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Sample records for intestinal parasitic infections

  1. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  2. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

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    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  3. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  5. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  6. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  7. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections and factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors established to be independently associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infection were: age 11-15 years P<0.001, use of plain water for hand washing P<0.05, eating food without spoon P<0.05, consuming raw vegetables P<0.001, untrimmed finger nails P<0.001 and source of drinking water [river ...

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient's level of immunity. The most ..... Conflict of interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  9. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

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    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  12. Epidemiological assessment of intestinal parasitic infections in dogs at animal shelter in Veracruz, Mexico

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    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in the dogs studied. This suggests that the environment is highly contaminated with intestinal parasites. Preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken against infection with intestinal parasites in dogs in this region.

  13. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  14. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Belay, Tariku

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Both urban and rural inhabitants are vulnerable to infection with intestinal parasites in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among residents of Jimma Town, seven years after high prevalence was reported. Results Four hundred and thirty four residents of Jimma Town were included ...

  15. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Badparva, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azami, Mehdi; Badparva, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren’t any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds’ species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections ...

  16. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megbaru Alemu; Habtamu Bedemo; Gessessew Bugssa; Sena Bayissa; Kiros Tedla

    2015-01-01

    Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total ...

  17. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya

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    Kabiru Ephantus W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

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    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  19. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

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    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods: Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results: Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such...

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among People in Baghmalek During 2013 ‒ 2014

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    Khoshnood

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections are one of major health problems, especially in developing countries. Several factors, such as geographical location and socioeconomic conditions, are responsible for variations in the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Baghmalek is an area in Khuzestan, a western province of Iran. This area has a mild climate and is a touristic region of the province. Objectives The aim of our study was to describe the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in Baghmalek city, southwest of Iran. Patients and Methods The study was carried out from October 2013 to October 2014. A total of 8469 human stool samples were examined by microscopy methods. Separation of samples, based on age, sex and season was done and data were analyzed with the SPSS software. Results Totally, 1131 (13.35% samples were positive for intestinal parasites. It was found that prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was higher in males than in females. The greatest prevalence (45% was in the group of the under 15 years old and the prevalence rate of intestinal parasites infection was higher in summer (18.53% compared to seasons (P < 0.05. Conclusions Because the intestinal parasitic infections are a health concern in areas with poor nutritional and socioeconomic status, intervention programs, including health education and environmental sanitation, are required.

  1. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran.

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    Badparva, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azami, Mehdi; Badparva, Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren't any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds' species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether concentration technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Culture in RPMI 1640 medium, sporulation with potassium dichromate and Trichrome and Giemsa staining. Out of 451 birds' species, 157 (34.8 %), were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. We identified two nematode, two cestoda species and five protozoan parasites species. No trematodes were found in the samples studied. The parasites identified among birds involved Raillietina spp. (4.2 %) and Eimeria spp. (7.1 %) were the most common helminthes and protozoa respectively. From total of birds study, 12 (2.7 %) and 6 (1.3 %) have two and three mixed infections respectively. Intestinal parasitic infections are common in birds in west Iran. The future studies are needed in order to determine to which extent the infections influence mortality and performance of the birds.

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

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    Davoud Balarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

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    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  4. Implications of malaria and intestinal parasitic co-infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria and gastrointestinal parasitic infections in out-patients of Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri Specialist Hospital, was studied between the months of January and June 2004. A total of 1,200 patients made up of preschool children (400), school children (400) and adults (400) were enlisted for the ...

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

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    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  6. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-valueanemia, parasitic infection, and protozoa infection (p-value>0.05).

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

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    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  8. Poliovirus and other enteroviruses in children infected with intestinal parasites in Nigeria.

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    Adekolujo, Daniel R; Olayinka, Suraj O; Adeniji, Johnson A; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2015-10-29

    Poliovirus, an enterovirus, still persists in Nigeria despite the global efforts tailored towards its eradication. This study aimed to assess the impacts of poliovirus and other enteroviruses on the susceptibility of individuals to intestinal parasite infections. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of intestinal parasites was conducted on two-sample stool specimens of 717 Nigerian children (between 1 and 19 years of age) whose poliovirus/other enteroviruses infection status had been determined. The overall prevalence of Sabin poliovirus and other related enteroviruses infections were 6.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly higher than that of other intestinal parasites (p parasitic infection (OR = 11.7, CI = 9.2-15.0). While the prevalence of all species of parasites except S. mansoni showed no significant variations in children with Sabin poliovirus (p > 0.05), the prevalence of hookworms and Taenia spp. was significantly higher in children with other enteroviral infections (p parasites is an indication of possible association of the parasites in a more poliovirus-endemic population. A combined intervention approach for the two infections is advocated.

