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Sample records for intestinal polypeptide vip

  1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  2. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactivity in the ependymal cells of the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K; Lee, W T

    1988-12-19

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was demonstrated immunohistochemically in the entire ependymal and subependymal cells in all levels (cervical: C, thoracic: T, lumbar: L and sacral: S) of normal adult rat spinal cord. The VIP-immunoreactive basal processes from the apical ependymal cells coursed dorsally or ventrally along the median plane and reached the pia mater of the dorsal and ventral median septa. Many VIP-immunoreactive basal processes terminated on the blood vessels in the neuropil around the central canal. A few microvilli of the ependymal cells that project into the central canal also demonstrated intense VIP immunoreactivity. These observations suggest that ependymal cells may be involved in the modulation of VIP levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and regulation of vascular tone of the blood vessels in the spinal cord.

  3. Circulating endogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in patients with uraemia and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Borg Mogensen, N;

    1986-01-01

    .0001) and positively correlated to serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.51, P less than 0.001). In 133 patients with liver cirrhosis peripheral venous VIP was slightly elevated (median 7.0 pmol l-1 range 0-86, P less than 0.01). Samples obtained during a central venous catheterization showed significant renal...... and patients with cirrhosis both the liver and kidneys are involved in the biodegradation of VIP. The elevated level of circulating VIP in uraemic patients may in part be due to decreased renal and hepatic biodegradation but increased neuronal release of VIP, especially in the splanchnic system, may also...... extraction of circulating VIP in control subjects (median extraction fraction 23%, P less than 0.05, n = 6) and in patients with cirrhosis (median 60%, P less than 0.02, n = 8), but not in uraemic patients (median 0%, NS n = 5). In control subjects and patients with cirrhosis the concentration of VIP...

  4. Fasting and prolonged exercise increase vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Hilsted, J; Fahrenkrug, J

    1979-01-01

    and maximal exercise. During 59 h of fasting, VIP increased from 3.6 (0.6--6.6) to 10.2 (6.6--13.8) pmol.1(-1) (p less than 0.05). The concentration of glucose in plasma decreased significantly during the prolonged exercise as well as during fasting. The known metabolic actions of VIP and the demonstrated...

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M; Shutz, Kristin C; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2008-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes.

  6. Behavioural actions of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloet, E.R.; Cottrell, G.A.; Veldhuis, H.D.; Rostene, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied on fear-motivated behaviours, exploration of a novel environment and on novelty and ACTH-induced grooming. VIP was administered via a plastic cannula into the lateral ventricle. Retention of a step-through passive avoidance task was inhib

  7. Do the ependymal cells contain vasoactive intestinal polypeptide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, H; Masuko, S

    1989-12-04

    Immunoreaction for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the ependymal cells was investigated using two different commercially available polyclonal antisera for VIP. Immunostaining with an anti-VIP serum showed strong reaction products in the ependymal cells of the central canal and the third ventricle, in addition to immunoreactive neuronal elements in the spinal cord and in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Staining of the ependymal cells was not reduced by preabsorption of the antiserum with synthetic VIP, while the immunoreactive neuronal elements disappeared. Such staining of the ependymal cells was not found using other antiserum.

  8. Stimulation of growth hormone by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, K; Kaji, H; Minamitani, N; Kodama, H; Kita, T; Goto, B; Chiba, T; Coy, D H; Fujita, T

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was administered as an iv bolus of 1 micrograms/kg BW to 8 acromegalic patients and in doses of 0.5 and 1 microgram/kg BW to 15 normal volunteers. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased, and pulse rate increased transiently after VIP injection. VIP stimulated PRL release from the anterior pituitary in normal subjects. Plasma PRL responses to VIP in women were dose dependent and larger than those in men. On the other hand, plasma GH levels rose markedly after VIP injection in all 6 patients with untreated acromegaly. In 2 patients studied after transsphenoidal microadenomectomy, there was no plasma GH response to VIP. In 2 other patients with inactive acromegaly as well as in normal subjects, VIP failed to affect plasma GH levels. In all 6 patients with active acromegaly, LRH (1-2 micrograms/kg BW, iv) did not increase plasma GH levels, but TRH (5-10 micrograms/kg BW, iv) caused significant increases in plasma GH, the magnitude of which was not similar to that of increases seen after VIP injection. Paradoxical GH responses to TRH were not observed in patients in the inactive phase after transsphenoidal surgery. These findings suggest that VIP stimulates GH release in vivo in acromegalic patients. A VIP test as well as a TRH test offer promise as simple and reliable techniques to evaluate the activity of acromegaly, particularly after transsphenoidal surgery.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide provokes acetylcholine release from the myenteric plexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, M.; Tsai, L.H.; Taniyama, K.; Tanaka, C.

    1986-07-01

    Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on the release of acetylcholine (ACh) from longitudinal muscle strips with myenteric plexus (LM) preparations were examined in the guinea pig small intestine. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent contraction of LM preparation. The VIP-induced contractions seem to be related to three components, the scopolamine-sensitive, the scopolamine-insensitive, the tetrodotoxin-sensitive, and the tetrodotoxin-insensitive contractions. VIP (10 to 10 W M) induced a concentration-dependent increase in the release of (TH)ACh from LM preparations preloaded with (TH)choline. The VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was inhibited by removal of CaS from the perfusion medium and by treatment with tetrodotoxin but not by scopolamine and hexamethonium. The spontaneous and VIP-evoked (TH)ACh release was not affected by phentolamine, propranolol, methysergide, diphenhydramine, cimetidine, bicuculline, or (D-ProS, D-Trp/sup 7,9/)substance P. The result demonstrates that VIP induces contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle directly and indirectly by the stimulation of both cholinergic neurons and noncholinergic excitatory neurons.

  10. Secretion of goblet cell serine proteinase, ingobsin, is stimulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1987-01-01

    Ingobsin is localized to the intestinal goblet cells in the rat and in man. In the present study, we investigated the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on the secretion of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum. Intravenous infusion of VIP or acetylcholine increased...... the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion, while the concentration in the duodenum was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of VIP and acetylcholine increased the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion and decreased the concentration of ingobsin in the duodenum. This study demonstrates that secretion...... of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum is exocrine and can be stimulated by VIP and acetylcholine....

  11. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N;

    1994-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular...

  12. Ontogeny of the VIP system in the gastro-intestinal tract of the Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum: successive appearance of co-existing PACAP and NOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Gamal; Reinecke, Manfred

    2003-03-01

    Evidence for the presence and potential co-existence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in gastro-intestinal endocrine cells and/or nerve fibers is conflicting and very few results exist on development. This immunofluorescence study aims to clarify the appearance and localization of VIP, PACAP and NOS in the gastro-intestinal tract of the Axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, during ontogeny. VIP-immunoreactivity appeared in nerve fibers as early as on day 3 after hatching likely indicating a particular role, such as a trophic action, of VIP in very early development. PACAP-immunoreactivity was observed 3 days later within the VIP-immunoreactive (-IR) fibers. From this time on, VIP- and PACAP-immunoreactivity exhibited complete co-existence. VIP/PACAP-IR fibers were found throughout the gastro-intestinal tract. They were most prominent in the myenteric plexus and the muscle layers and less frequent in the submucosa. NOS-immunoreactivity appeared as late as at the 1st (64 days) juvenile stage in a subpopulation of the VIP/PACAP-IR fibers that contacted submucosal arteries. We found only very few VIP/PACAP-IR perikarya, indicating that part of the VIP/PACAP-IR fibers is of extrinsic origin. On day 12 and in the 1st and 2nd (104 days) juvenile stage, infrequent PACAP-IR entero-endocrine cells were noted, while neither VIP- nor NOS-immunoreactivity occurred in endocrine cells at any stage of development. The complete coexistence of neuronal PACAP- and VIP-immunoreactivities and their very early appearance in ontogeny may suggest important and coordinated roles of both peptides in the control of Axolotl gastro-intestinal activity, while the VIP/ PACAP/NOS-IR fibers may be involved in the regulation of submucosal blood flow.

  13. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibits human renal cell carcinoma proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Eva; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Schally, Andrew V; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2012-10-01

    Clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) is an aggressive and fatal neoplasm. The present work was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exposure on non-tumoral (HK2) and tumoral (A498, cRCC) human proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. Reverse transcription and semiquantitative PCR was used at the VIP mRNA level whereas enzyme immunoanalysis was performed at the protein level. Both renal cell lines expressed VIP as well as VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (VPAC) receptors whereas only HK2 cells expressed formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL-1). Receptors were functional, as shown by VIP stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Treatment with 0.1μM VIP (24h) inhibited proliferation of A498 but not HK2 cells as based on a reduction in the incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine and BrdU (5'-Br-2'-deoxyuridine), PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) expression and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and activation. VPAC(1)-receptor participation was established using JV-1-53 antagonist and siRNA transfection. Growth-inhibitory response to VIP was related to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling systems as shown by studies on adenylate cyclase stimulation, and using the EPAC-specific compound 8CPT-2Me-cAMP and specific kinase inhibitors such as H89, wortmannin and PD98059. The efficacy of VIP on the prevention of tumor progression was confirmed in vivo using xenografted athymic mouse. These actions support a potential role of this peptide and its agonists in new therapies for cRCC.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulate newly synthesized, not stored, prolactin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, D.L.; Arnaout, M.A.; Martinson, D.R.; Erdmann, M.D.; Hagen, T.C. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Experiments were designed to determine whether vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), reported to stimulate basal PRL secretion, affects PRL processing by lactotrophs. Initially, rat anterior pituitary quarters were incubated for 2 h with (3H)leucine, with and without 10(-5) M VIP, and immunoreactive and immunoprecipitable rPRL were measured during 56 mM KCl perifusion to determine total and 3H-labeled PRL, respectively. Inclusion of VIP increased immunoreactive PRL, decreased immunoprecipitable PRL, and, therefore, decreased the specific activity of labeled PRL. These results suggested an enhanced release of newly synthesized PRL before KCl depolarization, thus decreasing the release of labeled PRL. To discriminate between the two PRL pools, newly synthesized and storage, pituitary quarters were incubated with and without 10(-5) M VIP for 4 h with (14C)leucine, 2 h in cold medium and 2 h with (3H)leucine. Immunoprecipitable PRL was measured during perifusion with 56 mM KCl. Data were depicted as the 3H/14C disintegrations per min ratio of PRL released/3H/14C disintegrations per min of total tissue to account for any differences in tissue labeling. This ratio was greater for tissue labeled in the presence of VIP. To determine whether VIP, as a secretagogue, differentiates between the newly synthesized and storage pools, VIP was added after pulse chase, as previously described. No preferential release was observed between the two groups. Finally, using the same (3H)- and (14C)leucine-labeling protocol with and without 10(-5) M VIP, tissue was perifused with medium 199 for 1 h, with 10(-5) M TRH for 30 min, with medium 199 for 30 min, and with 56 mM KCl for 1 h. Inclusion of VIP increased the 3H/14C released/3H/14C total tissue ratio during basal perifusion and TRH exposure.

  15. Fundamental and clinical evaluation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in pancreatitis by radioimmunoassay kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Soichiro; Nakamura, Takayuki; Ihara, Kenichi; Isogawa, Shin; Hirayama, Akio

    1987-07-01

    Plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) concentrations of normal individuals and patients with pancreatitis were studied using a VIP RIA kit. The inter-assay and intra-assay variation of this kit were between 2.1 and 9.4 %. The VIP levels increased in the acute phase of acute pancreatitis and patients with chronic pancreatitis. The VIP concentration increased during the first 30 min of glucose tolerance test, but this increase was much smaller than that in insulin. These results suggest that this kit is useful for physiologic and pathologic changes in the VIP level.

  16. Expression and characterization of preproVIP derived peptides in the human male urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Bredkjaer, H E; Ekblad, E;

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the gene sequence encoding vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) leads to the synthesis of a 170 amino acid precursor molecule which can be processed to five fragments: preproVIP 22-79, peptide histidine methionine (PHM), or peptide histidine valine (PHV), preproVIP 111-122, VIP...

  17. Effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in plasma and small intestine in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Guang Cao; Wan-Chun Wu; Zhen Han; Meng-Ya Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of psychological stress on small intestinal motility and expression of cholecystokinin(CCK) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma and small intestine, and to explore the relationship between small intestinal motor disorders and gastrointestinal hormones under psychological stress.METHODS: Thirty-six mice were randomly divided into psychological stress group and control group. A mouse model with psychological stress was established by housing the mice with a hungry cat in separate layers of a two-layer cage. A semi-solid colored marker (carbon-ink) was used for monitoring small intestinal transit. CCK and VIP levels in plasma and small intestine in mice were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA).RFSULTS: Small intestinal transit was inhibited (52.18±19.15%vs 70.19±17.79%, P<0.01) in mice after psychological stress, compared to the controls. Small intestinal CCK levels in psychological stress mice were significantly lower than those in the control group (0.75±0.53 μg/g vs 1.98±1.17 μg/g,P<0.01), whereas plasma CCK concentrations were not different between the groups. VIP levels in small intestine were significantly higher in psychological stress mice than those in the control group (8.45±1.09 μg/g vs 7.03±2.36 μg/g,P<0.01), while there was no significant difference in plasma VTP levels between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Psychological stress inhibits the small intestinal transit, probably by down-regulating CCK and up-regulating VIP expression in small intestine.

  18. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine stimulate exocrine secretion of epidermal growth factor from the rat submandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the rat salivary glands was investigated. VIP in doses of 3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-8) mol/kg per h stimulated secretion of saliva and total output of EGF dose-dependently. Acet......The effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from the rat salivary glands was investigated. VIP in doses of 3 X 10(-10) to 3 X 10(-8) mol/kg per h stimulated secretion of saliva and total output of EGF dose......-dependently. Acetylcholine also stimulated salivation and output of EGF. VIP in a dose of 3 X 10(-11) to 3 X 10(-10) mol/kg per h enhanced the stimulatory effect of acetylcholine, but this effect disappeared when the dose of VIP was increased. Adrenalectomy decreased acetylcholine stimulated total output of EGF...

  19. Iodinated derivatives of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), PHI and PHM: purification, chemical characterization and biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMaster, D.; Suzuki, Y.; Rorstad, O.; Lederis, K.

    1987-07-01

    The iodination of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied, using a variety of enzymatic and chemical iodination methods. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to purify the reaction products. The lactoperoxidase-glucose oxidase method gave excellent results in terms of reproducibility, iodine incorporation, and yield of the non-oxidized products (Tyr(I)10)VIP and (Tyr(I)22)VIP, and was used to prepare both /sup 125/I and /sup 127/I labelled derivatives. In both cases, direct application to HPLC and a single column system were used. Although the oxidized peptides (Tyr(I)10,Met(O)17)VIP and (Tyr(I)22,Met(O)17)VIP could be generated to varying degrees directly by iodination of VIP, these were most conveniently prepared by iodination of (Met(O)17)VIP. Iodinated derivatives of the homologous peptides PHI and PHM were likewise prepared by rapid, one-step HPLC procedures. The site and degree of iodination were determined by HPLC peptide mapping of tryptic digests and amino acid analyses, and in the case of (Tyr(I)10)VIP also by sequencing. The vasorelaxant activities of the iodinated peptides in bovine cerebral artery preparations did not differ significantly from those of the corresponding noniodinated peptides, with the exception of (Tyr(I)10,Met(O)17)VIP and (Tyr(I)22,Met(O)17)VIP which, unlike (Met(O)17)VIP itself, had slightly lower potency than VIP.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide excites medial pontine reticular formation neurons in the brainstem rapid eye movement sleep-induction zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Reiner, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although it has long been known that microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) induces a state that resembles rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, it is likely that other transmitters contribute to mPRF regulation of behavioral states. A key...... candidate is the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which innervates the mPRF and induces REM sleep when injected into this region of the brainstem. To begin understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effects of VIP on mPRF cells using whole-cell patch...... conclude that VIP excites mPRF neurons by activation of a sodium current. This effect is mediated at least in part by G-protein stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinase A. These data suggest that VIP may play a physiological role in REM induction by its actions on mPRF neurons....

  1. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and peptide histidine methionine. Presence in human follicular fluid and effects on DNA synthesis and steroid secretion in cultured human granulosa/lutein cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gräs, S; Ovesen, P; Andersen, A N;

    1994-01-01

    fluid and cells were obtained from patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization for tubal infertility. The concentrations of VIP and PHM in pre-ovulatory human follicular fluid were measured radioimmunochemically. Granulosa/lutein cells isolated from follicular fluid were cultured under serum......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine methionine (PHM) originate from the same precursor molecule, prepro VIP. In the present study we examined the concentrations of VIP and PHM in human follicular fluid and their effects on cultured human granulosa/lutein cells. Follicular......-free conditions with VIP and PHM in varying concentrations (0.1, 10, 1000 nmol/l). [3H]Thymidine incorporation in the cells and oestradiol as well as progesterone concentrations in the culture medium were measured. The mean (+/- SEM) concentrations of VIP and PHM were 6.8 +/- 0.1 and 7.7 +/- 0.8 pmol...

  2. GRP和VIP对E2诱致的垂体催乳素(PRL)瘤细胞PRL基因转录的影响%THE EFFECTS OF GASTRIN-RELEASING PEPTIDE (GRP) AND VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE (VIP) ON THE PROLACTIN (PRL) GENE TRANSCRIPTION OF PITUTITARY PRL RELEASING TUMOR OF RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄安稞; 单惠敏; 黄曼影; 许荣焜

    1997-01-01

    实验应用雄性SD大鼠,皮下埋植内置10 mg雌二醇(E2)硅胶管3个月致垂体催乳素(prolactin,PRL)瘤后,取PRL瘤细胞进行体外原代培养,并应用原位杂交方法,研究不同剂量的胃泌素释放肽(gastrin-releasing peptide,GRP)和血管活性肠肽(vasoactive intestinal polypeptide,VIP)以及E2对离体培养的垂体PRL瘤细胞PRL基因转录的影响.结果如下:GRP,VIP分别与PRL瘤细胞孵育24 h后,10-8mol/L,10-7mol/L的GRP均不影响PRL瘤细胞内PRL mRNA水平,但10-6mol/L的GRP可使胞内PRL mRNA水平下降20%(P<0.05).在本实验所采用的浓度范围内,VIP均可升高PRL瘤细胞内PRL mRNA水平,10-8mol/L,10-7mol/L,10-8mol/L的VIP分别使胞内PRLmRNA升高为对照组的1.60,2.10,2.21倍(P<0.05).三种浓度的E2分别与PRL瘤细胞孵育48 h后,10-8 mol/L E2不影响胞内PRL mRNA水平,但10-7mol/L,10-8mol/L的E2则分别可使胞内PRL mRNA升高为对照组的2.80,2.92倍(P<0.05).上述结果表明:GRP和VIP可能分别抑制和增强由E2诱致的垂体PRL瘤细胞PRL基因的转录;一定浓度的E2可能直接涉及E2诱发垂体PRL瘤时伴高PRL血症.

  3. Involvement of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in nicotine-induced relaxation of the rat gastric fundus

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Nicotine-induced relaxation and release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)- and peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI)-like immunoreactivity (LI) were measured in longitudinal muscle strips from the rat gastric fundus.Under non-cholinergic conditions (0.3 μM atropine), nicotine (3–300 μM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (3 μM)-precontracted strips. Under non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) conditions (0.3 μM atropine+1 μM phentolamine+1 μM nadolol...

  4. VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE PREVENTS INJURY OF PULMONARY VASCULAR PERMEABILITY DUE TO XANTHINE WITH XANTHINE OXIDASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林耀广

    1995-01-01

    Hyperpermeability is a crux of pathogenesis of sudden lung edema in many pulmooary disorders,espe=cially in acute lung injury and adult respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS). Using our modified method for assessment of pulmonary vascular permeability,we observed the effects of xanthine with xanthine oxi-dase (X-XO) perfused in rat pulmonary artery and the protection of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) against the injury of pulmonary vascular permesbility.After addition of xanthine oxidase in the perfusate reservoir containing xanthine,125I-albumin leak index (125IALI) was remarkably increased while peak airway pressure (Paw) was not significantly increased,and perfusion pressure of pulmonary artery (Ppa) and lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) were only slightly increased.Xanthine plus xanthine oxi-dase also increased thromboxane B2(TX B2) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α(6-keto-PGF1α) in the perfusat-e.Treatment with VIP obviously reduced or totally prevented all signs of injury.Simultaneously,VIP also diminished or abolished the associated generation of arachidonate products.The results indicated that VIP bas potent protective activity against injury of pulmonary vasculat permeability and may be a physiological modulator of inflammatory damage to vaseular eodothelium associated with toxic oxygen metabolites.

  5. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kovsca Janjatovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and substance P (SP] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS, were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP. Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days, reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95, SP (rs=0.97/0.97 and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95, respectively, showed positive correlations (P<0

  6. Secretion of immunomodulating neuropeptides (VIP, SP) and nitric oxide synthase in porcine small intestine during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovsca Janjatovic, A; Valpotic, H; Kezic, D; Lacković, G; Gregorovic, G; Sladoljev, S; Mršić, G; Popovic, M; Valpotic, I

    2012-09-13

    Immunohistological identification/localization of immunomodulating neuropeptides [vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP)] and enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) as well as histomorphometric analyses of kinetics of their release and development of respective nerve fibers density during postnatal ontogenesis of porcine intestinal mucosal immune system (IMIS), were performed in order to assess the role of these molecules involved in maturation of the IMIS. The kinetcs of reactions to VIP, SP and NOS were demonstrated in the samples of jejunum and ileum from conventionally reared pigs. The samples were obtained at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days of age and processed for immunohistological staining. The VIP+ reaction was prevalently visible in the epithelial layer, lamina propria and Lieberkühn crypts (Lc) but also in the submucosa and lamina muscularis along blood and lymphatic vessels. The SP+ fibers were regularily distributed along enteric neurons in the muscular layer. The reaction to NOS was demonstrated in both mucosa and submucosa of ileum and jejunum and in the ileal Peyer's patches (PP). Intensity of the reaction was more pronounced in the epithelial layer and numerous NOS+ cells were observed around the Lc and inside the follicles of the PP. Also, we have noticed NOS+ blood vessels, particular neurons and nerve fibers in the submucosa and muscular layer of the small intestine. By analyzing quantitative patterns of SP+, VIP+ fibers and release of NOS we have concluded that intensity of their reactions gradually increases with age, except a short period of stagnation after weaning (at age of 28 days), reaching the highest values in the pigs aged between 42 and 49 days. The values obtained by Sperman rank order correlation test (rs) between days of age of pigs and intensity of the reactions in their jejunum/ileum to VIP (rs=0.97/0.95), SP (rs=0.97/0.97) and NOS (rs=0.98/0.95), respectively, showed positive correlations (Psecretion of

  7. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The effect of VIP and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands was investigated in the rat. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide infused in doses of 10 and 100 ng/kg/h significantly increased epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate output, but the co......The effect of VIP and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands was investigated in the rat. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide infused in doses of 10 and 100 ng/kg/h significantly increased epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate output......, but the concentrations did not change. Somatostatin infused at doses of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/kg/h against a background of VIP 100 ng/kg/h inhibited in dose-dependent fashion the stimulated epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate outputs from rat Brunner's gland pouches. Also basal secretion was inhibited...... by somatostatin. Infusion of antisomatostatin serum stimulated Brunner's gland secretion. By immunohistochemical studies of rat duodena, it was found that epidermal growth factor, is almost exclusively present in the secretory cells of Brunner's glands. It is concluded that VIP stimulates secretion of epidermal...

  8. Effect of galanin on substance P- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-induced nociceptive trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycka, M; Janecka, A

    2007-09-01

    Substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and galanin (GAL), present in primary sensory neurons, are involved in transmission of nociceptive signaling from the peripheral to central nervous system. In this study we investigated the effect of GAL on SP-induced or VIP-induced evoked tongue jerks (ETJ) in response to noxious tooth pulp stimulation during perfusion of the cerebral ventricles with SP or VIP solutions. The experiments were carried out on rats under chloralose anesthesia. It was shown that both, SP and VIP, perfused through the cerebral ventricles enhanced the ETJ amplitude as compared with control, but the effect produced by SP was stronger. The intracerebroventricular perfusion of GAL 5 minutes before SP caused a dose-dependent inhibition of SP-induced ETJ, whereas GAL perfused through the cerebral ventricles 5 minutes before VIP did not reduce the excitatory effect of VIP on ETJ. These results indicate that the antinociceptive effect of GAL perfused through the cerebral ventricles, tested on the trigemino-hypoglossal reflex in rats, is specifically mediated by the SP-ergic system.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythms in mammalian olfactory bulb and olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jae-Eun Kang; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; Wang, Thomas; Marpegan, Luciano; Holy, Timothy E; Herzog, Erik D

    2014-04-23

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the olfactory bulbs (OBs) function as an independent circadian system regulating daily rhythms in olfactory performance. However, the cells and signals in the olfactory system that generate and coordinate these circadian rhythms are unknown. Using real-time imaging of gene expression, we found that the isolated olfactory epithelium and OB, but not the piriform cortex, express similar, sustained circadian rhythms in PERIOD2 (PER2). In vivo, PER2 expression in the OB of mice is circadian, approximately doubling with a peak around subjective dusk. Furthermore, mice exhibit circadian rhythms in odor detection performance with a peak at approximately subjective dusk. We also found that circadian rhythms in gene expression and odor detection performance require vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or its receptor VPAC2R. VIP is expressed, in a circadian manner, in interneurons in the external plexiform and periglomerular layers, whereas VPAC2R is expressed in mitral and external tufted cells in the OB. Together, these results indicate that VIP signaling modulates the output from the OB to maintain circadian rhythms in the mammalian olfactory system.

  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of the monkey and cat spinal central canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, C C

    1987-04-22

    Neurons immediately adjacent to the central canal were demonstrated in the cat and monkey to be immunoreactive for the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), by means of the peroxidase antiperoxidase method. Most of the cells were found in the thoracic and sacral segments, although a few were present at each level. The thoracic neurons were multipolar and either ependymal or subependymal; they usually had a large, thick dendrite that was oriented radially toward the center of the central canal; this dendrite penetrated through the ependymal layer and ended as a large, fringed podlike process (4-5-microns diameter) along the canal surface in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). From the basal surface of the thoracic cell arose several small dendrites and a varicose axon. A few of the thoracic VIP neurons also contained two nuclei. In the sacral cord, the VIP neurons that lie along the central canal were of several types. They were round or multipolar and were either subependymal, within the ependyma, or supraependymal. Many had long dendrites and thin varicose axons stretching for long distances parallel to the cord surface. Other VIP neurons were smaller cells with short, highly branched, varicose processes. Most prominent in the sacral cord of the cat was a massive intricate network of intensely labelled processes extending in parallel along the canal surface. This network contained thick dendrites, highly varicose axons, and small neurons. Electron microscopy demonstrated VIP axons and varicosities containing small round clear vesicles and dense core vesicles. These processes were in desmosomal contact with ependymal cells and in direct contact with the CSF space. VIP processes were also found along the pial surface of the spinal cord at each level. In some cases single axons and bundles of axons arising from the area around the central canal could be traced to terminal fields along the ventral median fissure and the ventral and ventral lateral

  11. Labeling of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and VIP 10-28 fragment with radioiodine by direct method. Comparative study of the kinetics biodistribution and affinity for neuroendocrine tumor cells; Marcacao do peptideo intestinal vasoativo (VIP) e do fragmento VIP10-28 com radioiodo por metodo direto. Estudo comparativo da cinetica de biodistribuicao e da afinidade por celulas de tumor neuroendocrino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza

    2005-07-01

    In the progress of the Nuclear Medicine, many protein based radiopharmaceuticals have been developed in the last years using antibodies and, more recently, biologically active natural peptides or similar synthetic peptides. In the search for agents with specificity for the target tissue in tumors detection, it was verified that small sequences of amino acids may interact with selective sites, with homogenous distribution, fast accumulation in tissues and fast blood clearance when compared to the antibodies. Among the peptides used in the diagnosis of tumors, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) has been studied. VIP labeled with iodine-123 is applied in the images of intestinal adenocarcinoma and endocrine tumors. The molecule of VIP contains two tyrosine residues, in the positions 10 and 22 that are, theoretically, equally susceptible to radioiodination for direct method. The objective of this work was to produce VIP labeled with radioiodine (iodine-123), in order to introduce to the brazilian medical class this radiopharmaceutical of interest for the diagnosis and recurrence of tumors that express specific receptors. In an unpublished way, the work studied the labeling and the kinetic distribution of the VIP fragment (VIP 10-28) and verified its potential as radiopharmaceutical applied in the identification of tumors that express VIP receptors. After the choice of the appropriated technique for labeling VIP and VIP 10-28 with radioiodine, using Ceremonial T as oxidant agent and sodium metabisulfite as reducing agent, the quality control procedures were accomplished (electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) for radiochemical purity determination as well as the separation of the radiochemical species obtained. Labeling and quality control procedures applied were efficient and accurate. [{sup 131}I]VIP and [{sup 131}l]VIP 10-28 were obtained with high radiochemical purity (> 95%). The purification studies to remove free radioiodine in the

  12. Distribution of vasopressin, oxytocin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, R-J; Shu, Y-M; Wang, J; Yin, J-C; Xu, L; Zhou, J-N

    2014-04-18

    Vasopressin (VP), oxytocin (OXT) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the brain modulate physiological and behavioral processes in many vertebrates. Day-active tree shrews, the closest relatives of primates, live singly or in pairs in territories that they defend vigorously against intruding conspecifics. However, anatomy concerning peptidergic neuron distribution in the tree shrew brain is less clear. Here, we examined the distribution of VP, OXT and VIP immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) using the immunohistochemical techniques. Most of VP and OXT immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of the hypothalamus. In addition, VP-ir or OXT-ir neurons were scattered in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamic areas, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, stria terminalis, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala. Interestingly, a high density of VP-ir fibers within the ventral lateral septum was observed in males but not in females. Both VP-ir and VIP-ir neurons were found in different subdivisions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) with partial overlap. VIP-ir cells and fibers were also scattered in the cerebral cortex, anterior olfactory nucleus, amygdala and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These findings provide a comprehensive description of VIP and a detailed mapping of VP and OXT in the hypothalamus and extrahypothalamic regions of tree shrews, which is an anatomical basis for the participation of these neuropeptides in the regulation of circadian behavior and social behavior.

  13. Modulation of Corpus Striatal Neurochemistry by Astrocytes and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelkenli, İbrahim Halil; Ulupinar, Emel; Korkmaz, Orhan Tansel; Şener, Erol; Kuş, Gökhan; Filiz, Zeynep; Tunçel, Neşe

    2016-06-01

    The neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is widely used in animal models of Parkinson's disease. In various neurodegenerative diseases, astrocytes play direct, active, and critical roles in mediating neuronal survival and functions. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has neurotrophic actions and modulates a number of astrocytic activities. In this study, the effects of VIP on the striatal neurochemistry were investigated in parkinsonian rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham-operated, unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned, and lesioned + VIP-administered (25 ng/kg i.p.) groups. VIP was first injected 1 h after the intrastriatal 6-OHDA microinjection and then every 2 days throughout 15 days. Extracellular striatal concentration of glutathione (GSH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (GLU), and lactate were measured in microdialysates by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quantification of GABA and activity dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP)-expressing cells were determined by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)/ADNP + glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrated that a 6-OHDA lesion significantly increased the density of astrocytes in the striatum and VIP treatment slightly reduced the gliosis. Extracellular concentration of GABA, GLU, and lactate levels did not change, but GSH level significantly increased in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. VIP treatment reduced GSH level comparable to sham-operated groups, but enhanced GABA and GLU levels. Our double labeling results showed that VIP primarily acts on neurons to increase ADNP and GAD expression for protection. These results suggest that, in the 6-OHDA-induced neurodegeneration model, astrocytes were possibly activated for forefront defensiveness by modulating striatal neurochemistry.

  14. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael; de Vries, René;

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries....

  15. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/phentolamine for intracavernosal injection in erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, W Wallace; Wyllie, Michael G

    2008-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is becoming an increasingly common problem and although oral therapies offer first-line treatment for many men, they are contraindicated or ineffective in substantial groups of patients. Intracavernosal injection (ICI) therapy is the most effective nonsurgical treatment for ED and offers an effective alternative to oral therapy. Sufficient arterial blood supply and a functional veno-occlusive mechanism are prerequisites in the attainment and maintenance of a functional erection. Invicorp (Plethora Solutions, London, UK) is a combination of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) 25 microg and phentolamine mesylate 1 or 2 mg for ICI in the management of moderate to severe ED. The two active components have complementary modes of action; VIP has a potent effect on the veno-occlusive mechanism, but little effect on arterial inflow, whereas phentolamine increases arterial blood flow with no effect on the veno-occlusive mechanism. Clinical studies showed that Invicorp is effective in >or=80% of men with ED, including those who have failed to respond to other therapies and, unlike existing intracavernosal therapies, is associated with a very low incidence of penile pain and virtually negligible risk of priapism. We estimate that there are >5.9 million men in the USA alone for whom oral ED drugs are not a viable treatment option, and for whom Invicorp might offer a safe and effective alternative.

  16. Pharmacological characterization of VIP and PACAP receptors in the human meningeal and coronary artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kayi Y; Baun, Michael; de Vries, René;

    2011-01-01

    We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries.......We pharmacologically characterized pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAPs), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1) receptors in human meningeal (for their role in migraine) and coronary (for potential side effects) arteries....

  17. Distinct regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression at mRNA and peptide levels in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoston, D V; Colburn, S; Krajniak, K G; Waschek, J A

    1992-05-25

    Neuronal differentiation was induced in cultures of the human neuroblastoma cell line subclone SH-SY5Y by 14-day treatment with dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP), retinoic acid, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). An approximate 4-fold increase in vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with retinoic acid, whereas no change in VIP mRNA concentration was observed after differentiation with dBcAMP or PMA. A short-term treatment of cells with PMA did however result in a 5-fold transient increase in VIP mRNA; prior differentiation with retinoic acid or dBcAMP diminished this effect. Observed increases in VIP mRNA were in all cases accompanied by increases in VIP immunoreactivity. Remarkably, however, long-term treatment of cells with dBcAMP, which caused no change in mRNA levels, resulted in a six-fold increase in VIP immunoreactivity. Acute (36-h) treatment with carbachol also caused an increase in VIP immunoreactivity (about 2-fold, and blocked by atropine) without an increase in VIP mRNA level. Thus, a quantitative change in gene transcription or mRNA stability appears not to be a prerequisite for increased VIP expression, indicating that regulation can occur at translational or post-translational steps.

  18. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and other preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide-derived peptides in the female and male genital tract: localization, biosynthesis, and functional and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J

    1995-01-01

    in the control of erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been suggested as a causative factor in some diseases of the genital organs (e.g., it may play a pathophysiologic role in male impotence and the peptide is currently used in the treatment of this condition). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide may...

  19. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Mirosław Łakomy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and neuropeptide Y (NPY, in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  20. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP Rescues the Luteinizing Hormone Surge in Middle-Aged Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan eSun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive aging is characterized by delayed and attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH surges apparent in middle-aged rats. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN contains the circadian clock that is responsible for the timing of diverse neuroendocrine rhythms. Electrophysiological studies suggest vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP originating from the SCN excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons and affects daily patterns of GnRH-LH release. Age-related LH surge dysfunction correlates with reduced VIP mRNA expression in the SCN and fewer GnRH neurons with VIP contacts expressing c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, on the day of the LH surge. To determine if age-related LH surge dysfunction reflects reduced VIP availability or altered VIP responsiveness under estradiol positive feedback conditions, we assessed the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv VIP infusion on c-fos expression in GnRH neurons and on LH release in ovariohysterectomized, hormone-primed young and middle-aged rats. Icv infusion of VIP between 1300 and 1600 h significantly advanced the time of peak LH release, increased total and peak LH release, and increased the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos on the day of the LH surge in middle-aged rats. Surprisingly, icv infusion of VIP in young females significantly reduced the number of GnRH neurons expressing c-fos and delayed and reduced the LH surge. These observations suggest that a critical balance of VIP signaling is required to activate GnRH neurons for an appropriately timed and robust LH surge in young and middle-aged females. Age-related LH surge changes may, in part, result from decreased availability and reduced VIP-mediated neurotransmission under estradiol positive feedback conditions.

  1. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Eiichi [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Hosokawa, Masaya [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Faculty of Human Sciences, Tezukayama Gakuin University, Osaka (Japan); Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Geriatric Medicine, Akita University School of Medicine, Akita (Japan); Seino, Yutaka [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kansai Electric Power Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Inagaki, Nobuya, E-mail: inagaki@metab.kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); CREST of Japan Science and Technology Cooperation (JST), Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  2. Effect of fluoxetine on depression-induced changes in the expression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and corticotrophin releasing factor in rat duodenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate changes in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and corticotrophinreleasing factor (CRF) in the plasma and duodenum of chronic stressinduced depressed rats and the effects of fluoxetine hydrochloride (fluoxetine) treatment on depressioninduced changes in VIP and CRF.METHODS: A Sprague-Dawley rat model of chronic stress-induced depression was produced. Thirty experimental rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, saline-treated depressed group, and fluoxetine-treated depressed group. Openfield testing was performed to assess the rats' behavior.VIP and CRF levels in plasma were measured by ELISA.Immunofluorescence techniques combined with laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) were used to investigate VIP and CRF expression in the duodenum.RESULTS: The open-field behavior, both crossing and rearing, of depression model rats, decreased significantly compared with those of normal control rats over 5 min.Defecation times increased significantly. Compared to the control group, FITC fluorescence of duodenal CRF expression and plasma CRF levels in the depressed rats increased significantly (fluorescence intensity of duodenal CRF: 11.82 ± 2.54 vs 25.17 ± 4.63; plasma CRF: 11.82 ± 2.54 ng/L vs 25.17 ± 4.63 ng/L, P<0.01),whereas duodenal VIP expression and plasma VIP levels decreased significantly (fluorescence intensity of duodenal VIP: 67.37 ± 18.90 vs 44.51 ± 16.37; plasma VIP: 67.37 ± 18.90 ng/L vs 44.51±16.37 ng/L, P < 0.01).Fluoxetine improved depressed behavior, increased VIP expression and decreased CRF expression in plasma and the duodenal tissue of depressed rats.CONCLUSION: Chronic stress can induce injury to the duodenum, accompanied by increasing CRF and decreasing VIP in the plasma and duodenum. Treatment with fluoxetine can ameliorate pathological changes in the duodenum of depressed rats, which suggests that antidepressants are an effective therapeutic agent for some duodenal diseases caused by

  3. The in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 and mRNA expression of their receptors in rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boni, L. J.; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Olesen, Jes;

    2009-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is probably involved in migraine pathogenesis. Its activation releases a mixture of signalling molecules including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), which subsequently stimulate VPAC(1), VPAC(2...

  4. Medial septal and median raphe innervation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneurons in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, E C; Hajos, N; Acsády, L; Freund, T F

    1999-05-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons are known to form three anatomically and neurochemically well-characterized neuron populations in the hippocampus. Two of these establish synaptic contacts selectively with other GABAergic cells (interneuron-selective cells), whereas the third type innervates pyramidal cell bodies and proximal dendrites like a conventional basket cell. Our aim was to examine which of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneuron populations are among the targets of GABAergic septohippocampal and serotonergic raphe-hippocampal pathways. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with double immunocytochemistry for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was used at the light and electron microscopic levels. Our results show that both interneuron-selective cells and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells receive synaptic input from the medial septum and median raphe nucleus. The GABAergic component of the septohippocampal pathway establishes multiple contacts on both cell types. In the case of the raphe-hippocampal projection, single or double contacts were more frequent on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneuron selective cells (76%), whereas multiple contacts predominated on basket cells (83%). The extrinsic GABAergic innervation of interneuron-selective cells in the hippocampus indicates a complex interaction among GABAergic systems, which might ensure the timing and rhythmic synchronization of inhibitory processes in the hippocampus. On the other hand, our results suggest that the serotonergic effect on perisomatic inhibition is exerted via vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells that are functionally distinct from their parvalbumin-positive relatives, which appear to escape control of serotonergic as well as local interneuron-selective cells.

  5. Neuropeptides of the VIP family inhibit glioblastoma cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochaud, Stéphanie; Meunier, Annie-Claire; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc; Chadéneau, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are neuropeptides acting through VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptors (referred here as the VIP-receptor system). In the central nervous system, VIP and PACAP are involved in neurogenesis, cell differentiation and migration, suggesting that they could be implicated in the development of glioblastoma (GBM). The infiltrative nature of GBM remains a major problem for the therapy of these tumors. We previously demonstrated that the VIP-receptor system regulated cell migration of the human cell lines M059J and M059K, derived from a single human GBM. Here, we evaluated the involvement of the VIP-receptor system in GBM cell invasion. In Matrigel invasion assays, M059K cells that express more the VIP-receptor system than M059J cells were less invasive. Invasion assays performed in the presence of agonists, antagonists or anti-PACAP antibodies as well as experiments with transfected M059J cells overexpressing the VPAC1 receptor indicated that the more the VIP-receptor system was expressed and activated, the less the cells were able to invade. Western immunoblotting experiments revealed that the VIP-receptor system inactivated the signaling protein AKT. Invasion assays carried out in the presence of an AKT inhibitor demonstrated the involvement of this signaling kinase in the regulation of cell invasion by the VIP-receptor system in M059K cells. The inhibition by VIP of invasion and AKT was also observed in U87 cells. In conclusion, VIP and PACAP act as anti-invasive factors in different GBM cell lines, a function mediated by VPAC1 inhibition of AKT signaling in M059K cells.

  6. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Knockout (VIP KO mouse model of sulfite-sensitive asthma: up-regulation of novel lung carbonyl reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szema Anthony M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO: 1 peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2 pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-5, IL-6, with IFN-γ, and 3 airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In human asthma, a phenotype with sulfite sensitivity leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness to inhaled sulfites, and is associated with upregulation of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase. For the present experiments, we examined the role of VIP in modulating anti-oxidant genes and their proteins, including lung carbonyl reductase. Results Four male VIP KO mice and four wild-type age- and gender matched mice had lungs examined for whole genome microarray and a proteomics approach using mass spectrometry. The proteomics analysis revealed that a novel variant of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase (car3 was uniquely and markedly elevated in the VIP KO mice. RT-PCR indicated that carbonic anhydrase 3, which is an anti-oxidant protein, was elevated in the VIP KO mice. Conclusions These data support the concept that VIP influences the endogenous oxidant/antioxidant balance. One potential implication is that VIP and its analogues may be used to treat inflammatory diseases, including asthma.

  7. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Knockout (VIP KO) mouse model of sulfite-sensitive asthma: up-regulation of novel lung carbonyl reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We earlier reported spontaneous features of asthma in Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide knockout mice (VIP KO): 1) peribronchiolar airway inflammation, with accumulation of lymphocytes and eosinophils, 2) pro-inflammatory cytokine production of IL-5, IL-6, with IFN-γ, and 3) airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. In human asthma, a phenotype with sulfite sensitivity leads to airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness to inhaled sulfites, and is associated with upregulation of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase. For the present experiments, we examined the role of VIP in modulating anti-oxidant genes and their proteins, including lung carbonyl reductase. Results Four male VIP KO mice and four wild-type age- and gender matched mice had lungs examined for whole genome microarray and a proteomics approach using mass spectrometry. The proteomics analysis revealed that a novel variant of anti-oxidant protein lung carbonyl reductase (car3) was uniquely and markedly elevated in the VIP KO mice. RT-PCR indicated that carbonic anhydrase 3, which is an anti-oxidant protein, was elevated in the VIP KO mice. Conclusions These data support the concept that VIP influences the endogenous oxidant/antioxidant balance. One potential implication is that VIP and its analogues may be used to treat inflammatory diseases, including asthma. PMID:22103391

  8. Effect of Xiaoer Fuxie Waifu powder on the ultrastructure of intestinal Cajal cells and expression of neurotransmitter receptor VIP-R1 in rats with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-wei CHEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of Xiaoer Fuxie Waifu powder on intestinal Cajal cells (ICC and the expression of vasoactive peptide receptor 1 (VIP-R1 in rats with diarrhea. Methods Thirty Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group, model group, and treatment group (10 each. Folium sennae (2ml/100g was gavaged to reproduce the diarrheal model. Xiaoer Fuxie Waifu powder was applied topically in the treatment group. Transmission electron microscope was used to observe the changes in ultrastructure of ICC after application of the drug. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the distribution of VIP-R1 in the intestine of diarrheic rats. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the expressions of mRNA and protein of VIP-R1. Results The ultrastructure of ICC showed that the drug treatment could normalize the cellular morphology and gap junction. VIP-R1 was found to be distributed mainly between circular muscle and longitudinal muscle, in the myenteric nerve plexus of the small intestine, and was found around the epithelial cells in the mucosal layer of the colon and lamina propria cells. Xiaoer Fuxie Waifu powder inhibited the secretion of VIP-R1 and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of VIP-R1. Conclusion Xiaoer Fuxie Waifu powder can repair the injured ICC of diarrheic rats and cure diarrhea by down-regulating the expression of VIP-R1. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.01.05

  9. Coexpression of neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in pelvic plexus neurones innervating the uterus and cervix in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeau, E; Boyer, P A; Rousseau, A; Rousseau, J P

    1997-05-01

    The present study investigates the distribution and coexpression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in neurones of the accessory ganglion (AG), hypogastric plexus (HP) and paracervical ganglion (PCG), which compose the pelvic plexus in the female rat. Nerve cell bodies immunoreactive for NPY and VIP represent 84% and 46% of the neurone population in the PCG, respectively, while immunoreactivity for each peptide is observed in about 90% of the AG and HP neurones. Adjacent sections immunostained for NPY and VIP, as well as the use of immunocytochemistry combined with in situ hybridization show that 92% of the VIP-containing neurones in the pelvic plexus also contain NPY. In addition, a retrograde tracing study performed in combination with immunocytochemistry demonstrates that pelvic plexus neurones project preferentially to the lower part of the uterus and to the cervix, and that about 95% of these projecting neurones contain VIP. Taken together, our findings indicate that in the female rat, neurones of the pelvic plexus projecting to the lower genital tract mainly coexpress VIP and NPY, and supply nerve fibres to the vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle in the uterocervical region. Since NPY and VIP exert distinct effects according to the target tissue, our results suggest that neurones coexpressing these peptides play important roles in the local regulation of the vascular bed and motor activity of the lower genital tract.

  10. Different populations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons are specialized to control pyramidal cells or interneurons in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acsády, L; Görcs, T J; Freund, T F

    1996-07-01

    The postsynaptic targets of three vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing GABAergic interneuron types were examined in the rat hippocampus. Two of them showed remarkable target selectivity for other GABAergic neurons, while the third contacted the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons innervating the stratum oriens/alveus border in the CA1 region were shown to establish multiple contacts with horizontal GABAergic interneurons immunoreactive for type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor. Similarly, identified axons of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons projecting to stratum radiatum were found to establish symmetrical synapses largely on GABAergic dendrites. The majority of these postsynaptic GABAergic neurons were shown to contain calbindin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. In contrast to the first two vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing cell populations, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons arborizing in stratum pyramidale formed baskets around pyramidal cells. These results revealed a new element in cortical microcircuits, interneurons which are specialized to innervate other GABAergic interneurons. The role of this new component may be the synchronization of dendritic inhibition, or an input-specific disinhibition of pyramidal cells in various dendritic domains. In contrast, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells are likely to be involved in perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal neurons, and represents a new basket cell type different from that containing parvalbumin.

  11. Appetite suppressive effects of yeast hydrolysate on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity in hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E Y; Suh, H J; Kim, S Y; Hong, Y S; Kim, M J; Chang, U J

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of yeast hydrolysate on appetite regulation mechanisms in the central nervous system, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunoreactivity in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) of the hypothalamus were examined. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to five groups: control (normal diet), BY-1 and BY-2 (normal diet with oral administration of 0.1 g and 1.0 g of yeast hydrolysate yeast hydrolysate 10-30 kDa/kg body weight, respectively). The body weight gain in the BY groups was less than that in the control. In particular, the weight gain of the BY-2 group (133.0 +/- 5.1 g) was significantly lower (p yeast hydrolysate of <10 kDa reduced the body weight gain and body fat in normal diet-fed rats and increased the lipid energy metabolism by altering the expression of NOS and VIP in neurons.

  12. Laser welding of ruptured intestinal tissue using plasmonic polypeptide nanocomposite solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huang-Chiao; Walker, Candace Rae; Nanda, Alisha; Rege, Kaushal

    2013-04-23

    Approximately 1.5 million people suffer from colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease in the United States. Occurrence of leakage following standard surgical anastomosis in intestinal and colorectal surgery is common and can cause infection leading to life-threatening consequences. In this report, we demonstrate that plasmonic nanocomposites, generated from elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) cross-linked with gold nanorods, can be used to weld ruptured intestinal tissue upon exposure to near-infrared (NIR) laser irradiation. Mechanical properties of these nanocomposites can be modulated based on the concentration of gold nanorods embedded within the ELP matrix. We employed photostable, NIR-absorbing cellularized and noncellularized GNR-ELP nanocomposites for ex vivo laser welding of ruptured porcine small intestines. Laser welding using the nanocomposites significantly enhanced the tensile strength, leakage pressure, and bursting pressure of ruptured intestinal tissue. This, in turn, provided a liquid-tight seal against leakage of luminal liquid from the intestine and resulting bacterial infection. This study demonstrates the utility of laser tissue welding using plasmonic polypeptide nanocomposites and indicates the translational potential of these materials in intestinal and colorectal repair.

  13. VIP and PACAP analogs regulate therapeutic targets in high-risk neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boisvilliers, Madryssa; Perrin, Florian; Hebache, Salima; Balandre, Annie-Claire; Bensalma, Souheyla; Garnier, Agnès; Vaudry, David; Fournier, Alain; Festy, Franck; Muller, Jean-Marc; Chadéneau, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric cancer. New therapies for high-risk NB aim to induce cell differentiation and to inhibit MYCN and ALK signaling in NB. The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are 2 related neuropeptides sharing common receptors. The level of VIP increases with NB differentiation. Here, the effects of VIP and PACAP analogs developed for therapeutic use were studied in MYCN-amplified NB SK-N-DZ and IMR-32 cells and in Kelly cells that in addition present the F1174L ALK mutation. As previously reported by our group in IMR-32 cells, VIP induced neuritogenesis in SK-N-DZ and Kelly cells and reduced MYCN expression in Kelly but not in SK-N-DZ cells. VIP decreased AKT activity in the ALK-mutated Kelly cells. These effects were PKA-dependent. IMR-32, SK-NDZ and Kelly cells expressed the genes encoding the 3 subtypes of VIP and PACAP receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1. In parallel to its effect on MYCN expression, VIP inhibited invasion in IMR-32 and Kelly cells. Among the 3 PACAP analogs tested, [Hyp(2)]PACAP-27 showed higher efficiency than VIP in Kelly cells. These results indicate that VIP and PACAP analogs act on molecular and cellular processes that could reduce aggressiveness of high-risk NB.

  14. VIP and PACAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2010-01-01

    amounts. Carboxyamidation of VIP and PHI is not critical and glycine-extended forms of both peptides have been demonstrated. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is derived from a 170 amino acid long precursor, which gives rise to PACAP 38, PACAP 27 and PACAP related peptide (PRP...

  15. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on MKN45 xenografts in nude mice%VIP对裸鼠MKN45移植瘤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙姚; 万娟; 李媛媛; 李国华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) on MKN45 xenografts in nude mice. Methods When MKN45 xenografts had grown to approximately 30 mm3 in volume, 18 nude mice were equally randomized into three groups of A (treated with VIP 10 μg · 100 μl-1 · mouce-1) ,B(treated with VIP receptor antagonist 10 μg · 100 μl-1 · mouce-1) and C (treated with PBS 100 μl/mouce). The drugs were injected subcutaneously daily for 4 weeks. The volume of xenografts and body weight were measured weekly. The expressions of ERK protein and mRNA in xenografts were detected by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Results On the 28th day after administration,body weight of nude mice in group VIP was less than that in group B(P<0. 05). On the 21st day after administration, the size of the xenografts in group A was larger than that in the other two groups(P<0. 01). The expression of ERK in xenografts in group A was lower than that in group B(P<0. 05). Conclusion VIP may potentially inhibit the growth of MKN45 xenografts in nude mice through its inhibitory effect on the ERK pathway.%目的 探讨血管活性肠肽(VIP)对裸鼠MKN45移植瘤的影响.方法 将18只人胃癌MKN45细胞株的移植瘤裸鼠随机均分为三组,分别每天皮下注射VIP 10 μg·100 μl-1·只-1 (VIP组)、VIP受体拮抗剂[D-p-C1-phe6,Leu17]-VIP(V4380) 10 μg·100μl-1·只1(拮抗剂组)和PBS100μl/只(对照组).每周称量裸鼠体重及移植瘤体积,4周后处死裸鼠,称量移植瘤重量及体积.用免疫组化及RT-PCR检测移植瘤组织中胞外信号调节激酶(ERK)蛋白及mRNA表达的变化.结果 给药第28天,VIP组裸鼠体重明显轻于拮抗剂组(P<0.05).给药的第14、21天,VIP组移植瘤体积明显小于其它两组(P<0.01).VIP组ERK蛋白的表达显著低于拮抗剂组(P<0.05).结论 VIP可能通过抑制肿瘤细胞ERK/NF-κB通路对人胃癌细胞MKN45裸鼠移植瘤有潜在抑制作用.

  16. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on Vip-ergic neurons in jejunum submucous plexus of diabetic rats Efeito da acetil-L-carnitina sobre neurônios Vip-érgicos do plexo submucoso do jejuno de ratos diabéticos

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on neurons releasing the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) of the submucous plexus in the jejunum of diabetic rats was the purpose of our investigation. Diabetes (DM) was induced by injecting streptozotocin endovenously (35mg/kg). After sacrificing the animals, the jejunum was collected and processed for VIP detection. Four groups were used: C (non-diabetic), CC (non-diabetic treated with ALC), D (diabetic), DC (diabetes treated ...

