of the innate immune response (day 10), a decreased...... expression of jejunal IFN-gamma and IL-13 was observed. Finally, at the expected period of an adaptive immune response (days 14-21) a general decreased expression of IFN-gamma and TGF-beta 4 in spleen and IFN-gamma in jejunum was followed by a decreased expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 at day 21 in caecal...

  11. DOCK2 confers immunity and intestinal colonization resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiping; Man, Si Ming; Zhu, Qifan; Vogel, Peter; Frase, Sharon; Fukui, Yoshinori; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-06-13

    Food poisoning is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Citrobacter rodentium is an enteric pathogen which attaches itself to enterocytes and induces attachment and effacing (A/E) lesions. The ability of the bacterium to cause infection requires subversion of the host actin cytoskeleton. Rac-dependent actin polymerization is activated by a guanine nucleotide exchange factor known as Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2). However, the role of DOCK2 in infectious disease is largely unexplored. Here, we found that mice lacking DOCK2 were susceptible to C. rodentium infection. These mice harbored increased levels of C. rodentium bacteria, showed more pronounced weight loss and inflammation-associated pathology, and were prone to bacterial dissemination to the systemic organs compared with wild-type mice. We found that mice lacking DOCK2 were more susceptible to C. rodentium attachment to intestinal epithelial cells. Therefore, our results underscored an important role of DOCK2 for gastrointestinal immunity to C. rodentium infection.

  12. A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyu-Jae; Ahn, Yung-Kyum; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2000-01-01

    To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3%...

  13. Ascaris Suum Infection Downregulates Inflammatory Pathways in the Pig Intestine In Vivo and in Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L. E.; Acevedo, Nathalie; Skallerup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost 1 billion people. Ascaris is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using...... data provide an insight into mucosal immune modulation during Ascaris infection, and show that A. suum profoundly suppresses immune and inflammatory pathways...... transcriptomic analysis, we show here that pigs with a chronic A. suum infection have a substantial suppression of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa, with a broad downregulation of genes encoding cytokines and antigen-processing and costimulatory molecules. A. suum body fluid (ABF) suppressed...

  14. The hematological status, plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels, and intestinal pathology in rats infected with Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeramakara, Cheeraratana; Nontprasert, Apichart; Siripanth, Chutatip; Tanomsak, Wanyarat; Chularerk, Udomporn; Sucharit, Pramualmal; Areekul, Suvit

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the hematological status, vitamin B12 and folic acid absorption and intestinal pathology after Giardia lamblia infection in a rat model. Adult Wistar rats were assigned randomly to receive human giardia cysts orally in the amount of 5 x 10(5) or 1.0 x 10(6) cysts, or none in the controls. The results showed that all the rats injected with giardia cysts became infected. The cyst output in the infected rats varied considerably. In rats infected with 5.0 x 10(5) giardia cysts, the incubation period until cyst output was 10 days compared with 4 days in rats infected with the higher amount of 1.0 x 106 giardia cysts. The highest peaks for cysts output in these 2 groups were on days 4-33, which decreased gradually to days 40-58. The hematocrit and hemoglobin levels in the infected rats were statistically significantly lower than in the controls on days 16, 22, 33, and 37 post-infection (p giardia cyst output and hemoglobin concentration was found in the infected rats (p = 0.05). There were no significant differences in plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels between the infected rats and the control rats. No pathological changes were found in the small intestine of infected rats. These findings suggest that giardiasis did not affect the absorption of plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid but caused anemia in a rat model.

  15. X-ray microanalysis of rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: A new concept of diarrhoeal secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, A.J.; Osborne, M.P.; Haddon, S.J.; Collins, J.; Starkey, W.G.; Candy, D.C.; Stephen, J. (Univ. of Birmingham (England))

    1990-05-01

    Neonatal mice were infected at 7 days of age with rotavirus (epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) virus) and killed at 24-h intervals postinfection (PI). Cytoplasmic concentrations of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca intestinal epithelial cells from infected and age-matched control animals were measured by x-ray microanalysis. In villus tip cells, Ca concentration increased at 24-96 h PI; Na concentration increased at 24-72 h PI; Ca and Na concentrations were near normal by 168 h PI. K concentration decreased 24-72 h PI, and Cl concentration decreased 48-96 h PI. In crypt cells, changes were observed without a discernible pattern: at 96 h PI, Na, Mg, S, and Cl concentrations increased and K concentration decreased; at 120 h PI, the concentrations of all elements except Na and Ca increased. In villus base cells, the mean concentrations of all elements except Ca peaked at 48-72 h PI and at 120 h PI. Na and Cl concentrations increased dramatically in some cells from 48 h PI onward. All the above concentration values were obtained from freeze-dried specimens and expressed in millimoles per kilogram of dry weight. Conversion of a limited number of data, pertaining to villus base cells, from dry weight to wet weight was possible. This conversion revealed that villus base cells in infected animals were more hydrated than corresponding cells from control animals. Also, the Na and Cl concentrations in mmol/kg H2O were significantly higher in villus base cells from infected animals than in those from corresponding controls: 137 +/- 7 versus 38 +/- 4 (Na) and 121 +/- 5 versus 89 +/- 6 (Cl). Wet weight concentrations of other elements were either the same (Mg) or lower (P, S, and K) after infection with virus.

  16. Parasitic worms: knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Western Côte d'Ivoire with implications for integrated control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia A Acka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. METHODS: We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001. Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections.

  17. Effect of processed and fermented soyabeans on net absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Andel, van E.E.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a major problem in both children and piglets. Infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In the present study the effect of processed and fermented soyabean products on net absorption during

  18. A high molecular weight soluble fraction of tempeh protects against fluid losses in Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2007-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhoea in children and piglets. Infection of ETEC results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In this study the effects of tempeh, a traditional fungal fermented soyabean product, on fluid losses

  19. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  20. Intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wumba, R; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mandina, M; Odio, Wobin T; Biligui, S; Sala, J; Breton, J; Thellier, M

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP) involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8%) were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2%) were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7%). 47 out of 175 (26.9%) were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4%) were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP). Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7%, 5.1%, 1.7% and 0.6% for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6%, 4.6%, 3.4% and 1.1% respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1%), Ascoris lumbricoides in seven cases (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7%), hookworm in two cases (1.1%) and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6%). No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.

  1. Intestinal parasites infections in hospitalized AIDS patients in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wumba R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8 % were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2 % were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7 %. 47 out of 175 (26.9 % were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4 % were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP. Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7 %, 5.1 %, 1.7 % and 0.6 % for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6 %, 4.6 %, 3.4 % and 1.1 % respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1 %, Ascaris lumbricoïdes in seven cases (4.0 %, Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7 %, hookworm in two cases (1.1 % and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6 %. No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.

  2. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  3. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin

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    Jun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones (FQs are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w. were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Acinetobacter and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group

  4. Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened

  5. Evaluation of the ultrastructure of the small intestine of hiv infected children by transmission and scanning electronic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Christiane Araujo Chaves; Fagundes-Neto, Ulysses; Haapalainen, Edna Freymüller

    2013-01-01

    To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little "tufts" of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before.

  6. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE OF HIV INFECTED CHILDREN BY TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

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    Christiane Araujo Chaves LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Methods Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Results In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little “tufts” of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Conclusions Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before.

  7. Ascaris Lumbricoides infestation and intestinal MZBCL: a surgical and radiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, M; Casciani, E; Romeo, V; Valesini, L; Centonze, L; Bartolucci, P; Ciccarone, F; Gualdi, G; Modini, C

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris Lumbricoides is the most common worm found in human beings and it is the largest of the intestinal nematodes parasitizing humanity. The most common complication of Ascariasis is mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a large number of worms. Bowel obstruction can also be caused by various toxins released by the worms. A large worm bolus can also cause volvulus or intussusception. We report a case of Intestinal Obstruction due to an Ileal MZBCL in an Ascaris. Lumbricoides infestation setting.

  8. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  9. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

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    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  10. Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Yan-Heng; Han, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xue-Jie; Li, Bin; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks

  11. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

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    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  12. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelbauer Kathrin; Speich Benjamin; Mäusezahl Daniel; Bos Robert; Keiser Jennifer; Utzinger Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Worldwide, more than a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths, parasitic worms that live in the human intestine (gut). Roundworm, whipworm, and hookworm infections mainly occur in tropical and subtropical regions and are most common in developing countries, where personal hygiene is poor, there is insufficient access to clean water, and sanitation (disposal of human feces and urine) is inadequate or absent. Because infected individuals excrete ...

  13. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  14. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  15. Copro-diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by amplification of a newly identified repeated DNA sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Branzburg, Anna; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Abdel Hafez, Sami K; Raoul, Francis; Craig, Philip S; Hamburger, Joseph

    Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by detecting adult worms recovered post mortem or purged from the intestines after treatment with arecoline is not suitable for mass screening. Large-scale diagnosis by detection of copro-antigens is useful but only with relatively high

  16. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  17. Microscopic inter-observer reliability of intestinal parasitic infections in trained laboratory technicians, Mexico

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    Joel Monárrez-Espino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL, Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of northern Mexico to assess the inter-observer reliability of GL, AL, and Eh/Ed diagnoses. Two experienced technicians working at the hospital were trained and standardized for two full weeks in the Parasitology Laboratory at the National Children’s Hospital from Mexico City. Diagnoses were made by microscopy of two serial stool samples processed using the modified Faust zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique to concentrate AL eggs and GL and Eh/Ed cysts. Observations were done independently, and the final diagnosis for each observer was established when at least one of the two samples resulted positive. Reliability analyses from serial stool samples were conducted using Cohen’s kappa correlation coefficient (ĸ for each parasite. Agreement between observers reached 88.7, 72.4, and 80.5% for Eh/Ed, AL, and GL, respectively. Largest kappa coefficient was observed for GL (ĸ=0.55, followed by Eh/Ed (ĸ=0.30, and AL (ĸ=0.08. Prevalence of Eh/Ed, AL and GL according to observers 1 and 2 were 3.4 vs. 13.5%, 4.0 vs. 28.2%, and 32.2 vs. 33.3%, respectively. Except for GL, reliability was very low leading to major differences in prevalence estimates. These results question the value of training technicians, as intestinal parasitic microscopic diagnoses seemed to be very difficult to replicate between observers questioning their validity, leading to differences in clinical decisions, and in prevalence estimates.

  18. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Steele

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging". Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD and microbial translocation (MT contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP, MT (LPS, sCD14, T-cell activation (sCD27, and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos adults from 20-100 years old.Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008, sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = <0.0001 and LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002 levels in HIV(neg but not HIV(pos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos subjects to determine whether HIV(pos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01.We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  19. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Amanda K; Lee, Eric J; Vestal, Brian; Hecht, Daniel; Dong, Zachary; Rapaport, Eric; Koeppe, John; Campbell, Thomas B; Wilson, Cara C

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging"). Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD) and microbial translocation (MT) contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear. Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP), MT (LPS, sCD14), T-cell activation (sCD27), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6) were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg)) and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos)) adults from 20-100 years old. Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008), sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002) levels in HIV(neg) but not HIV(pos) subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos) subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg) subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP) based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg) subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg) subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos) subjects to determine whether HIV(pos) subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos) IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01). We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  20. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    OpenAIRE

    Traversa, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarid...