  9. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

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    Barda, Beatrice Divina; Rinaldi, Laura; Ianniello, Davide; Zepherine, Henry; Salvo, Fulvio; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  10. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  11. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Belay, Tariku

    2014-08-07

    Intestinal parasites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Both urban and rural inhabitants are vulnerable to infection with intestinal parasites in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among residents of Jimma Town, seven years after high prevalence was reported. Four hundred and thirty four residents of Jimma Town were included in this study. By the cross-sectional survey, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 209 (48.2%). Nine species of intestinal parasites were isolated, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura being the most predominant. Residence in Hermata Mentina kebele, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.0, 95% CI, 1.71-5.39), age less than 10 years (AOR, 3.7, 95% CI, 1.33-10.36), illiteracy (AOR, 3.2, 95% CI, 1.64-6.19), estimated monthly family income of less than 500 Ethiopian Birr (AOR, 2.9, 95% CI, 1.32-4.90) and irregular washing hands before meal (AOR, 5.3, 95% CI, 1.36-21.07) were predictors of IPI in this study. The retrospective study revealed a significant decrease (P = 0.037) in the proportion of patients infected with intestinal parasites out of those who requested stool examination over the six-year period. This study confirms that IPIs are still common among residents of Jimma Town. Nearly half of the study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Public health interventions targeting prevention of IPIs should be strengthened in Jimma Town.

  12. The prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, faecal specimens from 96 HIV-infected patients were submitted to microbiological analyses, including microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for protozoa and e...

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafalla, Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman; Almuhairi, Shaikha Ali Salem Obaid; AlHosani, Mohamed Hassan Jasim; Mohamed, Mira Yousif; Alkous, Mariam Ibrahim Ahmed; AlAzzawi, Mousa Abdelsattar; Abakar, Adam Dawoud; Nour, Bakri Yousif Mohamed; Hasan, Hayder; AbuOdeh, Ra'ed Omar; ElBakri, Ali

    2017-12-21

    Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347) of the studied samples (single and multiple infections). Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5%) were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%), respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1%) of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%), Hookworm (34; 4.8%), Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%), Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%), Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%), Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%), and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%), respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002) with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths). A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029). Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples), although one individual (0.14%) had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  15. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Nyantekyi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  16. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  17. Cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasitic infections in patients with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Nadham K; Ali, Naeel H

    2004-09-01

    To consider the relationship of the parasitic infections including cryptosporidium with chronic diarrhea. Also the effect of chronic disease as pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and nosocomial infection on the occurrence rate of parasites in cases of chronic diarrhea. Stool samples were collected from 205 patients in teaching, general, child and maternity hospitals in Basrah, Iraq, suffering from chronic diarrhea during 2000. Out of these patients, there were 40 patients with pulmonary TB and 50 inpatients with nosocomial infection. Also 175 apparently healthy individuals who have no episodes of diarrhea for at least 2-months were served as a control group. Direct smear method and then formalin ether sedimentation method were carried out for stool samples to detect intestinal parasites. Fecal smears were prepared from the sediment and stained by the modified Ziehl Neelsen stain for the recovery of red pink oocysts of cryptosporidium. Out of the 205 examined patients, cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be excreted in 20 (9.7%) patients in comparing to 1.1% of the control group. The difference is statistically significant. There were 109 (53.2%) patients found to be positive for intestinal parasitic infections compared to 26 (14.8%) of the control group. The difference is also statistically significant. Out of the 40 TB patients, 2 (5%) were found to excrete cryptosporidium oocysts and also 27 (67.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites. In addition, there were 4 (8%) excreting cryptosporidium oocysts and 23 (46%) infecting by intestinal parasites among the in patients with nosocomial infection. Both acid and non-acid fast parasites should be considered in the differential diagnosis of undiagnosed chronic diarrhea especially among patients with pulmonary TB or nosocomial infection.

  18. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

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    Wegayehu Teklu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9% were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%, followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%, hookworm 42(4.9%, Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%, Taenia species 18(2.1%, Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9% and highland dwellers (42.3% (P = 0.185. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8% than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481. No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228 but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the

  1. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  2. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected adult patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea. Objective: The objective of ...

