Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi
The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.
Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.
There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...
Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R
Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.
Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...
Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...
The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine ...
Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.
Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro
Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349
The distribution of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children was assessed in three geographical zones (rural, semi-urban and urban) in Rivers State, Nigeria. Stool samples were collected following ethical approval and consent from parents and teachers of the pupils and analyzed using both wet ...
Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient's level of immunity. The most ..... Conflict of interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The factors established to be independently associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infection were: age 11-15 years P<0.001, use of plain water for hand washing P<0.05, eating food without spoon P<0.05, consuming raw vegetables P<0.001, untrimmed finger nails P<0.001 and source of drinking water [river ...
Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y
Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Herbert Obi Okpala
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of disease in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The distribution of intestinal parasite among two hundred and fifteen (215 subjects with mean age of 32 years, comprising of 35 HIV-seropositive and 180 HIV seronegative patients was carried out using microscopic method to examine their stool specimens for presence of trophozoites, ova, cysts, larvae and oocysts of intestinal parasites. Overall parasitic infection rate was 28.4%. Infection rate among HIV seropositve subjects (42.9% was statistically higher than that among HIV seronegative subjects (25.6% (P0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the parasitic infection between HIV-seropositive males and females and among the various age groups (P>0.05. Adequate treatment, proper health education and good hygiene will help in reducing intestinal parasitic infection
Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O
Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.
Shehata, Amany I; Hassanein, Faika
This cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among mentally handicapped individuals in Alexandria, Egypt, in the period from December 2012 till November 2013. The study was conducted on 200 institutionalized and non-institutionalized mentally handicapped individuals. Fresh stool samples were subjected to different stains including; trichrome for detecting intestinal protozoa, modified acid fast stain for intestinal coccidia and quick hot gram chromotrope stain for Microsporidia. Also they were processed by Kato-Katz and formol ethyl acetate techniques for intestinal helminths. Additionally, blood samples were collected for measuring hemoglobin levels. Out of 200 mentally handicapped individuals, 87 (43.5%) were infected. The infection rates were 44.6% and 42.6% for non-institutionalized and institutionalized people, respectively. Regarding gender, 46.7% and 38.5% were reported for the males and females respectively. The most common parasites detected were: Cryptosporidium sp. (23.5%), microsporidia (15%), Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Dientamoeba fragilis (8%), Cyclospora cyatanensis (7.5%), Blastocystis hominis (6.5%), Entamoeba histolytica (5.5%) and Entamoeba coli (2.5%). Rates for Isospora belli and Enterobius vermicularis were estimated to be 1.5% for each, while lower rate was reported for Iodamoeba butschlii (1.0%). Prevalence of infections among mentally handicapped individuals are indications for several risk factors, including improper sanitary hygiene and illiteracy about personal hygiene. Therefore, frequent investigations, health care and medical intervention are needed.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post
Bruno Martorell Di Genova
Full Text Available Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica are important pathogenic intestinal parasites and are amongst the leading cause worldwide of diarrheal illness in humans. Diseases caused by these organisms, Giardiasis, Cryptosporidiosis and Amoebiasis, respectively, are characterized by self-limited diarrhea but can evolve to long-term complications. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diarrhea associated with these tree pathogens are being unraveled, with knowledge of both the strategies explored by the parasites to establish infection and the methods evolved by hosts to avoid it. Special attention is being given to molecules participating in parasite-host interaction and in the mechanisms implicated in the diseases pathophysiologic processes. This review focuses on cell mechanisms that are modulated during infection, including gene transcription, cytoskeleton rearrangements, signal transduction pathways and cell death.
Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...
Gbakima, Aiah A.
The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and other intestinal and urogenital parasites were assessed in five Inland Valley Swamp (IVS) development faming communities in the Moyamba District, South-central Sierra Leone. Stool and urine samples were submitted by 1106 individuals and examined by the iron-haematoxylin staining and the formalin-ether concentration techniques for faecal sample and centrifugation method for the urine samples. The overall parasitic infection rate was 61.7% while 5.9% of the population had multiple infections. E. histolytica infection rate was 12.3 % and most of the infected individuals were passing cysts. Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis infection rates were 10.0% and 0.4% respectively. Among the helminth infections, Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly observed (13.7%), followed by hookworms (12.1 %), Trichuris trichiura (9.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.7%) and tapeworms (2.6%). The high parasitic infection rate (61.7%) and the frequency of multiple infections indicate an interrelationship of environmental factors which support transmission rather than a single factor.
CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...
Bankole H. Oladeinde
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. Data on prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is sparse in rural Nigeria. Against this background, this study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections within a four year period in the rural community of Okada, Edo State, Nigeria. Fecal samples obtained from 1528 patients (consisting of 740 males and 788 females presenting with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis at the Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital, Okada were examined for presence of ova, cyst and trophozoites of parasites using standard methods. Patient’s age ranged from 6 months to 73 years. Study was conducted between 2007 and 2010. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections increased significantly (P=0.003 from 14.7% in 2007 to 22.5% in 2010. In the study period, gender did not affect the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection (P>0.05. Patients within <1-10 years had significantly higher prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent, while Schistosoma japonicum was the least prevalent. With respect to parasite, males were observed to have consistently higher prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed to significantly increase from 2007 to 2010. Age was a risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infection. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasitic agent in all years of study. Control and prevention measures are advocated.
IPIs due to intestinal protozoa and helminths are re- sponsible for some of the most devastating and preva- lent diseases of humans, i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, collectively referred to as soil- transmitted helminths (STHs), and are the most common intestinal parasites4; while Giardia ...
Kabiru Ephantus W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.
Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan; Lee, Kyu-Jae
A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.
Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan
The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened
Using structured questionnaire and laboratory diagnostic techniques, blood samples and stool specimens of 371 patients attending selected hospitals and medical laboratories in Jimeta, a suburb of Yola, Nigeria, were screened for HIV antibodies and intestinal parasites. HIV tests were conducted on blood sera using ...
We wanted to establish the relationship of the immunologic status and the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients enrolled for antiretroviral therapy at the Vom Christian health centre. Materials & Methods: With their consent, stool samples of 205 subjects were collected and examined parasitologically by ...
Daryani, Ahmad; Hosseini-Teshnizi, Saeed; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mizani, Azadeh; Gholami, Sara; Sharif, Mehdi
Parasitic infections are a serious public health problem because they cause anemia, growth retardation, aggression, weight loss, and other physical and mental health problems, especially in children. Numerous studies have been performed on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children. However, no study has gathered and analyzed this information systematically. The aim of this study was to provide summary estimates for the available data on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian children. We searched 9 English and Persian databases, unpublished data, abstracts of scientific congresses during 1996-2015 using the terms intestinal parasite, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Enterobiusvermicularis, oxyure, school, children, preschool, and Iran. We conducted meta-analysis using STATA, and for all statistical tests, p-value less than 0.05was considered significant. Among the 68,532 publications searched as a result, 103 were eligible for inclusion in the study. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 38% (95% CI- 33%, 43%). Prevalence of protozoa, helminthic intestinal infections, and non-pathogenic parasites was 16.9%, 9.48%, and 18.5%, respectively, which affected 14.27% males and 15.3% females. The rate of infection in preschool and school children was 38.19% and 43.37% respectively. Giardia, Enterobiusvermicularis and Entamoeba coli were the most common among protozoa, helminthic, and non-pathogenic infections (15.1%, 16.5%, and 7.1%, respectively). The data analyses indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is decreasing in Iranian preschool and school children. Improvement of sanitation, personal hygiene, increased awareness of people, seasonal variations, and health education can be effective in reducing parasitic infections in different communities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent
Asma, I; Johari, S; Sim, Benedict L H; Lim, Yvonne A L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have greater susceptibility to infections by a myriad of microorganisms which can cause significant morbidity and mortality compared to immunocompetent individuals. Of these microbial infections, intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) however are receiving less attention than bacterial and viral infections, hence, the lack of information of parasitic infections in HIV individuals. Prevalence of IPIs among 346 HIV-infected individuals in Malaysia was determined in this study. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 37.9% (131 of 346) with protozoa infections (18.8%) being more common compared to helminth infections (7.5%). Observed protozoa include Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.8%), Cryptosporidium parvum (12.4%), Isospora belli (10.1%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.9%) and Giardia duodenalis (intestinalis) (3.2%) whilst helminthes which were detected comprised of Ascaris lumbricoides (13.9%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%) and hookworms (0.6%). Among those 131 infected, 50.4% had multiple infections and 48.9% had single parasitic infection. The CD4 counts were significantly lower (i.e., 200 cells/mm³) in patients harbouring IPIs. Of those individuals infected with intestinal parasites, 49% were intravenous drug users and 58% were not on any antiretroviral therapy. Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections (OIs) mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. These results confirmed that IPIs are ubiquitous among HIV-infected individuals, especially those presenting with low CD4 T cells counts, and provide useful insights into the epidemiology of these infections among HIV-infected patients in Malaysia. It is therefore recommended, that diagnosis of these intestinal parasitic pathogens should be conducted on a routine basis for better management of gastrointestinal illnesses among HIV individuals.
The prevalence of malaria and gastrointestinal parasitic infections in out-patients of Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri Specialist Hospital, was studied between the months of January and June 2004. A total of 1,200 patients made up of preschool children (400), school children (400) and adults (400) were enlisted for the ...
... decreasing to the least in the > 51 years (27.02 %). This gave a significant age related infection (P < 0.05). The findings were discussed in relation to the rural nature of the community and the activities at the head mining stes. Keywords: Parasites, Heavy metal mining, Stool specimens. Animal Research International Vol.
Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou
Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction
Frederick Olusegun Akinbo
Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.
Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic intestinal infections cause a significant morbidity and mortality among the HIV infected people. The present study was undertaken to find the prevalence of intestinal opportunistic parasitic infections among the HIV infected populace in eastern Nepal and to correlate the occurrence with the CD4 T cell counts. Materials and Methods: Stool from 122 HIV infected people were examined microscopically for the presence of parasitic ova/cyst. CD4 T cell enumeration was done using FACS Count (Becton Dickinson. Stool from 100 age matched HIV negative controls were also examined. Results: A male preponderance in the parasite positivity was seen. Twenty five of symptomatic and 2.8% of asymptomatic harboured one or more intestinal parasites.12.3% of the study population had intestinal parasitoses with 7.3% being infected with opportunistic parasites. The mean CD4 count of the subjects was 307 while those with parasitoses were 204. A statistically significant difference was seen between the CD4 counts of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Conclusion: Coccidian parasites are frequent opportunistic intestinal parasites infecting HIV infected patients. A lowered CD4 count predisposes to acquisition of these agents. Regular monitoring of CD4 counts and screening for these opportunistic agents in the HIV infected will help reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with infections by these agents. Keywords: HIV; Opportunistic infection; CD4 count; AIDS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v1i2.5405 JPN 2011; 1(2: 118-121
Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A
A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites.
Lee, Kyu-Jae; Bae, Yong-Tae; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Kim, Hun-Joo; Im, Kyung-Il; Yong, Tai-Soon
A survey was made to find the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Kampongcham, Cambodia in February 2002. A total of 251 fecal specimens were collected from Tonlebat primary school children and examined by formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 54.2% (males, 57.3%; females, 50.8%). The infection rate of intestinal helminths by the species were as follows: Ascaris lumbricoides 26.3%, Echinostoma sp. 15.6%, hookworm 6.4%, Opisthorchis sp. 4.0%, Rhabditis sp. 2.4%, and Trichuris trichiura 0.4%. The infection rate of intestinal protozoa were as follows: E. coli 7.6%, G. lamblia 3.2%, I. butschlii 3.2%, and E. histolytica 0.8%. More than two different kinds of parasites were found in 16.7% of the stool samples. All the children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel and metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in this area.
Beatrice Divina Barda
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania. Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear, whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.
Lim, Y A L; Romano, N; Colin, N; Chow, S C; Smith, H V
Orang Asli are the indigenous minority peoples of peninsular Malaysia. Despite proactive socioeconomic development initiated by the Malaysian Government in upgrading the quality of life of the Orang Asli communities since 1978, they still remained poor with a current poverty rate of 76.9%. Poverty exacerbates the health problems faced by these communities which include malnourishment, high incidences of infectious diseases (eg. tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria) and the perpetual problem with intestinal parasitic infections. Studies reported that the mean infection rate of intestinal parasitic infections in Orang Asli communities has reduced from 91.1% in 1978, to 64.1% in the subsequent years. Although the results was encouraging, it has to be interpreted with caution because nearly 80% of studies carried out after 1978 still reported high prevalence (i.e. >50%) of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH) among Orang Asli communities. Prior to 1978, hookworm infection is the most predominant STH but today, trichuriasis is the most common STH infections. The risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections remained unchanged and studies conducted in recent years suggested that severe STH infections contributed to malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia and low serum retinol in Orang Asli communities. In addition, STH may also contribute to poor cognitive functions and learning ability. Improvements in socioeconomic status in Malaysia have shown positive impact on the reduction of intestinal parasitic infections in other communities however, this positive impact is less significant in the Orang Asli communities. In view of this, a national parasitic infections baseline data on morbidity and mortality in the 18 subgroups of Orang Asli, will assist in identifying intervention programmes required by these communities. It is hope that the adoption of strategies highlighted in the World Health Organisation- Healthy Village Initiatives (WHO-HVI) into Orang Asli communities will
Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.
Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,
Tsuyuoka, R; Bailey, J W; Nery Guimarães, A M; Gurgel, R Q; Cuevas, L E
Anemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. The main causes are parasitic infections, malaria, and low iron intake. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, parasitic infections, and nutritional status of children attending public primary schools in Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Of 360 students, 26.7% were anemic, and prevalence was higher in children under 8 and over 15 years of age. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42%, with Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%), Trichuris trichiura (15.6%), and hookworm (1. 7%) most frequently found. There was an association between parasitic infections and poor sanitary conditions, but there was no association between anemia and presence of intestinal parasites. Height-for-age Z scores were lower than the NCHS standard, and prevalence of stunting was 5.4%. Although intestinal parasites were not associated with anemia, children with parasites had lower nutritional indices (weight- and height-for-age Z scores) than those without parasites.
Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.
Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.
Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-value0.05).
Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee
Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.
Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee
Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280
Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro
Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems
Background: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea. Objective: The objective of ...
Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.
Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected
Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80) and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this
Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework
Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the
Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.
Ocaña-Losada, C; Cuenca-Gómez, J A; Cabezas-Fernández, M T; Vázquez-Villegas, J; Soriano-Pérez, M J; Cabeza-Barrera, I; Salas-Coronas, J
Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites isolated in humans. The parasite can cause gastrointestinal symptoms or, in most cases, remain asymptomatic. There are issues concerning the parasite's pathogenic character. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the parasite infection by B. hominis, with or without other parasitic co-infections. An observational retrospective study was conducted of B. hominis isolates in faeces from October 2004 to March 2016 in a tropical medicine unit. We reviewed all patients with a parasite infection, exclusively or not by B. hominis. We studied 3070 patients, 570 (18%) of whom were diagnosed with B. hominis infection, which was the only isolate in 245 (43%) of the 570 patients. A total of 325 (57%) patients presented other parasitic co-infections (Entamoeba histolytic or Entamoeba dispar, Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm and Schistosoma spp.). The main symptom was abdominal pain (41.8%). In 31.2% of cases, the parasite was detected in the imported diseases screening of asymptomatic patients. Of those who underwent treatment with metronidazole, 78.2% improved. The parasite was neutralised in 82.6% of the patients. Parasite infection by B. hominis is one of the most common diseases in our tropical medicine unit. Most patients are asymptomatic, or their symptoms can be attributed to other parasite infections. In those cases in which symptoms persist without being able to attribute them to other causes, a specific treatment is recommended. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Maria Letizia D’Annibale
Full Text Available Between 2006-07 faecal specimens of 2.132 subjects (1.508 adults and 624 children were examined for ova & parasites, using direct and after formalin-ethylacetate concentration microscopy, and permanent specific stains. 380 bubjects (17.8 % were infected: 313 adults (20.8 % and 67 children (10.7 %. 331 cases (15.5 % were infected by pathogens, 275 adults (18.2 % and 56 children (9.0 %. 389 pathogenic or not pathogenic protozoa (18.2 % and 60 helminths (2.8 % were identified, more among adults than children (21.0 % vs 11.5 % and 3.2 % vs 1.8 % respectively.Among protozoa, D. fragilis was in all observed in 145 cases (6.8 %, G. duodenalis in 74 cases (3.5 %, other were very rare.Among helminths nematodes were more frequent than trematodes and cestodes, with S. stercoralis (14 cases and E. vermicularis (13 cases the most frequent ones. 2.302 subjects (1.505 adults and 797 children were examined for microbiological tests because affected by acute or prolonged diarrhoea. 82 cases (3.6 % of protozoal infections were observed, 70 among adults (4.7 % and 12 among children (1.5 %. D. fragilis was in all prevalent (2.0 % in respect of G. duodenalis (1.0 % or other ones (0.6 %. For S. stercoralis specific investigation, modified Baermann method / larvae colture were performed: 20/189 cases (10.6 % od strongyloidiasis was diagnosed in adults. For E. vermicularis investigation, scotch test was performer: 43/179 cases (24.0% of enterobiasis was diagnosed. The Authors underline the application of standard operative procedures for O & P with permanent specific stains in subject affected by enterites too, and the analysis of more specimens for each subjects for good diagnostical performances.
Choi, Byungjin; Kim, Bongyoung
Schoolchildren in developing countries are at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors of intestinal parasite infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of Peru. A volunteer team from the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducted a campaign for parasite eradication called "Chao parasitos" at five schools in the peripheral highland regions of Huanuco in October 2013. The study collected questionnaires and stool samples from children of participating schools. Entamoeba coli , Iodamoeba buschii , and Chilomastix mesnil were classified as nonpathogenic parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the students was 100% (185/185). Among them, 25.9% (48/185) were infected only with nonpathogenic parasites whereas 74.1% (137/185) were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly detected (37.3%, 69/185), followed by Giardia lamblia (15.1%, 28/185) and I. buschii (11.9%, 22/185). Among lifestyle practices associated with parasitic infection, the rate of washing hands before meals was significantly lower in the students with pathogenic parasites compared to those with nonpathogenic parasites (77.4%, 106/137 vs. 93.8%, 45/48, p = 0.025). The prevalence of intestinal parasite was 100%. Both personal hygiene and water supply facilities are required to eradicate parasite infection in rural areas of Peru.
Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M
Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.
Catrin E Moore
Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.
Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.
Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia
Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.
José Roberto S. A. Leite
Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.
Moreover, there is little information on maternal awareness about intestinal parasitosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among under-five children, and assess maternal awareness about it in Shesha .... local language using open-ended questions by data the collectors selected from the study ...
Shobha, Misra; Bithika, Duttaroy; Bhavesh, Shroff
There is scant information available on the prevalence of parasitic infections in Gujarat, a state in Western India. The present community-based study was undertaken in the urban slums of a city in Gujarat to determine the following parameters: (a) the prevalence and type of pathogenic intestinal parasites and (b) the availability of sanitary facilities in the study population. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008, and the study participants were urban slum dwellers. Considering an expected infection prevalence of 30% among slum dwellers, an allowable error of 10% and an anticipated design effect of two, the sample size for the cluster design was set to 1800 participants from 30 clusters and 360 households (HHs). Stool samples were examined using both direct wet mount and the formalin-ether sedimentation concentration technique, followed by trichrome staining for protozoan cysts. Toilet facilities were utilized by 56% of the HHs, while 44% of the HHs resorted to open air defecation. The overall prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 15.19%. Parasitic infections due to protozoa were observed in 70.71% of the study participants. Helminth infections were detected in 25.71% of the participants, and multiple parasitic infections were detected in 3.57%. Diarrhea was the most common complaint (9.56%) in the study population. This study demonstrates that poor sanitation and inadequate environmental conditions are the main determining factors that predispose the population to intestinal parasites. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.
Akinbo, Frederick Olusegun; Okaka, Christopher Ehis; Omoregie, Richard
Human co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum and helminthes is ubiquitous throughout Africa. This study aimed to determine the co-infections of Plasmodium falciparum infection in HIV and intestinal parasitic infections, and their immunological distribution, in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 2,000 stool specimens from HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals) were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites using standard procedures. In addition, patients' blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry and examined for Plasmodium falciparum by microscopy. The prevalence of single parasitic infection among HIV patients was 18.1% in males and 16.9% among females with no significant difference (p = 0.536) while gender was a risk factor in multiple parasitic infections (male versus female: 4.2% and 1.8% OR = 2.384; 95% CI = 1.371, 4.147) (p = 0.0025). Increasing age was not associated with increased risk of both single and multiple parasitic infections (p = 0.083; p = 0.248). CD4 + T cell count less than 200 cells/µl was a risk factor for acquiring single and multiple parasitic infections among HIV patients (OR = 5.565; 95% CI = 4.136, 7.486; p = 0.0001; OR = 4.283; 95% CI = 2.424, 7.566; p = 0.0001). The most common co-infection observed was between Plasmodium falciparum and Ascaris lumbricoides 43% (10) among HIV patients. This study provides evidence of co-infections between Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal parasites. Diagnosis of parasitic infections among HIV patients is advocated as this will enhance better management of HIV-infected patients.
Methods: A total of 252 school children (121 boys and 131 girls) of grades 4 and 5 from 4 primary schools located in the capital areas participated in the present study and their fresh fecal specimens were examined for the presence of any parasites using the merthiolate- iodine-formaldehyde concentration method as ...
Rijsman, Lucas H; Monkelbaan, Jan F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344499383; Kusters, Johannes G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074307428
The implementation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based diagnostics of intestinal protozoa have led to higher sensitivity and (subtype) specificity, more convenient sampling and the possibility for high-throughput screening. An increasing number of clinical laboratories use PCR for routine
Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections, particularly in the rural areas, are one of the most important indices of the hygiene status and sanitation level of the society. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections among rural inhabitant of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012. Patients and Methods A total of 228 fecal samples were collected from 50 families in seven villages that were directly and indirectly involved in raising livestock and other domestic animals in spring of 2012. The demographic data were collected by interview and included age, sex, educational level, place of keeping animals, direct or indirect contact with animals, and occupation. Fecal samples were concentrated using formol-ether sedimentation technique and examined by iodine-stained wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples were assessed by trichrome staining method. Results Among 228 samples, 80 (35.1% were diagnosed with parasitic infection, which separately included 43 cases of Entamoeba coli (18.9%, 32 Blastocystis hominis (14%, 16 Endolimax nana (7%, nine Iodamoeba butschlii (3.9%, five Giardia lamblia (2.2%, two Taenia species (0.9%, two Hymenolepis nana (0.9%, one Chilomastix mesnili (0.4%, one Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, and one Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.4%. No significant difference in infection rate was observed with regard to indirect or direct contact with livestock. Coinfection of E. coli and B. hominis, E. coli and I. butschlii, and E. nana and G. lamblia were statistically significant. Interestingly, no Ascaris lumbricoides ovum was seen in this population. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of some infections with intestinal parasites is high in the Hamadan City. Considering that most of the parasites are nonpathogenic, pathogenic ones have been reduced generally in comparison to the previous reports. Nevertheless, the existence of Taenia species and H. nana could not
Nasiri, Vahid; Esmailnia, Kasra; Karim, Gholamreza; Nasir, Mehdi; Akhavan, Omid
Karaj is an area with large influx of refugee people in Iran. To increase knowledge about parasitic infections, we carried out this research during 2006-2008. We recorded the stool examination results and some of their personal characteristics. A total of 13,915 human stools were examined, and 649 (4.7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Among them, 13 (0.09%) had worm and 636 (4.6%) had protozoan infections. Maximum infections belonged to Giardia intestinalis, and 534 (3.8%) samples had this infection. Other parasitic infections included Entamoeba coli (0.39%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.021%), Blastocystis hominis (0.08%), Trichomonas hominis (0.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.06%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.007%), Endolimax nana (0.05%), Enterobius spp. eggs (0.028%), Taenia proglottids (0.028%), and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (0.03%). The maximum numbers of referred people to laboratories were in July and the maximum percentage of infections was in August. There is a point that all 5 Strongyloides stercoralis infections were pertained to 2008. With attention to the rate of parasitic infections (4.7%), it seems that we should take additional educational information to wide spectrum of people living in this city.
Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano
Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.
Sandra Maximiano de Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with a progressive course, characterized by chronic synovitis that may evolve with deformities and functional disability, and whose early treatment minimizes joint damage. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated but comprises immunologic responses mediated by T helper cells (Th1. An apparent minor severity of RA in patients from regions with lower income could be associated with a higher prevalence of gut parasites, especially helminths. Strictly, a shift in the immune response toward the predominance of T helper cells (Th2, due to the chronic exposure to helminths, could modulate negatively the inflammation in RA patients, resulting in lower severity/joint injury. The interaction between the immunological responses of parasitic helminths in rheumatoid arthritis patients is the purpose of this paper.
Oliveira, Sandra Maximiano de; Gomides, Ana Paula Monteiro; Mota, Lícia Maria Henrique da; Lima, Caliandra Maria Bezerra Luna; Rocha, Francisco Airton Castro
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune inflammatory disease, with a progressive course, characterized by chronic synovitis that may evolve with deformities and functional disability, and whose early treatment minimizes joint damage. Its etiopathogenesis is not fully elucidated but comprises immunologic responses mediated by T helper cells (Th1). An apparent minor severity of RA in patients from regions with lower income could be associated with a higher prevalence of gut parasites, especially helminths. Strictly, a shift in the immune response toward the predominance of T helper cells (Th2), due to the chronic exposure to helminths, could modulate negatively the inflammation in RA patients, resulting in lower severity/joint injury. The interaction between the immunological responses of parasitic helminths in rheumatoid arthritis patients is the purpose of this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Joel Monárrez-Espino; Devy Elling; María Angélica Cárdenas-Dimaté; Andres Balleza-Carreón
Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL), Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed) are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of ...
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil
Rina G Kaminsky
Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, their regional distribution and their relations to eosinophilia were studied in 133 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals from Honduras. After signing an informed consent, participants answered a socio-demographic and risk factor questionnaire, a complete physical examination, medical history, and a series of laboratory tests. All participants were HIV positive but not acquired immunodeficiency syndrome positive. Of them, 67% were co-infected with pathogen and non pathogen parasites. Overall occurrence of nematodes was: 44.3% for Trichuris trichiura, 24% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for Hookworm and 7.5% for Strongyloides stercoralis. No cases of Giardia lamblia, acute amebiasis or cryptosporidiasis were diagnosed. Mean eosinophil percents for participants were consistently and significantly higher in infected than in non infected individuals: 22% for Hookworm vs 7.2% (p < 0.001, 11% for Trichuris compared to 5.2% (p < 0.001, 13.2% compared to 7.5% for S. stercoralis (p < 0.05, and 12% compared to 6% for Ascaris cases (p < 0.05. Helminths and non pathogenic protozoa, as single or mixed infections, occurred among the participants. There was a strong correlation between eosinophilia and helminthiasis infections; however, none was identified between CD4 levels and eosinophilia. Because parasitic infections aggravate malnutrition and promote a disbalanced Th2 response in a potentially immuno-compromised host, their effect on HIV disease progression needs further study, mainly in countries were HIV and parasitic infections are highly prevalent.
Miao, Feng; Zhang, Ben-guang; Wang, Yong-bin; Bu, Xiu-qin; Zhang, Dian-bo; Kong, Xiang-li; Zhao, Chang-lei; Chen, Xi-xin; Xu, Yan; Liu, Xin
To understand the current situation of infections of intestinal parasites of rural residents in four cities namely Dongying, Weifang, Jining and Heze of Shandong Province. Twenty-four villages were randomly selected as study areas. The Kato-Katz technique was applied to test the stool samples of adult residents and the cellophane tape anus method was applied to test the infection of Enterobius vermicularis of children aged 12 years or below. Fifty families were randomly selected from each village and surveyed with questionnaires for the general situation of the family, and the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites, and healthy behaviors of the family members. Totally 8,227 adult residents and 1,313 children were investigated and the total infection rate of intestinal parasites was 0.55% (45 cases). The infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichura, E. vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis were 0.15% (12 cases), 0.06% (5 cases), 0.09% (7 cases), 1.37% (18 cases) and 0.04% (3 cases), respectively. Totally 3,767 residents were surveyed with questionnaires, and the awareness rate of the knowledge of prevention and control of parasites was 28.72% (1,082 cases), the formation rates of washing hands before meal, washing hands after toilet, washing fruit and vegetables before eating, and never drinking unboiled water were 60.66% (2,285 cases), 50.17% (1,890 cases), 48.71% (1,835 cases), and 87.07% (3,280 cases), respectively. In the plain area of Shandong Province, the infection rates of A. lumbricoides, hookworm, T. trichura and C. sinensis are low but the infection rate of E. vermicularis of children is relatively high; the awareness rates of the knowledge of parasites as well as the formation rates of healthy behaviors are low. Therefore, the health education and promotion should be strengthened.
Others encountered included Trichuris trichura (0.92%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.22%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), Schistosoma mansoni (1.22%), Fasciola gigantica (0.92%), Taenia saginata (0.31%), Entamoeba coli (1.53%), Balantidium coli (2.14%). Only two cases of mixed infections were observed. By this ...
dispar, and Entamoeba coli infections as determined by formol-ether concentration method were 0.69%, 13.2%, 0.35%, and 2.1%, respectively. Most mothers were reasonably aware of the mode of transmission of ascariasis, amoebiasis and ...
Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.
Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Tchameni, Sandrine Mboula; Nkenfou, Carine Nguefeu; Djataou, Patrice; Simo, Ulrich Florian; Nkoum, Alexandre Benjamin; Estrin, William
The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively. Of 235 participants, 68 (28.9%) were HIV positive, 38 of them on antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 32.3%. Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients. Univariate analysis showed no difference between the prevalence of intestinal parasites among PLHIV and HIV-negative patients ( P = 0.69). ART was not associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Multivariate analysis showed that the quality of water and the personal hygiene were the major risk factors associated to intestinal parasitosis. The level of education was associated with HIV serostatus: the higher the level of education, the lower the risk of being infected with HIV ( P = 0.00). PLHIV and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.
Full Text Available Objectives: The rate of person to person transmission of intestinal parasites is high in elderly and mentally retarded patients and lack of treatment may cause disease spread.This sudy was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of intestinal parasitic infections in elderly and mentallyretardedpatients of Golabchi center of Kashan. Methods & Materials: This descriptive study was carried out on 133 elderly and mentallyretardedpatients of Golabchi center of Kashan in 2007. Infected participants were treated according to the stool examination and scotch tape results. These tests were performedagain after one month and response to treatment wasdetermined. A questionnaire was completed during interview with patients to obtain the data of sex and age,clinical symptoms and side effects of drugs. Descriptive data analysis was performed to evaluate the results. Results: In general, 64.7% of patients were male and the rate of response to treatment was 93.2%. The response rate was highest (79.5% and lowest (26.7% in patients with 70 years of age respectively. Besides, theresponse rate was 93.6%, 89.2%, 90% and 100% in oxyur, entamoeba histolytica, giardia lamblia anddientamoeba fragilis respectively. Conclusion: With regardsto the high rate of response to treatment,resistance to routin anti parasitic drugs seems unlikely. The lack of response to tratment can be either dut to high severity of the infection or due to incorrect using of drugs.
Caroline Ferraz Ignacio
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.
Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong
A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.
Abaver, D T; Nwobegahay, J M; Goon, D T; Iweriebor, B C; Anye, D N
Intestinal parasitic infections play a vital role in the prognosis of HIV/AIDS in patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in HIV-infected individuals in two health facilities in Abuja-Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted in two sites: the GEDE AIDS and Infectious Diseases Research Institute (GAIDRI), and the Human Virology Institute-General Hospital Asokoro-Abuja, Nigeria. A total of 119 subjects were recruited (85 HIV infected and 34 HIV negative). Stool specimens collected were analyzed macroscopically and microscopically for consistency and the presence of enteric parasites. The overall prevalence rate of enteroparasites obtained in this study was 22.7% (27/119). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected patients was 24.7 %; while in HIV negative persons, it was 17.6%. However, the high rate obtained for HIV infected patients was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Although the prevalence rate of enteric parasites in HIV/AIDS patients was higher than in HIV negative individuals, this difference is not statistically significant. Even though there was no statistical difference in the two groups, parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients often result in debilitating illness.
Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Birrie, Hailu
A study of intestinal parasites and assessment of transmission factors were made in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Out of 528 children examined by formolether concentration method over 95 % were found to harbour one or more intestinal parasites. Human behaviour and poor sanitary conditions appeared to be responsible for the transmission of geohelminths, faeco-orally transmitted amoebae and water-related schistosome parasites. Health education is suggested to play a vital role in the c...
Abu-Madi Marawan A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.
Alavi Naeeni M
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more
Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh
Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of
Doiphode Sanjay H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parasitic infections are widespread in rural areas of West China. The remote and humid environment, traditional ways of life, contaminated potable water and limited health services all contribute to the transmission and persistence of fecal parasites.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasitic infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and without HIV infection and its association with diarrhea and CD4 T-cell count. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital focusing on HIV positive individuals, who gave blood for CD4 T-cell count at their first enrolment and clients tested HIV negative from November, 2008 to March, 2009. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhea status were obtained by interviewing 378 consecutive participants (214 HIV positive and 164 HIV negative. Stool samples were collected from all study subjects and examined for parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid fast stain techniques. Results The prevalence of any intestinal parasitic infection was significantly higher among HIV positive participants. Specifically, rate of infection with Cryptosporidium, I. belli, and S. stercoralis were higher, particularly in those with CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL. Diarrhea was more frequent also at the same lower CD4 T-cell counts. Conclusion Immunodeficiency increased the risk of having opportunistic parasites and diarrhea. Therefore; raising patient immune status and screening at least for those treatable parasites is important.
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections caused by Giardia lamblia (GL, Ascaris lumbriocoides (AL and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (Eh/Ed are highly prevalent among indigenous groups in Mexico. In resource-constrained settings, direct microscopic fecal examination continues to be a common diagnostic method in spite its limited accuracy. This study aimed at illustrating the effect of training local laboratory technicians from a rural reference hospital located in a marginalized indigenous region of northern Mexico to assess the inter-observer reliability of GL, AL, and Eh/Ed diagnoses. Two experienced technicians working at the hospital were trained and standardized for two full weeks in the Parasitology Laboratory at the National Children’s Hospital from Mexico City. Diagnoses were made by microscopy of two serial stool samples processed using the modified Faust zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique to concentrate AL eggs and GL and Eh/Ed cysts. Observations were done independently, and the final diagnosis for each observer was established when at least one of the two samples resulted positive. Reliability analyses from serial stool samples were conducted using Cohen’s kappa correlation coefficient (ĸ for each parasite. Agreement between observers reached 88.7, 72.4, and 80.5% for Eh/Ed, AL, and GL, respectively. Largest kappa coefficient was observed for GL (ĸ=0.55, followed by Eh/Ed (ĸ=0.30, and AL (ĸ=0.08. Prevalence of Eh/Ed, AL and GL according to observers 1 and 2 were 3.4 vs. 13.5%, 4.0 vs. 28.2%, and 32.2 vs. 33.3%, respectively. Except for GL, reliability was very low leading to major differences in prevalence estimates. These results question the value of training technicians, as intestinal parasitic microscopic diagnoses seemed to be very difficult to replicate between observers questioning their validity, leading to differences in clinical decisions, and in prevalence estimates.
Kunwar, Ritu; Acharya, Lokendra; Karki, Surendra
In the last two decades there have been several studies describing the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Nepal; however, there is a lack of surveillance data in the country. We searched literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar and local peer-reviewed journals published from 1990 to 2015 for studies describing prevalence of intestinal parasites among school-aged children. We conducted meta-regression to understand the trend over time and pooled the prevalence using 'metaprop' command in STATA 12.1. Thirty-one studies examining 12 080 fecal specimens were included. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections showed a significantly decreasing trend (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.43-0.73 for each consecutive 5 years) and was similar in males and females. The pooled prevalence in years 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 was 61.1% (95% CI 51.47-70.26), 53.2% (95% CI 20.94-83.99), 32.7% (95% CI 26.57-39.21) and 20.4% (95% CI 15.04-26.25), respectively. The proportion of helminths among total intestinal parasites was higher in rural areas 57.6% (95% CI 43.54-71.61), and proportion of protozoa among total intestinal parasites was higher in urban areas 68.4% (95% CI 63.23-73.62). Poly-parasitism was observed in 7.7% (95% CI 5.57-9.73) of children. We observed a significantly decreasing trend in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-aged children in Nepal over the last two decades. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Wumba, R; Longo-Mbenza, B; Mandina, M; Odio, Wobin T; Biligui, S; Sala, J; Breton, J; Thellier, M
To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP) involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8%) were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2%) were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7%). 47 out of 175 (26.9%) were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4%) were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP). Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7%, 5.1%, 1.7% and 0.6% for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6%, 4.6%, 3.4% and 1.1% respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1%), Ascoris lumbricoides in seven cases (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7%), hookworm in two cases (1.1%) and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6%). No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and the species spectrum of intestinal parasites (IP involved in hospitalized AIDS patients, a prospective observational and cross-sectional study was carried out in the four main hospitals in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. From November 2006 through September 2007, a single stool sample was collected from 175 hospitalized AIDS patients older than 15 years. Parasites were detected by light microscopy, including Ziehl-Neelsen, Fungi-Fluor, modified trichrome stains, and by immunofluorescence antibody tests and PCR for species diagnosis of microsporidia. At baseline, 19 patients (10.8 % were under antiretroviral therapy and 156 (89.2 % were eligible for ART. The main diagnosis for justifying hospitalization was intestinal infection associated with diarrhea in 87 out of 175 (49.7 %. 47 out of 175 (26.9 % were found to harbor an IP, and 27 out of 175 (15.4 % were infected with at least one opportunistic IP (OIP. Prevalence rate for OIP were 9.7 %, 5.1 %, 1.7 % and 0.6 % for Cryptosporidium sp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Isospora belli and Encephalitozoon intestinalis respectively. Considering patients with diarrhea only, prevalence rate were 12.6 %, 4.6 %, 3.4 % and 1.1 % respectively. The other IP observed were Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in nine cases (5.1 %, Ascaris lumbricoïdes in seven cases (4.0 %, Giardia intestinalis in three cases (1.7 %, hookworm in two cases (1.1 % and Trichiuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Schistosoma mansoni in one patient each (0.6 %. No significant relationship was established between any individual IP and diarrhea. These results underline the importance of OIP in symptomatic AIDS patients regardless of diarrhea at the time of the hospitalisation, and showed that routine microscopic examination using stains designed for Cryptosporidium spp. or the microsporidia should be considered due to the absence of clinical markers.
Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y
A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3
Punsawad, Chuchard; Phasuk, Nonthapan; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Thongtup, Kanjana; Siripakonuaong, Niramon; Nongnaul, Somchok
Intestinal parasitic infections remain prevalent and constitute a public health problem in certain rural areas of Thailand. Village health volunteers (VHVs), who are members of a Thai healthcare alliance, function as key providers of health prevention measures, disease control, and health education and share national health promotion campaigns with community members. This study is aimed at evaluating the prevalence, intensity, and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infection in VHVs in order to design community awareness and health education campaigns for the target population. This cross-sectional study was conducted between January to April 2016 among village health volunteers (VHVs) from four sub-districts of Nopphitam District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand. Subjects for the study were selected using a simple random sampling method. Socio-demographic variables and risk factors were collected by a structured questionnaire. Stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques to determine the presence of parasites and modified Kato-Katz thick smear to determine the intensity of infection. A total of 324 VHVs were enrolled. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminths was 9.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-13.0). The prevalence of hookworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura were 8.0% (95% CI: 5.3-11.5), 0.9% (95% CI: 0.2-2.7), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0-1.7), respectively. Mean intensity of hookworm infection was 1732 eggs per gram of stool. The prevalence was lower for protozoan infection than for helminth infection. Blastocystis hominis accounted for the highest percentage of intestinal protozoan infections 4.0% (95% CI: 2.2-6.8), followed by Giardia intestinalis 0.6% (95% CI: 0-2.2). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among sub-districts (p > 0.05). Having dogs at home was associated with soil
Marlieke C.H Bouwmans
Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence
Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.
Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.
Prasetyo, R H
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia
Lee, Kyu-Jae; Ahn, Yung-Kyum; Yong, Tai-Soon
To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3%...
Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn
Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B
Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs, their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs was 32.2% (419/1,301. Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6% were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6% presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%, followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%, Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001, contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02, age above 15 years (p = 0.001 and seasons (p = 0.001 were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001 and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04. Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted.
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This paper offers an up to date review of the intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic disease found In Colombia. Their main epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic features are presented, to provide the reader with a current view of their public health Importance, prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality.
Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las parasitosis intestinales, la cisticercosis y la hidatidosis en Colombia, con una breve descripción de la prevalencia, las características epidemiológicas, los efectos sobre la salud y algunos aspectos de control y tratamiento. Con esta revisión se busca tener información resumida sobre las parasitosis que se encuentran en Colombia y su mayor o menor Importancia en salud pública. TambIén se pretende ofrecer una Idea del nivel de gravedad de estas entidades como causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en este país.
Norhidayu Sahimin; Yvonne A L Lim; Farnaza Ariffin; Jerzy M Behnke; John W Lewis; Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, E...
Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L
AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and
Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014. The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level. Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories. Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was
Feis, Marieke E; John, Uwe; Lokmer, Ana; Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C; Wegner, K Mathias
On theoretical grounds, antagonistic co-evolution between hosts and their parasites should be a widespread phenomenon but only received little empirical support so far. Consequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms and evolutionary steps remain elusive, especially in nonmodel systems. Here, we utilized the natural history of invasive parasites to document the molecular underpinnings of co-evolutionary trajectories. We applied a dual-species transcriptomics approach to experimental cross-infections of blue mussel Mytilus edulis hosts and their invasive parasitic copepods Mytilicola intestinalis from two invasion fronts in the Wadden Sea. We identified differentially regulated genes from an experimental infection contrast for hosts (infected vs. control) and a sympatry contrast (sympatric vs. allopatric combinations) for both hosts and parasites. The damage incurred by Mytilicola infection and the following immune response of the host were mainly reflected in cell division processes, wound healing, apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, the functional coupling of host and parasite sympatry contrasts revealed the concerted regulation of chitin digestion by a Chitotriosidase 1 homolog in hosts with several cuticle proteins in the parasite. Together with the coupled regulation of ROS producers and antagonists, these genes represent candidates that mediate the different evolutionary trajectories within the parasite's invasion. The host-parasite combination-specific coupling of these effector mechanisms suggests that underlying recognition mechanisms create specificity and local adaptation. In this way, our study demonstrates the use of invasive species' natural history to elucidate molecular mechanisms of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Results A prevalence of 50.9% of intestinal parasites was recorded. Majority of the parasitic infections were waterborne protozoa with few helminthes. There was an association (P<0.05) between intestinal parasitic infection and place of residence, agro-ecological location, family size, water source, treatment and reliability ...
Full Text Available Background Parasitic intestinal infections (IPIs represent as the greatest cause of illnesses and diseases worldwide, especially in less developed countries. People of all ages are affected by IPIs; although, children are the most affected. This study aimed to assess prevalence and risk factors associated with IPIs among school children in West of Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 school children who selected randomly among 390 attending health care centers in Gashki, West Iran in 2016. This study we used a validated questionnaire and stool tests to gather epidemiological and disease data. The samples were examined for the presence of the parasites by direct wet mount, Lugol's iodine solution and modified formaline-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. Chi- square and binary logistic regression procedure was applied to test the association between the variables. A p-value of Results The mean and standard deviation of children ages were 10.7±2.29 years old. The overall prevalence of the IPIs was estimated at 66 (33.0. The highest prevalence of the IPIs was related to Blastocystis 35 (17.5%, and Giardia lamblia 22 (11.0%, respectively. 18 (9.0% out of 66 infected children had double infection. Male gender (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 2.20 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.19-4.09 was only factor significantly associated with the prevalence of the IPIs in this population. Conclusion The present study found a high rate of prevalence of parasitic intestinal infections among school children in Gashky, West of Iran. The current study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in children aged school, and emphasizes the necessity of school-based prevention and control programs.
Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.
Full Text Available Background: Infectious gastroenteritis (IGE is caused by numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. A history of IGE has been shown in previous studies to increase the risk of developing chronic gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic conditions. As bacteria and viruses represent the majority of pathogen-specific causes of IGE, post-infectious studies have primarily focused on these organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between a history of parasite-associated IGE and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders in a military population.Methods: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnostic coding data for primary exposures and outcomes were obtained for a retrospective cohort study of active component military personnel from 1998 to 2013. Exposed subjects consisted of individuals with documented infection with one of ten parasitic pathogens. Unexposed subjects were matched to exposed subjects on demographic and operational deployment history parameters. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were estimated using logistic regression for several chronic disorders previously shown to be associated with a history of IGE.Results: A total of 896 subjects with a parasitic exposure were matched to 3681 unexposed subjects for multivariate regression analysis. Individuals infected with Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale, and Taenia spp. had higher aOR for development of several chronic gastrointestinal disorders when compared with unexposed subjects after controlling for various covariates.Conclusion: We found that parasite-associated enteric infection increases the risk of development of post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disorders in a military population. These results require confirmation in similar populations and in the
Lee, K J; Ahn, Y K; Yong, T S
To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3% in rural areas. The infection rates were 51% with Trichuris trichiura, 40% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 23.4% with hookworm, 15.6% with Iodamoeba butschlii, 14.1% with Endolimax nana, 9.4% with Entamoeba coli and 7.8% with Giardia lamblia. There were 33 cases with multiple infection (51.6%). Mixed infection with more than 3 parasites was observed in 15 cases, all of them being children and adolescents living in rural areas. By this survey, it was conjectured that helminthic infection is prevalent among children and adolescents in Legaspi, Philippines.
Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu
To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.
Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro
Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.
João Gabriel Guimarães Luz
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the associated risk factors in children attending preschools located in areas with different socioeconomic and structural features in the city of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2015 and 2016 among four-to-five years old children. Initially, urban neighborhoods with preschools were classified into five risk strata for parasitic infections, which were defined on the basis of socioeconomic and structural variables. Then, one school from each stratum was randomly chosen for data collection. After obtaining the written informed consent from parents or guardians, the children provided stool samples for examination. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians to determine the associated risk factors. Results: Coproparasitological tests were performed on 215 (46.5% preschoolers, and the overall prevalence was 22.8%. The occurrence of such infections increased with the increase in risk stratum of the neighborhood. Protozoa infections, mainly by Entamoeba coli (11.2% and Giardia duodenalis (9.8%, were the most frequent. The consumption of tap water (OR = 3.56, P = 0.002, no washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption (OR = 3.44, P = 0.002, and no hand washing before eating (OR = 2.63, P = 0.004 were associated with these infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among Rondonópolis preschoolers is relevant and associated with precarious hygienic–sanitary behavior, especially in areas with poor socioeconomic and structural conditions.
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the
Full Text Available Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy.Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples and Cambodia (213 samples. DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%. Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections.Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and Giardia compared to microscopy, especially in samples
Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P
Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.
Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents
Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.
A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.
Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena
A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.
The results suggest a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis (40.9%) among the pupils. Four different intestinal parasites were encountered. The respective infection rates of each parasite were; Ascaris lumbricoides (14.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (13.7%), Trichuris trichiura (6.9%) and hookworms (5.4%). Infections ...
Background: Epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different regions/localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren found in a rural area ...
Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.0% of barrow-pushers alone. About 2.3% of van-loaders were infected with ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of intestinal parasites. Sahel Medical ...
Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K
Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene
Tumaini Alfred Ringo
Full Text Available Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient’s level of immunity. The most common clinical manifestation of these intestinal parasites is diarrhoea. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected patients has been found to be as high as 95%. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV-infected participants presenting with diarrhoea and association with CD4 cell counts, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in four HIV clinics in Moshi district, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania. Stool samples were collected and analyzed from participants presenting with three or more episodes of loose stool per day or a single bloody bowel movement. The identification of parasites was done using direct microscopy and staining techniques. Demographic data, CD4 counts and stool results were recorded. Data analysis was done using STATA IC/11.1. Results: The study included 83 adult HIV positive patients. There were 36 males (43.4% and 47 females (56.6%, with a median age of 36 years (range 30-43. The baseline CD4 count was 150 cells/ul (range 72-295 cells/ul. Of our participants, 47 (56.6% had a baseline CD4 cell count < 200 cell/uL. Only 6(7.2% had CD4 counts above 500cells/uL. Of the whole group, 62(74.7% were on ARV therapy and 33(39.8% were on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Intestinal parasites were detected in 25 of our participants. Among these 25 participants, Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 52%, Giardia lamblia in 32% and Entamoeba histolytica in 16%. The frequency of intestinal parasites was significantly associated with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/ul (p=0.02. There was no significant difference in parasitic infections associated with ART status or cotrimoxazole use. Conclusion: The prevalence
Fuhrimann, Samuel; Winkler, Mirko S; Pham-Duc, Phuc; Do-Trung, Dung; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio
Infections with intestinal parasites (helminths and intestinal protozoa) are endemic in Southeast Asia and inappropriate management and reuse of wastewater might exacerbate the risk of human infections. In rapidly growing urban settings, little is known about the extent of intestinal parasite infections. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in population groups differently exposed to wastewater in urban and peri-urban transition zones in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April and June 2014 in people aged ≥ 18 years at risk of wastewater exposure from To Lich River: workers maintaining wastewater treatment facilities; urban farmers reusing wastewater; and urban dwellers at risk of flooding events. For comparison, two peri-urban population groups living in close proximity to the Red River were chosen: farmers using river water for irrigation purposes; and people living in the same communities. A single stool sample was subjected to Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine risk factors and self-reported signs and symptoms. A total of 681 individuals had complete data records. Highest point-prevalence rates of intestinal parasite infections were observed for peri-urban farmers (30 %). Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura were the predominant helminth species (25 % and 5 %, respectively). Peri-urban farmers were at higher odds of infection with intestinal parasites than any other groups (adjusted odds ratio 5.8, 95 % confidence interval 2.5 to 13.7). Lack of access to improved sanitation and not receiving deworming within the past 12 months were associated with higher infection risk, while higher educational attainment and socioeconomic status were negatively associated with intestinal parasite infections. Our results suggest that exposure to
Akinbo, Frederick O; Okaka, Christopher E; Omoregie, Richard
Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Using a serial sampling method, a total of 2000 HIV-infected patients were recruited on their first visit prior to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital from August 2007 to August 2009. Stool and blood samples were collected from each patient. The stool samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to microscopically identify the oocysts of Cryptosporidium species, Isospora belli, Cyclospora species and spores of Microsporidium species while saline and iodine preparations were used for identifying the ova, cysts and parasites of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Taenia spp and other parasites. The blood specimens were equally analyzed using the flow cytometry for CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and autoanalyzer - sysmex kx - 21 for haemoglobin concentration. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 93.3% while 18% had parasitic infections. There was a significant relationship between CD4 count <200cells/microL and anaemia (P<0.0001). Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with anaemia. In conclusion the prevalence of anaemia in HIV-infected patients is high low CD4 count is a significant risk factor of acquiring anaemia. Except for isosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, A. lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species in HIV infected individuals are parasitic agents associated with anaemia. Routine screening for intestinal parasites and
Uga, Shoji; Kimura, Daisuke; Kimura, Kenji; Margono, Sri S
This study was undertaken to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections among schoolchildren in West Java, Indonesia, and to compare the infection rates obtained by three different methods of fecal examination. A total of 285 fecal samples were collected from 131 males and 154 females at a junior high school. Samples were brought to the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, and were examined for parasites by the Kato-Katz thick smear method (K-K). The residual samples were suspended in more than five volumes of 2% potassium dichromate solution and brought to the Department of Parasitology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan, where they were examined for parasites by the Army Medical School method (AMS III) and by the Sucrose Centrifugal Flotation method (SFL). The K-K revealed a total of two helminths with a prevalence of 10% (29/285). In contrast, nine species of parasites, 31% (89/285) positive, were obtained by AMS III, while 10 species, 22% (62/285) were found by SFL. Overall, 12 species of parasites were detected by the three methods: four species of nematoda (Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Enterobius vermicularis); five species of protozoa (Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica-like cyst, E. coli, Cyclospora sp, Blastocystis hominis); two unidentified species of nematode eggs; and one unidentified species of mite egg.
Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens Henrik
and enteropathogenic bacteria. Results of microbiological analyses were compared with self-reported gastrointestinal complaints collected using a validated questionnaire. Thirty-two (33%) patients were positive for parasites. However, opportunistic parasites (Isospora and Cryptosporidium) were detected in only 2...
Full Text Available There are health risks associated with wastewater and fecal sludge management and use, but little is known about the magnitude, particularly in rapidly growing urban settings of low- and middle-income countries. We assessed the point-prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasite infections in people with different exposures to wastewater and fecal sludge in Kampala, Uganda.A cross-sectional survey was carried out in September and October 2013, enrolling 915 adults from five distinct population groups: workers maintaining wastewater facilities; workers managing fecal sludge; urban farmers; slum dwellers at risk of flooding; and slum dwellers without risk of flooding. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz method and a formalin-ether concentration technique for the diagnosis of helminth and intestinal protozoa infections. A questionnaire was administered to determine self-reported signs and symptoms, and risk factors for intestinal parasite infections. Univariate and multivariate analyses, adjusted for sex, age, education, socioeconomic status, water, sanitation, and hygiene behaviors, were conducted to estimate the risk of infection with intestinal parasites and self-reported health outcomes, stratified by population group.The highest point-prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was found in urban farmers (75.9%, whereas lowest point-prevalence was found in workers managing fecal sludge (35.8%. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (27.8%. In urban farmers, the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 15% and above. For all investigated parasites, we found significantly higher odds of infection among urban farmers compared to the other groups (adjusted odds ratios ranging between 1.6 and 12.9. In general, female participants had significantly lower odds of infection with soil-transmitted helminths and S. mansoni compared to males. Higher
Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana
Hove, Robert Jan ten
The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations,
A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...
Celik, Tuncay; Daldal, Nilgün; Karaman, Ulkü; Aycan, Ozlem M; Atambay, Metin
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in the central region of Malatya and to educate the children about parasitic diseases. During the study, cellophane tape preparations and stool samples that had been prepared using direct mounting methods were examined. In addition the students were informed about intestinal parasites. Parasitic infection was observed in 415 (22.5%) out of 1838 students and the highest rate of 10.6% was that of Enterobius vermicularis. The rates of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis hominis, Taenia sp., Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Iodamoeba butschlii were found to be 8.5%, 1.9%, 1.4%, 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.05%, respectively. Thus, intestinal parasites are important among primary school children in Malatya and it seems that there is a relationship between socioeconomic conditions and the rate of intestinal parasites.
Lamb, Tracey J
... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...
Chunge, R N; Karumba, P N; Nagelkerke, N; Kaleli, N; Wamwea, M; Mutiso, N; Andala, E O; Kinoti, S N
A cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic infection in a rural community, Nderu, in Kiambu District, Kenya, was carried out in 1985 by examining 1129 individuals from 203 households (about 25% of the total population). This was followed by 3 more cross-sectional surveys, in January, May and October 1986, of 56 families comprising 461 individuals, who had also participated in the first survey. In the first survey, 81.4% of the sample was positive for at least one intestinal parasite and 78% was positive for intestinal protozoa. 72.7% of those infected had multiple infections. The prevalence of most of the protozoa increased with age but that of Giardia lamblia peaked in the 0 to 4 year class at 35.5%. Females were infected more often with several of the protozoa, but males with Ascaris. People living in larger households were more often infected with Entamoeba histolytica and Iodamoeba butschlii, while the opposite was true of H. nana and tended to be for Giardia. Significant positive associations between parasite species were common at all surveys, especially among the amoebae. The majority of negative associations were for Giardia. Unformed stools were significantly associated with Giardia, Blastocystis, and trophozoites of Trichomonas hominis and Chilomastix mesnili. Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli were found more often in formed stools. Estimates of daily incidence, and duration of infection in days, were calculated for 11 parasites. The longest mean estimated duration of infection for any species was 237 +/- S.D. 151.4 days for H. nana and the shortest was 41.6 +/- S.D. 0.4 days for T. hominis.
Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz
Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission...
Full Text Available This review examines and compares host defence mechanisms during intestinal infection with three types of organisms: a virus, a bacterium and a nematode parasite (ie, transmissible gastroenteritis virus [TGEV], Helicobacter jejuni and Trichinella spiralis. Diarrhea is commonly associated with all of these infections. It appears that T spiralis initiates the most elaborate defence system of the three organisms, involving full range humoral and cellular immunity, as well as mucus hypersecretion, epithelial alterations, altered gut motility and parasite impairment (morphological and physiological. In contrast, intestinal defence against H jejuni and TGEV involves fewer components. The latter seems to initiate the most rudimentary host response. Despite such differences, these mechanisms exhibit many similarities, thus further illustrating the relatively limited repertoire of defence systems that the intestine can mount. The mediators translating the insult of any intestinal pathogen into a common response deserve further investigation.
Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.
Gamboa, María I; Navone, Graciela T; Orden, Alicia B; Torres, María F; Castro, Luis E; Oyhenart, Evelia E
We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections in children aged 1-12 years from a poor neighborhood in La Plata, Argentina, and determined the correlations with their nutritional status and socio-environmental conditions. We performed parasitological analyses with anal brushed technique (for Enterobius vermicularis eggs) and fecal samples, employing the techniques of Ritchie, Carles Barthelemy and Willis. The worm burdens of nematodes were estimated by means of Kato Katz technique. Low weight-for-age (underweight), height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were calculated based on the 5th centile of the WHO 2006 (children under 5) and CDC 2000 (older children and adolescents) growth references. We also analyzed samples of soil, water, and canine feces and surveyed other domestic and environmental data using structured questionnaires to each child's parents. To associate the parasitological, anthropometric and socio-environmental data, a categorical analysis of principal components (catPCA) was conducted. In the first axis of catPCA, the correlations among socio-environmental variables showed a gradient of "relative welfare". The eigenvectors showed the most influential variables in the analysis were promiscuity (0.0765), father's education (-0.741), crowding (0.727), wastewater disposal (-0.658), mother's education (-0.574), and flooding (-0.409). The 85% of children were parasitized and 79.6% polyparasitized. The 27.7% of children had deficit in some nutritional status indicator, being the stunting the most prevalent deficit (16.8%). There also found parasites in 42% of the dog feces, 53% of the soil samples, and non-pathogenic amoebae in the water samples. The SEV was mainly associated with geohelminths and stunting, especially among the poorest children. The study evidences that living conditions are variable within this population. Part of these variations could be linked to the differences in the extent to which parents are able to use their scant
Min, B R; Hart, S P; Miller, D; Tomita, G M; Loetz, E; Sahlu, T
The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of the condensed tannin (CT)-containing forage sericea lespedeza (sericea lespedeza (SL); Lespedeza cuneata; 15.2% CT), on fecal egg count (FEC), larval development (larvae/10 g of feces), worm burden and immune response compared with a crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum)/Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea; control forage (CTF)) forage low in CT (0.32% CT) in grazing Angora does and their kids. Fifty worm-free mixed-age does were randomly allocated to three treatments. One treatment (10 does; initial liveweight (LW) = 45+/-1.5 kg) entailed grazing of SL forage from April 25 to July 15, 2002 with a second treatment of CTF (20 does; initial LW = 43+/-1.4 kg) grazing during the same period. Does of the third treatment (20 does; initial LW = 44+/-1.4 kg) grazed a sward of SL for 2 weeks and then one of CTF for 2 weeks followed by alternating between the two pastures every 2-week rotational grazing (ROT). To gauge levels of infective larvae on pasture, three worm-free Angora kids (initial LW = 3.6+/-0.2 kg) were randomly selected as tracers. Tracers grazed for final 60 days and were euthanized for determination of worm burden. The immune response of does was measured by skin thickness reaction after the intradermal injection of 250 microg phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Mean FEC for SL and ROT were substantially lower (P kids was lower (P milk somatic cell counts (SCC) than does grazing non-CT-containing forage. In summary, grazing CT forages reduced FEC, larval development and worm burden, and also appeared to enhance immune response. The CT-containing forage SL reduced gastro-intestinal parasite infections of Angora does and kids.