  1. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Vlaminck, Johnny; Claerhoudt, Sarah; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Saunders, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  2. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  3. Decreasing prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ritu; Acharya, Lokendra; Karki, Surendra

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades there have been several studies describing the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Nepal; however, there is a lack of surveillance data in the country. We searched literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and local peer-reviewed journals published from 1990 to 2015 for studies describing prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-aged children. We conducted meta-regression to understand the trend over time and pooled the prevalence using 'metaprop' command in STATA 12.1. Thirty-one studies examining 12 080 fecal specimens were included. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections showed a significantly decreasing trend (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.73 for each consecutive 5 years) and was similar in males and females. The pooled prevalence in years 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 was 61.1% (95% CI 51.47-70.26), 53.2% (95% CI 20.94-83.99), 32.7% (95% CI 26.57-39.21) and 20.4% (95% CI 15.04-26.25), respectively. The proportion of helminths among total intestinal parasites was higher in rural areas 57.6% (95% CI 43.54-71.61), and proportion of protozoa among total intestinal parasites was higher in urban areas 68.4% (95% CI 63.23-73.62). Poly-parasitism was observed in 7.7% (95% CI 5.57-9.73) of children. We observed a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal over the last two decades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Intestinal Adenovirus Shedding Before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Risk Factor for Invasive Infection Post-transplant

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    Karin Kosulin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdV are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT. The virus was detected in the stool of 129 patients (42%, and 42 tested positive already before HSCT. The patients displaying HAdV shedding pre-transplant showed a significantly earlier increase of intestinal HAdV levels above the critical threshold associated with high risk of invasive infection (p < 0.01. In this subset of patients, the occurrence of invasive infection characterized by viremia was significantly higher than in patients without HAdV shedding before HSCT (33% vs 7%; p < 0.0001. The data demonstrate that intestinal HAdV shedding before HSCT confers a greatly increased risk for invasive infection and disseminated disease post-transplant, and highlights the need for timely HAdV monitoring and pre-emptive therapeutic considerations in HSCT recipients.

  5. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

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    Chadukura Vivian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. Methods A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Results Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10.7%, slightly more than the baseline level (10.3% while other

  6. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study.

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    Midzi, Nicholas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Sangweme, Davison; Paul, Noah H; Makware, Godfrey; Mapingure, Munyaradzi P; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Mudzori, James; Hlerema, Gibson; Chadukura, Vivian; Mutapi, Francisca; Kumar, Nirbhay; Mduluza, Takafira

    2011-06-22

    The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated combined school based antihelminthic and prompt malaria treatment. A cohort of primary schoolchildren (5-17 years) received combined Praziquantel, albendazole treatment at baseline, and again during 6, 12 and 33 months follow up surveys and sustained prompt malaria treatment. Sustained prompt malaria treatment was carried out throughout the study period. Children's infection status with helminths, Plasmodium and helminths-Plasmodium co-infections was determined by parasitological examinations at baseline and at each treatment point. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, STH, malaria, helminths-Plasmodium co-infections and helminths infection intensities before and after treatment were analysed. Longitudinal data showed that two rounds of combined Praziquantel and albendazole treatment for schistosomiasis and STHs at 6 monthly intervals and sustained prompt malaria treatment significantly reduced the overall prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, hookworms and P. falciparum infection in primary schoolchildren by 73.5%, 70.8%, 67.3% and 58.8% respectively (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). More importantly, the prevalence of STH + schistosomes, P. f + schistosomes, and P. f + STHs + schistosomes co-infections were reduced by 68.0%, 84.2%, and 90.7%, respectively. The absence of anti-helminthic treatment between the 12 mth and 33 mth follow-up surveys resulted in the sharp increase in STHs + schistosomes co-infection from 3.3% at 12 months follow up survey to 10

  7. [Frequency of intestinal microsporidian infections in HIV-positive patients, as diagnosis by quick hot Gram chromotrope staining and PCR].

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    Botero, Jorge H; Montoya, Martha Nelly; Vanegas, Adriana Lucía; Díaz, Abel; Navarro-i-Martínez, Luis; Bornay, Fernando Jorge; Izquierdo, Fernando; del Aguila, Carmen; Agudelo, Sonia del Pilar

    2004-12-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites, today mainly associated with diarrhea in AIDS patients. Microsporidia prevalence ranges from 8% to 52% in different countries, as evaluated by several diagnostic methods, such as the stain test and PCR. In Medellín, Colombia, its frequency is unknown, and hence, a study was undertaken to determine the frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients, by means of the quick-hot Gram chromotrope test and the PCR. A prospective and descriptive study of an intentional population of all HIV-positive patients was sent to the Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales laboratory by institutions treating the HIV-positive patients of Medellín between August 2001 and September 2002. The clinical-epidemiological survey included a serial stool test with direct concentration and special stains for coccidiae and intestinal microsporidia. In addition, counts of lymphocytes TCD4+ and viral load were requested. One hundred and three patients with ages ranging from 2-74 years were evaluated. Seventy percent presented with diarrhea--mostly in men (83.5%). The overall frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis was 3.9% and that of other intestinal parasitic infections was 39.8%. Three of the four patients positive for microsporida were infected with Enterocytozoon bieneusi and one with Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The microsporidiosis frequency was relatively low with 3 of the 4 cases associated with protracted diarrhea, counts of LTCD4+ below 100 cel/microl and viral loads up to 100,000 copies.

  8. Effect of sanitation and water treatment on intestinal protozoa infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Croll, David; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are responsible for substantial mortality and morbidity, particularly in settings where people lack improved sanitation and safe drinking water. We assessed the relation between access to, and use of, sanitation facilities and water treatment and infection with intestinal protozoa. We did a systematic review and searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase from inception to June 30, 2014, without restrictions on language. All publications were examined by two independent reviewers and were included if they presented data at the individual level about access or use of sanitation facilities or water treatment, in combination with individual-level data on human intestinal protozoa infections. Meta-analyses using random effects models were used to calculate overall estimates. 54 studies were included and odds ratios (ORs) extracted or calculated from 2 × 2 contingency tables. The availability or use of sanitation facilities was associated with significantly lower odds of infection with Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar (OR 0·56, 95% CI 0·42-0·74) and Giardia intestinalis (0·64, 0·51-0·81), but not for Blastocystis hominis (1·03, 0·87-1·23), and Cryptosporidium spp (0·68, 0·17-2·68). Water treatment was associated with significantly lower odds of B hominis (0·52, 0·34-0·78), E histolytica or E dispar (0·61, 0·38-0·99), G intestinalis (0·63, 0·50-0·80), and Cryptosporidium spp infections (0·83, 0·70-0·98). Availability and use of sanitation facilities and water treatment is associated with lower odds of intestinal protozoa infections. Interventions that focus on water and sanitation, coupled with hygiene behaviour, should be emphasised to sustain the control of intestinal protozoa infections. Swiss National Science Foundation (project numbers PBBSP3-146869 and P300P3-154634), Medicor Foundation, European Research Council (614739-A_HERO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of intestinal histology with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in three breeds of sheep Associação entre a resposta celular no intestino e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em três raças de ovinos

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    Alessandro F.T. Amarante

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the relationship of inflammatory intestinal cells with the resistance to Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections in three breeds of sheep (Santa Ines, Suffolk and Ile de France, naturally infected. Mast cells, eosinophils, and globule leucocytes were enumerated in intestinal mucosa. Histamine concentration was estimated in intestinal tissue samples and the length of male and female specimens were determined. The three breeds of sheep showed similar cellular response in the small intestine mucosa (P>0.05. There was extensive variation among sheep in the parasitological and inflammatory cell variables, even in lambs of the same breed. In general, animals presenting less inflammatory cells had a larger worm burden, higher fecal egg counts, and larger T. colubriformis worms. The inflammatory cells possibly impaired the parasite's establishment, development, and survival.Avaliaram-se a associação entre o número de células inflamatórias no intestino delgado e a resistência à infecção por Trichostrongylus colubriformis em ovinos de três raças (Santa Inês, Suffolk e Ile de France, naturalmente infectados. Mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares foram quantificados na mucosa intestinal. A concentração de histamina foi estimada em amostras teciduais do intestino, bem como foi determinado o comprimento de machos e fêmeas de T. colubriformis. A resposta celular foi similar na mucosa intestinal das três raças ovinas (P>0,05. Houve grande variação entre os ovinos em relação aos resultados parasitológicos e celulares, mesmo nos animais de mesma raça. Em geral, os animais que apresentaram número menor de células inflamatórias tiveram cargas parasitárias maiores, contagens de ovos por grama de fezes mais altas e exemplares de T. colubriformis maiores. Os resultados indicaram que mastócitos, eosinófilos e leucócitos globulares prejudicaram o estabelecimento, o desenvolvimento e a

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in relation to HIV/AIDS status, diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count

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    Assefa Zelalem

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and without HIV infection and its association with diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital focusing on HIV positive individuals, who gave blood for CD4 T-cell count at their first enrolment and clients tested HIV negative from November, 2008 to March, 2009. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhea status were obtained by interviewing 378 consecutive participants (214 HIV positive and 164 HIV negative. Stool samples were collected from all study subjects and examined for parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid fast stain techniques. Results The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was significantly higher among HIV positive participants. Specifically, rate of infection with Cryptosporidium, I. belli, and S. stercoralis were higher, particularly in those with CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL. Diarrhea was more frequent also at the same lower CD4 T-cell counts. Conclusion Immunodeficiency increased the risk of having opportunistic parasites and diarrhea. Therefore; raising patient immune status and screening at least for those treatable parasites is important.

  11. Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic diseases Parasitosis intestinales, cisticercosis e hidatidosis

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    David Botero

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper offers an up to date review of the intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic disease found In Colombia. Their main epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic features are presented, to provide the reader with a current view of their public health Importance, prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las parasitosis intestinales, la cisticercosis y la hidatidosis en Colombia, con una breve descripción de la prevalencia, las características epidemiológicas, los efectos sobre la salud y algunos aspectos de control y tratamiento. Con esta revisión se busca tener información resumida sobre las parasitosis que se encuentran en Colombia y su mayor o menor Importancia en salud pública. TambIén se pretende ofrecer una Idea del nivel de gravedad de estas entidades como causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en este país. 

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

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    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  14. [General infection prevention in abdominal surgery with special reference to intestinal decontamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardey, H M

    1999-01-01

    In surgery prophylaxis for infection is necessary, because patients are immunocompromised due to the underlying disease and the operation while at the same time being increasingly exposed to potentially pathogenic germs. Prophylaxis is based on the control of endogenous and exogenous microorganisms. For this purpose either systemic or locally active topical agents may be employed. Systemically active substances are applied with the aim to kill and eliminate invasive microorganisms in deep tissue levels, either by their own biological activity or by stimulating specific or unspecific host immune reactions. Local topical measures in contrast are to prevent the primary contact between microorganisms and host. The central pillar of systemic measures is the perioperative systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, immunonutrition is beginning to gain importance, and in the future possibly substances such as G-CSF, which directly stimulate the immune system, may be employed. Standard topical measures are sterilization and desinfection while decontamination of the digestive tract has until now not found a wide spread acceptance. For certain indications especially high risk surgical resections with anastomoses at the level of the oesophagus or the lower rectum it is possible to eliminate endogenous intestinal microorganisms effectively using topical decontamination in combination with systemic antibiotics and improve the surgical results, especially anastomotic healing.

  15. Intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma without Helicobacter pylori infection successfully treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Satoshi; Miyaoka, Youichi; Fujiwara, Aya; Tsukano, Kousuke; Ogawa, Sayaka; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kusunoki, Ryusaku; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Kohge, Naruaki; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-08-01

    A 67-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for further examination and for treatment of gastric neoplasia located on the posterior wall of the antrum of the stomach, as revealed by screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The patient had no history of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication. Her serum H. pylori antibody and urea breath test results were negative, histopathological findings revealed no H. pylori bacteria, and endoscopic findings revealed no chronic gastritis. We performed endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Histological examination of the resected tissues revealed the tumor to be composed of a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with a tubular-type adenoma confined to the mucosa. This adenocarcinoma exhibited immunohistochemical expression of CD10, MUC2, and Cdx2, but not MUC5AC or MUC6. This is an extremely rare case of H. pylori infection-negative, intestinal-type, differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by detailed immunohistochemical examination that was treated with ESD. The patient has had no recurrence of adenocarcinoma after ESD.

  16. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2018-03-15

    Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori , AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori -positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori -negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.