  4. Spatio-temporal analysis of small-area intestinal parasites infections in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei, F. B.; Stein, A.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites infection is a major public health burden in low and middle-income countries. In Ghana, it is amongst the top five morbidities. In order to optimize scarce resources, reliable information on its geographical distribution is needed to guide periodic mass drug administration to

  5. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  6. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

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    Amare Bemnet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age. Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%. There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80 and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20, respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8. The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not

  7. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Primary School Children in Bushehr, Iran

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    Barazesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasite Infection among Schoolchildren in the Peripheral Highland Regions of Huanuco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byungjin; Kim, Bongyoung

    2017-10-01

    Schoolchildren in developing countries are at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors of intestinal parasite infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of Peru. A volunteer team from the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducted a campaign for parasite eradication called "Chao parasitos" at five schools in the peripheral highland regions of Huanuco in October 2013. The study collected questionnaires and stool samples from children of participating schools. Entamoeba coli , Iodamoeba buschii , and Chilomastix mesnil were classified as nonpathogenic parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the students was 100% (185/185). Among them, 25.9% (48/185) were infected only with nonpathogenic parasites whereas 74.1% (137/185) were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly detected (37.3%, 69/185), followed by Giardia lamblia (15.1%, 28/185) and I. buschii (11.9%, 22/185). Among lifestyle practices associated with parasitic infection, the rate of washing hands before meals was significantly lower in the students with pathogenic parasites compared to those with nonpathogenic parasites (77.4%, 106/137 vs. 93.8%, 45/48, p = 0.025). The prevalence of intestinal parasite was 100%. Both personal hygiene and water supply facilities are required to eradicate parasite infection in rural areas of Peru.

  9. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  10. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

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    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  11. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  12. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  13. Intestinal parasite infection in children from primary school in Florianopolis (SC – environmental and health education

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    José Roberto S. A. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Moreover, there is little information on maternal awareness about intestinal parasitosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among under-five children, and assess maternal awareness about it in Shesha .... local language using open-ended questions by data the collectors selected from the study ...

  15. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  16. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

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    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.

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    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that parasitic infections are still a serious public health problem

  18. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants

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    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. Methods/Principal findings The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that

  19. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

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    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren, Northern Thailand

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    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil

  1. Infection with HIV and intestinal parasites among street dwellers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Moges, Feleke; Kebede, Yenew; Kassu, Afework; Degu, Getu; Tiruneh, Moges; Gedefaw, Molla

    2006-12-01

    In Ethiopia human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health and socioeconomic problem. Sex workers, youth, and mobile populations all show increasing prevalence of HIV. However, there is currently no information about the seroprevalence of HIV and the knowledge of HIV among street dwellers in the country. To fill this gap, 404 street dwellers residing in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic data, factors that prompted the subjects to become street dwellers, and their knowledge about HIV were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples for diagnosis of intestinal parasites and venous blood for HIV antibody testing were collected and processed following standard procedures. Poverty-associated movement to urban areas in search of work was reported as a major factor that forced them to live in the streets, followed by divorce, family death, and addiction and peer pressure. One or more intestinal parasites were found in 67.6% of the street dwellers. Multiple parasitic infections were detected in 27.7%. The prevalence of HIV in the street dwellers was 6.9%. Fifty-nine (16.6%) participants responded that HIV can be transmitted by eating food together. Seventy-three (18%) believed an infected needle cannot transmit HIV, while 51 (12.6%) said HIV can be transmitted by hand shaking. One hundred ninety-two (47.5%) responded that antiretroviral therapy will not prolong the life of HIV-infected individuals. In summary, the prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasitic infection was quite high among street dwellers in Gondar. Therefore, strategies to control HIV and other infectious diseases should include this group, and regular mass deworming may help to reduce the burden of infection.

  2. Intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama, Ethiopia

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    Getachew Belay

    2011-05-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama town,Ethiopia. Method: A total of 358 children from four primary schools in Adama town were included for stool examination, weight for age, height for age, weight for height and socio-economic status of the family. Results: The result of stool examinations showed that 127 (35.5% of the study subjects were infected by one or more parasite. The most frequent parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (12.6% and Hymenolopis nana (8.9%. The rate of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly associated with sex, age or socio-economic factors and nutrition (P > 0.05. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 21.2%. Those children whose families had a monthly income of less than 200 ETB (Ethiopian birr were highly affected by malnutrition (P < 0.05,but family education was not identified as a factor for malnutrition amongst schoolchildren. Conclusion: The prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and H. nana could be of public health importance and calls for appropriate control strategies, and the high prevalence of malnutrition amongst children from poor families requires intervention.