Host condition had effect on therate of infection and greater effect on intestinal parasite load in Malapterurus electricus . These vary among sex, sizes and weights of conspecific individuals. This was investigated over a period of two years.A total of 340 fishes from the lagoon were caught and dissected for intestinal helminth ...
Potts, Rashaun A; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Pakpour, Nazzy; Lokken, Kristen L; Tiffany, Connor R; Cheung, Kong; Tsolis, Renée M; Luckhart, Shirley
Co-infections with malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can present as life-threatening bacteremia, in contrast to self-resolving NTS diarrhea in healthy individuals. In previous work with our mouse model of malaria/NTS co-infection, we showed increased gut mastocytosis and increased ileal and plasma histamine levels that were temporally associated with increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Here, we report that gut mastocytosis and elevated plasma histamine are also associated with malaria in an animal model of falciparum malaria, suggesting a broader host distribution of this biology. In support of mast cell function in this phenotype, malaria/NTS co-infection in mast cell-deficient mice was associated with a reduction in gut permeability and bacteremia. Further, antihistamine treatment reduced bacterial translocation and gut permeability in mice with malaria, suggesting a contribution of mast cell-derived histamine to GI pathology and enhanced risk of bacteremia during malaria/NTS co-infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.
Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Zenebe, Yohannes; Amsalu, Eden
Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6-18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni , E. histolytica/dispar , H. nana , A. lumbricoides , G. lambilia , T. trichiura , S. stercolaris , E. vermicularis , Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs ( P nutritional status of school children are also important.
Sonam Tashi Lama
Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet. The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal. A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined. Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least. Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area. Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.
Full Text Available Perinatal exposure to the food contaminant bisphenol A (BPA in rats induces long lasting adverse effects on intestinal immune homeostasis. This study was aimed at examining the immune response to dietary antigens and the clearance of parasites in young rats at the end of perinatal exposure to a low dose of BPA. Female rats were fed with BPA [5 µg/kg of body weight/day] or vehicle from gestational day 15 to pup weaning. Juvenile female offspring (day (D25 were used to analyze immune cell populations, humoral and cellular responses after oral tolerance or immunization protocol to ovalbumin (OVA, and susceptibility to infection by the intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis. Anti-OVA IgG titers following either oral tolerance or immunization were not affected after BPA perinatal exposure, while a sharp decrease in OVA-induced IFNγ secretion occurred in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN of OVA-immunized rats. These results are consistent with a decreased number of helper T cells, regulatory T cells and dendritic cells in spleen and MLN of BPA-exposed rats. The lack of cellular response to antigens questioned the ability of BPA-exposed rats to clear intestinal infections. A 1.5-fold increase in N. brasiliensis living larvae was observed in the intestine of BPA-exposed rats compared to controls due to an inappropriate Th1/Th2 cytokine production in infected jejunal tissues. These results show that perinatal BPA exposure impairs cellular response to food antigens, and increases susceptibility to intestinal parasitic infection in the juveniles. This emphasized the maturing immune system during perinatal period highly sensitive to low dose exposure to BPA, altering innate and adaptative immune response capacities in early life.
Coulibaly Jean T
Full Text Available Abstract Background Social-ecological systems govern parasitic infections in humans. Within the frame of assessing the accuracy of a rapid diagnostic test for Schistosoma mansoni in Côte d’Ivoire, three different endemicity settings had to be identified and schoolchildren’s intestinal parasitic infection profiles were characterized. Methods In September 2010, a rapid screening was conducted in 11 schools in the Azaguié district, south Côte d’Ivoire. In each school, 25 children were examined for S. mansoni and S. haematobium. Based on predefined schistosome endemicity levels, three settings were selected, where schoolchildren aged 8–12 years were asked to provide three stool and three urine samples for an in-depth appraisal of parasitic infections. Triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears were prepared from each stool sample for S. mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth diagnosis, whereas urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for S. haematobium diagnosis. Additionally, a formol-ether concentration method was used on one stool sample for the diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoa. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to analyse associations between schoolchildren’s parasitic infections, age, sex and study setting. Results The prevalences of S. mansoni and S. haematobium infections in the initial screening ranged from nil to 88% and from nil to 56%, respectively. The rapid screening in the three selected areas revealed prevalences of S. mansoni of 16%, 33% and 78%. Based on a more rigorous diagnostic approach, the respective prevalences increased to 33%, 53% and 92% S. haematobium prevalences were 0.8%, 4% and 65% (rapid screening results: 0.0%, 0.0% and 54%. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma spp., soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoan infections showed setting-specific patterns. Infections with two or more species concurrently were most common in the rural setting (84%, followed by
Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05. To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.
Full Text Available Anemia is estimated to affect half the school-age children and adolescents in developing countries. The main causes are parasitic infections, malaria, and low iron intake. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of anemia, parasitic infections, and nutritional status of children attending public primary schools in Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Of 360 students, 26.7% were anemic, and prevalence was higher in children under 8 and over 15 years of age. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 42%, with Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%, Trichuris trichiura (15.6%, and hookworm (1.7% most frequently found. There was an association between parasitic infections and poor sanitary conditions, but there was no association between anemia and presence of intestinal parasites. Height-for-age Z scores were lower than the NCHS standard, and prevalence of stunting was 5.4%. Although intestinal parasites were not associated with anemia, children with parasites had lower nutritional indices (weight- and height-for-age Z scores than those without parasites.Estima-se que a anemia afeta metade dos escolares e adolescentes nos países em desenvolvimento. As principais causas são enteroparasitoses, malária e/ou baixa ingesta de ferro. Este estudo objetivou descrever a prevalência de anemia e de enteroparasitoses, assim como o estado nutricional de escolares de primeiro grau de escolas públicas municipais de Aracaju, SE, Brasil. Dos 360 estudantes, 26,7% estavam anêmicos, sendo a prevalência maior nos menores de oito anos e nos maiores de 15. A prevalência geral de enteroparasitoses foi de 42%. Ascaris lumbricoides (28,7%, Trichuris trichiura (15,6% e ancilostomídeos (1,7% estavam entre os mais freqüentemente encontrados. Houve associação entre enteroparasitose e má condição de saneamento, mas não entre anemia e presença de enteroparasitos. Os escores de desvio padrão (Z-scores de altura para idade foram inferiores aos padrões do NCHS, com preval
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis. Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/9/2012.
Ito, Yoichi; Itoh, Naoyuki; Kimura, Yuya; Kanai, Kazutaka
To address the lack of up-to-date published data, the present study assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding catteries in Japan. Fresh faecal samples were randomly collected from 342 cats (aged 1 month to 12 years) in seven breeding catteries in Japan, located in prefectures of Nagano (n = 2), Saitama (n = 1), Aichi (n = 2), Gifu (n = 1) and Miyagi (n = 1), on a single occasion. The samples were tested for the presence of Giardia species copro-antigen using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Other intestinal parasites were identified microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. The total prevalence of intestinal parasites was 20.8%; only two genera of protozoa (Giardia species: 18.7% and Cystoisospora species: 5.0%) were detected. Coinfections of both protozoans were recorded in 2.9% of cats. In contrast, no helminths were detected. The presence of total infection, Giardia species, Cystoisospora species and multiple infections in cats intestinal parasites. Giardia species infection was present in samples from all breeding catteries, except for one facility. Cystoisospora species and coinfections were shown in four and two breeding catteries, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was markedly variable among the breeding catteries. The present study demonstrates the significance of Giardia species and Cystoisospora species infections in breeding cattery cats. Additionally, it is suggested that environmental contamination is the most important factor influencing the prevalence of protozoal infections in breeding catteries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%, Toxocara spp. (18.81%, Taenia hydatigena (15.28%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, and Toxascaris leonina (8.69% were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores' populations.
Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Pavon, Ignacio Lopez; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Velasco, Roman Blanco
Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19%) of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62). Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22%) of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32%) in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95). Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18%) of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78). The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 to
Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca
To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.
AJEST. African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length Research Paper. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from children facing diarrheal disease and associated risk factors in ...
Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh
Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city.
Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.
Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.
Gil, Frederico F; Barros, Maxlene J; Macedo, Nazaré A; Júnior, Carmelino G E; Redoan, Roseli; Busatti, Haendel; Gomes, Maria A; Santos, Joseph F G
Intestinal parasites are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Immunocompromised individuals may develop more severe forms of these infections. Taking into account the immunity impairment in patients suffering from chronic renal failure (CRF), we will determine the prevalence and associated symptoms of intestinal parasites in these patients. Controls without CRF were used for comparison. Stool samples were collected and processed for microscopic identification of parasites using the Formalin-ether concentration method. For Cryptosporidium diagnosis, the ELISA technique was used. One hundred and ten fecal samples from hemodialysis patients were analyzed, as well as 86 from a community group used as control group. A result of 51.6% of intestinal parasites was observed in hemodialysis patients and 61.6% in the control group. Cryptosporidium and Blastocystis were the most common infections in patients with CRF (26.4% and 24.5%, respectively). Blastocystis was the most common infection in the control group (41.9%), however no individual was found positive for Cryptosporidium. Among the CRF patients, 73.6% were symptomatic, 54.3% of these tested positive for at least one parasite, in contrast to 44.8% in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.38). The most common symptoms in this group were flatulence (36.4%), asthenia (30.0%) and weight loss (30.0%). In the control group, 91.9% were symptomatic, 60.8% of these tested positive for at least one parasite, in contrast to 71.4% in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.703). A significant difference between the two groups was observed with regard to symptoms, with bloating, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain being more frequent in the control group than in the hemodialysis group (all p prevalence of parasitic infection, nor with the type of parasite or with multiple parasitic infections. Patients with chronic renal failure are frequent targets for renal transplantation, which as well as the inherent immunological impairment of
Full Text Available Background: Despite continued and comprehensive planning of the world health organization (WHO, intestinal parasitic infections are a serious public problem in developing countries. Due to the high prevalence of cancers in Ardabil province and subsequently the high possibility of intestinal parasitic infections among the people, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with malignancy in this area. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 fecal samples were collected from patients with cancer during February to September 2015. The specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using direct smear, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, agar plate culture and Ziel-Neelsen staining technique. Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasitic infections in studied cancer patients was 10%. The infection rates of detected intestinal parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst 4%, Blastocystis hominis 3%, Giardia lamblia 2% and Taenia spp. 1%. Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of intestinal parasites, there is a need to screen cancer patients for some important parasitic infections such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Strongiloides stercoralis because of irreparable effects of those parasites on the patients and to increase awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasitic infections in these patients.
A comparative study of the gastro-intestinal helminth parasites infection of fresh and brackish water fishes from Warri river, Southern Nigeria, was undertaken. Eight hundred (800) fishes examined during the investigation belong to 30 families, 45 genera and 56 species. The study revealed a highly significant relationship (P ...
Mar 1, 2003 ... INTRODUCTION. Refuse, soil, animal waste and sewage sludge are common sources of manure, used to fertilize agriculture. ﬁe1ds(1-3). Studies have revealed the incidence and distribution of many pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents from refuse which infect both man and animals(4-6).
Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.
Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.
Mahmud Abdulkader Mahmud
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections.In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19% of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36% in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62. Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22% of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32% in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95. Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18% of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29% in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78. The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI
Lujan, Hugo D
Giardia lamblia, a parasite of humans, is a major source of waterborne diarrhoeal disease. Giardia is also an excellent system to study basic biochemical processes because it is a single-celled eukaryote with a small genome and its entire life cycle can be replicated in vitro. Giardia trophozoites undergo fundamental changes to survive outside the intestine of their host by differentiating into infective cysts. Encystation entails the synthesis, processing, transport, secretion and extracellular assembly of cyst wall components. To survive within the intestine, Giardia undergoes antigenic variation, a process by which the parasite continuously switches its major surface molecules, allowing the parasite to evade the host's immune response and produce chronic and recurrent infections. The objective of the present chapter is to provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in adaptation and differentiation in Giardia, with a particular focus on the process of encystation and antigenic variation of this interesting micro-organism.
Okoye I. C.
Full Text Available A study was carried out in Nsukka cultural zone, Nigeria, with the aim of determining the prevalence, intensity and abundance of intestinal endoparasitic fauna of commonly consumed wildlife or bushmeat. From the 143 wild animals sampled, 141 (98.6 % were found at least infected with one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the overall most prevalent (48.8 %. Dicrocoelium hospes differed significantly in age-related prevalence of infection. Significant sex-related difference in infection (P<0.05 was recorded for Strongyloides papillosus, A. lumbricoides, Oesophagostomum columbianum and Moniliformis moniliformis while Taenia saginata and Entamoeba histolytica showed significant seasonal differences in intensity of infection. The results suggest that bush-meats were hosts of various parasites of medical and veterinary importance. There is need for health inspection of bush-meat for trade and consumption.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2 838 stool samples in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in 2013. Samples were examined by the several techniques. Results: The frequency of intestinal parasites was 465 (16.4% of which 188 (13.5% samples were for urban areas and 277 (19.2% for rural areas. Infection in rural areas was significantly higher than urban areas. Out of 465 infected samples, 456 (98% were contaminated with protozoan parasites and 9 (2% with helminthes. Infection in people who sometimes used the soap to wash hands was significantly more than those who always used soap (P<0.001. Infection in people with poor economic conditions was significantly more than the two groups with moderate and good economic conditions (P<0.001. Conclusions: Effective reasons for the reducing incidence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province could be the development of universities with more students led to increased awareness, improvement of the environment, increase of the ease of access to health care centers, increase of advertising in provincial mass media about health training, increased health culture, and dispose of sanitary waste properly.
Abstract: Parasitic infections continue to take their toll on HIV positive patients by influencing the blood qualitatively and quantitatively. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to anaemia and CD4 counts among HIV-infected patients in Benin City,. Nigeria.
The intestinal content of the animals were examined with the aid of a hand lens, a microscope and direct smear method. The parasites identified include helminthes such as Ancylostoma sp., Trichuris sp., Ascaris sp., Hymenolepis sp. and Schistosoma haematobium, and protozoans such as Giardia sp. and Entamoeba sp.
Sungkar, Saleha; Pohan, Anggi P N; Ramadani, Antari; Albar, Nafisah; Azizah, Fitri; Nugraha, Antonius R A; Wiria, Aprilianto E
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are one of the major public health problems, especially in the rural area of developing countries with low socio-economic status and poor sanitation. The study was aimed to determine the prevalence of IPIs among the inhabitants of a rural area in South West Sumba, eastern part of Indonesia. A cross-sectional study was done in Kalena Rongo village, South West Sumba in April 2014. Stool samples were collected and examined for IPIs using direct smear method. Faecal samples were collected from 424 of 473 inhabitants of the village, age 2 months to 80 years. About 95.5 % (405/424) of the participants had any IPIs. The most prevalent parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides 65.8 % (279/424), Trichuris trichiura 60.4 % (256/424), hookworms 53.5 % (227/424), Blastocystis hominis 34.4 % (146/424), Entamoeba histolytica 17.9 % (76/424), and Giardia lamblia 4.5 % (19/424). The villagers used no latrine and defecated in their backyard. Clean water sources were scarce and far from the village. In Kalena Rongo village, the rural area in eastern part of Indonesia, the finding of IPIs was conspicuous and therefore expressed the poor hygiene and absence of proper sanitation in the area. Integrated efforts, such as improving infrastructure to provide clean water source and educating the inhabitants for appropriate hygienic lifestyle are needed.
Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infestations pose one of the biggest health problems of the contemporary world. Objectives. The aim of this article was to present the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children living in a large urban agglomeration. Material and methods . 1823 children (916 girls and 907 boys, aged 3–6, attending 31 different pre-schools in Warsaw, were examined in 2014. Stool specimens were tested in the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine of the Military Institute of Medicine by light microscopy using three different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation. The material for testing, fixed in 10% formalin, was collected three times at 2–3-day intervals. Results . Parasitological examination of the stool specimens showed intestinal parasitic infestations in 47 children (2.57% of the study group. Only 7 children were infested with pathogenic parasites (6 cases of giardiasis and 1 enterobiasis and required antiparasitic treatment. 17 children were infested with potentially pathogenic protozoa (Blasocystis sp. and 26 with non-pathogenic protozoa ( Entamoeba coli , Endolimax nanai , but because of lack of gastrointestinal symptoms (asymptomatic carriage they did not require a treatment. Conclusions . Performed examination show low infection rates among children from a large urban agglomeration. In the absence of epidemiological surveillance over the prevalence of the majority of intestinal parasitic diseases in Poland, and because some diagnostic centres generate positive test results using valueless methods, the propagation of parasitological diagnostics in light microscopy in direction of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations, especially among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, is strongly recommended.
Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among communities living in different habitats and its comparison with one hundred and one studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia.
Sinniah, B; Hassan A, K R; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Ibrahim, Z; Ali, O
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two
Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%, Taenia spp. (6.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4% and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%. Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%, Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3% and Cystoisospora belli (4.4% were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient’s first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.
Cerva, L; Schrottenbaum, M; Kliment, V
Histological sections of 414 appendices were examined parasitologically. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 8.7%, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides in 0.5%, trophozites of Dientamoeba fragilis in 4.8%, Endolimax nana in 2.2%, Entamoeba coli in 1% and cysts of Giardia intestinalis in 1.9% of cases. Appendicopathies associated with Enterobius were most frequent in the age group from 6 to 10 years (24.3%) and from 21 to 25 years (12.2%). Patients older than 15 years were practically women only. Dientamoeba was most frequent in the age group from 11 to 15 years (11.3%). In women D. fragilis was three times more frequent than in men. The coincidence of D. fragilis and E. vermicularis infections was 50%. No interactions were seen between the protozoans in the contents of the appendix and its mucous membrane. Statistical evaluation indicates possible etiologic role of E. vermicularis in the occurrence of acute appendicities. D. fragilis appears to be the most common intestinal protozoan parasite in Bohemia.
Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen
From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs
Abera, Bayeh; Yitayew, Gashaw; Amare, Hiwot
Food handlers play a major role in the transmission of Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), Shigella, and intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Stool samples from 410 food handlers were examined for bacterial pathogens and parasites. Pearson's Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used where appropriate. The prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers was 11 (2.7%), 5 (1.2%), and 53 (12.9%), respectively. Among eight intestinal parasites identified, the two most prevalent intestinal parasites were hookworm 26 (6.3%) and G. lamblia 13 (3.1%). Male food handlers were more likely to be positive than were female food handlers for S. Typhi and intestinal parasites. Furthermore, food handlers who had a history of regular medical checkups were less infected with intestinal parasites. Being male (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and not attending medical checkups (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers. Male food handlers were reluctant to have regular parasitological examinations. There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures.
The incriminated protozoan parasites were Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolitica, Trichomonas hominis and Entamoeba coli. Helminthes parasites were mainly present in HIV negative patients who constituted the control group. Potential risk factors for intestinal parasite infection revealed that though occupation played ...
Mar 1, 2018 ... identified intestinal parasites, Cryptosporidium species accounts for the highest frequency (19/220, 8.63%), followed by Cyclospora species (13/220, 5.90%). Presence of domestic animals (AOR=2.07,. 95%CI:1.07-8.40, P= 0.032) and CD4+ T-cell count <500cell/µl. (AOR=4.66, 95%CI:1.17-5.35, P= 0.001) ...
Pirhan, Yavuz; Özen, Fatma Zeynep; Kılınç, Çetin; Güçkan, Rıdvan
Although intestinal parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, they are common public health problems in undeveloped and developing countries. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and treatment procedures should be adopted according to the etiology. Herein we presented the cases of four patients with clinical findings of acute appendicitis. Patients were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the pathological examinations of specimens. Pinworm infections are common parasitic infections that may mimic appendicitis. The pathology of the four cases was noted when the file of 186 patients aged between 4 and 72 years who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in my hospital was retrospectively reviewed. When the appendectomy specimen was examined histopathologically it was understood that acute appendicitis was caused by Enterobius vermicularis parasite. In Enterobius infections, performing systemic therapy for patients and their family members is sufficient. To prevent unnecessary appendectomy, this type of infection should be made to ask in the history and clinical findings of patients.
Maldonado-López, Selene; Maldonado-López, Yurixhi; Gómez-Tagle Ch, Alberto; Cuevas-Reyes, Pablo; Stoner, Kathryn E
In primate populations, endoparasite species richness and prevalence are associated with host traits such as reproductive and social status, age, sex, host population density, and environmental factors such as humidity. We analyzed the species richness and prevalence of intestinal parasites in two sympatric primate populations, one of Alouatta palliata and one of Ateles geoffroyi, found in a tropical dry forest in Costa Rica. We identified three species of intestinal parasites (Controrchis sp., Trypanoxyuris sp., and Strongyloides sp.) in these two primate species. We did not find any differences in species richness between the primate species. However, the prevalences of Controrchis sp. and Trypanoxyuris sp. were higher in Alouatta palliata. Similarly, males and lactating females of Alouatta palliata showed higher Controrchis sp. prevalences. We did not observe any differences in parasite richness and prevalence between seasons. Infectious diseases in endangered primate populations must be considered in conservation strategies, especially when defining protected areas.
Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J.
Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp...
Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo
Full Text Available Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to some of the demographic parameters was studied in rural areas of the city of mobarakeh of Isfahan province in 1997. Methods: Two methods were used to detect the presence of intestinal parasites; direct exam and fecalcontrate system: formalin ethyl acetate method. The scotch tape method was used to examin for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 51.9 percent of the studied children were infected by one or several intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (29.8 percent, Entamoeba coli (17.1 percent and Enterobius vermicularis(16.3 percent respectively. A significant relation was found between age, level of education of mother and father, weight at birth, number of children in the family, and parasitic infections (P< percentS. No significant relationship was observed between sex and parasitic infections (P> percentS. Discussion: A comparison between the present results and those reported previously indicates that there is not a significant differences between the prevalence of parasitic infection in rural and urban parts of Isfahan province. Intestinal parasitic infections is still an important health problem in the region and the control and prevention demands more consideration of authorities.
de Alegría, María Luisa Aznar Ruiz; Colmenares, Karen; Espasa, Mateu; Amor, Arancha; Lopez, Isabel; Nindia, Arlette; Kanjala, Joaquina; Guilherme, Domingas; Sulleiro, Elena; Barriga, Begoña; Gil, Eva; Salvador, Fernando; Bocanegra, Cristina; López, Teresa; Moreno, Milagros; Molina, Israel
Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed. Of 230 SAC, 56.1% were female and the mean age was 9.3 years (SD 2.45). Severe malnutrition, according to body mass index (BMI)-for-age, was observed in 20.4% of the SAC, and anemia was found in 59.6%. Strongyloides stercoralis was observed in 28 of the 230 (12.8%) SAC. Eggs of other helminths were observed in 51 (22.2%) students: Hymenolepis spp. in 27 students (11.7%), hookworm in 14 (6.1%), Schistosoma haematobium in four (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis in four (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in three (1.3%), Taenia spp. in two (0.9%), and Fasciola hepatica in one (0.4%). Protozoa were observed in 17 (7.4%) students. Detection of S. stercoralis was higher using the Baermann technique versus using formol-ether (11.3 vs. 3%). Overall prevalence of S. stercoralis in the school population of 16 studied schools in the municipal area of Cubal was greater than 10%. This fact must be considered when designing deworming mass campaigns. The use of specific tests in larvae detection is needed to avoid overlooking this parasite.
opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...
Asymptomatic Intestinal Parasites in School Children at Ota, Ogun State. ... This study thus advocates routine periodic screening even of the healthy pupils for intestinal parasitosis to minimize morbidity and mortality and improve ... Key Words: intestinal parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, School, Nigeria ...
No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Forty six (23%) stool specimens were positive for intestinal para¬sites. Giardia lamblia 18 (9%) was most frequent among the 10 different types of detected intestinal parasites followed by Entamoeba histolytica 9 (4.5%). No pathogenic bacteria were detected in ...
Lamb, Tracey J
.... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...
In sub-Sahara African countries, both malaria and intestinal helminth infections are endemic and co-infection commonly occurs. It is estimated that over a third of the world's population, mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics are infected with parasitic helminths and Plasmodium species thus often leading to co-infections.
Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution of intestinal parasites in a population in Qazvin city in north of Iran. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Qazvin, north of Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2009 to October 20, 2012. A total of 5 739 stool specimens from 4 053 (70.6% males and 1 686 (29.3% females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mounting, formol-ether concentration and modified acid-fast staining techniques. Results: The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 5.8% (3.7% in males and 2.1% in females. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 116 (2.0% Entamoeba coli, 110 (1.9% Giardia lamblia, 49 (0.85% Blastocystis hominis, 30 (0.5% Enodolimax nana, 1 2 (0.2% Iodamoeba butschlii, 2 (0.03% Trichomonas hominis, 9 (0.1 % Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.01% Strongyloides stercoralis, 1 (0.01% Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and 1 (0.01% Trichuris trichura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 5 (0.08% Enterobius vermicularis. Conclusions: In this regard, findings of this study can be used as a basis to develop strategies and preventive programs for targeting groups at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections.
Mamum, M.A.A; Begum, N.; Mondal, M.H.M
Epidemiology of gastro-intestinal parasites of water buffaloes was investigated in Kurigram district of Bangladesh between November 2007 and October 2008 through coprological examination. A total of 236 water buffaloes were examined, among them 144 (61.02%) buffaloes were found infected with one or more species of gastro-intestinal parasites. Nine species of gastro-intestinal parasites were identified, of them four species were trematodes, namely, Paramphistomum cervi (29.24%), Fasciola gigan...
Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine; Deloron, Philippe; Peyron, François
This review defines the concepts of maternal-fetal (congenital) and vertical transmissions (mother-to-child) of pathogens and specifies the human parasites susceptible to be congenitally transferred. It highlights the epidemiological features of this transmission mode for the three main congenital parasitic infections due to Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium sp. Information on the possible maternal-fetal routes of transmission, the placental responses to infection and timing of parasite transmission are synthesized and compared. The factors susceptible to be involved in parasite transmission and development of congenital parasitic diseases, such as the parasite genotypes, the maternal co-infections and parasitic load, the immunological features of pregnant women and the capacity of some fetuses/neonates to overcome their immunological immaturity to mount an immune response against the transmitted parasites are also discussed and compared. Analysis of clinical data indicates that parasitic congenital infections are often asymptomatic, whereas symptomatic newborns generally display non-specific symptoms. The long-term consequences of congenital infections are also mentioned, such as the imprinting of neonatal immune system and the possible trans-generational transmission. The detection of infection in pregnant women is mainly based on standard serological or parasitological investigations. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis can be used for the detection of some fetal infections. The neonatal infection can be assessed using parasitological, molecular or immunological methods; the place of PCR in such neonatal diagnosis is discussed. When such laboratory diagnosis is not possible at birth or in the first weeks of life, standard serological investigations can also be performed 8-10 months after birth, to avoid detection of maternal transmitted antibodies. The specific aspects of treatment of T. gondii, T. cruzi and Plasmodium congenital infections are
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the rate of intestinal parasitic infections and related risk factors among street beggars in Jimma town from February 10 to March 20, 2010. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 116 street beggars cached at four different churches in Jimma town during ‘Abbey’ or two months Easter Christian fasting days. Interview was made using a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. Concentrated stool samples were collected and examined microscopically using direct wet smear. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 software package. Results: Of 116 street beggars whose stool had investigated, 104 (89.7% harbored one or more intestinal parasites. The most frequent intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 76 (65.5% followed by Trichuris trichiura 52 (44.8%. Schistosoma mansoni accounted 14 (12.1% and hook worm 11 (9.5%. The rate of multiple parasitic infections was 63 (54.3%. The finger nail status, habit of shoe wearing and using source of river water for bathing showed statistical significant association with parasitic infections (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Ninety percent of street beggars harbored intestinal parasites and yet they do not have accesses to latrine indicates, these people obviously contribute for the spreading of parasites to the community and being potential risk for the environmental contamination. Therefore, regular deworming activity and insuring accesses of adequate public latrine in selected sites of the Jimma town need help to control parasitic infections in this town.
The variety of detected intestinal pathogens in examined children’s population has required the use of combination of multiple diagnostic methods in light microscopy, and finally improved the detection rates of intestinal parasites and helped eliminate infections with nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and protozoa using appropriate treatment in the study population.
Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.
BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This
Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.
questionnaire, factors which disposed to increase in the prevalence of intestinal parasites were investigated between. April 2007 and March 2008. Results: High prevalence (11.3%) of intestinal parasites was recorded in the study. Those drinking well water had the highest prevalence, followed by those who used tap water
Andressa P. Gomes
Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Intestinal parasites are among the most frequent diagnoses worldwide. An accurate clinical diagnosis of human parasitic infections depends on laboratory confirmation for specific differentiation of the infectious agent.Objectives:To create technological solutions to help parasitological diagnosis, through construction and use of specific software.Material and method:From the images obtained from the sediment, the software compares the morphometry, area, perimeter and circularity, and uses the information on specific morphological and staining characteristics of parasites and allows the potential identification of parasites.RESULTS:Our results demonstrate satisfactory performance, from a total of 204 images analyzed, 81.86% had the parasite correctly identified by the computer system, and 18.13% could not be identified, due to the large amount of fecal debris in the sample evaluated.Discussion:Currently the techniques used in Parasitology area are predominantly manual, probably being affected by variables, such as attention and experience of the professional. Therefore, the use of computerization in this sector can improve the performance of parasitological analysis.Conclusions:This work contributes to the computerization of healthcare area, and benefits both health professionals and their patients, in addition to provide a more efficient, accurate and secure diagnosis.
Full Text Available Fallahi Sh1, Badparva E1, Nahrovanian H2, Chegeni Sharafi A3, Ebrahimzadeh F4 1. Instructor, Department of parasitology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. PhD, Pasteur institute of Iran. 3. Master of science, parasitology 4. Instructor, Department of statistic, Faculty of health, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Intestinal parasites are the most common enteric pathogens in patients with HIV infection. These intestinal pathogens are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV positive patients. There have been very few reports on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV positive and AIDS patients in Iran. To investigate the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites in this population, a cross-sectional study was carried out on 306 HIV positive and AIDS patients in Khorramabad city. Materials and methods: Demographic data were collected by a questionnaire. Three stool samples were collected from every patient. Direct smear, Formalin-ether concentration techniques and Modified acid fast (Kinione and modified trichorome staining method carried out on all samples. Data was analyzed by T-test and Chi square method. Results: After examination’s it detect that, Prevalence of the intestinal parasite in HIV positive and AIDS patients in Khorramabad city was 22.5% and This rate was higher in AIDS patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between age group, level of education, occupation, type of intestinal signs, variants and infection to intestinal parasites. It’s noticeable that between status of HIV/AIDS variant and infection to intestinal parasite there was a significant relationship Conclusion: High prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV positive and AIDS patients in Khorramabad city reflects the necessity of prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment programs for these patients.
Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia M.; Pinelli, Elena
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular
Cotton, James A; Beatty, Jennifer K; Buret, Andre G
Giardia is a protozoan parasite of the small intestine, and a leading cause of diarrhoeal disease worldwide in a variety of animals, including humans. The host-parasite interaction and pathophysiological processes of giardiasis remain incompletely understood. Current research suggests that Giardia-induced diarrhoeal disease is mediated by small intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion, chloride hypersecretion and increased rates of small intestinal transit. Small intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion results from the CD8+ lymphocyte-induced diffuse shortening of brush border microvilli. Activation of CD8+ lymphocytes occurs secondary to small intestinal barrier dysfunction, which results from heightened rates of enterocyte apoptosis and disruption of epithelial tight junctions. Both host and parasite factors contribute to the pathogenesis of giardiasis and ongoing research in this field may elucidate genotype/assemblage-specific pathogenic mechanisms. Giardia infections can result in chronic gastrointestinal disorders such as post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome and symptoms may manifest at extra-intestinal sites, even though the parasite does not disseminate beyond the gastrointestinal tract. The infection can cause failure to thrive in children. Furthermore, there is now evidence suggesting that Giardia symptoms may vary between industrialised and developing areas of the world, for reasons that remain obscure. More research is needed to improve our understanding of this parasitic infection which was recently included in the World Health Organisation "Neglected Disease Initiative". Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, kitchen staff, cleanersand nurses.Materials and Methods: From Malatya State hospitalstaff, perianal area materials and stool samples with cel-lophane tape method were collected. Examples wereexamined with native-Lugol, precipitation, and acid-fasttrichrome stains.Results: In 40.8% of 76 stools that were examined wasfound to positivity. The prevalences of parasites are 17.1Entamoeba coli, 6.6% Iodamoeba butschlii, 19.7% Blastocystishominis, 1.3% Chilomastix mesnilii, 5.3% Giardiaintestinalis and 1.3% Enterobius vermicularis.Conclusion: In the study, the studied staffs are healthworkers. Therefore, since the staffs working close contactwith patients were risk group in terms of infections, it wasrecommended that health staff susceptible to parasitesshould have a medical examination regularly and receivein-service training.
Other parasites were Entamoeba coli 3.3%, Hookworm 6.0%, Schistosoma mansoni 1.3%, Taenia species 7.3%, while the least common parasite encountered was Strongyloides stercoralis 0.6%.. None of the respondents had access to pipe borne water or bore hole. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in Mbangough ...
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of Mthatha, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. ... The most common parasite was Ascaris lumbricoides 29.0% (47/162), followed by Giardia lamblia 9.9% (16/162) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 6.8% (11/162) (Other parasites observed but at lower rates of ...
Hemmati, Nasrin; Razmjou, Elham; Hashemi-Hafshejani, Saeideh; Motevalian, Abbas; Akhlaghi, Lameh; Meamar, Ahmad Reza
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods. The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3-38). Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7-33.0). The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli , Giardia intestinalis , Dientamoeba fragilis , Iodamoeba butschlii , Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite , Chilomastix mesnilii , and Enterobius vermicularis . Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.
Kathleen A Estes
Full Text Available The intestine is a common site for invasion by intracellular pathogens, but little is known about how pathogens restructure and exit intestinal cells in vivo. The natural microsporidian parasite N. parisii invades intestinal cells of the nematode C. elegans, progresses through its life cycle, and then exits cells in a transmissible spore form. Here we show that N. parisii causes rearrangements of host actin inside intestinal cells as part of a novel parasite exit strategy. First, we show that N. parisii infection causes ectopic localization of the normally apical-restricted actin to the basolateral side of intestinal cells, where it often forms network-like structures. Soon after this actin relocalization, we find that gaps appear in the terminal web, a conserved cytoskeletal structure that could present a barrier to exit. Reducing actin expression creates terminal web gaps in the absence of infection, suggesting that infection-induced actin relocalization triggers gap formation. We show that terminal web gaps form at a distinct stage of infection, precisely timed to precede spore exit, and that all contagious animals exhibit gaps. Interestingly, we find that while perturbations in actin can create these gaps, actin is not required for infection progression or spore formation, but actin is required for spore exit. Finally, we show that despite large numbers of spores exiting intestinal cells, this exit does not cause cell lysis. These results provide insight into parasite manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and non-lytic escape from intestinal cells in vivo.
Gutierrez-Jimenez, Javier; Torres-Sanchez, Maria G C; Fajardo-Martinez, Leamsi P; Schlie-Guzman, Maria A; Luna-Cazares, Lorena M; Gonzalez-Esquinca, Alma R; Guerrero-Fuentes, Salvador; Vidal, Jorge E
For many years Chiapas, Mexico's poorest state, has had the highest rate of child mortality due to intestinal infections of unknown etiology in the country. To begin identifying the infectious agents, our work determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as malnutrition in children from Chiapas's three most impoverished municipalities: Pantepec, Chanal, and Larrainzar. In this cross-sectional study, conducted between January and November 2009, we assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites by means of coproparasitological analysis in children Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent enteroparasite (33.6%). Anthropometric analysis revealed that >40% of children represented varying degrees of malnutrition and a marked constitutional delay in growth. A very high prevalence of stunting was also recorded in children from Chanal and Larrainzar (70% and 55%, respectively). An association between infection with intestinal parasites and malnutrition was observed in Pantepec. Preschool-age children were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. Our results indicate the urgent need for interventions in order to 1) improve the nutritional status of children and 2) reduce infection rates of enteric parasites.
Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi
Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/µl respectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/µl and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/µl respectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350 cell/µl. Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients.
Ogbolu, D O; Alli, O A T; Ogunleye, V F; Olusoga-Ogbolu, F F; Olaosun, Il
Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infection worldwide. In recent years there has been an increase in the number of reported cases of food-borne illness linked to fresh vegetables which is a major way in the transmission of intestinal parasites. The study was carried out to determine the level of parasitological contamination of vegetables sold at selected markets in south western Nigeria. A total of 120 samples from different vegetables were randomly sampled from major selected open markets in 3 cities. The vegetables were analysed using macroscopic, sedimentation and magnesium sulphate floatation techniques. Eighty-two (68.3%) of the vegetables were positive for intestinal parasites from which water leaf (Talinium triangulare) and 'soko' (Celosis) recorded the highest (100%) parasitic contamination. Parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (16.7%), hookworm (18.3%), Taenia spp (4.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (45.8%), Balantidium coli (0.8%). Vegetables in each of these cities had almost the same high rate of parasitic contamination; Ibadan (70%), Ilorin (70%) and Lagos (65%). This study further emphasised the role of vegetables in the transmission of intestinal parasites in developing countries. Therefore, vegetable farmers should therefore be enlightened on the modern use of night soil as fertilizer and the treatment of irrigation water or municipal waste water before use. There is also dire need for the improvement of sanitary facilities in our markets and vegetable vendors should also be included in the screening of food handlers.
Mohammad Hosein Anvari Tafti
Results: In total 10 % of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite. The rates of infection were as follows: Blastocystis hominis 2.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.8%, Entamoeba coli 1.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.1.%. Infection rate in male was 12.9% and in female it was 6.9%. The relationship between sex, age, anthropometric indicators, and parasitic infection was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection, parents’ education and mothers' job (P<0.005. Conclusion: The results of this study, showed a considerable decrease in the rate of intestinal parasitic infections in comparison with other studies. This may be owing to the improvements in personal environment, and health which have occurred through public education campaigns, health information raising, sanitation facilities improvement, proper waste and wastewater disposal, control of drinking-water, and food safety.
Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil Crescimento linear e infecções parasitárias intestinais em pré-escolares matriculados em creches filantrópicas de Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil
Rebecca L. Lander
Full Text Available Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD, wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%, notably Trichuris trichiura (12% and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%, and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13% were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.Déficit de crescimento e parasitoses são comuns entre crianças residentes em periferias. Em estudo transversal com 376 pré-escolares (3-6 anos de creches em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, avaliamos fatores predisponentes para déficit de crescimento e parasitose. Obtiveram-se dados em sete creches sobre peso da criança, altura, nível socioeconômico, estado de saúde e parasitos em amostras de fezes. Prevalência de baixo peso (-1 -2, desnutrição e baixa estatura foram 12%, 16%, e 6%, respectivamente; nível socioeconômico, ordem de nascimento e peso materno foram preditores da antropometria. Aproximadamente 30% estavam infectados com ≥ 1 parasita. Helmintos (17.8%, notavelmente Trichuris trichiura (12% e Ascaris
Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. Result The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0. The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who
Yaman, Ozan; Hamamci, Berna; Cetınkaya, Ulfet; Kaya, Muhittin; Ateş, Serpil; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Ozcan, Hanife; Yazar, Lale; Yazar, Süleyman
Intestinal parasites are important health problem especially in undeveloped or underdeveloped countries with low socio-economic status,. In this study, stool and cellophane tape samples were analyzed for intestinal parasites in 192 foreign students who were came from 28 different countries and attending a high school with the age of 15 to 21 (age mean: 17.92 ± 1.30) in Kayseri. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 73 (38 %) of them. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples as follow; Blastocystis hominis; 63 (32.8%); Giardia intestinalis, 13 (6.7 %); Endolimax nana, 8 (4.1%); Entamoeba coli, 7 (3.6%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.52%). There was no any parasite in cellophane tape samples.
Full Text Available Parasite eggs found in organic remains collected from medieval structures in Raversijde (medieval name: Walraversijde, a village on the northern coast of Belgium, are discussed. The eggs were identified as Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, both human parasites. Species identification allowed elucidating the origin of the organic sediments and the structures, in this case latrines used by humans. Capillaria sp. and free-living nematode larvae were also found in the latrine. Although neither parasite burden nor prevalence rates could be measured, the abundance of human intestinal parasite eggs indicated a high infection rate in the village residents, reflecting very poor sanitation.
Pınar Fırat; İlhan Geçit; Fehime Depecik; Mesut Karadan; Erdal Karcı; Ülkü Karaman; Ayse Turan
Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, k...
The relationship between intestinal parasite infestation and diarrhea in past 2 months (X =19.5, df = 1, p< 0.001 OR=3.87), de-worming in the past six months(X = 11.13, df =1, p<0.001, OR=4.55) and domestic treatment of drinking water X = 35.38, df =1, p<0.001, OR=4.3) were statistically significant. Intestinal parasite ...
Gingrich, E N; Scorza, A V; Clifford, E L; Olea-Popelka, F J; Lappin, M R
Dogs on the Galapagos Islands are a unique population created by isolation from the mainland and regulations prohibiting further importation. The effect of infectious agents of these domestic dogs on the indigenous fauna is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs on the Galapagos Islands. Fecal samples were collected from 97 dogs presented during neutering campaigns on Santa Cruz (n=51), San Cristobal (n=17), and Isabela (n=29) islands. Feces were evaluated for parasites by microscopic examination after zinc sulfate centrifugation flotation as well as by a commercially available IFA for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. Polymerase chain reaction for Cryptosporidium spp. DNA and Giardia spp. DNA was performed on all positive samples to provide the infecting genotypes. Ancylostoma caninum (57.7%) and Toxocara canis (16.5%) were most commonly detected, followed by Giardia spp. (5.2%), Isospora canis (4.1%), Sarcocystis canis (3.1%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1%). Adequate DNA for sequencing was available for one Giardia spp. which was shown to be assemblage D. Despite being isolated, the dogs on the Galapagos have many of the same enteric parasites detected on the mainland of South America. These dogs are not routinely administered anthelmintics or other drugs, but are often allowed to roam the streets and live in close proximity to humans. Parasite prophylaxis is necessary to decrease the parasite burden within the population and to lessen the risk of spread to humans or other animals also inhabiting the islands. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angela N. Spurgeon
Full Text Available Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100. The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship.
Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.
Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.
This study confirms a relatively high level of helminthic parasites in school children in Owerri municipality. By this, it is clear that there is a need for intervention in the area to control the disease. Keywords: Intestinal parasites; worms; school children; public health; Nigeria International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences ...
Among the emerging opportunistic parasites detected in diarrhoeal children were Cryptosporidium parvum (8.1%), Isospora belli (2.3%) and Enterocytozoon bieneusi/ Encephalitozoon intestinalis (0.5%). Other common intestinal parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.5%), Trichuris trichiura (0.9%), Giardia lamblia ...
In a seven months (February to August, 2002) prevalence study of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in the New Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria, using both direct and concentration methods six helminth parasites were recorded. These included Hookworm, Strongyloides sp, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Diphylidium ...
Intestinal helminth parasites constitute a serious impediment to small scale animal production by causing high mortality and low production in flocks. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthes in goats slaughtered in Abakaliki Abattoir, Ebonyi State, Nigeria between October and ...
, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica, three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of 306 stool samples examined, 62.75% were detected as positive at least for one of the protozoan parasite studied. Species specific ...
Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul
Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were col...
Abaver, D.T.; Nwobegahay, J.M.; Goon, D.T.; Khoza, L.B
Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)
Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad; Kia, Elham; Rezaei, Fateme; Nasiri, Mehrdad; Nasrolahei, Mohtaram
Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.
Full Text Available Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5% of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9% followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%, Entamoeba coli (15.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%, Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%, Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1% and Hymenolepis nana (1.9% as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.
Mohamed, Ahmed S; Moore, George E; Glickman, Larry T
To estimate prevalence of intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States and characterize risk factors for infection. Retrospective period prevalence survey. 1,213,061 dogs examined at 547 private veterinary hospitals in 44 states from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006. Data were obtained from electronic medical records of all dogs that had at least 1 fecal flotation test. Risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism were identified by means of multivariable logistic regression analysis. 2,785,248 fecal flotation tests were performed during the study period. When results for only the first test in each dog were considered, prevalences of Toxocara, Ancylostoma, and Trichuris parasitism were 5.04%, 4.50%, and 0.81%, respectively. Dogs parasitism, compared with dogs > 5.0 years old; sexually intact male and female dogs had higher odds of parasitism, compared with spayed female dogs; toy dogs had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs in other breed groups; and dogs living in the mountain region had lower odds of parasitism, compared with dogs living in other regions. Results suggested that age, body weight, sex, breed, and geographic region were risk factors for intestinal nematode parasitism among pet dogs in the United States.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.
Mohammad Hossein MOTAZEDIAN
Full Text Available Background: Parasitic intestinal infections are still among socioeconomic problems in the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. Food-handlers that directly deal with production and distribution of foods between societies are one of the most important sources to transmit parasitic infections to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1021 feces samples were randomly collected from food-handlers in Shiraz, central Iran from August to September 2013. Two different methods, routine direct fecal examination and Formalin –Ethyl acetate concentration as a complementary technique, were done to detect parasites.Results: The prevalence of parasitic organisms was 10.4% in the food-handlers. The most species of the protozoan parasites were G. lamblia, E. coli and B. hominis; meanwhile, only one infection by H. nana (0.1% was detected in this group. Mixed infections were observed in 13.2% (n=14/106 of positive cases. The majority of participants were male (57%; however, data analysis showed significant statistical difference in the rate of infection between females 11.9% (n=53/444 and males 9% (n=52/577 (P=0. 024. There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of infection among different educational and occupation groups.Conclusion: Although decreasing of helminthic infections is distinct, but infecting with protozoan parasites is still important in food-handlers. Concentration technique is more useful than direct smear technique, especially for detection parasites in low number. High level of education in our study showed that training courses in this group could be effective in the implementation of control and prevention programs.
Paul C. Inyang-Etoh
Full Text Available Opportunistic and intestinal parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/AIDS patients. Early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of this category of patients. The occurrence of intestinal parasites among 400 patients on highly active anti-retroviral drug therapy (HAART aged 11-60 years was investigated. Standard parasitological techniques like direct microscopy, formol ether concentration and modified Ziehl- Neelsen staining techniques were used to analyze the stool samples. Intestinal parasite infections were positive in 116 (29% of the subjects on HAART while control subjects had 12 (12% and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Subjects in the age group 21-30 years had the highest infection rate 54 (35.1%. There was no statistically significant difference in infection according to age (P>0.05. Females 76 (32.5% had a higher prevalence rate than males 40 (24.1%. But there was no statistically significant difference in infection according to gender (P<0.05. Patients with CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm3 were observed to be more infected than those with CD4 count of more than 200 cells/mm3. There was a strong positive correlation (r=0.94 between CD4 count and the occurrence of intestinal parasite infection. Protozoan parasites 84 (21.0% accounted for a higher prevalence rate than helminthic parasites 32 (8.0%. These findings has revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite infection among patients on HAART thus the routine screening of stool samples from these category of patients for intestinal parasites is advocated for effective management of the disease.
McKenna, Megan L; McAtee, Shannon; Bryan, Patricia E; Jeun, Rebecca; Ward, Tabitha; Kraus, Jacob; Bottazzi, Maria E; Hotez, Peter J; Flowers, Catherine C; Mejia, Rojelio
Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted. Lowndes County, Alabama, was chosen as the study site given previous high hookworm burdens, degree of poverty, and use of open-sewage systems. Participants were interviewed, and stool, serum, and soil samples were tested for nine intestinal parasites using a multiparallel quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found that, among 24 households, 42.4% reported exposure to raw sewage within their home, and from 55 stool samples, 19 (34.5%) tested positive for N. americanus , four (7.3%) for Strongyloides stercoralis , and one (1.8%) for Entamoeba histolytica . Stool tested positive for N. americanus contained low levels of parasite DNA (geometric mean 0.0302 fg/μL). Soil studies detected one (2.9%) Cryptosporidium species, and Toxocara serology assay detected one (5.2%) positive in this population. Individuals living in this high-risk environment within the United States continue to have stool samples positive for N. americanus . Gastrointestinal parasites known to be endemic to developing countries are identifiable in American poverty regions, and areas with lower disease burden are more likely to be identified by using qPCR.
Stadelmann, Britta; Merino, María C; Persson, Lo; Svärd, Staffan G
In the field of infectious diseases the multifaceted amino acid arginine has reached special attention as substrate for the hosts production of the antimicrobial agent nitric oxide (NO). A variety of infectious organisms interfere with this part of the host immune response by reducing the availability of arginine. This prompted us to further investigate additional roles of arginine during pathogen infections. As a model we used the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis that actively consumes arginine as main energy source and secretes an arginine-consuming enzyme, arginine deiminase (ADI). Reduced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation is a common theme during bacterial and viral intestinal infections, but it has never been connected to arginine-consumption. Our specific question was thereby, whether the arginine-consumption by Giardia leads to reduced IEC proliferation, in addition to NO reduction. In vitro cultivation of human IEC lines in arginine-free or arginine/citrulline-complemented medium, as well as in interaction with different G. intestinalis isolates, were used to study effects on host cell replication by MTT assay. IEC proliferation was further analyzed by DNA content analysis, polyamine measurements and expressional analysis of cell cycle regulatory genes. IEC proliferation was reduced upon arginine-withdrawal and also in an arginine-dependent manner upon interaction with G. intestinalis or addition of Giardia ADI. We show that arginine-withdrawal by intestinal pathogens leads to a halt in the cell cycle in IECs through reduced polyamine levels and upregulated cell cycle inhibitory genes. This is of importance with regards to intestinal tissue homeostasis that is affected through reduced cell proliferation. Thus, the slower epithelial cell turnover helps the pathogen to maintain a more stable niche for colonization. This study also shows why supplementation therapy of diarrhea patients with arginine/citrulline is helpful and that
Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.
Chang, Alicia H.; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N. T.; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie
Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008–2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001–2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001–2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008–2010 versus 12.9%, 2001–2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees. PMID:23149583
Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes
Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community
W. Patrick Carney
Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.
Limoncu M Emin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio
Out of 57 papers published, 47 fall within the INIS subject scope. Seven main topics were covered: resistance to infections with protozoan parasites; resistance to infections with African trypanosomes and helminths of ruminant animals; resistance to infections with filarial parasites and schistosomes; pathology of parasitic infections; epidemiology and diagnosis of parasitic infections; physiology and biochemistry of parasitic organisms; pharmacodynamics of anti-parasitic agents
Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Bolio-González, Manuel Emilio; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Aranda-Cirerol, Francisco; Lugo-Perez, J A
The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and factors associated were studied in a rural community of Yucatan (southern Mexico), with special attention to those gastrointestinal parasites potentially transmitted to man. One hundred thirty dogs from 91 households were studied. Fecal samples were processed by the centrifugation-flotation and the McMaster techniques. To determine factors associated with zoonotic parasites in dogs, univariate analysis was performed, using sex, age, and body condition as independent variables. Variables with p Mexico, with poor body condition had a higher prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites as these factors were associated with a higher risk of becoming infected.
Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods.Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3–38. Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7–33.0. The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite, Chilomastix mesnilii, and Enterobius vermicularis. Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii. E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections.Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.
Abstract: Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information ... In northwest Tanzania, there is inadequate information on the magnitude of parasitic infection among cases attended at tertiary hospitals. It has been described that ...
Levantamento epidemiológico das parasitoses intestinais: viés analítico decorrente do tratamento profilático Epidemiological survey of intestinal parasite infections: analytical bias due to prophylactic treatment
Full Text Available As parasitoses intestinais constituem um grave problema de saúde pública, especialmente nos países subdesenvolvidos, sendo esse problema associado e agravado por condições sanitárias precárias e falta de informação. Neste trabalho foram avaliados alguns parâmetros epidemiológicos vinculados às principais enteroparasitoses em diferentes regiões da cidade de Assis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os dados foram confrontados com aqueles obtidos em um levantamento anterior referente ao ano de 1991 e apresentam uma redução de três pontos percentuais. Há indícios de que, antiparasitários estariam sendo distribuídos profilaticamente, antes dos resultados do exame parasitológico de fezes. Este fato pode levar a importantes implicações epidemiológicas e distorções analíticas. Esta conduta terapêutica pode estar ocultando condições sanitárias e/ou educacionais desfavoráveis, de forma que haveria uma baixa prevalência de parasitoses em razão de reiterados tratamentos e não pela melhoria das condições de saneamento básico e educação sanitária da população.Intestinal parasite infections are a serious public health problem, mainly in underdeveloped countries, and are usually associated with (and aggravated by poor sanitation and lack of information. This study evaluated a series of epidemiological parameters associated with the main intestinal parasites in different areas of the city of Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil. The data were compared with those obtained from a previous survey in 1991 and showed a reduction of three percentage points. There is evidence of prophylactic dispensing of drugs for parasites, before receiving the results of stool tests. This could have important epidemiological implications and lead to analytical distortions. This therapeutic approach could disguise unfavorable health and/or educational conditions, with a low prevalence of parasite infections due to repeated treatments rather than
Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults: The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion: These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.
Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün
The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection.
Full Text Available Intestinal protozoan parasites constitute a major source of diseases for stray cats and have been recognized as important public health problems in several parts of the world. Considering the potential risk of stray cats for public health, present cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the type and frequency of protozoan parasites by faecal examination. A total of 100 stray cats were examined in Kerman city, Iran, Overall 67 cats (67% were infected with at least one protozoan parasite. The following parasites, with their respective prevalence, were found; Isospora felis 38%, Isospora rivolta 25%, Toxoplasma gondii 16%, Sarcocystis spp. 8%, Cryptosporidium spp. 7%, and Giardia sp. 5%. Based on our data, the sex of stray cats was not significantly associated with the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan parasites. The high infection rate of zoonotic intestinal protozoan parasites in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.We
Cañete, Roberto; Díaz, Mariuska Morales; Avalos García, Roxana; Laúd Martinez, Pedro Miguel; Manuel Ponce, Félix
Background Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. Day care centres are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring IP. Methods and Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012. 104 children under five years old were included on the study after informed consent form was signed by parents or legal guardians. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child in different days and were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether, and Kato- Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits were also collected using a standardized questionnaire. In total, 71.1% of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite and 47 (45.2%) were infected by more than one species. Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 54.8% and 38.5% respectively. Conclusions Despite public health campaigns, improvement in the level of education, and the availability of and access to medical services in Cuba infections by intestinal protozoan is high in this centre. Almost nothing is published regarding intestinal parasites in Matanzas province during the last 40 years so this work could also be the initial point to carry out other studies to clarify the IP status in this region. PMID:23236493
Berhanu Elfu Feleke
Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. Day care centres are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring IP. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012. 104 children under five years old were included on the study after informed consent form was signed by parents or legal guardians. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child in different days and were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether, and Kato- Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits were also collected using a standardized questionnaire. In total, 71.1% of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite and 47 (45.2% were infected by more than one species. Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 54.8% and 38.5% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite public health campaigns, improvement in the level of education, and the availability of and access to medical services in Cuba infections by intestinal protozoan is high in this centre. Almost nothing is published regarding intestinal parasites in Matanzas province during the last 40 years so this work could also be the initial point to carry out other studies to clarify the IP status in this region.
Seven species of gastro-intestinal parasites – Ascaris lumbricoides (59.14%), hookworm (20.43%), Hymenolepis nana (1.08%), Entamoeba histolytica (3.23%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.30%), Trichuris trichuira (5.38%) and strongyloides stecoralis egg(6.65%) – were identified. Prevalence rate was higher among males ...
The prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school pupils aged between 0 and 15years in Unwana, Afikpo Ebonyi State was investigated. The formalin-ether concentration technique was used to examine the stool samples of 300 school children. Out of the 300 stool samples examined, Ascaris lumbricoides had ...
Studies were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria between March and June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in various markets within the city. Fifty samples each of 5 different vegetable types, Cabbage (Brassica deracea), Lettuce (Lactus sativa), Carrot (Daucus carota), ...
The prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth parasites of five predominant cichlids; Hemichromis fasciatus, Chromidotilapia guentheri, Tilapia mariae, Tilapia zilli and Tilapia aurea of the upper reaches of River Orogodo in Delta State, Southern Nigeria were examined. The water body was randomly sampled using a ...
All the red patas, mangabey and mandrill monkeys and 90.9% (10/11) of the green monkeys were infested. There were higher infestation rates in young NHP than in adults (P<0.05). The infestation rate in males and females were the same (61.1%). The most prevalent gastro-intestinal parasites were Trichuris trichiura ...
Background: The study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasitism among pupils in rural schools (Almajiris) in Konduga local Government Area of Borno state. Materials and Methods: A total of 257 stool specimens were collected at random among pupils (Almajiris) in rural quranic schools; the stools were processed ...
Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.
May 6, 2016 ... nensis (41.2%), Isospora belli (3.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (8.4%), Giardia lamblia (3.7%), Ascaris .... ried out to detect antibodies to HIV 1 and 2 using rapid ... 4. Discussion. Intestinal parasites, especially the opportunistic ones are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients.8.
This study aim to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health institution in the middle belt of Nigeria. Stool samples of six hundred females, consisting of three hundred each of pregnant women and nonpregnant ladies (controls) were collected and ...
Background: Food borne diseases are a global public health problem. Food handlers play a major role for the transmission of food borne diseases. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of intestinal parasites, S. typhi carrier rate and risk factors among food handlers at Bahir Dar town. Methods: A ...