  17. THE RATIONALE FOR ALPHA-INTERFERON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN INFANTS WITH FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AND ACUTE INVASIVE INTESTINAL INFECTION

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    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intestinal  infections  in children are a considerable  medical and social problem  worldwide. Immune therapy  could  help  to reduce the frequency of post-infectious functional intestinal dysfunction  in patients  with comorbidities. Aim: To evaluate  the  efficacy of human  recombinant interferon  alpha-2b, administered at acute  phase  of an acute  invasive intestinal  infection to infants in the first months  of age, suffering from functional  bowel  disorders. Materials and methods: This  was  an  open-label,  randomized (envelope method, prospective  study in two parallel groups. The study included  59 infants of the  first months  of life, who were breastfed, had a history of intestinal  dysfunction  and were hospitalized  to  an  infectious  department. We studied  efficacy of recombinant interferon  alpha-2b administered in rectal suppositories  at a dose  of   chromatography with measurement of short-chain fatty acids. Results: Standard treatment was ineffective in 63.3% (95% CI 43.9–80.0% of patients. Administration   of  interferon   alpha-2b   reduced the rate of treatment failure by day 14 to 32% (95% CI 9–56% and  the  risk of persistent  diarrhea  for more than  one month  to 29% (95% CI 5–53%. In those patients  who were administered interferon, inflammation at days 25 to 55 was less severe and the levels of i-forms of short-chain fatty acids were lower. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with recombinant interferon alpha-2b seems to be a promising way to improve  combination treatment of acute invasive intestinal infections in infants with a history of intestinal dysfunction, as it reduces the risk of post-infectious intestinal disorders.

  18. Regression of gastric intestinal metaplasia after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in a hospital in Mexico

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    Jaime Alberto Sánchez-Cuén

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal metaplasia is a precursor lesion of gastric cancer. Infection by Helicobacter pylori is the principal cause of metaplasia. While evidence of the regression of metaplasia after treatment to eradicate this infection has been demonstrated, controversy remains with regard to this subject. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of the regression of gastric intestinal metaplasia one year after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Methods: A prospective longitudinal designed study was carried out. The population studied in this research consisted of patients attending the Endoscopy Unit to undergo an upper endoscopy, in whom various symptoms indicated intestinal metaplasia associated with Helicobacter pylori, and who received standard empiric triple therapy to eradicate the bacteria. An upper endoscopy was performed in which four gastric biopsy samples were taken (two from the antrum and two from the body before and after the eradicating treatment, with the endoscopic and histological findings studied after one year of monitoring. The statistical analysis was conducted using the Fisher's exact test and the McNemar's test. Results: Forty-six patients were studied, of whom 20 (43.5% were men and 26 (56.5% were women, with an average age of 58.9 (DE 11.2. Intestinal metaplasia was found in 46 (100% patients before treatment and in 21 (45.7% patients post-eradication. Complete intestinal metaplasia (type I was found in 35 patients (76.1% before treatment and in 11 (23.9% patients post-eradication (p = 0.000, while incomplete intestinal metaplasia (type II was found in 10 (21.7% patients before treatment and in 10 (21.7% patients post-eradication. Non-atrophic chronic gastritis was found in 35 (76.1% patients before treatment and in 32 (69.6% patients post-eradication. Conclusions: In this study, gastric intestinal metaplasia associated with Helicobacter pylori infection showed a regression of 54

  19. Regression of gastric intestinal metaplasia after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in a hospital in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Cuén, Jaime Alberto; Irineo Cabrales, Ana Bertha; Bernal Magaña, Gregorio; Peraza Garay, Felipe

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal metaplasia is a precursor lesion of gastric cancer. Infection by Helicobacter pylori is the principal cause of metaplasia. While evidence of the regression of metaplasia after treatment to eradicate this infection has been demonstrated, controversy remains with regard to this subject. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of the regression of gastric intestinal metaplasia one year after the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. A prospective longitudinal designed study was carried out. The population studied in this research consisted of patients attending the Endoscopy Unit to undergo an upper endoscopy, in whom various symptoms indicated intestinal metaplasia associated with Helicobacter pylori, and who received standard empiric triple therapy to eradicate the bacteria. An upper endoscopy was performed in which four gastric biopsy samples were taken (two from the antrum and two from the body) before and after the eradicating treatment, with the endoscopic and histological findings studied after one year of monitoring. The statistical analysis was conducted using the Fisher's exact test and the McNemar's test. Forty-six patients were studied, of whom 20 (43.5%) were men and 26 (56.5%) were women, with an average age of 58.9 (DE 11.2). Intestinal metaplasia was found in 46 (100%) patients before treatment and in 21 (45.7%) patients post-eradication. Complete intestinal metaplasia (type I) was found in 35 patients (76.1%) before treatment and in 11 (23.9%) patients post-eradication (p = 0.000), while incomplete intestinal metaplasia (type II) was found in 10 (21.7%) patients before treatment and in 10 (21.7%) patients post-eradication. Non-atrophic chronic gastritis was found in 35 (76.1%) patients before treatment and in 32 (69.6%) patients post-eradication. In this study, gastric intestinal metaplasia associated with Helicobacter pylori infection showed a regression of 54.3% one year after the eradication of this microorganism. This

  20. Relationship of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response with hematological and serum biochemical values in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Mario Alberto; Bonnet, María Agustina; Bueno, Dante Javier

    2015-06-15

    There are few studies about the blood serum of laying hens infected with Salmonella. The differential leukocyte count and blood chemistry values are an important aid in the diagnosis of human diseases, but blood parameters in the avian species are not well known. On the other hand, invasive forms of bacterial gastroenteritis, like Salmonella, often cause intestinal inflammation so this study was undertaken to find a biomarker of Salmonella infection and inflammatory intestinal response in the hematological or serum biochemical parameters in laying hens. Furthermore, we evaluated the association of some farm characteristics with Salmonella infection and fecal leukocytes (FL). A fecal sample with at least one fecal leukocyte per field was considered positive for inflammatory intestinal response. False positive serum reactions for Salmonella infection, by serum plate agglutination (SPA) test, were reduced by heating the sample to 56°C for 30 min and then diluting it 5-fold. The range of hematological and biochemical parameter values was very wide, in addition, there was a poor agreement between the SPA and FL results. Comparison of the positive and negative samples in SPA and FL showed that 1.3% and 79.8% of the laying hens were positive and negative in both tests, respectively. Hens with a positive SPA result showed a higher percentage of monocytes than those with a negative SPA result. Hens with a positive FL test had a higher percentage of heterophils, ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes and aspartate aminotransferase values, while the percentage of lymphocytes was significantly lower (P laying hens and the number of hens per poultry house was greater than or equal to 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, compared to less than 18 months old and 10,000 laying hens, respectively. On the other hand, the risk of inflammatory intestinal response was higher in laying hens ≥ 18 months old than in hens laying hens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  2. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Norhidayu Sahimin; Yvonne A L Lim; Farnaza Ariffin; Jerzy M Behnke; John W Lewis; Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, E...

  3. Schistogram changes after administration of antischistosomal drugs in mice at the early phase of Schistosoma mansoni infection

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    Andrea Cassia Simoes Vimieiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni were treated with oxamniquine, praziquantel, artesunate at the pre-patent phase, aiming at observing schistogram alterations. Half of the animals were perfused five days post-treatment for counting and classification of immature worms, based on pre-established morphological criteria (schistogram; the remaining animals were evaluated 42 or 100 days after infection and perfusion of the portal-system was performed for collection and counting of adult worms and oogram. It was observed that oxamniquine and artesunate treatment administered at the pre-postural phase causes significant reduction in the number of immature and adult worms. However, there was little reduction with praziquantel when used at the dose of 400 mg/kg for treatments administered 14, 15, 21 or 23 days post-infection. Artesunate was responsible for significant alterations in development of young worms, as well as for a higher number of worms presenting intestinal damages. Immature adult worms were detected in mice treated with artesunate or oxamniquine at the pre-patent phase of infection and recovered by perfusion 100 days after infection. Schistogram proved to be a very useful tool for experimental evaluation of the activity of antischistosomal drugs and a good model to identify the most sensitive stages to drugs.

  4. Effect of pea and faba bean fractions on net fluid absorption in ETEC-infected small intestinal segements of weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After weaning piglets frequently have diarrhoea associated with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Alternative plant protein sources such as peas, faba beans and lupins may contribute in preventing gastrointestinal problems. In the small intestinal segment perfusion model, the

  5. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  6. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  7. An in vitro model of intestinal infection reveals a developmentally regulated transcriptome of Toxoplasma sporozoites and a NF-κB-like signature in infected host cells.

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    Pascale S Guiton

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection affecting approximately 30% of the world's human population. After sexual reproduction in the definitive feline host, Toxoplasma oocysts, each containing 8 sporozoites, are shed into the environment where they can go on to infect humans and other warm-blooded intermediate hosts. Here, we use an in vitro model to assess host transcriptomic changes that occur in the earliest stages of such infections. We show that infection of rat intestinal epithelial cells with mature sporozoites primarily results in higher expression of genes associated with Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα signaling via NF-κB. Furthermore, we find that, consistent with their biology, these mature, invaded sporozoites display a transcriptome intermediate between the previously reported day 10 oocysts and that of their tachyzoite counterparts. Thus, this study uncovers novel host and pathogen factors that may be critical for the establishment of a successful intracellular niche following sporozoite-initiated infection.

  8. Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, S.S.; Erdei, J.; Forsgren, A.; Naidu, A.S. (Departments of Medical Microbiology, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Czirok, E.; Gado, I. (National Institute of Hygiene, Budapest (Hungary)); Kalfas, S. (School of Dentistry, University of Lund, Malmoe (Sweden)); Thoren, A. (Infectious Diseases, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a {sup 125}I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binging EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the {sup 125}I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subephithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 10{sup 4}-fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of {sup 125}I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (K{sub a}) of 1.4 x 10{sup -7} M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. (au).

  9. Analysis of Two-Worm Interaction Model in Heterogeneous M2M Network

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    Jinhua Ma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of M2M (Machine-to-Machine networks, the damages caused by malicious worms are getting more and more serious. By considering the influences of the network heterogeneity on worm spreading, we are the first to study the complex interaction dynamics between benign worms and malicious worms in heterogeneous M2M network. We analyze and compare three worm propagation models based on different immunization schemes. By investigating the local stability of the worm-free equilibrium, we obtain the basic reproduction number R0 . Besides, by using suitable Lyapunov functions, we prove that the worm-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 ≤ 1 , otherwise unstable. The dynamics of worm models is completely determined by R0 . In the absence of birth, death and users’ treatment, we obtain the final size formula of worms. This study shows that the nodes with higher node degree are more susceptible to be infected than those with lower node degree. In addition, the effects of various immunization schemes are studied. Numerical simulations verify our theoretical results. The research results are meaningful for us to further understand the spread of worms in heterogeneous M2M network, and enact effectual control tactics.

  10. Intestinal mass in a one year old child: An unusual presentation of Strongyloides stercolaris infection. Case report

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    Silvia Aragon, MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyloidiasis is a common disease in the world. In children, the worldwide prevalence rates ranged from 0.6% to 5.3% [1]. In Colombia studies report a prevalence of 1.3% in children, although it may be higher [2]. The most frequent symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. However, on rare occasions the infection can cause duodenal obstruction, pyloric hypertrophy and colonic mass. This article reports the first case of a toddler who presented with a mass in the cecum as a manifestation of Strongyloides stercolaris infection, which required surgical resection as it was initially believed to be a Burkitt lymphoma.

  11. The Dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A C; Déirdre Hollingsworth, T

    2016-04-01

    The Anderson-May model of human parasite infections and specifically that for the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides is reconsidered, with a view to deriving the observed characteristic negative binomial distribution which is frequently found in human communities. The means to obtaining this result lies in reformulating the continuous Anderson-May model as a stochastic process involving two essential populations, the density of mature worms in the gut, and the density of mature eggs in the environment. The resulting partial differential equation for the generating function of the joint probability distribution of eggs and worms can be partially solved in the appropriate limit where the worm lifetime is much greater than that of the mature eggs in the environment. Allowing for a mean field nonlinearity, and for egg immigration from neighbouring communities, a negative binomial worm distribution can be predicted, whose parameters are determined by those in the continuous Anderson-May model; this result assumes no variability in predisposition to the infection.

  12. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava in mice infected with Vibrio cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Olufunke B; Ajayi, Olusola L; Bankole, Samuel O; Popoola, Temitope Os

    2016-06-01

    Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of these alternatives in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection requires experimental investigation. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup diffusion assay. For ameliorative effects, adult mice were inoculated with 100 µl (106 cells) of Vibrio cholerae and dosed at 0 h (immediate prevention) and 4 h (treatment of infection) and their intestines were histopathologically evaluated. The histopathological changes were the same irrespective of the treated groups, but the lesions varied in extent and severity. The ameliorative effects in decreasing order were V. amygdalina > P. guajava > Ogi-tutu. V. amygdalina gave the best ameliorative effects in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection.