  17. VIP innervation: sharp contrast in fetal sheep and baboon adrenal glands suggests differences in developmental regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghorn, K A; Li, C; Nathanielsz, P W; McDonald, T J

    2000-09-22

    Immunocytochemical technique and light microscopy were used to ascertain the relationship between vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and tyrosine hydroxylase in fetal sheep and fetal baboon adrenal cortices and medullae at 85% of gestation. VIP immunostaining was extremely robust in fetal sheep adrenal cortical neurofibers and cells while weak in fibers and nonexistent in cells of fetal baboon. Also, tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive cells, present throughout the adrenal cortices of both fetal sheep and baboons, were heavily innervated by VIP-immunoreactive neurofibers in fetal sheep, but not in fetal baboons. Adrenal cortical VIP-immunopositive fibers occurred in greater (Psection (127.85+/-5.16 vs. 74.53+/-4.93 microm). VIP immunogenicity in cells (ganglion and chromaffin) and fibers was robust in fetal adrenal medulla of sheep while nonexistent in baboons. VIP fibers in fetal sheep medulla were smaller in diameter compared to fetal sheep cortex (1.22+/-0.13 vs. 2.93+/-0.34 microm, Pmedullary neurofibers derive primarily from extrinsic sources while cortical fibers arise from cortical ganglion cells. We conclude that at 85% of gestation the potential for VIP neural control of paracrine (e.g., glucocorticoid/catecholamine) interactions in both adrenal cortex and medulla is much greater in fetal sheep compared to fetal baboons.

  18. Differentiation of PC12 Cells Results in Enhanced VIP Expression and Prolonged Rhythmic Expression of Clock Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretzmann, C.P.; Fahrenkrug, J.; Georg, B.

    2008-01-01

    PC12 cultures lasted only one 24-h period, while in differentiated cultures, the rhythms continued for at least 3 days. Thus, neuronal differentiation provided PC12 cells the ability to maintain rhythmicity for an extended period. Both vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor VPAC(2......) are expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and in agreement with VIP signaling being crucial for maintenance of rhythmicity, we found both VIP and VPAC(2) mRNA increased after differentiation of PC12 cells. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts time- and concentration-dependent......To examine for circadian rhythmicity, the messenger RNA (mRNA) amount of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 was measured in undifferentiated and nerve-growth-factor-differentiated PC12 cells harvested every fourth hour. Serum shock was needed to induce circadian oscillations, which in undifferentiated...

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard;

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating...

  20. Intrinsic innervation of the stomach of the fetal pig: an immunohistochemical study of VIP-immunoreactive nerve fibres and cell bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, C; Weyns, A; van Meir, F; Ooms, L; Verhofstad, A

    1996-12-01

    Using an immunohistochemical technique, the presence and distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was investigated in cryostat sections, both tangential and transverse, of the fetal pig's stomach. In all fetuses and in all gastric segments investigated, VIP-like immunoreactive (IR) nerve-cell bodies were seen in all intramural ganglia, and VIP-IR nerve fibres were found in all layers of the gastric wall except the tunica serosa. Consequently, VIP-IR nerve fibres were found to form a periglandular network, to accompany arterioles, to interconnect the intramural ganglia, to encircle both VIP-IR-negative and -positive neurons, and were found in all muscle layers. Despite the fact that VIP-IR seems to be restricted to the intramural nervous elements, some non-specific-reacting VIP-IR glandular cells were noticed in the basal parts of the fundic, antral and pyloric gastric glands. The distribution pattern of VIP in the fetal pig resembles that of the adult pig. This suggests a possible functional role for VIP during fetal life and/or puts forward the suggestion that the stomach of a fetal pig from the second half of the gestation period is prepared, from then on, for postnatal function. High similarities with regard to the general distribution pattern of VIP in the stomach have also been noted between the fetal pig and humans, proving once more that the fetal pig can serve as a good animal model in several research areas. Finally, the morphological data provided here may, combined with the physiological significance of VIP, contribute to a better insight into the physiopathology of economically important gastro-intestinal disorders in the pig, such as gastric ulceration.

  1. Age-related changes in functional NANC innervation with VIP and substance P in the jejunum of Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparek, Michael S; Fatima, Javairiah; Iqbal, Corey W; Duenes, Judith A; Sarr, Michael G

    2009-12-03

    Age-related changes in non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) neurotransmission might contribute to differences in gastrointestinal motility. Our aim was to determine age-related changes in functional innervation with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (Sub P) in rat jejunum. We hypothesized that maturation causes changes in neurotransmission with these two neuropeptides. Longitudinal and circular jejunal muscle strips from young (3 months) and middle-aged (15 months) rats (total: 24 rats) were studied; the response to exogenous VIP and Sub P and the effect of their endogenous release from the enteric nervous system during electrical field stimulation (EFS) were evaluated. In longitudinal muscle, response to exogenous VIP and endogenously released VIP during EFS were increased in middle-aged rats, while the effect of endogenously released Sub P was decreased. In the circular muscle, the response to endogenously released VIP was increased in middle-aged rats, while the effects of exogenous VIP and endogenously released Sub P were unchanged. Response to exogenous Sub P was unaffected by maturation in both muscle layers. Spontaneous contractile activity was increased in the longitudinal and circular muscle of the older rats. In the jejunum of middle-aged rats, participation of VIP in functional NANC innervation was increased, while functional innervation with Sub P was decreased. These changes in the balance of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission occur during the year of maturation in rats and demonstrate an age-dependant plasticity of neuromuscular bowel function.

  2. Study on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 gene translation in psoriatic epidermis with the topical treatment of capsaicin ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism of capsaicin in treating active psoriasis vulgaris.Methods A total of 42 patients with active psoriasis vulgaris diagnosed by histology and clinical features were given either placebo or 0.025% capsaicin ointment four times daily for 30 days randomly by double-blind method.Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1(VIPR1)gene translation in active psoriatic lesions before and after treatment with capsaicin ointment was detected by in situ hybridization.Results There ...

  3. Vascular effects and cyclic AMP production produced by VIP, PHM, PHV, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, and NPY on rabbit ovarian artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, W; Sheikh, S P; Ottesen, B;

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between vessel tone and cAMP production induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine methionine (PHM), peptide histidine valine (PHV), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27 and PACAP-38), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was investigated......-38 all increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. The cAMP accumulation induced by PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 was five times higher than the cAMP content induced by the other three peptides. The peptide-induced smooth muscle relaxation did not correlate to the cAMP accumulation. NPY (10......(-7) M) markedly reversed the relaxations induced by VIP, PHM, PHV, PACAP-27, and PACAP-38, but did not influence the cAMP production induced by these peptides. In conclusion, the relaxation induced by VIP, PHM, PHV, PACAP-27, and PACAP-38 and the contraction induced by NPY are not solely related...

  4. Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcai Zhang

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1 is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA, a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1 have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2 have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3 have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4 have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5 have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1 markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition.

  5. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Translational evidence in vitro that aminopeptidase N is synthesized as a Mr-115000 polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1982-01-01

    was immunopurified from the translation mixture and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. It was found to have an apparent Mr of 115000 regardless of whether the translation was performed in the absence or presence of proteinase inhibitors. This result contradicts the possibility......A crude RNA fraction, prepared from pig small intestine, was found to be more efficient than a fraction enriched in polyadenylated RNA in directing translation of polypeptides with Mr greater than 100000 in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system. Aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) synthesized in vitro...

  6. VIP and PACAP 38 modulate ibotenate-induced neuronal heterotopias in the newborn hamster neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressens, P; Arquié, C; Hill, J M; Marret, S; Sahir, N; Robberecht, P; Evrard, P

    2000-12-01

    Intracerebral administration of ibotenate produces, through activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, neuronal heterotopias in the newborn hamster neocortex: high doses of ibotenate induce periventricular and subcortical neuronal heterotopias, while low doses of ibotenate produce intracortical heterotopias and molecular layer ectopias. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are closely related peptides with neurotrophic properties. They share common VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, which use cAMP as a second messenger. Previous studies have shown that VIP prevents excitotoxic neuronal death and exacerbates glutamate-induced c-fos neuronal expression. In order to gain new insight into the molecular control of neuronal migration, the present study examined the effects of VIP and PACAP on ibotenate-induced heterotopias in the newborn hamster. Co-treatment with VIP and a high dose of ibotenate produced a pattern of neuronal heterotopias similar to the one observed in animals treated with low doses of ibotenate alone. Pups co-injected with a low dose of ibotenate and a VIP antagonist displayed cortical dysgeneses similar to those observed in animals treated with high doses of ibotenate alone. The modulating effects of VIP on excitotoxin-induced heterotopias were mimicked by forskolin, PACAP, and by a specific VPAC2 receptor agonist but not by a VPAC1 agonist, and were blocked by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. Taken together, these data suggest that VIP and PACAP can attenuate ibotenate-induced heterotopias in newborn hamster and that this effect is mediated by the VPAC2 receptor utilizing the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  7. Cholinergic regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bo; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing......Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, muscarinic receptor, neuroblastoma cell, mRNA, gene expression, peptide processing...

  8. Imunofluorescência para neuropeptídeos na mucosa nasal humana: avaliação de técnica para peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP Neuropeptide immunofluorescence in human nasal mucosa: assessment of the technique for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Cedaro de Mendonça

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os neuropeptídeos são neurotransmissores relevantes na fisiologia nasal e o conhecimento crescente acerca de seu papel na fisiopatologia de doenças nasais abre novas perspectivas. A sua investigação na mucosa nasal humana baseia-se em grande parte em marcação imunológica, método complexo e sujeito a inúmeros fatores de erro. Com o intuito de viabilizar este tipo de pesquisa em nosso meio, um método de imunofluorescência para peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP na mucosa nasal humana é proposto e avaliado. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Oito pacientes submetidos a cirurgia funcional do nariz têm um fragmento de mucosa coletado da concha inferior. O tecido foi fixado em solução de Zamboni (paraformaldeído 4% tamponado e ácido pícrico 0,4%, congelado em nitrogênio líquido e armazenado. Cortes de 14 µm foram realizados e submetidos à reação de imunofluorescência para VIP (Península Laboratories. As imagens microscópicas foram documentadas em fotografia convencional. A especificidade, sensibilidade e reprodutibilidade de execução foram avaliadas. A reprodutibilidade de interpretação de resultados foi avaliada através da comparação de graus de marcação (0 a 4 atribuídos às fotos por seis observadores. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram ser o método suficientemente específico, sensível, além de reprodutível em sua execução. A interpretação de resultados mostrou depender do perfeito esclarecimento do observador no julgamento das imagens de imunofluorescência, mas mostrou uniformidade. CONCLUSÃO: O método proposto foi considerado útil na pesquisa de neuropeptídeos na mucosa nasal humana.Neuropeptides are important neurotransmitters in nasal physiology and the increasing knowledge of their role in nasal diseases brings new therapeutic perspectives. The investigation of human nasal mucosa neuropeptides is based mostly on immunocytochemistry, a complex approach whose resulting

  9. An electron microscopic study on VIP-, BOM- and CCK-like immunoreactive terminals in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaji, M; Kawai, Y; Kawashima, Y; Tohyama, M

    1989-05-29

    The distribution and fine structure were studied of the following 3 peptide-containing fibers of enteric origin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), bombesin (BOM) and cholecystokinin (CCK)-like immunoreactive peptide in the celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CMG) of the guinea pig. These peptides, especially VIP, were distributed more densely on the mesenteric side than on the celiac side of the CMG, and their distribution shared a similar mosaic pattern. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that the fibers formed synaptic contacts with the proximal dendrites of the principal ganglion cells, however, the profiles of these synaptic junctions differed between fibers. Those containing VIP or CCK formed symmetrical synapses, while those containing BOM formed assymetrical ones. This suggests that there are some functional differences between these enterofugal fibers in the CMG.

  10. [Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on defecation and VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway 
in rats with constipation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yongxue; Wang, Yujin; Zhang, Hong; Yan, Shuguang; Wang, Bin; Xie, Pei

    2016-11-28

    目的:观察血管活性肠肽(vasoactive intestinal peptide,VIP)对便秘大鼠肠道水液代谢、环磷酸腺苷-蛋白激酶A信号通路(cyclic AMP protein kinase A signaling pathway,cAMP-PKA)和水通道蛋白3(water channel protein 3,AQP3)的影响,探讨VIP治疗便秘的作用及机制。方法:45只健康成年Sprague-Dawley大鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、模型+
VIP组。给药4周后,墨汁灌胃法检测大鼠首粒黑便排出时间;根据大鼠粪便干湿重计算粪便含水率;HE染色观察各组大鼠结肠组织形态学变化;Western 印迹检测各组大鼠结肠组织中 VIP和AQP3蛋白表达水平;定量即时聚合酶链锁反应(quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction,qPCR)检测各组大鼠结肠组织中cAMP,PKA和AQP3 mRNA的表达水平。结果:与空白对照组比较,模型组大鼠首粒黑便出现时间延长,粪便含水率明显减少(均PCAMP,PKA和AQP3 mRNA相对表达水平升高(均PcAMP-PKA-AQP3信号通路有关。.

  11. Involvement of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a5 (Oatp1a5) in intestinal absorption of endothelin receptor antagonist in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tani, Takeshe; Gram, Luise Kvisgaard; Arakawa, Hiroshi;

    2008-01-01

    and taurocholic acid. CONCLUSIONS: These results consistently suggested that Oatp1a5 is contributing to the intestinal absorption of compound-A at least in part, and the transporter-mediated absorption seems to be maximized at the acidic microenvironment of epithelial cells in the small intestine in rats.......PURPOSE: To assess the contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a5 (Oatp1a5/Oatp3) in the intestinal absorption of an orally active endothelin receptor antagonist, (+)-(5S,6R,7R)-2-butyl-7-[2-((2S)-2-carboxypropyl)-4-methoxyphenyl]-5-(3,4-methylene-dioxyphenyl)cyclopenteno[1,2-b...

  12. Differential Inputs to the Perisomatic and Distal-Dendritic Compartments of VIP-Positive Neurons in Layer 2/3 of the Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaerin Sohn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recurrent network composed of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is fundamental to neocortical function. Inhibitory neurons in the mammalian neocortex are molecularly diverse, and individual cell types play unique functional roles in the neocortical microcircuit. Recently, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive (VIP+ neurons, comprising a subclass of inhibitory neurons, have attracted particular attention because they can disinhibit pyramidal cells through inhibition of other types of inhibitory neurons, such as parvalbumin- (PV+ and somatostatin-positive (SOM+ inhibitory neurons, promoting sensory information processing. Although VIP+ neurons have been reported to receive synaptic inputs from PV+ and SOM+ inhibitory neurons as well as from cortical and thalamic excitatory neurons, the somatodendritic localization of these synaptic inputs has yet to be elucidated at subcellular spatial resolution. In the present study, we visualized the somatodendritic membranes of layer (L 2/3 VIP+ neurons by injecting a newly developed adeno-associated virus vector into the barrel cortex of VIP-Cre knock-in mice, and we determined the extensive ramification of VIP+ neuron dendrites in the vertical orientation. After immunohistochemical labeling of presynaptic boutons and postsynaptic structures, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the synaptic contacts were unevenly distributed throughout the perisomatic (< 100 µm from the somata and distal-dendritic compartments (≥ 100 µm of VIP+ neurons. Both corticocortical and thalamocortical excitatory neurons preferentially targeted the distal-dendritic compartment of VIP+ neurons. On the other hand, SOM+ and PV+ inhibitory neurons preferentially targeted the distal-dendritic and perisomatic compartments of VIP+ neurons, respectively. Notably, VIP+ neurons had few reciprocal connections. These observations suggest different inhibitory effects of SOM+ and PV+ neuronal inputs on VIP+ neuron activity

  13. Regional difference in the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve fibres along the uterus and between myometrial muscle layers in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdeau, E; Prudhomme, M J; Rousseau, J P

    1998-07-01

    To investigate a possible regional variation of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation in the uterus of the cyclic rat, the distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing nerve fibres from the cervix to the oviduct end of the uterine horns was studied using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive nerve fibres were most concentrated in the cervix, where they formed a dense plexus in association with the musculature and surrounding blood vessels. In the uterus, a clear regional distribution of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide innervation was observed. Numerous vascular and non-vascular immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the lower part of the uterine horns, whereas they were sparse in the median region and absent at the oviduct end. Moreover, non-vascular peptide innervation was mostly concentrated in the circular layer of the myometrium and also occurred in the endometrium. Only a very few immunoreactive nerve fibres were present in the longitudinal muscle layer. No change in the peptide innervation pattern was observed during the different stages of the sexual cycle. The marked regional distribution of the peptide innervation in the rat uterus suggests that the regulatory effects of the peptide occur mainly in the lower part of the organ and principally affect the circular muscle layer in the myometrium.

  14. Pharmacological characterization and expression of VIP and PACAP receptors in isolated cranial arteries of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) are potent vasodilators in animals and humans. PACAP infusion but not VIP infusion precipitates migraine attacks in migraine patients. The vascular effects of VIP and the two varieties of PACAP (PACAP-2...

  15. Nye VIP-normer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Kritisk analyse: Rektor og VIP-tillidsrepræsentanterne har siden juni 2013 forhandlet en revision af CBS’ normaftale, der bestemmer, hvordan CBS' forskeres og underviseres arbejdstid skal fordeles mellem forskning, undervisning og administration. CBS OBSERVER's VIP-redaktør har kigget oplægget ef...

  16. Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural abnormalities of islet tissue in patients with VIP-producing tumors of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Sacchi, T; Bani, D; Biliotti, G

    1992-01-01

    Nontumoral endocrine pancreas from three patients with malignant vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-omas and the Verner-Morrison (watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and hypoachlorhydria) syndrome was studied immunocytochemically, ultrastructurally, and morphometrically. Compared with normal islets from control subjects, those of the VIPoma-associated pancreas showed a decrease of immunoreactive insulin in B-cells associated with cytological features indicative of enhanced insulin synthesis and secretion and an increase in the number of immunoreactive somatostatin- and pancreatic polypeptide-containing cells, in the absence of ultrastructural signs of modified secretory activity. No substantial alterations of A-cells were observed. In addition, images of diffuse de novo formation of ducts and islet tissue were often found. Possible mechanisms involved in determining the above changes are discussed.

  17. VIP Gene Deletion in Mice Causes Cardiomyopathy Associated with Upregulation of Heart Failure Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szema, Anthony M.; Hamidi, Sayyed A.; Smith, S. David; Benveniste, Helene; Katare, Rajesh Gopalrao

    2013-05-20

    Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP), a pulmonary vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, is absent in pulmonary arteries of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We previously determined that targeted deletion of the VIP gene in mice leads to PAH with pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular (RV) dilatation. Whether the left ventricle is also affected by VIP gene deletion is unknown. In the current study, we examined if VIP knockout mice (VIP-/-) develop both right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) cardiomyopathy, manifested by LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction, as well as overexpression of genes conducive to heart failure.

  18. Insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af from Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran corn pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Rie, Jeroen Van; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis were tested for their toxicity against Spodoptera frugiperda and Agrotis ipsilon. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to the two species. Vip3Ae and Vip3Af were significantly more toxic than Vip3Aa against S. frugiperda, both as protoxins and as toxins. Against A. ipsilon, Vip3Ae protoxin was more toxic than Vip3Aa and Vip3Af protoxins. Purification by metal-chelate affinity chromatography significantly affected Vip3Ae toxicity against the two insect species.

  19. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Priebe, Marion G.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Heiner, A. Marius; Englyst, Klaus N.; Holst, Jens. J.; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    Glucagon-like pepticle-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one of the

  20. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Priebe, Marion G.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Heiner, A. Marius; Englyst, Klaus N.; Holst, Jens. J.; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like pepticle-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one of the

  1. Insulin stimulates transport of organic anion compounds mediated by organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Taku; Koizumi, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Masaki; Ogura, Jiro; Horiuchi, Yuichi; Kimura, Yuki; Kondo, Ayuko; Furugen, Ayako; Narumi, Katsuya; Takahashi, Natsuko; Iseki, Ken

    2017-04-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) is the major uptake transporter in the intestine, and transports various clinically used therapeutic agents. Insulin acts through the insulin receptor in targeted cells, and Rab8A is one of the insulin signaling pathways. The small intestine in humans also expresses insulin receptor and Rab8A. It has been reported that insulin stimulates peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) expression at the apical membrane and increases uptake of PEPT1 substrates in small intestine epithelial model cells (Caco-2 cells). However, the effect of insulin on OATP2B1 in the small intestine has not been fully investigated. We found that Rab8A was associated with OATP2B1-mediated estrone-3-sulfate (E3S) uptake. Insulin stimulated the uptake of E3S by Caco-2 cells and the enhancement was sustained for 120 min. The Vmax value of E3S uptake significantly increased upon insulin exposure. Caco-2 cells treated with insulin showed increased OATP2B1 expression at the cell surface. The apical-to-basal transport of E3S was also increased by insulin. The increase of E3S transport was inhibited by the cold condition (4 °C) or the OATP2B1 inhibitor, taurocholate. These results indicate that insulin acts on the small intestine to increase OATP2B1-mediated absorption. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Biodistribution of liposomal {sup 131}I-VIP in rat using gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refai, Essam; Jonsson, Cathrine; Andersson, Mats; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig; Kogner, Per; Hassan, Moustapha E-mail: hassan@algonet.se

    1999-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28 amino-acid peptide was labeled with {sup 131}I and encapsulated into liposomes. {sup 131}I-VIP or liposomal {sup 131}I -VIP was administered intravenously into the rats. The distribution was studied by a gamma camera and established by counting the radioactivity in the removed organs. The elimination half-life for the liposomal {sup 131}I-VIP in both blood and lungs was significantly longer (5.29 and 9.28 min, respectively) than that obtained after the administration of {sup 131}I-VIP (0.62 and 3.18 min, respectively). Dynamic scans using a gamma camera after the administration of liposomal {sup 131}I-VIP showed a higher uptake of the liposomal form into the lungs compared with {sup 131}I-VIP. The lack of VIP in asthmatics has been shown in previous studies. However, the clinical investigations using VIP were disappointing most probably due to the rapid degradation of the peptide in the bronchial tract. This in fact is supported by our previous study, in which we demonstrated that VIP had a half-life of 0.45 min in blood. We conclude that the encapsulation of VIP in liposomes prolongs its elimination half-life in plasma and enhances its uptake in lungs. This observation may increase the clinical use of VIP in both diagnostic and therapy.

  3. Pharmacological characterization and expression of VIP and PACAP receptors in isolated cranial arteries of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) are potent vasodilators in animals and humans. PACAP infusion but not VIP infusion precipitates migraine attacks in migraine patients. The vascular effects of VIP and the two varieties of PACAP (PACAP-27...... in the smooth muscle cells of the vessels. In conclusion, migraine-like headache induced by PACAP-38 infusion is unlikely to be caused by direct vasodilator action on intracranial vessels....

  4. VIP Programs Offer More

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ISABELDING

    2005-01-01

    When choosing a hotel, service standards are a high priority for customers, with the quality of service often reflecting a hotel's standing.While most hotels try to provide the beststandard possible to their guest, many also offer special VIP programs that provide vale-added service and reward customer loyalty.

  5. Dial "V" for VIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Larry

    1972-01-01

    This article is concerned with the Videotape Program Service (VIPS), which will eventually be for public use, and the Resources Materials Bank (RMB), which is intended strictly for teacher use. Both programs are to provide videotape instruction too specific for general television broadcasting. (JA)

  6. Interplay between nitric oxide and VIP in CCK-8-induced phasic contractile activity in the rabbit sphincter of Oddi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Attila Pálv(o)lgyi; Réka Sári; József Németh; Annamária Szabolcs; István Nagy; Péter Hegyi; János Lonovics; Zoltán Szilvássy

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The sphincter of Oddi (SO) plays an important role in delivery of bile into the duodenum. To establish whether vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) were involved in phasic contractile activity of the rabbit SO stimulated by cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8).METHODS: Isolated SO muscle rings were cleaned of fat and mounted horizontally on two small L-shaped hooks one of which was connected to a force transducer for the measurement of isometric tension. The experiments were carried out in a thermostatically controlled (37±0.2 ℃) organ bath (5 mL) containing Krebs solution. The organ fluid was gassed with 95% O2 and 50 mL/L CO2 to keep the pH at 7.40±0.05. Contractile responses to CCK-8 (1 μmol/L) were evaluated in the presence and absence of NG-nitro-L-arginine (LNNA), an inhibitor of NO synthase (100 μmol/L), and (p-chloro-D-Phe6-Leu17)-VIP (VIPa,30 μmol/L), a VIP receptor antagonist. RESULTS: CCK-8 stimulated the phasic activity of the SO. NO synthase inhibition increased the frequency and amplitude of contractions with a slight increase in developed tension. Pre-incubation with VIPa also attenuated this CCK-8 effect. The combined application of LNNA and VIPa abolished the phasic activity of the musde rings with a marked increase in tension in response to CCK-8.CONCLUSION: VIP and NO together contribute to an increase in phasic activity of SO.

  7. Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin-glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor...... responses between PACAP38 and VIP in 16 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All participants received intradermal injections of 200 pmol PACAP38, 200 pmol VIP and placebo into the volar forearm. Measurements included pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS), blood...... no statistical difference in pain perception between PACAP38 and VIP. Skin blood flow increase, flare and wheal were larger after both PACAP38 (P = 0.011) and VIP (P = 0.001) compared to placebo. VIP induced a considerably larger increase in skin blood flow, flare and wheal than PACAP38 (P = 0...

  8. 免疫血管活性肠肽调节鸡产蛋和就巢的机理研究%Studies on the Regulation of Egg Laying and Incubation in Hens after Immunization against Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 陈峰; 黄运茂; 梁少东; 施振旦

    2011-01-01

    旨在研究免疫血管活性肠肽(Vasoactive intestinal peptide,VIP)和抑制催乳索(Prolactin,PRL)分泌对鸡产蛋和就巢的影响机制.试验1:对18周龄未开产的泰和鸡,分别在试验d1、d28、d56和d84免疫含VIP羧基端15肽片段的VIP-BSA偶联蛋白,观察对产蛋和就巢的影响.试验2:利用刚开产的23周龄粤黄鸡,在试验d1、d23、d48、d73、d98免疫VIP串联四聚体重组蛋白,观察对产蛋和就巢的影响,并在第98天检测卵泡发育和下丘脑、垂体、F1~F3级LYF颗粒层和膜层相关基因的表达.试验1中免疫VIP组在开产后高峰期(d55~d61)的产蛋率显著低于对照组,但高峰后的(d89~d103)产蛋率显著高于对照组,同时免疫VIP组的就巢发生也要迟于对照组.试验2中,VIP免疫组的产蛋率在试验初高于对照组;在d33将光照从12 h延长至16 h后,2组的产蛋率均快速上升;产蛋高峰后,免疫组产蛋率快速下降并在dS0~d105显著低于对照组.免疫VIP重组蛋白也降低了就巢的发生.2组鸡在d98的大黄卵泡、小黄卵泡和大白卵泡的数量无显著差异.免疫VIP重组蛋白并不影响下丘脑Gn-RH-Ⅰ和VIP、垂体LHβ和FSHβ的mRNA水平,但显著降低了垂体PRL的表达,也显著降低了垂体和下丘脑PRLR的表达.在检测的F1~F3卵泡组织中,免疫VIP重组蛋白也显著降低了F1和F3颗粒层的PRLR mRNA水平,降低了F1~F3颗粒层和膜层的LHR表达量,但对P450scc和StAR的表达量没有影响.两试验结果表明,免疫VIP能够降低PRL的表达和分泌,从而抑制产蛋引发的就巢发生,但是免疫VIP在抑制PRL表达分泌后也会抑制卵泡发育和产蛋,这一机制可能是通过影响卵泡组织LHR的表达而实现的.%This study was conducted to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of egg laying and development of incubation behaviour by immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in hens. In experiment 1, 18-wk old pre-lay Taihe pullets

  9. Signalling pathways involved in antitumoral effects of VIP in human renal cell carcinoma A498 cells: VIP induction of p53 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Eva; Muñoz-Moreno, Laura; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2014-08-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) decreases cell proliferation through PI3K signalling and prevents tumour progression in clear renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here we analyzed the signalling pathways that mediate such VIP effects by using human RCC A498 cells. The effects of treatment with 1 μM VIP and/or specific protein kinase inhibitors such as H89, Wortmannin and PD98059 were studied by cell adhesion assay, ELISA of VEGF165 and ROS production assays. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot were performed to study p53 expression. VIP increased cell adhesion and ROS production, and decreased VEGF165 secretion through PI3K signalling. Moreover, VIP increased nuclear expression of tumour suppressor p53. VIP effects could be blocked by cell incubation with a specific p53 inhibitor, cyclin pifithrin-α hydrobromide (CPFT-αH). In conclusion, this study provides a p53-dependent mechanism by which VIP regulates cell proliferation in RCC development. It supports a potential usefulness of VIP in new therapies of RCC.

  10. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide induces vascular relaxation and inhibits non-vascular smooth muscle activity in the rabbit female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Ottesen, B; Jørgensen, M

    1994-01-01

    a significant dose-related relaxation on the NA-precontracted vessels. However, pre-incubation of the vessels with 10(-7) M PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and vaso active intestinal polypeptide (VIP) did not induce a general rightward shift of the NA concentration-response curves, although a tendency to inhibition......In vitro effects of two bioactive forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were studied on rabbit vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Segments of the ovarian artery and muscle strips from the fallopian tube were used. Two series of experiments...... in the low-dose interval was observed. The peptides caused a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of both frequency and amplitude on the fallopian tube smooth muscle activity. The effects of the three peptides on longitudinally as well as transversally cut specimens were alike....

  11. Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    .002). In conclusion, we found that peripheral nociceptive cutaneous responses elicited by PACAP38 and VIP are similar in healthy volunteers. This suggests that acute pain and vasomotor responses following intradermal injections of PACAP38 and VIP are primarily mediated by VPAC receptors.......Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin-glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor...... responses between PACAP38 and VIP in 16 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All participants received intradermal injections of 200 pmol PACAP38, 200 pmol VIP and placebo into the volar forearm. Measurements included pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS), blood...

  12. Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients.

  13. VIP and endothelin receptor antagonist: An effective combination against experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szema Anthony M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH remains a therapeutic challenge, and the search continues for more effective drugs and drug combinations. We recently reported that deletion of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP gene caused the spontaneous expression of a PH phenotype that was fully corrected by VIP. The objectives of this investigation were to answer the questions: 1 Can VIP protect against PH in other experimental models? and 2 Does combining VIP with an endothelin (ET receptor antagonist bosentan enhance its efficacy? Methods Within 3 weeks of a single injection of monocrotaline (MCT, s.c. in Sprague Dawley rats, PAH developed, manifested by pulmonary vascular remodeling, lung inflammation, RV hypertrophy, and death within the next 2 weeks. MCT-injected animals were either untreated, treated with bosentan (p.o. alone, with VIP (i.p. alone, or with both together. We selected this particular combination upon finding that VIP down-regulates endothelin receptor expression which is further suppressed by bosentan. Therapeutic outcomes were compared as to hemodynamics, pulmonary vascular pathology, and survival. Results Treatment with VIP, every other day for 3 weeks, begun on the same day as MCT, almost totally prevented PAH pathology, and eliminated mortality for 45 days. Begun 3 weeks after MCT, however, VIP only partially reversed PAH pathology, though more effectively than bosentan. Combined therapy with both drugs fully reversed the pathology, while preventing mortality for at least 45 days. Conclusions 1 VIP completely prevented and significantly reversed MCT-induced PAH; 2 VIP was more effective than bosentan, probably because it targets a wider range of pro-remodeling pathways; and 3 combination therapy with VIP plus bosentan was more effective than either drug alone, probably because both drugs synergistically suppressed ET-ET receptor pathway.

  14. Neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage; Immunocytochemistry, radioimmunoassay and pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alafaci, C.; Jansen, I. (Department of Experimental Research, Lund University, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Uddman, R. (Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Lund University, Malmoe General Hospital (Sweden)); Delgado, T.; Svendgaard, N.A. (Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Edvinsson, L. (Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden)); Ekman, R. (Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    The involvement of noradrenaline (NA), neuropeptide Y, (NPY), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine (ACh) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been examined in the late phase of spasm after an experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a rat model. Immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay of blood vessels from the circle of Willis did not show significant differences in NPY- and VIP-like immunoreactivity 2 days post SAH as compared to control vessels. The postjunctional effects of NA, NPY, 5-HT, Ach and VIP were studied two days after SAH using a sensitive in vitro system. NPY induced contractions were significantly (p<0.01) weaker (lower E{sub max}) in SAH as compared to control rats while the relaxant responses to ACh and VIP were slightly increased after SAH. These observations reveal that in a rat model of SAH, with an approximately 20% in vivo constriction at two days, dynamic changes occur in cerebral artery reactivity without any obvious change in sympathetic or parasympathetic perivascular nerve networks. (author).

  15. VIP modulates the pro-inflammatory maternal response, inducing tolerance to trophoblast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccaroli, Laura; Alfieri, Julio; Larocca, Luciana; Calafat, Mario; Roca, Valeria; Lombardi, Eduardo; Ramhorst, Rosanna; Leirós, Claudia Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Successful embryo implantation is followed by a local pro-inflammatory and Th1 response, subsequently controlled by a Th2 response. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has anti-inflammatory effects and promotes tolerogenic/Th2 responses while favouring embryonic development. We investigated the potential regulatory role of VIP on human trophoblast cells, maternal pro-inflammatory responses and trophoblast-maternal leukocyte interactions. Experimental approach We tested VIP effects directly on a trophoblast cell line (Swan 71 cells) and after co-culture with maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as models of the feto-maternal dialogue. We also co-cultured maternal and paternal PBMCs to test effects of endogenous VIP on maternal alloresponses. Key results Swan 71 cells express VPAC1 receptors and VIP induced their proliferation and the expression of leukaemia inhibitor factor, a pro-implantatory marker. After interaction with trophoblast cells, VIP increased Foxp3, the proportion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells within maternal PBMCs and transforming growth factor β expression. Also, during the trophoblast-maternal PBMCs interaction, VIP reduced pro-inflammatory mediators [interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, nitric oxide], while increasing IL-10. Trophoblast cells produced VIP which dose-dependently suppressed allomaternal responses, accompanied by reduced expression of the T cell transcription factor, T-bet. Conclusions and implications Vasoactive intestinal peptide induced pro-implantatory markers and trophoblast cell proliferation, while controlling the initial pro-inflammatory response, by increasing maternal regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines. As an autocrine regulatory peptide VIP might contribute to fetal survival through two mechanisms; a direct trophic effect on trophoblast cells and an immunomodulatory effect that favours tolerance to fetal antigens. PMID:19133995

  16. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bin Mu; Yu-Xin Huang; Bao-Min Zhao; Zhen-Xiong Liu; Bing-Hua Zhang; Qing-Li Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones.METHODS: Atotal of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively.Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24)remarkably changed also.CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range,the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder.

  17. Circulating levels of neuropeptides (CGRP, VIP, NPY) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Edvinsson, Lars; Larsen, Fin Stolze;

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the circulating levels and cerebral fluxes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and their relation to cerebral blood flow (CBF) during normoventilation and hyperventilation in patients with fulminant...

  18. VIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Larry

    1972-01-01

    The Ontario Educational Communications Authority has a new video-tape program service for teachers which may well grow into mass distribution of taped ETV programs to people right in their own homes. (Author)

  19. Augmented cystine-glutamate exchange by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide signaling via the VPAC1 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jon M.; Albano, Rebecca; Liu, XiaoQian; Hjelmhaug, Julie; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A.; Choi, SuJean

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system, cystine import in exchange for glutamate through system xc− is critical for the production of the antioxidant glutathione by astrocytes, as well as the maintenance of extracellular glutamate. Therefore, regulation of system xc− activity affects multiple aspects of cellular physiology and may contribute to disease states. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuronally-derived peptide that has already been demonstrated to modulate multiple aspects of glutamate signaling suggesting PACAP may also target activity of cystine-glutamate exchange via system xc−. In the current study, 24-hour treatment of primary cortical cultures containing neurons and glia with PACAP concentration-dependently increased system xc− function as measured by radiolabeled cystine uptake. Furthermore, the increase in cystine uptake was completely abolished by the system xc− inhibitor, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG), attributing increases in cystine uptake specifically to system xc− activity. Time course and quantitative PCR results indicate that PACAP signaling may increase cystine-glutamate exchange by increasing expression of xCT, the catalytic subunit of system xc−. Furthermore, the potentiation of system xc− activity by PACAP occurs via a PKA-dependent pathway that is not mediated by the PAC1R, but rather the shared vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor VPAC1R. Finally, assessment of neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial-enriched cultures demonstrated that only astrocyte-enriched cultures exhibit enhanced cystine uptake following both PACAP and VIP treatment. These data introduce a novel mechanism by which both PACAP and VIP regulate system xc− activity. PMID:25066643

  20. Circulating levels of neuropeptides (CGRP, VIP, NPY) in patients with fulminant hepatic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strauss, Gitte Irene; Edvinsson, L; Larsen, F S;

    2001-01-01

    The present study investigated the circulating levels and cerebral fluxes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) and their relation to cerebral blood flow (CBF) during normoventilation and hyperventilation in patients with fulminant...... in FHF than in cirrhosis, 87 (55-218) vs. 29 (21-42) pmol/L, and 11 (6-29) vs. 5 (3-9)pmol/L, respectively. NPY was normal, none of the measures were related to CBF, and there was no detectable net brain fluxes. Hyperventilation did not alter any of the measures. CGRP and VIP in FHF seem to reflect...

  1. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests.

  2. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on Vip-ergic neurons in jejunum submucous plexus of diabetic rats Efeito da acetil-L-carnitina sobre neurônios Vip-érgicos do plexo submucoso do jejuno de ratos diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Aparecida Defani

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC on neurons releasing the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP of the submucous plexus in the jejunum of diabetic rats was the purpose of our investigation. Diabetes (DM was induced by injecting streptozotocin endovenously (35mg/kg. After sacrificing the animals, the jejunum was collected and processed for VIP detection. Four groups were used: C (non-diabetic, CC (non-diabetic treated with ALC, D (diabetic, DC (diabetes treated with ALC. We analyzed the immunoreactivity and the cellular profile of 126 cell bodies. The treatment with ALC improved some aspects of DM. However, it promoted a small increase in the area of neurons from group CC, suggesting a possible neurotrophic effect. Neurons from groups D and DC showed a large increase in their cellular profile and immunoreactivity when compared to C and CC, suggesting a larger concentration of this neurotransmitter within the neurons that produce it. This observation constitutes a recurrent finding in diabetic animals, suggesting that ALC doesnot interfere in the pathophysiological mechanisms that unchain a higher production and/or neurotransmitter accumulation and increase the profile of the VIP-ergic neurons.Investigamos o efeito da acetil-L-carnitina (ALC sobre os neurônios que expressam o peptídeo intestinal vasoativo (VIP do plexo submucoso no jejuno de ratos diabéticos. O diabetes (DM foi induzido pela administração endovenosa de estreptozootocina (35mg/kg. Após o sacrifício dos animais, o jejuno foi coletado e processado para a detecção de VIP. Utilizou-se quatro grupos: C (não diabéticos, CC (não diabéticos suplementados com ALC, D (diabéticos e DC (diabéticos suplementados com ALC. Analisou-se a imunoreatividade e o perfil celular de 126 corpos celulares. O tratamento com ALC melhorou alguns aspectos do DM. Porém, promoveu pequeno aumento na área dos neurônios do grupo CC, indicando possível efeito neurotr

  3. VIP visit of LHC Computing Grid Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Krajewski, Yann Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    VIP visit of LHC Computing Grid Project with Dr -.Ing. Tarek Kamel [Senior Advisor to the President for Government Engagement, ICANN Geneva Office] and Dr Nigel Hickson [VP, IGO Engagement, ICANN Geneva Office

  4. Rapid detection of vip1-type genes from Bacillus cereus and characterization of a novel vip binary toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxing; Tang, Changqing; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Linxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2011-12-01

    A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for identifying vegetative insecticidal protein (vip) 1-type genes from Bacillus cereus was developed by designing specific primers based on the conserved regions of the genes to amplify vip1-type gene fragments. PCR products were digested with endonuclease AciI, and four known vip1-type genes were identified. Vip1Ac and vip1Aa-type genes appeared in 17 of 26 B. cereus strains. A novel vip1-type gene, vip1Ac1, was identified from B. cereus strain HL12. The vip1Ac1 and vip2Ae3 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 by vector pCOLADuet-1. The binary toxin showed activity only against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera), but not for Coleptera (Tenebrio molitor, Holotrichia oblita), Lepidoptera (Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa armigera, and Chilo suppressalis), Diptera (Culex quinquefasciatus). The LC(50) of this binary toxin for A. gossypii is 87.5 (34.2-145.3) ng mL(-1) . This is probably only the second report that Vip1 and Vip2 binary toxin shows toxicity against homopteran pests. The PCR-RFLP method developed could be very useful for identifying novel Vip1-Vip2-type binary toxins, and the novel binary toxins, Vip1Ac1 and Vip2Ae3, identified in this study may have applications in biological control of insects, thus avoiding potential problems of resistance.

  5. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a local mediator in a gut-brain neural axis activating intestinal gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vadder, F; Plessier, F; Gautier-Stein, A; Mithieux, G

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (IGN) promotes metabolic benefits through activation of a gut-brain neural axis. However, the local mediator activating gluconeogenic genes in the enterocytes remains unknown. We show that (i) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling through VPAC1 receptor activates the intestinal glucose-6-phosphatase gene in vivo, (ii) the activation of IGN by propionate is counteracted by VPAC1 antagonism, and (iii) VIP-positive intrinsic neurons in the submucosal plexus are increased under the action of propionate. These data support the role of VIP as a local neuromodulator released by intrinsic enteric neurons and responsible for the induction of IGN through a VPAC1 receptor-dependent mechanism in enterocytes.

  6. NFATc3 and VIP in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M.; Forsyth, Edward; Ying, Benjamin; Hamidi, Sayyed A.; Chen, John J.; Hwang, Sonya; Li, Jonathan C.; Sabatini Dwyer, Debra; Ramiro-Diaz, Juan M.; Giermakowska, Wieslawa; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V.

    2017-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are both debilitating lung diseases which can lead to hypoxemia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). Nuclear Factor of Activated T-cells (NFAT) is a transcription factor implicated in the etiology of vascular remodeling in hypoxic PH. We have previously shown that mice lacking the ability to generate Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) develop spontaneous PH, pulmonary arterial remodeling and lung inflammation. Inhibition of NFAT attenuated PH in these mice suggesting a connection between NFAT and VIP. To test the hypotheses that: 1) VIP inhibits NFAT isoform c3 (NFATc3) activity in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells; 2) lung NFATc3 activation is associated with disease severity in IPF and COPD patients, and 3) VIP and NFATc3 expression correlate in lung tissue from IPF and COPD patients. NFAT activity was determined in isolated pulmonary arteries from NFAT-luciferase reporter mice. The % of nuclei with NFAT nuclear accumulation was determined in primary human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) cultures; in lung airway epithelia and smooth muscle and pulmonary endothelia and smooth muscle from IPF and COPD patients; and in PASMC from mouse lung sections by fluorescence microscopy. Both NFAT and VIP mRNA levels were measured in lungs from IPF and COPD patients. Empirical strategies applied to test hypotheses regarding VIP, NFATc3 expression and activity, and disease type and severity. This study shows a significant negative correlation between NFAT isoform c3 protein expression levels in PASMC, activity of NFATc3 in pulmonary endothelial cells, expression and activity of NFATc3 in bronchial epithelial cells and lung function in IPF patients, supporting the concept that NFATc3 is activated in the early stages of IPF. We further show that there is a significant positive correlation between NFATc3 mRNA expression and VIP RNA expression only in lungs from IPF patients. In

  7. VIP enhances both pre- and postsynaptic GABAergic transmission to hippocampal interneurones leading to increased excitatory synaptic transmission to CA1 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Reis, Diana; Sebastião, Ana M; Wirkner, Kerstin; Illes, Peter; Ribeiro, Joaquim Alexandre

    2004-11-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is present in the hippocampus in three subtypes of GABAergic interneurones, two of which innervate preferentially other interneurones, responsible for pyramidal cell inhibition. We investigated how pre- and postsynaptic modulation of GABAergic transmission (to both pyramidal cells and interneurones) by VIP could influence excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. VIP (0.1-100 nM) increased [(3)H]GABA release from hippocampal synaptosomes (maximum effect at 1 nM VIP; 63.8 +/- 4.0%) but did not change [(3)H]glutamate release. VIP (0.3-30 nM) enhanced synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices (maximum effect at 1 nM VIP; field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (epsp) slope: 23.7 +/- 1.1%; population spike amplitude: 20.3 +/- 1.7%). The action on field epsp slope was fully dependent on GABAergic transmission since it was absent in the presence of picrotoxin (50 microM) plus CGP55845 (1 microM). VIP (1 nM) did not change paired-pulse facilitation but increased paired-pulse inhibition in CA1 pyramidal cells (16.0 +/- 0.9%), reinforcing the involvement of GABAergic transmission in the action of VIP. VIP (1 nM) increased muscimol-evoked inhibitory currents by 36.4 +/- 8.7% in eight out of ten CA1 interneurones in the stratum radiatum. This suggests that VIP promotes increased inhibition of interneurones that control pyramidal cells, leading to disinhibition of synaptic transmission to pyramidal cell dendrites. In conclusion, concerted pre- and postsynaptic actions of VIP lead to disinhibition of pyramidal cell dendrites causing an enhancement of synaptic transmission.

  8. A screening of five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins for their activity against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Banyuls, Núria; Bel, Yolanda; Maeztu, Mireya; Escriche, Baltasar; Muñoz, Delia; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Five Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins (Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af) and their corresponding trypsin-activated toxins were tested for their toxicity against eight lepidopteran pests: Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra brassicae, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera littoralis, Ostrinia nubilalis and Lobesia botrana. Toxicity was first tested at a high dose at 7 and 10 days. No major differences were found when comparing protoxins vs. trypsin-activated toxins. The proteins that were active against most of the insect species were Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, followed by Vip3Ab. Vip3Ad was non-toxic to any of the species tested. Considering the results by insect species, A. ipsilon, S. frugiperda and S. littoralis were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ab, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; S. exigua was susceptible to Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae, and moderately susceptible to Vip3Ab; M. brassicae and L. botrana were susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af; H. armigera was moderately susceptible to Vip3Aa, Vip3Ae and Vip3Af, and O. nubilalis was tolerant to all Vip3 proteins tested, although it showed some susceptibility to Vip3Af. The results obtained will help to design new combinations of insecticidal protein genes in transgenic crops or in recombinant bacteria for the control of insect pests.

  9. Novel Vip3-Related Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis†

    OpenAIRE

    Rang, Cécile; Gil, Patricia; Neisner, Nathalie; Van Rie, Jeroen; Frutos, Roger

    2005-01-01

    A novel vip3-related gene was identified in Bacillus thuringiensis. This novel gene is 2,406 bp long and codes for a 91-kDa protein (801 amino acids). This novel protein exhibits between 61 and 62% similarity with Vip3A proteins and is designated Vip3Ba1. Vip3Ba1 has several specific features. Differences between Vip3Ba1 and the Vip3A proteins are spread throughout the sequence but are more frequent in the C-terminal part from amino acid 456 onward. The regions containing the two proteolytic ...

  10. Localization and in silico study of the vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip2S-Vip1S of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Jemli, Sonia; Abdelmalek, Nouha; Dabbéche, Emna; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-10-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis S1/4 strain was previously found to harbour vip1S, vip2S, and vip3 genes. Its plasmid curing led to the obtaining of four partially cured strains S1/4-2, S1/4-3, S1/4-7, and S1/4-9 (vip2S-vip1S (-), vip3 (+)), one strain S1/4-4 (vip2S-vip1S (+), vip3 (-)), and S1/4-0 strain lacking the three genes. Using these derivative strains as templates, PCR amplification and southern blot assay revealed that vip2S-vip1S operon and vip3 gene were localized on two different large plasmids. Bioinformatics studies showed that vip2S (1.356 kb), and vip1S (2.637 kb) genes are encoding by an operon consisting of two ORFs separated by an intergenic spacer of 4bp. Using the InterPro tool, Vip2S was found to belong to the family of Binary exotoxin A and Vip1S to bacterial exotoxin B. In silico modeling indicated that the 3D structure of Vip2S is a mixed α/β protein and proposed 3D-model of Vip1S. Bioassays of the partially cured strains supernatants showed a weak toxicity of S1/4-4 to the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis comparing to a better effect of S1/4-2, S1/4-3, S1/4-7, and S1/4-9, suggesting its eventual contribution to the toxicity. Nevertheless, the concentrated supernatant of S1/4-4 strain was not toxic against the coleopteran Tribolium castaneum.

  11. Novel Vip3-related protein from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rang, Cécile; Gil, Patricia; Neisner, Nathalie; Van Rie, Jeroen; Frutos, Roger

    2005-10-01

    A novel vip3-related gene was identified in Bacillus thuringiensis. This novel gene is 2,406 bp long and codes for a 91-kDa protein (801 amino acids). This novel protein exhibits between 61 and 62% similarity with Vip3A proteins and is designated Vip3Ba1. Vip3Ba1 has several specific features. Differences between Vip3Ba1 and the Vip3A proteins are spread throughout the sequence but are more frequent in the C-terminal part from amino acid 456 onward. The regions containing the two proteolytic processing sites, which are highly conserved among the Vip3A toxins, are markedly different in Vip3Ba1. The pattern DCCEE (Asp Cys Cys Glu Glu) is repeated four times between position 463 and 483 in Vip3Ba1, generating the sequence 463-DCCEEDCCEEDCCEEDCCEE-483. This sequence, which is rich in negatively charged amino acids, also contains 73% of the cysteines present in Vip3Ba1. This repeated sequence is not present in Vip3A proteins. The Vip3Ba1protein was produced in Escherichia coli and tested against Ostrinia nubilalis and Plutella xylostella, and it generated significant growth delays but had no larvicidal effect, indicating that its host range might be different than that of Vip3A proteins.

  12. Study on the Antipyretic Effection of Qingkaitong Enema and Its Influence on the Changes of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide(VIP)and Interleukin-2 (IL-2) in Endotoxin-induced Febrile Rabbits%清开通灌肠液对内毒素性发热兔的退热效应及对血管活性肠肽、白介素-2的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚娟; 张思超; 王晓君; 孙敬昌

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察基于“脑-肠轴”学说组方的清开通灌肠液,对内毒素性发热兔的退热效应及VIP、IL-2在发热中的变化.方法:日本大耳白家兔60只,随机分成4组:正常组、模型组、清开灵组和清开通组.模型组、清开灵组及清开通组,各组经耳缘静脉注射无热源生理盐水稀释的内毒素,建立兔内毒素性发热模型.同时清开灵组、清开通组分别予以清开灵、清开通灌肠液灌肠.注射内毒素2h后,清开灵组、清开通组再予灌肠1次.4h后,各组动物随机抽取10只,采集脑、肠及外周血标本,用放射免疫法检测脑、肠及血浆中VIP、IL-2含量.持续观察每组另外5只动物体温变化情况,每间隔l0min记录1次体温,连续测温12h.结果:清开灵组和清开通组动物的体温与模型组相比都有明显降低(P<0.01),但清开通组降低比清开灵组更为显著(P<0.05).脑肠及血浆中VIP和IL-2的含量都显著低于模型组(P<0.01),尤其清开通组较清开灵组降低幅度更大,二者有显著差异(P<0.05).结论:“清开”与“通腑”合治,较单一清开法在退热及提高机体免疫方面效果更著,VIP和IL-2在发热中起正调节作用.%Objective: To investigate the antipyretic effect of Qingkaitong enema according to the theory of brain - gut axis in endotoxin - induced febrile rabbits, and observe changes of vasoactive intestinal peptide ( VIP) and interleukin - 2 (IL - 2 ) in different tissues. Methods: Sixty Japanese White Rabbits were randomly divided into following four groups: normal control group,model group,Qingkailing enema group and Qingkaitong enema group. The Escherichia coli endotoxins were injected into marginal ear veins of the rabbits of model group, Qingkailing enema group and Qingkaitong enema group to induce the rabbit febrile model. Qingkailing enema group and Qingkaitong enema group were immediately treated with Qingkailing enema and Qingkaitong enema respectively after

  13. Atypical nuclear localization of VIP receptors in glioma cell lines and patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbarin, Alice; Séité, Paule [Equipe Récepteurs, Régulations et Cellules Tumorales, Université de Poitiers, PBS bât 36, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France); Godet, Julie [Laboratoire d’anatomie et de cytologie pathologiques, CHU de Poitiers, 2 rue de la Milétrie, 86000 Poitiers (France); Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc [Equipe Récepteurs, Régulations et Cellules Tumorales, Université de Poitiers, PBS bât 36, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France); Chadéneau, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.chadeneau@univ-poitiers.fr [Equipe Récepteurs, Régulations et Cellules Tumorales, Université de Poitiers, PBS bât 36, 1 rue Georges Bonnet, TSA 51106, 86073 Poitiers Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • The VIP receptor VPAC1 contains a putative NLS signal. • VPAC1 is predominantly nuclear in GBM cell lines but not VPAC2. • Non-nuclear VPAC1/2 protein expression is correlated with glioma grade. • Nuclear VPAC1 is observed in 50% of stage IV glioma (GBM). - Abstract: An increasing number of G protein-coupled receptors, like receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), are found in cell nucleus. As VIP receptors are involved in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation and migration, we investigated the expression and the nuclear localization of the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 in this cancer. First, by applying Western blot and immunofluorescence detection in three human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, we observed a strong nuclear staining for the VPAC1 receptor and a weak nuclear VPAC2 receptor staining. Second, immunohistochemical staining of VPAC1 and VPAC2 on tissue microarrays (TMA) showed that the two receptors were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues. Expression in the non-nuclear compartment of the two receptors significantly increased with the grade of the tumors. Analysis of nuclear staining revealed a significant increase of VPAC1 staining with glioma grade, with up to 50% of GBM displaying strong VPAC1 nuclear staining, whereas nuclear VPAC2 staining remained marginal. The increase in VPAC receptor expression with glioma grades and the enhanced nuclear localization of the VPAC1 receptors in GBM might be of importance for glioma progression.