PRINCE.DR SOLOMON ADEJAYAN CHAIRMAN NURTW ONDO STATE
in Ibadan markets and the need for public enlightenment campaigns on the danger of consuming inadequately washed and raw vegetables. KEYWORDS: Intestinal parasites, vegetable, market, ..... Chernyshenko, A. I., 2006. Current ascariasis situation in the Russian federation. Med. Parasitol., (4):. 40-43. Daryani, A, G. H. ...
Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla
The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.
Therefore, frequent assessment of the magnitude and associated factors for intestinal parasitosis is essential for the management of HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among patients attending Arba Minch Hospital Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Clinic from March to June 2016.
Molina, Nora; Pezzani, Betina; Ciarmela, Maria; Orden, Alicia; Rosa, Diana; Apezteguía, Maria; Basualdo, Juan; Minvielle, Marta
Intestinal parasitic infections have been reported in different regions of Argentina. Giardia intestinalis is recognized as "the national parasite". The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of both intestinal parasites and G. intestinalis genotypes, as well as to analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in schoolchildren from a suburban community. Serial coproparasitological analysis and perianal swab method were performed in 244 schoolchildren. Demographic, sociocultural and environmental variables were registered. The presence of signs/symptoms and risk behaviours were also recorded. Stools with G. intestinalis were selected for genotyping. Out of 244 schoolchildren, 179/244 (73.4%) were infected with intestinal parasites. The presence of intestinal parasitosis was associated only with house flooding. Multivariate analysis identified that use of a latrine is significantly correlated with G. intestinalis and age six to 11 years with E. vermicularis. Signs and symptoms were recorded in 62% of infected children and in 57.9% of those not infected. Genomic amplification was revealed that 65.7% (46/70) of Giardia positive samples corresponded to genotype B, 31.4% (22/70) to genotype AII, and two samples (2.8%) had mixed infection (AII + B). This study shows a high percentage of infected children living in a suburban community in poor sanitary conditions, and not visiting the doctor in spite of evident signs and symptoms associated a digestive pathology. This situation supports the need for continuing the development of community programs allowing the improvement of quality of life and control of parasitosis in deprived populations.
Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates
Jair Rodrigues Alves
Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.
Vitetta, Luis; Saltzman, Emma Tali; Nikov, Tessa; Ibrahim, Isabelle; Hall, Sean
The interactions of micro-organisms cohabitating with Homo sapiens spans millennia, with microbial communities living in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Interacting to regulate and maintain physiological functions and immunological tolerance, the microbial community is able to exert an influence on host health. An example of micro-organisms contributing to an intestinal disease state is exhibited by a biodiverse range of protozoan and bacterial species that damage the intestinal epithelia and are therefore implicated in the symptoms of diarrhea. As a contentious exemplar, Blastocystis hominis is a ubiquitous enteric protist that can adversely affect the intestines. The symptoms experienced are a consequence of the responses of the innate immune system triggered by the disruption of the intestinal barrier. The infiltration of the intestinal epithelial barrier involves a host of immune receptors, including toll like receptors and IgM/IgG/IgA antibodies as well as CD8+ T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Whilst the mechanisms of interactions between the intestinal microbiome and protozoan parasites remain incompletely understood, it is acknowledged that the intestinal microbiota is a key factor in the pathophysiology of parasitic infections. Modulating the intestinal environment through the administration of probiotics has been postulated as a possible therapeutic agent to control the proliferation of intestinal microbes through their capacity to induce competition for occupation of a common biotype. The ultimate goal of this mechanism is to prevent infections of the like of giardiasis and eliminate its symptoms. The differing types of probiotics (i.e., bacteria and yeast) modulate immunity by stimulating the host immune system. Early animal studies support the potential benefits of probiotic administration to prevent intestinal infections, with human clinical studies showing probiotics can reduce the number of parasites and the severity of symptoms. The
Cordón, G Pérez; Prados, A Hitos; Romero, D; Moreno, M Sánchez; Pontes, A; Osuna, A; Rosales, M J
Birds from the Almuñecar ornithological garden (Granada, Spain) were surveyed from June 2006 to May 2007 to establish programmes to prevent, control, and treat intestinal and haematic parasites. A total of 984 faecal samples and 41 samples of blood were collected from Psittacidae, Cacatuidae, Phasianidae, and Anatidae. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 51.6% of the samples. Blood parasites were found in 26.8% of the birds examined. The most frequent pathogenic endoparasites were coccidians, such as Cyclospora sp. (4.5%), Eimeria sp. (4.1%) and Isospora sp. (2%) and helminths such as Capillaria sp. (10. 1%), Ascaridia sp. (4.9%) and Heterakis gallinarum (4.9%). All the parasites varied with season but the most were found year round. Multiple parasitic infections by intestinal parasites were common, with 196 of 984 faecal samples having 2-5 intestinal parasites. The most frequent cases of multiple parasitism were Blastocystis plus Entamoeba sp. and Blastocystis plus Cyclospora sp. The haematic protozoa detected were Haemoproteus sp. (17%) and Plasmodium sp. (7.3%). Multiple parasitism by Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. was detected in 1 sample of Gallus gallus. After each sampling, some of the affected animals were treated according to our results, and the corresponding programmes of prevention and control were designed.
A study was carried out on the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infection in naturally infected cattle in Ogbomoso area of Oyo State using standard parasitological techniques. The results indicated that out of the 1000 cattle examined, 30(3%) were infected and parasites identified were Haemonchus contortus ...
Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Sierra Ruiz, C.I.; Hermans, P.W.; Hoek, D.; Campos Ponce, M.; de Waard, J.H.; Pinelli, E.
Background:Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.Methods:This
Cardona-Arias, Jaiberth Antonio
Characterize the publications on social determinants of intestinal parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia at the global level. A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature in Pubmed, Science Direct, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar with eight search strategies, guaranteeing completeness and replicability, following the phases of the PRISMA guidelines. The review included 18 studies on malnutrition, three on parasitism, three on anemia, and two on both parasitism and malnutrition; 65.4% of the studies were from South America and 69.2% were carried out among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism ranged between 30.6% and 83.3%; anemia, 19.7% to 48.0%; and malnutrition, 0.0% to 67.8%. It was found that biological and psychosocial determinants were most frequently studied; the most frequently studied intermediate determinants were related to housing and income; and structural determinants were least investigated. The social determinants common to the three conditions include: living in homes with poor sanitary conditions, rural areas, inadequate housing, inadequate water supply, access barriers to the medical system, young parents with little schooling, precarious employment, and low income. The majority of publications do not conduct a multilevel analysis for individual, intermediate, or structural determinants. Greater efforts are needed in health policies that address the social determinants of inequality with respect to parasitism, malnutrition, and anemia, mainly in categories as macroeconomic policy, social class, labor market, culture, values, and territory.
Zaiss, M M; Harris, N L
Throughout evolution, both helminths and bacteria have inhabited our intestines. As intestinal helminths and bacteria inhabit the same environmental niche, it is likely that these organisms interact with, and impact on, each other. In addition, intestinal helminths are well known to alter intestinal physiology, permeability, mucous secretion and the production of antimicrobial peptides - all of which may impact on bacterial survival and spatial organization. Yet despite rapid advances in our understanding of host-intestinal bacteria interactions, the impact of helminths on this relationship has remained largely unexplored. Moreover, although intestinal helminths are generally accepted to possess potent immuno-modulatory activity, it is unknown whether this capacity requires interactions with intestinal bacteria. We propose that this 'ménage à trois' situation is likely to have exerted a strong selective pressure on the development of our metabolic and immune systems. Whilst such pressures remain in developing countries, the eradication of helminths in industrialized countries has shifted this evolutionary balance, possibly underlying the increased development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Thus, helminth-bacteria interactions may represent a key determinant of healthy homoeostasis. © 2015 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hamamcı, Berna; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Delice, Safiye; Erçal, Barış Derya; Gücüyetmez, Süheyla; Yazar, Süleyman
Parasitic infections are an important health problem which affect children more than adults. Especially in growth-age children, this leads to problems such as malnutrition, malabsorption, growth retardation and learning disabilities. In this study, 328 students who were investigated in two primary schools between the ages of 6 and 14 in Kayseri-Hacılar region were analyzed for intestinal parasites. Stool samples were analyzed by light microscopy for the detection of helminths and protozoon using the native-lugol method. Cellophane tape samples were also analyzed by light microscopy for the detection of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 116 (35.4 %) children. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples was as follows; Blastocystis hominis, 77 (23.5%); Enterobius vermicularis, 35 (10.7%); Giardia intestinalis, 14 (4.3%); Entamoeba coli, 15 (4.6%); Endolimax nana, 6 (1.8%); Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.3%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.3%). Parasitic diseases are a major public health problem and we believe that education about personal hygiene, sanitation rules and parasitic diseases is important to overcome this problem.
F. Haji Aliani
Full Text Available History and Aim: Parasitical Diseases are the most important economic- health problems of most developing countries. Children who belong to very important constituents of society are at risk of such diseases. The parasitic transmission in some places with children come together has a very special importance because they interact closely to each others. Constant and regular study in developing countries for planning to control these diseases is essential. Thus, the present study aims to explore the prevalence of parasites and enterobius and effective factors in their spread among children of Karaj kindergartens in 1391. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study and sampling was random clustering from34 kindergartens out of 154 active kindergartens of 9 districts of Karaj city under supervision of state welfare organization of Karaj using a random number table. In this project the prevalence of enterobius and other intestinal parasites in 904 children from one to six years old in Karaj in 2o13 was studied. The number of samples was calculated using 95% confidence interval and relative accuracy of 35% and hypothetical prevalence of 5% of intestinal parasites to be 596. Considering 50% efficacy for clustering method, increased the sample size to 894. The questionnaires collecting the required data like age and gender of the child, and were used for gender, age, occupation and education of the parents and effective factors on infection with intestinal parasites like hand washing and using personal drinking glass and clinical symptoms in children and symptoms reported by the child to his/her parents or caregiver and the demographic data. The results of the scotch test, either positive or negative, were recorded. Formalin ether and direct smear test were performed on three samples of every case which collected for find determination inconsecutively. For the eneterobius diagnosis, the scotch test which is more specific was used. Results: A
Azan A. Nyundo
Full Text Available Background. Neglected tropical diseases continue to be one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. Psychiatric patients are among groups at risk for parasitic infection although control and monitoring programs largely overlook this population. This study aimed at determining prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among patients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Method. The study followed cross-sectional design; all the residing patients that met the inclusion criteria were included in the survey. Stool samples were collected and examined by direct wet preparation and formol-ether concentration. Data were analyzed with STATA version 12.1; Chi-square test was computed to determine the level of significance at p value < 0.05. Results. Of all 233 patients who returned the stool samples, 29 (12.45% screened were positive for an intestinal parasite. There was no significant association between parasite carriage and age, sex, or duration of hospital stay. Conclusion. The study shows that intestinal parasitic infection is common among patients in a psychiatric facility and highlights that parasitic infections that enter through skin penetration may be a more common mode of transmission than the oral route. Furthermore, the study underscores the need for surveillance and intervention programs to control and manage these infections.
Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul
Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan , Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014-January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015-April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan's wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However , the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy.
The pupils from the public schools were 17.23 times more likely to have intestinal parasitic infestation compared to those from private schools (OR =17.23, 95% CI = 10.6-28.01, p = <0.0001). Ascaris lumbricoides was the most frequent isolate in both the public (62.8%) and private (66.7%) schools. The prevalence of multiple ...
KAYMAZ, Alev AKDOĞAN; BAKIREL, Utku; GÖNÜL, Remzi; TAN, Hüseyin
The serum of 66 dogs with intestinal parasites (showing gastrointestinal problems caused by taeniosis, coccidiosis, ancylostomosis, trichuriosis and ascarididosis) was examined by electrophoresis. There were 6 dogs with coccidiosis, 6 dogs with ancylostomosis, 6 dogs with trichuriosis, 24 dogs with taeniosis and 24 dogs with ascarididosis. After agar gel protein electorphoresis of the serum samples, ?1 globulin levels were significantly lower in the coccidiosis group than in the other grou...
Shahdoust, Samira; Niyyati, Maryam; Haghighi, Ali; Azargashb, Eznoallah; Khataminejad, Mohammad Reza
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relation with socio-demographic data in referred individuals to the medical centers in Tonekabon, Mazandaran province, 2015. Due to the climatic and ecological conditions in Mazandaran province, determination of the status of intestinal parasites among referred individuals to the medical centers of Tonekabon city can help researchers and healthcare services to prevent and/or control of parasitic infection in this region. This cross sectional study was conducted with randomized sampling in 2015 on 820 stool samples. Stool samples were assessed using direct slide smear with saline and Lugol, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen and trichrome staining. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers was conducted for the samples suspected for Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. One Cryptosporidium positive sample in this study was submitted for sequencing. A total of 444 (54.1%) and 376 (45.9%) were male and female, respectively. Furthermore, 495 (60.4%) and 325 (39.6%) of participants had lived in the urban and rural areas, respectively. Overall, 222 participants (27.1%) were infected with at least one intestinal parasites. Prevalence of pathogenic protozoa ( Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp.) and helminthes parasites was calculated as 3.1 and 1.2%, respectively. The most common intestinal parasites in this area were: Blastocystis 153 (18.7%), Endolymax nana 44 (5.4%), Entamoeba coli 40 (4.9%), Giardia lamblia 25 (3%), Iodamoeba butschlii 22 (2.7%), Ascaris 5 (0.6%), Enterobius vermicularis 4 (0.5%), Trichostrongylus 1 (0.1%) and Cryptosporidium 1 (0.1%). By sequencing of the positive Cryptosporidium isolate using Gp60 gene, Cryptosporidium parvum subtype ΠaA16G2R1 was diagnosed. Protozoa were more abundant than helminthes and Giardia lamblia was the most common protozoan pathogen. In this study, no significant association was
The fecal oral route is significant in the transmission of parasitic infections to human via poor personal hygiene and environmental conditions such as contaminated soil and water sources. Worm infection is believed to be imposing an unnecessary burden on many South African children and on the overall cost of.
Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.
Zeynep Taş Cengiz
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.
Minoru German Higa Júnior
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10 production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%. Endolimax nana (22.7%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, Giardia lamblia (6.1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5% were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%. Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66 and 98.4% (65/66 of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8% and 32 (48.4% subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.
Higa, Minoru German; Cardoso, Wesley Márcio; Weis, Sabrina Moreira Dos Santos; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Silva, Patrícia Vieira da; Oliveira, Márcia Pereira de; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes Cavalheiros
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10) production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%). Endolimax nana (22.7%), Entamoeba coli (21.1%), Giardia lamblia (6.1%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5%) were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%). Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66) and 98.4% (65/66) of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8%) and 32 (48.4%) subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.
Full Text Available We determined the prevalence of primarily zoonotic parasites in the small intestines of 40 (20 males and 20 females red foxes living near human dwellings. The total prevalence of parasite infection was 77.5 % (31/40; the prevalence was 37.5 % (15/40 for Toxocara canis and 35 % (14/40 for Toxascaris leonina. The mean intensity infection was 3 and 11 helminths for T. canis and T. leonina, respectively. The prevalence of other intestinal helminths and mean infection intensity in this study are given: Echinococcus multilocularis 40 % (16/40 with 1000 individuals, Mesocestoides spp. 40 % (16/40 with 8 individuals, Uncinaria stenocephala 10 % (4/40 with 8 individuals, and Taenia pisiformis 10 % (4/40 with 1 individual. With regards to prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as prevalence of individual parasites, there were no significant differences (P≥0.05 between male and female red foxes.
Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim
The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.
Agudelo-Lopez, Sonia; Gómez-Rodríguez, Lucila; Coronado, Xiomara; Orozco, Adalina; Valencia-Gutierrez, Carlos A; Restrepo-Betancur, Luis F; Galvis-Gómez, Luisa A; Botero-Palacio, Luz E
Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitism and identifying the associated risk factors in the village of Loma Arena, Bolivar department, Colombia. The community's sanitary and educational conditions were evaluated by using a questionnaire which was applied to each family group. Two stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation, on two different days, were gathered from each participating person for the coproparasitological study. The coprological test involved direct examination in saline physiological solution and temporary staining with Lugol's solution and the formol-ether concentration method. It was found that 92 % of the population was parasitised, 92 % of them with at least one pathogenic parasite. Polyparasitism was very important (89,2 %); a maximum of 7 species per host was found. Helminth and protozoa coinfection was frequent (64 %). There was only 0,9 % teniosis prevalence. There was a significant association between symptomatology and parasite presence (pparasites (with the exception of Trichuris trichura and abdominal pain). The statistical analysis did not reveal any relationship between parasitism and educational level or sanitary habits. The uniform distribution of most intestinal parasites amongst the five age-groups evaluated showed that people in Loma Arena were evenly exposed to sources of infection in all age-groups.
Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147
Nxasana, N; Baba, K; Bhat, Vg; Vasaikar, Sd
The presence of intestinal parasites in a population group is indicative of lack of proper sanitation, low economic standards and poor educational background. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Mthatha, South Africa and relate this to their socio-economic status. The study population was randomly selected from four governmental schools, rural and urban, from April 2009 to September 2009. A total of 162 learners (85 boys and 77 girls) participated in this survey. Parasitological data were collected by analyzing stool samples using Formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-economic and epidemiologic data were collected by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire, covering the important relevant aspects, in this descriptive, cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp, Chilomastix mesnili, and Fasciola spp. Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between urban and rural learners, gender and the age of these learners. Significant associations between parasitic infections and parents' unemployment and lower education were observed. Prevalence of worm infestation was more than 50%; therefore, there was a need for mass de-worming of school children in these communities and also a need for other public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation.
Full Text Available Australia has a very high rate of dog ownership, which in some circumstances may lead to exposure to zoonotic parasitic diseases from those companion animals. Domestic dog faecal samples (n = 300 were collected from public spaces and private property in the greater Rockhampton (Central Queensland region and tested for intestinal helminths and protozoa by direct microscopy, two flotation methods and a modified acid-fast stain for cryptosporidia. Intestinal parasites detected included hookworms (25%, Cystoisospora ohioensis complex (9%, Blastocystis hominis (3%, Giardia duodenalis (3%, Spirometra erinacei (1% and Toxocara canis (1%, Sarcocystis spp. (2%, Cryptosporidium spp. (2% and Cystoisospora canis (1%. One infection each with Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum and a protozoa belonging to the Entamoeba histolytica complex were identified. Sheather’s sucrose centrifugal flotation was more sensitive than saturated salt passive flotation, but no single test detected all cases of parasitic infection identified. The test methodologies employed are poor at recovering larva of Strongyloides stercoralis, Aleurostrongylus abstrussis and eggs of cestodes such as Echinococcus granulosis, so the potential presence of these parasites in Central Queensland domestic dogs cannot be excluded by this survey alone.
Hamed Mirjalali; Mehdi Mohebali; Hossein Mirhendi; Rashid Gholami; Hossein Keshavarz; Ahmad Reza Meamar; Mostafa Rezaeian
Background Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods. Methods Stool samples were collected from HIV+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with...
Schelkle, Bettina; Faria, Patricia J; Johnson, Mireille B; van Oosterhout, Cock; Cable, Joanne
Theory predicts that sexual reproduction promotes disease invasion by increasing the evolutionary potential of the parasite, whereas asexual reproduction tends to enhance establishment success and population growth rate. Gyrodactylid monogeneans are ubiquitous ectoparasites of teleost fish, and the evolutionary success of the specious Gyrodactylus genus is thought to be partly due to their use of various modes of reproduction. Gyrodactylus turnbulli is a natural parasite of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a small, tropical fish used as a model for behavioural, ecological and evolutionary studies. Using experimental infections and a recently developed microsatellite marker, we conclusively show that monogenean parasites reproduce sexually. Conservatively, we estimate that sexual recombination occurs and that between 3.7-10.9% of the parasites in our experimental crosses are hybrid genotypes with ancestors from different laboratory strains of G. turnbulli. We also provide evidence of hybrid vigour and/or inter-strain competition, which appeared to lead to a higher maximum parasite load in mixed infections. Finally, we demonstrate inbreeding avoidance for the first time in platyhelminths which may influence the distribution of parasites within a host and their subsequent exposure to the host's localized immune response. Combined reproductive modes and inbreeding avoidance may explain the extreme evolutionary diversification success of parasites such as Gyrodactylus, where host-parasite coevolution is punctuated by relatively frequent host switching.
Full Text Available Theory predicts that sexual reproduction promotes disease invasion by increasing the evolutionary potential of the parasite, whereas asexual reproduction tends to enhance establishment success and population growth rate. Gyrodactylid monogeneans are ubiquitous ectoparasites of teleost fish, and the evolutionary success of the specious Gyrodactylus genus is thought to be partly due to their use of various modes of reproduction. Gyrodactylus turnbulli is a natural parasite of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a small, tropical fish used as a model for behavioural, ecological and evolutionary studies. Using experimental infections and a recently developed microsatellite marker, we conclusively show that monogenean parasites reproduce sexually. Conservatively, we estimate that sexual recombination occurs and that between 3.7-10.9% of the parasites in our experimental crosses are hybrid genotypes with ancestors from different laboratory strains of G. turnbulli. We also provide evidence of hybrid vigour and/or inter-strain competition, which appeared to lead to a higher maximum parasite load in mixed infections. Finally, we demonstrate inbreeding avoidance for the first time in platyhelminths which may influence the distribution of parasites within a host and their subsequent exposure to the host's localized immune response. Combined reproductive modes and inbreeding avoidance may explain the extreme evolutionary diversification success of parasites such as Gyrodactylus, where host-parasite coevolution is punctuated by relatively frequent host switching.
Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra
Full Text Available Objectives. This study’s objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed.
diarrhea, especially in AIDS patients, although they are thought to cause self limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals. These are referred to as opportunistic parasites . Different species of protozoa have been associated with acute and chronic diarrhea in. HIV infection and AIDS. They include Cryptosporidium.
Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoa identified. Those found positive ... Employers of this category of workers in food and vegetable industries, must ensure they are regularly screened and if found to be infected, promptly treated to interrupt transmission of these parasites to the community. Nigerian ...
Pupils in schools that had lower ratio of number of pupils per toilet had lower infection rates than those from schools with high ratio of number of pupils per toilet. This was however not statistically sgnificant (X 22.272, d = 2, P > 0.05). The following parasites were encountered, namely Ascaris lumbricoides (11.89%), ...
This report documents the recommendations of the ''Advisory Group on Immunodiagnosis of Parasitic Infections Using Nuclear Techniques'' with a focus on malaria, schistosomiasis and filariasis. Radionuclide tracers are considered an important component of present and future immunological methods for the assessment of the host's humoral and cellular immunity to the parasite and the detection of parasite antigen(s) in human body fluids. The Advisory Group has concluded that there is a continuing need for the development and application of immunodiagnostic methods in parasitic diseases. This report concerns methods which are currently or potentially applicable to immunodiagnostic investigations in parasitic diseases. Reference is made, where appropriate, to recent developments in research which may lead to improvement and standardization of methods now available and the development of new methodology. Separate abstracts on various papers presented were prepared
Morrison, Hilary G; McArthur, Andrew G; Gillin, Frances D; Aley, Stephen B; Adam, Rodney D; Olsen, Gary J; Best, Aaron A; Cande, W Zacheus; Chen, Feng; Cipriano, Michael J; Davids, Barbara J; Dawson, Scott C; Elmendorf, Heidi G; Hehl, Adrian B; Holder, Michael E; Huse, Susan M; Kim, Ulandt U; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Manning, Gerard; Nigam, Anuranjini; Nixon, Julie E J; Palm, Daniel; Passamaneck, Nora E; Prabhu, Anjali; Reich, Claudia I; Reiner, David S; Samuelson, John; Svard, Staffan G; Sogin, Mitchell L
The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect Giardia's requirement for a complex signal transduction network for coordinating differentiation. Lateral gene transfer from bacterial and archaeal donors has shaped Giardia's genome, and previously unknown gene families, for example, cysteine-rich structural proteins, have been discovered. Unexpectedly, the genome shows little evidence of heterozygosity, supporting recent speculations that this organism is sexual. This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite.
Edlind, T D; Chakraborty, P R
The anaerobic protozoan Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite in humans, but is poorly defined at molecular and phylogenetic levels. We report here a structural characterization of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and rRNA genes of G. lamblia. Gel electrophoresis under native or non-denaturing conditions identified two high molecular weight rRNA species corresponding to the 16-18S and 23-28S rRNAs. Surprisingly, both species (1300 and 2300 nucleotides long, respectively) were considerably s...
Scheila Cristina Rech
Full Text Available The present study assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in São Marcos city-RS elementary and middle school children, from March to October 2015. A questionnaire was applied to asses students' knowledge on pathways for parasite transmission and on sanitation facilities in the city. Stool samples were collected from eighth-grade students of nine different schools and were analyzed/processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Of the 190 students who participated in the study, most were female (51.58% and the mean age of the students was 7.99 ± 3.23 years. 5.79% of the samples were positive for parasites, being 3.16% of cysts of Entamoeba coli, 1.58% of Endolimax nana and 1.05% of Giardia lamblia. As for the students’ knowledge on parasites, 73.16% reported knowing what parasites are and what damage they can cause, 68.42% are aware of the transmission pathways, however 41.58% consider there is insufficient information available to the public. Related to the health issues to which they are exposed, 94.21% reported consuming potable water and 64.74% reported having sewage collection and treatment. The present study has shown a low prevalence of parasitic infections, which could be explained by the knowledge of parents and guardians about topic, favorable sanitary conditions, and the high percentage (78.95% of students who have already been treated with antiparasitic drugs.
Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica
To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission.
Neres-Norberg, Antonio; Guerra-Sanches, Fabiano; Blanco Moreira-Norberg, Paulo R; Madeira-Oliveira, José Tadeu; Santa-Helena, Aluízio Antonio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués
Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba histolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodes helminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.
Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes; Florez, Ofelia; Bermúdez, Amparo; Hernández, Luzmila; Araujo, Cristina; Bolaños, María V
Establishing the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged 5 to 14 years of age from six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali. A cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiological study was carried out in six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali; it consisted of making a direct serial and concentration coproparasitological examination of a randomly selected sample of fifty-seven 5 to 14 year-old children. Of the 57 samples obtained, 84 % of the children were infected with parasites; protozoa (98 %) predominated over helminths (16.7 %) and mixed parasitemia was found in 14.6 % of the samples. Monoparasitism appeared in children over 10 years of age and biparasitism (10.4 %) and polyparasitism (52.1 %) in children under 10 years of age. Regarding occult blood determination, 6 % were observed to be positive in all the samples analysed; 4 % of these results were associated with E. histolyticaldispar. The simple parasitism index (SPI) reflected a high degree of infestation amongst the children included in the study. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in indigenous infants was higher than that reported nationally in the overall adolescent and school-aged children population in the same age group. Mono- and polyparasitism prevailed in the positive samples. The infestation load was not randomly distributed amongst the communities.
Full Text Available We report the result of an examination for blood and intestinal protozoa in 12 specimens of the red squirrel Sciurus spadiceus (Rodentia: Sciuridae from Birroque, municipality of Plácido de Castro, state of Acre, Brazil. No parasites were detected in thin, Giemsa-stained blood films of the animals, but culture of the blood of three in Difco B45 medium blood-agar slants gave rise to isolates of epimastigotes. Inoculation of one isolate into laboratory mice resulted in the appearance of Trypanosoma cruzi-like trypomastigotes in their peripheral blood, and the other two isolates gave rise to transient infections with a T. lewisi-like parasite in inoculated mice and hamsters. The failure of the latter parasite to develop in the triatomine bug Rhodnius robustus suggests that it is probably not T. rangeli. This appears to be the first record of a T. lewisi-like trypanosome in neotropical squirrels. Oocysts of an Eimeria sp., were detected in the faeces of 10 animals (83.3%. The parasite develops in the epithelial cells of the intestine, where it may cause severe damage and sometimes results in death of the animal. No oocysts were detected in bile.
Watts David P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Male members of primate species that form multi-male groups typically invest considerable effort into attaining and maintaining high dominance rank. Aggressive behaviors are frequently employed to acquire and maintain dominance status, and testosterone has been considered the quintessential physiological moderator of such behaviors. Testosterone can alter both neurological and musculoskeletal functions that may potentiate pre-existing patterns of aggression. However, elevated testosterone levels impose several costs, including increased metabolic rates and immunosuppression. Cortisol also limits immune and reproductive functions. Methods To improve understanding of the relationships between dominance rank, hormones and infection status in nonhuman primates, we collected and analyzed 67 fecal samples from 22 wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Samples were analyzed for cortisol and testosterone levels as well as intestinal parasite prevalence and richness. 1,700 hours of observation data were used to determine dominance rank of each animal. We hypothesized that dominance rank would be directly associated with fecal testosterone and cortisol levels and intestinal parasite burden. Results Fecal testosterone (but not cortisol levels were directly associated with dominance rank, and both testosterone and cortisol were directly associated with intestinal parasite richness (number of unique species recovered. Dominance rank was directly associated with helminth (but not protozoan parasite richness, so that high ranking animals had higher testosterone levels and greater helminth burden. Conclusions One preliminary interpretation is that the antagonist pleiotropic effects of androgens and glucocorticoids place a cost on attaining and maintaining high dominance rank in this species. Because of the costs associated with elevated steroid levels, dominance status may be an
: intestinal parasites, enteric parasite infection, public transport, Diamantina
Jaeger, Lauren Hubert; Iñiguez, Alena Mayo
Paleoparasitology is the science that uses parasitological techniques for diagnosing parasitic diseases in the past. Advances in molecular biology brought new insights into this field allowing the study of archaeological material. However, due to technical limitations a proper diagnosis and confirmation of the presence of parasites is not always possible, especially in scarce and degraded archaeological remains. In this study, we developed a Molecular Paleoparasitological Hybridization (MPH) approach using ancient DNA (aDNA) hybridization to confirm and complement paleoparasitological diagnosis. Eight molecular targets from four helminth parasites were included: Ascaris sp., Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. The MPH analysis using 18th century human remains from Praça XV cemetery (CPXV), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed for the first time the presence E. vermicularis aDNA (50%) in archaeological sites of Brazil. Besides, the results confirmed T. trichiura and Ascaris sp. infections. The prevalence of infection by Ascaris sp. and E. vermicularis increased considerably when MPH was applied. However, a lower aDNA detection of T. trichiura (40%) was observed when compared to the diagnosis by paleoparasitological analysis (70%). Therefore, based on these data, we suggest a combination of Paleoparasitological and MPH approaches to verify the real panorama of intestinal parasite infection in human archeological samples. PMID:25162694
Hoang van Tong
Full Text Available Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity.