  13. The use of protein hydrolysate improves the protein intestinal absorption in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

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    Coutinho Eridan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients residing in endemic areas for schistosomiasis in Brazil are usually undernourished and when they develop the hepatosplenic clinical form of the disease should usually receive hospital care, many of them being in need of nutritional rehabilitation before specific treatment can be undertaken. In the mouse model, investigations carried out in our laboratory detected a reduced aminoacid uptake in undernourished animals which is aggravated by a superimposed infection with Schistosoma mansoni. However, in well-nourished infected mice no dysfunction occurs. In this study, we tried to improve the absorptive intestinal performance of undernourished mice infected with S. mansoni by feeding them with hydrolysed casein instead of whole casein. The values obtained for the coefficient of protein intestinal absorption (cpia among well-nourished mice were above 90% (either hydrolysed or whole protein. In undernourished infected mice, however, the cpia improved significantly after feeding them with hydrolysed casein, animals reaching values close to those obtained in well-nourished infected mice.

  14. Efficacy of integrated school based de-worming and prompt malaria treatment on helminths -Plasmodium falciparum co-infections: A 33 months follow up study

    OpenAIRE

    Chadukura Vivian; Hlerema Gibson; Mudzori James; Brouwer Kimberly C; Mapingure Munyaradzi P; Makware Godfrey; Paul Noah H; Sangweme Davison; Midzi Nicholas; Mtapuri-Zinyowera Sekesai; Mutapi Francisca; Kumar Nirbhay; Mduluza Takafira

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The geographical congruency in distribution of helminths and Plasmodium falciparum makes polyparasitism a common phenomenon in Sub Saharan Africa. The devastating effects of helminths-Plasmodium co-infections on primary school health have raised global interest for integrated control. However little is known on the feasibility, timing and efficacy of integrated helminths-Plasmodium control strategies. A study was conducted in Zimbabwe to evaluate the efficacy of repeated c...

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

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    Hoimnazarova Malika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%, whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  17. Protein Malnutrition Modifies Innate Immunity and Gene Expression by Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Human Rotavirus Infection in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Anastasia N; Paim, Francine C; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Alhamo, Moyasar A; Fischer, David D; Langel, Stephanie N; Deblais, Loic; Kumar, Anand; Chepngeno, Juliet; Shao, Lulu; Huang, Huang-Chi; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets. Protein deficiency induced hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, stunting, and generalized edema in Gn pigs, as observed in protein-malnourished children. Irrespective of the diet, human rotavirus (HRV) infection early, at HIFM posttransplantation day 3 (PTD3), resulted in adverse health effects and higher mortality rates (45 to 75%) than later HRV infection (PTD10). Protein malnutrition exacerbated HRV infection and affected the morphology and function of the small intestinal epithelial barrier. In pigs infected with HRV at PTD10, there was a uniform decrease in the function and/or frequencies of natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD103 + and apoptotic mononuclear cells and altered gene expression profiles of intestinal epithelial cells (chromogranin A, mucin 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, SRY-Box 9, and villin). Thus, we have established the first HIFM-transplanted neonatal pig model that recapitulates major aspects of protein malnutrition in children and can be used to evaluate physiologically relevant interventions. Our findings provide an explanation of why nutrient-rich diets alone may lack efficacy in malnourished children. IMPORTANCE Malnutrition and rotavirus infection, prevalent in developing countries, individually and in combination, affect the health of millions of children, compromising their immunity and increasing the rates

  18. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

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    Hamed KIANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs, their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs was 32.2% (419/1,301. Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6% were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6% presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%, followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%, Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001, contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02, age above 15 years (p = 0.001 and seasons (p = 0.001 were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001 and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04. Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted.

  19. Ethanol-lock therapy for the prevention of central venous access device infections in pediatric patients with intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, M Petrea; Kovacevich, Debra S; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Central venous access device (CVAD) infections are a major complication in pediatric patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) and are particularly prevalent in patients with intestinal failure. This study evaluated the outcomes of outpatient ethanol-lock therapy (ELT) for the prevention of CVAD infections in children with intestinal failure. In this retrospective analysis, the primary outcome measure was the rate of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to CVAD infections per 1,000 catheter days, and secondary measures included type of organisms cultured and complications of ELT. Over the course of 2 years, 15 patients received outpatient ELT. Sixty-seven percent were male; patients had a mean ± standard deviation age at enrollment of 5.6 ± 6.9 years and body weight of 19.9 ± 15.4 kg. Mean duration of ELT was 263 ± 190 days. Mean BSI rate per 1,000 catheter days significantly decreased from 8.0 before ELT to 1.3 after ELT (P ELT included thrombosis (n = 1), difficulty withdrawing blood from the CVAD, requiring thrombolytic administration (n = 3), and repair of the CVAD for leakage/tear (n = 20). The rate of CVAD repair for leakage/tear with ELT was compared to prior rates per 1,000 catheter days and was found to be elevated after initiation of ELT (6.4 ± 10.0 vs 3.1 ± 5.2; P = .20). No signs and symptoms of ethanol intoxication were observed. ELT for the prevention of CVAD infections in pediatric intestinal failure patients significantly decreased BSI rates and may be used for extended periods of time in an outpatient setting.

  20. The Microbiota Contributes to CD8+ T Cell Activation and Nutrient Malabsorption following Intestinal Infection with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Aleksander; Li, Erqiu; Maloney, Jenny; Singer, Steven M

    2016-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a noninvasive luminal pathogen that impairs digestive function in its host in part by reducing intestinal disaccharidase activity. This enzyme deficiency has been shown in mice to require CD8(+) T cells. We recently showed that both host immune responses and parasite strain affected disaccharidase levels during murine giardiasis. However, high doses of antibiotics were used to facilitate infections in that study, and we therefore decided to systematically examine the effects of antibiotic use on pathogenesis and immune responses in the mouse model of giardiasis. We found that antibiotic treatment did not overtly increase the parasite burden but significantly limited the disaccharidase deficiency observed in infected mice. Moreover, while infected mice had more activated CD8(+) αβ T cells in the small intestinal lamina propria, this increase was absent in antibiotic-treated mice. Infection also led to increased numbers of CD4(+) αβ T cells in the lamina propria and activation of T cell receptor γδ-expressing intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), but these changes were not affected by antibiotics. Finally, we show that activated CD8(+) T cells express gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and granzymes but that granzymes are not required for sucrase deficiency. We conclude that CD8(+) T cells become activated in giardiasis through an antibiotic-sensitive process and contribute to reduced sucrase activity. These are the first data directly demonstrating activation of CD8(+) T cells and γδ T cells during Giardia infections. These data also demonstrate that disruption of the intestinal microbiota by antibiotic treatment prevents pathological CD8(+) T cell activation in giardiasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii Oral Infection Induces Intestinal Inflammation and Retinochoroiditis in Mice Genetically Selected for Immune Oral Tolerance Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raul Ramos Furtado; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz; Leite, Carla Cristina da Silva; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Calabrese, Katia da Silva; Silva, Antonio Carlos; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Fatima Sarro-Silva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS) or resistance (TR) to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis. PMID:25437299

  2. Toxoplasma gondii oral infection induces intestinal inflammation and retinochoroiditis in mice genetically selected for immune oral tolerance resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Ramos Furtado Dias

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS or resistance (TR to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis.

  3. Histological damage and inflammatory response elicited by Monobothrium wageneri (Cestoda in the intestine of Tinca tinca (Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyaf Dezfuli Bahram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the European cyprinids, tench, Tinca tinca (L., and the pathological effects their cestodes may effect, have received very little or no attention. Most literature relating to Monobothrium wageneri Nybelin, 1922, a common intestinal cestode of tench, for example, has focused on aspects of its morphology rather than on aspects of the host-parasite interaction. Results Immunopathological and ultrastructural studies were conducted on the intestines of 28 tench, collected from Lake Piediluco, of which 16 specimens harboured tight clusters of numerous M. wageneri attached to the intestinal wall. The infection was associated with the degeneration of the mucosal layer and the formation of raised inflammatory swelling surrounding the worms. At the site of infection, the number of granulocytes in the intestine of T. tinca was significantly higher than the number determined 1 cm away from the site of infection or the number found in uninfected fish. Using transmission electron microscopy, mast cells and neutrophils were frequently observed in close proximity to, and inside, the intestinal capillaries; often these cells were in contact with the cestode tegument. At the host-parasite interface, no secretion from the parasite's tegument was observed. Intense degranulation of the mast cells was seen within the submucosa and lamina muscularis, most noticeably at sites close to the tegument of the scolex. In some instances, rodlet cells were encountered in the submucosa. In histological sections, hyperplasia of the mucous cells, notably those giving an alcian blue positive reaction, were evident in the intestinal tissues close to the swelling surrounding the worms. Enhanced mucus secretion was recorded in the intestines of infected tench. Conclusions The pathological changes and the inflammatory cellular response induced by the caryophyllidean monozoic tapeworm M. wageneri within the intestinal tract of an Italian population of wild

  4. Prevalence And Disabilities Caused By Guinea-Worm Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...

  5. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  6. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  7. A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K J; Ahn, Y K; Yong, T S

    2000-09-01

    To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3% in rural areas. The infection rates were 51% with Trichuris trichiura, 40% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 23.4% with hookworm, 15.6% with Iodamoeba butschlii, 14.1% with Endolimax nana, 9.4% with Entamoeba coli and 7.8% with Giardia lamblia. There were 33 cases with multiple infection (51.6%). Mixed infection with more than 3 parasites was observed in 15 cases, all of them being children and adolescents living in rural areas. By this survey, it was conjectured that helminthic infection is prevalent among children and adolescents in Legaspi, Philippines.

  8. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  9. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis.

  10. Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Intrinsic Deletion of Setd7 Identifies Role for Developmental Pathways in Immunity to Helminth Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenery, Alistair L.; Redpath, Stephen A.; Braam, Mitchell J.; Perona-Wright, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    The intestine is a common site for a variety of pathogenic infections. Helminth infections continue to be major causes of disease worldwide, and are a significant burden on health care systems. Lysine methyltransferases are part of a family of novel attractive targets for drug discovery. SETD7 is a member of the Suppressor of variegation 3-9-Enhancer of zeste-Trithorax (SET) domain-containing family of lysine methyltransferases, and has been shown to methylate and alter the function of a wide variety of proteins in vitro. A few of these putative methylation targets have been shown to be important in resistance against pathogens. We therefore sought to study the role of SETD7 during parasitic infections. We find that Setd7 -/- mice display increased resistance to infection with the helminth Trichuris muris but not Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri. Resistance to T. muris relies on an appropriate type 2 immune response that in turn prompts intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to alter differentiation and proliferation kinetics. Here we show that SETD7 does not affect immune cell responses during infection. Instead, we found that IEC-specific deletion of Setd7 renders mice resistant to T. muris by controlling IEC turnover, an important aspect of anti-helminth immune responses. We further show that SETD7 controls IEC turnover by modulating developmental signaling pathways such as Hippo/YAP and Wnt/β-Catenin. We show that the Hippo pathway specifically is relevant during T. muris infection as verteporfin (a YAP inhibitor) treated mice became susceptible to T. muris. We conclude that SETD7 plays an important role in IEC biology during infection. PMID:27598373

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Intestinal Parasitic Infections among School Children in Gashky, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Babakhani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitic intestinal infections (IPIs represent as the greatest cause of illnesses and diseases worldwide, especially in less developed countries. People of all ages are affected by IPIs; although, children are the most affected. This study aimed to assess prevalence and risk factors associated with IPIs among school children in West of Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 school children who selected randomly among 390 attending health care centers in Gashki, West Iran in 2016. This study we used a validated questionnaire and stool tests to gather epidemiological and disease data. The samples were examined for the presence of the parasites by direct wet mount, Lugol's iodine solution and modified formaline-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. Chi- square and binary logistic regression procedure was applied to test the association between the variables. A p-value of Results The mean and standard deviation of children ages were 10.7±2.29 years old. The overall prevalence of the IPIs was estimated at 66 (33.0. The highest prevalence of the IPIs was related to Blastocystis 35 (17.5%, and Giardia lamblia 22 (11.0%, respectively. 18 (9.0% out of 66 infected children had double infection. Male gender (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.20 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.19-4.09 was only factor significantly associated with the prevalence of the IPIs in this population. Conclusion The present study found a high rate of prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections among school children in Gashky, West of Iran. The current study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in children aged school, and emphasizes the necessity of school-based prevention and control programs.