  14. Distinct roles of SOM and VIP interneurons during cortical Up states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett T. Neske

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During cortical network activity, recurrent synaptic excitation among pyramidal neurons is approximately balanced by synaptic inhibition, which is provided by a vast diversity of inhibitory interneurons. The relative contributions of different interneuron subtypes to inhibitory tone during cortical network activity is not well understood. We previously showed that many of the major interneuron subtypes in mouse barrel cortex are highly active during Up states (Neske et al., 2015; while fast-spiking (FS, parvalbumin (PV-positive cells were the most active interneuron subtype, many non-fast-spiking (NFS, PV-negative interneurons were as active or more active than neighboring pyramidal cells. This suggests that the NFS cells could play a role in maintaining or modulating Up states. Here, using optogenetic techniques, we further dissected the functional roles during Up states of two major NFS, PV-negative interneuron subtypes: somatostatin (SOM-positive cells and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP-positive cells. We found that while pyramidal cell excitability during Up states significantly increased when SOM cells were optogenetically silenced, VIP cells did not influence pyramidal cell excitability either upon optogenetic silencing or activation. VIP cells failed to contribute to Up states despite their ability to inhibit SOM cells strongly. We suggest that the contribution of VIP cells to the excitability of pyramidal cells may vary with cortical state.

  15. Characterization of chimeric Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3 toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Shelton, Anthony M; Cheng, Jiaan; Feng, Ming-Guang; Shen, Zhicheng

    2007-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) are potential alternatives for B. thuringiensis endotoxins that are currently utilized in commercial transgenic insect-resistant crops. Screening a large number of B. thuringiensis isolates resulted in the cloning of vip3Ac1. Vip3Ac1 showed high insecticidal activity against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa zea but very low activity against the silkworm Bombyx mori. The host specificity of this Vip3 toxin was altered by sequence swapping with a previously identified toxin, Vip3Aa1. While both Vip3Aa1 and Vip3Ac1 showed no detectable toxicity against the European corn borer Ostrinia nubilalis, the chimeric protein Vip3AcAa, consisting of the N-terminal region of Vip3Ac1 and the C-terminal region of Vip3Aa1, became insecticidal to the European corn borer. In addition, the chimeric Vip3AcAa had increased toxicity to the fall armyworm. Furthermore, both Vip3Ac1 and Vip3AcAa are highly insecticidal to a strain of cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) that is highly resistant to the B. thuringiensis endotoxin Cry1Ac, thus experimentally showing for the first time the lack of cross-resistance between B. thuringiensis Cry1A proteins and Vip3A toxins. The results in this study demonstrated that vip3Ac1 and its chimeric vip3 genes can be excellent candidates for engineering a new generation of transgenic plants for insect pest control.

  16. Intracerebroventricular administration of vasoactive intestinal peptide inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghourab, Samar; Beale, Kylie E; Semjonous, Nina M; Simpson, Katherine A; Martin, Niamh M; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Smith, Kirsty L

    2011-12-10

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28 amino acid peptide expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. VIP and the VIP receptor VPAC(2)R are expressed in hypothalamic nuclei involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. VIP has been shown to be involved in the regulation of energy balance in a number of non-mammalian vertebrates. We therefore examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of VIP on food intake, energy expenditure and activity in adult male Wistar rats. VIP administration caused a potent short lived decrease in food intake and an increase in activity and energy expenditure. The pathways potentially involved in the anorexigenic effects of VIP were investigated by measuring the release of neuropeptides involved in the regulation of food intake from hypothalamic explants treated with VIP. VIP significantly stimulated the release of the anorexigenic peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH). These studies suggest that VIP may have an endogenous role in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis.

  17. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...... glucose to prevent hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the studies position GIP as a bifunctional blood glucose stabilising hormone that glucose-dependently regulates insulin and glucagon responses in humans....

  18. 48 CFR 804.1102 - Vendor Information Pages (VIP) Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (VIP) Database. 804.1102 Section 804.1102 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contract Execution 804.1102 Vendor Information Pages (VIP) Database. Prior to January 1, 2012, all VOSBs and SDVOSBs must be listed in the VIP database, available at...

  19. Comparative biodistribution profile of [131I]VIP and [131I]VIP10-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Colturato

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Various tumor cells express significantly higher amounts of VIP receptors (VIPR that provided the basis for the clinical use of radiolabeled VIP for the in vivo localization of tumors. This work studied the labeling of VIP and VIP10-28 with iodine-131 to compare the biological distribution of the labeled compounds in Nuce mice and the affinity for tumor cells. Both VIP and VIP10-28 peptides contain two tyrosine residues, in positions 10 and 22, that are theoretically equally susceptible to radioiodination employing oxidative electrophilic substitution using oxidizing agents like Chloramine T. Radiochemical purity of the reaction mixture was determined by electrophoresis and HPLC. The VIP peptide and the fragment were labeled with radioiodine with good radiochemical yield (above 96%. Suitable, but important differences can be observed in biological distribution studies. Comparatively, blood clearance was faster for labeled VIP and perhaps because of this, the uptake in tumor was lower, especially during the first hour. These differences observed in the biological distribution of the compounds can be related to the lipophilicity of the labeled compounds.Várias células tumorais expressam significantemente uma alta quantidade de receptores VIP (VIPR que determinam a base para o uso clínico de VIP radiomarcado para localização de tumores in vivo. Foi estudado neste trabalho a marcação do VIP e do fragmento VIP10-28 com iodo-131 comparando a distribuição biológica dos compostos marcados em camundongos Nude e sua afinidade pelas células tumorais. Ambos os peptídeos, VIP e VIP10-28. contém dois resíduos de tirosina nas posições 10 e 22, que teoricamente são igualmente susceptíveis pela substituição eletrofílica oxidativa do radioiodo utilizando Cloramina T como agente oxidante. A pureza radioquímica da mistura de reação foi determinada por eletroforese e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O VIP e fragmento foram

  20. THE EXPRESSION OF RECEPTORS FOR VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE AND SECRETIN IN COLON NEOPLASMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the expression of the receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and secretin in colon cancer. Methods: This study visualized and characterized the receptors for VIP and secretin in the sequence of human tumor-free colon, adenoma, carcinoma, liver metastasis using storage phosphor autoradiography. Results: Receptors for VIP and secretin were demonstrated in tumor-free colon and colon tumors. A decrease in affinity of VIP receptors was shown in the colonic liver metastasis (Kd = 3.30 nmol) when compared with tumor-free colon (Kd = 0.82 nmol). An up-regulation of receptors for secretin was found in colonic liver metastases. Conclusions: VIP and secretin were both expressed on normal colon tissues. Binding of VIP decreased while secretin increased in colonic liver metastasis. A down-regulation of receptors for VIP in colonic liver metastases may helpful to understand the migration of colon cancer.

  1. Bacterial Vegetative Insecticidal Proteins (Vip) from Entomopathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Banyuls, Núria; Bel, Yolanda; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria produce insecticidal proteins that accumulate in inclusion bodies or parasporal crystals (such as the Cry and Cyt proteins) as well as insecticidal proteins that are secreted into the culture medium. Among the latter are the Vip proteins, which are divided into four families according to their amino acid identity. The Vip1 and Vip2 proteins act as binary toxins and are toxic to some members of the Coleoptera and Hemiptera. The Vip1 component is thought to bind to receptors in the membrane of the insect midgut, and the Vip2 component enters the cell, where it displays its ADP-ribosyltransferase activity against actin, preventing microfilament formation. Vip3 has no sequence similarity to Vip1 or Vip2 and is toxic to a wide variety of members of the Lepidoptera. Its mode of action has been shown to resemble that of the Cry proteins in terms of proteolytic activation, binding to the midgut epithelial membrane, and pore formation, although Vip3A proteins do not share binding sites with Cry proteins. The latter property makes them good candidates to be combined with Cry proteins in transgenic plants (Bacillus thuringiensis-treated crops [Bt crops]) to prevent or delay insect resistance and to broaden the insecticidal spectrum. There are commercially grown varieties of Bt cotton and Bt maize that express the Vip3Aa protein in combination with Cry proteins. For the most recently reported Vip4 family, no target insects have been found yet.

  2. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW,VIP AND ET IN RATS WITH VASCULAR DEMENTIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申国明; 徐颖; 何峰; 许冠荪

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between electroacupuncture (EA)-induced improvement of regional cerebral blood flow and the alternations of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and endothelin (ET) in rats with experimental vascular dementia (VD).Methods: 40 Wistar rats were evenly randomized into sham-operation, model, medication (Nimotone) and EA groups.Vascular dementia model was established by repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion which was induced by occlusion and reopen of the bilateral common carotid arteries.EA (2~200 Hz, 2~3 mA) was applied to "Baihui"(GV 20), "Dazhui"(GV 14) and "Zusanli"(ST 36) for 30 min, once daily and continuously for 15 days.The regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in parietal lobe and hippocampus was determined with method of hydrogen clearance; a step-down avoidance test was adopted to observe the rats' behavior change; and plasma VIP and ET contents were assayed by radioimmunoassay.Results: In comparison with sham-operation group, the correct rate of step-down avoidance test, rCBF in parietal lobe and hippocampus and plasma VIP level in VD model group lowered significantly (P<0.01) and plasma ET increased considerably (P<0.01).However, compared with model group, the correct rate of step-down avoidance test, rCBF values and plasma VIP in EA group raised obviously while plasma ET declined significantly.No significant differences were found between EA and medication groups in the 4 indexes.Conclusion: EA can raise rCBF in the parietal lobe and hippocampus, elevate plasma VIP level and reduce plasma ET in rats with VD.

  3. Vacuum insulation (VIP) in building - Development of a floor heating element with integrated insulation; Vakuumdaemmung (VIP) im Bau. Entwicklung eines kompakten Fuss-Bodenheizelements mit integriertem VIP - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzwiller, S. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Rutz, P. [Tobler Haustechnik AG, Urdorf (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the development of a compact floor heating element which includes an integrated VIP insulation element. The development of a standardised VIP-insulated product for application in widely-used underfloor heating systems is described. The protection of the sensitive VIP element using coverings made of other insulating materials is described. These also reduce footfall sound. Figures on the values obtained are noted and discussed. A test room fitted with such elements is described as are the tests and measurements made on internal pressure, temperature and moisture in the VIP panels.

  4. Differential changes in Substance P, VIP as well as neprilysin levels in patients with gastritis or ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Nuray; Türker, Sema; Elpek, Ozlem; Yıldırım, Bülent

    2012-06-01

    The protective effect of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerve (CSSN) activation was recently demonstrated in human gastric mucosa. We here examined changes in neuropeptides, specifically Substance P (SP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in patients with chronic gastritis or ulcer. Furthermore changes in neprilysin levels, which hydrolyse these neuropeptides, were determined. Gastric biopsies were obtained from both lesion- and normal-appearing mucosa of 57 patients. The presence of H. pylori infection was verified with rapid urease assay. Neuronal and non-neuronal levels of SP, VIP, CGRP and neprilysin activity were determined in freshly frozen biopsies. Immunohistochemical localization of neprilysin was performed in 30 paraffin embedded specimens. We here found that neuronal SP levels decreased significantly in normally appearing mucosa of patients with gastritis while levels of non-neuronal SP increased in diseased areas of gastritis and ulcer. The presence of H. pylori led to further decreases of SP levels. The content of VIP in both disease-involved and uninvolved mucosa, and expression of neprilysin, markedly decreased in patients with gastritis or ulcer. Since VIP, as well as SP fragments, formed following hydrolysis with neprilysin is recognized to have gastroprotective effects, decreased levels of VIP, SP and neprilysin may predispose to cellular damage.

  5. F-18 Labeled Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Analogue in the PET Imaging of Colon Carcinoma in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As large amount of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP receptors are expressed in various tumors and VIP-related diseases, radiolabeled VIP provides a potential PET imaging agent for VIP receptor. However, structural modification of VIP is required before being radiolabeled and used for VIP receptor imaging due to its poor in vivo stability. As a VIP analogue, [R8, 15, 21, L17]-VIP exhibited improved stability and receptor specificity in preliminary studies. In this study, F-18 labeled [R8,15,21, L17]-VIP was produced with the radiochemical yield being as high as 33.6%±3% (decay-for-corrected, n=5 achieved within 100 min, a specific activity of 255 GBq/μmol, and a radiochemical purity as high as 99% as characterized by radioactive HPLC, TLC, and SDS-Page radioautography. A biodistribution study in normal mice also demonstrated fast elimination of F-18 labeled [R8,15,21, L17]-VIP in the blood, liver, and gastrointestinal tracts. A further micro-PET imaging study in C26 colon carcinoma bearing mice confirmed the high tumor specificity, with the tumor/muscle radioactivity uptake ratio being as high as 3.03 at 60 min following injection, and no apparent radioactivity concentration in the intestinal tracts. In addition, blocking experiment and Western Blot test further confirmed its potential in PET imaging of VIP receptor-positive tumor.

  6. Characterization of autoantibodies to vasoactive intestinal peptide in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, S; Said, S I; Thompson, A B; Volle, D J; Agrawal, D K; Foda, H; de la Rocha, S

    1989-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a potent relaxant of the airway smooth muscle. In this study, VIP-binding autoantibodies were observed in the plasma of 18% asthma patients and 16% healthy subjects. Immunoprecipitation studies and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and immobilized protein G indicated that the plasma VIP-binding activity was largely due to IgG antibodies. Saturation analysis of VIP binding by the plasmas suggested the presence of one or two classes of autoantibodies, distinguished by their apparent equilibrium affinity constants (Ka). The autoantibodies from asthma patients exhibited a larger VIP-binding affinity compared to those from healthy subjects (Ka 7.8 x 10(9) M-1 and 0.13 x 10(9) M-1, respectively; P less than 0.005). The antibodies were specific for VIP, judged by their poor reaction with peptides bearing partial sequence homology with VIP (peptide histidine isoleucine, growth hormone releasing factor and secretin). IgG prepared from the plasma of an antibody-positive asthma patient inhibited the saturable binding of 125I-VIP by receptors in guinea pig lung membranes (by 39-59%; P less than 0.001). These observations are consistent with a role for the VIP autoantibodies in the airway hyperresponsiveness of asthma.

  7. Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on pulmonary surfactants phospholipid synthesis in lung explants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian LI; Zi-qiang LUO; Fu-wen ZHOU; Dan-dan FENG; Cha-xiang GUAN; Chang-qing ZHANG; Xiu-hong SUN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on pulmonary surfactants (PS) phospholipid synthesis in cultured lung explants. METHODS: Lung explants were cultured with serum-free medium, [methyl-3H]choline incorporation, total phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine, activity of choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (CCT) and CCTα mRNA level in lung explants were determined. RESULTS: (1) VIP (10-10-10-7 mol/L) for 16 h promoted [methyl-3H]choline incorporation in dose dependence and VIP (10-8 mol/L) for 2 h-16 h promoted [methylz3H]choline incorporation in time dependence. (2) VIP (10-8 mol/L) enhanced the contents of total phospholipidsand phosphatidylcholine in lung explants. (3) VIP (10-10-10-7 mol/L) elevated microsomal CCT activity of lung explants in dose dependence. (4) VIP (10-8 mol/L) increased expression of CCTα mRNA in lung explants and alveolar type Ⅱ cells (ATII). (5) [D-P-Cl-Phe(6)-Leu(17)]-VIP (10-6 mol/L), a VIP receptors antagonist, abolished the increase of [3H]choline incorporation, microsomal CCT activity and CCTα mRNA level induced by VIP (10-8 mol/L) in lung explants. CONCLUSION: VIP could enhance synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, the major component of pulmonary surfactants by enhancing microsomal CCT activity and CCTα mRNA level via VIP receptormediated pathway.

  8. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis targeting Cry toxin resistance in Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus from sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Figueiredo, Camila Soares; Sebastião, Isis; Marques da Silva, Liliane; da Costa Alves, Rebeka; de Siqueira, Herbert Álvaro Abreu; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Desidério, Janete Apparecida

    2017-01-01

    The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values. Toxins from E. coli were purified, solubilized, trypsinized, and biotinylated. Brush Border Membrane Vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared from intestines of the two species to perform homologous and heterologous competition assays. The binding assays demonstrated interactions between Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Vip3Aa toxins and proteins from the BBMV of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus. Homologous competition assays demonstrated that binding to one of the BBMV proteins was specific for each toxin. Heterologous competition assays indicated that Vip3Aa was unable to compete for Cry1Ac toxin binding. Our results suggest that Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa may have potential in future production of transgenic sugarcane for control of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus, but more research is needed on the potential antagonism or synergism of the toxins in these pests.

  9. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis targeting Cry toxin resistance in Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus from sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values. Toxins from E. coli were purified, solubilized, trypsinized, and biotinylated. Brush Border Membrane Vesicles (BBMVs) were prepared from intestines of the two species to perform homologous and heterologous competition assays. The binding assays demonstrated interactions between Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Vip3Aa toxins and proteins from the BBMV of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus. Homologous competition assays demonstrated that binding to one of the BBMV proteins was specific for each toxin. Heterologous competition assays indicated that Vip3Aa was unable to compete for Cry1Ac toxin binding. Our results suggest that Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa may have potential in future production of transgenic sugarcane for control of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus, but more research is needed on the potential antagonism or synergism of the toxins in these pests. PMID:28123906

  10. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis targeting Cry toxin resistance in Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus from sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Nunes Lemes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of Vip and Cry proteins from Bacillus is well known and widely established. Thus, it is important to look for new genes showing different modes of action, selecting those with differentiated entomotoxic activity against Diatraea flavipennella and Elasmopalpus lignosellus, which are secondary pests of sugarcane. Therefore, Cry1 and Vip3 proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their toxicities were evaluated based on bioassays using neonate larvae. Of those, the most toxic were Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa considering the LC50 values. Toxins from E. coli were purified, solubilized, trypsinized, and biotinylated. Brush Border Membrane Vesicles (BBMVs were prepared from intestines of the two species to perform homologous and heterologous competition assays. The binding assays demonstrated interactions between Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and Vip3Aa toxins and proteins from the BBMV of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus. Homologous competition assays demonstrated that binding to one of the BBMV proteins was specific for each toxin. Heterologous competition assays indicated that Vip3Aa was unable to compete for Cry1Ac toxin binding. Our results suggest that Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa may have potential in future production of transgenic sugarcane for control of D. flavipennella and E. lignosellus, but more research is needed on the potential antagonism or synergism of the toxins in these pests.

  11. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates tracheal submucosal gland secretion in ferret

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peatfield, A.C.; Barnes, P.J.; Bratcher, C.; Nadel, J.A.; Davis, B.

    1983-07-01

    We studied the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the output of 35S-labeled macromolecules from ferret tracheal explants either placed in beakers or suspended in modified Ussing chambers. In Ussing chamber experiments, the radiolabel precursor, sodium (35S)sulfate, and all drugs were placed on the submucosal side of the tissue. Washings were collected at 30-min intervals from the luminal side and were dialyzed to remove unbound 35S, leaving radiolabeled macromolecules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide at 3 X 10(-7) M stimulated bound 35S output by a mean of + 252.6% (n . 14). The VIP response was dose-dependent with a near maximal response and a half maximal response at approximately 10(-6) M and 10(-8), M, respectively. The VIP effect was not inhibited by a mixture of tetrodotoxin, atropine, I-propranolol, and phentolamine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide had no effect on the electrical properties of the of the tissues. We conclude that VIP stimulates output of sulfated-macromolecules from ferret tracheal submucosal glands without stimulating ion transport. Our studies also suggest that VIP acts on submucosal glands via specific VIP receptors. Vasoactive intestinal peptide has been shown to increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, and we suggest that this may be the mechanism for its effect on the output of macromolecules. This mechanism may be important in the neural regulation of submucosal gland secretion.

  12. Atypical nuclear localization of VIP receptors in glioma cell lines and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alice; Séité, Paule; Godet, Julie; Bensalma, Souheyla; Muller, Jean-Marc; Chadéneau, Corinne

    2014-11-28

    An increasing number of G protein-coupled receptors, like receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), are found in cell nucleus. As VIP receptors are involved in the regulation of glioma cell proliferation and migration, we investigated the expression and the nuclear localization of the VIP receptors VPAC1 and VPAC2 in this cancer. First, by applying Western blot and immunofluorescence detection in three human glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, we observed a strong nuclear staining for the VPAC1 receptor and a weak nuclear VPAC2 receptor staining. Second, immunohistochemical staining of VPAC1 and VPAC2 on tissue microarrays (TMA) showed that the two receptors were expressed in normal brain and glioma tissues. Expression in the non-nuclear compartment of the two receptors significantly increased with the grade of the tumors. Analysis of nuclear staining revealed a significant increase of VPAC1 staining with glioma grade, with up to 50% of GBM displaying strong VPAC1 nuclear staining, whereas nuclear VPAC2 staining remained marginal. The increase in VPAC receptor expression with glioma grades and the enhanced nuclear localization of the VPAC1 receptors in GBM might be of importance for glioma progression.

  13. VIP gene transcription is regulated by far upstream enhancer and repressor elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D; Krajniak, K; Chun, D; Sena, M; Casillas, R; Lelièvre, V; Nguyen, T; Bravo, D; Colburn, S; Waschek, J A

    2001-06-01

    SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma subclones differ widely in basal and second messenger induction of the gene encoding the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). These differences were recapitulated by a chimeric gene which consisted of 5.2 kb of the human VIP gene 5' flanking sequence fused to a reporter. Subsequent gene deletion experiments revealed several regulatory regions on the gene, including a 645-bp sequence located approximately 4.0 upstream from the transcription start site. Here we examined this upstream region in detail. Inhibitory sequences were found to be present on each end of the 645-bp fragment. When removed, basal transcription increased more than 50-fold. Subsequent deletion/mutation analysis showed that the 213-bp fragment contained at least two enhancer elements. One of these was localized to an AT-rich 42-bp sequence shown by others to bind Oct proteins in neuroblastoma cells, while the other corresponded to a composite AP-1/ets element. In addition to these enhancers, a 28-bp sequence on the 213-bp fragment with no apparent homology to known silencers inhibited transcription. The studies provide molecular details of a complex regulatory region on the VIP gene that is likely to be used to finely tune the level of gene transcription in vivo.

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa protein interactions and their toxicity in Spodoptera spp. (Lepidoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, V B; Mendes, D R P; Fernandes, O A; Desidério, J A; Lemos, M V F

    2013-02-01

    The polyphagous pests belonging to the genus Spodoptera are considered to be among the most important causes of damage and are widely distributed throughout the Americas'. Due to the extensive use of genetically modified plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis genes that code for insecticidal proteins, resistant insects may arise. To prevent the development of resistance, pyramided plants, which express multiple insecticidal proteins that act through distinct mode of actions, can be used. This study analyzed the mechanisms of action for the proteins Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa on neonatal Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera albula, Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides larvae. The interactions of these toxins with receptors on the intestinal epithelial membrane were also analyzed by binding biotinylated toxins to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from the intestines of these insects. A putative receptor of approximately 65 kDa was found by ligand blotting in all of these species. In vitro competition assays using biotinylated proteins have indicated that Vip3Aa and Cry1Ia10 do not compete for the same receptor for S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides and that Vip3Aa was more efficient than Cry1Ia10 when tested individually, by bioassays. A synergistic effect of the toxins in S. frugiperda, S. albula and S. cosmioides was observed when they were combined. However, in S. eridania, Cry1Ia10 and Vip3Aa might compete for the same receptor and through bioassays Cry1Ia10 was more efficient than Vip3Aa and showed an antagonistic effect when the proteins were combined. These results suggest that using these genes to develop pyramided plants may not prove effective in preventing the development of resistance in S. eridiana.

  15. Insect resistance management for Syngenta's VipCot transgenic cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Ryan W; McCaffery, Alan; O'Reilly, David

    2007-07-01

    Syngenta is seeking commercial registration for VipCot cotton, a pyramided transgenic cotton trait that expresses two insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1Ab. Both proteins are highly effective against two key cotton pests, Helicoverpa zea cotton bollworm; and Heliothis virescens, tobacco budworm. To investigate the role of VipCot cotton in delaying the development of resistance in these pests to transgenic Bt traits, Syngenta has performed studies to determine the dose of proteins expressed in VipCot and evaluate the potential for cross-resistance between the component proteins. Following United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) high dose methods 1 and 4, VipCot was shown to express a high dose of proteins for H. zea and H. virescens. VipCot was also confirmed to express a high dose of proteins for H. zea through US EPA Method 5. Additionally, all the data collected to date verify a lack of cross-resistance between Vip3A and Cry proteins. These two key pieces of information indicate that VipCot cotton should be very durable under the currently mandated high dose plus refuge insect resistance management strategy.

  16. Enhancing emotion recognition in vips with haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buimer, Hendrik; Bittner, Marian; Kostelijk, Tjerk; van der Geest, Thea; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; Zhao, Yan; Stephanidis, C

    2016-01-01

    The rise of smart technologies has created new opportunities to support blind and visually impaired persons (VIPs). One of the biggest problems we identified in our previous research on problems VIPs face during activities of daily life concerned the recognition of persons and their facial

  17. Vasoactive intestinal peptide signaling axis in human leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Glenn; Paul; Dorsam; Keith; Benton; Jarrett; Failing; Sandeep; Batra

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) signaling axis constitutes a master "communication coordinator" between cells of the nervous and immune systems.To date,VIP and its two main receptors expressed in T lymphocytes,vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC)1 and VPAC2,mediate critical cellular functions regulating adaptive immunity,including arresting CD4 T cells in G 1 of the cell cycle,protection from apoptosis and a potent chemotactic recruiter of T cells to the mucosa associated lymphoid compartment of the gastrointestinal tissues.Since the discovery of VIP in 1970,followed by the cloning of VPAC1 and VPAC2 in the early 1990s,this signaling axis has been associated with common human cancers,including leukemia.This review highlights the present day knowledge of the VIP ligand and its receptor expression profile in T cell leukemia and cell lines.Also,there will be a discussion describing how the anti-leukemic DNA binding transcription factor,Ikaros,regulates VIP receptor expression in primary human CD4 T lymphocytes and T cell lymphoblastic cell lines (e.g.Hut-78).Lastly,future goals will be mentioned that are expected to uncover the role of how the VIP signaling axis contributes to human leukemogenesis,and to establish whether the VIP receptor signature expressed by leukemic blasts can provide therapeutic and/or diagnostic information.

  18. Interaction of myenteric neurons and extrinsic nerves in the intestinal inhibitory response induced by mesenteric nerve stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamasato,Teruhiro

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the mesenteric nerve stimulation (MNS on the twitch contraction induced by field stimulation were investigated regarding the relationship between myenteric neurons and extrinsic cholinergic nerves in the guinea-pig mesenteric nerve-ileal preparation. The twitch contraction was inhibited after MNS. The inhibition of the twitch contraction after MNS was induced twice, just after MNS (1st inhibition and 2-3 min later (2nd inhibition (type I, or once, just after MNS (1st inhibition (type II, in recovery course of twitch contraction for 6-8 min. The 1st inhibition was slightly decreased by guanethidine and hexamethonium. The inhibitory response (1st inhibition in both types I and II was recovered to the control level by pretreatment with naloxone (recovered twitch contraction, but the late inhibitory response (2nd inhibition was markedly observed after 2-3 min in types I and II. Either the 1st or the 2nd inhibition was not altered by capsaicin, desensitization to calcitonin gene-related polypeptide (CGRP, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, somatostatin, or galanin. The recovered twitch contraction in types I and II was decreased by CGRP-desensitization, or capsaicin. These results suggest that the first inhibitory response was induced by enteric opioid neurons connected with extrinsic cholinergic nerves, but the 2nd inhibition was induced by unknown substances other than CGRP, VIP, somatostatin, and galanin. The twitch contraction may partly be induced by endogenous neurokinin-like substances. And, some CGRP containing neurons, which connect with extrinsic cholinergic nerves, probably activate the intrinsic excitatory neurons.

  19. Is VIP1 important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong; Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2014-09-01

    Agrobacterium genetically transforms plants by transferring and integrating T-(transferred) DNA into the host genome. This process requires both Agrobacterium and host proteins. VirE2 interacting protein 1 (VIP1), an Arabidopsis bZIP protein, has been suggested to mediate transformation through interaction with and targeting of VirE2 to nuclei. We examined the susceptibility of Arabidopsis vip1 mutant and VIP1 overexpressing plants to transformation by numerous Agrobacterium strains. In no instance could we detect altered transformation susceptibility. We also used confocal microscopy to examine the subcellular localization of Venus-tagged VirE2 or Venus-tagged VIP1, in the presence or absence of the other untagged protein, in different plant cell systems. We found that VIP1-Venus localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of Arabidopsis roots, agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts and tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, regardless of whether VirE2 was co-expressed. VirE2 localized exclusively to the cytoplasm of tobacco and Arabidopsis protoplasts, whether in the absence or presence of VIP1 overexpression. In transgenic Arabidopsis plants and agroinfiltrated N. benthamina leaves we could occasionally detect small aggregates of the Venus signal in nuclei, but these were likely to be imagining artifacts. The vast majority of VirE2 remained in the cytoplasm. We conclude that VIP1 is not important for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation or VirE2 subcellular localization.

  20. Chemical and thermal properties of VIP latrine sludge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... 1Pollution Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University ... Keywords: faecal sludge, VIP latrines, chemical properties, thermal properties ..... In: Proceedings of the EWB-UK National Research & Education.

  1. VIP1: linking Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to plant immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yukun; Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Li, Dequan

    2010-08-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most efficient vehicle used today for the production of transgenic plants and plays an essential role in basic scientific research and in agricultural biotechnology. Previously, plant VirE2-interacting protein 1 (VIP1) was shown to play a role in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Recent reports demonstrate that VIP1, as one of the bZIP transcription factors, is also involved in plant immunity responses. Agrobacterium is able to activate and abuse VIP1 for transformation. These findings highlight Agrobacterium-host interaction and unveil how Agrobacterium hijacks host cellular mechanism for its own benefit. This review focuses on the roles played by VIP1 in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and plant immunity.

  2. Ocular and systemic bio-distribution of rhodamine-conjugated liposomes loaded with VIP injected into the vitreous of Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, S; Lajavardi, L; Bochot, A; Goldenberg, B; Naud, M C; Fattal, E; Behar-Cohen, F; de Kozak, Y

    2007-12-07

    Local delivery of therapeutic molecules encapsulated within liposomes is a promising method to treat ocular inflammation. The purpose of the present study was to define the biodistribution of rhodamine-conjugated liposomes loaded with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an immunosuppressive neuropeptide, following their intravitreal (IVT) injection in normal rats. Healthy seven- to eight-week-old Lewis male rats were injected into the vitreous with empty rhodamine-conjugated liposomes (Rh-Lip) or with VIP-loaded Rh-Lip (VIP-Rh-Lip; 50 mM of lipids with an encapsulation efficiency of 3.0+/-0.4 mmol VIP/mol lipids). Twenty-four h after IVT injection, the eyes, the cervical, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes (LN), and spleen were collected. The phenotype and distribution of cells internalizing Rh-Lip and VIP-Rh-Lip were studied. Determination of VIP expression in ocular tissues and lymphoid organs and interactions with T cells in cervical LN was performed on whole mounted tissues and frozen tissue sections by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. In the eye, 24 h following IVT injection, fluorescent liposomes (Rh-Lip and VIP-Rh-Lip) were detected mainly in the posterior segment of the eye (vitreous, inner layer of the retina) and to a lesser extent at the level of the iris root and ciliary body. Liposomes were internalized by activated retinal Müller glial cells, ocular tissue resident macrophages, and rare infiltrating activated macrophages. In addition, fluorescent liposomes were found in the episclera and conjunctiva where free VIP expression was also detected. In lymphoid organs, Rh-Lip and VIP-Rh-Lip were distributed almost exclusively in the cervical lymph nodes (LN) with only a few Rh-Lip-positive cells detected in the spleen and mesenteric LN and none in the inguinal LN. In the cervical LN, Rh-Lip were internalized by resident ED3-positive macrophages adjacent to CD4 and CD8-positive T lymphocytes. Some of these T lymphocytes in close contact with

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptidergic nerves and Brunner's gland secretion in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1981-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is known to have powerful effect on the secretions from endocrine and exocrine glands. By immunohistochemical studies on the rat, both a dense network of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve fibers around the acini of Brunner's glands, and small...... ganglia with vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive nerve-cell bodies close to the glands were demonstrated. Intravenous infusions of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in doses of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/kg.h significantly increased flow rate, as well as bicarbonate and protein output from Brunner......'s glands in the rat. After infusion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide the secretory cells, which in the control group were rich in PAS-positive mucin, became almost completely PAS-negative. It is suggested that physiologic secretion from Brunner's glands may be stimulated by the vasoactive intestinal...

  4. VIP regulates CFTR membrane expression and function in Calu-3 cells by increasing its interaction with NHERF1 and P-ERM in a VPAC1- and PKCε-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshafie, Walaa; Chappe, Frederic G; Li, Mansong; Anini, Younes; Chappe, Valerie M

    2014-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a topical airway gland secretagogue regulating fluid secretions, primarily by stimulating cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent chloride secretion that contributes to the airways innate defense mechanism. We previously reported that prolonged VIP stimulation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptors (VPAC1) in airway cells enhances CFTR function by increasing its membrane stability. In the present study, we identified the key effectors in the VIP signaling cascade in the human bronchial serous cell line Calu-3. Using immunocytochemistry and in situ proximity ligation assays, we found that VIP stimulation increased CFTR membrane localization by promoting its colocalization and interaction with the scaffolding protein Na(+)/H(+) exchange factor 1 (NHERF1), a PDZ protein known as a positive regulator for CFTR membrane localization. VIP stimulation also increased phosphorylation, by protein kinase Cε of the actin-binding protein complex ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) and its interaction with NHERF1 and CFTR complex. On the other hand, it reduced intracellular CFTR colocalization and interaction with CFTR associated ligand, another PDZ protein known to compete with NHERF1 for CFTR interaction, inducing cytoplasmic retention and lysosomal degradation. Reducing NHERF1 or ERM expression levels by specific siRNAs prevented the VIP effect on CFTR membrane stability. Furthermore, iodide efflux assays confirmed that NHERF1 and P-ERM are necessary for VIP regulation of the stability and sustained activity of membrane CFTR. This study shows the cellular mechanism by which prolonged VIP stimulation of airway epithelial cells regulates CFTR-dependent secretions.

  5. Hydrogenase polypeptide and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W.W.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Jenney, JR, Francis E.; Sun, Junsong

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are polypeptides having hydrogenase activity. The polypeptide may be multimeric, and may have hydrogenase activity of at least 0.05 micromoles H.sub.2 produced min.sup.-1 mg protein.sup.-1. Also provided herein are polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, genetically modified microbes that include polynucleotides encoding one or more subunits of the multimeric polypeptide, and methods for making and using the polypeptides.

  6. Corpo e masculinidade na revista VIP Exame Body and masculinity in the magazine VIP Exame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Monteiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo elaboro comentários teóricos acerca de novas formas de se vivenciar a corporalidade presentes contemporaneamente, a partir da análise da revista masculina VIP Exame. O texto baseia-se numa pesquisa que incluiu uma observação dentro da redação da revista e análise de materiais impressos, centrando-se na forma como a revista aborda o corpo masculino e coloca a preocupação com a aparência como importante para uma masculinidade bem sucedida. Com base nestes dados busco avaliar, a partir de perspectivas feministas e sobre o corpo, a influência do valor dado ao corpo e ao seu monitoramento reflexivo na constituição de identidades de gênero.In this article I elaborate theoretical comments on the subject of corporeality and the new forms of experiencing the body that are present in contemporary times. On the basis of a research with a Brazilian men's magazine, VIP Exame, which involved the analysis of issues of the magazine as well as an observation of the working process of the reporters and journalists, I focus my comments on the way the masculine body is treated by the magazine and how a discourse emerges on masculinity where attention to "good looks" becomes an important feature of a successful masculinity. On the basis of these observations I go on to discuss feminist and other theories of the subject, in order to understand how the reflexive monitoring of the body is increasingly important in the constitution of gender identities.

  7. [Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing vip3A genes and analysis of gene conservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Wu; Tang, Li-Xia; Song, Shao-Yun; Yuan, Mei-Jin; Pang, Yi

    2003-09-01

    Vip3A, a novel insecticidal protein, is secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during vegetative growth. Vip3A protein possesses insecticidal activity against a wild spectrum of lepidopteran insect larvae. Since the first cloning of vip3A gene from Bt, many other vip3A genes have been isolated. To investigate vip3A genes contribution to Bt and reflect the revolution relationships, the strains containing vip3A genes were screened and gene similarity was analyzed. 114 wild-type Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains isolated from different regions and 41 standard Bt strains from the Institute of Pasteur were screened for the vip3A genes using PCR amplification. 39 strains including B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (Btk) HD-1 were found to contain the vip3A genes. Because acrystallerous strain Cry- B derived from Btk HD-1 was proved not to contain vip3A gene, it suppose that the vip3A gene may be located at the plasmids. Vip3A proteins expressed in these strains were detected with polyclonal antibody by Western blot and 4 strains among them were shown not to express the Vip3A proteins. The vip3A genes amplified from wild-type Bacillus thuringiensis strains S101 and 611 with different levels of activity against lepidopteran insect larvae were cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector. Alignment of these 2 putative Vip3A proteins with 6 others (Vip3A (a), Vip3A(b), Vip3A-S, Vip3A-S184, Vip83 and Vip3V) in the GenBank data base and 2 reported Vip3A proteins (Vip14 and Vip15) showed that vip3A genes are highly conservative. The plasmids pOTP-S101 and pOTP-611 were constructed by in- serting 2 vip3A genes (vip3A-S101 and vip3A-611) into the expression vector pQE30 respectively and were transformed into E. coli M15. E. coli M15 cells harboring the pOTP plasmids were induced with 1 mmol/L IPTG to express 89 kDa protein. Experiments showed that the level of soluble proteins of Vip3A-S101 in E. coli M15[pOTP-S101] and Vip3A-611 in E. coli M15 [pOTP-611] were about 48% and 35% respectively

  8. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 and Vip3A proteins with Spodoptera frugiperda midgut binding sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sena, J.A.D. [UNESP; Hernández Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ferré Manzanero, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af.

  9. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 and Vip3A proteins with Spodoptera frugiperda midgut binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Janete A D; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ferré, Juan

    2009-04-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af.

  10. Interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 and Vip3A Proteins with Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut Binding Sites▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Janete A. D.; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ferré, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Vip3Aa, Vip3Af, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Fa were tested for their toxicities and binding interactions. Vip3A proteins were more toxic than Cry1 proteins. Binding assays showed independent specific binding sites for Cry1 and Vip3A proteins. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa competed for the same binding sites, whereas Vip3Aa competed for those of Vip3Af. PMID:19181834

  11. Relationship between Gastrointestinal Peptides, Intestinal Wall Compliance, and Vascular Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-20

    elevations in pan - creatic secretions which were both enzyme and bicarbonate rich. These responses could be reproduced by Intravenous Infusions of low doses...Increases in blood flow to the duodenum, jejunum, and pan - creas (all three vascular beds are perfused by this artery). Yet, al- though the superior...Immunohisto- chemical localization of a vasodilatory polypeptide (VIP) in cerebro - vascular nerves. Brain Res. 113: 400-404, 1976, 135. Larsson, L,-I., J

  12. Biochemical and molecular study of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) mode of action in Spodoptera species

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Maissa

    2015-01-01

    Las proteínas insecticidas vegetativas (Vip) constituyen una nueva familia de toxinas producidas durante la fase de crecimiento vegetativo de diferentes cepas de Bacillus y principalmente por Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Esta familia de proteínas está representada por 4 miembros: Vip1, Vip2, Vip3 y la recientemente descrita Vip4. Las toxinas binarias Vip1 y Vip2 son activas contra coleópteros y homópteros; las proteínas Vip3 son activas contra lepidópteros, sin embargo, los insectos diana par...

  13. Exocrine secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's glands. Stimulation by VIP and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1983-01-01

    infusion of VIP stimulated the flow rate of duodenal secretion, an effect which was inhibited by atropine. Ach alone did not significantly increase flow rate, and combined infusion of VIP and Ach induced the same flow as VIP alone. Concentration of EGF in duodenal secretion was increased by infusion of Ach...

  14. Vortex Image Processing (VIP) package for high-contrast direct imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, C.; Absil, O.; Wertz, O.

    2016-05-01

    VIP is a Python instrument-agnostic toolbox featuring a flexible framework for reproducible and robust data reduction. VIP currently supports three high-contrast imaging observational techniques: angular, reference-star and multi-spectral differential imaging. The code can be downloaded from our git repository on Github: http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP

  15. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter...

  16. VIPS: an image processing system for large images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupitt, John; Martinez, Kirk

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes VIPS (VASARI Image Processing System), an image processing system developed by the authors in the course of the EU-funded projects VASARI (1989-1992) and MARC (1992-1995). VIPS implements a fully demand-driven dataflow image IO (input- output) system. Evaluation of library functions is delayed for as long as possible. When evaluation does occur, all delayed operations evaluate together in a pipeline, requiring no space for storing intermediate images and no unnecessary disc IO. If more than one CPU is available, then VIPS operations will automatically evaluate in parallel, giving an approximately linear speed-up. The evaluation system can be controlled by the application programmer. We have implemented a user-interface for the VIPS library which uses expose events in an X window rather than disc output to drive evaluation. This makes it possible, for example, for the user to rotate an 800 MByte image by 12 degrees and immediately scroll around the result.

  17. Occurrence of substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and calcitonin gene-related peptide in dermographism and cold urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallengren, J; Möller, H; Ekman, R

    1987-01-01

    Substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) were assayed in lesions and normal skin of patients with dermographism and cold urticaria utilizing suction-induced blisters. There was no difference in SP and VIP concentrations between challenged and control skin of urticaria patients. On the whole, however, the concentration of both neuropeptides, and VIP in particular, was higher in the urticaria patients than in control subjects. CGRP levels were not increased. SP and VIP in blood samples from veins draining challenged skin areas were below the detection limit. It is concluded that SP and VIP may potentiate histamine in wheal formation and thus contribute to the increased reactivity of the skin to trauma and temperature changes in patients with physical urticaria.

  18. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide and substance P in mice with intestinal dysbacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-zhong DONG

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium on serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP and substance P (SP in mice with dysbacteriosis induced by antibiotics. Methods Forty-eight healthy SPF BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the normal control group (normal drink, the dysbacteriosis model group (induced by oral administration of 0.5 g/L ceftriaxone sodium, the natural recovery group (oral sterile water to replace antibiotic after reproduction of dysbacteriosis, and Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment group (treated by intragastric administration of Cordyceps sinensis mycelium. The feces were collected without contamination, and the change in intestinal bacterial number was observed with the plate dilution method. The volatile fatty acid was detected by chromatography. The serum VIP and SP contents were assayed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results Compared with the normal control group, the numbers of probiotics, volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly decreased in the model group, while the serum SP markedly increased (P<0.01. Compared with the natural recovery group, the bacteria number, the quantities of volatile fatty acids and serum VIP significantly increased after the Cordyceps sinensis mycelium treatment, while the serum SP significantly decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05. Conclusion Cordyceps sinensis mycelium may effectively adjust the proportion of the probiotics in the mice with dysbacteriosis, and the mechanism is apparently related to alteration in the VIP and SP. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.06

  19. Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Calanna, Salvatore; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have clinically relevant disturbances in the effects of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the importance of the prevailing plasma glucose levels for the effect of GIP on responses...

  20. Methods for using polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc D; Harris, Paul

    2016-08-23

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. A Novel Polypeptide from Cervus elaphus Linnaeus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangWENG; QiuLiZHOU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel polypeptide having stimulant effect on some cell proliferation was isolated from the velvet antler (Cervus elaphus Linnaeus). The velvet antler polypeptide consists of a single chain of 32 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence of the polypeptide was identified as:VLSAADKSNVKAAWGKVGGNAPAFGAEALLRM.

  2. Intestinal Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some generally recognized patterns. Symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of acute intestinal ischemia typically ... confusion in older adults Symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia Signs and symptoms of chronic intestinal ischemia can ...

  3. VIP induces NF-κB1-nuclear localisation through different signalling pathways in human tumour and non-tumour prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Carmena, María J; Bajo, Ana M; Vacas, Eva; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a powerful activator of angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Transactivation and nuclear localisation of NF-κB is an index of recurrence in prostate cancer. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exerts similar effects in prostate cancer models involving increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which are related to NF-κB transactivation. Here we studied differential mechanisms of VIP-induced NF-κB transactivation in non-tumour RWPE-1 and tumour LNCaP and PC3 human prostate epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence studies showed that VIP increases translocation of the p50 subunit of NF-κB1 to the nucleus, an effect that was inhibited by curcumin. The signalling transduction pathways involved are different depending on cell transformation degree. In control cells (RWPE1), the effect is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA) activation and does not implicate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) pathways whereas the opposite is true in tumour LNCaP and PC3 cells. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) pathway is involved in transformed cells but not in control cells. Curcumin blocks the activating effect of VIP on COX-2 promoter/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and VEGF expression and secretion. The study incorporates direct observation on COX-2 promoter and suggests that VIP effect on VEGF may be indirectly mediated by PGE2 after being synthesised by COX-2, thus amplifying the initial signal. We show that the signalling involved in VIP effects on VEGF is cAMP/PKA in non-tumour cells and cAMP/EPAC/ERK/PI3K in tumour cells which coincides with pathways mediating p50 nuclear translocation. Thus, VIP appears to use different pathways for NF-κB1 (p50) transactivation in prostate epithelial cells depending on whether they are transformed or not. Transformed cells depend on pro-survival and pro-proliferative signalling pathways

  4. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  5. The effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide on development of form deprivation myopia in the chick: a pharmacological and immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltner, R L; Stell, W K

    1995-05-01

    The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the development of form deprivation myopia (FDM) was examined. Daily intravitreal injection of porcine VIP reduced, but did not eliminate FDM at a maximal daily dose of 1 x 10(-5) mol/injection. A VIP analogue reported to be relatively hydrolysis-resistant in vivo, had no effect on development of FDM at any dose tested. Two VIP antagonists completely abolished FDM. The one reported to be selective for central nervous system VIP receptors was 100 times more potent than one reported to be selective for peripheral nervous system receptors (ED50 = 2 x 10(-10) and 2 x 10(-8) mol/injection respectively). By immunofluorescence using antiserum to porcine VIP, VIP-like immunoreactivity was localized to a subset of amacrine cells (AC) and in three parallel layers in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) (10%, 40% and 70% of IPL thickness from the AC layer). Immunoreactive nerve fibres were also seen in the choroid, the ciliary body and the iris. These results suggest that VIP may play a role in both normal development of the refractive properties of the eye, and in the development of FDM.

  6. Role of vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide in the modulation of electroacupucture on gastric motility in stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ming Shen; Mei-Qi Zhou; Guan-Sun Xu; Ying Xu; Gang Yin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects and mechanisms of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO)in the modulation of electroacupucture (EA) on gastric motility in restrained-cold stressed rats.METHODS: An animal model of gastric motility disorder was established by restrained-cold stress. Gastric myoelectric activities were recorded by electrogastroent erography (EGG). VIP and NO concentrations in plasma and gastric mucosal and bulb tissues were detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). VIP expression in the gastric wails was assayed using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) and image analysis.RESULTS: In cold restrained stressed rats, EGG was disordered and irregular. The frequency and amplitude of gastric motility were higher than that in control group (P< 0.01). VIP and NO contents of plasma, gastric mucosal and bulb tissues were obviously decreased (P < 0.01).Following EA at "Zusanli" (ST36), the frequency and amplitude of gastric motility were obviously lowered (P <0.01), while the levels of VIP and NO in plasma, gastric mucosal and bulb tissues increased strikingly (P < 0.01,P < 0.05) and expression of VIP in antral smooth muscle was elevated significantly (P < 0.01) in comparison with those of model group.CONCLUSION: VIP and NO participate in the modulatory effect of EA on gastric motility. EA at "Zusanli"acupoint (ST36) can improve gastric motility of the stressed rats by increasing the levels of VIP and NO.

  7. Structure and expression of the gene encoding the vasoactive intestinal peptide precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linder, S.; Barkhem, T.; Norberg, A.; Persson, H.; Schalling, M.; Hoekfelt, T.; Magnusson, G.

    1987-01-01

    The gene encoding the human vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and the histidine-methionine amide (PHM-27) peptide hormone was isolated from lambda phage libraries. The human gene was found to be composed of seven exons spanning approx. = 9 kilobase pairs. The first exon codes for an untranslated leader sequence, and the second exon codes for a putative signal peptide. DNA sequences coding for the VIP and PHM-27 hormones are located in two different exons. Southern blot analysis with genomic DNA suggested that a single copy of the VIP/PHM-27 gene is present in the human haploid genome. The expression of VIP/PHM-27 precursor mRNA in various tissues in the rate was analyzed by RNA gel blot hybridization. In the organs examined, expression was only detected in the brain and duodenum. RNA isolated from various regions of the rat brain - including the cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus - hybridized to both VIP- and PHM-27-specific probes. The same pattern of hybridization was found when VIP- and PHM-27-specific probes were used, suggested that possible differences in the localization of VIP and PHM-27 peptides between different brain regions cannot be accounted for by differential RNA processing.

  8. Effects of vasoactive intestinal peptide on prolactin secretion in three species of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleck, C M; Patrick, D J

    1999-01-01

    Previous work on domesticated species has indicated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an important prolactin-releasing factor in these birds, but no comparative work in passerine birds has been reported. This study showed that iv injections of VIP (50-100 microg/kg body mass) result in a dramatic, but transitory, rise in plasma prolactin in Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina). Significant increases in prolactin were also observed following VIP injection in blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) and zebra finches (Poephilla guttata). At the dosage we used, maximum levels of prolactin attained were slightly lower (Mexican jays) or very similar (blue jay and zebra finch) to the maximum prolactin levels observed in other, breeding birds of the same species. In zebra finches that initially had low prolactin, VIP injection resulted in a greater than 10-fold increase in prolactin within 10 min, but those individuals that already had elevated prolactin showed no further increase in response to VIP. Slow-release pellets of VIP implanted subcutaneously in Mexican jays and releasing 10 or 15 microg VIP/day (two or three pellets) produced a significant increase in plasma prolactin (78 and 92% rise, respectively) compared to birds with placebo pellets or with with one pellet releasing only 5 microg/day.

  9. Vasoactive intestinal peptide can promote the development of neonatal rat primordial follicles during in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Niannian; Li, Yu; Wang, Wenjun; Ma, Yun; Yang, Dongzi; Zhang, Qingxue

    2013-01-01

    Recruitment of primordial follicles is essential for female fertility. Some of the intraovarian growth factors involved in the initiation of primordial follicle growth have been identified, but the exact mechanisms regulating follicle activation are poorly understood. Strong evidence indicates that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide found in ovarian nerves, plays a role in the physiology of follicle development and function. The aim of the present study was to determine whether VIP might regulate the activation and growth of neonatal rat primordial follicles in an in vitro culture system. Ovaries from 4-day-old rats were cultured for 14 days in medium containing 10(-7) M VIP. At the end of the culture, the developmental stages and viability of the follicles were evaluated using histological sections. Immunohistochemistry studies for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were performed to assess the mitotic activity of granulosa cells. In addition, the expression level of kit ligand (KL) mRNA was examined after culture. Histology showed that primordial follicles could survive and start to grow in vitro. The proportion of primordial follicles was decreased and the proportion of early primary follicles increased after in vitro culture with VIP. Immunolocalization of PCNA showed that follicle growth was initiated after VIP treatment. The expression level of KL mRNA was increased in the VIP treatment group. Thus, VIP can promote primordial follicle development, possibly mediated in part through upregulating the expression of KL.

  10. A case of progeria syndrome treated as VIP patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Mahant, Mahant PD, C.M. Reddy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Progeria is rare autosomal recessive genetic disease with an incidence of about one in eight million. He was 16 years old boy lying on the couch. He was short stature thin with minimal subcutaneous tissue, skin was thin and fragile with loss of hair over scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes, and his face was dismorphic with prominent eyes, beaked nose, small jaw and large cranium with visible veins over it. His voice was thin and high pitched. Overall, this gives them an extremely aged nearly 70 -80 years old man look. The patient was a known case of progeria syndrome and he was treated as a VIP patient by all faculty members and staff, though he belongs low socioeconomic status, no political issue with them. But still he was a VIP.

  11. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells.

  12. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses....... In contrast, GIP increases glucagon levels during fasting and hypoglycemic conditions, where it has little or no effect on insulin secretion. Thus, GIP seems to be a physiological bifunctional blood glucose stabilizer with diverging glucose-dependent effects on the two main pancreatic glucoregulatory hormones....

  13. Cloning and localization of vip3A gene of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeng Ling; Guo, Wen Yi; Qiu, Jun Zhi; Huang, Tian Pei; Li, Xun Bo; Guan, Xiong

    2004-09-01

    An insecticidal protein gene, vip3A, was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis strain WB50. The nucleotide sequence of 2,460 bp (GenBank acc. No. AY295778) showed 99% homology with the known vip3A genes. Using specific primers for vip3A gene, PCR was performed to demonstrate that the gene was not located on the bacterial chromosome and this was confirmed by Southern blotting using an internal fragment (486 bp) from vip3A gene as a probe. The gene was carried on a plasmid of 31.8 kb.

  14. Study on Vip protein expression in psoriatic epidermis with the topical treatment of capsaicin ointment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the mechanism of capsaicin in treating active psoriasis vulgaris. Methods: VIP protein in active psoriatic lesions before and 30 days after the treatment of capsaicin ointment was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results:There was positive expression of VIP in all layers of psoriatic lesions epidermis (95.5 % ), but after the treatment of capsaicin ointment,there was nearly no expression of VIP protein in epidermis(22.2% ). Conclusion: Capsaicin inhibits proliferation and induces the differentiation of keratinocytes through down-regulating the expression of VIP in psoriatic epidermis.