Claerebout, E; Casaert, S; Dalemans, A-C; De Wilde, N; Levecke, B; Vercruysse, J; Geurden, T
The objectives of this study were to obtain data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in different dog populations in northern Belgium, to estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections and to identify potential risk factors. Between 2004 and 2007 a total of 1159 faecal samples were collected from 451 household dogs, 357 dogs from breeding kennels and 351 dogs with gastrointestinal disorders. The samples from dogs with gastrointestinal disorders were sent to the diagnostic Laboratory for Parasitology at Ghent University by veterinary practitioners. In household dogs the prevalence of intestinal parasites was relatively low. Giardia was the most commonly found parasite (9.3%, CI 5.5-13.1), followed by Toxocara canis (4.4%, CI 2.7-6.8). Much higher infection rates were observed in kennel dogs, especially for Giardia spp. (43.9%, CI 37.8-50.0); T. canis (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2) and Cystoisospora spp. (26.3%, CI 21.8-31.2). Also in dogs with gastrointestinal problems, Giardia spp. (18.1%, CI 13.1-23.1), Cystoisospora spp. (8.8%, CI 6.1-12.3) and T. canis (7.4%, CI 4.9-10.7) were the most frequently detected parasites. In all dog populations pups were more frequently infected with Cystoisospora (PGiardia (PGiardia and T. canis (PGiardia spp. Breed and gender did not affect the risk of an infection in any of the study populations. Toxocara and Giardia present a zoonotic risk, especially in household dogs, where the majority of Giardia positive samples (80%) belonged to the zoonotic assemblage A. In kennel dogs and clinically affected dogs the host-specific Giardia assemblages C and D were most prevalent (94% and 80%, respectively).
Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes Mori
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren in the municipality of Cambé, Paraná. A total of 1996 stool samples were collected between 2006 and 2009, using the methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer, Faust and collaborators and the Kato-Katz. The prevalence was 23.2%. The parasites found were Entamoeba coli (10.4%; Endolimax nana (9.6%, Giardia lamblia (6.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (1.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.3%, Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis nana and hookworm infection (0.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma mansoni (0.1%. We found no statistically significant gender differences. The age, family income, mother's education level, consumption of untreated water, absence of sewage collection and contact with freshwater streams were associated with the presence of intestinal parasites. Although the highest prevalence of protozoa is commensal this is worrying as it indicates that the fecal-oral transmission is present in this population and may increase the transmission of pathogenic forms, since they share the same transmission routes. The identified cases of schistosomiasis were not autochthonous, but early diagnosis of this infection was important to avoid contamination of the environment.
Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Gürses, Gülcan; Şimşek, Zeynep; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile
To determine the species, prevalence, and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites in farm workers' children in a representative sample in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. A total of 333 farm workers' children, under the age of six years, were selected using the probability sampling method. Mean age of the children was 3.63 ± 0.5; 55.5% were female. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis of faecal samples. The overall prevalence was 44.6% and the infected children had single, double, and triple parasitic infections at 72.3%, 23.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. The most common parasite was G. intestinalis (47.97%), followed by E. vermicularis (37.84%), T. saginata (27.03%), H. nana (12.16%), and A. lumbricoides (7.43%), respectively. Age, gender, illiteracy of the households, poverty, absence of toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens at the place of residence, lack of safe potable water, geophagia (soil eating habit), and being a child of a seasonal farmworker were the most significant factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection (Pservices for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.
Nebiye Yentur Doni
Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. To determine the species, prevalence, and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites in farm workers’ children in a representative sample in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Materials and method. A total of 333 farm workers’ children, under the age of six years, were selected using the probability sampling method. Mean age of the children was 3.63±0.5; 55.5% were female. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis of faecal samples. Results. The overall prevalence was 44.6% and the infected children had single, double, and triple parasitic infections at 72.3%, 23.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. The most common parasite was [i]G. intestinalis[/i] (47.97%, followed by [i]E. vermicularis[/i] (37.84%, [i]T. saginata[/i] (27.03%, [i]H. nana[/i] (12.16%, and [i]A. lumbricoides[/i] (7.43%, respectively. Age, gender, illiteracy of the households, poverty, absence of toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens at the place of residence, lack of safe potable water, geophagia (soil eating habit, and being a child of a seasonal farmworker were the most significant factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P<0.05. [i]G. intestinalis[/i] and [i]E. vermicularis[/i] were found as the most common parasites that cause salivation, abdominal pain, and tiredness (P<0.05. Conclusion. The study revealed that health education programmes for farm workers and farmers should be improved to increase awareness about living and working conditions, in order to control intestinal parasites. However, early diagnosis and treatment services for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.
Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd
In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).
Pérez Cordón, G; Hitos Prados, A; Romero, D; Sánchez Moreno, M; Pontes, A; Osuna, A; Rosales, M J
Gastrointestinal parasites cause serious diarrhoea in captive animals. Therefore, we have undertaken this study to establish programmes to prevent, control, and treat intestinal parasitism in the animals of the zoological garden "Peña Escrita" of Almuñecar (Granada). An annual survey was conduced to estimate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites and the seasonality of this parasitism. Between June 2006 and May 2007, 432 samples were collected from primates, carnivores, perissoodactyla, artiodactyla, rodentia, diprotodontia, galliformes, anseriformes and struthioniformes. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 72.5% of the animals. The most frequent pathogenic endoparasites were Eimeria spp. (17.3%), Trichuris spp. (5.1%), Strongyloides spp. (4.5%), Cyclospora spp. (4.5%), Cryptosporidium spp. (3.2%) and Isospora spp. (2.6%). Iodamoeba butschlii, Parascaris equorum and Trichuris spp. did not vary with season and Cryptosporidium spp., Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Metastrongylus spp. and Cylicospirura spp. appeared exclusively in Artiodactyla. Multiple parasitic infections were common, 70% of animals presented with at least two parasites (maximum=6). The most frequent cases of multiple parasitism were Eimeria spp. plus Blastocystis spp. and Eimeria spp. plus Nematodirus spp., in the last case the animals presented explosive diarrhoea. In accord with our results, after each sampling, some of the affected animals were treated and the corresponding programmes of prevention and control were designed.
Sara K Lindén
Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.
The vermiform appendix may become a yielding target and an innocent victim of intestinal parasitism. This is likely to occur more readily in those parts of the developing world in which the parasitic load in the community is high. This high parasitic load more commonly afflicts people of low socio-economic class. This report is ...
E. B. S. M. Trindade
Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.
Gargantini, Pablo Rubén; Serradell, Marianela Del Carmen; Ríos, Diego Nicolás; Tenaglia, Albano Heraldo; Luján, Hugo Daniel
Giardia lamblia trophozoites undergo antigenic variation, where one member of the Variant-specific Surface Protein (VSP) family is expressed on the surface of proliferating trophozoites and periodically replaced by another one. Two main questions have challenged researchers since antigenic switching was discovered in Giardia: What are the mechanisms involved? How are they influenced by other cellular processes or by the environment? Two molecular mechanisms have been proposed, both involving small non-coding RNAs. Here we postulate that (a) chromatin remodeling, triggered by environmental factors, also plays an important role in selecting the VSP that will be expressed and (b) the particular VSP structure may not only protect the parasite in the small intestine but also signal the need to exchange the existing VSP for another. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminth infections are common health problems among the people of Lake. Victoria basin particularly in Mwanza ... these infections is largely lacking and that biomedical studies give only a partial ... sampling procedure was such that in each sub-village. ' Correspondence: Joseph R.
Gualdieri, Luciano; Piemonte, Monica; Alfano, Settimia; Maffei, Rita; Della Pepa, Maria Elena; Rinaldi, Laura; Galdiero, Marilena; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cringoli, Giuseppe
In the current era of globalization, the massive movement of populations to developed countries causes a greater attention to neglected tropical diseases in places where such diseases are considered unusual. The present study was planned to assess the persistence of intestinal parasitosis in immigrants stably living in the urban central area of Naples (Southern Italy) and the spread of infection within households with a lifestyle similar to that of the country of origin. A total of 2150 stool samples were analysed with the FLOTAC dual technique, and 415 subjects (19.3 %) tested positive for pathogenic intestinal parasites. One hundred ninety-six subjects were randomly selected and monitored again after 1 year in order to evaluate the persistence of intestinal parasites in immigrants having access to proper sanitation. No pathogenic parasites were found in these 196 samples. A total of 482 cohabitants of 151 positive subjects were recruited to evaluate the interfamilial spread of the identified parasites. Only in 18 households were there subjects infected with the same parasite. Monitoring of parasites in stool samples of immigrants showed a decrease of almost all pathogenic species over the years. From the analysis of households, it is not possible to assert that there is a familial transmission. Our study provides evidence that the prevalence of parasitic infections in immigrants is likely related to the poor sanitary habits of the country of origin and that acquisition of new sanitary regulations, together with the administration of pharmacological treatment, limits the transmission in the households and in the local population of their destination.
Stray cats are afflicted with various parasitic infestations and the infective stages of these parasites may spread infection to other animals including human beings. The study was conducted for a period of one year from March 2009 to February 2010 to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in and around ...
The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia among primary school pupils in four communities of Bosso Local Government Area in Niger State, Nigeria. Stool samples from 250 pupils were collected and examined for Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia using ...
Fuenmayor-Boscán, Alisbeth D; Hernández, Ileana M; Valero, Kutchynskaya J; Paz, América M; Sandrea, Lisette B; Rivero, Zulbey
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and enteroparasite infections are highly prevalent in populations with poor living conditions, like the Amerindian communities. Identifying associations between both types of infectious agents could help to detect shared risk factors or transmission routes in these minority ethnic groups. Therefore, the prevalence and association between Hp and enteroparasites were investigated in an indigenous community whose living conditions favor such infectious diseases. Seropositivity (anti-Hp-specific IgG) and active infection (stool antigen test), intestinal parasitosis (direct and concentrated coproparasitological test, methylene blue, and Kinyoun stains), and risk factors for fecal-oral transmission were determined in 167 children and 151 adults of the Añu indigenous community living at the Sinamaica Lagoon, in Venezuela. A high rate of Hp infection (seropositivity and active infection) and enteroparasitosis was evidenced, as expected. Some significant associations were detected: direct associations between Hp and polyparasitic infection, helminths, and protozoan (particularly in children); inverse association between Hp and Giardia lamblia. No shared epidemiological factors were identified for Hp and the detected intestinal parasites, probably due to overlapping factors. Direct associations detected support the participation of the fecal-oral route in the transmission of the involved infectious agents. Inverse relationship (Hp) and G. lamblia may suggest the existence of antagonistic interactions between them. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations.
Mubaraki, Murad A; Dkhil, Mohamed A; Hafiz, Taghreed A; Khalil, Mona F; Al-Shaebi, Esam M; Delic, Denis; Elshaikh, Kamal; Al-Quraishy, Saleh
Malaria is a harmful disease affecting both tropical and subtropical countries and causing sometimes fatal complications. The effects of malaria-related complications on the intestine have been relatively neglected, and the reasons for the intestinal damage caused by malaria infection are not yet clear. The present study aims to evaluate the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor on host-pathogen interactions during malaria induced in mice by Plasmodium chabaudi. To induce the infection, animals were infected with 10 6 P. chabaudi-parasitized erythrocytes. Mice were sacrificed on day 8 post-infection. The infected mice experienced a significant body weight loss and parasitaemia affecting about 46% of RBCs. Infection caused marked pathological changes in the intestinal tissue indicated by shortening of the intestine and villi. Moreover, the phagocytic activity of macrophages increased significantly (P < 0.01) in the infected villi compared to the non-infected ones. Infection by the parasite also induced marked upregulation of nuclear factor-kappa B, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Vitamin D Receptor, interleukin-1β, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma-mRNA. It can be implied from this that vitamin D receptor has a role in regulating malarial infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schoolchildren in rural areas from Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2017 among 203 schoolchildren in four rural schools using purposive sampling. All stool samples were examined using simple direct smear method and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 14.8% (30/203. Seven intestinal parasite species (two helminths and five protozoa were identified in the stool samples. The most common intestinal protozoa in schoolchildren was Giardia intestinalis (n = 11, 5.4% followed by Blastocystis hominis (n = 9, 4.4%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (n = 5, 2.5%, Entamoeba coli (n = 2, 1.0% and Endolimax nana (n = 1, 0.5%. Hookworm (n = 1, 0.5% and Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1, 0.5% were the most frequent helminths. No significant statistical differences in the prevalence rates of infections were observed by gender, age and school location (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in rural areas of Thailand. Therefore, health education and environmental sanitation improvement are recommended as preventive control measures.
Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva
Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil. Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68% were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7% were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted, parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population.
Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patients who applied to various clinics in our hospital with gastrointestinal complaints in terms of intestinal parasites, retrospectively. Methods: Totally 41967 stool samples of patients applied to Parasitology laboratory in Konya Education and Research Hospital in January 2010-December 2012 were investigated under microscope after multiplexing by native lugol and formol ethyl acetate method. Trichrome dying was performed to the suspected samples. The stool samples, in which Entamoeba histolytica /E.dispar cannot be differentiated, were investigated by ELISA method in order to identify adhesin antigens. Results: Intestinal parasite was determined in 2145 (5.11% of 41.967 patients who applied to our laboratory in 3 years. 39.4%, 44.3% and 16.2% of positive patients were 0-15, 16-50 and >50 years old, respectively. Blastocyctis hominis, Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found in 59.9%, 25% and 13.7% of the positive samples, respectively. Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found most frequently in 0-15 years old patients, while Blastocyctis hominis was found most frequently in 15-49 years old patients. There was a statistically significant difference between these parasites and age groups (p<0.01. The distribution of the positive cases among the years was found as 6.8% in 2010, 5.4% in 2011, 3.3% in 2012 and there was a statistically significant difference between the years (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to our results, the frequency of parasite infection still maintains its importance, although the frequency was decreased compared to previous years. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 269-273
Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J
Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Parasitic infections are among the most important global health problems, especially in the developing countries. They are among the most common forms of infectious diseases in the world. According to the report of the world health organization (WHO, about 3.5 billion people worldwide are infected by a kind of parasite, and 450 million people each year become ill due to complications caused by parasites. Objectives Due to a lack of accurate statistics on the prevalence of the parasite in primary school children in rural areas of West of Ahvaz, Iran, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasites in the mentioned group. Methods The current descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on 306 rural primary school students in the Western regions of Ahvaz County in 2015. Collected samples were transferred to the laboratory of parasitology in the school of medicine, and underwent a direct and sedimentary formalin-ether test. Results Out of the 306 students under study, 180 (58.8% were male and 126 (41.2% female. Of these students 88 (28.8% were with 1 or more intestinal parasites, which Giardia lamblia, with the prevalence of 61 (19.9% subjects had the highest rate, followed by Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, and Entamoeba coli with the prevalence of 12 (3.9%, 9 (2.9%, and 6 (1.9%, respectively, . Six (1.9% students showed coinfection by the 2 parasites. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of the parasite and the variables of age, the source of drinking water, and the method of washing vegetables and fruits, but no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of the parasite, and parents’ level of education and children’s gender. There was no case of infection with the worms. Conclusions Similar to other recent studies, only protozoan infection was observed in the current study. Giardia lamblia had the highest infection rate
Ortega-Barria, E; Ward, H D; Keusch, G T; Pereira, M E
Giardia lamblia, a cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world, is a protozoan parasite that thrives in the small intestine. It is shown here that wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a naturally occurring lectin widely consumed in normal human diets, reversibly inhibits the growth of G. lamblia trophozoites in vitro, and reduces infection by G. muris in the adult mouse model of giardiasis. The inhibitory effect was dose related, not associated with cytotoxicity and reversed by N-acetyl-D-glucosa...
Full Text Available Hospital based studies were conducted to investigate the occurrence of Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women, and their effects on birthweights, anaemia and spleen size. From 2,104 near-term pregnant women examined, 816 (38.8% were found to be infected with malaria parasites. Among the 816 parasitaemic subjects, 394 (48.3% were also infected with intestinal helminths, 102 (12.5% having mixed helminth infections. The prevalence of the helminth species found in stool samples of parasitaemic subjects examined was, Ascaris lumbricoides (19.1%, hookworm (14.2%, Trichuris trichiura (7% Schistosoma mansoni (3.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (2%, Hymenolepis sp. (1.6% and Taenia sp. (1%. Mothers with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infection had neonates of higher mean birthweights than those presenting both Plasmodium and intestinal helminth infections and this effect was more pronounced in primigravids. The mean haemoglobin values of malarial mothers with intestinal helminth infections were lower than those with Plasmodium infection but without intestinal helminth infections but these were not statistically significant. Severe splenomegaly was predominant among parasitaemic gravidae who also harboured S. mansoni infection in two of the hospitals studied.
Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel
The gut microbiota may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the role of intestinal parasites by describing the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in primary care patients aged 18-50 y with IBS. One hundred and thirty-eight patients at baseline...... and 78/116 patients returning 1 y later, submitted faecal samples that were examined by microscopy, culture for Blastocystis, and real-time PCR for Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba (dispar and histolytica), Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia intestinalis. Overall, 42-45% of patients harboured intestinal...
Hatipoğlu, Sinan; Lök, Uğur; Gülaçtı, Umut; Çelik, Tuncay
Etiology of acute appendicitis (AA) rarely involves parasitic infections of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Preoperative diagnosis of parasitic infections in appendix remains difficult, although parasites can sometimes be observed inside the lumen during histopathological examination. The aim of the present study was to prospectively screen prevalence and species of intestinal parasites and adherence of fecal occult blood (FOB) in patients admitted to emergency department (ED) with clinical symptoms of AA who underwent appendectomy. Demographic and stool analysis data of a total of 136 patients (≥13 years old) who underwent appendectomy between July 2009 and December 2014 were prospectively assessed, and histopathological data of all patients were retrospectively assessed. In histopathological examination after appendectomy, of 136 patients, 75.5% (n=103) had AA, 11.1% (n=15) had perforated appendicitis (PA), and 13.2% (n=18) had a negative appendicitis (normal appendix, NA). Pre-operative stool analysis revealed that 25% (n=34) had intestinal parasites and 14.7% (n=20) of patients had positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). Those with positive FOBT represented 9.7% (n=10) of 103 AA patients, 53.3% (n=8) of 15 PA patients, and 11.1% (n=2) of 18 NA patients; this was statistically more significant for PA than other groups (pparasites in stool might not be associated with appendicitis, but it can occasionally lead to pathological findings of appendicitis. A positive FOBT may be a predictor for PA.
Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.
Helenbrook, William D; Stehman, Stephen V; Shields, William M; Whipps, Christopher M
Forest disturbance and human encroachment have the potential to influence intestinal parasite communities in animal hosts by modifying nutritional health, physiological stress, host densities, contact rates, and ranging patterns. Anthropogenic disturbances also have the ability to affect the ecological landscape of parasitic disease, potentially impacting the health of both wildlife and people. Our research investigated the association of forest disturbance and human encroachment on intestinal parasite communities in mantled howler monkeys, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis. We found that individual parasite species prevalence was associated with group size and forest disturbance. Proximity to people was not a direct factor influencing intestinal parasitism; rather, several human proximity indices were related to group size, which was in turn related to overall species richness and the presence of specific parasite species. These results, coupled with previous findings, suggest that anthropogenic disturbances are likely influencing intestinal parasite communities. Though no single study has definitively explained all relationships between anthropogenic disturbances and intestinal parasitism, we propose that our models are appropriate for meta-analysis testing across other species and environments. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Schayra Minine Damazio
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...
The life cycles of Echinococcus spp, involve two phases that have quite different immunological relationships with the host--the parenteral metacestode and the enteral adult. Immune control of the metacestode (at least of E. granulosus) by vaccination is now a real possibility, but there seems little prospect of similar control of the adult worms. Vaccination against metacestodes must not only induce effective responses but also prevent the parasite modulating these in such a way as to render them ineffective. This requires a much fuller understanding of the basis of parasite avoidance mechanisms, in particular an understanding of the balance of parasite- and host-protective mechanisms that involve the activity of T lymphocyte subsets. Protective responses against adult worms in the intestine appear weak and ineffective, although it is clear that the worms are immunogenic and there is some evidence that the host can become immune. Again, a more complete insight into the nature of the worm's association with the mucosal immune system is required, and a fuller understanding of the variables that influence this association; host genetic variation may prove to be an important factor that determines the outcome of adult worm infections.
Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.
Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge
The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P
Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia
The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance of th...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although parasitism has been acknowledged as an important selective force in the evolution of host life histories, studies of fitness effects of parasites in wild populations have yielded mixed results. One reason for this may be that most studies only test for a linear relationship between infection intensity and host fitness. If resistance to parasites is costly, however, fitness may be reduced both for hosts with low infection intensities (cost of resistance and high infection intensities (cost of parasitism, such that individuals with intermediate infection intensities have highest fitness. Under this scenario one would expect a non-linear relationship between infection intensity and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in southern Sweden, we investigated the relationship between the intensity of infection of its blood parasite (Haemoproteus majoris and host survival to the following winter. Presence and intensity of parasite infections were determined by microscopy and confirmed using PCR of a 480 bp section of the cytochrome-b-gene. While a linear model suggested no relationship between parasite intensity and survival (F = 0.01, p = 0.94, a non-linear model showed a significant negative quadratic effect (quadratic parasite intensity: F = 4.65, p = 0.032; linear parasite intensity F = 4.47, p = 0.035. Visualization using the cubic spline technique showed maximum survival at intermediate parasite intensities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that failing to recognize the potential for a non-linear relationship between parasite infection intensity and host fitness may lead to the potentially erroneous conclusion that the parasite is harmless to its host. Here we show that high parasite intensities indeed reduced survival, but this effect was masked by reduced survival for birds heavily suppressing their parasite intensities. Reduced survival among hosts with low
Abbreviations used: MWS, Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary; OTU, operational taxonomic unit; SFD, Satyamangalam Forest Divi- sion; SRF ... Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus ... been reported from taxonomic studies include the nema-.
Amblyomma sp.). Oochoristica sp. (100%) and Amblyomma sp. (75%) were the most prevalent parasites. Both male and female pangolins recorded equal prevalence (100%) of infection, however, mean intensity of parasites was higher in males ...
Belhassen-García, Moncef; Pardo-Lledías, Javier; Pérez Del Villar, Luis; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Siller Ruiz, María; Cordero-Sánchez, Miguel; Vicente, Belen; Hernández Egido, Sara; Muñoz Bellido, Juan Luis; Muro, Antonio
In Spain, minors represent approximately 20% of the immigration flow. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and sub-tropics where intestinal parasitic infections caused by helminths and protozoa are one of the major causes of human disease. The main objective of the present work was to describe parasite infections in a group of immigrant children. A prospective evaluation was performed in 373 minors from Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, and Latin America. Details were collected from the medical records and physical examination. Urine, stool and peripheral blood samples were obtained for serological and routine laboratory tests. Direct and indirect parasitological tests were also performed. At least 1 parasitic disease was diagnosed in 176 (47.1%) immigrant children, while 77 (20.6%) minors were infected with two or more parasites. The number of parasites was highest in children from Sub-Saharan Africa compared with the rest of the areas of origin (p<.001), and in children from urban areas compared with those from rural areas (OR 1.27 [1.059-1.552], p=.011). The most frequent causes of multiple parasite infection were filariasis plus strongyloidiasis and filariasis plus schistosomiasis. Intestinal parasite infection was diagnosed in 38 cases (13.8%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that for each month of stay, the probability of a positive finding in the stool sample decreased by 0.02% [β=-0.020, (p=.07)]. The high infection rates of parasite diseases in immigrant children point to the need for screening protocols for certain infectious diseases in these children according to their country of origin and their length of residence in Spain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
No intestinal parasites were detected in the stool samples collected 5 days after the routine deworming exercise of the zoo inmates. The ova of A. ... results obtained from this study indicated that a high percentage of seemingly healthy zookeepers and animals harboured various species of parasites, which were zoonotic.
Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.
Solimar Almeida de Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective of this systematic literature review was to identify the occurrence of opportunistic enteric parasites in chronic kidney patient undergoing hemodialysis. The review consisted on searching articles published on MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and PubMed databases between 1991 and 2013. A total 178 articles were identified, ten of which were considered relevant for the present study. In the referred studies, the researchers demonstrated that immunosuppressed patients undergoing hemodialysis are potentially infected by opportunistic enteric agents. Further studies are needed on this topic, as there is a growing global concern with chronic kidney diseases and the potential for these patients contracting opportunistic diseases, which, inclusively, could contaminate hospital environments with opportunistic enteric protozoa. Descriptors: Renal Dialysis; Blastocystis hominis; Cryptosporidium; Cyclospora; Isospora.
Lutermann, Heike; Bodenstein, Chimoné; Bennett, Nigel C
Parasites deplete the resources of their host and can consequently affect the investment in competing traits (e.g. reproduction and immune defence). The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that testosterone (T) mediates trade-offs between parasite defence and reproductive investment by suppressing immune function in male vertebrates while more recently a role for glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol (C)) in resource allocation has been suggested. These hypotheses however, have not always found support in wild animals, possibly because most studies focus on a single parasite species, whereas infections with multiple parasites are the rule in nature. We measured body mass, T- and C-levels of wild male highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) naturally uninfected or infected with a cestode (Mathevotaenia sp.) right after capture. Subsequently, we injected animals subcutaneously with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to simulate a bacterial infection and recorded changes in body mass, food intake, haematological parameters and hormone levels. As a control, animals were injected with saline. Natural infection neither affected initial body mass nor C-levels, whereas infected males had significantly reduced T-levels. We observed significant reductions in food intake, body mass and T in response to LPS but not saline while C increased. However, this response did not vary with infection status. In contrast, final body mass and some haematological parameters were significantly lowered in infected males. Our results suggest that naturally infected males are able to compensate for resource depletion by physiological adjustments. However, this leaves them less tolerant to the challenges of a secondary infection.
Full Text Available Parasites deplete the resources of their host and can consequently affect the investment in competing traits (e.g. reproduction and immune defence. The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis posits that testosterone (T mediates trade-offs between parasite defence and reproductive investment by suppressing immune function in male vertebrates while more recently a role for glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol (C in resource allocation has been suggested. These hypotheses however, have not always found support in wild animals, possibly because most studies focus on a single parasite species, whereas infections with multiple parasites are the rule in nature. We measured body mass, T- and C-levels of wild male highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae naturally uninfected or infected with a cestode (Mathevotaenia sp. right after capture. Subsequently, we injected animals subcutaneously with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS to simulate a bacterial infection and recorded changes in body mass, food intake, haematological parameters and hormone levels. As a control, animals were injected with saline. Natural infection neither affected initial body mass nor C-levels, whereas infected males had significantly reduced T-levels. We observed significant reductions in food intake, body mass and T in response to LPS but not saline while C increased. However, this response did not vary with infection status. In contrast, final body mass and some haematological parameters were significantly lowered in infected males. Our results suggest that naturally infected males are able to compensate for resource depletion by physiological adjustments. However, this leaves them less tolerant to the challenges of a secondary infection.
Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons ...
A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites.
The identification of some zoonotic parasites especially M. moniliformis and Hymenolepis sp. as well as their public health significance in congenial rural villages are discussed. Keywords: intestinal helminthes, blood parasites, giant rats, Crycetomys emini, tropical rain forest, Nigeria Animal Production Research Advances ...
Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Beek, van G.
The prevalence of metazoan parasites in the stomach and small intestine was investigated in 70 horses slaughtered in the period February 1994 - July 1994. Most horses were young (1.5 - 3 years) and in good condition. Trichostrongylus axei was the most prevalent parasite species in the stomach
Conclusion: The prevalence of intestinal parasites in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS individuals was high, and its association with CD4+ T cell count was demonstrated. Routine screening for parasitic infestations at diagnosis is indicated to reduce the burden of the disease.
Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa
Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.
Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica
Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320
Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.
Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.
Wali, Asifa; Balkhi, Masood-Ul Hassan; Maqbool, Rafia; Darzi, Mohammed Maqbool; Shah, Feroz Ahmad; Bhat, Farooz Ahmad; Bhat, Bilal Ahmad
The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47%) and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63%) and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43%) were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax . All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.
Mutalip Çiçek; Hasan Yılmaz
This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method ...
Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Drent, J.; Thieltges, D.W.
Climate change is expected to affect disease risk in many parasite-host systems, e.g., via an effect of temperature on infectivity (temperature effects). However, recent studies indicate that ambient communities can lower disease risk for hosts, for instance via predation on free-living stages of
Jonathan D King
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy
Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area.
Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil
Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.