  12. Taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock reduces catheter-related bloodstream infections in intestinal failure patients dependent on home parenteral support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Siri; Brandt, Christopher F.; Petersen, Anne H.

    2017-01-01

    , and prior CRBSI incidence. The prior CRBSI incidence in the study population was 2.4 episodes/1000 central venous catheter (CVC) days [95% Poisson confidence limits (CLs): 2.12, 2.71 episodes/1000 CVC days]. The maximum treatment period was 2 y or until occurrence of a CRBSI or right-censoring because......Background: In patients with intestinal failure who are receiving home parenteral support (HPS), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) inflict health impairment and high costs.Objective: This study investigates the efficacy and safety of the antimicrobial catheter lock solution.......02).Conclusions: In patients with intestinal failure who are life dependent on HPS, the taurolidine-citrate-heparin catheter lock demonstrates a clinically substantial and cost-beneficial reduction of CRBSI occurrence in a high-risk population compared with heparin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials...

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Bahir Dar and Risk Factors for Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Birrie, Hailu

    1995-01-01

    A study of intestinal parasites and assessment of transmission factors were made in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Out of 528 children examined by formolether concentration method over 95 % were found to harbour one or more intestinal parasites. Human behaviour and poor sanitary conditions appeared to be responsible for the transmission of geohelminths, faeco-orally transmitted amoebae and water-related schistosome parasites. Health education is suggested to play a vital role in the c...

  14. Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

    2013-09-01

    Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploquin, Mickaël J.; Casrouge, Armanda; Huot, Nicolas; Passaes, Caroline; Lécuroux, Camille; Essat, Asma; Boufassa, Faroudy; Jacquelin, Béatrice; Jochems, Simon P.; Petitjean, Gaël; Angin, Mathieu; Gärtner, Kathleen; Garcia-Tellez, Thalía; Booiman, Thijs; Boeser-Nunnink, Brigitte D.; Roques, Pierre; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Vaslin, Bruno; Dereudre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Ghislain, Mathilde; Rouzioux, Christine; Lambotte, Olivier; Albert, Matthew L.; Goujard, Cécile; Kootstra, Neeltje; Meyer, Laurence; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort), as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts). We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT) and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker) gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10. PMID:27509048

  16. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël J Ploquin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort, as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts. We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.

  17. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  19. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  20. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  1. Intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors in communities exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Do-Trung, Dung; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-10-10

    Infections with intestinal parasites (helminths and intestinal protozoa) are endemic in Southeast Asia and inappropriate management and reuse of wastewater might exacerbate the risk of human infections. In rapidly growing urban settings, little is known about the extent of intestinal parasite infections. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in population groups differently exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April and June 2014 in people aged ≥ 18 years at risk of wastewater exposure from To Lich River: workers maintaining wastewater treatment facilities; urban farmers reusing wastewater; and urban dwellers at risk of flooding events. For comparison, two peri-urban population groups living in close proximity to the Red River were chosen: farmers using river water for irrigation purposes; and people living in the same communities. A single stool sample was subjected to Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine risk factors and self-reported signs and symptoms. A total of 681 individuals had complete data records. Highest point-prevalence rates of intestinal parasite infections were observed for peri-urban farmers (30 %). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura were the predominant helminth species (25 % and 5 %, respectively). Peri-urban farmers were at higher odds of infection with intestinal parasites than any other groups (adjusted odds ratio 5.8, 95 % confidence interval 2.5 to 13.7). Lack of access to improved sanitation and not receiving deworming within the past 12 months were associated with higher infection risk, while higher educational attainment and socioeconomic status were negatively associated with intestinal parasite infections. Our results suggest that exposure to

  2. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  3. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  4. Role of interferon in homologous and heterologous rotavirus infection in the intestines and extraintestinal organs of suckling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N; Kim, B; Fenaux, M; Nguyen, H; Vo, P; Omary, M B; Greenberg, H B

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that viremia and extraintestinal rotavirus infection are common in acutely infected humans and animals, while systemic diseases appear to be rare. Intraperitoneal infection of newborn mice with rhesus rotavirus (RRV) results in biliary atresia (BA), and this condition is influenced by the host interferon response. We studied orally inoculated 5-day-old suckling mice that were deficient in interferon (IFN) signaling to evaluate the role of interferon on the outcome of local and systemic infection after enteric inoculation. We found that systemic replication of RRV, but not murine rotavirus strain EC, was greatly enhanced in IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma receptor double-knockout (KO) or STAT1 KO mice but not in mice deficient in B- or T-cell immunity. The enhanced replication of RRV was associated with a lethal hepatitis, pancreatitis, and BA, while no systemic disease was observed in strain EC-infected interferon-deficient mice. In IFN-alpha/beta receptor KO mice the extraintestinal infection and systemic disease were only moderately increased, while RRV infection was not augmented and systemic disease was not present in IFN-gamma receptor KO mice. The increase of systemic infection in IFN-deficient mice was also observed during simian strain SA11 infection but not following bovine NCDV, porcine OSU, or murine strain EW infection. Our data indicate that the requirements for the interferon system to inhibit intestinal and extraintestinal viral replication in suckling mice vary among different heterologous and homologous rotavirus strains, and this variation is associated with lethal systemic disease.

  5. The Shift of the Intestinal Microbiome in the Innate Immunity-Deficient Mutant rde-1 Strain of C. elegans upon Orsay Virus Infection

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    Yuanyuan Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The status of intestinal microbiota is a determinant of host health. However, the alteration of the gut microbiota caused by the innate immune response to virus infection is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural virus Orsay provide an excellent model of host–virus interactions. We evaluated the intestinal microbial community complexity of the wild-type N2 and the innate immunity-deficient mutant rde-1 (ne219 strains of C. elegans upon Orsay virus infection. The gut microbiota diversity was decreased in rde-1 (ne219 mutant animals, and a large number of genes were associated with the difference between infected and uninfected rde-1 (ne219 mutant animals. Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by Orsay virus on intestinal microbiota in wildtype and innate immunity-deficient animals using C. elegans as the model species. Our findings indicate that virus infection may alters the microbiome in animals with defective immune response.

  6. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  7. De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation: Effect on haemoglobin of primary school children in Aboh-Mbaise. ... Aim: To compare the effect of de-worming alone and de-worming plus iron supplementation on the haemoglobin (Hb) of primary school children. ... Journal of College of Medicine Vol.

  8. Increased production of the ether-lipid platelet-activating factor in intestinal epithelial cells infected by Salmonella enteritidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Laia; Giménez, Rosa; Lúcia, David; Modolell, Ines; Badía, Josefa; Baldoma, Laura; Aguilar, Juan

    2008-05-01

    When exposed to enteric pathogens intestinal epithelial cells produce several cytokines and other proinflammatory mediators. To date there is no evidence that the ether-lipid platelet-activating factor (PAF) is one of these mediators. Our results revealed a significant increase in PAF production by human colonic tissue 4 h after infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or Salmonella enteritidis. PAF is produced in the gut by cells of the immune system in response to bacterial infection. To determine whether the epithelial cells of colonic mucosa might also modulate PAF levels, we carried out PAF quantification and analysis of the enzymes involved in PAF synthesis in 5-day-old (undifferentiated) or 28-day-old (differentiated) Caco-2 cell cultures. Infection of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells with either bacterium had no effect on PAF levels, whereas in differentiated cells, infection by S. enteritidis increased PAF levels. Following infection by S. enteritidis, there were no changes in the activity of dithiothreitol-insensitive choline phosphotransferase. However, the enzymes of the remodeling pathway cytosolic phospholipase A(2), which catalyzes the formation of the PAF precursor lysoPAF, and lysoPAF acetyltransferase, are activated in the infected epithelial cells. This response is Ca(2+)-dependent.

  9. Intestinal helminths of a landlocked ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) population in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinisalo, Tuula; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Valtonen, E Tellervo

    2003-09-01

    A small, landlocked, endangered ringed seal (Phoca hispida saimensis) population lives as a postglacial relict in Lake Saimaa in eastern Finland. In this study, the intestinal metazoans were examined from a total of 61 Saimaa seals found dead from 1981 to 2001. The helminth fauna was very depauperate. Only one acanthocephalan species, Corynosoma magdaleni, has been able to survive during isolation in the freshwater environment. In addition, only two cestode species were found: Diphyllobothrium ditretum and Schistocephalus sp. However, neither of these larvae developed in the ringed seals. As the newborn pups of Saimaa seals are nursed for about 2 months only one of them was infected by C. magdaleni. At 2-5 months the pups harboured worms; however, the mean intensity did not rise distinctively until the seals were adults. C. magdaleni infection increased with increasing age and the abundances were significantly different between the age groups. There was no correlation between the number of parasites and the adult seal body weight; however, seals weighing 36 kg or more carried the majority of the worms. The distribution of the parasites was aggregated; six seals carried 65% (n=1,182) of all worms (total n=1,809) and 26 seals were uninfected. Variation in the number of worms in individual seals may indicate differences in feeding behaviour and in the diet of seals, and/or variation in the immune status of the seals.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in preschoolers from different urban settings in Central-Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Guimarães Luz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the associated risk factors in children attending preschools located in areas with different socioeconomic and structural features in the city of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2015 and 2016 among four-to-five years old children. Initially, urban neighborhoods with preschools were classified into five risk strata for parasitic infections, which were defined on the basis of socioeconomic and structural variables. Then, one school from each stratum was randomly chosen for data collection. After obtaining the written informed consent from parents or guardians, the children provided stool samples for examination. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians to determine the associated risk factors. Results: Coproparasitological tests were performed on 215 (46.5% preschoolers, and the overall prevalence was 22.8%. The occurrence of such infections increased with the increase in risk stratum of the neighborhood. Protozoa infections, mainly by Entamoeba coli (11.2% and Giardia duodenalis (9.8%, were the most frequent. The consumption of tap water (OR = 3.56, P = 0.002, no washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption (OR = 3.44, P = 0.002, and no hand washing before eating (OR = 2.63, P = 0.004 were associated with these infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among Rondonópolis preschoolers is relevant and associated with precarious hygienic–sanitary behavior, especially in areas with poor socioeconomic and structural conditions.

  11. Diarrhea incidence and intestinal infections among rotavirus vaccinated infants from a poor area in Brazil: a spatial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the second leading cause of mortality among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. The pathogen most strongly associated with diarrhea is rotavirus followed by enteric pathogens such as bacteria, helminthes and protozoan. Adequate sanitation and water supply contribute to decrease acute diarrhea incidence of most etiologic agents, although vaccination remains the most important intervention to control rotavirus acute diarrhea. This study aimed to describe environmental conditions and analyze spatially the acute diarrhea and intestinal infection among rotavirus vaccinated infants from Laranjeiras-Sergipe, Brazil. Methods Children were enrolled between 2 and 11 months of age and followed through 12 months. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental data were obtained from a questionnaire, and immunization data were obtained from children vaccination card. Children stool samples were collected each month in order to run laboratory analyses. The household spatial localization was obtained by using a Global Positioning System (GPS). Spatial analysis was performed using the TerraView computer program and Kernel intensity estimation. Results A total of 1,113 stool samples were collected with 80 being diarrhea associated. Diarrhea incidence rate was 0.5 ± 1.0 episodes/child/year. The overall infection rates by Ascaris lumbricoides, Endolimax nana, Giardia lamblia and rotavirus were 5.1%, 3.0%, 0.9% and 2.6%, respectively. 3.8% of diarrhea-associated stool samples were positive for rotavirus and 11.3% were positive for helminths and protozoans. There were some changes on spatial distribution of intestinal infections and diarrhea episodes along the four trimesters evaluated. Conclusions The studied infants live equally in precarious conditions of sanitation which probably explain the significant rates of parasitic infections appearing in early life. The low acute diarrhea incidence in the studied rotavirus vaccinated

  12. Western diet induces a shift in microbiota composition enhancing susceptibility to Adherent-Invasive E. coli infection and intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Allison; Denizot, Jérémy; Thévenot, Jonathan; Martinez-Medina, Margarita; Massier, Sébastien; Sauvanet, Pierre; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Denis, Sylvain; Hofman, Paul; Bonnet, Richard; Billard, Elisabeth; Barnich, Nicolas

    2016-01-08

    Recent advances have shown that the abnormal inflammatory response observed in CD involves an interplay among intestinal microbiota, host genetics and environmental factors. The escalating consumption of fat and sugar in Western countries parallels an increased incidence of CD during the latter 20(th) century. The impact of a HF/HS diet in mice was evaluated for the gut micro-inflammation, intestinal microbiota composition, function and selection of an E. coli population. The HF/HS diet created a specific inflammatory environment in the gut, correlated with intestinal mucosa dysbiosis characterized by an overgrowth of pro-inflammatory Proteobacteria such as E. coli, a decrease in protective bacteria, and a significantly decreased of SCFA concentrations. The expression of GPR43, a SCFA receptor was reduced in mice treated with a HF/HS diet and reduced in CD patients compared with controls. Interestingly, mice treated with an agonist of GPR43 were protected against DSS-induced colitis. Finally, the transplantation of feces from HF/HS treated mice to GF mice increased susceptibility to AIEC infection. Together, our results demonstrate that a Western diet could aggravate the inflammatory process and that the activation of the GPR43 receptor pathway could be used as a new strategy to treat CD patients.