  15. VIP2 - An experiment at LNGS for testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Johann; VIP2 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is one of the cornerstones of quantum physics. The validity of PEP is extremely well confirmed by many observations. However tiny violations of PEP are subject to experiments at underground laboratories like LNGS/Gran Sasso, Italy. The experiments VIP and the follow-up experiment VIP-2 are searching for small violations of the PEP for electrons which would result in forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. The experimental method, final results obtained with VIP and the recently installed VIP-2 experiment at Gran Sasso to further increase the sensitivity by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented. Partly supported by FWF project P25529.

  16. Co-and post-translational events in the biogenesis of pig small intestinal aminopeptidase N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1982-01-01

    ,000. When translation was performed in the presence of dog pancreatic microsomes, a Mr 140,000 polypeptide was also observed. A polypeptide of Mr 115,000 was seen for the enzyme, purified from tunicamycin exposed explants. This result suggests that aminopeptidase N is co-translationally inserted......The biogenesis of pig small intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3. 4. 11. 2) was studied by cell-free translation of intestinal mRNA and by labelling of organ cultured intestinal explants. In cell-free translation, the primary mRNA translation product of aminopeptidase N was a polypeptide of Mr 115...

  17. Intestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  18. Intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralytic ileus; Intestinal volvulus; Bowel obstruction; Ileus; Pseudo-obstruction - intestinal; Colonic ileus ... objects that are swallowed and block the intestines) Gallstones (rare) Hernias Impacted stool Intussusception (telescoping of 1 ...

  19. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  20. Methods for engineering polypeptide variants via somatic hypermutation and polypeptide made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsien, Roger Y; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-13

    Methods using somatic hypermutation (SHM) for producing polypeptide and nucleic acid variants, and nucleic acids encoding such polypeptide variants are disclosed. Such variants may have desired properties. Also disclosed are novel polypeptides, such as improved fluorescent proteins, produced by the novel methods, and nucleic acids, vectors, and host cells comprising such vectors.

  1. Insecticidal spectrum and mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Ca insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis-Cebolla, Joaquín; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Vera-Velasco, Natalia Mara; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Ceballos, Tomás; Palma, Leopoldo; Escriche, Baltasar; Caballero, Primitivo; Ferré, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The Vip3Ca protein, discovered in a screening of Spanish collections of Bacillus thuringiensis, was known to be toxic to Chrysodeixis chalcites, Mamestra brassicae and Trichoplusia ni. In the present study, its activity has been tested with additional insect species and we found that Cydia pomonella is moderately susceptible to this protein. Vip3Ca (of approximately 90kDa) was processed to an approximately 70kDa protein when incubated with midgut juice in all tested species. The kinetics of proteolysis correlated with the susceptibility of the insect species to Vip3Ca. The activation was faster to slower in the following order: M. brassicae (susceptible), Spodoptera littoralis (moderately susceptible), Agrotis ipsilon and Ostrinia nubilalis (slightly susceptible). Processing Vip3Ca by O. nubilalis or M. brassicae midgut juice did not significantly changed its toxicity to either insect species, indicating that the low susceptibility of O. nubilalis is not due to a problem in the midgut processing of the toxin. M. brassicae larvae fed with Vip3Ca showed binding of this toxin to the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells. Histopathological inspection showed sloughing of the epithelial cells with further disruption, which suggests that the mode of action of Vip3Ca is similar to that described for Vip3Aa. Biotin-labeled Vip3Ca and Vip3Aa bound specifically to M. brassicae brush border membrane vesicles and both toxins competed for binding sites. This result suggests that insects resistant to Vip3A may also be cross-resistant to Vip3C, which has implications for Insect Resistance Management (IRM).

  2. Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A proteins by two Spodoptera species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Silvia; Chakroun, Maissa; Vinokurov, Konstantin; Ferré, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Vip3 proteins have been described to be secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase and to display a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran larvae. Vip3Aa protoxin has been reported to be significantly more toxic to Spodoptera frugiperda than to Spodoptera exigua and differences in the midgut processing have been proposed to be responsible. In contrast, we have found that Vip3Ae is essentially equally toxic against these two species. Proteolysis experiments were performed to study the stability of Vip3A proteins to peptidase digestion and to see whether the differences found could explain differences in toxicity against these two Spodoptera species. It was found that activation of the protoxin form and degradation of the 62kDa band took place at lower concentrations of trypsin when using Vip3Aa than when using Vip3Ae. The opposite effect was observed for chymotrypsin. Vip3Aa and Vip3Ae protoxins were effectively processed by midgut content extracts from the two Spodoptera species and the proteolytic activation did not produce a peptidase resistant core under these in vitro conditions. Digestion experiments performed with S. frugiperda chromatography-purified digestive serine peptidases showed that the degradation of the Vip3A toxins active core is mainly due to the action of cationic chymotrypsin-like peptidase. Although the digestion patterns of Vip3A proteins do not always correlate with toxicity, the peptidase stability of the 62kDa core is in agreement with intraspecific differences of toxicity of the Vip3Aa protein.

  3. Immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of a Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Neuropeptide Y, and Substance P, in rat adrenal cortex after acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Kosanović Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP, Neuropeptide Y (NPY, and the absence of Substance P (SP immunoreactivity in the rat adrenal cortex. VIP- and NPY-immunoreactivity were detected in nerve fibers around the small blood vessels projecting into the capsule and cortical zones surrounding blood vessels and cortical cells. After acute heat stress, VIP- and NPY-immunoreactivities in the nerve fibers were reduced, probably as a result of the release of these peptides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173023

  4. mGluR1 receptors contribute to non-purinergic slow excitatory transmission to submucosal VIP neurons of guinea-pig ileum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Pei Pei Foong

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus are involved in mediating bacterial toxin-induced hypersecretion leading to diarrhoea. VIP neurons become hyperexcitable after the mucosa is exposed to cholera toxin, which suggests that the manipulation of the excitability of these neurons may be therapeutic. This study used standard intracellular recording methods to systematically characterize slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs evoked in submucosal VIP neurons by different stimulus regimes (1, 3 and 15 pulse 30 Hz stimulation, together with their associated input resistances and pharmacology. All slow EPSPs were associated with a significant increase in input resistance compared to baseline values. Slow EPSPs evoked by a single stimulus were confirmed to be purinergic, however, slow EPSPs evoked by 15 pulse trains were non-purinergic and those evoked by 3 pulse trains were mixed. NK1 or NK3 receptor antagonists did not affect slow EPSPs. The group I mGluR receptor antagonist, PHCCC reduced the amplitude of purinergic and non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Blocking mGluR1 receptors depressed the overall response to 3 and 15 pulse trains, but this effect was inconsistent, while blockade of mGluR5 receptors had no effect on the non-purinergic slow EPSPs. Thus, although other receptors are almost certainly involved, our data indicate that there are at least two pharmacologically distinct types of slow EPSPs in the VIP secretomotor neurons: one mediated by P2Y receptors and the other in part by mGluR1 receptors.

  5. Ordered biological nanostructures formed from chaperonin polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor); McMillan, R. Andrew (Inventor); Kagawa, Hiromi (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The following application relates to nanotemplates, nanostructures, nanoarrays and nanodevices formed from wild-type and mutated chaperonin polypeptides, methods of producing such compositions, methods of using such compositions and particular chaperonin polypeptides that can be utilized in producing such compositions.

  6. Vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonist treatment during mouse embryogenesis impairs social behavior and cognitive function of adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joanna M; Cuasay, Katrina; Abebe, Daniel T

    2007-07-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a regulator of rodent embryogenesis during the period of neural tube closure. VIP enhanced growth in whole cultured mouse embryos; treatment with a VIP antagonist during embryogenesis inhibited growth and development. VIP antagonist treatment during embryogenesis also had permanent effects on adult brain chemistry and impaired social recognition behavior in adult male mice. The neurological deficits of autism appear to be initiated during neural tube closure and social behavior deficits are among the key characteristics of this disorder that is more common in males and is frequently accompanied by mental retardation. The current study examined the blockage of VIP during embryogenesis as a model for the behavioral deficits of autism. Treatment of pregnant mice with a VIP antagonist during embryonic days 8 through 10 had no apparent effect on the general health or sensory or motor capabilities of adult offspring. However, male offspring exhibited reduced sociability in the social approach task and deficits in cognitive function, as assessed through cued and contextual fear conditioning. Female offspring did not show these deficiencies. These results suggest that this paradigm has usefulness as a mouse model for aspects of autism as it selectively impairs male offspring who exhibit the reduced social behavior and cognitive dysfunction seen in autism. Furthermore, the study indicates that the foundations of some aspects of social behavior are laid down early in mouse embryogenesis, are regulated in a sex specific manner and that interference with embryonic regulators such as VIP can have permanent effects on adult social behavior.

  7. A Voltage Instability Predictor Using Local Area Measurements. VIP++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warland, Leif

    2002-07-01

    There has been a pressure to operate power systems closer to their security limits. This has partially been due to financial imperatives following the deregulating of markets. Other practical difficulties have been obtaining authorization from regulatory bodies to build power plants and transmission lines. In this situation it is essential to monitor the system and to have tools that can predict the distance to the point of collapse (PoC). Much effort has been put into research of the phenomenon voltage collapse, and many approaches have been explored. Both dynamic and steady-state behavior have been studied thoroughly, though very few protection and control schemes have been implemented. In this dissertation the possibility of an index based on local area measurements have been explored. Voltage stability can be classified as either a transient or a long-term stability problem, and the index proposed in this dissertation is based on long-term dynamics. The VIP algorithm is a method that uses the maximum load ability of a transmission network as the PoC, thus by estimating a Thevenin equivalent the method can track the distance to the PoC as this occurs when the two impedances are equal in absolute value. The problem of the VIP algorithm is that it is based on a system with two equations and four unknowns, thus it is not observable. In order to make it observable the assumption of constant Thevenin equivalent between two sets of measurements is made. When this is not the case the method will estimate a Thevenin impedance of the same size as the measured load impedance, but with a negative sign. Changes in the Thevenin equivalent can be traced to both angle variation in a remote generator area or to variations in load impedances on nearby buses. The problem of angle variations can be mitigated by the selection of an appropriate reference bus. A method to solve the second problem, of variation in load admittances, has been proposed in this dissertation and given the

  8. New variants of lepidoptericidal toxin genes encoding Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Rodriguez, Sonia E; Benintende, Graciela B

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an entomopathogenic bacterium characterized by producing parasporal proteinaceous insecticidal crystal inclusions during sporulation. Many strains are capable of also expressing other insecticidal proteins called Vip during the vegetative growing phase. Particularly, Vip3A proteins have activity against certain Lepidoptera species through a unique mechanism of action which emphasized their possible use in resistance management strategies against resistant pests. The aim of the work was to develop a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method that can distinguish between vip3A genes from B. thuringiensis strains. In addition, 4 novel vip3Aa genes were cloned and sequenced. The method was originally based on amplification of a single PCR amplicon and the use of 2 restriction enzymes with recognition sites that facilitate simultaneous detection. Subsequently, a third restriction enzyme was used to distinguish between vip3A variants. Thirteen vip3Aa genes were identified in strains belonging to 10 different B. thuringiensis serovars. Three intra-subclass variants of vip3Aa genes could be differentiated. The presented method can serve as an invaluable tool for the investigation of known and novel vip3A genes in B. thuringiensis strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where variants of a same subclass of insecticidal genes could be distinguished following PCR-RFLP.

  9. MAL/VIP17, a new player in the regulation of NKCC2 in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmosino, Monica; Rizzo, Federica; Procino, Giuseppe; Basco, Davide; Valenti, Giovanna; Forbush, Biff; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Caplan, Michael J; Svelto, Maria

    2010-11-15

    The renal-specific Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC2) is the major salt transport pathway of the apical membrane of the mammalian thick ascending limb of Henle's loop. Here, we analyze the role of the tetraspan protein myelin and lymphocytes-associated protein (MAL)/VIP17 in the regulation of NKCC2. We demonstrated that 1) NKCC2 and MAL/VIP17 colocalize and coimmunoprecipitate in Lilly Laboratories cell porcine kidney cells (LLC-PK1) as well as in rat kidney medullae, 2) a 150-amino acid stretch of NKCC2 C-terminal tail is involved in the interaction with MAL/VIP17, 3) MAL/VIP17 increases the cell surface retention of NKCC2 by attenuating its internalization, and 4) this coincides with an increase in cotransporter phosphorylation. Interestingly, overexpression of MAL/VIP17 in the kidney of transgenic mice results in cysts formation in distal nephron structures consistent with the hypothesis that MAL/VIP17 plays an important role in apical sorting or in maintaining the stability of the apical membrane. The NKCC2 expressed in these mice was highly glycosylated and phosphorylated, suggesting that MAL/VIP17 also is involved in the stabilization of NKCC2 at the apical membrane in vivo. Thus, the involvement of MAL/VIP17 in the activation and surface expression of NKCC2 could play an important role in the regulated absorption of Na+ and Cl- in the kidney.

  10. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan; Henriksen, Svend Hostgaard Bang

    2016-05-17

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activitiy and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin

    2015-12-15

    The present invention provides isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also provides nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2016-12-13

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan

    2017-07-18

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Shaghasi, Tarana

    2016-11-01

    The present invention provides hybrid polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity. The present invention also provides polynucleotides encoding the hybrid polypeptides; nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and processes of using the hybrid polypeptides.

  15. Inhibitory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced inflammation in surviving human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisnic, S; Branchet-Gumila, M C; Coutanceau, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oatmeal extract oligomer on skin fragments stimulated by a neuromediator, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Skin fragments (from plastic surgery) were maintained in survival conditions for 6 h. To induce inflammation, VIP was placed in contact with dermis by culture medium. Histological analysis was then performed on hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Edema was evaluated with semiquantitative scores. Vasodilation was studied by quantifying the percentage of dilated vessels according to scores and by measuring their surface by morphometrical image analysis. TNF-alpha dosage was made on culture supernatants. Vasodilation was significantly increased after application of VIP. After treatment with oatmeal extract oligomer, the mean surface of dilated vessels and edema were significantly decreased compared with VIP-treated skin. Moreover, treatment with this extract decreased TNF-alpha.

  16. Genomic sequencing identifies novel Bacillus thuringiensis Vip1/Vip2 binary and Cry8 toxins that have high toxicity to Scarabaeoidea larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yang; Zhang, Yanrui; Shu, Changlong; Crickmore, Neil; Wang, Qinglei; Du, Lixin; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis strain HBF-18 (CGMCC 2070), which has previously been shown to encode the cry8Ga toxin gene, is active against both Holotrichia oblita and Holotrichia parallela. Recombinant Cry8Ga however is only weakly toxic to these insect pests suggesting the involvement of additional toxins in the native strain. We report that through the use of Illumina sequencing three additional, and novel, genes, namely vip1Ad1, vip2Ag1, and cry8-like, were identified in this strain. Although no protein corresponding to these genes could be identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the HBF-18 proteome, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that all three genes were transcribed in the native strain. The two vip genes were cloned and expressed and, as with other Vip1/2 toxins, appeared to function as a binary toxin and showed strong activity against H. oblita, H. parallela and Anomala corpulenta. This is the first report to demonstrate that the Vip1/Vip2 binary toxin is active against these Scarabaeoidea larvae. The cry8-like gene appeared to be a C-terminally truncated form of a typical cry8 gene and was not expressed in our usual recombinant Bt expression system. When however the missing C-terminal region was replaced with the corresponding sequence from cry8Ea, the resulting hybrid expressed well and the toxin was active against the three test insects.

  17. Efficacy of Vip3A and Cry1Ab transgenic traits in cotton against various lepidopteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2004 through 2005, plots of experimental transgenic cotton lines containing the vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A; '-endotoxin, Cry1Ab; and both Vip3A and Cry1Ab were evaluated for efficacy against certain lepidopteran pests. Results showed that the cotton line containing Vip3A was more e...

  18. VIP - A Framework-Based Approach to Robot Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Mayer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available For robot perception, video cameras are very valuable sensors, but the computer vision methods applied to extract information from camera images are usually computationally expensive. Integrating computer vision methods into a robot control architecture requires to balance exploitation of camera images with the need to preserve reactivity and robustness. We claim that better software support is needed in order to facilitate and simplify the application of computer vision and image processing methods on autonomous mobile robots. In particular, such support must address a simplified specification of image processing architectures, control and synchronization issues of image processing steps, and the integration of the image processing machinery into the overall robot control architecture. This paper introduces the video image processing (VIP framework, a software framework for multithreaded control flow modeling in robot vision.

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase enzyme activity in hen granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A L; Li, Z; Gibney, J A; Malamed, S

    1994-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc) and P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase (P450 17 alpha-OH) mRNA levels and enzyme activity in granulosa cells from nonhierarchal (6-8-mm) follicles. Initial studies demonstrated that immunoreactive VIP is localized within the theca (but not granulosa) layer of both resting (< 0.5-mm follicles) and 6-8-mm follicles, thus providing a potential paracrine mechanism of action for VIP. While short-term (3 h) incubation of granulosa cells with VIP (0.001-1.0 microM) failed to stimulate progesterone production from 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells, a 4-h culture period in the presence of VIP resulted in increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation, and a 24-h culture period resulted in progesterone synthesis and increased P450scc mRNA levels; control levels of each endpoint measurement were not altered within the period observed. By contrast, culture with the growth factor transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) in the presence of VIP (1 microM) prevented increases in P450scc mRNA levels and progesterone production. Similar effects of VIP and TGF alpha in the presence of VIP were demonstrated for P450 17 alpha-OH mRNA levels and enzyme activity. Finally, there was an additive effect of VIP (0.1 microM) plus recombinant human (rh) FSH (100 mIU) on the initiation of progesterone production in cultured 6-8-mm follicle granulosa cells compared to the addition of VIP or rhFSH alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Synergistic effect of vasoactive intestinal peptides on TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 synthesis in osteoblasts: amplification of p44/p42 MAP kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Hideo; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Mizutani, Jun; Adachi, Seiji; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Minamitani, Chiho; Kato, Kenji; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2010-05-01

    We previously showed that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulates synthesis of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a potent bone resorptive agent, via p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 synthesis in these cells. VIP, which by itself slightly stimulated IL-6 synthesis, synergistically enhanced the TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. The synergistic effect of VIP on the TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 synthesis was concentration-dependent in the range between 1 and 70 nM. We previously reported that VIP stimulated cAMP production in MC3T3-E1 cells. Forskolin, a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, or 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8bromo-cAMP), a plasma membrane-permeable cAMP analogue, markedly enhanced the TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 synthesis as well as VIP. VIP markedly up-regulated the TNF-alpha-induced p44/p42 MAP kinase phosphorylation. The Akt phosphorylation stimulated by TNF-alpha was only slightly affected by VIP. PD98059, a specific inhibitor of MEK1/2, significantly suppressed the enhancement of TNF-alpha-induced IL-6 synthesis by VIP. The synergistic effect of a combination of VIP and TNF-alpha on the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase was diminished by H-89, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. These results strongly suggest that VIP synergistically enhances TNF-alpha-stimulated IL-6 synthesis via up-regulating p44/p42 MAP kinase through the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system in osteoblasts.

  1. The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C G; Mullins, M A; Warren, G W; Koziel, M G; Estruch, J J

    1997-02-01

    The Vip3A protein is a member of a newly discovered class of vegetative insecticidal proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. Histopathological observations indicate that Vip3A ingestion by susceptible insects such as the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) causes gut paralysis at concentrations as low as 4 ng/cm2 of diet and complete lysis of gut epithelium cells resulting in larval death at concentrations above 40 ng/cm2. The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a nonsusceptible insect, does not develop any pathology upon ingesting Vip3A. While proteolytic processing of the Vip3A protein by midgut fluids obtained from susceptible and nonsusceptible insects is comparable, in vivo immunolocalization studies show that Vip3a binding is restricted to gut cells of susceptible insects. Therefore, the insect host range for Vip3A seems to be determined by its ability to bind gut cells. These results indicate that midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects are the primary target for the Vip3A insecticidal protein and that their subsequent lysis is the primary mechanism of lethality. Disruption of gut cells appears to be the strategy adopted by the most effective insecticidal proteins.

  2. Insecticidal Activity and Histopathological Effects of Vip3Aa Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis on Spodoptera litura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feifei; Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Chen; Shao, Ensi; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-10-28

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) are insecticidal proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. In this study, Vip3Aa protein, obtained by in vitro expression of the vip3Aa gene from B. thuringiensis WB5, displayed high insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura aside from Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera. Bioassay results showed that the toxicity of Vip3Aa protein against S. litura larvae statistically decreased along with the increase of the age of the larvae, with LC50 = 2.609 ng/cm(2) for neonatal larvae, LC50 = 28.778 ng/cm(2) for first instar larvae, LC50 = 70.460 ng/cm(2) for second instar larvae, and LC50 = 200.627 ng/cm(2) for third instar larvae. The accumulative mortality of 100% larvae appeared at 72 h for all instars of S. litura larvae, when feeding respectively with 83.22, 213.04, 341.40, and 613.20 ng/cm(2) of Vip3Aa toxin to the neonatal and first to third instar larvae. The histopathological effects of Vip3Aa toxin on the midgut epithelial cells of S. litura larvae was also investigated. The TEM observations showed wide damage of the epithelial cell in the midgut of S. litura larvae fed with Vip3Aa toxin.

  3. Biolubricant Polypeptides and Therapeutic Uses Thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, Prashant; Herrmann, Andreas; Kolbe, Anke; Veeregowda, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicine. In particular, it relates to recombinant cationic polypeptides and their use as biolubricant. Provided is a biolubricant substance comprising the amino acid sequence[(GKGVP)9]n, wherein n is ≧5.

  4. Restriction/modification polypeptides, polynucleotides, and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westpheling, Janet; Chung, DaeHwan; Huddleston, Jennifer; Farkas, Joel A

    2015-02-24

    The present invention relates to the discovery of a novel restriction/modification system in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. The discovered restriction enzyme is a HaeIII-like restriction enzyme that possesses a thermophilic activity profile. The restriction/modification system also includes a methyltransferase, M.CbeI, that methylates at least one cytosine residue in the CbeI recognition sequence to m.sup.4C. Thus, the invention provides, in various aspects, isolated CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides, or biologically active fragments thereof; isolated polynucleotides that encode the CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides or biologically active fragments thereof, including expression vectors that include such polynucleotide sequences; methods of digesting DNA using a CbeI polypeptide; methods of treating a DNA molecule using a M.CbeI polypeptide; and methods of transforming a Caldicellulosiruptor cell.

  5. Cloning and characterization of two human VIP1-like inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridy, Peter C; Otto, James C; Dollins, D Eric; York, John D

    2007-10-19

    Eukaryotes possess numerous inositol phosphate (IP) and diphosphoinositol phosphate (PP-IPs or inositol pyrophosphates) species that act as chemical codes important for intracellular signaling pathways. Production of IP and PP-IP molecules occurs through several classes of evolutionarily conserved inositol phosphate kinases. Here we report the characterization of a human inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-IP5 or IP7) kinase with similarity to the yeast enzyme Vip1, a recently identified IP6/IP7 kinase (Mulugu, S., Bai, W., Fridy, P. C., Bastidas, R. J., Otto, J. C., Dollins, D. E., Haystead, T. A., Ribeiro, A. A., and York, J. D. (2007) Science 316, 106-109). Recombinant human VIP1 exhibits in vitro IP6 and IP7 kinase activities and restores IP7 synthesis when expressed in mutant yeast. Expression of human VIP1 in HEK293T cells engineered to produce high levels of IP7 results in dramatic increases in bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate (PP2-IP4 or IP8). Northern blot analysis indicates that human VIP1 is expressed in a variety of tissues and is enriched in skeletal muscle, heart, and brain. The subcellular distribution of tagged human VIP1 is indicative of a cytoplasmic non-membrane localization pattern. We also characterized human and mouse VIP2, an additional gene product with nearly 90% similarity to VIP1 in the kinase domain, and observed both IP6 and IP7 kinase activities. Our data demonstrate that human VIP1 and VIP2 function as IP6 and IP7 kinases that act along with the IP6K/Kcs1-class of kinases to convert IP6 to IP8 in mammalian cells, a process that has been found to occur in response to various stimuli and signaling events.

  6. Artificial Polypeptide Scaffold for Protein Immobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kechun; Diehl, Michael R.; Tirrell, David A.

    2005-01-01

    An artificial polypeptide scaffold composed of surface anchor and protein capture domains was designed and expressed in vivo. By using a mutant E. coli phenylalanyl−tRNA synthetase, the photoreactive amino acid para-azidophenylalanine was incorporated into the surface anchor domain. Octyltrichlorosilane-treated surfaces were functionalized with this polypeptide by spin coating and photocrosslinking. The resulting protein films were shown to immobilize recombinant proteins through association ...

  7. 电针对吉兰-巴雷综合征病人血清SP和VIP的研究%Effects of electro- acupuncture on patients with GBS in the effects of SP and VIP set.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仕学; 李义; 高青; 罗昌禄; 蒋华松; 张世忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过观察电针对吉兰-巴雷综合征(GBS)病人的临床疗效,检测血清P物质(SP)和血管活性肠肽(VIP)的含量,探讨电针治疗GBS的作用机制.方法:采用酶联反应观察电针组与对照组治疗前后GBS病人血清SP和VIP含量的变化.结果:电针组和对照组GBS病人血清SP和VIP含量均较治疗前升高,两组治疗前后自身对比有显著差异(P<0.05),而电针组与对照组间治疗后比较有极显著差异(P<0.001).结论:电针对GBS的临床效应可能与电针后血清中SP和VIP的升高有密切的关系.%Objective: By observing the clicinal efficacy for the Guillain - Barré syndrome (GBS) patients, detection of Substance P (SP) and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels to explore the role of electro - acupuncture treatment on the GBS mechanism. Methods:The enzyme- linked reaction observed in the acupuncture group and the control patients with GBS before and after SP and VIP levels change in the blood. Results:SP and VIP serum content of The acupuncture group and the control group patients with GBS are higher than those before,and both groups before and after treatment were siginificantly different compared with itself( P < 0.05). But there are very significant differences between groups(P < 0.001 ). Conclusion :The clinical effect for GBS may be related to elecrto - acupuncture after the increase of SP and VIP are closely related.

  8. Polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Susceptibility of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Vip3A insecticidal protein expressed in VipCot™ cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M I; Luttrell, R G

    2011-10-01

    Susceptibility of laboratory and field colonies of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens F. to Vip3A insecticidal protein was studied in diet incorporation and diet overlay assays from 2004 to 2008. Responses of field populations were compared to paired responses of University of Arkansas laboratory susceptible H. zea (LabZA) and H. virescens (LabVR) colonies. After 7d of exposure, observations were made on number of dead larvae (M) and the number of larvae alive but remaining as first instars (L1). Regression estimates using M (LC(50)) and M plus L1 (MIC(50)) data were developed for laboratory and field populations. Susceptibility of laboratory and field populations exposed to Vip3A varied among different batches of protein used over the study period. Within the same batch of Vip3A protein, susceptibilities of laboratory colonies of both species (LabZA and LabVR) were similar. Field colonies were significantly more susceptible to Vip3A than the respective reference colonies of both species. Within field populations, susceptibility to Vip3A varied up to 75-fold in H. zea and 132-fold in H. virescens in LC(50) estimates. Variabilities in MIC(50)s were up to 59- and 11-fold for H. zea and H. virescens, respectively.

  10. The Mode of Action of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3A Differs from That of Cry1Ab δ-Endotoxin

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Mi Kyong; Walters, Frederick S.; Hart, Hope; Palekar, Narendra; Chen, Jeng-Shong

    2003-01-01

    The Vip3A protein, secreted by Bacillus spp. during the vegetative stage of growth, represents a new family of insecticidal proteins. In our investigation of the mode of action of Vip3A, the 88-kDa Vip3A full-length toxin (Vip3A-F) was proteolytically activated to an approximately 62-kDa core toxin either by trypsin (Vip3A-T) or lepidopteran gut juice extracts (Vip3A-G). Biotinylated Vip3A-G demonstrated competitive binding to lepidopteran midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Further...

  11. Endometriosis intestinal Intestinal endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. González

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available La endometriosis es un trastorno ginecológico crónico, benigno y frecuente entre las mujeres en edad fértil, estimándose que existe algún grado de endometriosis hasta en el 15% de las mujeres premenopáusicas, asociándose a historia de infertilidad, antecedente de cesárea, dismenorrea y anormalidad en el sangrado uterino. Se cree que es debida al ascenso por las trompas de Falopio de contenido menstrual (menstruación retrógrada. En la afectación intestinal, el colon es el segmento más frecuentemente afectado, sobre todo a nivel rectosigmodeo. La clínica de presentación es inespecífica, siendo lo más frecuente el dolor abdominal y/o pélvico de tipo cólico que coincide o se exacerba con la menstruación. El diagnóstico diferencial incluye la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, diverticulitis, colitis isquémica y procesos neoplásicos, siendo el diagnóstico definitivo anatomopatológico. En cuanto al tratamiento, éste dependerá de la clínica y de la edad de la paciente, así como de sus deseos de embarazo.Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation. In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment

  12. Searches for the Violation of Pauli Exclusion Principle at LNGS in VIP(-2) experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, H; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Marton, J; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A.Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    The VIP (Violation of Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and its follow-up experiment VIP-2 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) search for X-rays from Cu atomic states that are prohibited by the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP). The candidate events, if they exist, will originate from the transition of a $2p$ orbit electron to the ground state which is already occupied by two electrons. The present limit on the probability for PEP violation for electron is 4.7 $\\times10^{-29}$ set by the VIP experiment. With upgraded detectors for high precision X-ray spectroscopy, the VIP-2 experiment will improve the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.

  13. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Phenology EVI2 Yearly Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  14. High sensitivity tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle with VIP2

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Clozza, A; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pichler, A; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle is one of the most fundamental rules of nature and represents a pillar of modern physics. According to many observations the Pauli Exclusion Principle must be extremely well fulfilled. Nevertheless, numerous experimental investigations were performed to search for a small violation of this principle. The VIP experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory searched for Pauli-forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms using the Ramberg-Snow method and obtained the best limit so far. The follow-up experiment VIP2 is designed to reach even higher sensitivity. It aims to improve the limit by VIP by orders of magnitude. The experimental method, comparison of different PEP tests based on different assumptions and the developments for VIP2 are presented.

  15. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 15Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  16. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Daily Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  17. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Monthly Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  18. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 7Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  19. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Phenology NDVI Yearly Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  20. Endocrine pancreatic control of the release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide. A possible physiological role for C-peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, J R; Hampton, S M; Marks, V

    1980-10-01

    Intravenous infusion in anaesthetized rats of rat II C-peptide at a dose which produced circulating levels of 22.8 +/- 1.8 nmol/l after 30 min, resulted in a significant reduction (141 +/- 7 to 50 +/- 4 pmol/l, p < 0.001, mean +/- SEM) in the immunoreactive gastric inhibitory polypeptide response to an intestinal perfusion with a fat emulsion. Immunoreactive insulin levels were unchanged from basal in this study. It is suggested that C-peptide must be considered as a candidate for the endocrine pancreatic factor which exerts a negative feedback upon gastric inhibitory polypeptide release.

  1. Optimization, evaluation, and comparison of standard algorithms for image reconstruction with the VIP-PET

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhaylova, E.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel positron emission tomography (PET) scanner design based on a room-temperature pixelated CdTe solid-state detector is being developed within the framework of the Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project [1]. The simulation results show a great potential of the VIP to produce high-resolution images even in extremely challenging conditions such as the screening of a human head [2]. With unprecedented high channel density (450 channels/cm3) image reconstruction is a challenge. Therefore...

  2. The Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A lyses midgut epithelium cells of susceptible insects.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, C G; Mullins, M A; Warren, G W; Koziel, M G; Estruch, J J

    1997-01-01

    The Vip3A protein is a member of a newly discovered class of vegetative insecticidal proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. Histopathological observations indicate that Vip3A ingestion by susceptible insects such as the black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) causes gut paralysis at concentrations as low as 4 ng/cm2 of diet and complete lysis of gut epithelium cells resulting in larval death at concentrations above 40 ng/cm2....

  3. VIP: Vortex Image Processing Package for High-contrast Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto; Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier; Christiaens, Valentin; Defrère, Denis; Mawet, Dimitri; Milli, Julien; Absil, Pierre-Antoine; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc; Cantalloube, Faustine; Hinz, Philip M.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Karlsson, Mikael; Surdej, Jean

    2017-07-01

    We present the Vortex Image Processing (VIP) library, a python package dedicated to astronomical high-contrast imaging. Our package relies on the extensive python stack of scientific libraries and aims to provide a flexible framework for high-contrast data and image processing. In this paper, we describe the capabilities of VIP related to processing image sequences acquired using the angular differential imaging (ADI) observing technique. VIP implements functionalities for building high-contrast data processing pipelines, encompassing pre- and post-processing algorithms, potential source position and flux estimation, and sensitivity curve generation. Among the reference point-spread function subtraction techniques for ADI post-processing, VIP includes several flavors of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms, such as annular PCA and incremental PCA algorithms capable of processing big datacubes (of several gigabytes) on a computer with limited memory. Also, we present a novel ADI algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization, which comes from the same family of low-rank matrix approximations as PCA and provides fairly similar results. We showcase the ADI capabilities of the VIP library using a deep sequence on HR 8799 taken with the LBTI/LMIRCam and its recently commissioned L-band vortex coronagraph. Using VIP, we investigated the presence of additional companions around HR 8799 and did not find any significant additional point source beyond the four known planets. VIP is available at http://github.com/vortex-exoplanet/VIP and is accompanied with Jupyter notebook tutorials illustrating the main functionalities of the library.

  4. Use of peroxidase substrate Vector VIP for multiple staining in light microscop

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, J.L. (José Luis); Goede, P.H. (P. H.); Witter, M.P.; Wouterlood, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the distribution of a fiber input to a particular brain area and the visualization of the anatomical relationships of that input with both projection- and interneurons, requires a triple-staining that allows the unequivocal distinction of each of the three components in one and the same histological section. In this regard, we investigated the properties of a recently introduced peroxidase chromogen, VIP (V-VIP; Vector Labs) in combination with two traditional substrates, standar...

  5. Influence of renovascular hypertension on the distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide in the stomach and heart of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Żaneta; Janiuk, Izabela

    2015-11-01

    Arterial hypertension is associated with serious dysfunction of the cardiovascular system and digestive system. Given the relevant role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in the regulation of digestion process, control of blood pressure and heart rate as well as cardio- and gastro-protective character of the peptide, it appeared worthwhile to undertake the research aimed at immunohistochemical identification and evaluation of VIP-positive structures in the pylorus and heart of hypertensive rats. Up to now, this issue has not been investigated. The experimental model of hypertension in rats according to Goldblatt (two-kidney one clip model of hypertension) was used in the study. The experimental material (pylorus and heart) was collected in the sixth week of the study. VIP-containing structures were evaluated using immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. The analysis of the results showed a significant increase in the number of immunoreactive VIP structures and in the intensity of immunohistochemical staining in the stomach and in the heart of hypertensive rats. Our findings indicate that VIP is an important regulator of cardiovascular and digestive system in physiological and pathological conditions. However, to better understand the exact role of VIP in hypertension further studies need to be carried out.

  6. Clostridium difficile suppresses colonic vasoactive intestinal peptide associated with altered motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nassif

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether Clostridium difficile toxin alters colonic tissue levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP at the expense of changes in colonic motility in the isolated perfused rabbit left colon. Colonic inflammation was induced by the intracolonic administration of 10−8 M C. difflcile toxin. Strain gauge transducers were sewn onto the serosal surface of the colon to evaluate colonic motility. C. difflcile administration produced histologic changes consistent with epithelial damage. This was associated with an increased production of prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2. Tissue levels of VIP but not substance P were significantly reduced. This was associated with an increased number of contractions per minute and an average force of each colonic contraction. These results suggest that tissue levels of VIP are suppressed by C. difflcile and may participate in colonic dysmotility during active inflammation.

  7. [Effects of helper protein P20 from Bacillus thuringiensis on Vip3A expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong-xia; Yuan, Mei-jin; Chen, Jian-wu; Sun, Fan; Pang, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs) produced in Bacillus thuringiensis accumulate as crystalline inclusions that represent up to 30% of total dry weight the cell produces. The mechanisms of in vivo crystallization of these insecticidal proteins remain interests, yet unclear. A 20-kDa protein (P20), the product of the third open reading frame of cry11A operon in B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis has been defined to be an important molecular chaperone (helper protein) for forming Cyt1A crystal and enhancing Cry11A expression. The novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs) are secreted outside the cell of B. thuringiensis during mid-logarithmic growth. VIP3A shows activity against many lepidopteran insect larvae in a different mechanism from that of ICPs. To investigate the influence of helper protein P20 on Vip3A production and its insecticidal activity, P20 was coexpressed with Vip3A protein in B. thuringiensis and the yields and insecticidal toxicity of Vip3A were also analyzed. The recombinant plasmid pHVP20 was constructed by inserting a 5.4kb foreign fragment containing both vip3A gene and p20 gene into the shuttle vector pHT3101. The plasmid pHPT3 only containing vip3A gene was used as control. pHVP20 and pHPT3 were transformed into the B. thuringiensis acrystalliferous strain CryB not containing vip3A gene by electroporation. The obtained B. thuringiensis transformants were CryB(pHVP20) and CryB(pHPT3) respectively. Western blot showed that Vip3A protein reached its maximum yield after 48h of CryB (pHVP20) growth and remained high expression level during the sporulation. The maximum yield of Vip3A protein in CryB (pHVP20) was about 1.5 fold as compared with that in CryB(pHPT3) by the mean of ImageMaster VDS software. It is considered that P20 might combine with the native Vip3A protein during the sporulation, stabilize Vip3A and protect Vip3A from unspecific full proteolysis. Bioassay showed that the cell pellets of CryB (pHVP20) and CryB(pHPT3

  8. Antioxidant activity of vasoactive intestinal peptide in HK2 human renal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Eva; Bajo, Ana M; Schally, Andrew V; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2012-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a major mediator of tissue and cell injuries. The injury in chronic nephrotic syndrome, acute renal failure, myeloma kidney injury and other kidney diseases is initiated by oxidative stress. We have previously demonstrated that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) acts as an antiproliferative agent in renal cancer cells. This study was designed to evaluate the renoprotective activity of VIP against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage in a proximal tubule kidney cell line (human, non-tumor, HK2 cells) in order to investigate the potential usefulness of this peptide in the treatment of oxidative-stress related kidney diseases. HK2 cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. Propidium iodide was used to identify cells undergoing apoptosis. Western blotting was performed with anti-Bcl-2, anti-Bax and anti-formyl peptide receptor (low-affinity variant FPRL-1) monoclonal antibodies whereas 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used for measurement of levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). HK2 cells were injured with H(2)O(2) in order to induce apoptosis: the effect was time- and dose-dependent. VIP increased the levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased those of the proapoptotic protein Bax. VIP decreased the intracellular ROS levels reached by H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. VIP effect on ROS levels involved FPLR-1 but not VPAC(1,2) receptors as evidenced by the use of the respective antagonists WRW4 and JV-1-53. Thus, VIP protects HK2 cells from apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 levels and this effect is initiated through FPLR1 receptor. In conclusion, VIP might exert a renoprotective effect by the suppression of oxidative stress.

  9. 苏云金芽孢杆菌营养期杀虫蛋白Vip3的研究进展%Research Progress of Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3 from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘京国; 师光禄

    2012-01-01

    In order to completely understand the research progress of Vip3 toxin, the classification, characteristic, function, mode of action and application of Vip3 toxin were induced in this article. It was also indicated that several vital issues need to be solved in the further research work, although much research progress of Vip3 toxin has been made.%为了更好地理解Vip3毒素的研究进展,从Vip3毒素的类型、理化特性、功能、杀虫机理以及应用 研究等方面做了详细的综述.并指出,尽管Vip3毒素的研究取得了很大的进展,但是还有一些重要的问题在后续研究中亟待解决.

  10. Disrupted reproduction, estrous cycle, and circadian rhythms in female mice deficient in vasoactive intestinal peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, D H; Kuljis, D A; Azuma, L; Wu, Y; Truong, D; Wang, H B; Colwell, C S

    2014-10-01

    The female reproductive cycle is gated by the circadian timing system and may be vulnerable to disruptions in the circadian system. Prior work suggests that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are one pathway by which the circadian clock can influence the estrous cycle, but the impact of the loss of this peptide on reproduction has not been assessed. In the present study, we first examine the impact of the genetic loss of the neuropeptide VIP on the reproductive success of female mice. Significantly, mutant females produce about half the offspring of their wild-type sisters even when mated to the same males. We also find that VIP-deficient females exhibit a disrupted estrous cycle; that is, ovulation occurs less frequently and results in the release of fewer oocytes compared with controls. Circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity are disrupted in the female mutant mice, as is the spontaneous electrical activity of dorsal SCN neurons. On a molecular level, the VIP-deficient SCN tissue exhibits lower amplitude oscillations with altered phase relationships between the SCN and peripheral oscillators as measured by PER2-driven bioluminescence. The simplest explanation of our data is that the loss of VIP results in a weakened SCN oscillator, which reduces the synchronization of the female circadian system. These results clarify one of the mechanisms by which disruption of the circadian system reduces female reproductive success.

  11. The role of vasoactive intestinal peptide in scavenging singlet oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, B.R.; Misra, H.P. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a highly basic 28 amino acid peptide, has a widespread distribution in the body. The functional specificity of this peptide not only includes its potent vasodilatory activity, but also its role in protecting lungs against acute injury, in preventing T-lymphocyte proliferation and in modulating immune function. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible antioxidant properties of VIP. The authors found that VIP up to 50 {mu}g/ml had no inhibitory effect on its reduction of cytochrome C by xanthine and xanthine oxidase, indicating that the peptide does not have significant O{sub 2} scavenging ability. However, VIP was found to inhibit, in a dose-dependent manner, the {sup 1}O{sub 2} dependent 2, 2, 6, 6 tetramethyl piperidine oxide (TEMPO) formation. {sup 1}O{sub 2} was produced by rose benzal photosensitizing system and was detected as TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct (TEMPO) by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic technique. The formation of TEMPO signal was strongly inhibited by {beta}-carotene, histidine as well as azide, but not by superoxide dismutase (48 {mu}g/ml), catalase (20 {mu}g/ml) and mannitol (6mM), indicating that TEMPO signal was a TEMP-{sup 1}O{sub 2} adduct. These results indicate that VIP has potent antioxidant activity and may serve as a singlet O{sub 2} scavenger, thus it may modulate the oxidative tissue injury caused by this reactive oxygen species.

  12. Susceptibility of Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) to Vip3A insecticidal protein in VipCotTM cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility of laboratory and field colonies of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens F. to Vip3A insecticidal protein was studied in diet incorporation and diet overlay assays from 2004 to 2008. Responses of field populations were compared to paired responses of University of Arkansas...

  13. Detection and identification of vegetative insecticidal proteins vip3 genes of Bacillus thuringiensis strains using polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melt analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Shu, Changlong; He, Xiaoming; Gao, JiGuo; Liu, Rongmei; Huang, Dafang

    2012-05-01

    In this study, vegetative insecticidal proteins vip3 genes from Bacillus thuringiensis strains were detected based on polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) analysis. A pair of primers was designed according to the conservative sequences in 150 bp region of the known vip3 subfamily. The 150 bp regions of difference vip3 genes have only a few nucleotide difference vip3 genes were detected in 8 of 11 standard B. thuringiensis strains, and vip3Aa genes, vip3Af genes and vip3Ba gene can be distinguished as different melting curves by this method. The results demonstrate the utility of the HRM assay for mutant screening using vip3 gene. The PCR-HRM method may be a valuable and reliable tool for specific detection and identification of vip3 genes.

  14. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects.

    OpenAIRE

    Estruch, J J; Warren, G W; Mullins, M A; Nye, G J; Craig, J. A.; Koziel, M G

    1996-01-01

    A novel vegetative insecticidal gene, vip3A(a), whose gene product shows activity against lepidopteran insect larvae including black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) has been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. VIP3-insecticidal gene homologues have been detected in approximately 15% of Bacillus strains analyzed. The sequence of the vip3A(...

  15. Specific binding of activated Vip3Aa10 to Helicoverpa armigera brush border membrane vesicles results in pore formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Guo; Yang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Xiao-Hong; Hua, Bao-Guang; Shi, Guang-Lu

    2011-10-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most harmful pests in China. Although it had been successfully controlled by Cry1A toxins, some H. armigera populations are building up resistance to Cry1A toxins in the laboratory. Vip3A, secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis, is another potential toxin against H. armigera. Previous reports showed that activated Vip3A performs its function by inserting into the midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of susceptible insects. To further investigate the binding of Vip3A to BBMV of H. armigera, the full-length Vip3Aa10 toxin expressed in Escherichia coli was digested by trypsin or midgut juice extract, respectively. Among the fragments of digested Vip3Aa10, only a 62kDa fragment (Vip3Aa10-T) exhibited binding to BBMV of H. armigera and has insecticidal activity. Moreover, this interaction was specific and was not affected by the presence of Cry1Ab toxin. Binding of Vip3Aa10-T to BBMV resulted in the formation of an ion channel. Unlike Cry1A toxins, Vip3Aa10-T was just slightly associated with lipid rafts of BBMV. These data suggest that although activated Vip3Aa10 specifically interacts with BBMV of H. armigera and forms an ion channel, the mode of action of it may be different from that of Cry1A toxins.

  16. Tuning Ice Nucleation with Supercharged Polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Huige; Ma, Chao; Li, Kaiyong; Liu, Kai; Loznik, Mark; Teeuwen, Rosalie; van Hest, Jan C M; Zhou, Xin; Herrmann, Andreas; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Supercharged unfolded polypeptides (SUPs) are exploited for controlling ice nucleation via tuning the nature of charge and charge density of SUPs. The results show that positively charged SUPs facilitate ice nucleation, while negatively charged ones suppress it. Moreover, the charge density of the S

  17. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...

  18. Recombinant Supercharged Polypeptides Restore and Improve Biolubrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeregowda, Deepak H.; Kolbe, Anke; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant supercharged polypeptides (SUPs) with low cytotoxicity are developed and applied to rejuvenate the lubrication of naturally occurring salivary conditioning films (SCFs). SUPs with 72 positive charges adsorbed and rigidified the SCFs and recruited mucins to form a hydrated layer. These SC

  19. Absence of pineal-independent mediation of seasonal differences in suprachiasmatic nucleus AVP and VIP mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, David A; Herron, Jana M; Duncan, Marilyn J

    2002-05-30

    Assessment of seasonal variations in expression of brain neuropeptide mRNA is complicated by concurrent circadian variations. Because entrainment of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) based rhythms differs in long versus short day lengths, valid seasonal comparisons must be made at equivalent circadian phases. We used a novel experimental design which permitted sampling at identical circadian phases of animals exhibiting opposite seasonal reproductive responses to the same intermediate day length. This allowed us to test whether seasonal changes in arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) mRNA expression in the SCN occur in the absence of the pineal gland. Juvenile Siberian hamsters were gestated and maintained postnatally in either a long photoperiod (16 h light/day) or short photoperiod (10 h light/day). At the time of weaning (18 days of age), the hamsters were pinealectomized and either transferred to a new photoperiod (10-, 16- or 14-h light/day) or left in the original photoperiod. Hamsters from 10L had substantially smaller and lighter testes than those from 16L. If photoperiodic modulation of AVP and VIP mRNA expression occurs in the absence of the pineal, then transfer of pinealectomized hamsters from a longer (16L) or shorter (10L) photoperiod to an intermediate photoperiod (14L) should result in a differential response with respect to SCN AVP and VIP mRNA expression but not testis size. When sampled at an identical circadian phase (3 h after lights on) in 14L there was no difference in the expression of AVP or VIP mRNA in the SCN between animals previously housed in long versus short day lengths. In contrast to a previous study that did not carefully control for circadian phase, the present findings suggest that seasonal photoperiodic control of SCN neuropeptide mRNA expression depends upon the pineal gland. In addition, the present findings demonstrate a significant, negative correlation between AVP mRNA expression in the SCN and

  20. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2014-01-01

    aura were randomly allocated to intravenous infusion of PACAP38 (10 pmol/kg/min) or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (8 pmol/kg/min) over 20 min. We recorded incidence of migraine during and after infusion (0-24 h). Magnetic resonance angiography of selected extra- and intracranial arteries, blood...... peptides induced marked dilatation of the extracranial (P 0.05). PACAP38-induced vasodilatation was longer lasting (>2 h), whereas vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-induced dilatation was normalized after 2 h. We recorded elevated plasma PACAP38 at 1 h after...... and elevated plasma PACAP38 before onset of migraine-like attacks. PACAP38 has a much higher affinity for the PAC1 receptor and we therefore suggest that migraine induction by PACAP38 may be because of activation of the PAC1 receptor, which may be a future anti-migraine drug target....

  1. Quantification of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 Entomopathogenic Toxin Using Its Hemolytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Ghribi, Dhouha; Dammak, Mariam; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2017-05-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins produced by some Bacillus thuringiensis strains are specifically toxic to different agricultural pests such as the polyphagous Spodoptera and several other Lepidopteran insects, but one of the major problems found in the use of these biopesticides was the lack of an easy and credible method of quantification of such secreted toxins. Heterologous expression of B. thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin was performed in Escherichia coli then the protein was purified by chromatography. Using blood agar as well as blood agar overlay (zymogram assay), we reported, for the first time, the capacity of Vip3Aa16 to induce hemolysis. The hemolytic activity of this protein was shown to be relatively stable after treatment at 40 °C and at a range of pH between 6.5 and 9. Moreover, a linear relationship was shown between hemolysis levels and Vip3Aa16 concentrations. The model established in the present study could quantify Vip3A toxin as a function of hemolytic activity and the assay proposed showed to be a simple and low-cost method to readily assess Vip3A toxins in liquid cultures and facilitate the use of this kind of bioinsecticides in pest management programs.

  2. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner......OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular......, purinergic receptors, and determine their effects on ion transport. METHODS: Human adenocarcinoma cell line Capan-1 cells were grown on permeable supports and set in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological recordings. Transepithelial voltage (Vte), resistance, and short-circuit currents (Isc) were measured...... in response to agonists. RESULTS: Secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), acetylcholine, forskolin, ionomycin, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP, and adenosine induced lumen negative Vte and Isc. These changes were consistent with anion...

  3. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; Wu, Wenping

    2016-06-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-08-08

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan; McBrayer, Brett

    2017-07-04

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Wu, Wenping; Kramer, Randall

    2017-09-19

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  9. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Paul [Carnation, WA; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo [Davis, CA; Rey, Micheal [Davis, CA; Ding, Hanshu [Davis, CA; Vlasenko, Elena [Davis, CA

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  10. Polypeptide from a cellulolytic fungus having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly (Elk Grove, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Zaretsky, Elizabeth (Reno, NV); Re, Edward (Davis, CA); Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA); McFarland, Keith (Davis, CA); Lopez de Leon, Alfredo (Davis, CA)

    2008-04-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Golightly, Elizabeth (Reno, NV)

    2011-06-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  12. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly (Elk Grove, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Lopez De Leon, Alfredo (Davis, CA); Merino, Sandra (West Sacremento, CA)

    2007-05-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  13. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Golightly, Elizabeth (Reno, NV)

    2007-07-17

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  14. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Lopez de Leon, Alfredo (Davis, CA); Rey, Michael (Davis, CA); Ding, Hanshu (Davis, CA); Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA)

    2010-11-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Golightly, Elizabeth (Reno, NV)

    2010-03-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringer, Mary Ann; McBrayer, Brett

    2016-11-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity, catalytic domains, and cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains, and cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains, or cellulose binding domains.

  17. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2014-09-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Encoding of movement in near extrapersonal space in primate area VIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eBremmer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Many neurons in the macaque ventral intraparietal area (VIP are multimodal, i.e., they respond not only to visual but also to tactile, auditory and vestibular stimulation. Anatomical studies have shown distinct projections between area VIP and a region of premotor cortex controlling head movements. A specific function of area VIP could be to guide movements in order to head for and/or to avoid objects in near extra-personal space. This behavioral role would require a consistent representation of visual motion within 3-D space and enhanced activity for nearby motion signals. Accordingly, in our present study we investigated whether neurons in area VIP are sensitive to moving visual stimuli containing depth signals from horizontal disparity. We recorded single unit activity from area VIP of two awake behaving monkeys (M. mulatta fixating a central target on a projection screen. Sensitivity of neurons to horizontal disparity was assessed by presenting large field moving images (random dot fields stereoscopically to the two eyes by means of LCD shutter goggles synchronized with the stimulus computer. During an individual trial, stimuli had one of seven different disparity values ranging from 3 degrees uncrossed- (far to 3 degrees crossed- (near disparity in 1 degree steps. Stimuli moved at constant speed in all simulated depth planes. Different disparity values were presented across trials in pseudo-randomized order. 61% percent of the motion sensitive cells had a statistically significant selectivity for the horizontal disparity of the stimulus (p<0.05, distribution free ANOVA. 75% of them preferred crossed-disparity values, i.e. moving stimuli in near space, with the highest mean activity for the nearest stimulus. At the population level, preferred direction of visual stimulus motion was not affected by horizontal disparity. Thus, our findings are in agreement with the behavioral role of area VIP in the representation of movement in near extra

  1. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  2. Intestinal leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most often found when a person has an upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy or colonoscopy for another reason. Rarely, these tumors can cause bleeding, blockage or rupture of the intestines If this ...

  3. Intestinal Lymphangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... source and a camera through which a small clipper can be inserted). The tissue that is removed ... can help. Malabsorption Overview of Malabsorption Bacterial Overgrowth Syndrome Celiac Disease Intestinal Lymphangiectasia Lactose Intolerance Short Bowel ...