  3. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria.

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    Opara, Kenneth N; Udoidung, Nsima I; Opara, Dominic C; Okon, Okpok E; Edosomwan, Evelyn U; Udoh, Anietie J

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (Prural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (Pmalnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  4. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Haileeyesus; Wegayehu, Teklu; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART) and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43%) of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through improvement of immune status of the patients may have contributed to controlling diarrhoea-causing parasites in HIV positive patients.

  5. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  6. Molecular testing for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of intestinal parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jaco J; Stensvold, C Rune

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, nucleic acid-based methods have been developed for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. Advantages of nucleic acid-based methods are numerous; typically, these include increased sensitivity and specificity and simpler standardization of diagnostic procedures. DNA samples can also be stored and used for genetic characterization and molecular typing, providing a valuable tool for surveys and surveillance studies. A variety of technologies have been applied, and some specific and general pitfalls and limitations have been identified. This review provides an overview of the multitude of methods that have been reported for the detection of intestinal parasites and offers some guidance in applying these methods in the clinical laboratory and in epidemiological studies.

  7. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV infected patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment at Jimma Health Center, Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynudin, A; Hemalatha, K; Kannan, S

    2013-02-01

    One of the major health problems among HIV sero-positive patients are superimposed infections due to the deficient immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasitic (IP) infections, which are also one of the basic health problems in tropical regions, are common in these patients. Infection by opportunistic pathogens, including various forms of intestinal parasites has been the hall mark of HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. To study the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patient samples were diagnosed by examination of single stool specimen which was examined as fresh wet mounts, formal-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Data was obtained from 91 study subjects selected by convenience sampling method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was found to be 39.56%. Eight types of intestinal parasites was identified, the most dominant being, Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.67%, Entamoeba histolytica, 15% and Cryptosporidium parvum 13.33%. The prevalence of opportunistic parasite was 15.38%, the prevalence of non-opportunistic parasite was 20.87% and the prevalence of both opportunistic and non opportunistic was 3.29%. The study indicated that intestinal parasites were still a problem in the study area. Data also showed that among the predisposing factors, habit of hand washing before meal, usage of latrine and duration after treatment was statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections.

  8. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

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    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Persons in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Tchameni, Sandrine Mboula; Nkenfou, Carine Nguefeu; Djataou, Patrice; Simo, Ulrich Florian; Nkoum, Alexandre Benjamin; Estrin, William

    2017-09-01

    The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively. Of 235 participants, 68 (28.9%) were HIV positive, 38 of them on antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 32.3%. Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients. Univariate analysis showed no difference between the prevalence of intestinal parasites among PLHIV and HIV-negative patients ( P = 0.69). ART was not associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Multivariate analysis showed that the quality of water and the personal hygiene were the major risk factors associated to intestinal parasitosis. The level of education was associated with HIV serostatus: the higher the level of education, the lower the risk of being infected with HIV ( P = 0.00). PLHIV and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.

  10. Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

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    Worku, Netsanet; Erko, Berhanu; Torben, Workineh; Belay, Mulugeta; Kasssu, Afework; Fetene, Teshome; Huruy, Kahsay

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, malnutrition is a considerable health problem with prevalence ranges of 4-46%, with 1-10% severely malnourished. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses and identify risk factors of malnutrition in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 322 schoolchildren, of age 6 to 14 years, attending private and government primary schools, in Gonder town, North West Ethiopia. The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height). Epi Info 2000 software was used to evaluate anthropometric results of each individual and formol-ether concentration technique was employed to identify parasites. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting and intestinal parasitoses was 34.8%, 27%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Parasites encountered during the study were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%), Trichuiris trichiura (3.4%), hookworm (4.3%), Giardia lamblia (9%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.1%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Hymenolepis nana (4.7%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), respectively, in single infections. Only two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis was found in multiple infections and none in single infections. The prevalence of multiple parasitoses was 10.9%. Maternal literacy status, sex and age of the child were significantly associated with malnutrition (p intestinal parasitoses in children of the study area.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among students at Dona Berber primary school, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