  13. In vitro effects of amodiaquine on paired Schistosoma mansoni adult worms at concentrations of less than 5 µg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 µg/mL, but not at 0.5 µg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 µg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 µg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.

  14. JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL PROBIOTIC THERAPY OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL AND CHRONIC DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the comparative efficacy of probiotics with different composition of strains in the complex treatment of acute intestinal infection in 89 children with functional disorders and chronic gastrointestinal tract. Conducted a dynamic study of the intestinal microflora bacteriological method and gas-liquid chromatography with the definition of short-chain fatty acid content of the level of carbohydrates in the feces and stool data. Set different dates for stopping diarrhea and features state of the intestinal ecosystem indicators after treatment in patients receiving comprehensive probiotic containing bifidobacteria and enterococcus, or probiotic containing lactobacillus. 

  15. [Intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a geriatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Alfredo; Arteaga, Kovy; Resurrección, Cristhian; Ñavincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is considered the largest intestinal nematode with a higher incidence in the childhood, representing a truly medical and public health problem, principally in undeveloped countries. We present the case of an 83 year old man, born and coming from the amazon region, without any relevant previous history of disease, admitted in the emergency department of our hospital for presenting intestinal obstruction and also presumptive biliary obstruction due to multiple balls of parasites, requiring immediate surgical intervention. We emphasize the need of consider this etiologic possibility in the differential diagnosis, that in this particular case, wasn't suspected in the first place.

  16. Interleukin-7 produced by intestinal epithelial cells in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection plays a major role in innate immunity against this pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Du, Jiang-Yuan; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) engages multiple mechanisms to overcome chronic viral infections, but the role of IL-7 in bacterial infections, especially enteric bacterial infections, remains unclear. Here we characterized the previously unexplored role of IL-7 in the innate immune response to the attaching and effacing bacterium Citrobacter rodentium. C. rodentium infection induced IL-7 production from intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). IL-7 production from IECs in response to C. rodentium was dependent on gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing NK1.1(+) cells and IL-12. Treatment with anti-IL-7Rα antibody during C. rodentium infection resulted in a higher bacterial burden, enhanced intestinal damage, and greater weight loss and mortality than observed with the control IgG treatment. IEC-produced IL-7 was only essential for protective immunity against C. rodentium during the first 6 days after infection. An impaired bacterial clearance upon IL-7Rα blockade was associated with a significant decrease in macrophage accumulation and activation in the colon. Moreover, C. rodentium-induced expansion and activation of intestinal CD4(+) lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells was completely abrogated by IL-7Rα blockade. Collectively, these data demonstrate that IL-7 is produced by IECs in response to C. rodentium infection and plays a critical role in the protective immunity against this intestinal attaching and effacing bacterium. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the population of Central Asia on the example of inhabitants of Eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents

  18. Effects of dietary intake of garlic on intestinal trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Alba; García-Ferrús, Miguel; Sotillo, Javier; Guillermo Esteban, J; Toledo, Rafael; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla

    2017-08-01

    The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.

  19. Heavy metal concentrations in the small intestine of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with and without Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožová, Adela; Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Scháňková, Štěpánka; Truněčková, Jana; Langrová, Iva; Kudrnáčová, Marie; Vadlejch, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels in red fox small intestine samples with or without Echinococcus multilocularis infection were studied. The red foxes were taken from the open countryside of northwest Bohemia (CR). Red foxes with E. multilocularis infection had lower levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb); cadmium levels in infected foxes (0.0052 mg/kg) were twice as low as in uninfected foxes (0.0106 mg/kg). This was the same case for lead: 0.0288 mg/kg infected red foxes (inf.) and 0.0413 mg/kg uninfected (uninf.). Conversely, red foxes with E. multilocularis infection yielded higher concentrations in comparison to their uninfected counterparts: Cr (0.0087 mg/kg uninf. and 0.0116 mg/kg inf.), Cu (0.2677 mg/kg uninf. and 0.3205 mg/kg inf.), Fe (6.46 mg/kg uninf. and 10.89 mg/kg inf.), Mn (0.1966 mg/kg uninf. and 0.2029 mg/kg inf.), Ni (0.0415 mg/kg uninf. and 0.064 mg/kg inf.) and Zn (16.71 mg/kg uninf. and 20.25 mg/kg inf). This could support the hypothesis that tapeworms are able to absorb toxic heavy metals from the host body into their tissues, as well as to modify other element concentrations in the host body.

  20. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  1. Pet roundworms and hookworms: a continuing need for global worming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato

    2012-05-10

    Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  2. Effects of Ethanol Lock Therapy on Central Line Infections and Mechanical Problems in Children With Intestinal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokha, Jasmeet S; Davidovics, Zev H; Samela, Kate; Emerick, Karan

    2017-05-01

    Although use of 70% ethanol lock therapy (ELT) has been shown to decrease the rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in patients with intestinal failure and central venous catheters (CVCs), concerns have been raised about its association with higher rates of mechanical problems and CVC replacements (CVC-Rs). We sought to compare the rates of CRBSI, mechanical problems, and CVC-Rs in a cohort of pediatric patients with intestinal failure, with and without ELT (ELT + and ELT - , respectively). Data were collected in a retrospective chart review from February 2007 to May 2014. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare nonparametric and paired data, respectively. Twenty-nine children had 9033 catheter days (CDs). The ELT + group (vs ELT - ) had lower rate of infection and significantly fewer CVC-Rs due to infection but significantly more mechanical events and related CVC-Rs with significantly shorter mean CVC survival. In 13 children who had a pre-ELT and post-ELT period, ELT was associated with a decrease in the rate of CVC-Rs due to infection (0.36 vs 4.74/1000 CDs, P = .046) and an increase in the rate of CVC-Rs due to mechanical problems (5.05 vs 0/1000 CDs, P = .018). While ELT + is associated with a lower rate of CRBSIs and related CVC-Rs, it is also associated with higher rates of mechanical problems and related CVC-Rs. In addition to investigating the ideal concentration, duration, and timing of ELT to preserve the integrity of the CVC, alternatives to exclusively ethanol-based lock solutions should be developed.

  3. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  5. Effects of selected non-digestible dietary carbohydrates on the composition of the large intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to salmonella infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne

    carbohydrates, known as prebiotics, are food components aimed at selectively stimulating such beneficial bacteria already colonizing the intestinal tract. In this regard, prebiotics and other ND dietary carbohydrates may improve host resistance to intestinal infections by selectively modulating the composition...... shown conflicting results. Therefore the aim of the present thesis was to investigate the effect of selected ND dietary carbohydrates on the large intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 infection in mice. The thesis contains an introduction...... studies performed. Results presented in Manuscript I demonstrated no in vivo protective effect of the investigated carbohydrates against the Salmonella infection. In contrast, two of the investigated substrates (fructo-oligosaccharides and xylo-oligosaccharides) demonstrated an adverse rather than...

  6. Intestinal Infestations in Under-Five Children in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamukwamba Mwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal infestations are of considerable public health importance in Zambia and elsewhere in Africa. Children aged less than 5 years are at the highest risk of infection. Interventions for prevention and control of these infestations require identification of their determinants. This study investigates the determinants of intestinal infestations in children below 5 years of age admitted to a children’s hospital and assesses the most prevalent of the helminthes. Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study conducted at Arthur Davison Children’s Hospital, Ndola, Zambia. Socio-demographic data of study participants and possible determinants for occurrence of intestinal infestations were collected using structured questionnaires. Stool samples were collected and examined for presence of parasites using direct techniques. The Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to establish associations. Results: Present study had 148 participants out of the expected 165, making a respondent rate of 89.7%. Over half of the participants were male (50.6%, and 68.9% were above the age of 2 years. Prevalence of intestinal infestations was 19.6%, and the most prevalent parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides. Factors independently associated with worm infestation were father’s employment (AOR = 0.41; 95 % CI [0.19, 0.90] and history of prior worm infestation (AOR = 6.54; 95 % CI [3.28, 13.03]. Conclusion: Intestinal infestations particularly Ascaris lumbricoides were more prevalent in this study. There should be policy towards countrywide deworming programs and enhanced hygiene.

  7. Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40 mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two

  8. The role of serine protease HtrA in acute ulcerative enterocolitis and extra-intestinal immune responses during Campylobacter jejuni infection of gnotobiotic IL-10 deficient mice

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    Markus M. Heimesaat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni infections have a high prevalence worldwide and represent a significant socioeconomic burden. C. jejuni can cross the intestinal epithelial barrier as visualised in biopsies derived from human patients and animal models, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms and associated immunopathology are still not well understood. We have recently shown that the secreted serine protease HtrA plays a key role in C. jejuni cellular invasion and transmigration across polarised epithelial cells in vitro. In the present in vivo study we investigated the role of HtrA during C. jejuni infection of mice. We used the gnotobiotic IL-10-/- mouse model to study campylobacteriosis following peroral infection with the C. jejuni wild-type strain NCTC11168 and the isogenic, non-polar NCTC11168ΔhtrA deletion mutant. Six days post infection (p.i. with either strain mice harboured comparable intestinal C. jejuni loads, whereas ulcerative enterocolitis was less pronounced in mice infected with the ΔhtrA mutant strain. Moreover, ΔhtrA mutant infected mice displayed lower apoptotic cell numbers in the large intestinal mucosa, less colonic accumulation of neutrophils, macrophages and monocytes, lower large intestinal nitric oxide, IFN-γ and IL-6 as well as lower TNF-α and IL-6 serum concentrations as compared to wild-type strain infected mice at day 6 p.i. Notably, immunopathological responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract given that liver and kidneys exhibited mild histopathological changes six days p.i. with either C. jejuni strain. We also found that hepatic and renal nitric oxide levels or renal TNF-α concentrations were lower in the ΔhtrA mutant as compared to wild-type strain infected mice. In conclusion, we show here that the C. jejuni HtrA protein plays a pivotal role in inducing host cell apoptosis and immunopathology during murine campylobacteriosis in the gut in vivo.