  4. Vip3A, a novel Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein with a wide spectrum of activities against lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, J J; Warren, G W; Mullins, M A; Nye, G J; Craig, J A; Koziel, M G

    1996-05-28

    A novel vegetative insecticidal gene, vip3A(a), whose gene product shows activity against lepidopteran insect larvae including black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea) has been isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis strain AB88. VIP3-insecticidal gene homologues have been detected in approximately 15% of Bacillus strains analyzed. The sequence of the vip3A(b) gene, a homologue of vip3A(a) isolated from B. thuringiensis strain AB424 is also reported. Vip3A(a) and (b) proteins confer upon Escherichia coli insecticidal activity against the lepidopteran insect larvae mentioned above. The sequence of the gene predicts a 791-amino acid (88.5 kDa) protein that contains no homology with known proteins. Vip3A insecticidal proteins are secreted without N-terminal processing. Unlike the B. thuringiensis 5-endotoxins, whose expression is restricted to sporulation, Vip3A insecticidal proteins are expressed in the vegetative stage of growth starting at mid-log phase as well as during sporulation. Vip3A represents a novel class of proteins insecticidal to lepidopteran insect larvae.

  5. Is there proofreading during polypeptide synthesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusala, T; Ehrenberg, M.; Kurland, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The stoichiometric efficiency with which ternary complexes containing Phe-tRNAphe and Leu-tRNAleu support polypeptide synthesis has been compared in a poly(U)-directed, steady-state translation system. When unfractionated tRNA is used to support synthesis, the number of discharged ternary complexes per peptide bond formed is an average of 48 times greater for leucine than for phenylalanine. When three purified leucine isoacceptor species are tested, they each show a characteristic ratio of te...

  6. Biosynthetic Polypeptides as Templates in Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi

    2007-03-01

    Biosynthetic routes to protein-based polymeric materials offer important opportunities for the production of well-defined macromolecular templates, owing to the control of sequence and molecular weight inherent in the biosynthesis of proteins. In particular, the biosynthesis of polypeptides with controlled presentation of functional groups in multiple positions, coupled with their subsequent chemical modification with biologically relevant ligands, will permit the production of well-defined, bioactive macromolecules that may provide insight into biological binding events in which multivalent binding is important. Modification of the well-defined macromolecules with ligands such as saccharides has application in the study of events such as toxin neutralization and mediation of the immune and inflammatory responses. In this work, alanine-rich polypeptides of both random coil and helical conformations, equipped with glutamic acid residues to impart chemical versatility, have been produced via biosynthetic strategies. Analysis via spectroscopic and calorimetric methods indicates that the polypeptides adopt helical, beta-sheet, or random-coil conformations that can be controlled with variations in temperature, pH, and salt concentration; the conformational behavior of the polypeptides is not compromised upon chemical modification with saccharides. The binding of these macromolecules to bacterial toxins has been characterized via immunochemical and spectroscopic methods; results indicate that specific architectural features of the glycopolymer scaffold cause changes in the binding of these molecules to multivalent receptors. Given the chemical flexibility in the design of such scaffolds, they can be modified with many different moieties in addition to saccharides, so multiple opportunities exist for their application in areas where control of active side chains is important, such as in biomaterials, electronic devices, and bioinorganic structures.

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide/vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor relative expression in salivary glands as one endogenous modulator of acinar cell apoptosis in a murine model of Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, V; Calafat, M; Larocca, L; Fraccaroli, L; Grasso, E; Ramhorst, R; Leirós, C Pérez

    2011-12-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a progressive oral and ocular dryness that correlates poorly with the autoimmune damage of the glands. It has been proposed that a loss of homeostatic equilibrium in the glands is partly responsible for salivary dysfunction with acinar cells involved actively in the pathogenesis of SS. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome develops secretory dysfunction and early loss of glandular homeostatic mechanisms, with mild infiltration of the glands. Based on the vasodilator, prosecretory and trophic effects of the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on acini as well as its anti-inflammatory properties we hypothesized that the local expression of VIP/vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor (VPAC) system in salivary glands could have a role in acinar cell apoptosis and macrophage function thus influencing gland homeostasis. Here we show a progressive decline of VIP expression in submandibular glands of NOD mice with no changes in VPAC receptor expression compared with normal mice. The deep loss of endogenous VIP was associated with a loss of acinar cells through apoptotic mechanisms that could be induced further by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and reversed by VIP through a cyclic adenosine-5'-monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated pathway. The clearance of apoptotic acinar cells by macrophages was impaired for NOD macrophages but a shift from inflammatory to regulatory phenotype was induced in macrophages during phagocytosis of apoptotic acinar cells. These results support that the decline in endogenous VIP/VPAC local levels might influence the survival/apoptosis intracellular set point in NOD acinar cells and their clearance, thus contributing to gland homeostasis loss.

  8. Effect of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction on Pancreatitis-Associated Intestinal Dysmotility in Patients and in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianlei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of intestinal motility and related infectious complications are the predominant clinical phenomenon in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. We aimed to investigate the effects of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD on the gastrointestinal injury in SAP patients and the potential mechanism involved in rats. DCQD was enema administered to 70 patients for 7 days in West China Hospital. Mortality and organ failure during admission were observed and blood samples for laboratory analysis were collected. We also experimentally examined plasma inflammatory cytokines in rat serum and carried the morphometric studies of the gut. Intestinal propulsion index and serum and tissue vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP were also detected. Though DCQD did not affect the overall incidence of organ failure, it shortened the average time of paralytic intestinal obstruction and decreased the morbidity of infectious complications in patients with SAP. Compared with untreated rats, the DCQD lowered the levels of proinflammatory cytokine and decreased the mean pathological intestinal lesion scores. The VIP level in intestinal tissue or serum in DCQD group was obviously lowered and intestinal propulsion index was significantly improved. In conclusion, DCQD has good effect on pancreatitis-associated intestinal dysmotility in patients and in rat models.

  9. Altered vasoactive intestinal peptides expression in irritable bowel syndrome patients and rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Valle-Pinero, Arseima Y; Sherwin, LeeAnne B; Anderson, Ethan M; Caudle, Robert M; Henderson, Wendy A

    2015-01-07

    To investigate the vasoactive intestinal peptides (VIP) expression in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis. The VIP gene expression and protein plasma levels were measured in adult participants (45.8% male) who met Rome III criteria for IBS for longer than 6 mo and in a rat model of colitis as induced by TNBS. Plasma and colons were collected from naïve and inflamed rats. Markers assessing inflammation (i.e., weight changes and myeloperoxidase levels) were assessed on days 2, 7, 14 and 28 and compared to controls. Visceral hypersensitivity of the rats was assessed with colo-rectal distension and mechanical threshold testing on hind paws. IBS patients (n = 12) were age, gender, race, and BMI-matched with healthy controls (n = 12). Peripheral whole blood and plasma from fasting participants was collected and VIP plasma levels were assayed using a VIP peptide-enzyme immunoassay. Human gene expression of VIP was analyzed using a custom PCR array. TNBS induced colitis in the rats was confirmed with weight loss (13.7 ± 3.2 g) and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Visceral hypersensitivity to colo-rectal distension was increased in TNBS treated rats up to 21 d and resolved by day 28. Somatic hypersensitivity was also increased up to 14 d post TNBS induction of colitis. The expression of an inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase was significantly elevated in the intracellular granules of neutrophils in rat models following TNBS treatment compared to naïve rats. This confirmed the induction of inflammation in rats following TNBS treatment. VIP plasma concentration was significantly increased in rats following TNBS treatment as compared to naïve animals (P < 0.05). Likewise, the VIP gene expression from peripheral whole blood was significantly upregulated by 2.91-fold in IBS patients when compared to controls (P < 0.00001; 95%CI). VIP plasma protein was not significantly different when compared with controls (P = 0

  10. In Vivo and In Vitro Binding of Vip3Aa to Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut and Characterization of Binding Sites by 125I Radiolabeling

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Maissa; Ferré, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) have been recently introduced in important crops as a strategy to delay the emerging resistance to the existing Cry toxins. The mode of action of Vip3A proteins has been studied in Spodoptera frugiperda with the aim of characterizing their binding to the insect midgut. Immunofluorescence histological localization of Vip3Aa in the midgut of intoxicated larvae showed that Vip3Aa bound to the brush border membrane along the entire a...

  11. 苏云金芽孢杆菌vip3A基因的检测及保守性分析%Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains Containing vip3A Genes and Analysis of Gene Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建武; 唐丽霞; 宋少云; 袁美妗; 庞义

    2003-01-01

    Vip3A蛋白是苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)在营养期分泌的一类新型杀虫蛋白.用PCR方法从114个Bt菌株和41个Bt标准菌株中筛选到39株即约25%的菌株含有vip3A基因.利用所制备的Vip3A蛋白的多克隆抗体对以上含有vip3A基因的Bt菌株进行Western印迹分析,发现多数PCR反应为阳性的菌株都产生89 kD大小的蛋白,其中有4株没有Vip3A蛋白的表达.从以上菌株中挑选2个对夜蛾科害虫具有较高和较低毒力的菌株,即S101和611,并分别进行vip3A基因的克隆和测序,再与GenBank上所登录的其它6个全长vip3A基因和2个已报道的但未登录GenBank的vip3A基因进行核苷酸和氨基酸序列比较,结果表明,vip3A是一个极其保守的基因.将以上所克隆的2个vip3A基因即vip3A-S101和 vip3A-611分别插入表达载体pQE30构建了表达质粒pOTP-S101和pOTP-611,转化到大肠杆菌M15,经1 mmol/L IPTG诱导后均表达89 kD大小的Vip3A蛋白.蛋白可溶性试验表明,Vip3A-S101和Vip3A-611分别有48%和35%的蛋白是可溶的.将Vip3A-S101和Vip3A-611蛋白和已报道的Vip3A-S184蛋白对初孵斜纹夜蛾 (Spodoptera litura) 幼虫进行生物测定,结果表明,3个Vip3A蛋白对斜纹夜蛾幼虫毒力没有显著性差异,这说明了Vip3A个别氨基酸的变化对蛋白的杀虫活性没有影响.

  12. Release of regulatory gut peptides somatostatin, neurotensin and vasoactive intestinal peptide by acid and hyperosmolal solutions in the intestine in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudholm, T; Wallin, B; Theodorsson, E; Näslund, E; Hellström, P M

    2009-01-08

    The impact of exposure of the intestinal mucosa to acid and hyperosmolal solutions on the release of the inhibitory gut peptides somatostatin (SOM), neurotensin (NT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was studied in conscious rats during pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion. The animals were equipped with a chronic gastric fistula to measure acid secretion and a jejunal Thiry-Vella loop for intestinal challenge with saline, hydrochloric acid (HCl, 200 mmol L(-1)) or hyperosmolal polyethylene glycol (PEG, 1200 mOsm kg(-1)). Gut peptide concentrations were measured in intestinal perfusates, and in plasma samples collected during stimulated acid secretion, and at the end of experiments with luminal challenge of the loops. After pentagastrin-stimulation acid secretion was dose-dependently inhibited by intravenous administration of the gastrin receptor antagonist gastrazole, as well as ranitidine and esomeprazole by maximally 73+/-10%; 95+/-3%; 90+/-10%, respectively. Acid perfusion of the Thiry-Vella loop caused a prominent release of SOM both to the lumen (from 7.2+/-5.0 to 1279+/-580 pmol L(-1)) and to the circulation (from 18+/-5.2 to 51+/-9.0 pmol L(-1)) simultaneously with an inhibition of gastric acid secretion. The release of NT and VIP was not affected to the same extent. PEG perfusion of the loop caused a release of SOM as well as NT and VIP, but less. Simultaneously acid secretion was slightly decreased. In conclusion, intestinal perfusion with acid or hyperosmolal solutions mainly releases SOM, which seems to exert a major inhibitory action in the gut, as shown by inhibition of acid secretion. The other peptides NT and VIP also participate in this action but to a much lesser degree. The operative pathways of these gut peptides hence involve both endocrine (SOM) and paracrine actions (SOM, NT, VIP) in order to exert inhibitory functions on the stomach. The inhibitory action of gastrazole, was in a similar range as that of SOM implying that

  13. In Vivo and In Vitro Binding of Vip3Aa to Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut and Characterization of Binding Sites by 125I Radiolabeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) have been recently introduced in important crops as a strategy to delay the emerging resistance to the existing Cry toxins. The mode of action of Vip3A proteins has been studied in Spodoptera frugiperda with the aim of characterizing their binding to the insect midgut. Immunofluorescence histological localization of Vip3Aa in the midgut of intoxicated larvae showed that Vip3Aa bound to the brush border membrane along the entire apical surface. The presence of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells seems to suggest internalization of Vip3Aa or a fragment of it. Successful radiolabeling and optimization of the binding protocol for the 125I-Vip3Aa to S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) allowed the determination of binding parameters of Vip3A proteins for the first time. Heterologous competition using Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af as competitor proteins showed that they share the same binding site with Vip3Aa. In contrast, when using Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac as competitors, no competitive binding was observed, which makes them appropriate candidates to be used in combination with Vip3A proteins in transgenic crops. PMID:25002420

  14. Increase of the Bacillus thuringiensis secreted toxicity against lepidopteron larvae by homologous expression of the vip3LB gene during sporulation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Jamoussi, Kaïs; Dabbeche, Emna; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-09-01

    The Vegetative insecticidal Vip3A proteins display a wide range of insecticidal spectrum against several agricultural insect pests. The fact that the expression of vip3 genes occurs only during the vegetative growth phase of Bacillus thuringiensis is a limiting factor in term of production level. Therefore, extending the synthesis of the Vip proteins to the sporulation phase is a good alternative to reach high levels of toxin synthesis. In this study, we have demonstrated that the maximal production of the secreted Vip3LB (also called Vip3Aa16) during the growth of the wild-type strain B. thuringiensis BUPM 95 is reached at the end of the vegetative growth phase, and that the protein remains relatively stable in the culture supernatant during the late sporulation stages. The vip3LB gene was cloned and expressed under the control of the sporulation dependant promoters BtI and BtII in B. thuringiensis BUPM 106 (Vip3(-)) and BUPM 95 (Vip3(+)) strains. The examination of the culture supernatants during the sporulation phase evidenced the synthesis of Vip3LB and its toxicity against the second-instars larvae of the Lepidopteron insect Spodoptera littoralis for the recombinant BUPM 106. Moreover, there was an increase of the Vip3LB synthesis level and an enhancement of the oral toxicity for the recombinant BUPM 95 resulting from the expression of the vip3LB gene during both the vegetative and sporulation phases and the relative stability of the Vip3LB protein.

  15. In vivo and in vitro binding of Vip3Aa to Spodoptera frugiperda midgut and characterization of binding sites by (125)I radiolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Ferré, Juan

    2014-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) have been recently introduced in important crops as a strategy to delay the emerging resistance to the existing Cry toxins. The mode of action of Vip3A proteins has been studied in Spodoptera frugiperda with the aim of characterizing their binding to the insect midgut. Immunofluorescence histological localization of Vip3Aa in the midgut of intoxicated larvae showed that Vip3Aa bound to the brush border membrane along the entire apical surface. The presence of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells seems to suggest internalization of Vip3Aa or a fragment of it. Successful radiolabeling and optimization of the binding protocol for the (125)I-Vip3Aa to S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) allowed the determination of binding parameters of Vip3A proteins for the first time. Heterologous competition using Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af as competitor proteins showed that they share the same binding site with Vip3Aa. In contrast, when using Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac as competitors, no competitive binding was observed, which makes them appropriate candidates to be used in combination with Vip3A proteins in transgenic crops.

  16. Distribution of Vasotocin- and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide-like Immunoreactivity in the Brain of Blue Tit (Cyanistes coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Monique Montagnese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Blue tits (Cyanistes coeruleus are songbirds, used as model animals in numerous studies covering a wide field of research. Nevertheless, the distribution of neuropeptides in the brain of this avian species remains largely unknown. Here we present some of the first results on distribution of Vasotocine (AVT and Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP in the brain of males and females of this songbird species, using immunohistochemistry mapping.The bulk of AVT-like cells are found in the hypothalamic supraoptic, paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and along the lateral forebrain bundle. Most AVT-like fibers course toward the median eminence, some reaching the arcopallium, and lateral septum. Further terminal fields occur in the dorsal thalamus, ventral tegmental area and pretectal area. Most VIP-like cells are in the lateral septal organ and arcuate nucleus. VIP-like fibers are distributed extensively in the hypothalamus, preoptic area, lateral septum, diagonal band of Broca. They are also found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, amygdaloid nucleus of taenia, robust nucleus of the arcopallium, caudo-ventral hyperpallium, nucleus accumbens and the brainstem. Taken together, these results suggest that both AVT and VIP immunoreactive structures show similar distribution to other avian species, emphasizing evolutionary conservatism in the history of vertebrates. The current study may enable future investigation into the localization of AVT and VIP, in relation to behavioral and ecological traits in the brain of tit species.

  17. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  18. Polycarbophil-cysteine conjugates as platforms for oral polypeptide delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernkop-Schnürch, A; Thaler, S C

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential of polycarbophil-cysteine conjugates as carrier systems for orally administered peptide and protein drugs. Mediated by a carbodiimide, cysteine was covalently attached to polycarbophil. The properties of resulting conjugates, displaying 35-50 microM thiol groups per gram of polymer, to bind polypeptides and to inhibit pancreatic proteases was evaluated in vitro. Results demonstrated that only some polypeptides are immobilized to the polycarbophil-cysteine conjugate. Due to the covalent attachment of cysteine to polycarbophil, the inhibitory effect of the polymer toward carboxypeptidase A (EC 3.4. 17.1) and carboxypeptidase B (EC 3.4.17.2) could be significantly (p polycarbophil could be improved by the covalent attachment of cysteine, the raised inhibitory effect seems to be based on the complexation of this divalent cation from the enzyme structure. Whereas the covalent attachment of cysteine on polycarbophil had no influence on the enzymatic activity of trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4) and elastase (EC 3.4.21. 36), the inhibitory effect of the polymer-cysteine conjugate toward chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1) was significantly (p polycarbophil-cysteine conjugates seem to be a promising tool in protecting orally administered therapeutic polypeptides, which are not bound to the polymer, from presystemic metabolism in the intestine.

  19. Detection and characterization of recombinant DNA expressing vip3A-type insecticidal gene in GMOs--standard single, multiplex and construct-specific PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Ojha, Abhishek; Bhatanagar, Raj K; Kachru, Devendra N

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip), a unique class of insecticidal protein, is now part of transgenic plants for conferring resistance against lepidopteron pests. In order to address the imminent regulatory need for detection and labeling of vip3A carrying genetically modified (GM) products, we have developed a standard single PCR and a multiplex PCR assay. As far as we are aware, this is the first report on PCR-based detection of a vip3A-type gene (vip-s) in transgenic cotton and tobacco. Our assay involves amplification of a 284-bp region of the vip-s gene. This assay can possibly detect as many as 20 natural wild-type isolates bearing a vip3A-like gene and two synthetic genes of vip3A in transgenic plants. The limit of detection as established by our assay for GM trait (vip-s) is 0.1%. Spiking with nontarget DNA originating from diverse plant sources had no inhibitory effect on vip-s detection. Since autoclaving of vip-s bearing GM leaf samples showed no deterioration/interference in detection efficacy, the assay seems to be suitable for processed food products as well. The vip-s amplicon identity was reconfirmed by restriction endonuclease assay. The primer set for vip-s was equally effective in a multiplex PCR assay format (duplex, triplex and quadruplex), used in conjunction with the primer sets for the npt-II selectable marker gene, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthetase terminator, enabling concurrent detection of the transgene, regulatory sequences and marker gene. Further, the entire transgene construct was amplified using the forward primer of the promoter and the reverse primer of the terminator. The resultant amplicon served as a template for nested PCR to confirm the construct integrity. The method is suitable for screening any vip3A-carrying GM plant and food. The availability of a reliable PCR assay method prior to commercial release of vip3A-based transgenic crops and food would facilitate rapid and efficient regulatory

  20. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda and S. exigua to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Bel, Yolanda; Caccia, Silvia; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The Vip3Aa protein is an insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. The activity of this protein has been tested after different steps/protocols of purification using Spodoptera frugiperda as a control insect. The results showed that the Vip3Aa protoxin was stable and retained full toxicity after being subjected to common biochemical steps used in protein purification. Bioassays with the protoxin in S. frugiperda and S. exigua showed pronounced differences in LC(50) values when mortality was measured at 7 vs. 10d. At 7d most live larvae were arrested in their development. LC(50) values of "functional mortality" (dead larvae plus larvae remaining in the first instar), measured at 7d, were similar or even lower than the LC(50) values of mortality at 10d. This strong growth inhibition was not observed when testing the trypsin-activated protein (62 kDa) in either species. S. exigua was less susceptible than S. frugiperda to the protoxin form, with LC(50) values around 10-fold higher. However, both species were equally susceptible to the trypsin-activated form. Processing of Vip3Aa protoxin to the activated form was faster with S. frugiperda midgut juice than with S. exigua midgut juice. The results strongly suggest that the differences in the rate of activation of the Vip3Aa protoxin between both species are the basis for the differences in susceptibility towards the protoxin form.

  1. Cloning, Expressing and Sequence Analysis of a Novel vip3Aa Gene%新vip3Aa基因的克隆、表达及其序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡峻; 滑东辉; 肖亮; 严冰; 陈月华

    2007-01-01

    克隆了Bt9816C的vip3A基因,并将测序结果提交到GenBank(序列号:AY945939).该基因是一个新的vip3Aa基因,Bt杀虫晶体蛋白命名委员会将其命名为vip3Aa18.在大肠杆菌BL21中表达了该基因,生物测定结果表明纯化的Vip3Aa18蛋白对棉铃虫和甜菜夜蛾具有很高的杀虫活性.序列分析结果显示Vip3Aa18 C端536至667位氨基酸残基间是一个糖类结合域,推测可能参与Vip3Aa18与敏感昆虫中肠受体结合;N端272至292位氨基酸残基间存在一个跨膜螺旋,可能与Vip3Aa18形成穿孔有关.此外,Vip3Aa18还可能具有一个二硫键.这些特殊区域和位点可能与其功能密切相关.

  2. Vip3Aa及Cry1Ac对棉铃虫幼虫多种酶活力的影响%Effects of Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac on enzyme activity in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 梁革梅; 高珍

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the activity of Vip3Aa and provide a theoretical basis for its application in the " New toxin strategy", the effects of Vip3Aa and CrylAc on protease, detoxification enzymes were and aminopeptidase N ( APN ) activity in larvae of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (H(ll)bner) were compared and the impacts of Cryl Ac + Vip3Aa on these enzymes were investigated. The lethality of Vip3Aa was lower than that of CrylAc, but Vip3Aa had an obvious inhibitory effect on larval development. Total protease and trypsin-like enzyme activity quickly increased in H. armigera fed an artificial diet containing either CrylAc or Vip3Aa or CrylAc + Vip3Aa. However, compared to the control, there was no significant difference in the activity of these two enzymes after 12 h of feeding on the Cryl Ac diet. While the period during which the activity of these two enzymes increased was clearly prolonged in larvae fed on diets containing Vip3Aa, that of the chymotrypsin-like enzyme was also higher than in the control. This indicates that the degradation rate of CrylAc was faster than that of Vip3Aa, and that the enzyme systems involved in degradation could be different. Meanwhile, the diet containing Cryl Ac and Vip3Aa together extended the degradation time. The activities of glutathione-5-transferase and a-naphthalene acetate esterase increased in H. armigera fed on a diet containing either Cryl Ac or Vip3Aa or CrylAc + Vip3Aa. This indicates that these enzymes may be involved in the detoxification of Vip3Aa and CrylAc. However, Vip3Aa and CrylAc had little effect on aminopeptidase N activities, suggesting that the toxieity of the latter has no relationship to APN enzyme activity.%为了明确Vip3Aa的作用机制,为其作为新毒素策略重要蛋白的应用提供理论依据,本文比较了Vip3Aa、Cry1Ac对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera(Hübner)主要蛋白酶、解毒酶、APN活性的影响,并研究了Vip3Aa和Cry1Ac共同使用对几种酶活力的作用.室内生测结果表明,Vip

  3. Caracterização do gene vip3A e toxicidade da proteína Vip3Aa50 à lagarta-do-cartucho e à lagarta-da-soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Soares Figueiredo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o gene vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis e verificar a toxicidade da proteína Vip3Aa50 a larvas da lagarta-do-cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda e da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis. O gene vip3A foi amplificado por PCR, com iniciadores específicos, e gerou um fragmento de 2.370 pb. Esse fragmento foi clonado em vetor pGEM-T Easy e, em seguida, sequenciado, subclonado em vetor de expressão pET-28a (+ e inserido em células de Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. A expressão da proteína Vip3Aa50 foi induzida por isopropil-β-D-1-tiogalactopiranosídeo (IPTG, visualizada em SDS-PAGE e detectada por "Western blot". Os ensaios de toxicidade revelaram alta atividade da proteína Vip3Aa50 contra as larvas neonatas da lagarta-da-soja e da lagarta-do-cartucho, com CL50 de 20,3 e 79,6 ng cm-2, respectivamente. O gene vip3Aa50 é um novo gene da classe vip3A.

  4. Tissue polypeptide antigen activity in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, F; Söletormos, Georg; Dombernowsky, P

    1991-01-01

    in the CSF and neurological clinical function. TPpA concentrations decreased in parallel with the clinical response and increased prior to CNS disease progression. As a marker for CNS metastases, the level of TPpA in the CSF in breast cancer patients appears to be superior to the level of protein, lactate......Tissue polypeptide antigen (TPpA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in 59 consecutive breast cancer patients with suspected central nervous system (CNS) metastases. Subsequently, we determined that 13 patients had parenchymal brain metastases, 10 had leptomeningeal carcinomatosis...

  5. Pulsed ELDOR in spin-labeled polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milov, Alexander D.; Maryasov, Alexander G.; Tsvetkov, Yuri D.; Raap, Jan

    1999-04-01

    The pulsed electron-electron double-resonance (PELDOR) technique was applied to obtain information about the structure of the synthetic polypeptide-biradical in a frozen glassy solution. From the concentration dependence of the PELDOR signal, the effects of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions were separated. It was found that the intramolecular dipole-dipole interactions in the biradical peptide led to the modulation effects in the PELDOR signal decay. This may be attributed to the existence of a conformational population having a distance between the two unpaired electrons of ˜20 Å with a distribution of (˜2 Å). Its fraction is estimated as about 25%.

  6. Caracterização do gene vip3A e toxicidade da proteína Vip3Aa50 à lagarta-do-cartucho e à lagarta-da-soja

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Soares Figueiredo; Suzana Cristina Marucci; Renata Izabel Dozzi Tezza; Manoel Victor Franco Lemos; Janete Apparecida Desidério

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar o gene vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis e verificar a toxicidade da proteína Vip3Aa50 a larvas da lagarta-do-cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda) e da lagarta-da-soja (Anticarsia gemmatalis). O gene vip3A foi amplificado por PCR, com iniciadores específicos, e gerou um fragmento de 2.370 pb. Esse fragmento foi clonado em vetor pGEM-T Easy e, em seguida, sequenciado, subclonado em vetor de expressão pET-28a (+) e inserido em células de Escherichia coli BL2...

  7. Brush border membrane binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A toxin to Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea midguts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyong; Miles, Paul; Chen, Jeng-Shong

    2006-01-27

    The binding properties of Vip3A, a new family of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins, have been examined in the major cotton pests, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa zea. Vip3A bound specifically to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) prepared from both insect larval midguts. In order to examine the cross-resistance potential of Vip3A to the commercially available Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 toxins, the membrane binding site relationship among these toxins was investigated. Competition binding assays demonstrated that Vip3A does not inhibit the binding of either Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab2 and vice versa. BBMV protein blotting experiments showed that Vip3A does not bind to the known Cry1Ac receptors. These distinct binding properties and the unique protein sequence of Vip3A support its use as a novel insecticidal agent. This study indicates a very low cross-resistance potential between Vip3A and currently deployed Cry toxins and hence supports its use in an effective resistance management strategy in cotton.

  8. Polypeptide having beta-glucosidase activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; De Jong, Rene Marcel; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  9. Molecular and insecticidal characterization of Vip3A protein producing Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Yadav, Radha; Malik, Abdul; Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath

    2016-02-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) represent the second generation of insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) during the vegetative growth stage of growth. Bt-based biopesticides are recognized as viable alternatives to chemical insecticides; the latter cause environmental pollution and lead to the emergence of pest resistance. To perform a systematic study of vip genes encoding toxic proteins, a total of 30 soil samples were collected from diverse locations of Kashmir valley, India, and characterized by molecular and analytical methods. Eighty-six colonies showing Bacillus-like morphology were selected. Scanning electron microscopy observations confirmed the presence of different crystal shapes, and PCR analysis of insecticidal genes revealed a predominance of the lepidopteran-specific vip3 (43.18%) gene followed by coleopteran-specific vip1 (22.72%) and vip2 (15.90%) genes in the isolates tested. Multi-alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that vip3 sequences were highly conserved, whereas vip1 and vip2 showed adequate differences in amino acid sequences compared with already reported sequences. Screening for toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera larvae was performed using partially purified soluble fractions containing Vip3A protein. The mortality levels observed ranged between 70% and 96.6% in the isolates. The LC50 values of 2 of the native isolates, JK37 and JK88, against H. armigera were found to be on par with that of Bt subsp. kurstaki HD1, suggesting that these isolates could be developed as effective biopesticides against H. armigera.

  10. Production of Polyclonal and Monoclonal Antibodies Against the Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3Aa16

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, D.; Sauer, A.; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, L.; Jaoua, S.; Dietrich, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. ...

  11. Phase transitions in polypeptides: analysis of energy fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    The helix random coil transition in alanine, valine, and leucine polypeptides consisting of 30 amino acids is studied in vacuo using the Langevin molecular dynamics approach. The influence of side chain radicals on internal energy and heat capacity of the polypeptides is discussed. The heat...... capacity of these polypeptides is calculated as a function of temperature using two different methods, namely, as the derivative of the energy with respect to temperature, and on the basis of energy fluctuations in the system. The convergence of the fluctuations based approach is analyzed as a function...... of simulation time. This study provides a comparison of methods for the description of structural transitions in polypeptides....

  12. Computer simulation of polypeptides in a confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Andrzej; Romiszowski, Piotr

    2007-02-01

    A coarse-grained model of polypeptide chains confined in a slit formed by two parallel impenetrable surfaces was studied. The chains were flexible heteropolymers (polypeptides) built of two kinds of united atoms-hydrophobic and hydrophilic. The positions of the united atoms were restricted to the vertices of a [310] lattice. The force field consisted of a rigorous excluded volume, a long-distance potential between a pair of amino-acid residues and a local preference for forming secondary structure (helices). The properties of the chains were studied at a wide range of temperatures from good to bad solvent conditions. Monte-Carlo simulations were carried out using the algorithm based on the chain's local changes of conformation and employing the Replica Exchange technique. The influence of the chain length, the distances between the confining surfaces, the temperature and the force field on the dimension and the structure of chains were studied. It was shown that the presence of the confinement chain complicates the process of the chain collapse to low-temperature structures. For some conditions, one can find a rapid decrease of chain size and a second transition indicated by the rapid decrease of the total energy of the system.

  13. Extracellular calmodulin: A polypeptide signal in plants?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙大业; 唐文强; 马力耕

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, calmodulin (CaM) was thought to be a multi-functional receptor for intracellular Ca2+ signals. But in the last ten years, it was found that CaM also exists and acts extracellularly in animal and plant cells to regulate many important physiological functions. Laboratory studies by the authors showed that extracellular CaM in plant cells can stimulate the proliferation of suspension cultured cell and protoplast; regulate pollen germination and pollen tube elongation,and stimulate the light-independent gene expression of Rubisco small subunit (rbcS). Furthermore,we defined the trans-membrane and intracellular signal transduction pathways for extracellular CaM by using a pollen system. The components in this pathway include heterotrimeric G-protein,phospholipase C, IP3, calcium signal and protein phosphorylation etc. Based on our findings, we suggest that extracellular CaM is a polypeptide signal in plants. This idea strongly argues against the traditional concept that there is no intercellular polypeptide signal in plants.

  14. The anti-inflammatory peptide stearyl-norleucine-VIP delays disease onset and extends survival in a rat model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Stéphanie; Schäfer, Sabrina; Dumont, Amélie O; Vergouts, Maxime; Gallo, Alessandro; Desmet, Nathalie; Deumens, Ronald; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has potent immune modulatory actions that may influence the course of neurodegenerative disorders associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we show the therapeutic benefits of a modified peptide agonist stearyl-norleucine-VIP (SNV) in a transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated superoxide dismutase 1, hSOD1(G93A)). When administered by systemic every-other-day intraperitoneal injections during a period of 80 days before disease, SNV delayed the onset of motor dysfunction by no less than three weeks, while survival was extended by nearly two months. SNV-treated rats showed reduced astro- and microgliosis in the lumbar ventral spinal cord and a significant degree of motor neuron preservation. Throughout the treatment, SNV promoted the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 as well as neurotrophic factors commonly considered as beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis management (glial derived neuroptrophic factor, insulin like growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor). The peptide nearly totally suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and repressed the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β, nitric oxide and of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α likely accounted for the observed down-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B that modulates the transcription of genes specifically involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sod1 and the glutamate transporter slc1a2). In line with this, levels of human superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA and protein were decreased by SNV treatment, while the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter-1 was promoted. Considering the large diversity of influences of this peptide on both clinical features of the disease and associated biochemical markers, we propose that SNV or related peptides may constitute promising candidates for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  15. Supporting student mental health nurses in clinical placement through virtual in-practice support (VIPS): Innovation uptake and the 'VIPS' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sally; Mushore, Manyara; Goddard, Linda

    2016-11-01

    The integration of technology in nurse education has become an essential element of academic practice. Yet innovation uptake between academic institutions across the four countries of the UK and their clinical practice partners has proved problematic, leading to a slow introduction of digitally enhanced teaching and learning innovations, particularly in the area of clinical decision making and leadership. The Virtual in Practice Support (VIPS) project involved two academic institutions working with the same mental health care service partner aiming to maximise student clinical placement learning. Student nurses in their final year of training were invited to take part in testing the viability of distance e-tutoring (via computer access to academic nurse lecturers) for facilitated critical reflection. An evaluation of the use of video linked conference sessions, set up for students to undertake a group based online (i.e. virtual) group tutorial is presented. All participants completed an evaluation data sheet using a five point Likert scale and free text evaluation feedback form completed at the end of each online tutorial session. Students were also invited to a focus group and all tutors were interviewed at the completion of the project. The VIPS project findings highlight; i) the importance of a clear project vision for innovation uptake ii) consequences of working with innovation champions and iii) how technology can be used to maximise student learning across geographical distance through online facilitated group critical discussion. VIPS' participants were able to articulate positive outcomes as a result of engaging in a multi-institutional project that capitalised on the richness of nursing clinical practice learning experience for both the students and the academics involved as innovation champions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporal phasing of locomotor activity, heart rate rhythmicity, and core body temperature is disrupted in VIP receptor 2-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Jens; Hsiung, Hansen M; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Neurons of the brain's biological clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) generate circadian rhythms of physiology (core body temperature, hormone secretion, locomotor activity, sleep/wake, and heart rate) with distinct temporal phasing when entrained by the light/dark (LD) cycle. The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypetide (VIP) and its receptor (VPAC2) are highly expressed in the SCN. Recent studies indicate that VIPergic signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of ongoing circadian rhythmicity by synchronizing SCN cells and by maintaining rhythmicity within individual neurons. To further increase the understanding of the role of VPAC2 signaling in circadian regulation, we implanted telemetric devices and simultaneously measured core body temperature, spontaneous activity, and heart rate in a strain of VPAC2-deficient mice and compared these observations with observations made from mice examined by wheel-running activity. The study demonstrates that VPAC2 signaling is necessary for a functional circadian clock driving locomotor activity, core body temperature, and heart rate rhythmicity, since VPAC2-deficient mice lose the rhythms in all three parameters when placed under constant conditions (of either light or darkness). Furthermore, although 24-h rhythms for three parameters are retained in VPAC2-deficient mice during the LD cycle, the temperature rhythm displays markedly altered time course and profile, rising earlier and peaking ∼4-6 h prior to that of wild-type mice. The use of telemetric devices to measure circadian locomotor activity, temperature, and heart rate, together with the classical determination of circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity, raises questions about how representative wheel-running activity may be of other behavioral parameters, especially when animals have altered circadian phenotype.

  17. Amélioration des activités insecticides des protéines Vip3 de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh SELLAMI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins were considered as a second generation of biopesticides. They are synthesized and secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase. Vip3 proteins, which are discovered in 1990, are of great interest for the control of Lepidopteran insects pests such as Agrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda. Many researches were conducted on the Vip3 proteins in order to enlarge their spectrum, improve their insecticidal activities and resolve the problems of resistance that appeared recently after the massive use of δ-endotoxins, considered as first generation of biopesticides. In this review, we tried to summarize research studies interested in the improvement of the insecticidal activities of Vip3 proteins.

  18. VIP and PACAP display different vasodilatory effects in rabbit coronary and cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tórur; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2003-01-01

    investigated using myographs, allowing isometric tension recordings. In order to evaluate the influence of steroid hormones, the rabbits were ovariectomized and randomized to treatment for 4 weeks with 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), Norethindrone Acetate (NETA), E(2)+NETA or placebo. Ring segments of the posterior...... cerebral artery, the right proximal coronary artery and the distal left coronary artery were examined. The highest concentrations of VIP/PACAP were observed in cerebral and coronary arteries: 5.0/5.7 and 2.8/3.5 pmol/g, respectively. The peptides were localized in nerve fibres innervating the arteries....... Both peptides produced dose-dependent vasodilatory responses in all vessels investigated. While the effects of PACAP were identical in cerebral and coronary arterial segments, the effects of VIP displayed significant differences (E(max), pI(2), Hill-slope). Treatment with sex steroids induced...

  19. Long-term estradiol treatment improves VIP-mediated vasodilation in atherosclerotic proximal coronary arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Larsen, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    arteries. Female ovariectomized homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were randomized to 16 weeks treatment with 17beta-estradiol or placebo. The diet was semisynthetic, thereby avoiding the influence of phytoestrogens. Artery ring segments were mounted for isometric tension recordings...... in myographs. Following precontraction, the dose-response relationships for VIP and PACAP were evaluated. Treatment with 17beta-estradiol significantly improved the maximum VIP-mediated vasodilation (E-max, percentage of precontraction) in proximal coronary arteries (45.8 +/- 9.6% vs. 24.1 +/- 3.7%, p ....05). In the same artery segment, 17β-estradiol induced a significant decrease in the relative ratio between the repeated contractile response to potassium 30 and 120 mM (100 +/- 7% vs. 132 +/- 11%, p arteries, there was a tendency to similar changes, but no statistical differences...

  20. Block co-polypeptide and hydrogels made thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de F.A.; Werten, M.W.T.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Eggink, G.

    2009-01-01

    Disclosed is a block co-polypeptide comprising at least two blocks T and at least one block S, with blocks T and S alternating, wherein each T independently denotes a Trimerizing Block being a polypeptide block capable of forming a thermoreversible collagen-like triple helix structure, and

  1. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  2. Smart systems related to polypeptide sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Franco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest for the application of polypeptide-based smart systems in the biomedical field has developed due to the advantages given by the peptidic sequence. This is due to characteristics of these systems, which include: biocompatibility, potential control of degradation, capability to provide a rich repertoire of biologically specific interactions, feasibility to self-assemble, possibility to combine different functionalities, and capability to give an environmentally responsive behavior. Recently, applications concerning the development of these systems are receiving greater attention since a targeted and programmable release of drugs (e.g. anti-cancer agents can be achieved. Block copolymers are discussed due to their capability to render differently assembled architectures. Hybrid systems based on silica nanoparticles are also discussed. In both cases, the selected systems must be able to undergo fast changes in properties like solubility, shape, and dissociation or swelling capabilities. This review is structured in different chapters which explain the most recent advances on smart systems depending on the stimuli to which they are sensitive. Amphiphilic block copolymers based on polyanionic or polycationic peptides are, for example, typically employed for obtaining pH-responsive systems. Elastin-like polypeptides are usually used as thermoresponsive polymers, but performance can be increased by using techniques which utilize layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly. This approach offers a great potential to create multilayered systems, including nanocapsules, with different functionality. Recent strategies developed to get redox-, magnetic-, ultrasound-, enzyme-, light- and electric-responsive systems are extensively discussed. Finally, some indications concerning the possibilities of multi-responsive systems are discussed.

  3. VIP visit to CERN P5 CMS of Pakistan Science Members

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2012-01-01

    VIP visit to CERN P5 CMS of PAEC & JCPC Science Members List of PAEC Visitors: Dr. Badar Suleman - Member Science PAEC & Member of JCPC Dr. Waqar M. Butt - Member Engineering (Head of HMC3) Dr. Maqsood Ahmad - Chief Scientist (Head of Accelerator Project) List of CMS participants: Prof. Joseph Incandela, CMS Spokesperson Dr. Austin Ball, CMS Technical Coordinator Mr Andrzej Charkiewicz, CMS Resources Manager Dr. Michael Hoch, CMS Outreach activities, CMS photographer and guide Dr. Achille Petrilli, CMS Team Leader

  4. Nucleic acids encoding antifungal polypeptides and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altier, Daniel J.; Ellanskaya, I. A.; Gilliam, Jacob T.; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Presnail, James K; Schepers, Eric; Simmons, Carl R.; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

    2010-11-02

    Compositions and methods for protecting a plant from a pathogen, particularly a fungal pathogen, are provided. Compositions include an amino acid sequence, and variants and fragments thereof, for an antipathogenic polypeptide that was isolated from a fungal fermentation broth. Nucleic acid molecules that encode the antipathogenic polypeptides of the invention, and antipathogenic domains thereof, are also provided. A method for inducing pathogen resistance in a plant using the nucleotide sequences disclosed herein is further provided. The method comprises introducing into a plant an expression cassette comprising a promoter operably linked to a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention. Compositions comprising an antipathogenic polypeptide or a transformed microorganism comprising a nucleic acid of the invention in combination with a carrier and methods of using these compositions to protect a plant from a pathogen are further provided. Transformed plants, plant cells, seeds, and microorganisms comprising a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention are also disclosed.

  5. Screening, diversity and partial sequence comparison of vegetative insecticidal protein (vip3A) genes in the local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, R; Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Characterization, direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon and phylogenetic relationship was done to discover a novel Vip protein genes of the Bt isolates, to improve the prospects for insect control, more Vip proteins should be sought out and researched to predict their insecticidal activity. Characterization was based on direct sequencing of PCR amplicon using primers specific to vip3A gene was presented here. 12 out of 18 isolates screened were positive for vip gene-specific primers. Homology search for the partial sequences using BLAST showed that 11 isolates had high similarity to vip3Aa gene and only one fragment with vip3Ae gene (25-100% at nucleotide and amino acid level). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene sequences were responsible for geographic separation for divergence within vip genes, consistent with the evaluation of distinct bacterial population. Despite the geographical distances, strains harbouring vip genes have originated from common ancestors may significantly contribute to control resistant insect pests. Some strains have evolved to be quite distinct and others remain as members of closely related groups. The reported method is a powerful tool to find novel Vip3A proteins from large-scale Bt strains which is effective in terms of time and cost. Further the Vip proteins produced by different strains of B. thuringiensis are unique in terms of the sequence divergence and hence may also differ in their insecticidal activities.

  6. Effect of temperature on the fitness of a Vip3A resistant population of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Asim; Pickett, Brian; Sayyed, Ali H; Wright, Denis J

    2012-06-01

    Microbial insecticides derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have become increasingly important for pest management. In addition to crystal (Cry) insecticidal protein toxins formed during sporulation, vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) toxins can be produced during the vegetative phase. Resistance to Cry toxins has been reported in laboratory- and field-selected populations of various Lepidoptera species and several studies have identified fitness costs associated with Cry toxin resistance. Here, fitness costs are examined in the first insect population to be reported with resistance to a Vip toxin, a laboratory-selected Vip3A-resistant subpopulation of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (L.) (Vip-Sel). The Vip-Sel population showed reduced survival to adult eclosion compared with an unselected subpopulation at all test temperatures, including the culture temperature (25 degrees C). Vip3A resistance was also associated with reduced egg viability and mating success and a lower intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) at temperatures below (20 degrees C) and above (30 degrees C) the optimal laboratory culture temperature. The latter findings agree with previous studies, that fitness costs associated with resistance are usually greater under stressful conditions. Such data can help predict the impact of fitness costs on the rate of development of resistance in the field and in the development of resistance management strategies that more fully exploit fitness costs.

  7. Sub-lethal effects of Vip3A toxin on survival, development and fecundity of Heliothis virescens and Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulzar, Asim; Wright, Denis J

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of sub-lethal effects is important to interpret the overall insecticide efficacy in controlling insect pest populations. In addition to the lethal effect, sub-lethal effects may also occur in exposed insects. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) have shown a broad spectrum of insecticidal activity against many insect pest species. In this study the sub-lethal effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal toxin Vip3A on the development and reproduction of Heliothis virescens F. and Plutella xylostella L. were evaluated in the laboratory. The results indicated that the sub-lethal concentration of Vip3A increased the duration of the larval and pupal stages as compared with the control treatment for both species. The percent pupation and percent adult emergence were significantly lower for Vip3A-treated insects. The proportion of pairs that produced eggs and the longevity of adults were not significantly different between treatments. H. virescens and P. xylostella treated with Vip3A showed an 11 and 17 % decrease in their intrinsic rate of increase (rm) respectively compared with untreated insects. The results from this study will be helpful to develop the strategy to incorporate Vip 3A containing crops in an integrated pest management programme.

  8. [Cloning and expression product of vip3A gene from Bacillus thuringiensis and analysis of inseceicidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Wu; Tang, Li-Xia; Tang, Mu-Jin; Shi, Yong-Xia; Pang, Yi

    2002-11-01

    The vip3 A gene in a size of 2.3 kb amplified from wild-type Bacillus thuringiensis strain S184 by PCR was cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and its sequence was analysized by DNASTAR. The plasmid pOTP was constructed by inserting vip3A-S184 gene into the expression vector pQE30 and then was transformed into E. coli M15. E. coli M15 cells harbouring the plasmid pOTP were induced with 1 mmol/L IPTG to express 89 kD protein which was confirmed to be Vip3A-S184 by Western blot. Experiments showed that about 19% of Vip3A-S184 proteins were soluble, and others were insoluble proteins and formed inclusion bodies observed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM). The target protein was purified under the native condition and the polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbits. The polyclonal antibody was used to detect Vip3A proteins expressed in Bacillus thuringiensis. Bioassay showed that Vip3A-S184 showed a high toxicity against 3 tested insect larvae including Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera.

  9. Production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Sauer, Annette Juliane; Abdelkafi-Mesrati, Lobna; Jaoua, Samir; Stephan, Dietrich

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a quantitative determination of the vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A from the culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis either by ELISA or by the conventional quantification method of the Western blot band. The Vip3A protein was produced by fermentation of the B. thuringiensis reference strain BUPM95 in 3 L. By Western blot, the Vip3Aa16 toxin was detected in the culture supernatant during the exponential growth phase of B. thuringiensis BUPM95. However, the detection of Vip3Aa16 on Western blot showed in addition to the toxin two other strips (62 and 180 kDa) recognized by the anti-Vip3Aa16 polyclonal antibodies prepared at the Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax Tunisia. For that reason and in order to develop a technique for reliable quantification of the toxin, we have considered the production of polyclonal antibodies at the Julius Kühn Institute, Germany. These antibodies were the basis for the production of monoclonal antibodies directed against the protein produced by the Vip3Aa16 recombinant strain Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). These monoclonal antibodies were tested by plate-trapped antigen (PTA) and triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The selection of hybridoma supernatants gave us four positive clones producing monoclonal antibodies.

  10. Underground test of quantum mechanics - the VIP2 experiment arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Marton, Johann; Bassi, A.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; Donadi, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pichler, A.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    We are experimentally investigating possible violations of standard quantum mechanics predictions in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. We test with high precision the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the collapse of the wave function (collapse models). We present our method of searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) for electrons, through the search for anomalous X-ray transitions in copper atoms, produced by fresh electrons (brought inside the copper bar by circulating current) which can have the probability to undergo Pauli-forbidden transition to the 1 s level already occupied by two electrons and we describe the VIP2 (VIolation of PEP) experiment under data taking at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. In this paper the new VIP2 setup installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory will be presented. The goal of VIP2 is to test the PEP for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to a limit in the probability that PEP is violated at the level of...

  11. VIP 2: Experimental tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; D`Uffizi, A; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Marton, J; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez-Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    Many experiments investigated the violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) since its discovery in 1925. The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli Principle) experiment tested the PEP by measuring the probability for an external electron to be captured and undergo a 2p to 1s transition during its cascading process, where the 1s state is already occupied by two electrons. This transition is forbidden by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. The VIP experiment resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the probability of the violation of the PEP of 4.7 x 10^{-29}. Currently a setup for the follow-up experiment VIP 2 is under preparation. The goal of this experiment is to improve the upper limit for the violation of the PEP by two orders of magnitude, by different improvements like enhanced energy resolution of the X-ray detectors and by implementing an active shielding. Here we report currently ongoing performance tests of the new parts of the setup.

  12. The ViP2P Platform: XML Views in P2P

    CERN Document Server

    Karanasos, Konstantinos; Manolescu, Ioana; Zoupanos, Spyros

    2011-01-01

    The growing volumes of XML data sources on the Web or produced by enterprises, organizations etc. raise many performance challenges for data management applications. In this work, we are concerned with the distributed, peer-to-peer management of large corpora of XML documents, based on distributed hash table (or DHT, in short) overlay networks. We present ViP2P (standing for Views in Peer-to-Peer), a distributed platform for sharing XML documents based on a structured P2P network infrastructure (DHT). At the core of ViP2P stand distributed materialized XML views, defined by arbitrary XML queries, filled in with data published anywhere in the network, and exploited to efficiently answer queries issued by any network peer. ViP2P allows user queries to be evaluated over XML documents published by peers in two modes. First, a long-running subscription mode, when a query can be registered in the system and receive answers incrementally when and if published data matches the query. Second, queries can also be asked...

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis营养期杀虫蛋白Vip3与其转基因植物研究进展%Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Protein Vip3 at Nutrient Stage and Research Progress of Its Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张安红; 罗晓丽; 肖娟丽; 王志安; 吴家和

    2012-01-01

    苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)是目前应用最多的生物杀虫剂.它能够产生多种杀虫因子,其中,最主要的是杀虫晶体蛋白(Insecticidal Crystal Proteins,ICPs)和营养期杀虫蛋白(Vegetative insecticidal protein,Vip).当前,大部分商业化利用的转基因作物均为杀虫晶体蛋白类,随着这些转基因作物种植面积的扩大,害虫对这些较为单一的杀虫蛋白产生抗性已成为一个严峻的问题.Vip3是Vip杀虫蛋白中的一类,不形成蛋白晶体,和ICPs在进化上没有同源性;其对鳞翅目、鞘翅目和同翅目等害虫具有毒杀作用,抗虫谱较广.目前,已经把Vip3基因导入了水稻、玉米和棉花等多种作物中,为作物抗虫育种、延缓害虫产生抗性和减少作物产量损失等带来新的前景.%Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt)is a bacteria that the most widely used as biological insecticides. It could produce several insecticidal factors, including Insecticidal Crystal Proteins(ICPs), and Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip). Most of the insecticidal proteins in current commercial transgenic crops are ICPs. As the transgenic crop area is expanding, the resistance of insect pests to the ICPs has become a serious problem. Vip3. A type of Vip, does not form protein crystals, and shares no sequence homology with the ICPs. Vip3 exhibits a broader insecticidal spectrum,including Lepidopteran, Coleopteran and Homopteran insects. At present, the genetically modified crops with Vip3 gene, such as rice, corn and cotton, have been developed. When the transgenic crops with Vip3 are commercially available, Vip3 would play a vital role in crop insect-resistance breeding, resistance delay of insect to ICPs and reduce crop yield loss.

  14. Nitric oxide and vasoactive intestinal peptide as co-transmitters of airway smooth-muscle relaxation: analysis in neuronal nitric oxide synthase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, Nadia A; Foda, Hussein D; Said, Sami I

    2003-09-01

    Both vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide (NO) relax airway smooth muscle and are potential co-transmitters of neurogenic airway relaxation. The availability of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) knockout mice (nNOS-/-) provides a unique opportunity for evaluating NO. To evaluate the relative importance of NO, especially that generated by nNOS, and VIP as transmitters of the inhibitory nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) system. In this study, we compared the neurogenic (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) NANC relaxation of tracheal segments from nNOS-/- mice and control wild-type mice (nNOS(+/+)), induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS). We also examined the tracheal contractile response to methacholine and its relaxant response to VIP. EFS (at 60 V for 2 ms, at 10, 15, or 20 Hz) dose-dependently reduced tracheal tension, and the relaxations were consistently smaller (approximately 40%) in trachea from nNOS-/- mice than from control wild-type mice (p 0.05). Our data suggest that, in mouse trachea, NO is probably responsible for mediating a large (approximately 60%) component of neurogenic NANC relaxation, and a similar (approximately 50%) component of the relaxant effect of VIP. The results imply that NO contributes significantly to neurogenic relaxation of mouse airway smooth muscle, whether due to neurogenic stimulation or to the neuropeptide VIP.