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    Hailegebriel, Tamirat

    2017-05-23

    Intestinal parasitic infections are still one of the major health concerns in developing countries. Monitoring of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors are essential for intervention strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors among students at Dona Berber primary school, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. School based cross-sectional study was conducted among students at Dona Berber primary school from October 2015 to June 2016. Three hundred fifty nine students were involved in the study by providing stool specimens and detailed personal information. Students were selected by stratified and systematic random sampling method. Fresh stool samples were collected from each student and processed by formal-ether fecal concentration technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and p value intestinal parasites. The rates of single and double parasitic infections among students were 49.6% and 16.2%, respectively. The most prevalent parasite detected in the study was E. histolytica/dispar (24.5%) followed by hookworm (22.8%). Among the different variables assessed in the study, family size of 6 (AOR = 4.90; 95% CI, 2.03-11.83), irregularly shoe wearing habit (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.53-5.32) and unclean finger nail (AOR = 3.68; 95% CI, 1.87-7.26) were independently predict intestinal parasitic infections. Student drinking well water (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI, 2.30-4.86) and unclean finger nail (AOR = 4.42; 95% CI, 2.55-7.65) were strongly associated with E. histolytica/dispar infection. Likewise, irregular shoe wearing habit (AOR = 14.13; 95% CI, 7.06-28.29) was strongly associated with hookworm infections. High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the study participants demands improvement of health education, environmental sanitation and quality of water sources.

  12. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong vi...

  13. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  14. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria

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    Kenneth N. Opara, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Methods:This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA, weight-for-height (WH and weight-for-age (WA Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols.Results:The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7% had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (P<0.001. The prevalence of stunting (HAZ < -2, underweight (WAZ < -2 and wasting (WHZ < -2 for rural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (P<0.05 higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were each significantly (P<0.05 associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Since intestinal parasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  15. Disease severity in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not altered by co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Emebet; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Mulualem; Fikre, Helina; Raynes, John; Tamiru, Aschalew; Mulugeta, Zemenay; Diro, Ermias; Toulza, Frederic; Shkedy, Ziv; Ayele, Tadesse; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI. Data from VL patients was similar to VL patients co-infected with intestinal parasites, suggesting that co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites does not alter disease severity. PMID:28732017

  16. Disease severity in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not altered by co-infection with intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajebe, Fitsumbrhan; Getahun, Mulusew; Adem, Emebet; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Mulualem; Fikre, Helina; Raynes, John; Tamiru, Aschalew; Mulugeta, Zemenay; Diro, Ermias; Toulza, Frederic; Shkedy, Ziv; Ayele, Tadesse; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew; Kropf, Pascale

    2017-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI. Data from VL patients was similar to VL patients co-infected with intestinal parasites, suggesting that co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites does not alter disease severity.

  17. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  18. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Rebecca L; Lander, Alastair G; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L; Mattos, Angela P; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2012-11-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.

  19. Co-infection patterns of intestinal parasites in arboreal primates (proboscis monkeys, Nasalis larvatus in Borneo

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    Annette Klaus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates of South-East Asia remain under-studied concerning parasite epidemiology and co-infection patterns. Simultaneously, efforts in conservation demand knowledge of parasite abundance and biodiversity in threatened species. The Endangered proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, a primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo, was investigated in the present study. Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the greatest threats to bachelor and harem groups of this folivorous colobine. Designed as a follow-up study, prevalence and co-infection status of intestinal parasites from N. larvatus in a protected area in Malaysian Borneo were analyzed from fecal samples using a flotation method. For the first time, the intestinal parasite co-infection patterns were examined using quantitative analyses. Overall, 92.3% of fecal samples (N = 652 were positive for helminth eggs. Five helminth groups were detected: (1 trichurids (82.7% prevalence including Trichuris spp. (82.1% and Anatrichosoma spp. (1.4%, (2 strongyles (58.9% including Trichostrongylus spp. (48.5% and Oesophagostomum/Ternidens spp. (22.8%, (3 Strongyloides fuelleborni (32.7%, (4 Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%, and (5 Enterobius spp. (5.5%. On average, an individual was co-infected with two different groups. Significant positive associations were found for co-infections of trichurids with strongyles and S. fuelleborni as well as S. fuelleborni with A. lumbricoides and strongyles. This study shows a high prevalence of various gastrointestinal helminths with potential transmission pathways primarily related to soil and with zoonotic relevance in wild proboscis monkeys in their remaining natural habitats. Observed positive associations of trichurids with strongyles and Strongyloides spp. may result from the high prevalence of trichurids. Similarly, positive associations between Strongyloides and Ascaris were found, both of which typically occur predominantly in juvenile hosts

  20. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

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    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  1. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Bahir Dar and Risk Factors for Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Birrie, Hailu

    1995-01-01

    A study of intestinal parasites and assessment of transmission factors were made in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Out of 528 children examined by formolether concentration method over 95 % were found to harbour one or more intestinal parasites. Human behaviour and poor sanitary conditions appeared to be responsible for the transmission of geohelminths, faeco-orally transmitted amoebae and water-related schistosome parasites. Health education is suggested to play a vital role in the c...