  9. Intestinal helminths infection of rats (Ratus norvegicus in the Belgrade area (Serbia: the effect of sex, age and habitat*

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    Kataranovski M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal helminths of Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus from the Belgrade area were studied as a part of a wider ecological research of rats in Serbia (data on the distribution, population ecology, economic and epizoothiological-epidemiological importance, and density control. Rats were captured from May 2005 to July 2009 at both urban and suburban-rural sites. Of a total of 302 trapped rats 48% were males and 52% females, with 36.5% and 38.8% of juvenile-subadult individuals, per sex respectively. Intestinal helminth infection was noted in 68.5% of rats, with a higher prevalence in male hosts and in adult individuals. Higher numbers of infected juveniles-subadults were noted in suburban-rural habitats, while an opposite tendency was noted in adult rats. Seven helminth species were recovered, of which five were nematode (Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Capillaria sp., Trichuris muris and Syphacia muris and two cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis fraterna. The most prevalent parasites were Heterakis spumosa (36.7% and Hymenolepis diminuta (30.5%. Sex and habitat-related differences were noted in the prevalence of infection with Capillaria sp. and Trichuris muris, while there were no age-related differences in the prevalence of infection with any individual helminth species. Significantly higher prevalence of infection was noted in summer as compared to spring or winter, with a tendency to be higher in autumn as compared to spring. The only significant difference in the prevalence of infection between habitat-related was noted during spring. H. spumosa was most prevalent in summer, while H. diminuta and N. brasiliensis in autumn. The mean intensity of infection with H. spumosa, R. fraterna, S. muris and T. muris was higher in autumn than in the other seasons, while N. brasiliensis and Capillaria sp. occured in winter. No more than four helminth species were found in one host.

  10. Intestinal Bacterial Communities of Trypanosome-Infected and Uninfected Glossina palpalis palpalis from Three Human African Trypanomiasis Foci in Cameroon

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    Franck Jacob

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossina sp. the tsetse fly that transmits trypanosomes causing the Human or the Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or AAT can harbor symbiotic bacteria that are known to play a crucial role in the fly's vector competence. We hypothesized that other bacteria could be present, and that some of them could also influence the fly's vector competence. In this context the objectives of our work were: (a to characterize the bacteria that compose the G. palpalis palpalis midgut bacteriome, (b to evidence possible bacterial community differences between trypanosome-infected and non-infected fly individuals from a given AAT and HAT focus or from different foci using barcoded Illumina sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Forty G. p. palpalis flies, either infected by Trypanosoma congolense or uninfected were sampled from three trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon. A total of 143 OTUs were detected in the midgut samples. Most taxa were identified at the genus level, nearly 50% at the species level; they belonged to 83 genera principally within the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Prominent representatives included Wigglesworthia (the fly's obligate symbiont, Serratia, and Enterobacter hormaechei. Wolbachia was identified for the first time in G. p. palpalis. The average number of bacterial species per tsetse sample was not significantly different regarding the fly infection status, and the hierarchical analysis based on the differences in bacterial community structure did not provide a clear clustering between infected and non-infected flies. Finally, the most important result was the evidence of the overall very large diversity of intestinal bacteria which, except for Wigglesworthia, were unevenly distributed over the sampled flies regardless of their geographic origin and their trypanosome infection status.

  11. Modeling infection and antiviral therapy of enteric viruses using primary intestinal organoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Yin (Yuebang)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis, we first highlighted important clinical complications associated with rotavirus infection in setting of orthotopic organ transplantation, I then analyzed the incidence of rotavirus infection, its diagnosis, its pathogenesis, how to rationally use of

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

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    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  13. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Infection with Intestinal Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites. We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014. We obtained the person's age, whether they were taking a PPI at the time of the O & P examination, and whether the pathology report indicated the presence of any parasites. χ 2 with Yates correction was used to determine if PPI use was associated with stool protozoa. Three intestinal protozoa were identified in 1199 patients taking a PPI (0.3%), and 551 intestinal parasites were identified in the 14,287 patients not taking a PPI (3.9%). There was a statistically significant lower likelihood of finding protozoa in the stool of a person taking a PPI compared with those not taking a PPI (P protozoa reported on stool O & P examination compared with those not taking a PPI. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Importância da reabsorção do ferro da hemorragia intestinal provocada pela ação dos vermes na progressão da anemia The importance of iron reabsorption in intestinal hemorrhage caused by worms in the course of anemia

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    Victorio Maspes

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 10 doentes, portadores de anemia ancilostomótica e de grande parasitose. Foram determinados alguns parâmetros hematológicos como dosagem de hemoglobina, contagem de hemácias, hematócrito, volume corpuscular médio, hemoglobina corpuscular média, ferro sérico e siderofilina. Foram estudados o volume da perda de sangue intestinal, o ferro perdido nesta hemorragia e eliminado nas fezes, e o ferro reaborvido da hemorragia intestinal. Conclui-se que a reabsorção do ferro da hemoglobina por dia no tubo digestivo é de suma importância no retardamento da instalação da anemia ferropriva, causada pela parasitose ancilostomótica.Ten patients presenting ancylostomotic anemia and a high rate of parasitosis were submitted to several hematologic determinations: hemoglobin level, erythrocyte count, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, serum iron level, and transferrin. In addition, measurements were made of the blood volume lost by intestinal bleeding, of iron loss through hemorrhage and in feus, and of iron reabsorption from intestinal bleeding. The main reason for the late appearance of iron deficiency anemia in ancylostomiasis is the high degree of dally iron absorption in the digestive tract, originating from hemoglobin breakdown.

  15. Population dynamics of the minute intestinal trematode Haplorchis pumilio following experimental infection of young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2011-01-01

    to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents......-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 metacercariae (mainly H. pumilio) obtained by artificially digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation...... technique, temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, eosinophils and microhaemotocrit values. Subsets of dogs were examined post-mortem for presence of adult FZT at three different time points post infection. Patent infections established in all eight infected dogs...

  16. Risk of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in People with Different Exposures to Wastewater and Fecal Sludge in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Samuel Fuhrimann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There are health risks associated with wastewater and fecal sludge management and use, but little is known about the magnitude, particularly in rapidly growing urban settings of low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in people with different exposures to wastewater and fecal sludge in Kampala, Uganda.A cross-sectional survey was carried out in September and October 2013, enrolling 915 adults from five distinct population groups: workers maintaining wastewater facilities; workers managing fecal sludge; urban farmers; slum dwellers at risk of flooding; and slum dwellers without risk of flooding. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz method and a formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine self-reported signs and symptoms, and risk factors for intestinal parasite infections. Univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and hygiene behaviors, were conducted to estimate the risk of infection with intestinal parasites and self-reported health outcomes, stratified by population group.The highest point-prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was found in urban farmers (75.9%, whereas lowest point-prevalence was found in workers managing fecal sludge (35.8%. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (27.8%. In urban farmers, the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 15% and above. For all investigated parasites, we found significantly higher odds of infection among urban farmers compared to the other groups (adjusted odds ratios ranging between 1.6 and 12.9. In general, female participants had significantly lower odds of infection with soil-transmitted helminths and S. mansoni compared to males. Higher

  17. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  18. The Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues in the Small Intestine, Not the Large Intestine, Play a Major Role in Oral Prion Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, David S; Else, Kathryn J; Mabbott, Neil A

    2015-09-01

    GALT are the essential early sites of prion accumulation. Furthermore, congruent infection with a large intestinal helminth (worm) around the time of oral prion exposure did not affect disease pathogenesis. This is important for our understanding of the factors that influence the risk of prion infection and the preclinical diagnosis of disease. The detection of prions within large intestinal GALT biopsy specimens has been used to estimate human and animal disease prevalence. However, our data suggest that using these biopsy specimens may miss individuals in the early stages of oral prion infection and significantly underestimate the disease prevalence. Copyright © 2015 Donaldson et al.

  19. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

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    Isabella M Cattadori

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control. Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  20. Impact of Helminth Infections and Nutritional Constraints on the Small Intestine Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattadori, Isabella M; Sebastian, Aswathy; Hao, Han; Katani, Robab; Albert, Istvan; Eilertson, Kirsten E; Kapur, Vivek; Pathak, Ashutosh; Mitchell, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and nutrition can independently alter the composition and abundance of the gastrointestinal microbiota, however, their combined effect is poorly understood. Here, we used the T. retortaeformis-rabbit system to examine how the helminth infection and host restriction from coprophagy/ready-to-absorb nutrients affected the duodenal microbiota, and how these changes related to the acquired immune response at the site of infection. A factorial experiment was performed where the bacterial community, its functionality and the immune response were examined in four treatments (Infect, Infect+Collar, Control+Collar and Control). Helminths reduced the diversity and abundance of the microbiota while the combination of parasites and coprophagic restriction led to a more diversified and abundant microbiota than infected cases, without significantly affecting the intensity of infection. Animals restricted from coprophagy and free from parasites exhibited the richest and most abundant bacterial community. By forcing the individuals to absorb nutrients from less digested food, the coprophagic restriction appears to have facilitated the diversity and proliferation of bacteria in the duodenum. Changes in the microbiota were more clearly associated with changes in the immune response for the infected than the nutrient restricted animals. The functional and metabolic characteristics of the duodenal microbiota were not significantly different between treatments. Overall, infection and diet affect the gut microbiota but their interactions and outcome can be complex. These findings can have important implications for the development of control measures to helminth infections where poor nutrition/malnutrition can also be a concern.

  1. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

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    Hassen Mamo

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the

  2. Low dimensional worm-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  3. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  4. Chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces intestinal anti-inflammatory microRNA expression during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection of rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Lawrance C; Kumar, Vinay; Torben, Workineh; Vande Stouwe, Curtis; Winsauer, Peter; Amedee, Angela; Molina, Patricia E; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Recreational and medical use of cannabis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has increased in recent years. In simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques, chronic administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) inhibited viral replication and intestinal inflammation and slowed disease progression. Persistent gastrointestinal disease/inflammation has been proposed to facilitate microbial translocation and systemic immune activation and promote disease progression. Cannabinoids including Δ9-THC attenuated intestinal inflammation in mouse colitis models and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. To determine if the anti-inflammatory effects of Δ9-THC involved differential microRNA (miRNA) modulation, we profiled miRNA expression at 14, 30, and 60 days postinfection (days p.i.) in the intestine of uninfected macaques receiving Δ9-THC (n=3) and SIV-infected macaques administered either vehicle (VEH/SIV; n=4) or THC (THC/SIV; n=4). Chronic Δ9-THC administration to uninfected macaques significantly and positively modulated intestinal miRNA expression by increasing the total number of differentially expressed miRNAs from 14 to 60 days p.i. At 60 days p.i., ∼28% of miRNAs showed decreased expression in the VEH/SIV group compared to none showing decrease in the THC/SIV group. Furthermore, compared to the VEH/SIV group, THC selectively upregulated the expression of miR-10a, miR-24, miR-99b, miR-145, miR-149, and miR-187, previously been shown to target proinflammatory molecules. NOX4, a potent reactive oxygen species generator, was confirmed as a direct miR-99b target. A significant increase in NOX4+ crypt epithelial cells was detected in VEH/SIV macaques compared to the THC/SIV group. We speculate that miR-99b-mediated NOX4 downregulation may protect the intestinal epithelium from oxidative stress-induced damage. These results support a role for differential miRNA induction in THC-mediated suppression of intestinal inflammation. Whether

  5. Experimental infection with the small intestinal trematode, Haplorchis pumilio, in young dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...

  6. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  7. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Llewellyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples

  8. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Cerqueira, Elúzio José Lima; Soares, Neci Matos

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a eficiência dos métodos de Kato-Katz e sedimentação espontânea para o diagnóstico das helmintíases intestinais. A sensibilidade da técnica de sedimentação espontânea foi s...

  9. Intestinal Bacterial Infection Diagnosed by Histological Examination of Endoscopic Biopsy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Yuki

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal spirochetosis (IS in humans is characterized by spirochetal microorganisms attached to the luminal surface of the colonic epithelium. In the present case, attached organisms appeared as 3- to 4 μm-thick (average thickness, 3.4 μm basophilic fringes or haze in HE-stained endoscopic biopsy specimens. The basophilic fringes were clearly labeled by Treponema pallidum antiserum. Because IS is relatively rare in developed countries, thin basophilic fringes characteristic of IS are readily overlooked. Thus, the recognition of histological characteristics of this disease is important for its diagnosis.

  10. Evaluation of reticulated gelatin-hibiscus-propolis against intestinal commensal species commonly associated with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olier, Maïwenn; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Eutamene, Hélène; Theodorou, Vassilia

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. Animals received orally (with supplemental Na 2 CO 3 ): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle. RGHP significantly reduced fecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. levels without affecting other targeted Enterobacteriaceae. The antagonistic property of RGHP was confirmed in streptomycin-pretreated rats highly colonized with a human commensal E. coli strain with uropathogenic potential. RGHP may decrease the risk of UTIs by reducing colonization by opportunistic uropathogens.