  15. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a promising agent for myopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ayse Idil; Basmak, Hikmet; Gursoy, Huseyin; Ozkurt, Mete; Yildirim, Nilgun; Erkasap, Nilufer; Bilgec, Mustafa Deger; Tuncel, Nese; Colak, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in form-deprivation myopia (FDM). METHODS FDM was created in three groups of eight chicks by placing a translucent diffuser on their right eyes. Intravitreal injections of saline and VIP were applied once a day into the occluded eyes of groups 2 and 3, respectively. Retinoscopy and axial length (AL) measurements were performed on the first and 8th days of diffuser wear. The retina mRNA levels of the VIP receptors and the ZENK protein in right eyes of the three groups and left eyes of the first group on day 8 were determined using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS The median final refraction (D) in right eyes were -13.75 (-16.00, -12.00), -11.50 (-12.50, -7.50), and -1.50 (-4.75, -0.75) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.001). The median AL (mm) in right eyes were 10.65 (10.00, 11.10), 9.90 (9.70, 10.00), and 9.20 (9.15, 9.25) in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<0.001). The median delta-delta cycle threshold (CT) values for the VIP2 receptors were 1.07 (0.82, 1.43), 1.22 (0.98, 1.65), 0.29 (0.22, 0.45) in right eyes of groups 1, 2, and 3, and 1.18 (0.90, 1.37) in left eyes of group 1, respectively (P=0.001). The median delta-delta CT values for the ZENK protein were 1.07 (0.63, 5.03), 3.55 (2.20, 5.55), undetectable in right eyes of groups 1, 2, and 3 and 1.89 (0.21, 4.73) in left eyes of group 1, respectively (P=0.001). CONCLUSION VIP has potential inhibitory effects in the development of FDM.

  16. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP is selectively decreased in the roux-limb of dietary obese mice after RYGB surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiang Zhou

    Full Text Available Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide is expressed by intestinal K cells to regulate glucose-induced insulin secretion. The impact of Roux-en Y bypass (RYGB surgery on blood GIP is highly contraversial. This study was conducted to address the mechanism of controversy. GIP mRNA was examined in the intestine, and serum GIP was determined using Luminex and ELISA in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. The assays were conducted in RYGB mice in fasting and fed conditions. Food preference, weight loss and insulin sensitivity were monitored in RYGB mice. In DIO mice, GIP mRNA was increased by 80% in all sections of the small intestine over the lean control. The increase was observed in both fasting and fed conditions. After RYGB surgery, the food-induced GIP expression was selectively reduced in the Roux-limb, but not in the biliopancreatic and common limbs of intestine in fed condition. Lack of stimulation by glucose or cholesterol contributed to the reduction. Jejunal mucosa of Roux-limb exhibited hypertrophy, but villous surface was decreased by the undigested food. Serum GIP (total was significantly higher in the fasting condition, but not in the fed condition due to attenuated GIP response to food intake in RYGB mice. The GIP alteration was associated with chow diet preference, sustained weight loss and insulin sensitization in RYGB mice. RYGB increased serum GIP in the fasting, but not in the fed conditions. The loss of food-induced GIP response in Roux-limb of intestine likely contributes to the attenuated serum GIP response to feeding.

  17. The mode of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3A differs from that of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Kyong; Walters, Frederick S; Hart, Hope; Palekar, Narendra; Chen, Jeng-Shong

    2003-08-01

    The Vip3A protein, secreted by Bacillus spp. during the vegetative stage of growth, represents a new family of insecticidal proteins. In our investigation of the mode of action of Vip3A, the 88-kDa Vip3A full-length toxin (Vip3A-F) was proteolytically activated to an approximately 62-kDa core toxin either by trypsin (Vip3A-T) or lepidopteran gut juice extracts (Vip3A-G). Biotinylated Vip3A-G demonstrated competitive binding to lepidopteran midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Furthermore, in ligand blotting experiments with BBMV from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Linnaeus), activated Cry1Ab bound to 120-kDa aminopeptidase N (APN)-like and 250-kDa cadherin-like molecules, whereas Vip3A-G bound to 80-kDa and 100-kDa molecules which are distinct from the known Cry1Ab receptors. In addition, separate blotting experiments with Vip3A-G did not show binding to isolated Cry1A receptors, such as M. sexta APN protein, or a cadherin Cry1Ab ecto-binding domain. In voltage clamping assays with dissected midgut from the susceptible insect, M. sexta, Vip3A-G clearly formed pores, whereas Vip3A-F was incapable of pore formation. In the same assay, Vip3A-G was incapable of forming pores with larvae of the nonsusceptible insect, monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus). In planar lipid bilayers, both Vip3A-G and Vip3A-T formed stable ion channels in the absence of any receptors, supporting pore formation as an inherent property of Vip3A. Both Cry1Ab and Vip3A channels were voltage independent and highly cation selective; however, they differed considerably in their principal conductance state and cation specificity. The mode of action of Vip3A supports its use as a novel insecticidal agent.

  18. Intestinal Coccidia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Ggaravi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal Coccidia are a subclass of Apicomplexa phylum. Eucoccidida are facultative heteroxenous, but some of them are monoxenous. They have sexual and asexual life cycle. Some coccidia are human pathogens, for example: Cryptosporidium: Cryptosporidiums has many species that are mammalian intestinal parasites.C. Parvum specie is a human pathogenic protozoa. Cryptosporidum has circle or ellipse shapes and nearly 4-6 mm. It is transmitted in warm seasons. Oocyst is obtained insexual life cycle that has 20% thin layer and 80% thick layer. Oocyst with thick layer is able to live a long time in nature. They are the third or forth of gastroentritis disease that have digestive disorder like anorexia, nausea, persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption and leanness. The disease forms choronic and acute stages and it is able to kill the immunodeficiency cases. Sometimes it has HIV symptoms similar to pneumonia and respiratory track infection. Laboratory diagnosis is based on Oocyst finding in stool exam and that shitter floatation and Cr (KOH2 are the best methods. Modified zyh-lnelson and fleocroum are the best staining methods too. This parasite is transmitted by zoonotic and Antroponotic origin. Molecular studies have shown two Genotypes (I&II. Genotype I is aquatic and II is zoonotic. The prevalence rate is 3% in infants and 10% in calves. Cyclospora: This parasite is novel and is bigger than cryptosporidium.It isn't known a clear life cycle but is transmitted by water, vegetables and fruits as raspberries. and mulberries. Human is a specific host. When a parasite is in the intestine it causes inflammatory reaction in Entrocyte.The patient shows watery diarrhoea with nausea, vomitting, pain, Stomach cramp, anorexia, malabsorption and cachexia. The disease period is 3 monthes in immunodeficiency cases but it is selflimited in normal cases. Autofluorescence characteristic is differential diagnosis, prevalence rate of disease is unknown. Isospora: This

  19. Expression of neuropeptides and their receptors in the developing retina of mammals

    OpenAIRE

    bagnoli, P; M. Dal Monte; Casini, G.

    2003-01-01

    The present review examines various aspects of the developmental expression of neuropeptides and of their receptors in mammalian retinas, emphasizing their possible roles in retinal maturation. Different peptidergic systems have been investigated with some detail during retinal development, including substance P (SP), somatostatin (SRIF), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), neuropeptide Y (NPY...

  20. Laser enhanced hydrolysis of selected polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzts, Mary Paige

    This project serves as a preliminary examination of selectively enhancing bond cleavage during chemical reactions in biological molecules by using continuous wave infrared lasers. To analyze protein content, polypeptides are broken into their constituent amino acids through hydrolysis. The cleaving of the peptide bond has traditionally been accomplished under harsh conditions, 110°C in 6 N hydrochloric acid for 24 hours. In this project hydrolysis was strongly enhanced by irradiating the dipeptides, threonyl-aspartate and alanyl-alanine, for 30 minutes with coherent infrared radiation from a tunable carbon dioxide laser. The dipeptide tyrosyl-tyrosine, the chemical N- methylacetimide, and the protein BSA were successfully hydrolyzed with the laser. The effect of reaction parameters such as laser power and HCl concentration were studied, as well as the effect of the primary parameter, the beam wavelength. The samples were analyzed using standard biological methods for determining the amino acid concentration, thin layer chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. These methods gave consistent results for the irradiated samples as well as for standard amino acids and polypeptide samples. The results from these methods were used to create the hydrolysis spectra. The catalytic action of the laser was strongly wavelength dependent. The hydrolysis spectra of the molecules were compared to the absorption spectra of the samples. Laser enhanced hydrolysis occurred when the laser wavelength coincided with a line in the dipeptide spectra. This weak line in each of the dipeptide spectra is consistent both in position and strength with a line in NMA, which has been identified as a fundamental mode associated with the peptide bond. From the experimental results, the enhanced process appears to occur in the vapor phase. The initially liquid sample was progressively evaporated, and fully hydrolyzed material was carried to a collection trap by the vapor. It can, in principle

  1. Intestinal myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intestinal myiasis is a condition when the fly larvae inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are passed out in faeces. This type of infestation results when eggs or larvae of the fly, deposited on food are inadvertently taken by man. They survive the unfavourable conditions within the gastrointestinal tract and produce disturbances, which may vary from mild to severe. The condition is not uncommon and is often misdiagnosed as pinworm infestation. Correct diagnosis by the clinical microbiologist is important to avoid unnecessary treatment. Materials and Methods: We had 7 cases of intestinal myiasis. In 2 cases the larvae were reared to adult fly in modified meat and sand medium (developed by Udgaonkar. This medium is simple and can be easily prepared in the laboratory. Results: Of the 7 larvae, 5 were Sarcophaga haemorrhoidalis, 1 Megaselia species and 1 was identified as Muscina stabulans. Conclusions: S. haemorrhoidalis was the commonest maggot involved. A high index of suspicion is required for clinical diagnosis when the patient complains of passing wriggling worms in faeces for a long period without any response to antihelminthics. The reason for long duration of illness and recurrence of infestation is baffling. The nearest to cure was colonic wash. We feel prevention is of utmost importance, which is to avoid eating food articles with easy access to flies.

  2. Study of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 histopathological effects and determination of its putative binding proteins in the midgut of Spodoptera littoralis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Dammak-Karray, Mariam; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim

    2011-01-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces, at the vegetative stage of its growth, Vip3A proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. The Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3Aa16 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strain BUPM95. The midgut histopathology of Vip3Aa fed larvae showed vacuolization of the cytoplasm, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apic...

  3. Translation regulation via nascent polypeptide-mediated ribosome stalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel N; Arenz, Stefan; Beckmann, Roland

    2016-04-01

    As the nascent polypeptide chain is being synthesized, it passes through a tunnel within the large ribosomal subunit. Interaction between the nascent polypeptide chain and the ribosomal tunnel can modulate the translation rate and induce translational stalling to regulate gene expression. In this article, we highlight recent structural insights into how the nascent polypeptide chain, either alone or in cooperation with co-factors, can interact with components of the ribosomal tunnel to regulate translation via inactivating the peptidyltransferase center of the ribosome and inducing ribosome stalling.

  4. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-02-05

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2]cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  5. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-11-19

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  6. Vip3Aa tolerance response of Helicoverpa armigera populations from a Cry1Ac cotton planting region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingjie; Gao, Yulin; Wu, Kongming; Gould, Fred; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lei, Chaoliang

    2010-12-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin, holds great promise in controlling target insect pests. Evolution of resistance by target pests is the primary threat to the continued efficacy of Bt cotton. To thwart pest resistance evolution, a transgenic cotton culitvar that produces two different Bt toxins, cry1Ac and vip3A genes, was proposed as a successor of cry1Ac cotton. This article reports on levels of Vip3Aa tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations from the Cry1Ac cotton planting region in China based on bioassays of the F1 generation of isofemale lines. In total, 80 isofemale families of H. armigera from Xiajin county of Shandong Province (an intensive Bt cotton planting area) and 93 families from Anci county of Hebei Province (a multiple-crop system including corn [Zea mays L.] , soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and Bt cotton) were screened with a discriminating concentration of both Cry1Ac- and Vip3A-containing diets in 2009. From data on the relative average development rates and percentage of larval weight inhibition of F1 full-sib families tested simultaneously on Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa, results indicate that responses to Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa were not genetically correlated in field population ofH. armigera. This indicates that the threat of cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Vip3A is low in field populations of H. armigera. Thus, the introduction of Vip3Aa/Cry1Ac-producing lines could delay resistance evolution in H. armigera in Bt cotton planting area of China.

  7. Vacuum Insulation Panels - Study on VIP-components and panels for service life prediction of VIP in building applications (Subtask A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.; Brunner, S. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Duebendorf (Switzerland); Heinemann, U.; Schwab, H. [Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (ZAE Bayern), Garching (Germany); Kumaran, K.; Mukhopadhyaya, P. [National Research Council, Institute for Research in Construction (NRC-IRC), Ottawa (Canada); Quenard, D.; Sallee, H. [Scientific and Technical Centre for Construction (CSTB), Marne la Vallee (France); Noller, K.; Kuecuekpinar-Niarchos, E.; Stramm, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging (IVV), Freising (Germany); Tenpierik, M.; Cauberg, H. [Technical University of Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Erb, M. [Dr. Eicher und Pauli AG (Switzerland)

    2005-09-15

    This comprehensive paper takes a look at the properties of vacuum insulation panels (VIP) and was presented as a contribution to the IEA's ECBCS (Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems) Annex 39. The various institutions in Switzerland, Germany, Canada, France, Sweden and the Netherlands participating in the task and their activities are listed. The paper describes the concept of vacuum insulation for buildings and examines the physics involved and core materials that can be used. The physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the core materials are examined and the requirements placed on the envelope of the panels are looked at. Tests made on materials as well as on the complete vacuum insulation panels are described in detail. The results obtained are presented and reviewed. Service-life and quality assurance aspects are also discussed. A comprehensive appendix completes the report.

  8. Cloning and Expression for Novel vip3Aa Gene and Its Bioassay%新型vip3Aa基因的克隆与杀虫活性的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世源; 李海涛; 张春鸽; 高继国

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide more gene resources for biological control, identify vip3 gene-types of 100 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates collected from Heilongjiang Province by PCR, perform cloning, expression and bioassay of vip3 gene for cry gene reserves. Identification used universal primer of vip3 gene, perform cloning, expression and bioassay of full-length gene. The results showed that, LB73 containsed vip3Aa gene. The gene full-length sequence was 2370 bp, coding 789 amino acid residues, MW 88 kD. Registered in GenBank with accession number JQ228436 and was designated vip3Aa46 by International Nomenclature Committee of Bacillus thuringiensis. LC50 of vip3Aa46 against Spodoptera exigua was 4.02 μg/g; LC50 of vip3Aa46 against Helicoverpa armigera was 387.72 μg/g. The results of bioassay showed soluble protein of vip3Aa46 had high activities for Spodoptera exigua and certain activities for Helicoverpa armigera.%为了给生物防治提供更多的基因资源,以从黑龙江省分离的100株苏云金芽胞杆菌进行PCRvip3类基因鉴定,对vip3类基因进行克隆表达及生物活性测定,为vip基因储备奠定基础.利用vip3类通用引物进行基因鉴定并进行全长基因克隆表达和生物活性测定.结果表明,菌株LB73经Blast对比后发现含有vip3Aa类基因,克隆基因全长序列为2370 bp,编码789个氨基酸残基,分子量为88kD,并在国际基因库GenBank中登记,其登录号为JQ228436,由Btδ-内毒素基因国际命名委员会正式命名为vip3Aa46.构建原核表达系统,并进行杀虫活性的测定.vip3Aa46甜菜夜蛾LC504.02 μg/g,棉铃虫LC50 387.72 μg/g.生测结果表明,vip3Aa46表达的可溶性蛋白对甜菜夜蛾幼虫具有高毒力;对棉铃虫幼虫具有一定毒力.

  9. Mechanisms of stability of electrospun polypeptide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitnik, Alina; Khadka, Dhan; Cross, Michael; Le, Nicole; Haynie, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Electrospun nano- and microfibers made of biodegradable and absorbable polymers are of great interest in biomedical engineering for tissue engineering, wound healing and other purposes. We have investigated physical properties of fibers made of the synthetic organic polymer co-poly(L-glutamic acid4, L-tyrosine1) (PLEY). This water-soluble polypeptide has a net negative charge at neutral pH. Dehydrated fibers are crosslinked with a diimide reagent dissolved in ethanol, giving a maximum average number of crosslinks of 1 per polymer molecule. Fiber integrity has been assessed in an aqueous medium at pH 2, 7 and 12, before and after crosslinking. Non-crosslinked fibers dissolved rapidly at all pH values, on a timescale of seconds to minutes. Crosslinked fibers dissolved completely at pH 12, but not at pH 2 or pH 7, the rate depending on the concentration of crosslinking reagent and therefore the density of crosslinks. Dissolution at pH 12 is attributable to ionization of the tyrosine side chain, which has a nominal pKa of 10.4, an increase in electrostatic repulsion between side chains and the migration of counterions into the fiber. Fibers crosslinked in 50 mM EDC buckled on a timescale of minutes at pH 12 and dissolved shortly thereafter. Funding provided by the National Science Foundation

  10. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  11. Toxicity and binding analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Vip3A in Cry1Ac-resistant and-susceptible strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Li-zhen; LU Qiong; ZHANG Yan; LIANG Ge-mei

    2015-01-01

    The Bacil us thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A, represents a new family of Bt toxin and is currently ap-plied to commercial transgenic cotton. To determine whether the Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera is cross-resistant to Vip3Aa protein, insecticidal activities, proteolytic activations and binding properties of Vip3Aa toxin were investigated using Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) and Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera strain (Cry1Ac-R). The toxicity of Vip3Aa in Cry1Ac-R slightly reduced compared with 96S, the resistance ratio was only 1.7-fold. The digestion rate of ful-length Vip3Aa by gut juice extracts from 96S was little faster than that from Cry1Ac-R. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed there was no signiifcant difference between the binding afifnity of Vip3Aa and BBMVs between 96S and Cry1Ac-R strains, and there was no signiifcant competitive binding between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac in susceptible or resistant strains. So there had little cross-resistance between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac,Vip3A+Cry proteins maybe the suitable pyramid strategy to control H. armigera in China in the future.

  12. Advances in Studies on Bacillus thuringiensis Novel Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3A%苏云金芽孢杆菌新型营养期杀虫蛋白Vip3A研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉军; 丁学知; 李焕发; 夏立秋

    2005-01-01

    营养期杀虫蛋白(Vegetative Insecticidal Protein,Vip)Vip3A是苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)在营养生长对数中期分泌产生的一类新型杀虫蛋白.Vip3A广泛存在于Bt中,与晶体杀虫蛋白(InsecticidalCrystal Proteins,ICPs)没有任何同源性,不具有多样性,在遗传上比较保守.其N-端存在一趋化信号传导因子相似序列,C-端存在着纤维素结合结构域.Vip3A蛋白通过诱发细胞凋亡,最终导致细胞死亡,这与Bt δ-内毒素的作用机理完全不同.本文主要对Vip3A杀虫蛋白的发现、特性及作用机理作一简要综述.

  13. Bt营养期杀虫蛋白Vip3及其作用受体的研究进展%Research Advances on the Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3 and Their Receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐沙; 夏立秋; 丁学知

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3 is a class of novel insecticidal proteins which secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth phase. These proteins have high toxicity against a number of lepidopteran pests. They share low homology withδ-endotoxin of B. thuringiensis but share a high level of sequence similarity with others in this family. In this paper, we reviewed the advances on Vip3 research, including gene discovery, features, receptors, mode of action and applications, etc.%营养期杀虫蛋白 Vip3是苏云金芽胞杆菌在对数生长中期开始分泌表达的一类对鳞翅目害虫具有广谱杀虫活性的蛋白质,它与已知的杀虫晶体蛋白相似性很低。本文主要从 vip3基因的挖掘,Vip3蛋白的特性、作用受体及其应用等方面作简要综述。

  14. Cloning, Expression and Analysis of Insecticidal Activity of a Novel vip 3A a-type Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis%苏云金芽胞杆菌新型vip3Aa基因的克隆、表达与活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓明; 束长龙; 刘晓垒; 李海涛; 高继国; 张杰; 宋福平

    2011-01-01

    To find novel vip3 genes, the vip3-type genes in 72 Bt stains were identified by PCR method and high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) system. The results indicated that three vip3 gene types, vip3Aa, vip3Af and vip3Ba were found in 18 positive strains. A full-length vip3 gene fragment, which obtained by PCR amplification with a pair of primers designed according to lupJ-type gene sequences and DNA from T03B001 (B. Thuringiensis subsp. Sumiyoshiensis) as template, was introduced into expression vector pEB and transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). At low temperatures, a peptide of 88 kD was expressed by IPTG induction. Theencoded protein was composed of 789 amino acid rsidues. It shared a 96% sequence homology with Vip3Aa protein. This gene designated as vip3A a39 by International Nomenclature Committee of Bt endotoxin, GenBank accession No. Was HMI17631. Vip3Aal 1 protein was obtained in our previous study, 39 amino acid residues were found to be different between the Vip3Aa39 and Vip3Aal 1 proteins. Insecticidal activities of soluble expressed products of vip3Aa39 and vip3Aall genes were tested against Agrotis ipsilon, Plutella xylostella, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptem exigua by feeding method. The bioassay results indicated that Vip3Aa39 had insecticidal activity against A.ipsilon with 50% lethal concentration (LCX) of 5.43 |xg/mL compared to 73.62 p-g/mL for Vip3Aal 1; Vip3Aa39 showed insecticidal activity against P.xylostella with LCX of 140.64 (xg/mL while Vip3Aal 1 protein had no activity against P.xylostella; Vip3Aal 1 demonstrated insecticidal activity against H.armigera with LCX of 35.18 |xg/mL compared to 286.99 |xg/mL for Vip3Aa39; Vip3Aa39 had insecticidal activity against S. Exigua with LCX of 2.02 |xg/mL similar to 2.04 |xg/mL for Vip3Aal 1. The results indicated that insecticidal activity of Vip3Aa39 and Vip3Aal 1 was different from each other against A.ipsilon, P.xylostella and H.armigera. Compared with the Vip3Aall, Vip3Aa39 had

  15. Synthesis and Cleavage Activity of Artifical Minic Polypeptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YE; Xiao Lian HU; Ping LI; Ming Yu NIU; Li Feng CAO; Yu Fen ZHAO

    2006-01-01

    Two artificial minic polypeptides which are synthetic analogues of natural products with DNA affinity were synthesized, and theirs cleavage activity with DNA were examined. The structures of these compounds was confirmed by 1H NMR, MS and IR.

  16. Biomedical applications of polypeptide multilayer nanofilms and microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Jai Simha S.

    The past few years have witnessed considerable growth in synthetic polymer chemistry and physics, biomaterials science, and nano-scale engineering. Research on polypeptide multilayer films, coatings, and microcapsules is located at the intersection of these areas and are promising materials for applications in medicine, biotechnology, environmental science. Most envisioned applications of polypeptide multilayers have a biomedical bent. This dissertation on polypeptide multilayer film applications covers key points of polypeptides as materials, means of polymer production, film preparation, film characterization methods, and key points of current research in basic science. Both commercial and designed peptides have been used to fabricate films for in-vitro applications such as antimicrobial coatings and cell culture coatings and also microcapsules for drug delivery applications. Other areas of product development include artificial red blood cells, anisotropic coatings, enantioselective membranes, and artificial viruses.

  17. Conditions for homogeneous preparation of stable monomeric and oligomeric forms of activated Vip3A toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunthic, Thittaya; Surya, Wahyu; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Torres, Jaume; Boonserm, Panadda

    2016-07-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins like Vip3A have been used for crop protection and to delay resistance to existing insecticidal Cry toxins. However, little is known about Vip3A's behavior or its mechanism of action, and a structural model is required. Herein, in an effort to facilitate future crystallization and functional studies, we have used the orthogonal biophysical techniques of light scattering and sedimentation to analyze the aggregation behavior and stability of trypsin-activated Vip3A toxin in solution. Both scattering and sedimentation data suggest that at pH 10 the toxin is monomeric and adopts an elongated shape, but after overnight incubation aggregation was observed at all pH values tested (5-12). The narrowest size distribution was observed at pH 7, but it was consistent with large oligomers of ~50 nm on average. The addition of β-D-glucopyranoside (OG) helped in achieving preparations that were stable and with a narrower particle size distribution. In this case, scattering was consistent with a 4-nm monomeric globular Vip3A form. After OG dialysis, 40-nm particles were detected, with a molecular weight consistent with homotetramers. Therefore, OG is proposed as the detergent of choice to obtain a Vip3A crystal for structural studies, either before (monomers) or after dialysis (tetramers).

  18. Toxicity, activation process, and histopathological effect of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16 on Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Cherif, Maroua; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2015-02-01

    Tuta absoluta is a destructive moth of Solanaceae plants and especially tomatoes. Here, we considered the entomopathogenic activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 protein heterologously produced by Escherichia coli against T. absoluta. Purified Vip3Aa16 showed lower lethal concentration 50 % against third instar larvae (Toxin/tomato leaf) (335 ± 17 ng/cm(2)) compared to that of B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD1 δ-endotoxins (955 ± 4 ng/cm(2)) (P < 0.05). Action mode examination showed that Vip3Aa16 (88 kDa) was more sensitive to proteolysis activation by the chymotrypsin than the trypsin or the larvae gut soluble proteases, yielding derivative proteins essentially of about 62 and 33 kDa. The gut-soluble proteases could contain trypsin-like enzymes implicated in Vip3Aa16 activation since the proteolysis was inhibited using specific protease inhibitors. Additionally, we showed that the histopathological effect of Vip3Aa16 on T. absoluta larva midguts consisted on a microvillus damage and an epithelial cell rupture.

  19. High performance thermal insulation systems (HiPTI). Vacuum insulated products (VIP). Proceedings of the international conference and workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M.; Bertschinger, H.

    2001-07-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop held at EMPA Duebendorf, Switzerland, in January 2001. The papers presented at the conference's first day included contributions on the role of high-performance insulation in energy efficiency - providing an overview of available technologies and reviewing physical aspects of heat transfer and the development of thermal insulation as well as the state of the art of glazing technologies such as high-performance and vacuum glazing. Also, vacuum-insulated products (VIP) with fumed silica, applications of VIP systems in technical building systems, nanogels, VIP packaging materials and technologies, measurement of physical properties, VIP for advanced retrofit solutions for buildings and existing and future applications for advanced low energy building are discussed. Finally, research and development concerning VIP for buildings are reported on. The workshops held on the second day covered a preliminary study on high-performance thermal insulation materials with gastight porosity, flexible pipes with high performance thermal insulation, evaluation of modern insulation systems by simulation methods as well as the development of vacuum insulation panels with a stainless steel envelope.

  20. Isolation and characterization of lipid-associated and neurosecretory polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Margareta

    2000-01-01

    Lipid-interacting proteins play important roles in all living organisms. This thesis focuses on isolation and characterization of an enzyme in the triacylglycerol biosynthesis (phosphatidic acid phosphatase, PAP), hydrophobic polypeptides in bile, and polypeptides in cerebrospinal fluid. These fields constitute methodological challenges and mean development of suitable tools in between lipid and protein biochemistry. Two methods used to measure PAP activity were compared. I...

  1. Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J

    2005-03-01

    A 49-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with Syngenta Seeds VIP3A transgenic derived corn grain had any unanticipated adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared with diets prepared with nontransgenic (isoline) control corn grain. Two commercial lots of grain grown in North Carolina during the 1999 (NC 1999) and 2000 (NC 2000) seasons were included for reference purposes. Broiler growth was excellent with males reaching 3466 g and females reaching 2882 g at 49 d of age. Final BW of the VIP3A, isoline, and NC 1999 corn groups were within 21.1 g, whereas the NC 2000 group was 42.4 g lower than the lowest of this group. There was no overall corn source effect on adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) or mortality to 49 d of age. Carcass analysis demonstrated no differences in percentage yield due to corn source among males and females other than percentage wings in females. Comprehensive clinical chemical analyses of blood taken from representative birds at 49 d of age showed no differences due to corn sources. The transgenic VIP3A hybrid diets numerically supported the most rapid broiler chicken growth, the second lowest mortality rate and best FCR, without practical differences in carcass yield. The few differences found in this study were not unique to a given corn source but instead appeared to be distributed equally across the diet groups evaluated in the study. Although it was not clear whether small differences in performance were attributable to the transgenic corn per se or were due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects on broiler performance and carcass yield in this study.

  2. Vip3a基因植物表达载体的构建及其对烟草的遗传转化%Construction of Plant Expression Vectors of Vip3A Gene and Transformation in Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马作江; 邓伟; 杨迎伍; 李正国

    2008-01-01

    为了研究Vip3A基因在转基因抗虫植物中的应用,利用PCR技术克隆了苏云金芽孢杆菌的Vip3A基因和烟草的EF1 α启动子,以pBI121质粒为基本栽体,构建了分别由组成型CaMV35S启动子和花特异表达的EF1α启动子驱动Vip3A基因的植物表达栽体pBIVip3A和pBIEFVip3A,并通过农杆菌介导的方法对烟草进行了遗传转化.经PCR检测,外源基因已整合到烟草基因组中.

  3. Vip3A杀虫蛋白随机重组文库的构建与分析%Construction and Analysis of Vip3A Insecticidal Protein Random Recombination Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 刘荣梅; 束长龙; 张杰; 李海涛; 高继国

    2013-01-01

    营养期杀虫蛋白(Vegetative Insecticidal Proteins,VIPs)作为苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)一类新型杀虫蛋白,丰富了Bt的杀虫谱,是一种用于植物保护的重要杀虫蛋白.为了提高VIPs蛋白的杀虫活性,扩展其杀虫谱,利用Gateway技术对vip3Aa39和vip3Aa11基因进行同源重组突变,并克隆到入门载体pDONR221中,构建了重组文库.结果显示,得到了42个基因型不同的重组质粒,其中有22个蛋白序列不同的突变体.

  4. Study on Hydrolysis Conditions of Flavourzyme in Soybean Polypeptide Alcalase Hydrolysate and Soybean Polypeptide Refining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Ma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soybean protein Alcalase hydrolysate was further hydrolyzed by adopting Flavourzyme as hydrolytic enzyme. The optimal hydrolysis conditions of Flavourzyme was that pH was 7.0 at temperature 50°C and E/S(ratio of enzyme and substrate was 20LAPU/g. Bitterness value was reduced to 2 after Flavourzyme hydrolysis reaction in optimal hydrolysis conditions. The change of molecular weight distribution range from Alcalase hydrolysate to Flavourzyme hydrolysate was not obvious. DH (Degree of hydrolysis of soybean protein hydrolysate was increased to 24.2% which was improved 3.5% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Protein recovery proportion was increased to 73.2% which was improved 0.8% than Alcalase hydrolysate. Soybean polypeptide Flavourzyme hydrolysate was decolorized with activated carbon which optimal dosage was 1.2% solution amount (w/w. Anion/cation exchange process was used in the desalination processing of soybean polypeptide. Ratio of anion resin and cation resin was 2:3(V/V. The volume of hydrolysate processed was 5 times as the volume of anion resin. Ash content of soybean peptide solution reduced to 2.11% (dry basis, salinity decreased by 86% after desalination processing.

  5. 苏云金芽孢杆菌营养期杀虫蛋白基因vip3A的研究%The Research on vip3A Genes from Bacillus thuriniensis Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣梅; 张杰; 高继国; 宋福平

    2004-01-01

    根据已知vip3A基因序列设计一对特异性引物VIP3/VIP5,对218株Bt菌株进行PCR鉴定,有51株含有vip3A类基因,其中12株为不同亚种的标准菌株,有4株标准菌株不含有该基因.从Bt C9菌株中分离克隆了vip-C9基因,并插入表达载体pET-21b,转化大肠杆菌BL2 1,诱导表达出分子量88.6kDa的可溶性蛋白,表达产物对甜菜夜蛾和棉铃虫具有较高的杀虫活性,LC50分别为0.42ng/mg和25.95ng/mg,对小菜蛾活性较低.构建了缺失蛋白Vip-C9- N(N端去除39个氨基酸组成的信号肽序列),杀虫活性测定结果表明其对甜菜夜蛾的活性显著降低,说明N端39个氨基酸对甜菜夜蛾的活性是必需的.

  6. Clinical application of VIP-CT flap with GBR technique in dental implantation of the maxillary anterior region%VIP-CT瓣联合GBR技术在上颌前牙种植中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新秀; 刘鑫; 何家才

    2015-01-01

    This article presented a series of cases using vascularized interpositional periosteal-connective tissue ( VIP-CT) flap with guide bone regeneration ( GBR) in peri-implant soft and hard tissue reconstuction at the esthet-ic zone of maxillary. Fifteen cases with bone and soft tissue defects underwent VIP-CT flap with GBR in the implant treatment. And the attached gingiva width was evaluated before treatment and six months and eighteen months after the operation. The width of attached gingival of six months and eighteen months after surgery was significantly dif-ferent from the preoperative value (P<0. 05). However, no statistically significant difference could be found at six months and eighteen months postoperative. The application of VIP-CT flap could increase the width of attached gin-giva around implants and the short-term effects were stable and favorable.%探讨血管化骨膜-结缔组织夹层( VIP-CT)瓣联合引导骨再生( GBR)技术在前牙美学区种植中的应用,15例患者应用VIP-CT瓣联合GBR技术修复缺牙区软硬组织缺损并同期牙种植,记录术前、术后6个月、术后18个月附着龈宽度。术后6个月及术后18个月附着龈宽度较术前差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),术后6个月的附着龈宽度与术后18个月相比差异无统计学意义。采用VIP-CT瓣可增加美学区附着龈宽度,短期内效果良好。

  7. Building materials and systems with vacuum insulation panels for external walls; Bauelemente und Systeme mit VIP fuer Aussenwandkonstruktionen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binz, A.; Steinke, G.

    2007-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at materials and systems using vacuum insulation panels (VIP) for the construction of external walls. The aim of this research project was the development, practical use and market introduction of VIP systems that take account of the special properties of VIP. Along with partners in industry, applications involving external and internal insulation were examined. The need for protecting the vacuum panels against mechanical damage is stressed. The specific needs for the protection of external and internal applications are discussed. The dynamic developments in this relatively new area are commented on. Various mounting systems are examined and commented on. The thermal properties of such insulation systems and applications are noted and commented on.

  8. Biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule: characterization of polypeptide C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, O; Albrechtsen, M; Dahlin, J;

    1985-01-01

    and a 115,000 Mr polypeptide C, whereas neurons expressed a 200,000 Mr polypeptide A as well as polypeptide B. Skeletal muscle cells produced polypeptide B. The polypeptides synthesized by the three cell types were immunochemically identical. The membrane association of polypeptide C was investigated......The biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) was studied in primary cultures of rat cerebral glial cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and skeletal muscle cells. The three cell types produced different N-CAM polypeptide patterns. Glial cells synthesized a 135,000 Mr polypeptide B...... with methods that distinguish peripheral and integral membrane proteins. Polypeptide C was found to be a peripheral membrane protein, whereas polypeptides A and B were integral membrane proteins with cytoplasmic domains of approximately 50,000 and approximately 25,000 Mr, respectively. The affinity...

  9. Vip3A resistance alleles exist at high levels in Australian targets before release of cotton expressing this toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Rod J; Downes, Sharon J; James, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Crops engineered to produce insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have revolutionised pest control in agriculture. However field-level resistance to Bt has developed in some targets. Utilising novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips), also derived from Bt but genetically distinct from Cry toxins, is a possible solution that biotechnical companies intend to employ. Using data collected over two seasons we determined that, before deployment of Vip-expressing plants in Australia, resistance alleles exist in key targets as polymorphisms at frequencies of 0.027 (n = 273 lines, 95% CI = 0.019-0.038) in H. armigera and 0.008 (n = 248 lines, 0.004-0.015) in H. punctigera. These frequencies are above mutation rates normally encountered. Homozygous resistant neonates survived doses of Vip3A higher than those estimated in field-grown plants. Fortunately the resistance is largely, if not completely, recessive and does not confer resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab already deployed in cotton crops. These later characteristics are favourable for resistance management; however the robustness of Vip3A inclusive varieties will depend on resistance frequencies to the Cry toxins when it is released (anticipated 2016) and the efficacy of Vip3A throughout the season. It is appropriate to pre-emptively screen key targets of Bt crops elsewhere, especially those such as H. zea in the USA, which is not only closely related to H. armigera but also will be exposed to Vip in several varieties of cotton and corn.

  10. Laboratory selection and characterization of resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin in Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Brian R; Gulzar, Asim; Ferré, Juan; Wright, Denis J

    2017-02-17

    Laboratory selection with Vip3Aa of a field-derived population of Heliothis virescens produced >2040-fold resistance in 12 generations of selection. The Vip-Sel resistant population showed little cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Resistance was unstable after 15 generations without exposure to the toxin. F1 reciprocal crosses between Vip-Unsel and Vip-Sel indicated a strong paternal influence on the inheritance of resistance. Resistance ranged from almost completely recessive (mean h = 0.04 if the resistant parental was female) to incompletely dominant (mean h = 0.53 if the resistant parental was male). Results from bioassays on the offspring from backcrosses of the F1 progeny with Vip-Sel insects indicated that resistance was due to more than one locus. The results described in this paper provide the useful information for the insecticide resistance management strategies designed to overcome the evolution of resistance to Vip3Aa in the insect pests.ImportanceHeliothis virescens is an important pest which has the ability to feed on many plant species. The extensive use of Bt crops or spray has already led to the evolution of insect resistance in the field for some species of Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. The development of resistance in insect pests is the main threat to of Bt crops. The effective resistance management strategies are very important to prolong the life of Bt plants. The lab selection is the key step to test the assumption and predictions of management strategies prior to the field evaluation. Resistant insects offer useful information to determine the inheritance of resistance and the frequency of resistance alleles, and to study the mechanism of resistance to insecticides.

  11. Vip3A resistance alleles exist at high levels in Australian targets before release of cotton expressing this toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod J Mahon

    Full Text Available Crops engineered to produce insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have revolutionised pest control in agriculture. However field-level resistance to Bt has developed in some targets. Utilising novel vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips, also derived from Bt but genetically distinct from Cry toxins, is a possible solution that biotechnical companies intend to employ. Using data collected over two seasons we determined that, before deployment of Vip-expressing plants in Australia, resistance alleles exist in key targets as polymorphisms at frequencies of 0.027 (n = 273 lines, 95% CI = 0.019-0.038 in H. armigera and 0.008 (n = 248 lines, 0.004-0.015 in H. punctigera. These frequencies are above mutation rates normally encountered. Homozygous resistant neonates survived doses of Vip3A higher than those estimated in field-grown plants. Fortunately the resistance is largely, if not completely, recessive and does not confer resistance to the Bt toxins Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab already deployed in cotton crops. These later characteristics are favourable for resistance management; however the robustness of Vip3A inclusive varieties will depend on resistance frequencies to the Cry toxins when it is released (anticipated 2016 and the efficacy of Vip3A throughout the season. It is appropriate to pre-emptively screen key targets of Bt crops elsewhere, especially those such as H. zea in the USA, which is not only closely related to H. armigera but also will be exposed to Vip in several varieties of cotton and corn.

  12. VIP and Calcitonin-Producing Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor with Watery Diarrhea: Clinicopathological Features and the Effect of Somatostatin Analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoya Kon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET secretes various peptide hormones; however, calcitonin hypersecretion is rare. Its clinicopathological significance and treatment is still controversial. Case report A 43 year-old Japanese man presented severe watery diarrhea and a large mass in the pancreatic tail. Blood concentration of VIP was elevated to 649 pg/mL (reference range: 0- 100 pg/mL, and calcitonin to 66,700 pg/mL (reference range: 15-86 pg/mL. There was no tumor in other endocrine organs. The resected tumor was composed of 80% calcitonin-positive cells and 10% VIP-positive cells. After the operation, the levels of VIP and calcitonin were decreased to 44 and 553 pg/mL, respectively, and diarrhea was improved. The mRNA of somatostatin receptor (SSTR subtypes 2, 3 and 5 in the tumor tissue were increased 22.8, 25.1, and 37.0-fold of those of normal pancreas, respectively. At 19 months after the operation, blood calcitonin was again raised to 3,980 pg/mL, and metastatic tumors were found in the liver. With the treatment of long-acting somatostatin analogue, calcitonin was reduced to 803 pg/mL. The patient does not present endocrine symptom, and the size of the metastatic tumors appears stable. Conclusion From the world literature to date, co-secretion of VIP and calcitonin was documented in only 10 cases of pNET including the current case. Although VIP is a primary cause of diarrhea in these cases, high level of calcitonin may also influence on the clinical symptoms. Somatostatin analogue suppresses the levels of VIP and calcitonin, and the control proliferation is also expected when tumor cells express SSTRs.

  13. Malacoplaquia intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto José Frem Aun

    Full Text Available Malacoplakia is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown origin. However immunodeficiency states (immunossuppressive medication, old people, renal transplantation, leukaemia, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition and others have been associated with patients with malacoplakia. An infectious cause of malakoplakia is suggested by the finding of coliform bacteria in the phagolysosomes of macrophages. The histologic study is characterized by a infiltrate of large macrophages (Hansenmann cells with pathognomonic inclusions containing siderocalcific structures (Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Most of the cases reported in literature, involve the genitourinary tract, but other structures can be affected (brain, bone, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, intestine, and others. A 66-year-old man whith a abdominal mass, went to our hospital with a colonic tumour diagnosis. The patient was submitted to a surgery, with resection of the rigth colon. The disease was invading a portion of the retroperitoneal tissue that was removed. The histopatologic study showed the pathognomonic sign of malakoplakia (Hansenmann cells and Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Norfloxacin have been used to the complementar treatment with total cure of the patient.

  14. VIP 35

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventilative cooling...

  15. Antiangiogenic Effect of Oyster Polypeptide (OPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Drugs which block tumor angiogenesis will be likely effective towards inhibiting tumor growth for angiogenesis being a prerequisite for tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, antiangiogenesis has become a promising strategy for the treatment of cancer. Investigation on both antiangiogenic effect and mechanism(s of oyster polypeptide (OPP were performed via experiments of chicken embryos model in vivo and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs in vitro. Methods The methods employed in experiment were chorioallantoic membrane (CAM angiogenesis in chicken embryos in vivo, MTT cell survival assay, flat plate scarification, transwell plates assay, matrigel-induced tube formation assay and transmission electron microscope et al. and the OPP’s effects on angiogenesis was observed. Results Study showed that treatment with OPP resulted in significant inhibition of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM angiogenesis in chicken embryos. MTT cell survival assay showed that treatment with OPP resulted in strong inhibition of HUVECs growth, with an IC50 of 400 μg/mL. Flat plate scarification suggested that OPP (200 μg/mL, 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL distinctly inhibited HUVECs’ migration (18.75%, 37.93%, 74.07% respectively, treatment for 12 h. Treatment with OPP of different concentrations (200 μg/mL, 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL significantly reduced the density of the migration cells by 15.5%, 37.2% and 67.24% (P<0.05 respectively. Matrigel-induced tube formation assay showed that OPP resulted in striking inhibition of tube formation of 52.43%, 84.47% and 96.12% (P<0.01 at 200 μg/mL, 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL (treatment for 10 h respectively. In addition, the apoptotic analysis by transmission electron microscope showed that OPP (400 μg/mL, treatment for 48 h distinctly induced HUVECs’ apoptosis. Conclusion This study strikingly showed that OPP could inhibit angiogenesis through its effects on vascular endothelial cells

  16. Respiratory tract exacerbations revisited: ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure (VIPS) monitoring to redefine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Stick, Stephen M; Wild, Jim M; Ciet, Pierluigi; Parker, Geoffrey J M; Koch, Armin; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

    2015-10-01

    For cystic fibrosis (CF) patients older than 6 years there are convincing data that suggest respiratory tract exacerbations (RTE) play an important role in the progressive loss of functional lung tissue. There is a poor understanding of the pathobiology of RTE and whether specific treatment of RTE reduces lung damage in the long term. In addition, there are limited tools available to measure the various components of CF lung disease and responses to therapy. Therefore, in order to better understand the impact of RTE on CF lung disease we need to develop sensitive measures to characterize RTE and responses to treatment; and improve our understanding of structure-function changes during treatment of RTE. In this paper we review our current knowledge of the impact of RTE on the progression of lung disease and identify strategies to improve our understanding of the pathobiology of RTE. By improving our knowledge regarding RTE in CF we will be better positioned to develop approaches to treatment that are individualized and that can prevent permanent structural damage. We suggest the development of a ventilation, perfusion, inflammation and structure (VIPS)-MRI suite that supplies the clinician with data on ventilation, inflammation, perfusion, and structure in one MRI session. VIPS-MRI could be an important step to better understand the factors that contribute to and limit treatment efficacy of RTE.

  17. VIP 2: Experimental tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Uffizi, A.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was famously discovered in 1925 by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli. Since then, it underwent several experimental tests. Starting in 2006, the VIP (Violation of the Pauli Principle) experiment looked for 2p to 1s X-ray transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are present in the 1s state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP, and the lack of detection of the corresponding X-ray photons lead to a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of 4.7 * 10^(-29). The follow-up experiment VIP 2 is currently in the testing phase and will be transported to its final destination, the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso in Italy, in autumn 2015. Several improvements compared to its predecessor like the use of new X-ray detectors and active shielding from background gives rise to a goal for the improvement of the upper limit of the probability for the violation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle of 2 orders of magnitude.

  18. Application of photon detectors in the VIP2 experiment to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Pichler, A; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Ufflzi, A.; Egger, J.P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was introduced by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. Since then, several experiments have checked its validity. From 2006 until 2010, the VIP (VIolation of the Pauli Principle) experiment took data at the LNGS underground laboratory to test the PEP. This experiment looked for electronic 2p to 1s transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are in the 1s state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP. The lack of detection of X-ray photons coming from these transitions resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of $4.7 \\times 10^{-29}$. Currently, the successor experiment VIP2 is under preparation. The main improvements are, on one side, the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) as X-ray photon detectors. On the other side an active shielding is implemented, which consists of plastic scintillator bars read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The employment of these detectors will improve the upper limit for the violati...

  19. Genetic polymorphisms of VIP variants in the Tajik ethnic group of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayi; Jin, Tianbo; Yunus, Zulfiya; Li, Xiaolan; Geng, Tingting; Wang, Hong; Cui, Yali; Chen, Chao

    2014-09-30

    Individual response to medications varies significantly among different populations, and great progress in understanding the molecular basis of drug action has been made in the past 50 years. The field of pharmacogenomics seeks to elucidate inherited differences in drug disposition and effects. While we know that different populations and ethnic groups are genetically heterogeneous, we have not found any pharmacogenomics information regarding minority groups, such as the Tajik ethnic group in northwest China. We genotyped 85 Very Important Pharmacogene (VIP) variants selected from PharmGKB in 100 unrelated, healthy Tajiks from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and compared our data with HapMap data from four major populations around the world: Han Chinese (CHB), Japanese in Tokyo (JPT), Utah Residents with Northern and Western European Ancestry (CEU), and Yorubia in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI). We found that Tajiks differed from CHB, JPT and YRI in 30, 32, and 32 of the selected VIP genotypes respectively (p ethnic group and provide a theoretical basis for safer drug administration that may be useful for diagnosing and treating disease in this population.

  20. Genetic Polymorphisms Analysis of Pharmacogenomic VIP Variants in Miao Ethnic Group of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tianbo; Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Zhang, Mingxi; Geng, Tingting; Feng, Tian; Kang, Longli; Luo, Man Lin

    2015-12-03

    BACKGROUND Genetic polymorphisms have a potential clinical role in determining both inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in drug efficacy, but we have not found any pharmacogenomics information regarding minorities, such as the Miao ethnic group. Our study aimed to screen numbers of the Miao ethnic group for genotype frequencies of VIP variants and to determine differences between the Miao and other human populations worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we genotyped 66 Very Important Pharmacogene (VIP) variants selected from PharmGKB in 98 unrelated, healthy Miao individuals from the Guizhou province and compared our data with 12 other populations, including 11 populations from the HapMap data set and Xi'an Han Chinese. RESULTS Using the χ2 test, we found that the allele frequencies of the VDR rs1544410 and VKORC1 (rs9934438) variants in the Miao population are quite different from that in other ethnic groups. Furthermore, we found that genotype frequencies of rs1801133 (MTHFR) in the 13 selected populations are significantly different. Population structure and F-statistics (Fst) analysis show that the genetic background of the Miao is relatively close to that of Chinese in metropolitan Denver, CO, USA (CHD). CONCLUSIONS Our results help complete the information provided by the pharmacogenomics database of the Miao ethnic group and provide a theoretical basis for safer drug administration, which may be useful for diagnosing and treating diseases in this population.

  1. VIP-2 at LNGS: An experiment on the validity of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, J.; Bartalucci, S.; Bassi, A.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; Donadi, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pichler, A.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2017-07-01

    We are experimentally investigating possible violations of standard quantum mechanics predictions in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. We test with high precision the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the collapse of the wave function (collapse models). We present our method of searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) for electrons, through the search for “anomalous” X-ray transitions in copper atoms. These transitions are produced by “new” electrons (brought inside the copper bar by circulating current) which can have the possibility to undergo Pauli-forbidden transition to the 1s level already occupied by two electrons. We describe the VIP2 (VIolation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle) experimental data taking at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. The goal of VIP2 is to test the PEP for electrons in agreement with the Messiah-Greenberg superselection rule with unprecedented accuracy, down to a limit in the probability that PEP is violated at the level of 10-31. We show preliminary experimental results and discuss implications of a possible violation.

  2. Surface active complexes formed between keratin polypeptides and ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fang; Lu, Zhiming; Tucker, Ian; Hosking, Sarah; Petkov, Jordan; Lu, Jian R

    2016-12-15

    Keratins are a group of important proteins in skin and hair and as biomaterials they can provide desirable properties such as strength, biocompatibility, and moisture regaining and retaining. The aim of this work is to develop water-soluble keratin polypeptides from sheep wool and then explore how their surface adsorption behaves with and without surfactants. Successful preparation of keratin samples was demonstrated by identification of the key components from gel electrophoresis and the reproducible production of gram scale samples with and without SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) during wool fibre dissolution. SDS micelles could reduce the formation of disulphide bonds between keratins during extraction, reducing inter-molecular crosslinking and improving keratin polypeptide solubility. However, Zeta potential measurements of the two polypeptide batches demonstrated almost identical pH dependent surface charge distributions with isoelectric points around pH 3.5, showing complete removal of SDS during purification by dialysis. In spite of different solubility from the two batches of keratin samples prepared, very similar adsorption and aggregation behavior was revealed from surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering. Mixing of keratin polypeptides with SDS and C12TAB (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) led to the formation of keratin-surfactant complexes that were substantially more effective at reducing surface tension than the polypeptides alone, showing great promise in the delivery of keratin polypeptides via the surface active complexes. Neutron reflection measurements revealed the coexistence of surfactant and keratin polypeptides at the interface, thus providing the structural support to the observed surface tension changes associated with the formation of the surface active complexes.

  3. 40 CFR 174.501 - Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein in corn and cotton; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa protein... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.501 Bacillus... Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa proteins in or on corn or cotton are exempt from the requirement of...

  4. The role of important non-parental adults (VIPs) in the lives of older adolescents: a comparison of three ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17-19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs' psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents' self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  5. Beyond Parents and Peers: The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in Adolescent Development in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Farruggia, Susan; Bush, Kevin; Dong, Qi

    2003-01-01

    To understand cross-cultural differences and similarities in the social contexts for adolescent development, American and Chinese 11th graders were surveyed about a non-parental adult who had played an important role in their lives (VIPs). Results showed that adolescents' VIPs in Chinese were more likely to be teachers, to provide support in…

  6. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: from pathophysiology to therapeutic opportunities in obesity-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschetta, E; Hvalryg, M; Musso, G

    2011-10-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a hormone secreted from the intestinal K-cells with established insulin-releasing actions. However, the GIP receptor is widely distributed in peripheral organs, including the adipose tissue, gut, bone and brain, where GIP modulates energy intake, cell metabolism and proliferation, and lipid and glucose metabolism, eventually promoting lipid and glucose storage. In diabetes and obesity, the incretin effect of GIP is blunted, while the extrapancreatic tissues keep a normal sensitivity to this hormone. As GIP levels are normal or elevated in obesity and diabetes, mounting evidence from chemical or genetic GIP deletion in animal models of obesity-related diabetes suggests that GIP may have a pro-obesogenic action and that a strategy antagonizing GIP action may be beneficial in these conditions, clearing triglyceride deposits from adipose tissue, liver and muscle, and restoring normal insulin sensitivity. Emerging evidence also suggests that the metabolic benefits of bypass surgery are mediated, at least in part, by surgical removal of GIP-secreting K-cells in the upper small intestine. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Vip3Aa及Cry1Ac对棉铃虫幼虫多种酶活力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦; 梁革梅; 高珍

    2012-01-01

    为了明确Vip3Aa的作用机制,为其作为新毒素策略重要蛋白的应用提供理论依据,本文比较了Vip3Aa、Cry1Ac对棉铃虫Helicoverpaarmigera(Habner)主要蛋白酶、解毒酶、APN活性的影响,并研究了Vip3Aa和Cry1Ac共同使用对几种酶活力的作用。室内生测结果表明,Vip3Aa对棉铃虫的杀虫效果低于Cry1Ac,但Vip3Aa对棉铃虫幼虫生长有明显的抑制作用。取食含Cry1Ac、Vip3Aa或Cry1Ac+Vip3Aa饲料的棉铃虫,总蛋白酶和类胰凝乳蛋白酶活性很快升高;但经Cry1Ac处理12h后这2种酶活性与对照差异不显著或低于对照,而取食含Vip3Aa饲料的棉铃虫酶活力显著高于对照的时间明显延长,而且类胰蛋白酶活性也显著高于对照;表明Cry1Ac降解速度比Vip3Aa快,可能是由于降解2种蛋白参与的酶系存在差异,同时Cry1Ac+Vip3Aa混用可以延长蛋白被酶解的时间。谷胱甘肽s-转移酶和a-乙酸萘酯酶活性在棉铃虫取食含Vip3Aa、Cry1Ac或Cry1Ac+Vip3Aa蛋白的饲料后活性升高,说明这2种酶可能参与了对Cry1Ac、Vip3Aa的解毒作用。但Cry1Ac、Vip3Aa对氨肽酶活性影响不大,可能在毒蛋白发挥毒性的过程中与氨肽酶活力变化无关。

  8. Study of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 histopathological effects and determination of its putative binding proteins in the midgut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Dammak-Karray, Mariam; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim

    2011-02-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produces, at the vegetative stage of its growth, Vip3A proteins with activity against a broad spectrum of lepidopteran insects. The Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) is an important agricultural pest that is susceptible to the Vip3Aa16 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strain BUPM95. The midgut histopathology of Vip3Aa fed larvae showed vacuolization of the cytoplasm, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apical region and cellular disintegration. Biotinylated Vip3Aa toxin bound proteins of 55- and 100-kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. These binding proteins differ in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C, one of the very few Cry proteins active against the polyphagous S. littoralis. This result supports the use of Vip3Aa16 proteins as insecticidal agent, especially in case of Cry-resistance management.