Cláudio Santos Ferreira
Full Text Available Brine flotation and gravity sedimentation coproscopical examinations were performed in stool samples from 69 of the 147 Iaualapiti Indians of the Xingu Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Intestinal [arasites were present in 89.9% of the population examined. High rates of prevalence were found for some parasite species. Ancylostomidae, 82.6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 26.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 20.3%; and Entamoeba coli, 68.1%. Infection by Trichuris trichuria, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana was not detected. Helminth's prevalence in children aged one year or less was comparatively low (33.3%. Quantitative coproscopy was done in positive samples for Ascaris and Ancylostomidae and the results expressed in eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Quantitative results revealed that worm burdens are very low and overdispersed in this Indian tribe, a previously unreported fact.
Full Text Available Background AIDS is now known as a crisis throughout the world. Gastrointestinal parasites are the main causes of infections in HIV-positive patients. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients who referred to Ahvaz health centers, Ahvaz, Iran in 2012. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 HIV-positive patients of the Ahvaz health centers who selected by convenient sampling. Patients’ demographics were recorded by a researcher-made questionnaire. Then, their fecal samples were collected and tested by using direct and concentrated formalin-ether and modified acid-fast staining. Data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square and ANOVA (analysis of variance tests. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 48.8%, which shows a high prevalence in HIV-positive patients. There was a significant relationship between prevalence of parasite and variables of job, kind of health centers, history of diarrhea (P = 0.0001, education (P = 0.001, and age (P = 0.005, but there was no relationship with variables of CD4+ count (P = 0.293 and dyspepsia (P = 0.103. Conclusions Given the prevalence of most gastrointestinal parasites, the HIV-positive patients show a weak immune system and higher sensitivity for infection particularly for opportunistic parasites. So, routine stool tests for detection of intestinal parasites are very useful for people with weakened immune systems.
The commonest parasite was Trichuris trichiura (28), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (19), and Hookworm sp. (15). (Table 1). Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoa identified. Those found positive were treated at the College Clinic. Poly-parasitism, two or more parasites per person, was common ...
Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen technique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Mazandaran Province are still so high that implies performing special control measures.
Intestinal parasites are very common in children. We propose to study the prevalence and Epidemiological profile of the port of intestinal parasites in 300 children hospitalized in the Regional Hospital of Gharb area (Kenitra, Morocco) from June to December 2007. This study Identified 11 intestinal parasites. Of the 300 ...
Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.
Bacterium Flavobacterium columnare and parasite Trichodina are common pathogens of cultured fish. The authors conducted a study to evaluate whether treatment of Trichodina parasitized tilapia with formalin would improve fish survival and reduce F. columnare infection in fish. Tilapia parasitized by...
Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...
Rachel E Sutherland
Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.
Değerlı, Serpil; Ozçelık, Semra; Celıksöz, Ali
This study is concerned with the distribution of intestinal parasites detected in patients who presented at the routine Parasitology Laboratory of the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine from May 2002-November 2004. A total of 5057 stool specimens from 2305 (45.6%) males and 2752 (54.4%) females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct examination and flotation methods. Intestinal parasites were found in 231 (4.5%) females and 301(5.9%) males. A total of 1313 cellophane tape specimens from 646 (49.2%) females and 667 (50.8%) males were examined. Parasites were detected in 34 (2.6%) female and 48 (3.6%) male patients. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 189 (3.7%) Giardia intestinalis, 124 (2.4%) E. histolytica/dispar, 128 (2.5%) Entamoeba coli, 29 (0.6%) Iodamoeba butschlii, 21(0.4%) Blastocystis hominis, 2 (0.03%) Chilomastix mesnili, 1 (0.01%) Trichomonas hominis, 1 (0.01%) Hymenolepis nana, 33 (0.6%) Taenia saginata, 3 (0.05%) Ascaris lumbricoides, and 1 (0.01%) Trichuris trichiura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 71 (5.4%) Enterobius vermicularis and 11 (0.8%) Taenia saginata.
Parasitic infections of amphibians in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin. ... Results obtained show the possible influence of land-use pattern on parasite distribution. For example, the ... Furthermore, this infection pattern may be indicative of an immunosuppressive effect of pesticides on the frogs of the Agricultural Zone.
Standard laboratory procedures were adopted in the collection, processing and parasite identification in the stool samples. The rates of parasites infections in the farmers were 91.6% for helminthes and 86.4% for protozoa. Helminth infection rates but not those of protozoa, varied significantly between farmers and controls.
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse
Full Text Available Hemotropic Mycoplasmosis is common in sheep and goats worldwide, which leads to huge economic losses. In this study, ten goats each were sampled from five herds belonging to the Ladang Angkat, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM for the assessment of Mycoplasma ovis infection and concomitant intestinal parasites burden. Giemsa stain and Modified McMaster techniques were used to study the hemotropic mycoplasmosis and gastrointestinal parasite burden, respectively. Questionnaires were equally administered to each farmer and a fly trap was used to trap biting flies around the goat herds. Out of 50 samples analyzed, 94.0% (n=47/50 were positive for M. ovis infection. Among the positive samples, 93.6% (n=44/47 were mild infection while 6.4% (n=3/47 were moderate infection, with highest infection rate of 38.5% parasitemia. There was a significant association (P<0.05 between infection status and parasites burden. However, there was a weak positive correlation (r=0.107, P=0.460 between M. ovis infection rates and parasitic burden. Though a high occurrence rate of M. ovis was observed among the infected goats, the levels of parasitemia were generally mild.
Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Parlak, Mehmet; Cıçek, Mutalip; Yaman, Görkem; Oztürk, Oznur; Cikman, Aytekin; Berktaş, Mustafa
Intestinal parasites still maintain as a major public health problem in our country. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasites in 1st and 2nd grade students of Mustafa Cengiz Primary School, aged between 7-9 and to contribute to the parasitological data of our province. For this purpose, stool examinations of a total of 195 students, including 82 boys and 113 girls, were performed. The results of the microscopic analysis of stool samples revealed one or more parasites in a total of 117 (60%) samples including 45 male students (54.8%) and 72 female students (63.7%). The diagnosed parasites and their ratios in children were; Giardia intestinalis 36.4%, Entamoeba coli 17.9%, Blastocystis hominis 14.4%, Hymenolepis nana 10.8%, Chilomastix mesnili 3.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.6%, Entamoeba hartmanni 1.5%, Trichuris trichiura 1%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.5%, Retortamonas intestinalis 0.5% ve Endolimax nana 0.5%, respectively. From 117 positive samples for parasites, only one parasite was found in 71 (60.7%), and more than one parasites were found in 46 (39.3%). As a result, parasitic infectious diseases still maintain its importance in our region. We conclude that incidence of parasitic infectious diseases will be reduced with education about personal hygiene and improvement of physical conditions.
Chin, Yuee Teng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong, Chun Wie; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Tee, Mian Zi; Siow, Vinnie Wei Yin; Chua, Kek Heng
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among indigenous people have been widely documented in Malaysia, however, the prevalence of these infections remains high. In the past, most studies have focused on specific species of parasites but polyparasitism has received limited attention. In addition, epidemiology studies on indigenous people tend to consider them as a homogenous group, whereas in reality different sub-ethnic groups have different cultural and living practices. Variations in living habits such as personal hygiene practices may predispose different groups to different parasitic infections. To better understand prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among different sub-ethnic groups, the present study was conducted among two sub-ethnic groups of indigenous people (Temuan and Mah Meri) residing in Selangor state, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study that focused on two distinct sub-ethnic groups was carried out from February to September 2014. Faecal samples were collected from 186 participants and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. A molecular approach was adopted to conduct a genetic characterisation of the parasites. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics, socio-economic backgrounds and behavioural risks relating to the participants, as well as information about their environments. Statistical analyses (i.e. binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses) were performed to measure risk factors. For Temuan communities, trichuriasis (64.2 %) was the most common infection found, preceding hookworm infection (34 %), ascariasis (7.5 %), giardiasis (14.2 %) and amoebiasis (7.5 %). As for the Mah Meri communities, trichuriasis (77.5 %) prevailed over ascariasis (21.3 %), hookworm (15 %), giardiasis (7.5 %) and amoebiasis (3.8 %). Significant differences in proportions of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were observed between the Temuan and Mah
Food-handlers have been tagged as potential carriers of infectious pathogens which included parasites. Parasitic diseases were some of the leading causes of global mortality, with higher burdens of prevalence in developing countries, especially regions of the world, characterized with contaminated water, coupled with ...
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in a paediatric population aged from 0 to 14 years old, hospitalized in the Paediatric Hospital David Bernardino in Luanda (HPDBL, and its association with nutritional status. The study involved 64 children admitted in the wards of "undernutrition" and "general". Detection of intestinal parasites in faecal samples was assessed by fresh examination stained with Lugol, as used at the HPDBL. The evaluation of nutritional status of children in HPDBL included clinical, biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Out of the 64 children analyzed, six (9.3% were infected with Giardia lamblia (6.3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6% and Hymenolepis diminuta (1.6%. These cases of parasitism were more common in children over three years and hospitalized in the general ward. Regarding nutritional status, the majority (56.3% had some kind of nutritional deficiency (body weight below 70%, oedema in both legs, severe thinness, which were more frequent in females (55.6% and in children under 24 months (77.7%. About 92.2% of children admitted were from suburban areas of Luanda presenting greater vulnerability to parasitic infections and other diseases owing to households conditions, with a majority without piped water. However, no evidence has been encountered in this population sample of an association between intestinal parasites and malnutrition throughout the present study.
Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin
Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.
Prevalence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in a rural Amazonian settlement, Acre State, Brazil Prevalência e distribuição espacial de parasitoses intestinais em assentamento agrícola na Amazônia rural, Acre, Brasil
Estéfano Alves de Souza
Full Text Available A population-based survey of the prevalence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasitism was carried out in an agricultural settlement in the Amazon Basin of Brazil (Granada, Acre State. More than half (53.4% of the 429 stool specimens from subjects in all age groups, living in 113 households, had cysts, ova, or larvae of intestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were Giardia duodenalis (19.6% and soil-transmitted helminths (12.7%; 105 (24.5% subjects were infected with more than one species of parasite. Significant age-related differences in prevalence were only found for G. duodenalis (children 30 years were less affected. Six households (5.3%, situated within a radius of 690m, comprised 48.1% of all subjects harboring soil-transmitted helminths in our study area. Households within this cluster were poorer and more crowded than those outside the cluster. The observed spatial clustering of infections with soil-transmitted helminths provides valuable information for the spatial targeting of sanitary interventions in this area.Estudo de base populacional sobre a prevalência e distribuição de parasitoses intestinais foi realizado em assentamento agrícola na Amazônia Brasileira (Granada, Acre. Mais da metade (53,4% das 429 amostras analisadas de indivíduos de todas as idades, moradores de 113 domicílios, continha cistos, ovos ou larvas de parasitas intestinais. Os parasitas intestinais de maior prevalência foram Giardia duodenalis (19,6% e os geo-helmintos (12,7%; 105 (24,5% indivíduos apresentavam co-infecção por mais de uma espécie de parasita. Houve diferença significativa em relação à idade na prevalência somente de G. duodenalis (crianças 30 anos foram menos afetados. Seis domicílios (5,3%, localizados num raio de 690m, concentraram 48,1% de todos os indivíduos infectados por geo-helmintos na área de estudo. Domicílios incluídos nesse agregado (cluster eram mais pobres e com maior número de habitantes do
Karan, Abraar; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison
Intestinal parasitic infections cause one of the largest global burdens of disease. To identify possible areas for interventions, a structured questionnaire addressing knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding parasitic infections as well as the less studied role of culture and resource availability was presented to mothers of school-age children in rural communities around San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua. We determined that access to resources influenced knowledge, attitude, and behaviors that may be relevant to transmission of parasitic infections. For example, having access to a clinic and prior knowledge about parasites was positively correlated with the practice of having fencing for animals, having fewer barefoot children, and treating children for parasites. We also found that cultural beliefs may contribute to parasitic transmission. Manifestations of machismo culture and faith in traditional medicines conflicted with healthy practices. We identified significant cultural myths that prevented healthy behaviors, including the beliefs that cutting a child's nails can cause tetanus and that showering after a hot day caused sickness. The use of traditional medicine was positively correlated with the belief in these cultural myths. Our study demonstrates that the traditional knowledge, attitude, and practice model could benefit from including components that examine resource availability and culture.
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections cause one of the largest global burdens of disease. To identify possible areas for interventions, a structured questionnaire addressing knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding parasitic infections as well as the less studied role of culture and resource availability was presented to mothers of school-age children in rural communities around San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua. We determined that access to resources influenced knowledge, attitude, and behaviors that may be relevant to transmission of parasitic infections. For example, having access to a clinic and prior knowledge about parasites was positively correlated with the practice of having fencing for animals, having fewer barefoot children, and treating children for parasites. We also found that cultural beliefs may contribute to parasitic transmission. Manifestations of machismo culture and faith in traditional medicines conflicted with healthy practices. We identified significant cultural myths that prevented healthy behaviors, including the beliefs that cutting a child’s nails can cause tetanus and that showering after a hot day caused sickness. The use of traditional medicine was positively correlated with the belief in these cultural myths. Our study demonstrates that the traditional knowledge, attitude, and practice model could benefit from including components that examine resource availability and culture.
Jasmina Patkovič Colarič
Full Text Available Background. There is a significant difference in a prevalence and type of intestinal parasitic diseases in former time and today. Incidence of parasitic diseases is very much in relationship to social and hygienic circumstances in the environment. Hygienic habits of people also take part of it. For this reason preschool childrens are the most involved subject.Methods. Author wanted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites by preschool children in the Dolenjska region. Feces and perianal prints ware taken during the systematic examination in the pediatric practice. The samples were analyzed in the microbiological laboratory of the Institute of Public Health Novo mesto. The following parasites were searched: Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium sp., Taenia solium, Taenia saginata and Trichuris trichiura.Results. Between 315 samples of feces only one contained ovum of Ascaris lumbricoides and between 307 perianal prints only one was positive to Enterobius vermicularis.
Yu, Zhongjia; Ruan, Yang; Zhou, Mengjie; Chen, Siyuan; Zhang, Yinxin; Wang, Liya; Zhu, Guan; Yu, Yonglan
Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25.6%) parasite-positive specimens that contained one or more parasites, including Giardia duodenalis (12.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (4.9%), Cystoisospora spp. (4.3%), trichomonads (4.3%), Toxocara canis (3.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.6%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.2%). Among the 55 dog breeds, infection rates were significantly higher in border collies and bulldogs, but lower in poodles (p Giardia-positive specimens, 21 were successfully assigned into assemblages using glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and/or beta-giardin (bg) genes, including assemblage D (n = 15), C (n = 5), and F (n = 1). Among the 24 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens by SSU rRNA PCR, 20 PCR amplicons could be sequenced and identified as Cryptosporidium canis (n = 20). Collectively, this study indicates that parasites are a significant group of pathogens in companion dogs in Beijing, and companion dogs may potentially transmit certain zoonotic parasites to humans, particularly those with weak or weakened immunity.
Full Text Available Background:intestinal parasitic infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and its correlation with socio-demographic parameters in Haji-abad, 2015.MaterialsandMethods:This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 635 samples. After completing questionnaires, stool samples were assessed macroscopically, and microscopically using direct slide smear with saline and lugol, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen staining to track Cryptosporidium species and Trichrome staining for the samples suspected to amoeba and other indeterminate cases. PCR using specific primers was conducted for Entamoebahistolytica/E. dispar suspected samples. The results were analyzed using SPSSver.16 software.Results:Of total 635 samples, 198 cases (31.2% were infected by at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasites in this area were: Blastocystis sp. (105, 16.5%, Endolimax nana (43, 6.8%, Entamoeba coli (32, 5.0%, Giardia lamblia (31, 4.9%, and Iodamoeba butschlii (11, 1.7%. Enterobius vermicularis (1, 0.2% was the only detected helminthic infection. Regarding socio-demographic variables, age, residence, sampling month, and job showed a significant correlation with IPIs (p-value=0.031, 0.019, 0.014, 0.012; respectively. None of nine microscopically suspected E. histolytica/E. dispar cases were confirmed by molecular investigations (PCR method and were considered as E. coli.Conclusion:In agreement with previous studies, helminthes infections show a dramatic decline compare to protozoa in this study. The relatively high incidence of intestinal protozoan infections in studies performed in Iran supports strategies for preventing the transmission and expansion of these parasites as a priority.
Moyad Avazpoor; Mohammad Taqi Yousefipoor; Majid Dusty; Mohsen Mehdipour; Fariba Seifipour; Zeinab Gholami
Background: Infected with intestinal parasites is one of the most important health and economical problems, which could have different effects, such as diarrheal diseases or death associated. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in the vegetable marketed in Ilam city. Methods: This study was performed on 280 samples of fresh vegetables and lettuce in Ilam. The samples were taken at the level of 500 grams from the places...
Siti Shafiyyah, C O; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Lau, Y L; Siti Aminah, F
A survey was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 137 stool and blood samples were collected from wild rats from Sentul and Chow Kit areas. Five species of rats were captured and supplied by Kuala Lumpur City Hall. The most common was Rattus rattus diardii (Malayan Black rat), 67%, followed by Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat), 10%, Rattus argentiventer (rice-field rat), 10%, Rattus tiomanicus (Malaysian field rat), 9% and Rattus exulans (Polynesian rat), 4%. Rattus rattus diardii is commonly known to live in human environment and they are normally identified as pests to human community. More male rats were captured (61%) compared to female (39%). Out of 137 samples, 81.8% samples were positive with intestinal parasites, with 86.2% from Sentul area and 78.5% from Chow Kit area. Six different parasites were detected. The most common intestinal helminth parasite detected was Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (80.3%), followed by Hymenolepis nana (23.4%), Capillaria hepatica (13.9%) and Hymenolepis diminuta (2.9%). Intestinal protozoan detected was Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (8.8%). Trypanosoma lewisi (1.5%) was the only blood parasite detected.
Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes
In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.
human primates (Gomez et al; 1996, Verwaijet et al; 2003). Protozoa parasite such Entamoeba histolytica, Gardia sp, Cryptosporidium sp and. Balantidium coli are frequently reported in non-human primate, apes and monkeys. (Levecke, 2007).
economic factors surrounding a given community, laboratory investigations are required to determine prevalence in each population in order to provide an effective planning and management policy.Human immunodeficiency virus. (HIV) and parasites ...
I examined associations between several components of host social organization, including group size and gregariousness, group stability, territoriality and social class, and gastrointestinal parasite load in African bovids. At an intraspecific level, group size was positively correlated with parasite prevalence, but only when the parasite was relatively host specific and only among host species living in stable groups. Social class was also an important predictor of infection rates. Among gazelles, territorial males had higher parasite intensities than did either bachelor males or females and juveniles, suggesting that highly territorial individuals may be either more exposed or more susceptible to parasites. Associations among territoriality, grouping, and parasitism were also found across taxa. Territorial host genera were more likely to be infected with strongyle nematodes than were nonterritorial hosts, and gregarious hosts were more infected than were solitary hosts. Analyses also revealed that gregariousness and territoriality had an interactive effect on individual parasite richness, whereby hosts with both traits harbored significantly more parasite groups than did hosts with only one or neither trait. Overall, study results indicate that multiple features of host social behavior influence infection risk and suggest that synergism between traits also has important effects on host parasite load.
Nebiye Yentur Doni
The study revealed that health education programmes for farm workers and farmers should be improved to increase awareness about living and working conditions, in order to control intestinal parasites. However, early diagnosis and treatment services for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.
Valverde, J G; Gomes-Silva, A; De Carvalho Moreira, C J; Leles De Souza, D; Jaeger, L H; Martins, P P; Meneses, V F; Bóia, M N; Carvalho-Costa, F A
This survey aims to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil, through three distinct techniques, correlating the prevalence rates with family income and age groups as well as assessing the household clustering of infections. Prevalence rates were assessed through Graham (n=113), Baermann-Moraes (n=232) and Ritchie (n=463) methods. The Graham method was adopted only for children under 5 years old, 15% of whom were positive for Enterobius vermicularis. By the Baermann-Moraes technique, 5·6% of the samples were positive for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The Ritchie technique disclosed the following results: Ascaris lumbricoides (26%), Trichuris trichiura (22·5%), hookworms (9·5%), Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (25·3%), Giardia lamblia (12·5%) and E. vermicularis (0·6%). Children aged 5-14 years presented the highest prevalence for pathogenic parasites. Giardiasis and hookworm infection rates were inversely related to family income. The presence of positive contacts in the same household substantially increased the risk of infection by enteric parasites: odds ratio (OR)=2·70, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1·69-4·29 for ascariasis; OR=2·17, 95% CI=1·34-3·51 for trichuriasis; OR=2·13, 95% CI=1·08-4·17 for hookworm disease; OR=3·42, 95% CI=1·86-6·30 for giardiasis; and OR=2·16, 95% CI=1·35-3·47 for amoebiasis, supporting infection clustering in the home. Intestinal parasitoses are extremely frequent in the studied area, and routine methods for diagnosis may underestimate the prevalence of enterobiasis and strongyloidiasis.
Douglas R. Morgan
Full Text Available Postinfectious IBS is defined in the industrialized world as IBS onset following a sentinel gastrointestinal infection. In developing nations, where repeated bacterial and parasitic gastrointestinal infections are common, the IBS pathophysiology may be altered. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between intestinal parasite infection and IBS in the “nonsterile” developing world environment. IBS subjects were identified from a population-based sample of 1624 participants using the Rome II Modular Questionnaire. Stool samples from cases and randomly selected controls were examined for ova and parasites. Logistic regression models explored the relationship between IBS and parasite infection. The overall IBS prevalence among participants was 13.2% (9.3% males, 15.9% females. There was no difference in parasite carriage between IBS cases and controls, 16.6% versus 15.4% (P=0.78, nor among IBS subtypes. The pathophysiology of post-infectious IBS may be altered in the developing world as compared to industrialized nations and warrants investigation.
Hakim, S Lokman; Gan, C C; Malkit, K; Azian, My Noor; Chong, C K; Shaari, N; Zainuddin, W; Chin, C N; Sara, Y; Lye, M S
In April 2004, an outbreak of acute diarrheal illness occurred among the Orang Asli (aborigine) in the Cameron Highlands, Pahang State, Peninsular Malaysia, where rotavirus was later implicated as the cause. In the course of the epidemic investigation, stool samples were collected and examined for infectious agents including parasites. Soil transmitted helminthes (STH), namely Ascaris lumbricoides (25.7%), Trichuris trichiura (31.1%) and hookworm (8.1%), and intestinal protozoa, which included Giardia lamblia (17.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.4%), Blastocystis hominis (8.1%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (2.7%), were detected. Forty-four (59.5%) were infected with at least one parasite, 24 (32.4%), 12 (16.2%) and 8 (10.8%) had single, double and triple parasitic infections, respectively. STH were prevalent with infections occurring as early as in infancy. Giardia lamblia, though the most commonly found parasite in samples from symptomatic subjects, was within the normally reported rate of giardiasis among the various communities in Malaysia, and was an unlikely cause of the outbreak. However, heavy pre-existing parasitic infections could have contributed to the severity of the rotavirus diarrheal outbreak.
Jejaw, Ayalew; Zemene, Endalew; Alemu, Yayehirad; Mengistie, Zemenu
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method. Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7% (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8% of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.
O'Brien Andersen, L.; Karim, A. B.; Roager, Henrik Munch
Several studies have shown associations between groups of intestinal bacterial or specific ratios between bacterial groups and various disease traits. Meanwhile, little is known about interactions and associations between eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in the human gut. In this work, we...... set out to investigate potential associations between common single-celled parasites such as Blastocystis spp. and Dientamoeba fragilis and intestinal bacteria. Stool DNA from patients with intestinal symptoms were selected based on being Blastocystis spp.-positive (B+)/negative (B-) and D. fragilis...
There is no information available on whether parasite infection will increase the susceptibility of tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare and whether parasite treatment could improve fish survival after F. columnare exposure. Two trials were conducted to evaluate 1) the susceptibility of hybrid tilapi...
... of the operative findings during surgery. Postoperative complications, if any, and the histopathology reports of the removed appendices were also studied. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or the absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n= 98), parasitic infection was observed, ...
Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.
Halliez, Marie C M; Buret, André G
Giardiasis is the most common waterborne parasitic infection of the human intestine worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia), is a flagellated, binucleated protozoan parasite which infects a wide array of mammalian hosts. Human giardiasis is a true cosmopolitan pathogen, with highest prevalence in developing countries. Giardiasis can present with a broad range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic, to acute or chronic diarrheal disease associated with abdominal pain and nausea. Most infections are self-limiting, although re-infection and chronic infection can occur. Recent evidence indicating that Giardia may cause chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal complications have made it a topic of intense research. The causes of the post-infectious clinical manifestations due to Giardia, even after complete elimination of the parasite, remain obscure. This review offers a state-of-the-art discussion on the long-term consequences of Giardia infections, from extra-intestinal manifestations, growth and cognitive deficiencies, to post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. The discussion also sheds light on some of the novel mechanisms recently implicated in the production of these post-infectious manifestations.
Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B
The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Campos Ponce, M.; Incani, R.N.; Pinelli, E.; Ten Kulve, N.; Ramak, R.; Polman, K.; Doak, C.M.
In developing countries undergoing rapid economic development, the number of dual burden households (i.e. co-existing overweight/obesity and stunting) is increasing. While intestinal parasites are prevalent in these countries, their contribution to dual burden households has so far been neglected.
Cryptosporidium species (P= 0.005), A. lumbricoides (P=0.035), hookworm and Taenia species (P=0.014) were associated with anaemia. Anaemia was associated with CD4 count while Cryptosporidium species, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Taenia species were the intestinal parasitic agents associated with ...
Objective: The main objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of total, single and multiple intestinal worm infections among the primary school children in Nairobi City. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from ...
Kheirandish, F; Tarahi, Mj; Haghighi, A; Nazemalhosseini-Mojarad, E; Kheirandish, M
Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and preparation. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, culture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence. The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 bakeries and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formaldehyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp). Ninety-six (11.9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%. In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health experts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.
A survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in warthogs from the Nazinga Game Ranch of Burkina Faso. The study revealed that Eight different nematodes and one estode species were present in the gastrointestinal tracks of the animals. In the stomach, Simondsia paradoxa was found at ...
However, other parasites found in this study included Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolopse nana, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambia and Entamoeba coli, which had prevalence rates of 35%, 18.3%, 16.7%, 15%, 21.7%, 20% and 13.3% respectively ...
The distribution of the parasites were as follows: Hookworm (26.5%), Entamoeba coli (19.1%), Iodaemoeba butschlii (9.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (6.6%), Teania species (2.2%), Giardia lamblia (2.0%), Hymenolepis nana (1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%), ...
Uncontrolled population of stray and domicile dogs with intestinal protozoan in close proximity to increasing densities of human population in urban environments is a common fact in developing countries, in conjunction with the lack of veterinary attention and zoonotic awareness, increases the risks of disease transmission.
The poor socio-economic status of street children leads to dangerous and unhealthy living environments. Also open defecation and regular contact with dogs, flies and contaminated soil, water, faeces, foods and fomites; increase their chance of infestation by intestinal protozoa and helminths. This study intends to found out ...
Church, Cynthia; Neill, Andrea; Schotthoefer, Anna M
To evaluate the seasonal prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the western states of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Montana, fecal samples were examined as part of routine diagnostic testing from patients experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort in August (summer) 2006, January (winter), and April (spring) 2007. Parasite identification in positive samples was confirmed using light microscopy after wet mount and trichrome staining techniques. Seventy-eight of the 1,083 patients surveyed (7.2%) in August tested positive for at least 1 species of intestinal parasite. Forty-eight of 726 (6.6%) patients and 51 of 795 (6.4%) patients tested positive for at least 1 species in January and April, respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most prevalent, followed by Giardia lamblia. Approximately 25% of the parasite occurrences were multiple infections involving fecal-oral transmitted species. Co-infections with Entamoeba spp. and Blastocystis sp. were common, suggesting a possible fecal-oral transmission for the latter parasite. Entamoeba spp. were more likely to co-occur than independently. Other species detected included Endolimax nana, Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Iodamoeba butschlii.
A.S. Ramsaransing; R.R. Postema (Roelf); J.L. Simons
textabstractParasitic infection of the appendix is rarely seen, but should be considered in patients with symptoms of chronic appendicitis. It is rarely associated with histological inflammation of the appendix, therefore radiographic imaging, performed during initial workup, remains unremarkable
Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per
them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite...
Ikeh, E I; Obadofin, M O; Brindeiro, B; Baugherb, C; Frost, F; Vanderjagt, D; Glew, R H
To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in one rural village and one urban centre in North Central Nigeria. A total of 111 single stool specimens from all the volunteered rural dwellers and 93 specimens from randomly selected urban dwellers were examined using Formol-ether and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques; during the months of June and July 2005. A questionnaire was completed for each subject and the nutritional status of the adults was assessed using the anthropometric measurements (weight and height for age and Biomass index). The results suggest very high prevalence rates of intestinal parasitosis of 72.1% and 69.9% for the rural and urban populations respectively. All the age groups were infected. The males in the rural area had a prevalence of 69.2% as against 74.6% in females (P>0.05); while in the urban area, the males were more significantly infected (77.4%) compared with the females with 66.1% (Pprevalence of 79.3% and 72.4% for the rural and urban populations respectively. The prevalence of the parasites in the rural and urban populations respectively were: Entamoeba coli (16.2% and 9.7%); E. histolytica (18.9% and 18.3%); E. hartmani (1.8% ad 0.0%); Endolimax nana (16.2% and 18.3%); Iodamoeba butschlii (0.0% and 1.1%); Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 4.3%); Schistosoma mansoni (9.9% and 0.0%); Strongyloides stercoralis (0.9% and 0.0%); Hookworm (4.5% and 5.4%); Ascaris lumbricoides (1.8% and 0.0%); Enterobius vermicularis (0.0% and 1.1%); Cryptosporidium parvum (29.7% and 19.4%); and Enterocytozoon bieneusi/Encephalitozoon intestinalis (39.6% and 47.3%). Polyparasitism was recorded in 48.6% of the rural subjects and 36.6% of the urban subjects. The study has shown a very high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in both the rural and urban populations and that C. parvum and E. bieneusi/E. intestinalis are harboured by apparently healthy individuals.