  11. An Overview of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems Implicated in Extra-Intestinal Pathogenic E. coli Infections

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    Erin J. Breland

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC infections are common in mammals and birds. The predominant ExPEC types are avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, neonatal meningitis causing E. coli/meningitis associated E. coli (NMEC/MAEC, and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. Many reviews have described current knowledge on ExPEC infection strategies and virulence factors, especially for UPEC. However, surprisingly little has been reported on the regulatory modules that have been identified as critical in ExPEC pathogenesis. Two-component systems (TCSs comprise the predominant method by which bacteria respond to changing environments and play significant roles in modulating bacterial fitness in diverse niches. Recent studies have highlighted the potential of manipulating signal transduction systems as a means to chemically re-wire bacterial pathogens, thereby reducing selective pressure and avoiding the emergence of antibiotic resistance. This review begins by providing a brief introduction to characterized infection strategies and common virulence factors among APEC, NMEC, and UPEC and continues with a comprehensive overview of two-component signal transduction networks that have been shown to influence ExPEC pathogenesis.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal protozoa infection in elderly residents at Long Term Residency Institutions in Southeastern Brazil

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    Katymilla Guimarães Girotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in Long Term Residency Institutions for the Elderly (ILPI in elders, nurses and food handlers, identifying the risk factors associated with the infections. Stool samples taken from the elderly (n = 293, nurses (63 and food handlers (19 were studied. Questionnaires were used with questions related to sociodemographic variables, health, behavior and health characteristics. Stool samples were examined using the techniques of Faust and Ziehl Neelsen, and the prevalence of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar in the elderly was 4.0%, 1.0% and 0.3% respectively. Nurses and food handlers showed 4.8% and 5.2% positivity only for G. duodenalis, respectively. The origin of the individuals and contact with domestic animals has been associated with infection by G. duodenalis in the elderly, and contact with domestic animals was considered a risk factor for infection. The last stool examinations were related to Cryptosporidium spp.. None of the variables were associated with E. histolytica/dispar. The frequency of hand washing was significantly associated with G. duodenalis among nurses. The frequency of positive samples of G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., E. histolytica/dispar showed that ILPIs environments are conducive to this occurring due to contact between the elderly, nurses and food handlers, which are often poorly trained in hygiene procedures and food handling.

  13. Increased incidence of postoperative infections during prophylaxis with cephalothin compared to doxycycline in intestinal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Nilsen, Roy M; Svensen, Rune

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The antibiotics used for prophylaxis during surgery may influence the rate of surgical site infections. Tetracyclines are attractive having a long half-life and few side effects when used in a single dose regimen. We studied the rate of surgical site infections during changing regimen...

  14. Probiotic/prebiotic correction for adverse effects of iron fortification on intestinal resistance to Salmonella infection in weaning mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feifei; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Yu, Guangli; Dong, Shiyuan; Yang, Huicheng

    2018-02-21

    Iron fortification has been associated with a modest increase in diarrhea risk among children. Herein, we investigate the correction for this unwanted side effect with probiotic/prebiotic supplementation in weaning mice. Iron fortification with 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate for 30 days significantly increased the species richness of the mouse gut microbiota compared to controls. The 500 ppm-FeSO 4 diet caused a significantly decreased abundance of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus. During infection with the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), mice on the 500 ppm-FeSO 4 diet showed earlier appearance of poisoning symptoms, higher rates of weight and appetite loss, and lower survival rates, all of which were effectively reversed by supplementation with a probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus) or a prebiotic (inulin) for 7 days before infection. Iron fortification with 500 ppm ferrous sulfate also increased fecal shedding and spleen and liver load of viable S. Typhimurium, suggesting its promoting effect on pathogen colonization and translocation, and this negative effect was found to be well corrected by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. Light and transmission electron microscopic observation on the ileal villus structure revealed the histopathological impairment of the intestine by iron fortification with both 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate, and the intestinal lesions were markedly alleviated by supplementation with Lactobacillus acidophilus or inulin. These results provide experimental evidence for the increased diarrhea risk upon iron fortification with high pathogen load, and demonstrate that probiotic or prebiotic supplementation can be used to eliminate the potential harm of iron fortification on gut health.

  15. Giardia duodenalis Infection Reduces Granulocyte Infiltration in an In Vivo Model of Bacterial Toxin-Induced Colitis and Attenuates Inflammation in Human Intestinal Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, James A.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L. Patrick; Hirota, Simon A.; Beck, Paul L.; Buret, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the develo...

  16. FACTORS OF RISK TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PUBLIC SHOOLCHILDEN IN BAHIA

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    Camila Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  17. Giardia co-infection promotes the secretion of antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 2 and trefoil factor 3 and attenuates attaching and effacing bacteria-induced intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Anna; Motta, Jean-Paul; Cotton, James A; Feener, Troy; Oyeyemi, Ayodele; Vallance, Bruce A; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure. This study analyzed Giardia spp. co-infections with attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, and assessed whether and how the presence of Giardia modulates host responses to A/E enteropathogens, and alters intestinal disease outcome. In mice infected with the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, co-infection with Giardia muris significantly attenuated weight loss, macro- and microscopic signs of colitis, bacterial colonization and translocation, while concurrently enhancing the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mouse β-defensin 3 and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Co-infection of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) monolayers with G. duodenalis trophozoites and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) enhanced the production of the AMPs human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and TFF3; this effect was inhibited with treatment of G. duodenalis with cysteine protease inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that Giardia infections are capable of reducing enteropathogen-induced colitis while increasing production of host AMPs. Additional studies also demonstrated that Giardia was able to directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These results reveal novel mechanisms whereby Giardia may protect against gastrointestinal disease induced by a co-infecting A/E enteropathogen. Our findings shed new light on how microbial-microbial interactions in the gut may protect a host during concomitant infections.

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in HIV seropositive individuals with diarrhoea in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: A cross-sectional study

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    Tumaini Alfred Ringo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient’s level of immunity. The most common clinical manifestation of these intestinal parasites is diarrhoea. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected patients has been found to be as high as 95%. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected participants presenting with diarrhoea and association with CD4 cell counts, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in four HIV clinics in Moshi district, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Stool samples were collected and analyzed from participants presenting with three or more episodes of loose stool per day or a single bloody bowel movement. The identification of parasites was done using direct microscopy and staining techniques. Demographic data, CD4 counts and stool results were recorded. Data analysis was done using STATA IC/11.1. Results: The study included 83 adult HIV positive patients. There were 36 males (43.4% and 47 females (56.6%, with a median age of 36 years (range 30-43. The baseline CD4 count was 150 cells/ul (range 72-295 cells/ul. Of our participants, 47 (56.6% had a baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cell/uL. Only 6(7.2% had CD4 counts above 500cells/uL. Of the whole group, 62(74.7% were on ARV therapy and 33(39.8% were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Intestinal parasites were detected in 25 of our participants. Among these 25 participants, Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 52%, Giardia lamblia in 32% and Entamoeba histolytica in 16%. The frequency of intestinal parasites was significantly associated with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/ul (p=0.02. There was no significant difference in parasitic infections associated with ART status or cotrimoxazole use. Conclusion: The prevalence

  19. Persistent Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 Adhesion by Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus characterized by diarrhea and high morbidity rates, and the mortality rate is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV often suffer secondary infection by other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can more easily adhere to generating cells. Intestinal epithelial cells are the primary targets of TGEV and ETEC infections. We found that TGEV can persistently infect porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and cause EMT, consistent with multiple changes in key cell characteristics. Infected cells display fibroblast-like shapes; exhibit increases in levels of mesenchymal markers with a corresponding loss of epithelial markers; have enhanced expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs; and demonstrate increases in migratory and invasive behaviors. Additional experiments showed that the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways via TGF-β is critical for the TGEV-mediated EMT process. Cellular uptake is also modified in cells that have undergone EMT. TGEV-infected cells have higher levels of integrin α5 and fibronectin and exhibit enhanced ETEC K88 adhesion. Reversal of EMT reduces ETEC K88 adhesion and inhibits the expression of integrin α5 and fibronectin. Overall, these results suggest that TGEV infection induces EMT in IPEC-J2 cells, increasing the adhesion of ETEC K88 in the intestine and facilitating dual infection. IMPORTANCE Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea and is often followed by secondary infection by other pathogens. In this study, we showed

  20. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  1. Echinococcus multilocularis detection in the intestines and feces of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) from northeastern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Forin-Wiart, Marie-Amélie; Hormaz, Vanessa; Caillot, Christophe; Boucher, Jean-Marc; Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Franck, Boué

    2015-11-30

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that cats can be infected by Echinococcus multilocularis, although few data are available concerning their natural infection. This study was designed to compare experimental findings with information on the prevalence of natural E. multilocularis infections of cats in a rural high endemic area. Of 19 intestines of domestic cats (Felis s. catus) and five of European wildcats (Felis s. silvestris) analyzed by segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT), infection by E. multilocularis was observed for one individual of each species, resulting in a prevalence estimated at 5%, (CI95%: 1-26) in domestic cats and at 20% (CI95%: 1-72) in wildcats. High worm burdens (680 and 7040) were noted, but comprised only immature worms. The same EmsB microsatellite profile obtained from the worms' DNA was observed in the two cats as in foxes from the same area and from other European countries. The presence of E. multilocularis DNA was diagnosed in 3.1% (10/321) of the domestic cat feces collected on the field in two villages. However, no E. multilocularis eggs were found after flotation with zinc chloride of the positive feces. The detection of DNA from E. multilocularis was thought to be due to the presence of cells from worms untied from the intestine and corresponding to prepatent infection or due to the digested metacestode. These results from E. multilocularis presence in wild and domestic cat populations agree with those previously obtained by experimental infections. These findings support that these cats play an insignificant role in E. multilocularis transmission, even in a "highly endemic" region. Nevertheless, since the presence of thick-shelled E. multilocularis eggs from cats has already been reported, the associated zoonotic risk cannot be totally ruled out, even if it is very low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of concurrent experimental infections of sheep with Trichostrongylus colubriformis and T. vitrinus on nematode distributions, numbers and on pathological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E.A.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous infections of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and T. vitrinus in the small intestine of the sheep were examined by comparing the numbers of worms which established and their distribution within the intestine in both monospecific infections and mixed infections. The results differed depending upon the species and number of parasites. The establishment of T. colubriformis was reduced and the distribution of the nematode population was displaced posteriorly within the intestine when 30,000 larvae of both species were administered, compared with pure infections of T. colubriformis. The reduced establishment was less marked with infections of 15,000 larvae of both species and there was only a slight posterior displacement of T. colubriformis. Neither effect was evident with infections of 7,500 larvae of both species. The rate of establishment and distribution of T. vitrinus were unaffected by the presence of T. colubriformis at all three rates of infection. Atrophy of villi and hypertrophy of crypts occurred at the main site of infection in the anterior duodenum. The severity of villus atrophy was related to the number of infective larvae administered and/or the worm burden. In the ileum, beyond the main site of infection, hypertrophy of villi was only found in sheep receiving the greatest number of infective larvae.

  3. Immune response to Echinococcus infection: parasite avoidance and host protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakelin, D

    1997-12-01

    The life cycles of Echinococcus spp, involve two phases that have quite different immunological relationships with the host--the parenteral metacestode and the enteral adult. Immune control of the metacestode (at least of E. granulosus) by vaccination is now a real possibility, but there seems little prospect of similar control of the adult worms. Vaccination against metacestodes must not only induce effective responses but also prevent the parasite modulating these in such a way as to render them ineffective. This requires a much fuller understanding of the basis of parasite avoidance mechanisms, in particular an understanding of the balance of parasite- and host-protective mechanisms that involve the activity of T lymphocyte subsets. Protective responses against adult worms in the intestine appear weak and ineffective, although it is clear that the worms are immunogenic and there is some evidence that the host can become immune. Again, a more complete insight into the nature of the worm's association with the mucosal immune system is required, and a fuller understanding of the variables that influence this association; host genetic variation may prove to be an important factor that determines the outcome of adult worm infections.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Marti, Hanspeter; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Bogoch, Isaac I; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2013-01-04

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are common in school-aged c