  9. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Feng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  10. Parvalbumin- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing neocortical interneurons impose differential inhibition on Martinotti cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walker, F.; Mock, M.; Feyerabend, M.; Guy, J.; Wagener, R.J.; Schubert, D.; Staiger, J.F.; Witte, M. de

    2016-01-01

    Disinhibition of cortical excitatory cell gate information flow through and between cortical columns. The major contribution of Martinotti cells (MC) is providing dendritic inhibition to excitatory neurons and therefore they are a main component of disinhibitory connections. Here we show by means of

  11. Isolation and amino acid sequences of opossum vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and cholecystokinin octapeptide.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Evolutionary history suggests that the marsupials entered South America from North America about 75 million years ago and subsequently dispersed into Australia before the separation between South America and Antarctica-Australia. A question of interest is whether marsupial peptides resemble the corresponding peptides of Old or New World mammals. Previous studies had shown that "little" gastrin of the North American marsupial, the opossum, is identical in length to that of the New World mammal...

  12. SURFACE MODIFICATION OF POLYPROPYLENE MICROPOROUS MEMBRANE BY TETHERING POLYPEPTIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-mei Liu; Zhi-kang Xu; Mathias Ulbricht

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of polypeptides were tethered onto the surface of polypropylene microporous membrane (PPMM)through a ring opening polymerization of L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride initiated by amino groups which were introduced by ammonia plasma and γ-aminopropyl triethanoxysilane treatments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR/ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), together with water contact angle measurements were used to characterize the modified membranes. XPS analyses and FT-IR/ATR spectra demonstrated that polypeptides are actually grafted onto the membrane surface. The wettability of the membrane surface increases at first and then decreases with the increase in grafting degrees of polypeptide. Platelet adhesion and murine macrophage attachment experiments reveal an enhanced hemocompatibility for the polypeptide modified PPMMs. All these results give evidence that polypeptide grafting can simultaneously improve the hemocompatibility as well as reserve the hydrophobicity for the membrane, which will provide a potential approach to improve the performance of polypropylene hollow fiber microporous membrane used in artificial oxygenator.

  13. Tunable drug loading and release from polypeptide multilayer nanofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Jiang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bingbing Jiang1, Bingyun Li1,2,31Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2WVNano Initiative, WV, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA Abstract: Polypeptide multilayer nanofilms were prepared using electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly nanotechnology. Small charged drug molecules (eg, cefazolin, gentamicin, and methylene blue were loaded in polypeptide multilayer nanofilms. Their loading and release were found to be pH-dependent and could also be controlled by changing the number of film layers and drug incubation time, and applying heat-treatment after film formation. Antibiotic-loaded polypeptide multilayer nanofilms showed controllable antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus. The developed biodegradable polypeptide multilayer nanofilms are capable of loading both positively- and negatively-charged drug molecules and promise to serve as drug delivery systems on biomedical devices for preventing biomedical device-associated infection, which is a significant clinical complication for both civilian and military patients.Keywords: polypeptide, self-assembly, polyelectrolyte multilayer, nanofilm, charged molecule, tunable release

  14. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Intracellular processing of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Skovbjerg, H; Norén, Ove

    1984-01-01

    The biosynthesis of pig small intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was studied by labelling of organ cultured mucosal explants with [35S]methionine. The earliest detactable form of the enzyme was an intracellular, membrane-bound polypeptide of Mr 225 000, sensitive to endo H...... 000 polypeptide is of the same size as the mature lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and was the only form expressed in the microvillar membrane. Together, these data are indicative of an intracellular proteolytic cleavage during transport. The presence of leupeptin during labelling prevented the appearance...

  15. Optimal screening of surface-displayed polypeptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, E T; Wittrup, K D

    1998-01-01

    Cell surface display of polypeptide libraries combined with flow cytometric cell sorting presents remarkable potential for enhancement of protein-ligand recognition properties. To maximize the utility of this approach, screening and purification conditions must be optimized to take full advantage of the quantitative feature of this technique. In particular, discrimination of improved library mutants from an excess of wild-type polypeptides is dependent upon an effective screening methodology. Fluorescence discrimination profiles for improved library mutants were derived from a mathematical model of expected cell fluorescence intensities for polypeptide libraries screened with fluorescent ligand. Profiles for surface-displayed libraries under equilibrium or kinetic screening conditions demonstrate distinct discrimination optima from which optimal equilibrium and kinetic screening parameters were derived. In addition, a statistical model of low cytometrically analyzed cell populations indicates the importance of low-stringency sorting followed by amplification through regrowth and resorting at increased stringency. This analysis further yields quantitative recommendations for cell-sorting stringency.

  16. Intestinal ferritin H is required for an accurate control of iron absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoaica, Liviu; Darshan, Deepak; Richman, Larry; Schümann, Klaus; Kühn, Lukas C

    2010-09-08

    To maintain appropriate body iron levels, iron absorption by the proximal duodenum is thought to be controlled by hepcidin, a polypeptide secreted by hepatocytes in response to high serum iron. Hepcidin limits basolateral iron efflux from the duodenal epithelium by binding and downregulating the intestinal iron exporter ferroportin. Here, we found that mice with an intestinal ferritin H gene deletion show increased body iron stores and transferrin saturation. As expected for iron-loaded animals, the ferritin H-deleted mice showed induced liver hepcidin mRNA levels and reduced duodenal expression of DMT1 and DcytB mRNA. In spite of these feedback controls, intestinal ferroportin protein and (59)Fe absorption were increased more than 2-fold in the deleted mice. Our results demonstrate that hepcidin-mediated regulation alone is insufficient to restrict iron absorption and that intestinal ferritin H is also required to limit iron efflux from intestinal cells.

  17. Gene knockout demonstrates that vip3A contributes to the pathogenesis of Bacillus thuringiensis toward Agrotis ipsilon and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, W P; Donovan, J C; Engleman, J T

    2001-07-01

    Vip3A is an 89-kDa protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during vegetative growth. To determine the importance of Vip3A for the insect pathogenicity of B. thuringiensis the vip3A gene was deleted from strain HD1, yielding strain HD1Deltavip3A. Compared with HD1, strain HD1Deltavip3A was one-fourth as toxic to Agrotis ipsilon larvae and less than one-tenth as toxic to Spodoptera exigua larvae. When streptomycin was included in the S. exigua diet the toxicity of HD1Deltavip3A was approximately half that of HD1. Addition of HD1 spores increased the toxicity of purified Cry1 protein more than 600-fold against S. exigua, whereas addition of HD1Deltavip3A spores increased toxicity of Cry1 protein approximately 10-fold. These results demonstrate that an important component of B. thuringiensis insecticidal activity against S. exigua is the synthesis of Vip3A protein by B. thuringiensis cells after ingestion of spores and crystal proteins by insect larvae.

  18. Drift Loss-Cone Distributions Electrons in the Jovian Synchrotron Zone from 06 and VIP4 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic electrons (10-50 MeV) play an important role to account for the observed synchrotron decimetric radiation in Jupiter's inner radiation belt (L loss cone for relativistic electrons using both the O6 and VIP4 magnetic field models. Model maps of the synchrotron emission for specific electron distributions are shown for comparison.

  19. The Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pöhlmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microtubules (MTs are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. Execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of MT dynamics. Here, we identify a new regulator of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MT cytoskeleton: Asp1, a member of the highly conserved Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. Inositol pyrophosphates generated by Asp1 modulate MT dynamic parameters independent of the central +TIP EB1 and in a dose-dependent and cellular-context-dependent manner. Importantly, our analysis of the in vitro kinase activities of various S. pombe Asp1 variants demonstrated that the C-terminal phosphatase-like domain of the dual domain Vip1 protein negatively affects the inositol pyrophosphate output of the N-terminal kinase domain. These data suggest that the former domain has phosphatase activity. Remarkably, Vip1 regulation of the MT cytoskeleton is a conserved feature, as Vip1-like proteins of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans and the distantly related pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis also affect the MT cytoskeleton in these organisms. Consistent with the role of interphase MTs in growth zone selection/maintenance, all 3 fungal systems show aspects of aberrant cell morphogenesis. Thus, for the first time we have identified a conserved biological process for inositol pyrophosphates.

  20. The Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family regulates polarized growth and modulates the microtubule cytoskeleton in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Jennifer; Risse, Carmen; Seidel, Constanze; Pohlmann, Thomas; Jakopec, Visnja; Walla, Eva; Ramrath, Pascal; Takeshita, Norio; Baumann, Sebastian; Feldbrügge, Michael; Fischer, Reinhard; Fleig, Ursula

    2014-09-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are pivotal for numerous eukaryotic processes ranging from cellular morphogenesis, chromosome segregation to intracellular transport. Execution of these tasks requires intricate regulation of MT dynamics. Here, we identify a new regulator of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe MT cytoskeleton: Asp1, a member of the highly conserved Vip1 inositol polyphosphate kinase family. Inositol pyrophosphates generated by Asp1 modulate MT dynamic parameters independent of the central +TIP EB1 and in a dose-dependent and cellular-context-dependent manner. Importantly, our analysis of the in vitro kinase activities of various S. pombe Asp1 variants demonstrated that the C-terminal phosphatase-like domain of the dual domain Vip1 protein negatively affects the inositol pyrophosphate output of the N-terminal kinase domain. These data suggest that the former domain has phosphatase activity. Remarkably, Vip1 regulation of the MT cytoskeleton is a conserved feature, as Vip1-like proteins of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans and the distantly related pathogenic basidiomycete Ustilago maydis also affect the MT cytoskeleton in these organisms. Consistent with the role of interphase MTs in growth zone selection/maintenance, all 3 fungal systems show aspects of aberrant cell morphogenesis. Thus, for the first time we have identified a conserved biological process for inositol pyrophosphates.

  1. Drift Loss-Cone Distributions Electrons in the Jovian Synchrotron Zone from 06 and VIP4 Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Levin, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Relativistic electrons (10-50 MeV) play an important role to account for the observed synchrotron decimetric radiation in Jupiter's inner radiation belt (L loss cone for relativistic electrons using both the O6 and VIP4 magnetic field models. Model maps of the synchrotron emission for specific electron distributions are shown for comparison.

  2. Mapping VIPS concepts for nursing interventions to the ISO reference terminology model for nursing actions: A collaborative Scandinavian analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehnfors, Margareta; Angermo, Lilly Marit; Berring, Lene

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the coherence between the concepts for nursing interventions in the Swedish VIPS model for nursing recording and the ISO Reference Terminology Model for Nursing Actions and to identify areas in the two models for further development. Seven Scandinavian exper...

  3. Elastin-like polypeptides: biomedical applications of tunable biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Sarah R; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-01-01

    Artificial repetitive polypeptides have grown in popularity as a bioinspired alternative to synthetic polymers. The genetically encoded synthesis, monodispersity, potential lack of toxicity, and biocompatibility are attractive features of these biopolymers for biological applications. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are one such class of biopolymers that are of particular interest because of their "smart"-stimuli responsive-properties. Herein, we discuss the genetically encoded design and recombinant synthesis of ELPs that enable precise control of their physicochemical properties and which have led to a wide range of biomedical applications of these biopolymers in the last decade.

  4. On the theory of phase transitions in polypeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix random coil transition in polypeptides. This process is considered as a first-order-like phase transition. The developed theory is free of model parameters and is based solely on fundamental physical...... principles. We apply the developed formalism for the description of thermodynamical properties of alanine polypeptides of different length. We analyze the essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, phase transition temperature and latent heat of the phase transition...

  5. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repair of volvulus; Intestinal volvulus - repair; Bowel obstruction - repair ... Intestinal obstruction repair is done while you are under general anesthesia . This means you are asleep and DO NOT feel pain. ...

  6. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestine . The digestive system removes and processes nutrients ( vitamins , minerals , carbohydrates , fats, proteins , and water) from foods ... a microscope to see whether they contain cancer. Bypass : Surgery to allow food in the small intestine ...

  7. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible residue of food. The ileocecal valve of the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the ...

  8. Intestinal ischemia and infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001151.htm Small intestinal ischemia and infarction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Intestinal ischemia and infarction occurs when there is a narrowing ...

  9. 益气健脾中药对脾气虚大鼠神经肽Y、血管活性肠肽和丝裂原活化蛋白激酶14基因表达的影响%Effect of Yiqi Jianpi Herb on Content of NPY, VIP and Expression of Mapk14 mRNA of Rats with Spleen-qi Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永强; 程卫东; 杜娟; 杨晓轶; 刘靓; 巩子汉; 朱立鸣; 成映霞; 李兰珍

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察脾气虚大鼠血清、小肠神经肽Y (NPY)和血管活性肠肽(VIP)含量,小肠组织丝裂原活化蛋白激酶14(Mapk14)mRNA表达的变化及益气健脾中药的干预效应,以揭示脾气虚证发生的内在机制。方法受试动物随机分为空白组、模型组(7、14、21 d组)、益气健脾组,每组10只。除空白组外,其余各组采用大黄法、力竭法及饥饿法复合法建立脾气虚证大鼠模型,造模同时益气健脾组每日给予四君子汤20 g/kg干预21 d,各组大鼠分时段采用放免法测定小肠、血清NPY和VIP含量,采用实时荧光定量PCR检测小肠组织Mapk14 mRNA表达水平。结果与空白组比较,模型组大鼠血清及小肠组织 NPY 含量降低(P<0.05),VIP 含量升高(P<0.05),小肠组织Mapk14 mRNA相对表达量升高(P<0.05),且以模型21 d组显著;与模型21 d组比较,益气健脾组大鼠血清及小肠组织NPY含量升高(P<0.05),VIP含量降低(P<0.05),小肠组织Mapk14 mRNA相对表达量降低(P<0.05)。结论益气健脾中药具有调节脑肠肽NPY、VIP分泌及抑制小肠组织Mapk14 mRNA异常表达的作用。%Objective To investigate the effect of Yiqi Jianpi herb on content of NPY, VIP and expression of Mapk14 mRNA of rats with spleen-qi deficiency. Methods Rats were randomly divided into normal groups, model group (observed on 7 d, 14 d and 21 d), treatment group of Yiqi Jianpi herb, 10 rats in each group. The spleen-qi deficient model rats were made by rhubarb, exhaustive and hungry method, and treatment group was treated with Sijunzi decoction (20 g/kg) for 21 d, then the content of NPY, VIP in serum and small intestine were evaluated with radioimmunoassay, and expression of Mapk14 mRNA in small intestine tissue was evaluated with real time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Results In model group, content of NPY was much lower than that of normal group (P<0.05), content of VIP and relative expression of Mapk14 mRNA in small intestine

  10. A Statistical Description of AGN Jet Evolution from the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS)

    CERN Document Server

    Helmboldt, J F; Walker, R C; Blanford, R D

    2008-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the evolution of the properties of core-jet systems within the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) is presented. We find a power-law relationship between jet intensity and width that suggests for the typical jet, little if any energy is lost as it moves away from its core. Using VLA images at 1.5 GHz, we have found evidence that parsec-scale jets tend to be aligned with the the direction of emission on kiloparsec scales. We also found that this alignment improves as the jets move farther from their cores on projected scales as small as ~50-100 pc. This suggests that realignment of jets on these projected scales is relatively common. We typically find a modest amount of bending (a change in jet position angle of ~5 deg.) on these scales, suggesting that this realignment may typically occur relatively gradually.

  11. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    0126 attenuated the VIP mRNA expression by 93%. 58%, 58% and 40%, respectively. PACAP modulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and CREB/ATF-1 (pCREB/ATF-1) concomitant with a translocation of PKA to the nucleus. Inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms and MEK1/2 completely abolished pERK1....../2 without affecting PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. In contrast, inhibiting PKA attenuated PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. PACAP also enhanced the FOS gene expression and individual presence of H-89, BIS, Go6976 and U0126 partially attenuated the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Combining the kinase inhibitors...

  12. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, Birgitte; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2009-01-01

    0126 attenuated the VIP mRNA expression by 93%, 58%, 58% and 40%, respectively. PACAP modulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and CREB/ATF-1 (pCREB/ATF-1) concomitant with a translocation of PKA to the nucleus. Inhibition of conventional PKC isoforms and MEK1/2 completely abolished pERK1....../2 without affecting PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. In contrast, inhibiting PKA attenuated PACAP induced pCREB/ATF-1. PACAP also enhanced the FOS gene expression and individual presence of H-89, BIS, Gö6976 and U0126 partially attenuated the PACAP induced FOS mRNA expression. Combining the kinase inhibitors...

  13. The role of VipAlbumin® as an immunostimulatory agent for controlling homeostasis and proliferation of lymphoid cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djati, Muhammad Sasmito; Rifa'I, Muhaimin

    2016-01-01

    VipAlbumin® is a supplement from snakehead fish (Ophiocephalus striatus) which has high content of albumin that is very important to develop new cells. The aims of this study were to know the effect of VipAlbumin® to cell proliferation, expression level of CD4+CD62L+ T cell, regulatory T cell, and B220+ cell, and immunocompetent cell cycle. Cell isolated from spleen of pathogen free mice were cultured in RPMI 1640 with 10% FBS, 1% Pen/Strep 10×, 2-Mercaptoetanol, anti-CD3 and LPS. The concentrations of VipAlbumin ® used were 0 µg/ml; 0.33 µg/ml; 33.3 µg/ml; and 3333.3 µg/ml. The cell was incubated in CO2 5% incubator 37°C for 3 days for cell cycle and 5 days for proliferation analysis and cell expression. FACS analysis was done to know cell proliferation profile, status of cell, and cell cycle. Concentration 33.3 µg/ml and 3333.3 µg/ml significantly can increase cell proliferation and induce cell enter G2/M phase (p < 0.05) compared to control. VipAlbumin can significantly increase the relative number of CD4+CD62L+ T cell, regulatory T cell, and B220+ cell (p < 0.05) compared to control. This study gives scientific evidence that VipAlbumin can be used as an immunostimulant which accelerates immunocompetent cells growth. PMID:27095920

  14. Is radiofrequency ablation justified for liver metastatic VIPoma patient undergoing Whipple procedure?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiang-tao; LIU Ying-bin; PENG Shu-you; FANG He-qing; LIU Xiao-lei; TANG Zhe; XU Jun; ZHANG Song-zhao; MA Rui; ZHANG Li-yong; WANG Jian-wei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide secreting tumors (VIPoma) are one kind of rare endocrine tumor which is mostly located in the pancreas.The annual incidence was estimated to be about 1 per 10 000 000 individuals in general population.1 The VIPoma is usually associated with Verner-Morrison syndrome following tremendous over-secretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which consisted of water diarrhea,hypokalemia and achlorhydria.This syndrome has been termed pancreatic cholera, watery diarrhea syndrome.

  15. Optimization, evaluation, and comparison of standard algorithms for image reconstruction with the VIP-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylova, E.; Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-07-01

    A novel positron emission tomography (PET) scanner design based on a room-temperature pixelated CdTe solid-state detector is being developed within the framework of the Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project [1]. The simulation results show a great potential of the VIP to produce high-resolution images even in extremely challenging conditions such as the screening of a human head [2]. With unprecedented high channel density (450 channels/cm3) image reconstruction is a challenge. Therefore optimization is needed to find the best algorithm in order to exploit correctly the promising detector potential. The following reconstruction algorithms are evaluated: 2-D Filtered Backprojection (FBP), Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM), List-Mode OSEM (LM-OSEM), and the Origin Ensemble (OE) algorithm. The evaluation is based on the comparison of a true image phantom with a set of reconstructed images obtained by each algorithm. This is achieved by calculation of image quality merit parameters such as the bias, the variance and the mean square error (MSE). A systematic optimization of each algorithm is performed by varying the reconstruction parameters, such as the cutoff frequency of the noise filters and the number of iterations. The region of interest (ROI) analysis of the reconstructed phantom is also performed for each algorithm and the results are compared. Additionally, the performance of the image reconstruction methods is compared by calculating the modulation transfer function (MTF). The reconstruction time is also taken into account to choose the optimal algorithm. The analysis is based on GAMOS [3] simulation including the expected CdTe and electronic specifics.

  16. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides Contribute to the Disposition of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Humans and Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Zitzow, Jeremiah D; Weaver, Yi; Ehresman, David J; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2016-12-24

    Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) such as perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have very long serum elimination half-lives in humans, and preferentially distribute to serum and liver. The enterohepatic circulation of PFHxS and PFOS likely contributes to their extended elimination half-lives. We previously demonstrated that perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), PFHxS, and PFOS are transported into hepatocytes both in a sodium-dependent and a sodium-independent manner. We identified Na(+)/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as the responsible sodium-dependent transporter. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the human apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT) contributes to the intestinal reabsorption of PFOS. However, so far no sodium-independent uptake transporters for PFSAs have been identified in human hepatocytes or enterocytes. In addition, perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) with 8 and 9 carbons were shown to preferentially distribute to the liver of rodents; however, no rat or human liver uptake transporters are known to transport these PFCAs. Therefore, we tested whether PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and PFCAs with 7-10 carbons are substrates of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). We used CHO and HEK293 cells to demonstrate that human OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 can transport PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS, and the 2 PFCAs (C8 and C9). In addition, we show that rat OATP1A1, OATP1A5, OATP1B2, and OATP2B1 transport all 3 PFSAs. In conclusion, our results suggest that besides NTCP and ASBT, OATPs also are capable of contributing to the enterohepatic circulation and extended human serum elimination half-lives of the tested perfluoroalkyl acids.

  17. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Wu, Songqing; Shao, Ensi; Li, Mengnan; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-03-30

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response of the S. litura midgut. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for immunity-related, metabolic-related and Bt-related genes. Twenty-nine immunity-related genes, 102 metabolic-related genes and 62 Bt-related genes with differential expression were found. On the basis of transcriptional profiling analysis, we focus on the functional validation of trypsin which potentially participated in the activation of Vip3Aa protoxin. Zymogram analysis indicated that the presence of many proteases, including trypsin, in S. litura larvae midgut. Results of enzymolysis in vitro of Vip3Aa by trypsin, and bioassay and histopathology of the trypsin-digested Vip3Aa toxin showed that trypsin was possibly involved in the Vip3Aa activation. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional validation of the differentially expressed genes in an agricultural important pest, S. litura.

  18. Resistance Risk Assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 Insecticidal Protein Expressed in Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda C L; Conville, Jared; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic Agrisure Viptera 3 corn that expresses Cry1Ab, Vip3Aa20, and EPSPS proteins and Agrisure Viptera expressing Vip3Aa20 are used for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support a resistance management program, resistance risk assessment studies were conducted to characterize the dose expression of Vip3Aa20 protein and level of control against these species. The Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera decreased from V6 to V10 stage of growth. However, Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 at V6 and V10 stages was 13- and 16-fold greater than Cry1Ab, respectively. The Vip3Aa20 expression in lyophilized tissue of Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera diluted 25-fold in an artificial diet caused complete larval mortality of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. In contrast, lyophilized tissue of Bt11 at the same dilution does not provide complete mortality of these species. Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera also caused a high level of mortality against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Moreover, 100% mortality was observed for S. frugiperda larvae (neonates through fifth-instar larvae) when fed in corn with the Vip trait technology. Viptera corn achieves a high level of control against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis providing a high dose, which is an important determination to support the refuge strategy for an effective resistance management program.

  19. Identification of regions within the Legionella pneumophila VipA effector protein involved in actin binding and polymerization and in interference with eukaryotic organelle trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugalhão, Joana N; Mota, Luís Jaime; Franco, Irina S

    2016-02-01

    The Legionella pneumophila effector protein VipA is an actin nucleator that co-localizes with actin filaments and early endosomes in infected macrophages and which interferes with organelle trafficking when expressed in yeast. To identify the regions of VipA involved in its subcellular localization and functions, we ectopically expressed specific VipA mutant proteins in eukaryotic cells. This indicated that the characteristic punctate distribution of VipA depends on its NH2 -terminal (amino acid residues 1-133) and central coiled-coil (amino acid residues 133-206) regions, and suggested a role for the COOH-terminal (amino acid residues 206-339) region in association with actin filaments and for the NH2 -terminal in co-localization with early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro assays showed that the COOH-terminal region of VipA is necessary and sufficient to mediate actin binding, and is essential but insufficient to induce microfilament formation. Assays in yeast revealed that the NH2 and the COOH-terminal regions, and possibly an NPY motif within the NH2 region of VipA, are necessary for interference with organelle trafficking. Overall, this suggests that subversion of eukaryotic vesicular trafficking by VipA involves both its ability to associate with early endosomes via its NH2 -terminal region and its capacity to bind and polymerize actin through its COOH-terminal region.

  20. Ser-substituted mutations of Cys residues in Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa7 exert a negative effect on its insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Zhang, Shanshan; Shi, Ruiping; Yi, Shuyuan; Xu, Fangyan; Liu, Ziduo

    2012-11-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIPs), which were produced by Bacillus thuringiensis during its vegetative growth stage, display a broad insecticidal spectrum to Lepidoptera larvae. Sequence alignment of the Vip3A-type indicates that three cysteine residues were conserved in Vip3A-type proteins. To determine whether these conserved cysteine residues contributed to the insecticidal activity, the three residues were respectively substituted with serine in the Vip3Aa7 protein by site-directed mutagenesis. Bioassays using the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella showed that the toxicity of C401S and C507S mutants were completely abolished. To find out the inactivity reason of mutants, three mutants and the wild-type Vip3Aa7 were treated with trypsin. The results indicated that the C507S mutant was rapidly cleaved and resulted in decrease of the 62 kDa toxic core fragment. These results indicated that the replacement of the Cys(507) with a Ser(507) caused decrease in C507S resistance against trypsin degradation. It is suggesting a possible association between insecticidal activity and trypsin sensitivity of Vip3A proteins. This study serves a guideline for the study of Vip3A protein structure and active mechanism.

  1. Effect of adding amino acids residues in N- and C-terminus of Vip3Aa16 (L121I) toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Cherif, Marwa; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2016-06-01

    To study the importance of N- and C-terminus of Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 (L121I) toxin (88 kDa), a number of mutants were generated. The addition of two (2R: RS) or eleven (11R: RSRPGHHHHHH) amino acid residues at the Vip3Aa16 (L121I) C-terminus allowed to an unappropriated folding illustrated by the abundant presence of the 62 kDa proteolytic form. The produced Vip3Aa16 (L121I) full length form was less detected when increasing the number of amino acids residues in the C-terminus. Bioassays demonstrated that the growth of the lepidopteran Ephestia kuehniella was slightly affected by Vip3Aa16 (L121I)-2R and not affected by Vip3Aa16 (L121I)-11R. Additionally, the fusion at the Vip3Aa16 (L121I) N-terminus of 39 amino acids harboring the E. coli OmpA leader peptide and the His-tag sequence allowed to the increase of protease sensitivity of Vip3Aa16 (L121I) full length form, as only the 62 kDa proteolysis form was detected. Remarkably, this fused protein produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) was biologically inactive toward Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Thus, the N-terminus of the protein is required to the accomplishment of the insecticidal activity of Vip3 proteins. This report serves as guideline for the study of Vip3Aa16 (L121I) protein stability and activity.

  2. Polypeptide Modulators of TRPV1 Produce Analgesia without Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav A. Andreev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors (TRPV1 play a significant physiological role. The study of novel TRPV1 agonists and antagonists is essential. Here, we report on the characterization of polypeptide antagonists of TRPV1 based on in vitro and in vivo experiments. We evaluated the ability of APHC1 and APHC3 to inhibit TRPV1 using the whole-cell patch clamp approach and single cell Ca2+ imaging. In vivo tests were performed to assess the biological effects of APHC1 and APHC3 on temperature sensation, inflammation and core body temperature. In the electrophysiological study, both polypeptides partially blocked the capsaicin-induced response of TRPV1, but only APHC3 inhibited acid-induced (pH 5.5 activation of the receptor. APHC1 and APHC3 showed significant antinociceptive and analgesic activity in vivo at reasonable doses (0.01–0.1 mg/kg and did not cause hyperthermia. Intravenous administration of these polypeptides prolonged hot-plate latency, blocked capsaicin- and formalin-induced behavior, reversed CFA-induced hyperalgesia and produced hypothermia. Notably, APHC3’s ability to inhibit the low pH-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted in a reduced behavioural response in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas APHC1 was much less effective. The polypeptides APHC1 and APHC3 could be referred to as a new class of TRPV1 modulators that produce a significant analgesic effect without hyperthermia.

  3. Research progress of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized at home and abroad that Cordyceps militaris is a fungus that can be edible and used for medicinal application, and also a common cordyceps taishanensis that is widely distributed and with very high medicinal value in China. Active Cordyceps militaris polypeptide has shown several highlights in its absorption mechanism, such as directly absorbed without the need for digestion, and absorbed quickly and completely, and more and more international researchers are attaching great importance to it. Physiological and pharmacological activities of Cordyceps militaris polypeptide are mainly to activate related enzyme systems, promote intermediary metabolisms or control the DNA transcription and translation, simultaneously activate the reticuloendothelial system and macrophage, promote the transformation of lymphocytes, and as a nonspecific immune enhancer and regulator, activate the immune competent cells, especially lymphocytes, lymphokines, mononuclear macrophage system and NK cells, thereby attacking the target cells to play an antitumor role, and also exerting its anti-aging, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic to enhance the immunity, improve the liver function and delay the aging. In this paper, the immunity improvement, anticancer, antioxidation and antimicrobial activities of active polypeptides from Cordyceps militaris are reviewed, in order to provide a solid theoretical help for the further development and application of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris.

  4. Kinetics of network formation by telechelic polypeptides with trimeric nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.; Wolf, de F.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the kinetics of transient network formation by monodisperse telechelic polypeptides with collagen-like end blocks and a random coil middle block. Upon cooling, the end blocks associate reversibly into triple helices, leading to gels with well-defined, trimeric crosslinks. Formation of tripl

  5. Vertebrate intestinal endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Jason R; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F

    2011-03-01

    The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence, as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation

    OpenAIRE

    Feifei Song; Chen Chen; Songqing Wu; Ensi Shao; Mengnan Li; Xiong Guan; Zhipeng Huang

    2016-01-01

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional res...

  7. Expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in bladder afferent pathways in VIP-/- mice with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe G; Studeny, Simon; May, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) with and without cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis (150 mg/kg, i.p; 48 h) was determined in VIP(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. p-CREB immunoreactivity (IR) was determined in bladder...... (Fast blue) afferent cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) bladder content was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Basal expression of p-CREB-IR in DRG of VIP(-/-) mice was (p .... Detrusor smooth muscle thickness was significantly increased in VIP(-/-) mice. Bladder NGF expression may contribute to differences in p-CREB expression....

  8. Adrenergic effects on secretion of epidermal growth factor from Brunner's glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1985-01-01

    The influence of the sympathetic nervous system and adrenergic agonists on flow rate and secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF) from Brunner's glands has been investigated in the rat. Chemical sympathectomy by administration of 6-hydroxydopamine increased volume secretion and output of EGF from...... Brunner's glands but depleted the glands of EGF. Infusion of noradrenaline, an alpha-adrenergic agonist, inhibited basal and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) stimulated flow rate and output of EGF from Brunner's glands and increased the amount of EGF in the tissue. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide...... also increased the amount of EGF in Brunner's gland tissue and this was unchanged after simultaneous infusion of VIP and noradrenaline as well as VIP and isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist. Isoproterenol had no effect on basal and VIP stimulated secretion of EGF from Brunner's glands...

  9. Polypeptide models to understand misfolding and amyloidogenesis and their relevance in protein design and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, Jesús

    2005-02-01

    The study of amyloid polypeptide models (polypeptides able to generate amyloid structures not necessarily connected with any pathology) provides an excellent tool to increase the understanding of the generic aspects of misfolding and aggregation as well as the details of the mechanism of polypeptide deposition in disease. This knowledge can be integrated and applied to different problems in therapy and biotechnology, and in particular to re-designing bio-active polypeptides (biopharmaceuticals) with improved properties.

  10. Recombinant host cells and nucleic acid constructs encoding polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-03-28

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  11. 苏云金芽孢杆菌3'端缺失的vip3A基因在大肠杆菌中的表达%Expression of the Truncated vip3A Gene at the 3'-terminus from Bacillus thuringiensis in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师永霞; 徐炜; 袁美妗; 孙钒; 庞义

    2006-01-01

    将苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)缺失C端154个氨基酸编码区的vip3A基因(vip3T)插入原核表达载体pQE30,构建了重组表达载体pQEvip3T,并转化大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)M15进行IPTG诱导表达,比较了完整的Vip3A蛋白和C端缺失的蛋白Vip3T的可溶性和杀虫活性.与Vip3A不同,融合蛋白Vip3T以不可溶的包含体形式存在,诱导表达的菌液中没有检测到可溶性Vip3T蛋白.生物测定结果表明,M15(pOTP)诱导表达的Vip3A蛋白对初孵斜纹夜蛾(Spodopteralitua)和甜菜夜蛾(S.exigua)幼虫具有较高的杀虫活性,其提纯的包含体无毒,但包含体的碱性裂解液却又恢复了对夜蛾科害虫的活性;M15(pQEvip3T)菌液、包含体及其碱性裂解液对这两种昆虫幼虫则完全无毒,说明在大肠杆菌中,Vip3A蛋白C端氨基酸可能对Vip3A蛋白的可溶性和杀虫活性具有重要的影响.

  12. Mucoadhesive intestinal devices for oral delivery of salmon calcitonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vivek; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Lee, Joohee; Anselmo, Aaron C; Doshi, Nishit; Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-12-28

    One of the major challenges faced by therapeutic polypeptides remains their invasive route of delivery. Oral administration offers a potential alternative to injections; however, this route cannot be currently used for peptides due to their limited stability in the stomach and poor permeation across the intestine. Here, we report mucoadhesive devices for oral delivery that are inspired by the design of transdermal patches and demonstrate their capabilities in vivo for salmon calcitonin (sCT). The mucoadhesive devices were prepared by compressing a polymeric matrix containing carbopol, pectin and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (1:1:2), and were coated on all sides but one with an impermeable and flexible ethyl cellulose (EC) backing layer. Devices were tested for in vitro dissolution, mucoadhesion to intestinal mucosa, enhancement of drug absorption in vitro (Caco-2 monolayer transport) and in vivo in rats. Devices showed steady drug release with ≈75% cumulative drug released in 5h. Devices also demonstrated strong mucoadhesion to porcine small intestine to withstand forces up to 100 times their own weight. sCT-loaded mucoadhesive devices exhibited delivery of sCT across Caco-2 monolayers and across the intestinal epithelium in vivo in rats. A ≈52-fold (pharmacokinetic) and ≈44-fold (pharmacological) enhancement of oral bioavailability was observed with mucoadhesive devices when compared to direct intestinal injections. Oral delivery of devices in enteric coated capsules resulted in significant bioavailability enhancement.

  13. Vip3A is responsible for the potency of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C culture supernatant against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xiao, Liang; Yan, Bing; Bin, Guan; Chen, Yuehua; Ren, Gaixin

    2006-04-01

    Culture supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis 9816C had high toxicity against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. However, it lost insecticidal activities after being bathed in boiling water for 5 min. Acrystalliferous mutants of Bt9816C (Bt9816C-NP1 and Bt9816C-NP2) cured of its endogenous plasmids no longer possessed vip3A gene and toxicity. The 89 kD protein which existed in Bt9816C supernatant disappeared in the two mutants' supernatant; nevertheless, the two mutants still exhibited hemolytic and phospholipase C activity as Bt9816C did. The vip3A gene of Bt9816C, vip3Aa18, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. Bioassay demonstrated that the recombinant E. coli had high toxicity against S. exigua. Taken together, it suggested that Vip3A protein was responsible for the toxicity of Bt9816C culture supernatants.

  14. Proteínas Cry1 e Vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis: sinergismo e efeito sub-letal no controle de Heliothis virescens

    OpenAIRE

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    A bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) possui a capacidade de produzir inclusões protéicas (proteína Cry) e proteínas vegetativas (Vip). Estas proteínas podem ser tóxicas para insetos e por meio de transgenia, a expressão em plantas, podem também proporcionar controle de importantes pragas agrícolas. Nesse sentido, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de controle das proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Vip3A(1), Vip3A(2) e Vip3A(3) em uma população brasileira da lagarta-da-maçã, ...

  15. Overproduction of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin and study of its insecticidal activity against the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Triki, Nesrine; Kamoun, Fakher; Saadaoui, Imen; Chakroun, Maissa; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2015-05-01

    The vip3Aa16 gene of Bacillus thuringiensis strain BUPM95 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Optimization of Vip3A16 protein expression was conducted using Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology. Accordingly, the optimum Vip3A16 toxin production was 170μg/ml at 18h post-induction time and 39°C post-induction temperature. This corresponds to an improvement of 21times compared to the starting conditions. The insecticidal activity, evaluated against Ectomyelois ceratoniae, displayed an LC50 value of 40ng/cm(2) and the midgut histopathology of Vip3Aa16 fed larvae showed vacuolization of the cytoplasm, brush border membrane destruction, vesicle formation in the apical region and cellular disintegration.

  16. Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the

  17. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  18. Investigation of the steps involved in the difference of susceptibility of Ephestia kuehniella and Spodoptera littoralis to the Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkefi-Mesrati, L.; Boukedi, H.; Chakroun, M.; Kamoun, F.; Azzouz, H.; Tounsi, S.; Rouis, S.; Jaoua, S.

    2011-01-01

    BUPM95 is a Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain producing the Vip3Aa16 toxin with an interesting insecticidal activity against the Lepidopteran larvae Ephestia kuehniella. Study of different steps in the mode of action of this Vegetative Insecticidal Protein on the Mediterranean flour moth (E. kuehniella) was carried out in the aim to investigate the origin of the higher susceptibility of this insect to Vip3Aa16 toxin compared to that of the Egyptian cotton leaf worm Spodoptera litt...

  19. Characterization of the resistance to Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa armigera from Australia and the role of midgut processing and receptor binding

    OpenAIRE

    Maissa Chakroun; Núria Banyuls; Tom Walsh; Sharon Downes; Bill James; Juan Ferré

    2016-01-01

    Crops expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) are among the most successful technologies developed for the control of pests but the evolution of resistance to them remains a challenge. Insect resistant cotton and maize expressing the Bt Vip3Aa protein were recently commercialized, though not yet in Australia. We found that, although relatively high, the frequency of alleles for resistance to Vip3Aa in field populations of H. armigera in Australia did not increase over the past...

  20. Implementing Electronic Patient Record and VIPS in medical hospital wards: Evaluating change in quantity and quality of nursing documentation by using the audit instrument Cat-ch-Ing

    OpenAIRE

    Rykkje, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The study examines the effectiveness of implementation of electronic nursing documentation and the nursing documentation system VIPS at the Department of Medicine, and also aims to improve our understanding of content and quality in nursing documentation. Background: After introducing Electronic Patient Record (EPR) and VIPS to medical wards, change in the quantity and quality of nursing documentation was evaluated by using the audit instrument Cat-ch-Ing. Method: Cat-ch-Ing ...

  1. Synergism and Antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 Proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Rita Nunes Lemes; Camila Chiaradia Davolos; Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi Legori; Odair Aparecido Fernandes; Juan Ferré; Manoel Victor Franco Lemos; Janete Apparecida Desiderio

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two c...

  2. Jejunum ileal intestinal atresia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio J. Puente Fonseca

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal atresia is one of the most important causes of intestinal obstruction in newborn. They constitute aorund 95% of total intestinal obstructions in this age group. Most of intestinal atresias are jejunoieal atresia. Although it is not frequent their relationship with other congenital anomalies, has been described the association in some cases with defects of intestine rotation, meconium peritonitis, with meconium ileus and rarely with the Hirschsprung diseases. The hereditary character has also been described in certain multiple intestinal atresias. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Jejunoileal atresia, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.

  3. Intestinal M cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    We have an enormous number of commensal bacteria in our intestine, moreover, the foods that we ingest and the water we drink is sometimes contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. The intestinal epithelium is always exposed to such microbes, friend or foe, so to contain them our gut is equipped with specialized gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), literally the largest peripheral lymphoid tissue in the body. GALT is the intestinal immune inductive site composed of lymphoid follicles such as Peyer's patches. M cells are a subset of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) residing in the region of the epithelium covering GALT lymphoid follicles. Although the vast majority of IEC function to absorb nutrients from the intestine, M cells are highly specialized to take up intestinal microbial antigens and deliver them to GALT for efficient mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. I will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of M-cell differentiation and functions.

  4. Characterization of the resistance to Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa armigera from Australia and the role of midgut processing and receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Banyuls, Núria; Walsh, Tom; Downes, Sharon; James, Bill; Ferré, Juan

    2016-04-20

    Crops expressing genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crops) are among the most successful technologies developed for the control of pests but the evolution of resistance to them remains a challenge. Insect resistant cotton and maize expressing the Bt Vip3Aa protein were recently commercialized, though not yet in Australia. We found that, although relatively high, the frequency of alleles for resistance to Vip3Aa in field populations of H. armigera in Australia did not increase over the past four seasons until 2014/15. Three new isofemale lines were determined to be allelic with previously isolated lines, suggesting that they belong to one common gene and this mechanism is relatively frequent. Vip3Aa-resistance does not confer cross-resistance to Cry1Ac or Cry2Ab. Vip3Aa was labeled with (125)I and used to show specific binding to H. armigera brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Binding was of high affinity (Kd = 25 and 19 nM for susceptible and resistant insects, respectively) and the concentration of binding sites was high (Rt = 140 pmol/mg for both). Despite the narrow-spectrum resistance, binding of (125)I-labeled Vip3Aa to BBMV of resistant and susceptible insects was not significantly different. Proteolytic conversion of Vip3Aa protoxin into the activated toxin rendered the same products, though it was significantly slower in resistant insects.

  5. Interação de proteínas Cry1 e Vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis para controle de lepidópteros-praga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi-Legori

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a suscetibilidade das lagartas Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Erebidae e Chrysodeixis includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae às proteínas Cry1 e Vip3A, bem como determinar se há a interação entre essas proteínas no controle das duas espécies. Bioensaios com as proteínas isoladas e em combinações foram realizados, e as concentrações letais CL50 e CL90 foram estimadas para cada condição. As proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac e Vip3Af foram as mais efetivas no controle de A. gemmatalis, enquanto Cry1Ac, Vip3Aa e Vip3Af foram mais efetivas no de C. includens. As proteínas Cry1Ac e Cry1Ca causaram maior inibição do desenvolvimento das larvas sobreviventes à CL50, em ambas as espécies. Combinações entre Vip3A e Cry1 apresentam efeito sinérgico no controle das espécies e a combinação Vip3Aa+Cry1Ea destaca-se no controle de A. gemmatalis e C. includens. Essas proteínas combinadas são promissoras na construção de plantas piramidadas, para o controle simultâneo das pragas.

  6. Identificação e caracterização de genes vip e cry coleóptero‑específicos em isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire de Cássia Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e caracterizar os genes cry3, vip1, vip2 e vip1/vip2 em uma coleção de 1.078 isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis potencialmente tóxicos para larvas de coleópteros. Foram utilizados pares de oligonucleotídeos iniciadores gerais obtidos a partir de regiões conservadas dos genes e do alinhamento de sequências consenso. Posteriormente, os isolados positivos foram caracterizados por meio da técnica de PCR‑RFLP, tendo-se utilizado enzimas de restrição específicas, para identificar novas subclasses de genes nos isolados. Cento e cinquenta e um isolados foram positivos para os genes avaliados, com maior frequência para o gene vip1/vip2 (139 isolados. Pela técnica de PCR‑RFLP, foram observados 14 perfis polimórficos, o que indica a presença de diferentes alelos e, consequentemente, de distintas subclasses desses genes.

  7. Compositions and methods for making selenocysteine containing polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soll, Dieter; Aldag, Caroline; Hohn, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec and methods of using them for recombinant expression of proteins engineered to include one or more selenocysteine residues are disclosed. The non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec can be used for recombinant manufacture of selenocysteine containing polypeptides encoded by mRNA without the requirement of an SECIS element. In some embodiments, selenocysteine containing polypeptides are manufactured by co-expressing a non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec a recombinant expression system, such as E. coli, with SerRS, EF-Tu, SelA, or PSTK and SepSecS, and an mRNA with at least one codon that recognizes the anticodon of the non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec.

  8. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laurie Drozdowski; Alan BR Thomson

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications.

  9. Development of dipsticks for simultaneous detection of vip3A and cry1Ab/cry1Ac transgenic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    The number of genetically modified (GM) crops being cultivated and its produce reaching market is increasing every year. The transgenes (vip3A, cry1Ab, and cry1Ac) from Bacillus thuringiensis are being used by plant breeders, apart from other transgenes for developing insect pest-resistant GM crops. It is therefore necessary to develop an easy, rapid, and reliable detection assay to discriminate GM crops and non-GM crops. Dipstick strips using colloidal gold-labeled polyclonal antibodies were developed for simultaneous detection of Vip3A and Cry1Ab/CrylAc proteins. The assay was essentially based on the sandwich format of immunoassay, which was completed within 10 min, and the results were evaluated visually. The detection limits were 50 ng/mL (50 ppb) for both CrylAc and CrylAb proteins, and 100 ng/mL (100 ppb) for Vip3A protein. The developed dipsticks are suitable for on-site simultaneous screening of GM crops bearing two proteins, which, in turn, reduce cost and time of the assay.

  10. Test of the validity of the spin statistics with X-ray spectroscopy - VIP2 at LNGS Gran Sasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Johann; VIP2 Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    We are experimentally investigating possible violations of standard quantum mechanics predictions in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory in Italy. We test with high precision the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the collapse of the wave function (collapse models). We present our method of searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) for electrons, through the search for ``anomalous'' X-ray transitions in copper atoms, produced by ``fresh'' electrons (brought inside the copper bar by circulating current) which can have the probability to undergo Pauli-forbidden transition to the 1 s level already occupied by two electrons and we describe the VIP2 (VIolation of PEP) experiment under data taking at the Gran Sasso underground laboratories. In this talk the new VIP2 setup installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory will be presented. The goal of VIP2 is to test the PEP for electrons with unprecedented accuracy, down to a limit in the probability that PEP is violated at the level of 10E-31. We show preliminary experimental results and discuss implications of a possible violation. Supported by the Austrian Science Fund (project P25529-N20.

  11. Central vagal stimulation activates enteric cholinergic neurons in the stomach and VIP neurons in the duodenum in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pu-Qing; Kimura, Hiroshi; Million, Mulugeta; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Wang, Lixin; Ohning, Gordon V; Taché, Yvette

    2005-04-01

    The influence of central vagal stimulation induced by 2h cold exposure or intracisternal injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog, RX-77368, on gastro-duodenal enteric cholinergic neuronal activity was assessed in conscious rats with Fos and peripheral choline acetyltransferase (pChAT) immunoreactivity (IR). pChAT-IR was detected in 68%, 70% and 73% of corpus, antrum and duodenum submucosal neurons, respectively, and in 65% of gastric and 46% of duodenal myenteric neurons. Cold and RX-77368 induced Fos-IR in over 90% of gastric submucosal and myenteric neurons, while in duodenum only 25-27% of submucosal and 50-51% myenteric duodenal neurons were Fos positive. In the stomach, cold induced Fos-IR in 93% of submucosal and 97% of myenteric pChAT-IR neurons, while in the duodenum only 7% submucosal and 5% myenteric pChAT-IR neurons were Fos positive. In the duodenum, cold induced Fos in 91% of submucosal and 99% of myenteric VIP-IR neurons. RX-77368 induces similar percentages of Fos/pChAT-IR and Fos/VIP-IR neurons. These results indicate that increased central vagal outflow activates cholinergic neurons in the stomach while in the duodenum, VIP neurons are preferentially stimulated.

  12. Combinatorial effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant and Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa16 toxin on Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Boukedi, Hanen; Dammak, Mariam; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim

    2017-03-01

    Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most serious and destructive agricultural pests in the world, is very susceptible to Vip3 toxin. In order to develop a new efficient bioinsecticide and to prevent the development of resistance by the target pest, insecticidal activity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AG1 was evaluated against S. littoralis. Bioassays revealed the susceptibility of the first instar larvae of this pest to AG1 biosurfactant with an LC50 of 245ng/cm(2). Moreover, the histopathology examination of the larval midgut treated by AG1 biosurfactant showed vacuolization, necrosis and disintegration of the basement membrane. Binding experiments revealed that the AG1 biosurfactant recognized three putative receptors located in the brush border membrane vesicles of S. littoralis with sizes of 91, 72 and 64kDa. Competition assays using biotinylated metabolites indicated that AG1 biosurfactant and Vip3Aa16 toxin did not compete for the same S. littoralis receptors. When combined, AG1 biosurfactant and Vip3Aa16 showed an additive effect against S. littoralis larvae. These findings suggested that B. amyloliquefaciens AG1 biosurfactant could be a promising biocontrol agent to eradicate S. littoralis and to prevent resistance development by this pest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shotgun proteome analysis of beer and the immunogenic potential of beer polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Nitride, Chiara; Addeo, Francesco; Camarca, Alessandra; Vocca, Immacolata; Gianfrani, Carmen; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2012-10-22

    The majority of beer proteins originate from barley (Hordeum vulgare) which is used for brewing. Barley is known to contain celiacogenic gliadin-like prolamins (hordeins) along with other immunogenic proteins which endure malt proteases and the harsh conditions of brewing. In addition, a multitude of peptides that may retain or even amplify the immune-stimulating potential is released in beer because of proteolysis. The comprehensive annotation of the beer proteome is challenged both by the high concentration range of the protein entities and by a severe degree of processing-induced modifications. Overcoming the pitfalls of the classical two-dimensional electrophoresis approach coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), the gel-free shotgun proteomic analysis expanded the current inventory of a popular Italian beer to 33 gene products, including traces of intact B- and D-hordeins and 10 proteins from Saccharomyces spp. The high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray MS/MS peptidomic analysis of the low-molecular weight beer components disclosed a panel of hordein-derived peptides that encrypt gluten-like sequence motifs, potentially harmful to celiacs. The presence of antigliadin IgA-immunoresponsive prolamins was assayed by Western and dot blot using sera of N=4 celiac patients. Gliadin-reactive T-cell lines isolated from the intestine of N=5 celiacs activated an IFN-γ response when challenged with deamidated beer polypeptides.

  14. Cloning and functional characterization of the pig (Sus scrofa) organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yejin; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Zheren; Xiao, Yunpeng; Hong, Mei

    2013-08-01

    1. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a family of transporter proteins that have been extensively recognized as key determinants of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of various drugs. Human OATP1A2 has been demonstrated to transport wide spectrum of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Study on OATP1A2 orthologues of other species, however, is still limited. 2. Here, we described the cloning and functional characterization of a member of the OATP/Oatp family member obtained from pig (Sus scrofa) liver. Sequence analysis suggested that it has a high homology with human OATP1A2 and bovine Oatp1a2. Prototypic substrates estrone-3-sulfate (E-3-S) and taurocholic acid were transported by the protein. The transport of these two substrates is pH-dependent, with lower pH showing higher uptake function. Kinetic study showed the transport of these two substrates have a Km of 42.5 ± 12.1 and 33.1 ± 8.7 µM, respectively. Pig Slco1a2 has the highest expression level in the liver, and to a less extend in the brain and small intestine. 3. In conclusion, an OATP member was cloned from pig liver. Sequence analysis and phylogenic study revealed it as an orthologue of human OATP1A2. Its kinetic characteristic for prototypic substrates and organ distribution are similar with that of OATP1A2.

  15. Regulation of gut hormone secretion. Studies using isolated perfused intestines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens Juul.

    2016-01-01

    hormones is highly increased after gastric bypass operations, which have turned out to be an effective therapy of not only obesity but also type 2 diabetes. These effects are likely to be due, at least in part, to increases in the secretion of these gut hormones (except GIP). Therefore, stimulation......A review. The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in the intestine along with other gut hormones (PYY, CCK and neurotensin) shown to affect metab. and/or appetite. The secretion of many gut...... detailed mapping of the expression profiles of these cells, whereas they are less suitable for physiol. studies of secretion. Isolated perfused prepns. of mouse and rat intestines have proven to be reliable models for dynamic hormone secretion and should be able to bridge the gap between the mol. details...

  16. Polypeptide Chirality Influences Multilayer Thin Film Growth and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Zephra; Khadka, Dhan; Haynie, Donald

    2011-03-01

    Polypeptide multilayer thin films are being developed for a variety of applications.These include coatings for implant devices and systems for drug delivery in thebiomedical sciences, and optical coatings. Subsequent polymer adsorption steps involve polymers of opposite polarity. Here, the polymers were polypeptides. This project compared the consequences of changing polypeptide chirality on film growth and structure. The peptides were poly(L-glutamic acid), its right-handed counterpart, poly(D-glutamic acid), and poly(lysine-tyrosine). The first two are negatively charged at neutral pH, the third one is positively charged. Poly(lysine-tyrosine)/poly(L-glutamic acid) films and poly(lysine-tyrosine)/poly(D-glutamic acid) films werefabricated on 1 mm-thick quartz plates. In one experiment, films were grown to 34layers. The UV absorption spectrum was taken after each layer deposited to determinethe rate of polymer self-assembly. Separately, UV or visible wavelength spectra wereobtained for films stained with a dye cooled/heated in the range 4-65 °C. In anotherexperiment, a mixture of poly-L-glutamic acid and poly-D-glutamic acid was used as thepolyanion for film buildup. The data show that poly(lysine-tyrosine)/poly(L-glutamicacid) films built up at a higher rate than the corresponding right-handed films.