Mercado, R; Otto, J P; Musleh, M; Pérez, M
By the performance of parasitological examination of one fecal sample per individual, a total of 256 persons from a rural county in the X Region (41 degrees 50 minutes South lat., 73 degrees 05 minutes West long.) were studied. The general rates of infection by intestinal parasite and/or commensal protozoa and helminths found were: Giardia intestinalis 14.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 11.7%, Blastocystis hominis 36.0%, Entamoeba coli 9.8%, Endolimax nana 16.4%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 1.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 13.7% and Trichuris trichiura 9.8%. The prevalence rates of intestinal infection led us to conclude that environmental conditions favorable for its transmission remain and show that intestinal parasitoses are still a public health problem in this region, affecting mostly children.
One thousand eight hundred specimens of Tilapia zillii (Gervias) from Tiga Lake, Kano, Northern Nigeria were examined using hand lens and microscope between July, 2007 and June 2008 for parasites , 782 (53.4%) of these were infected. Parasites recovered were, Clinostomum spp. 74 4.1%) Procamellanus spp.
Karaman, Ulkü; Turan, Ayşe; Depecik, Fehime; Geçit, Ilhan; Ozer, Ali; Karcı, Erdal; Karadan, Mesut
Transmission of parasites generally occurs through fecal-oral means directly from human to human or through receiving eggs and cysts by means of nourishment. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions. Stool specimens were examined using native-lugol, Trichrome and acid-fast stains methods. 23.7% of the 2443 fecal specimens were found to be positive. The frequencies of parasites were found to be 9.8% for Entamoeba coli, 7.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 7.2% for Iodamoeba butschlii, 3.4% for Giardia intestinalis, 0.9% for Dientamoeba fragilis, 0.13% for Entamoeba histolytica, 0.08% for Chilomastix mesnilii, 0.04% for Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.04% for Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.04% for Hymenolepis nana, 0.04% for Taenia spp. and 0.04% for Enterobius vermicularis. This rate of parasite positivity among healthy subjects visiting hospital for porter examination suggests that intestinal parasites still constitute a public health problem in the region. Moreover, it can be considered that one important factor in the frequency of the parasite can be both the nature of the jobs of administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions and their interaction with people during sales.
6.1%), and Protozoa Cyst 198 (11.0%). Adult fishes were more infected than the juvenile, females were significantly more infected (P <0.05). Infection increases with length and body weight. Physio-chemical parameter of the lake was good and.
Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A
In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ngui, Romano; Ishak, Saidon; Chuen, Chow Sek; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A L
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have a worldwide distribution and have been identified as one of the most significant causes of illnesses and diseases among the disadvantaged population. In Malaysia, IPIs still persist in some rural areas, and this study was conducted to determine the current epidemiological status and to identify risk factors associated with IPIs among communities residing in rural and remote areas of West Malaysia. A total of 716 participants from 8 villages were involved, comprising those from 1 to 83 years old, 550 (76.8%) participants aged ≤12 years and 166 (23.2%) aged ≥13 years, and 304 (42.5%) male and 412 (57.5%) female. The overall prevalence of IPIs was high (73.2%). Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections (73.2%) were significantly more common compared to protozoa infections (21.4%) (pprevalence of IPIs showed an age dependency relationship, with significantly higher rates observed among those aged ≤12 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that participants aged ≤12 years (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.45-3.45), low household income (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 3.15-7.73), using untreated water supply (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.36-3.21), and indiscriminate defecation (OR = 5.01; 95% CI = 3.30-7.62) were identified as significant predictors of IPIs among these communities. Essentially, these findings highlighted that IPIs are highly prevalent among the poor rural communities in West Malaysia. Poverty and low socioeconomic with poor environmental sanitation were indicated as important predictors of IPIs. Effective poverty reduction programmes, promotion of deworming, and mass campaigns to heighten awareness on health and hygiene are urgently needed to reduce IPIs.
Ngui, Romano; Ishak, Saidon; Chuen, Chow Sek; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.
Background Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have a worldwide distribution and have been identified as one of the most significant causes of illnesses and diseases among the disadvantaged population. In Malaysia, IPIs still persist in some rural areas, and this study was conducted to determine the current epidemiological status and to identify risk factors associated with IPIs among communities residing in rural and remote areas of West Malaysia. Methods/Findings A total of 716 participants from 8 villages were involved, comprising those from 1 to 83 years old, 550 (76.8%) participants aged ≤12 years and 166 (23.2%) aged ≥13 years, and 304 (42.5%) male and 412 (57.5%) female. The overall prevalence of IPIs was high (73.2%). Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections (73.2%) were significantly more common compared to protozoa infections (21.4%) (p<0.001). The prevalence of IPIs showed an age dependency relationship, with significantly higher rates observed among those aged ≤12 years. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that participants aged ≤12 years (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.45–3.45), low household income (OR = 4.93; 95% CI = 3.15–7.73), using untreated water supply (OR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.36–3.21), and indiscriminate defecation (OR = 5.01; 95% CI = 3.30–7.62) were identified as significant predictors of IPIs among these communities. Conclusion Essentially, these findings highlighted that IPIs are highly prevalent among the poor rural communities in West Malaysia. Poverty and low socioeconomic with poor environmental sanitation were indicated as important predictors of IPIs. Effective poverty reduction programmes, promotion of deworming, and mass campaigns to heighten awareness on health and hygiene are urgently needed to reduce IPIs. PMID:21390157
Multiple infections of two-three parasite combinations were encouyragee, A lumbricoides- hookworm combination being the most common. Higher prevalence rates of infection occurred in pupils of age groups 9-11 and 12-14. Infection was greater among pupils drinking water from river/stream and those using pit/bush for ...
Dreesen, Leentje; Rinaldi, Manuela; Chiers, Koen; Li, Robert; Geurden, Thomas; Van den Broeck, Wim; Goddeeris, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin; Geldhof, Peter
Despite Giardia duodenalis being one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals, little is known about the host-parasite interactions in its natural hosts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, using a bovine high-density oligo microarray to analyze global gene expression in the small intestine. The resulting microarray data suggested a decrease in inflammation, immune response, and immune cell migration in infected animals. These findings were examined in more detail by histological analyses combined with quantitative real-time PCR on a panel of cytokines. The transcription levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ showed a trend of being downregulated in the jejunum of infected animals compared to the negative controls. No immune cell recruitment could be seen after infection, and no intestinal pathologies, such as villus shortening or increased levels of apoptosis. Possible regulators of this intestinal response are the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα), and gamma (PPARγ) and the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA), all for which an upregulated expression was found in the microarray and qRT-PCR analyses.
Full Text Available Despite Giardia duodenalis being one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals, little is known about the host-parasite interactions in its natural hosts. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, using a bovine high-density oligo microarray to analyze global gene expression in the small intestine. The resulting microarray data suggested a decrease in inflammation, immune response, and immune cell migration in infected animals. These findings were examined in more detail by histological analyses combined with quantitative real-time PCR on a panel of cytokines. The transcription levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-γ showed a trend of being downregulated in the jejunum of infected animals compared to the negative controls. No immune cell recruitment could be seen after infection, and no intestinal pathologies, such as villus shortening or increased levels of apoptosis. Possible regulators of this intestinal response are the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPARα, and gamma (PPARγ and the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, all for which an upregulated expression was found in the microarray and qRT-PCR analyses.
Daryani, A; Sharif, M; Meigouni, M; Mahmoudi, F Baba; Rafiei, A; Gholami, Sh; Khalilian, A; Gohardehi, Sh; Mirabi, A M
In this study 142 stool samples (64 HIV+/AIDS patients and 78 non-HIV infected individuals) collected from Mazandaran province and screened for intestinal parasites, using direct wet mont, formalin-ether sedimentation concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen and modified trichrome techniques. Each person in this study was examined for CD4+ counts. Intestinal parasites were found in 11/64 (17.2%) of patients in HIV+/AIDS group and in 14/78 (17.9%) of controls. Prevalence of parasites detected in HIV+/AIDS individuals was as follow: Cryptosporidium sp. 9.4%, Giardia lamblia 3.1%, Entamoeba coli 1.6%, E. histolytica 1.6% and Chilomastix mesnili 1.6%. Prevalence of parasites in controls was as follow: Trichostrongylus sp. 6.4%, G. lamblia 3.8%, Cryptosporidium sp. 2.5%, E. coli 2.5%, E. histolytica 1.2%, Hookworms 1.2%. The mean of CD4+ counts in HIV-positive group (430 cells microL(-1)) was remarkedly less than controls (871 cells microL(-1)) (p = 0.001). As patients usually belong to poor socio-economic backgrounds and they can hardly afford treatment, therefore, it is suggested screening and free treatment of intestinal parasites in these individuals should be taken by health centers to prevent the occurrence of these diseases in HIV+/AIDS patients, as often the disease may take a fulminant form.
Glynda F. Pariñas
Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.
Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and preparation. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, culture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 bakeries and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formaldehyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp.Results: Ninety-six (11.9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health experts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.
Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.
Bragagnoli, Gerson; Silva, Maria Teresa Nascimento
Association between Ascaris lumbricoides infection and asthma is a controversial subject that has been studied by several authors based on the hygiene theory. This work contributes to better understanding this issue. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,004 children from a neighborhood of low socioeconomic status in Campina Grande, Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. Asthma was diagnosed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Intestinal parasitosis was diagnosed by parasitological examination (the Ritchie technique), and parasite load determined by the Kato-Katz technique. The statistical analysis was descriptive, and hypotheses were tested according to odds ratios. A total of 260 children were infected with A. lumbricoides, and 233 had asthma. Light parasite loads were significantly associated with asthma (wheezing more than three times per year); p = 0.003, OR = 0.41(IC 0.22 - 0.75), while the heavy parasite loads were not; p = 0.002, OR = 2.37(IC 1.35 - 4.18). Similar results were observed in almost all the symptoms of asthma. No association was found with maternal educational level. In children living in urban areas of low socioeconomic status, a light parasite load of A. lumbricoides is a protective factor against asthma and its symptoms. Meanwhile, heavy parasite load is a risk factor and contributes to the high prevalence of asthma and its symptoms among these children.
Krogsgaard, Laura Rindom; Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune
with asymptomatic controls would support such a mechanism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these parasites in IBS subjects (cases) and controls and to identify risk factors associated with parasite carriage. METHODS: We performed a population-based, case-control study of an adult population from an internet...... percentage of controls carried more than 1 species of parasite (16% of controls vs 8% of cases; P = .05). D fragilis infection was associated with having children 5 to 18 years old in the household and Blastocystis infection was associated with high income (≥600,000 Danish Kroner/y, approximately $100,000 US...
Breivika, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences,. Alemaya .... quantity, time, and procedure of collection. ... J.Health Dev. 2005;19(2). Table 1: Prevalence of intestinal helminths among Babile town schoolchildren, Eastern. Ethiopia, 2001. Parasite species. Males.
Klementowicz, Joanna E; Travis, Mark A; Grencis, Richard K
Infection with soil-transmitted gastrointestinal parasites, such as Trichuris trichiura, affects more than a billion people worldwide, causing significant morbidity and health problems especially in poverty-stricken developing countries. Despite extensive research, the role of the immune system in triggering parasite expulsion is incompletely understood which hinders the development of anti-parasite therapies. Trichuris muris infection in mice serves as a useful model of T. trichiura infection in humans and has proven to be an invaluable tool in increasing our understanding of the role of the immune system in promoting either susceptibility or resistance to infection. The old paradigm of a susceptibility-associated Th1 versus a resistance-associated Th2-type response has been supplemented in recent years with cell populations such as novel innate lymphoid cells, basophils, dendritic cells and regulatory T cells proposed to play an active role in responses to T. muris infection. Moreover, new immune-controlled mechanisms of expulsion, such as increased epithelial cell turnover and mucin secretion, have been described in recent years increasing the number of possible targets for anti-parasite therapies. In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of experimental work conducted on the T. muris infection model, focusing on important findings and the most recent reports on the role of the immune system in parasite expulsion.
Mischler, John; Johnson, Pieter T J; McKenzie, Valerie J; Townsend, Alan R
Despite growing evidence that parasites often alter nutrient flows through their hosts and can comprise a substantial amount of biomass in many systems, whether endemic parasites influence ecosystem nutrient cycling, and which nutrient pathways may be important, remains conjectural. A framework to evaluate how endemic parasites alter nutrient cycling across varied ecosystems requires an understanding of the following: (i) parasite effects on host nutrient excretion; (ii) ecosystem nutrient limitation; (iii) effects of parasite abundance, host density, host functional role and host excretion rate on nutrient flows; and (iv) how this infection-induced nutrient flux compares to other pools and fluxes. Pathogens that significantly increase the availability of a limiting nutrient within an ecosystem should produce a measurable ecosystem-scale response. Here, we combined field-derived estimates of trematode parasite infections in aquatic snails with measurements of snail excretion and tissue stoichiometry to show that parasites are capable of altering nutrient excretion in their intermediate host snails (dominant grazers). We integrated laboratory measurements of host nitrogen excretion with field-based estimates of infection in an ecosystem model and compared these fluxes to other pools and fluxes of nitrogen as measured in the field. Eighteen nitrogen-limited ponds were examined to determine whether infection had a measurable effect on ecosystem-scale nitrogen cycling. Because of their low nitrogen content and high demand for host carbon, parasites accelerated the rate at which infected hosts excreted nitrogen to the water column in a dose-response manner, thereby shifting nutrient stoichiometry and availability at the ecosystem scale. Infection-enhanced fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen were similar to other commonly important environmental sources of bioavailable nitrogen to the system. Additional field measurements within nitrogen-limited ponds indicated that
Monge, R; Chinchilla, M; Reyes, L
In Costa Rica, a total of 640 samples from eight different vegetables used for raw consumption, were analyzed for the presence of intestinal parasites and fecal coliforms. Eighty samples of each vegetable were analyzed, forty during the dry season and forty in the rainy. A greater, but unsignificant (p > 0.05) level of fecal coliforms was found during the dry season. Levels of Escherichia coli, were higher (p vegetables. The greater percentage of positive samples was found during the dry season, although these relation was only corroborated (p parasites and fecal coliforms.
Objectives: This was a cross-sectional study to determine the sero prevalence of serum antibodies to three parasitic infections namely Entamoeba histolytica, Schistosoma sp. and Toxoplasma gondii, which are opportunistic infections among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: One thousand and eighty patients that attended three ...
Sarner, Liat; Fakoya, Ade O; Tawana, Cheryl; Allen, Elizabeth; Copas, Andrew J; Chiodini, Peter L; Fenton, Kevin A
The presence of asymptomatic eosinophilia in HIV patients has been demonstrated to have a wide variety of causes. Untreated parasitic infections in immunocompromised individuals can have potentially serious consequences. The utility of screening for parasitic infections in immigrant HIV-positive Africans with eosinophilia was investigated in a UK-based HIV clinic. HIV-positive African patients with eosinophilia were matched with HIV-positive African controls without eosinophilia. More than half of African HIV patients with eosinophilia had positive parasitic serology, and were significantly more likely to have positive serology compared with African HIV patients without eosinophilia. This study shows that asymptomatic eosinophilia in HIV-1-infected Africans is strongly suggestive of underlying parasitic infection. Individuals with eosinophilia should thus be screened for parasitic infections according to the infections prevalent in the countries they have lived in or visited for substantial periods of time.
Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Greenwood, Spencer J; McClure, J Trenton; Conboy, Gary; O'Handley, Ryan; Barkema, Herman W
The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites was determined in dogs Intestinal parasites isolated included G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Toxocara canis, Isospora spp. and Uncinaria stenocephala. To estimate the zoonotic risk associated with these infections, genotypes of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were determined using 16S rRNA and Hsp70 gene sequencing, respectively. Dogs from the pet store had the highest prevalence of intestinal parasites (78%, 95% CI: 68-88%), followed by the private veterinary clinics (49%, 95% CI: 37-60%), and the local animal shelter (34%, 95% CI: 22-46%). The majority G. duodenalis belonged to host-adapted assemblages D (47%, 95% CI: 31-64%) and C (26%, 95% CI: 13-43%), respectively. Zoonotic assemblages A and B were isolated alone or in mixed infections from 16% (95% CI: 6-31%) of G. duodenalis-positive dogs. All Cryptosporidium spp. were the host-adapted C. canis. While host-adapted, non-zoonotic G. duodenalis genotypes were more common, the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A and B, T. canis, and U. stenocephala suggests that these dogs may present a zoonotic risk. The zoonotic risk from Cryptosporidium-infected dogs was minimal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mutapi, Francisca; Billingsley, Peter F; Secor, W Evan
Since the advent of techniques for the expression of recombinant peptide antigens, the availability of human vaccines for parasitic diseases has been 'imminent'. Yet vaccines based on recombinant proteins are still largely aspirations, not realities. It is now apparent that vaccine development needs additional knowledge about host protective immune response(s), antigen characteristics, and the delivery required to induce those responses. The most successful immune protection against parasites has been generated by infection and treatment, the induction of protective immunity by truncating the course of an infection with drug treatment. Here, we consider the characteristics of an effective, protective anti-parasite vaccine and propose a conceptual framework to aid parasite vaccine development using malaria and schistosomiasis as examples. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Aim: To know the gastrointestinal parasitic infections in cattle of Meghalaya, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 676 faecal samples of cattle were collected for a period of two years from different organized cattle farms of Meghalaya for detection of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, using standard techniques. Results: Out of 676 faecal samples examined, 191 (28.25% faecal samples were found positive for gastrointestinal parasitic infections. The eggs of Strongyle spp. were found predominant (65.96 % followed by Strongyloides spp. (25.13%, Eimeria spp. (17.80%, Trichuris spp. (13.08%, Moniezia spp. (10.47% and Nematodirus spp.(2.61%. The Nematodirrus spp. was identified as Nematodirus helvetianus, a first report of its kind from cattle of North-Eastern Region of India, particularly from the state Meghalaya. The eggs per gram of faeces in case of nematode parasites were ranged between 50 to 4000 and in case of coccidian infections the range of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG was between 50 to 1400. Conclusion: Cattle maintained in organized cattle farms of Meghalaya suffers from GI parasitic infections throughout the year. It is highest during rainy season followed by cool, cold and hot season. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 109-112
Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada. Granada, España. Biólogo microbiólogo.; Rosales, María J.; Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada. Granada, España. Biólogo microbiólogo.; Valdez, Renzo A; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo; Vargas-Vásquez, Franklin; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo; Córdova, Ofelia; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo
We report the detection of different intestinal parasites, protozoan and helminthes, in samples of water from ditches and wells (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), as well as in raw and cooked foods (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) collected in several districts of the province of Trujillo, Pe...
Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali
Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic
protozoa in Toledo district, southern Beli ze . . . 18 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris Lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...selected by the forward stepwise methods. . . 20 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...are listed) .................•................. 47 Summary of risk factors for being positive for Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Data from contingency
... of 78.57% and 78.12% were also recorded for inmates who were drinking water from the wells and streams respectively. Infection rates of 69.82% and 62.50% were equally observed among inmates that were using pit latrines and water cistern toilets respectively. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol.
trichiura infections. Conclusion: Prevalence of total, single and multiple infections showed a downward trend when compared to the previous studies with Ascaris lumbricoides persisting with the highest prevalence. Keywords: Intestinal worms, infections, school children, Nairobi City East African Journal of Public Health Vol.
Full Text Available The southern three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes matacus (Desmarest, 1804 is distributed from eastern Bolivia, south-west Brazil, the Gran Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina, and lives in areas with dry vegetation. This armadillo is one of the most frequently consumed species by people in this area. The objective of this work was test for zoonotic species among helminths in 12 intestinal tracts of T. matacus in a locality from the Argentinean Chaco (Chamical, La Rioja province. The parasites were studied with conventional parasite morphology and morphometrics, and prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance were calculated for each species encountered. In the small intestine, seven species of nematodes and two species of cestodes were identified. In the large intestine, two species of nematodes were recorded. We did not find zoonotic species but have added new host records. This study in the Chaco region thus contributes to growing knowledge of the parasite fauna associated with armadillo species in this region.
Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea
Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.
W. Patrick Carney
Full Text Available Survey parasit darah dan usus telah diselenggarakan di Kecamatan Sukomenanti, Kabupaten Pasaman, Sumatra Barat. Bahan pemeriksaan berasal dari 168 penduduk lakidaki dan 196 wanita umur antara 2-87 tahun. Di Sumatra Barat cacing yang umumnya terdapat ialah pertama Ascaris lumbricoides, kedua cacing tambang dan ketiga Trichuris trichiura. Survey didaerah Boyolali dan Kresek, Jawa, menemukan lebih banyak T. trichiura daripada cacing tambang. Di daerah Yogyakarta T. trichiura menduduki tempat yang pertama. Angka infeksi yang rendah untuk desa Pasir Tampang (11 percent dan Tongar (3 percent adalah tidak umum untuk Indonesia, tetapi keadaan demikian juga dilaporkan di lembah Lindu dan Napu, Sulawesi Tengah. Enterobius vermicularis terdapat hanya pada 2 per cent diantara penduduk yang diperiksa, sesuai dengan keadaan di daerah2 lain di Indonesia. Species dari cacing tambang pada survey ini belum dapat ditentukan. Infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides terdapat lebih banyak pada penduduk golongan muda, sesuai dengan hasil autopsi oleh Liedan Tan di Jakarta. Di Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Barat infeksi A. lumbricoides tampak merata pada semua umur. Entamoeba coli selalu terdapat pada survey di desa2 di pulau Jawa. Tetapi, infeksi E. histolytica (24 percent adalah berlainan dengan keadaan di Kresek, Boyolali dan Yogyakarta yang menunjukkan ■ infeksi 12 per cent atau kurang. Infeksi malaria di Sukomenanti adalah sangat rendah sebagaimana terdapat di Kresek dan Yogyakarta. Keadaan demikian sangat berlainan dengan daerah Margolimbo di Sulawesi Selatan dimana angka dnfeksi malarianya tinggi.
Full Text Available Aim: Intestinal parasites are one of the most common problems in sheep production systems. However, the strategies used to eliminate these parasites have not yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of five anthelmintics (with different active ingredients on the parasite load in sheep. Materials and Methods: In this study, 107 Rambouillet breed sheep were randomly assigned to five groups. Next, fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and sent to the laboratory for analysis. We then dewormed each group of sheep using different anthelmintic products: Ivermectin 1%/clorsulon 10%, levamisole 12%, closantel sodium 5%, ivermectin 10%, and closantel 5%/albendazole 3.75% with a dosage corresponding to each sheep. At 15 days post-treatment, we took fecal samples and performed a coproparasitoscopic study, using the Faust flotation technique to assess the presence or absence of parasite eggs and the McMaster technique to quantify eggs. Results: Ivermectin/clorsulon was more effective in eliminating parasites than other anthelmintics used, especially in Haemonchus spp. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using ivermectin/clorsulon decreases the number of eggs in feces and is one alternative in controlling parasites in sheep, leading to a reduction in the incidence of health problems, and consequently, improved productivity.
Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending Federal ...
ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a global health burden causing clinical morbidity. Parasitic protozoa and helminthes are responsible for some of the most devastating and prevalent diseases of human. The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients attending ...
Maqbool, I; Wani, Z A; Shahardar, R A; Allaie, I M; Shah, M M
Domestic animals are susceptible to a large number of parasitic diseases, which lead to severe economic losses to livestock industry. So, it is necessary to control parasitic infections in these animals. Control of these helminths is undertaken mostly by anthelmintics, but because of their widespread use there is development of resistance across the globe. However, total dependence on a single method of control has proved to be non-sustainable and cost ineffective in the long term. A combination of treatment and management is necessary to control parasitism so that it will not cause further economic losses to producer as well as to livestock industry. To become practically and ecologically sustainable, parasitic control schemes need to be based on integrated parasite management.
Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo
Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.
Van Meulder, F; Ratman, D; Van Coppernolle, S; Borloo, J; Li, R W; Chiers, K; Van den Broeck, W; De Bosscher, K; Claerebout, E; Geldhof, P
Recently we reported the successful vaccination of calves against Cooperia oncophora with a double domain activation-associated secreted protein, purified from the excretory-secretory material of adult stage parasites. In an attempt to elucidate the immune mechanisms involved in protection, the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses following vaccination and infection were compared with non-vaccinated control animals. Antigen-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgA levels were significantly increased in sera of vaccinated animals post vaccination, whereas no effect was observed for IgM. Antigen-specific intestinal IgG1 levels were significantly increased in the vaccinated animals, whereas no differences were observed for antigen-specific IgA, IgM and IgG2 levels. Upon re-stimulation in vitro with the vaccine antigen, a significant proliferation of both αβ- and γδ-T cells, and B cells, collected from mesenteric lymph nodes, was only observed in vaccinated animals. RNA-seq analysis of intestinal tissue yielded a list of 67 genes that were differentially expressed in vaccinated animals following challenge infection, amongst which were several cell adhesion molecules, lectins and glycosyl transferases. A correlation analysis between all immunological and parasitological parameters indicated that intestinal anti-double domain activation-associated secreted protein IgG1 levels correlated negatively with cumulative faecal egg counts and positively with the proportion of L4s and L5s. The proportion of immature stages was also positively correlated with the proliferation of αβ T cells. Worm length was negatively correlated with the transcript levels of several lectins and cell adhesion molecules. Overall, the results indicate that intramuscular administration of the vaccine resulted in an immune memory response particularly characterised by increased antigen-specific IgG1 levels in the intestinal mucosa. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by
In order of abundance of the parasites, Ascaris suum occurred more (66.56%) followed by Trichuris suis (9.84%) and Eimeria sp (1.64%). With respect to breed, the Large white 183(91.04%) pigs were found to harbour more of parasites with the highest number of infection than the mixed breed, 55(52.88%). Of the 140 male ...
U. E. Confalonieri
Full Text Available The findings of intestinal helminths and protozoans parasites from the Yanomâmi indians of the Roraima State in Brazil are reported. The fecal samples were collected before these communities started a permanent contact with non-indians. Comments are made on the possible ecological and evolutionary factors responsible for the patterns of parasitism observed.
Cruz, Alvaro A; Cooper, Philip J; Figueiredo, Camila A; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L
Allergic diseases are on the increase globally in parallel with a decrease in parasitic infection. The inverse association between parasitic infections and allergy at an ecological level suggests a causal association. Studies in human subjects have generated a large knowledge base on the complexity of the interrelationship between parasitic infection and allergy. There is evidence for causal links, but the data from animal models are the most compelling: despite the strong type 2 immune responses they induce, helminth infections can suppress allergy through regulatory pathways. Conversely, many helminths can cause allergic-type inflammation, including symptoms of "classical" allergic disease. From an evolutionary perspective, subjects with an effective immune response against helminths can be more susceptible to allergy. This narrative review aims to inform readers of the most relevant up-to-date evidence on the relationship between parasites and allergy. Experiments in animal models have demonstrated the potential benefits of helminth infection or administration of helminth-derived molecules on chronic inflammatory diseases, but thus far, clinical trials in human subjects have not demonstrated unequivocal clinical benefits. Nevertheless, there is sufficiently strong evidence to support continued investigation of the potential benefits of helminth-derived therapies for the prevention or treatment of allergic and other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fthenakis, G C; Mavrogianni, V S; Gallidis, E; Papadopoulos, E
This review article summarises the many reports in the literature, confirming that, in sheep, parasitic infections can adversely affect reproductive efficiency; examples, which refer to all parts of the reproductive cycle of sheep, are as follows: trichostrongylosis in ewe-lambs (which can lead to delayed attainment of puberty), myiosis of the prepuce (which can cause impediment of mating), chorioptic mange or trypanosomosis in rams (which can lead to testicular degeneration or azoospermia, respectively), trypanosomosis or sarcoptic mange in pre-conceptual ewes (which can lead to poor conception rates or reduced number of ovulations, respectively), toxoplasmosis or neosporosis in pregnant ewes (which are causes of abortion), trichostrongylosis or trematode infections in lactating ewes (which can cause reduction of milk yield and can be a risk factor for mastitis, respectively), cryptosporidiosis in newborn lambs (which can be a cause of deaths), coccidiosis in growing pre-weaned lambs (which can cause suboptimal growth rate). In other cases, the reproductive status of the animal can influence the parasitic infection; examples are as follows: the increase in faecal parasitic output during the peri-parturient period (as a consequence of the peri-parturient relaxation of immunity), the heavier trichostrongylid infections of twin lambs compared to lambs from single parities (as a consequence of developmental origin issues in twin lambs). All the above examples support the idea of presence of interactions between parasitic infections and reproductive efficiency in sheep. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hayes, Kelly S; Cliffe, Laura J; Bancroft, Alison J; Forman, Simon P; Thompson, Seona; Booth, Cath; Grencis, Richard K
Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.
Kelly S Hayes
Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.
Sergio Aurelio Zanzani