  17. Chirality-mediated polypeptide micelles for regulated drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianxun; Li, Chen; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Weiguo; Wang, Jincheng; Chen, Xuesi

    2015-01-01

    Two kinds of triblock poly(ethylene glycol)-polyleucine (PEG-PLeu) copolymers were synthesized through the ring-opening polymerization of L-Leu N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), or equivalent D-Leu NCA and L-Leu NCA with amino-terminated PEG as a macroinitiator. The amphiphilic copolymers spontaneously self-assembled into spherical micellar aggregations in an aqueous environment. The micelle with a racemic polypeptide core exhibited smaller critical micelle concentration and diameter compared to those with a levorotatory polypeptide core. A model anthracycline antineoplastic agent, i.e., doxorubicin (DOX), was loaded into micelles through nanoprecipitation, and the PEG-P(D,L-Leu) micelle exhibited higher drug-loading efficacy than that with a P(L-Leu) core-this difference was attributed to the flexible and compact P(L-Leu) core. Sustained in vitro DOX release from micelles with both levorotatory and racemic polypeptide cores was observed, and the DOX-loaded PEG-P(D,L-Leu) micelle exhibited a slower release rate. More interestingly, DOX-loaded micelles exhibited chirality-mediated antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo, which are all better than that of free DOX. Furthermore, both enhanced tumor inhibition and excellent security in vivo were confirmed by histopathological or in situ cell apoptosis analyses. Therefore, DOX-loaded PEG-PLeu micelles appear to be an interesting nanoscale polymeric formulation for promising malignancy chemotherapy.

  18. Separation and nanoencapsulation of antitumor polypeptide from Spirulina platensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bochao; Zhang, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a multicellular edible blue-green alga with abundant proteins (∼ 60%). No report is available on the antitumor polypeptides from the whole proteins of S. platensis. In this study, for the first time, an antitumor polypeptide Y2 from trypsin digest of S. platensis proteins was obtained by using freeze-thawing plus ultrasonication extraction, hydrolysis with four enzymes (trypsin, alcalase, papain, and pepsin), and gel filtration chromatography. The results showed that the degree of hydrolysis can be ordered as: trypsin (38.5%) > alcalase (31.2%) > papain (27.8%) > pepsin (7.1%). For MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, at 250 µg/mL, the maximum inhibitory rate of Y2 was 97%, while standard drug 5-FU was 55 and 97%, respectively. Furthermore, the nanoencapsulation of Y2 with chitosan (CS) was also investigated. After nanoencapsulation, the maximum encapsulation efficiency and polypeptides contents are 49 and 15%, respectively; and the antitumor activity is basically not lost. These data demonstrated the potential of nanopolypeptides (Y2-CS) in food and pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Polypeptide synthesis induced in Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts by infection with raspberry ringspot nepovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, O; Mayo, M A

    1993-01-01

    Infection of Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts by raspberry ringspot nepovirus resulted in the accumulation of about 24 polypeptides that differed in M(r) and pI from polypeptides accumulating in mock-inoculated protoplasts. Similar polypeptides accumulated in protoplasts infected with the S and E strains of RRV but different infection-specific polypeptides were detected in protoplasts infected with tobacco ringspot nepovirus. The M(r) of RRV-specific polypeptides ranged from 210,000 to 18,000 and most are presumed to be derived from others by proteolytic cleavage. No evidence was found for marked changes in polypeptide abundance with time after inoculation or for any virus-specific polypeptide becoming disproportionately abundant in the medium during culture.

  20. Bioactivity of vip3A Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates and Cloning of Vip3A-LS1 Gene from Bt LS1%苏云金杆菌营养期蛋白杀虫活性及Vip3A-LS1基因克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆秀君; 郝会海; 宋萍; 杜克久; 李国勋

    2007-01-01

    对营养期高活性杀虫菌株进行筛选,得到高效菌株Bt LS1,对其营养期杀虫蛋白活性及发酵特性进行了系统研究,克隆了该菌株的vip3A新基因.测定了31株vip3A基因阳性菌株营养期杀虫蛋白的活性,发现Bt LS1和Bt LS8菌株对甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua生长的抑制作用明显高于其他菌株.进一步研究表明,Bt LS1菌株营养期杀虫蛋白对初孵和2龄甜菜夜蛾幼虫的体重增长抑制率分别为95.3% ±2.1%和90.7% ±6.6%;对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera初孵幼虫的校正死亡率为22.1%,对2龄幼虫的体重增长抑制率为78.7% ±6.6%.发酵液中以胞内可溶性物质为主.设计vip3A全长基因特异引物PCR扩增,插入质粒pBluescript SK(+),克隆测序证实该菌株中存在vip3A新基因,命名为Vip3A-LS1,GenBank登录号为DQ016968.按该序列推断的蛋白与同类蛋白的8个氨基酸之间存在差异.

  1. Linker polypeptides of the phycobilisome from the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus. I. Isolation and characterization of phycobiliprotein-linker-polypeptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaller, P; Suter, F; Zuber, H

    1986-07-01

    Phycobilisomes from the cyanobacterium Mastigocladus laminosus cultured in white and red light were isolated and compared with respect to the phycoerythrocyanin (PEC) and linker polypeptide contents. It was verified that the production of PEC is induced by low light intensities. A PEC complex, (alpha PEC beta PEC)6LR34.5,PEC, and a phycocyanin (PC) complex, (alpha PC beta PC)6LR34.5,PC, were isolated from phycobilisomes by Cellex-D anion exchange chromatography and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The absorption and fluorescence emission maxima of the PEC complex are at 575 and 620 nm and those of the PC complex are at 631 and 647 nm, respectively. The extinction coefficients of the two complexes were determined. From different experiments it was concluded that PEC is present as a hexameric complex, (alpha PEC beta PEC)6LR34.5,PEC, in the phycobilisome. The two linker polypeptides LR34.5,PEC and LR34.5,PC were isolated from their phycobiliprotein complexes by gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-100 in 50% formic acid. A 5-kDa terminal segment of both linker polypeptides was found to influence the hexamer formation of the phycobiliproteins. The same segments have been described to be responsible for the hexamer-hexamer linkage (Yu, M.-H. & Glazer, A.N. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 3429-3433). A 8.9-kDa linker polypeptide, LR(C)8.9, was isolated from a PEC fraction of the Cellex-D column by Bio-Gel P-100 gel filtration in 50% formic acid. Localisation of this protein within the phycobilisome was attempted. Its most probable function is to terminate the phycobilisomal rods at the end distal to the allophycocyanin core.

  2. Vasodilatory effect of the stable vasoactive intestinal peptide analog RO 25-1553 in murine and rat lungs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yin

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Stable analogs of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have been proposed as novel line of therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD based on their bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We speculated that VIP analogs may provide additional benefits in that they exert vasodilatory properties in the lung, and tested this hypothesis in both ex vivo and in vivo models. METHODS: In isolated perfused mouse lungs and in an in vivo rat model, pulmonary blood vessels were preconstricted by hypoxia and hemodynamic changes in response to systemic (ex vivo or inhaled (in vivo administration of the cyclic VIP analog RO 25-1553 were determined. RESULTS: In mouse lungs, RO 25-1553 reduced intrinsic vascular resistance at normoxia, and attenuated the increase in pulmonary artery pressure in response to acute hypoxia. Consistently, inhalation of RO 25-1553 (1 mg · mL(-1 for 3 min caused an extensive and sustained (> 60 min inhibition of the pulmonary arterial pressure increase in response to hypoxia in vivo that was comparable to the effects of inhaled sildenafil. This effect was not attributable to systemic cardiovascular effects of RO 25-1553, but to a lung specific reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance, while cardiac output and systemic arterial hemodynamics remained unaffected. No adverse effects of RO 25-1553 inhalation on pulmonary gas exchange, ventilation-perfusion matching, or lung fluid content were detected. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that inhaled delivery of the stable VIP analog RO 25-1553 induces a potent and sustained vasodilatory effect in the pulmonary circulation with no detectable adverse effects. Therapeutic inhalation of RO 25-1553 may provide vascular benefits in addition to its reported anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effects in COPD, yet caution is warranted given the overall poor results of vasodilator therapies for pulmonary hypertension secondary to COPD in a series of recent

  3. Neuromodulation of intestinal inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costes, L.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the central nervous system and the immune system have been shown to exert a crucial role in the tight regulation of the immune response in the intestine. In particular, the vagus nerve was recently unraveled as an important player in this neuromodulation of intestinal inflammati

  4. Intestinal solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, Bente; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of absorptive intestinal membrane transporters play an important part in absorption and distribution of several nutrients, drugs and prodrugs. The present paper gives a general overview on intestinal solute carriers as well as on trends and strategies for targeting drugs and/or pro...

  5. 苏云金芽胞杆菌WB5中营养期杀虫蛋白3Aa基因(vip3Aa)的克隆、表达与纯化%Cloning, Expression and Purification of Vegetative Insecticidal Protein 3Aa Gene(vip3Aa) from Bacillus thuringiensis WB5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凡冰; 宋飞飞; 石鹏; 黄志鹏; 关雄

    2014-01-01

    营养期杀虫蛋白(vegetative insectcidal protein, Vip)是由苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt)在营养生长指数中期至稳定期期间分泌产生的一类新型杀虫因子,分为Vip1、Vip2和Vip3三种,以Vip3的研究最为深入。Vip3A对鳞翅目(Lepidoptera)害虫具有广谱杀虫活性,具有重要研究意义。本研究以BtWB5菌株总DNA为模板,采用PCR方法扩增vip3Aa(GenBank登录号:AAM22456)全长,将该片段纯化回收后与pMD18-T连接并转入大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)DH5α,进行酶切验证和序列测定。将vip3Aa基因片段与经同样酶切的表达载体pCzn1连接,构建重组表达载体pCzn1-vip3Aa,转入大肠杆菌ArcticExpressTM (DE3),异丙基-β-D-硫代吡喃半乳糖苷(isopropylβ-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside, IPTG)进行诱导表达。SDS-PAGE结果表明,在沉淀和上清中均有约88 kD VIP3Aa蛋白质表达产物;采用Ni亲和树脂对上清中的VIP3Aa融合表达蛋白进行了纯化,获得了纯化蛋白。本研究成功亚克隆了vip3Aa基因,并表达纯化了VIP3Aa蛋白,为后续研究VIP3Aa蛋白在昆虫中肠的作用受体提供了基础资料。%Vegetative insecticidal proteins(Vips) are one kind of novel toxic proteins, which are generated and excreted by Bacillus thuringiensis(Bt) cells during growth from mid-exponential phase to the stationary phase. Vips may generally be classified into 3 groups of Vip1, Vip2 and Vip3, of which Vip3 is the most intensively studied. It has important research significance because of broad-spectrum insecticidal activities to Lepidoptera pests. The entire coding region of vip3Aa(GenBank No. AAM22456) gene was amplified by PCR with total DNA extracted from BtWB5 as template. PCR product was purified and ligated with pMD18-T to form the recombinant pMD18-T-vip3Aa, and then transformed into Escherichia coli DH5. The recombinant plasmid DNA extracted from the selected positive clone was used for nucleotide

  6. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Dušan Đ.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy. Tortous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Clinical manifestations include malabsorption, diarrhea, steatorrhea, edema and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Case report. A 19-year old male patient was hospitalized due to diarrhea, abdominal swelling, weariness and fatigue. Physical examination revealed growth impairment, ascites, and lymphedema of the right hand and forearm. Laboratory assessment indicated iron deficiency anaemia, lymphopenia, malabsorption, inflammatory syndrome, and urinary infection. Enteroscopy and video capsule endoscopy demonstrated dilated lymphatic vessels in the small intestine. The diagnosis was confirmed by intestinal biopsy. The patient was put on high-protein diet containing medium-chain fatty acids, somatotropin and suportive therapy. Conclusion. Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease, usually diagnosed in childhood. Early recognition of the disease and adequate treatment can prevent development of various complications.

  7. Conformational Study of Polypeptide Chains Grafted on the Surface of Polylactide Latex Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Tanimoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polylactide (PLA latex particle covered with polypeptide chains were prepared by means of solvent exchange method from PLA and PLA-block-polypeptide block copolymer solutions. PLA segment of the block copolymer and PLA homopolymer formed a core of the particle, and the polypeptide segment of the block copolymer, which is designed as tightly fixed biodegradable emulsifier, formed corona around the particle surface. This picture was supported by the fact that zeta-potential of PLA latex particle covered with polypeptide segment was different from that of bare PLA particle because of the presence of the ionizable group in the polypeptide chains. To clarify the effect of the ionizable group on conformation of the polypeptide chain, the relation between the polypeptide chain length and the area occupied by the single block chain was evaluated. The result that the occupied area per a polypeptide chain was linearly increased with the increase in the polypeptide chain length indicates that the polypeptide chains trail on the particle surface and did not take helical structures.

  8. Non-target organism effects tests on Vip3A and their application to the ecological risk assessment for cultivation of MIR162 maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Vlachos, Demetra

    2011-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide economic, environmental and health benefits by maintaining or increasing crop yields with fewer applications of insecticide. To sustain these benefits, it is important to delay the evolution of insect resistance to the proteins, and to ensure that the proteins do not harm non-target organisms, particularly those that may control secondary pests that would otherwise flourish because of reduced insecticide applications. Vip3A is a Bt vegetative insecticidal protein that is active against lepidopterous pests. It has a different mode of action from other proteins for control of Lepidoptera in current Bt crops, and when combined with these proteins, it should help to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops. This paper presents data on the effects of Vip3A on non-target organisms, and an ecological risk assessment of MIR162 maize, which expresses Vip3Aa20. Laboratory studies indicate few adverse effects of Vip3A to non-target organisms: 11 of 12 species tested showed no adverse effects when exposed to high concentrations of Vip3A relative to estimated exposures resulting from cultivation of MIR162 maize. Daphnia magna exposed to Vip3Aa20 were unaffected in terms of survival or fecundity, but grew slightly more slowly than unexposed controls. The data indicate that cultivation of MIR162 maize poses negligible risk to non-target organisms, and that crops producing Vip3A are unlikely to adversely affect biological control organisms such that benefits from reduced insecticide applications are lost.

  9. Synergism and antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Davolos, Camila Chiaradia; Legori, Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Ferré, Juan; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Desiderio, Janete Apparecida

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested.

  10. Co-expression and synergism analysis of Vip3Aa29 and Cyt2Aa3 insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiumei; Liu, Tao; Sun, Zhiguang; Guan, Peng; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Lingxia; Zheng, Aiping; Li, Ping

    2012-04-01

    Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3) from Bacillus thuringiensis shows high activity against lepidopteran insects. Cytolytic δ-endotoxin (Cyt) also has high toxicity to dipteran larvae and synergism with other crystal proteins (Cry), but synergism between Cyt and Vip3 proteins has not been tested. We analyzed for synergism between Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29. Both cyt2Aa3 and vip3Aa29 genes were co-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 carried on vector pCOLADuet-1. Vip3Aa29 showed insecticidal activity against Chilo suppressalis and Spodoptera exigua, with 50% lethal concentration (LC(50)) at 24.0 and 36.6 μg ml(-1), respectively. It could also inhibit Helicoverpa armigera growth, with 50% inhibition concentration at 22.6 μg ml(-1). While Cyt2Aa3 was toxic to Culex quinquefasciatus (LC(50): 0.53 μg ml(-1)) and Chironomus tepperi (LC(50): 36 μg ml(-1)), it did not inhibit C. suppressalis, S. exigua, and H. armigera. However, the co-expression of Cyt2Aa3 and Vip3Aa29 showed synergistic effect on C. suppressalis and S. exigua, and the individual activities were strengthened 3.35- and 4.34-fold, respectively. The co-expression had no synergism against C. tepperi and H. armigera, but exerted some antagonistic effect on Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synergism between Cyt2Aa and Vip3Aa was thus discovered for the first time, which confirmed that Cyt toxin can enhance the toxicity of other toxins against some non-target insects. By synergism analysis, the effectiveness of microbial insecticides can be verified.

  11. Synergism and Antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 Proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes; Davolos, Camila Chiaradia; Legori, Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido; Ferré, Juan; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Desiderio, Janete Apparecida

    2014-01-01

    Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes) combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested. PMID:25275646

  12. Synergism and antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Nunes Lemes

    Full Text Available Second generation Bt crops (insect resistant crops carrying Bacillus thuringiensis genes combine more than one gene that codes for insecticidal proteins in the same plant to provide better control of agricultural pests. Some of the new combinations involve co-expression of cry and vip genes. Because Cry and Vip proteins have different midgut targets and possibly different mechanisms of toxicity, it is important to evaluate possible synergistic or antagonistic interactions between these two classes of toxins. Three members of the Cry1 class of proteins and three from the Vip3A class were tested against Heliothis virescens for possible interactions. At the level of LC50, Cry1Ac was the most active protein, whereas the rest of proteins tested were similarly active. However, at the level of LC90, Cry1Aa and Cry1Ca were the least active proteins, and Cry1Ac and Vip3A proteins were not significantly different. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we found an antagonistic effect of Cry1Ca with the three Vip3A proteins. The interaction between Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa was also tested on two other species of Lepidoptera. Whereas antagonism was observed in Spodoptera frugiperda, synergism was found in Diatraea saccharalis. In all cases, the interaction between Vip3A and Cry1 proteins was more evident at the LC90 level than at the LC50 level. The fact that the same combination of proteins may result in a synergistic or an antagonistic interaction may be an indication that there are different types of interactions within the host, depending on the insect species tested.

  13. Intestinal invagination Invaginación intestinal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayamnelys Aguilar Atanay

    Full Text Available Intestinal intussusceptions are the most frequent cause of acute surgical occlusive syndrome in infants; it is idiopathic in more than 90% of cases. Their treatment can be conservative, with reduction by means of imaging and hydrostatic procedures, or surgical. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Intestinal intussusceptions, approved by consensus in the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 – 26, 2004.
    La invaginación intestinal es la causa más frecuente del síndrome de abdomen agudo quirúrgico oclusivo en lactantes y es idiopática en más del 90 % de los casos. Su tratamiento puede ser conservador, con reducción mediante procedimientos hidrostáticos combinados con vigilancia imaginológica, o quirúrgico. Se presenta la Guía de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas para invaginación intestinal, aprobada por consenso en el 3er Taller Nacional de Buenas Prácticas Clínicas en Cirugía Pediátrica (Camagüey, 23 al 26 de febrero de 2004.

  14. Utilization and acceptance of virtual patients in veterinary basic sciences - the vetVIP-project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsorgen, Christin; Kankofer, Marta; Gradzki, Zbigniew; Mandoki, Mira; Bartha, Tibor; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y; Beyerbach, Martin; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P

    2017-01-01

    Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project "vetVIP", to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin. Methods: This report describes the investigation of the utilization and acceptance of students studying veterinary basic sciences using optional online learning material concurrently to regular biochemistry and physiology didactic instruction. The reaction of students towards this offer of clinical case-based learning in basic sciences was analysed using quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected automatically within the chosen software-system CASUS as user-log-files. Responses regarding the quality of the virtual patients were obtained using an online questionnaire. Furthermore, subjective evaluation by authors was performed using a focus group discussion and an online questionnaire. Results: Implementation as well as usage and acceptance varied between the three participating locations. High approval was documented in Hannover and Lublin based upon the high proportion of voluntary students (>70%) using optional virtual patients. However, in Budapest the participation rate was below 1%. Due to utilization, students seem to prefer virtual patients and problems created in their native language and developed at their own university. In addition, the statement that assessment drives learning was supported by the observation that peak utilization was just prior to summative examinations. Conclusion: Veterinary

  15. VIP-CT瓣在美学区即刻种植即刻修复中的临床应用%Clinical research of VIP-CT flap in immediate implant and immediate prosthesis in aesthetic zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁晔; 吴海珍; 陆钰; 胡芳芳; 康林; 王群

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨采用血管化骨膜-结缔组织夹层(VIP-CT)瓣在美学区即刻种植即刻修复中的临床效果.方法 选择合适的上颌前牙区单牙微创拔牙后即刻种植即刻修复患者共30例,均采用VIP-CT瓣关闭拔牙创口,制作临时冠诱导牙龈成形,且术后3个月左右行最终修复.修复完成后当天、6个月及12个月,以粉红美学指数(PES)对种植体周围软组织进行美学评价;同时以视觉模拟评分法(VAS)对患者进行主观满意度调查.结果 在追踪评估期间内,2例患者未按时复诊退出评估,剩余28例患者各时期的PES评分分别为(12.23±1.56)、(11.47±1.42)和(11.35±1.21)分,术后创面均完全封闭,唇侧丰满度较好,种植体周围软组织形态恢复正常,患者满意度较高.结论 在美学区即刻种植即刻修复中采用VIP-CT瓣可以获得良好的美学修复效果.%Objective To study the clinical effect of vascularized inter-positional periosteal-connective tissue(VIP-CT flap)on the aesthetic area immediately implanted and immediately prosthesis .Methods A total of 30 patients with minimally invasive tooth extraction im-mediately after implant of single tooth and immediate prosthesis in maxillary anterior teeth area were chosen ,VIP-CT flap was adopted in clos-ing tooth extraction wound , temporary crowns were made to induce gum forming ,and the final repair was performed postoperative 3 months. After completion of repair on the very day ,6 months and 12 months,pink aesthetic score(PES)was used to evaluate aesthetically the soft tis-sue around the implant.At the same time,the method of visual analogue scale (VAS)was carried out to investigate the subjective satisfaction of the patients.Results During the period of tracking assessment ,two patients who did not visit exited the evaluation ,PES grading of 28 pa-tients in each period was respectively (12.23 ±1.56),(11.47 ±1.42),(11.35 ±1.21).The postoperative wounds were completely closed , labial

  16. Mycotoxins and the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Broom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biochemical pathways can yield various compounds that are not considered to be necessary for their growth and are thus referred to as secondary metabolites. These compounds have been found to have wide ranging biological effects and include potent poisons (mycotoxins. Mycotoxins invariably contaminate crops and (thus animal feeds. The intestine is the key link between ingested mycotoxins and their detrimental effects on the animal. Effects on the intestine, or intestinal environment, and immune system have been reported with various mycotoxins. These effects are almost certainly occurring across species. Most, if not all, of the reported effects of mycotoxins are negative in terms of intestinal health, for example, decreased intestinal cell viability, reductions in short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations and elimination of beneficial bacteria, increased expression of genes involved in promoting inflammation and counteracting oxidative stress. This challenge to intestinal health will predispose the animal to intestinal (and systemic infections and impair efficient digestion and absorption of nutrients, with the associated effect on animal productivity.

  17. Immunohistochemical study on the ontogenetic development of the regional distribution of peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide 1 endocrine cells in bovine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyarokhil, Asadullah Hamid; Ishihara, Miyuki; Sasaki, Motoki; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2012-04-10

    The regional distribution and relative frequency of peptide YY (PYY)-, pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were determined immunohistochemically in the gastrointestinal tract at seven ontogenetic stages in pre- and postnatal cattle. Different frequencies of PYY-, PP-, and GLP-1-IR cells were found in the intestines at all stages; they were not found in the esophagus and stomach. The frequencies varied depending on the intestinal segment and the developmental stage. The frequencies of PYY- and PP-IR cells were lower in the small intestine and increased from ileum to rectum, whereas GLP-1-IR cells were more numerous in duodenum and jejunum, decreased in ileum and cecum, and increased again in colon and rectum. The frequencies also varied according to pre- and postnatal stages. All three cell types were most numerous in fetus, and decreased in calf and adult groups, indicating that the frequencies of these three types of endocrine cells decrease with postnatal development. The results suggest that these changes vary depending on feeding habits and adaptation of growth, secretion, and motility of intestine at different ontogenetic stages of cattle.

  18. Topology-dependent entropic differences for chiral polypeptides in solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernido, Christopher C., E-mail: cbernido@mozcom.co [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines); Carpio-Bernido, M. Victoria [Research Center for Theoretical Physics, Central Visayan Institute Foundation, Jagna, Bohol 6308 (Philippines); Aringa, Henry P. [Department of Physics, Mindanao State University, Marawi City 9700 (Philippines)

    2011-02-28

    The entropy of topological conformations of helical biopolymers in a solvent is determined as a function of the chirality of winding. Probability distributions are obtained by taking all possible winding conformations of a polypeptide. The results show that between mirror image distributions, there is a difference in entropy arising from a net topological winding number and the interaction of a chiral solute with its environment. This interaction is reflected in a drift coefficient which varies from segment to segment along the length of a biopolymer.

  19. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  20. Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to bring together and to correlate the wide variety of experimental studies that provide information on the reaction products and reaction mechanisms involved in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides and proteins (including chromosomal proteins) in both aqueous and solid-state systems. The comparative radiation chemistry of these systems is developed in terms of specific reactions of the peptide main-chain and the aliphatic, aromatic-unsaturated and sulfur-containing side-chains. Information obtained with the various experimental techniques of product analysis, competition kinetics, spin-trapping, pulse radiolysis and ESR spectroscopy is included. 147 refs.

  1. Identification and Cloning of vip3A Genes from Isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis and Their Bioactivity Analysis%苏云金芽孢杆菌vip3A基因的鉴定、克隆及活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申建茹; 侯名语; 郭巍

    2009-01-01

    [目的]鉴定我国自行分离的苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis,Bt)菌株中vip3A基因的分布和基因型,从其中对鳞翅目幼虫表现高毒力的Bt菌株中克隆vip3Aa基因.[方法]利用PCR-RFLP方法确定vip3A基因的分布和鉴定基因型,利用PCR方法克隆vip3A全长基因.[结果]171株野生型Bt菌株中共鉴定出63株含有vip3A基因,均与vip3Aa1类基因相似.从TF9和Bt16菌株中克隆得到2个vip3Aa基因,分别构建了携带vip3Aa基因的表达载体p30vip-26和p30vip-27,SDS-PAGE和Western Blot分析表明,IPTG诱导后均可表达88 kDa左右的Vip3A蛋白,蛋白可溶性分析表明约10%可溶.这两种基因序列已被国际Bt基因命名委员会分别正式命名为vip3Aa26和vip3Aa27.生物测定结果显示,Vip3Aa27蛋白对粉纹夜蛾(Trichoplusia ni)、甜菜夜蛾(Spodoptera exigua)和棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)3种重要鳞翅目害虫初孵幼虫的毒力较高,LC50值分别为0.125 μg/mL,0.238 μg/mL和9.238 μg/mL.而Vip3Aa26蛋白仅对粉纹夜蛾有活性,LC50值为4.423 μg/mL.[结论]本研究中的Vip3Aa27蛋白对粉纹夜蛾、甜菜夜蛾和棉铃虫幼虫均能表现高杀虫活性,而Vip3Aa26蛋白仅对粉纹夜蛾幼虫有活性,实验结果表明Vip3A蛋白个别氨基酸的变化对其杀虫活性影响很大.

  2. Polypeptide having or assisting in carbohydrate material degrading activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates to a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  3. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  4. Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome due to an adrenal pheochromocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-ichi Ikuta; Chiaki Yasui; Masahiro Kawanaka; Tsukasa Aihara; Hidenori Yoshie; Hidenori Yanagi; Masao Mitsunobu; Ayako Sugihara; Naoki Yamanaka

    2007-01-01

    Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria (WDHA)syndrome caused by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) -producing tumor only rarely occurs in patients with nonpancreatic disease. A 49-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a right adrenal tumor incidentally diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound during the investigation of chronic watery diarrhea. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemia and excessive production of VIP and catecholamines. After surgical resection of the tumor, diarrhea subsided and both electrolytes and affected hormone levels normalized. Immunohistochemical examination confirmed a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma,which contained VIP-positive ganglion-like cells. We herein present the clinical and histogenetic implications of this rare clinical entity, with literature review.

  5. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, F.

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane

  6. Screening and Activity Determination of the Binding Peptide of Vip3Aa10 from Bacillus thuringiensis%苏云金芽孢杆菌Vip3Aa10毒素结合肽的筛选及活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁照鑫; 王涵祎; 曹利娟; 郝艳同; 申晓鸿; 刘京国

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]Vip3A, which is produced and secreted by Bacillus thuringiensisat the vegetative stage, has a wide spectrum of activities against Lepidopteran insects. The receptor of Vip3A toxin on the midgut of sensitive insect has been not identified so far. The phage display technology was used to try to screen the binding peptide of Vip3Aa10 in this article, which may provide a clue for the discovery of the mode of action of Vip3A.[Method]pET28a-Vip3Aa10 plasmid was transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells, which was induced by IPTG. The expressed Vip3Aa10 was isolated by affinity chromatography, followed by digestion with trypsin and further purification with ion exchange chromatography. The specific binding phages of Vip3A werescreened from phage display peptide library with the Vip3Aa10 as bait after four rounds screening with gradual stringent condition. The gene fragment inserted into phage was amplified by PCR with the genomic DNA of screened phage as template, followed by gene sequencing and amino acid deducing. The peptide synthesized by chemistry method was incubated with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) together with Vip3Aa10. And the influence of peptide on the interaction of Vip3Aa10 with BBMV was determined by Western blotting. For bioassay, the peptide was loaded with Vip3Aa10 on the surface of artificial diet. After the surface of diet was dry, one first instar Spodoptera exigua larva was placed in each well. Larvae mortality was scored after 6 days.[Result]E. coli BL21(DE3) containing pET28a-Vip3Aa10 plasmid was induced by IPTG at 25℃. The expressed Vip3Aa10 was soluble, which was isolated by affinity chromatography, activated by trypsin and further purified by ion exchange chromatography, successively. The peptides were isolated through four rounds screening with activated Vip3Aa10 as bait. Nine peptides were screened from Ph.D.-12, including three abundant peptides, which were named P12-1, P12-2 and P12-3, respectively. Five peptides were

  7. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the striated musculature of the mouse esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; de Kerchove d'Exaerde, A; Mignon, S;

    2001-01-01

    fibers immunoreactive for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or neuropeptide Y (NPY), but not to fibers immunoreactive for substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), enkephalin, or the capsaicin receptor VRI. They were present in the fetus...

  8. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the small intestine during an upper GI endoscopy. Biopsy A gastroenterologist can obtain a biopsy of the ... Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Events Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  9. Intestinal failure in childhood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    citrulline levels are predictive of intestinal recovery, or not, remains to be confirmed. ... GI secretions, salivary Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) release and gallbladder .... This cause of neonatal diarrhoea requires permanent PN. However,.

  10. Small intestine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. The pyloric sphincter governs the passage of partly digested food ...

  11. The intestinal stem cell.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2008-01-01

    The epithelium of the adult mammalian intestine is in a constant dialog with its underlying mesenchyme to direct progenitor proliferation, lineage commitment, terminal differentiation, and, ultimately, cell death. The epithelium is shaped into spatially distinct compartments that are dedicated to

  12. Extrinsic control of the release of galanin and VIP from intrinsic nerves of isolated, perfused, porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messell, T; Harling, H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1992-01-01

    ). This increase was abolished by atropine (10(-6) M) and by hexamethonium (3.10(-5) M). Infusion of norepinephrine (10(-6) M) inhibited, whereas acetylcholine (10(-6) M) stimulated the release of both peptides. The effect of the latter was abolished by atropine. The inhibitory effect of nerve stimulation...... was not influenced by atropine. Our results suggest that the galanin- and VIP-producing intrinsic neurons receive inhibitory signals by noradrenergic nerve fibers and stimulatory signals mediated by cholinergic nerves, possibly via a cholinergic interneuron....

  13. Demonstrating the effectiveness of social franchising principles: The emptying of household vips: A case study from Goven Mbeki village

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Wall4_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 19771 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Wall4_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 DEMONSTRATING... THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL FRANCHISING PRINCIPLES: THE EMPTYING OF HOUSEHOLD VIPS A CASE STUDY FROM GOVEN MBEKI VILLAGE *K WALL 1, O IVE 2, J BHAGWAN 3, F KIRWAN 4, W BIRKHOLTZ 5, N LUPUWANA 6, E SHAYLOR 7 Key words: faecal sludge, schools, franchising...

  14. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  15. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicycle compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2015-06-16

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  16. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  17. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  18. Measuring the rate of intramolecular contact formation in polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, Lisa; Eaton, William; Hofrichter, James

    2001-03-01

    Formation of a specific contact between two residues of a polypeptide chain is an important elementary process in protein folding. Here we describe a method for studying contact formation between tryptophan and cysteine based on measurements of the lifetime of the tryptophan triplet state. With tryptophan at one end of a flexible peptide and cysteine at the other, the triplet decay rate is identical to the rate of quenching by cysteine and is also close to the diffusion-limited rate of contact formation. The length dependence of this end-to-end contact rate was studied in a series of Cys-(Ala-Gly-Gln)_k-Trp peptides, with k varying from 1 to 6. The rate decreases from -1/(40 ns) for k = 1 to -1/(140 ns) for k = 6, approaching the length-dependence expected for a random coil (n-3/2) for the longest peptides. Comparing the intramolecular and bimolecular quenching rates for cysteine with two disulfide molecules (cystine and lipoate) determines the ratio of the equilibrium constants for forming the intramolecular and bimolecular contact pairs. This ratio depends on the persistence length of the chain and is therefore a measure of the flexibility of the polypeptide.

  19. Polypeptide profiles of South Indian isolate of Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Bhaskar Reddy, B V; Malakondaiah, P; Sreenivasulu, D; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2016-09-01

    The field isolates of Trypanosoma evansi was collected from the infected cattle and it was propagated in rats. Trypanosoma evansi parasites were separated from the blood of infected rats by using diethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography. Whole cell lysate antigen (WCL) was prepared from purified trypanosomes by ultrasonication and centrifugation. The prepared WCL antigen was further purified by 50 % ammonium sulphate precipitation. Protein concentration of WCL antigen of T. evansi was 60 mg/ml. Protein concentration was adjusted to 1.0 mg/ml in PBS, pH 8.0 and stored at -20(0) C.   Polypeptide profiles of WCL antigen of T. evansi was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of eight polypeptide bands of the size ranging from 25 to 85 kDa in WCL antigen of T. evansi were obtained. Five prominent bands with molecular weight of 74, 60, 53, 42 and 37 kDa and three light bands with molecular weight of 85, 34 and 25 kDa were observed.

  20. Mechanically Controlled Electron Transfer in a Single-Polypeptide Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Yang, Dah-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Proteins are of interest in nano-bio electronic devices due to their versatile structures, exquisite functionality and specificity. However, quantum transport measurements produce conflicting results due to technical limitations whereby it is difficult to precisely determine molecular orientation, the nature of the moieties, the presence of the surroundings and the temperature; in such circumstances a better understanding of the protein electron transfer (ET) pathway and the mechanism remains a considerable challenge. Here, we report an approach to mechanically drive polypeptide flip-flop motion to achieve a logic gate with ON and OFF states during protein ET. We have calculated the transmission spectra of the peptide-based molecular junctions and observed the hallmarks of electrical current and conductance. The results indicate that peptide ET follows an NC asymmetric process and depends on the amino acid chirality and α-helical handedness. Electron transmission decreases as the number of water molecules increases, and the ET efficiency and its pathway depend on the type of water-bridged H-bonds. Our results provide a rational mechanism for peptide ET and new perspectives on polypeptides as potential candidates in logic nano devices.

  1. Prediction of the absolute aggregation rates of amyloidogenic polypeptide chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBay, Kateri F; Pawar, Amol P; Chiti, Fabrizio; Zurdo, Jesús; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2004-08-27

    Protein aggregation is associated with a variety of pathological conditions, including Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases and type II diabetes. Such degenerative disorders result from the conversion of the normal soluble state of specific proteins into aggregated states that can ultimately form the characteristic amyloid fibrils found in diseased tissue. Under appropriate conditions it appears that many, perhaps all, proteins can be converted in vitro into amyloid fibrils. The aggregation propensities of different polypeptide chains have, however, been observed to vary substantially. Here, we describe an approach that uses the knowledge of the amino acid sequence and of the experimental conditions to reproduce, with a correlation coefficient of 0.92 and over five orders of magnitude, the in vitro aggregation rates of a wide range of unstructured peptides and proteins. These results indicate that the formation of protein aggregates can be rationalised to a considerable extent in terms of simple physico-chemical parameters that describe the properties of polypeptide chains and their environment.

  2. Uncharged Helical Modular Polypeptide Hydrogels for Cellular Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Caroline C; Welch, M Elizabeth; Griffith, Linda G; Hammond, Paula T

    2015-12-14

    Grafted synthetic polypeptides hold appeal for extending the range of biophysical properties achievable in synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels. Here, N-carboxyanhydride polypeptide, poly(γ-propargyl-l-glutamate) (PPLG) macromers were generated by fully grafting the "clickable" side chains with mixtures of short polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains terminated with inert (-OH) or reactive (maleimide and/or norbornene) groups, then reacting a fraction of these groups with an RGD cell attachment motif. A panel of synthetic hydrogels was then created by cross-linking the PPLG macromers with a 4-arm PEG star molecule. Compared to well-established PEG-only hydrogels, gels containing PPLG exhibited dramatically less dependence on swelling as a function of cross-link density. Further, PPLG-containing gels, which retain an α-helical chain conformation, were more effective than standard PEG gels in fostering attachment of a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) line for a given concentration of RGD in the gel. These favorable properties of PPLG-containing PEG hydrogels suggest they may find broad use in synthetic ECM.

  3. CDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.; Broekaert, Willem F.; Chua, Nam-Hai; Kush, Anil

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74-79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli.

  4. Influences of therapy of relaxing bowels on content of lung NKA, VIP and TFF3 in rat model of rectal semi-ligation%“通腑”方法对直肠半结扎模型大鼠肺组织NKA、VIP、TFF3含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丰杰; 李宇航; 许红; 高誉珊; 王玥琦; 孙燕; 王毅; 林峻生; 徐云

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察直肠半结扎模型大鼠肺组织中血管活性肠肽(VIP)、神经激肽A(NKA)及肠三叶因子( TFF3)含量变化及通腑中药(大承气汤)对其的调节作用,探讨“肺合大肠”神经肽机制.方法 制备直肠半结扎大鼠模型.50只清洁级SD大鼠随机分为正常组、持续结扎组、解扎组、解扎给药组、正常给药组,给药组灌胃大承气汤3 g/只.检测各组大鼠支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)中肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)、血清白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)及肺组织中VIP、TFF3、NKA的含量.结果 模型组大鼠BALF中TNF-α、IL-1β及肺组织中NKA、TFF3含量均明显升高(P<0.01),VIP含量明显降低(P<0.01).经大承气汤从肠干预后,BALF中TNF-α、IL-1β及肺组织中NKA、TFF3含量均明显降低(P<0.01),VIP含量明显升高(P<0.01).Pearson correlation分析显示肺组织中NKA、VIP、TFF3含量与BALF中TNF-α、IL-1 β含量明显相关(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 通腑疗法可减轻直肠半结扎模型大鼠的肺部炎症,这一效应的产生与肺组织中VIP、TFF3、NKA含量的变化密切相关.%Objective To observe the content changes of lung vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) , neurokinin A ( NKA) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 ( TFF3 ) and regulation effect of Chinese medications with action of relaxing bowels ( Da Chengqi Tang) , and discuss the neuropeptide mechanism of lung associating with large intestine. Methods The rat model of rectal semi-ligation was established and 50 SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, sustained ligation group, de-ligation group, de-ligation and medicated group and normal medicated group. The content of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1 (3) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and VIP, TFF3 and NKA in lung tissue were detected in rats of all groups. Results The content of TNF-α and IL-1 β in BALF and NKA and TFF3 in lung tissue increased significantly (P <0. 01) and VIP decreased

  5. Molecular cloning and expression of a chicken pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, K; Gerets, H H; Princen, K; Vandesande, F

    1999-08-25

    Although, since the isolation of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a wealth of literature has been published describing its localization, binding sites, and biological activities in a variety of mammalian tissues, only very little is known about PACAP in avian species. Therefore, in order to find out the sites of actions of PACAP and to elucidate its physiological significance in birds, we identified a chicken PACAP receptor homologue of the mammalian type I receptors (PAC(1)-Rs). The chicken PACAP type I cDNA sequence was obtained using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in combination with 3'- and 5'-RACE PCR. This cDNA encodes a 471 amino acid precursor protein, sharing 81-83% sequence identity with mammalian analogs and 76% amino acid identity with the goldfish type I PACAP receptor. Northern blot analysis of chicken brain poly(A)(+)-rich RNA revealed the presence of a 5.5 kb and 7.5 kb PAC(1) receptor transcript. RT-PCR revealed that the chicken PACAP receptor is mainly expressed in the brain and gonads. A smaller amount of the receptor mRNA was found in pituitary, adrenal gland, kidney, intestine, pancreas, lung, and heart tissue. In situ hybridization with specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide probes showed a widespread distribution of PAC(1) receptor mRNA in the chicken brain, with the highest expression being found in the dorsal telencephalon, olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, optic tectum, and cerebellar cortex. These findings suggest that PACAP affect a variety of functions both in the brain and peripheral tissues of the chicken.

  6. Dual Cry2Ab and Vip3A resistant strains of Helicoverpa armigera and Helicoverpa punctigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); testing linkage between loci and monitoring of allele frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T K; Downes, S J; Gascoyne, J; James, W; Parker, T; Armstrong, J; Mahon, R J

    2014-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to delaying the evolution of insect resistance to toxins produced by transgenic crops. The major pests of cotton in Australia are the Lepidoptera Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner, 1805) and Helicoverpa punctigera (Wallengren), and the toxins deployed in current and imminent transgenic cotton varieties are Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Vip3A from Bacillus thuringiensis. In this study, lines that carry alleles conferring resistance to Cry2Ab and Vip3A were isolated using F2 tests. Extensive work on the Cry2Ab resistant lines, and preliminary work on the Vip3A resistant lines, suggested a single common resistance to each toxin in both species thereby justifying the use of more efficient F1 tests as the primary means for monitoring changes over time. A potential further efficiency could be gained by developing a single resistant line that carries both types of Bt resistance. Herein we report on work with both H. armigera and H. punctigera that tests whether dual Cry2Ab-Vip3A resistant lines can be developed and, if so, whether they can be used to effectively monitor resistance frequencies. Furthermore, the creation of dual resistant lines allowed linkage between the Cry2Ab and Vip3A resistances to be investigated for H. punctigera. We show that dual resistant lines can be used to increase the efficiency of the F1 screen for recessive alleles, and that in H. punctigera there is no linkage between Cry2Ab and Vip3A resistance.

  7. Integration of insecticidal protein Vip3Aa1 into Beauveria bassiana enhances fungal virulence to Spodoptera litura larvae by cuticle and per Os infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Chen, Ying; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2010-07-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana acts slowly on insect pests through cuticle infection. Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) of Bacillus thuringiensis kill lepidopteran pests rapidly, via per os infection, but their use for pest control is restricted to integration into transgenic plants. A transgenic B. bassiana strain (BbV28) expressing Vip3Aa1 (a Vip3A toxin) was thus created to infect the larvae of the oriental leafworm moth Spodoptera litura through conidial ingestion and cuticle adhesion. Vip3Aa1 ( approximately 88 kDa) was highly expressed in the conidial cytoplasm of BbV28 and was detected as a digested form ( approximately 62 kDa) in the larval midgut 18 and 36 h after conidial ingestion. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of BbV28 against the second-instar larvae feeding on cabbage leaves sprayed with conidial suspensions was 26.2-fold lower than that of the wild-type strain on day 3 and 1.1-fold lower on day 7. The same sprays applied to both larvae and leaves for their feeding reduced the LC(50) of the transformant 17.2- and 1.3-fold on days 3 and 7, respectively. Median lethal times (LT(50)s) of BbV28 were shortened by 23 to 35%, declining with conidial concentrations. The larvae infected by ingestion of BbV28 conidia showed typical symptoms of Vip3A action, i.e., shrinkage and palsy. However, neither LC(50) nor LT(50) trends differed between BbV28 and its parental strain if the infection occurred through the cuticle only. Our findings indicate that fungal conidia can be used as vectors for spreading the highly insecticidal Vip3A protein for control of foliage feeders such as S. litura.

  8. The New Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H Rice Poses No Unexpected Ecological Risks to Arthropod Communities in Rice Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbin; Dang, Cong; Han, Naishun; Shen, Zhicheng; Peng, Yufa; Stanley, David; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-04-01

    The ecological risks to nontarget organisms should be rigorously assessed before Bt crops are released. Here, the impacts of a new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line on arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems were evaluated across 3 yr. Arthropods collected via vacuum were sorted into five guilds. The abundance and proportion of each guild as well as community-level parameters were determined in Cry1Ab/Vip3H and control rice fields. Changes in arthropod species assemblage over sampling dates were investigated by principal response curves (PRCs). Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice did not exert significant impacts on the seasonal density and proportion of each guild, except parasitoids. Detritivore seasonal density, but not its relative abundance, was significantly affected by Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice. Four community indices (species richness S, Shannon-Wiener index H', Simpson index D, and evenness index J') were similar between rice types. PRCs revealed a slight community difference between rice types in the past two tested years, with rice types accounting for 1.0-3.5% of the variance among arthropod communities. However, sampling dates explain 32.1-67.6% for these community differences. Of the 46 taxa with higher species weights, 26.1% of the taxa were significantly different, including seven taxa with higher abundance and five with lower density in Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice fields. These differences may be attributed to change in abundance of prey or hosts but not to direct effects of Bt proteins. We infer that this new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line poses no unintended ecological risks to the arthropod community. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The intestine is a blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  10. Menu pilihan diit nasi yang disajikan berpengaruh terhadap tingkat kepuasan pasien VIP di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yunanci Gobel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The provision of foods in hospitals often becomes a public concern, particularly in relation to patient satisfaction. This may be due to not only the psychological effect of sick ill people but also because foods as output of food provision does not often give satisfaction to the patient. Objective: To find out the effect of rice diet selective menu to satisfaction of VIP inpatients at local hospital of the Province of Sulawesi Tenggara. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted. Population of the study were VIP inpatiens; samples were patients that fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria in September-December 2008. Samples were purposively taken. Data analysis used bivariate with chi square and multivariate with logistic regression test. Result: Out of 49 patients that got selected menu and standard menu in aspect of food appearance as many as 45 (91.8% were satisfied in selected menu and 31 (63.3% were satisfied in standard menu; in aspect of food taste 44 (89.8% were satisfied in selected menu and 23 (46.9% were satisfied in standard menu; in aspect of food serving 47 (95.9% were satisfied in selected menu and 40 (81.6% were satisfied in standard menu. Conclusion: In aspect of appearance, color, shape and portion of foods significantly affected patient satisfaction whereas texture did not affect patient satisfaction. In aspect of taste, all variables affected patient satisfaction. In aspect of food serving all variables did not affect patient satisfaction.

  11. Autoradiographic visualization of CNS receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, M.M.; Moody, T.W.

    1986-03-01

    Receptors for VIP were characterized in the rat CNS. /sup 125/I-VIP bound with high affinity to rat brain slices. Binding was time dependent and specific. Pharmacology studies indicated that specific /sup 125/I-VIP binding was inhibited with high affinity by VIP and low affinity by secretin and PHI. Using in vitro autoradiographic techniques high grain densities were present in the dentate gyrus, pineal gland, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei, superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and the area postrema. Moderate grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, cerebral cortex, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, interstitial nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, subiculum and the medial geniculate nucleus. Grains were absent in the corpus callosum and controls treated with 1 microM unlabeled VIP. The discrete regional distribution of VIP receptors suggest that it may function as an important modulator of neural activity in the CNS.

  12. Agrotis segetum midgut putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3Aa16 differs from that of Cry1Ac toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Hamadou-Charfi, Dorra; Boukedi, Hanen; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Considering the fact that Agrotis segetum is one of the most pathogenic insects to vegetables and cereals in the world, particularly in Africa, the mode of action of Vip3Aa16 of Bacillus thuringiensis BUPM95 and Cry1Ac of the recombinant strain BNS3Cry-(pHTcry1Ac) has been examined in this crop pest. A. segetum proteases activated the Vip3Aa16 protoxin (90kDa) yielding three bands of about 62, 45, 22kDa and the activated form of the toxin was active against this pest with an LC50 of about 86n...

  13. Characterization of Prejunctional Muscarinic Receptors: Effects on the Release of VIP and Functional Responses and Receptor Expression in the Ovine Submandibular Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders T. Ryberg

    2009-01-01

    was collected out of the submandibular venous drainage before and during electrical stimulation of chorda tympani nerve in the absence and presence either of pirenzepine or methoctramine. While metchoctramine increased the output of protein, pirenzepine inhibited flow of saliva and increased protein output, vasodilatation, and VIP output. In morphological examinations, the inhibitory muscarinic M4 receptor occurred interacinarily in the gland. It is concluded that prejunctional muscarinic receptors, most likely of the M4 subtype, exert inhibitory modulation of the parasympathetic release of VIP in the ovine submandibular gland.

  14. Nitric oxide has tonic inhibitory effect, but is not involved in the vagal control or VIP effects on motility of the porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Orskov, C; Rasmussen, T N

    2003-01-01

    -producing neurons was studied using immunohistochemistry and histochemical techniques. Widespread, but not total, co-localization of NO and VIP immunoreactivity was found in the submucosa and in the muscle layers. RESULTS: Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves for 5 min (8 Hz, 10 mA, 4 msec) increased....... Electrical vagus stimulation increased the release of VIP to the venous effluent, an effect that persisted during NO synthase inhibitors. CONCLUSION: We conclude that NO-producing nerves seem to have a tonic inhibitory action on the porcine antral motility, but are not involved in the motor effects of vagal...

  15. Evidence against VIP or substance P being the transmitter in non-cholinergic excitatory nerves supplying the guinea-pig bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, L A; Burnstock, G

    1985-06-01

    In the guinea-pig bladder, contractile responses to substance P (0.3 microM) and VIP (3 microM) were unaffected by P2-purinoceptor desensitization with alpha,beta-methylene ATP (3 X 10(-6) M), while the responses to stimulation of the non-cholinergic excitatory nerves (4-16 Hz) were abolished. The evidence presented suggests that ATP or a related purine nucleotide, and not VIP or substance P, is responsible for the non-cholinergic excitatory component of the nerve-mediated response.

  16. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Processing of aminopeptidase N by microsomal membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1983-01-01

    The biosynthesis of small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was studied in a cell-free translation system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. When dog pancreatic microsomal fractions were present during translation, most of the aminopeptidase N synthesized was found in a membrane-bound rat......The biosynthesis of small-intestinal aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was studied in a cell-free translation system derived from rabbit reticulocytes. When dog pancreatic microsomal fractions were present during translation, most of the aminopeptidase N synthesized was found in a membrane......-bound rather than a soluble form, indicating that synthesis of the enzyme takes place on ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The microsomal fractions process the Mr-115 000 polypeptide, which is the primary translation product of aminopeptidase N, to a polypeptide of Mr 140 000...... that microsomal fractions should be added before about 25% of the polypeptide was synthesized to ensure processing to the high-mannose glycosylated form. This suggests that the signal sequence is situated in the N-terminal part of the aminopeptidase N. The size of the cell-free translation product in the absence...

  17. Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for Preparation of Polypeptides and Polypeptide-Based Hybrid Materials with Various Molecular Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Pahovnik, David

    2015-09-01

    Different synthetic approaches utilizing ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides for preparation of polypeptide and polypeptide-based hybrid materials with various molecular architectures are described. An overview of polymerization mechanisms using conventional (various amines) as well as some recently developed initiators (hexamethyldisilazane, N-heterocyclic persistent carbenes, etc.) is presented, and their benefits and drawbacks for preparation of polypeptides with well-defined chain lengths and chain-end functionality are discussed. Recent examples from literature are used to illustrate different possibilities for synthesis of pure polypeptide materials with different molecular architectures bearing various functional groups, which are introduced either by modification of amino acids, before they are transformed into corresponding Ncarboxyanhydrides, or by post-polymerization modifications using protective groups and/or orthogonal functional groups. Different approaches for preparation of polypeptide-based hybrid materials are discussed as well using examples from recent literature. Syntheses of simple block copolymers or copolymers with more complex molecular architectures (graft and star copolymers) as well as modifications of nanoparticles and other surfaces with polypeptides are described.

  18. Thymus Polypeptide Preparation Tactivin Restores Learning and Memory in Thymectomied Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseletskaya, A V; Kiseleva, N M; Zimina, I V; Bystrova, O V; Belova, O V; Inozemtsev, A N; Arion, V Ya; Sergienko, V I

    2015-09-01

    We studied the effects of tactivin and splenic polypeptides on learning and memory of thymectomized animals. In 3-week rats, thymectomy blocked active avoidance conditioning. Injections of tactivin (0.5 mg/kg) during 1 month after surgery restored learning capacity; splenic polypeptides were ineffective.

  19. Directed evolution methods for improving polypeptide folding and solubility and superfolder fluorescent proteins generated thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2007-09-18

    The current invention provides methods of improving folding of polypeptides using a poorly folding domain as a component of a fusion protein comprising the poorly folding domain and a polypeptide of interest to be improved. The invention also provides novel green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and red fluorescent proteins that have enhanced folding properties.

  20. Design of a single-chain polypeptide tetrahedron assembled from coiled-coil segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradišar, Helena; Božič, Sabina; Doles, Tibor; Vengust, Damjan; Hafner-Bratkovič, Iva; Mertelj, Alenka; Webb, Ben; Šali, Andrej; Klavžar, Sandi; Jerala, Roman

    2013-06-01

    Protein structures evolved through a complex interplay of cooperative interactions, and it is still very challenging to design new protein folds de novo. Here we present a strategy to design self-assembling polypeptide nanostructured polyhedra based on modularization using orthogonal dimerizing segments. We designed and experimentally demonstrated the formation of the tetrahedron that self-assembles from a single polypeptide chain comprising 12 concatenated coiled coil-forming segments separated by flexible peptide hinges. The path of the polypeptide chain is guided by a defined order of segments that traverse each of the six edges of the tetrahedron exactly twice, forming coiled-coil dimers with their corresponding partners. The coincidence of the polypeptide termini in the same vertex is demonstrated by reconstituting a split fluorescent protein in the polypeptide with the correct tetrahedral topology. Polypeptides with a deleted or scrambled segment order fail to self-assemble correctly. This design platform provides a foundation for constructing new topological polypeptide folds based on the set of orthogonal interacting polypeptide segments.