  2. Co-infection of intestinal parasites and Helicobacter pylori among upper gastrointestinal symptomatic adult patients attending Mekanesalem Hospital, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdurahaman; Tamir, Zemenu; Kasanew, Brhanu; Senbetay, Moges

    2018-02-20

    Intestinal parasites and H. pylori are well-known for their high prevalence worldwide. Thus, the objective of this study waste assess risk factors and co-infection of intestinal parasites and H. pylori among adult patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 consecutive adult patients from December 10, 2015 to February 30,2016. Stool and venous blood were collected for analysis of Intestinal parasites and H. pylori infection, respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess predictors of co-infection. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Helicobacter pylori IgG and intestinal parasites were detected in 70.25-38.3% of participants, respectively while G. lamblia accounted 22.3%. G. lamblia prevalence was significantly higher among H. pylori infected participants (COR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.46-5.23), but E. hystolytica/dispar infection didn't show significant variation (p = 0.15). H. pylori and intestinal parasites concomitant co-infection was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01-2.56), consumption of river water (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07) and ground/spring water (AOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.97-8.52). Thus, besides H. pylori investigation, upper gastrointestinal symptomatic patients should be screened for G. lamblia infection and other intestinal parasites.

  3. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

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    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  5. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

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    Haileeyesus Adamu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43% of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (<200 cells/µL and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis spp. The two parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. CONCLUSION: HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through

  6. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

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    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  7. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  8. Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-10-29

    The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Aschalew; Anagaw, Belay; Nigussie, Bethel; Silesh, Betrearon; Yirga, Atnad; Alem, Meseret; Endris, Mengistu; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-04-05

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10-12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa. Measures including education on personal

  10. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbae, Cecilia Kathure; Nokes, David James; Mulinge, Erastus; Nyambura, Joyce; Waruru, Anthony; Kariuki, Samuel

    2013-05-27

    The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010-2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p informal settlements' environment. Routine examinations of stool samples and treatment could benefit both the HIV infected and uninfected children in outpatient and inpatient settings.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

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    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  13. burden of intestinal parasites amongst hiv/aids patients attending

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ABSTRACT. Background: Intestinal parasitic infections cause severe diarrhea especially in debilitated subjects with clinical ... Regional Hospital, Entamoeba histolytica and other intestinal parasites represented a common burden. .... Attempt was made to go through all the fields of ..... Control of Intestinal parasite Infections.

  14. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  15. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  16. Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  17. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed KIANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs, their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs was 32.2% (419/1,301. Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6% were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6% presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%, followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%, Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001, contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02, age above 15 years (p = 0.001 and seasons (p = 0.001 were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001 and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04. Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted.

  18. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission...... of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity...... of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two...

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic diseases Parasitosis intestinales, cisticercosis e hidatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botero

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper offers an up to date review of the intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic disease found In Colombia. Their main epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic features are presented, to provide the reader with a current view of their public health Importance, prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las parasitosis intestinales, la cisticercosis y la hidatidosis en Colombia, con una breve descripción de la prevalencia, las características epidemiológicas, los efectos sobre la salud y algunos aspectos de control y tratamiento. Con esta revisión se busca tener información resumida sobre las parasitosis que se encuentran en Colombia y su mayor o menor Importancia en salud pública. TambIén se pretende ofrecer una Idea del nivel de gravedad de estas entidades como causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en este país. 

  20. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Intestinal parasites : associations with intestinal and systemic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavala, Gerardo A; García, Olga P; Camacho, Mariela; Ronquillo, Dolores; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Doak, Colleen; Polman, Katja; Rosado, Jorge L

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Evaluate associations between intestinal parasitic infection with intestinal and systemic inflammatory markers in school-aged children with high rates of obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of CRP, leptin, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured as systemic inflammation markers and

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Children in the Day Care Centers of Gonbad-e Kavus County, North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mesgarian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasite infection is one of the major health problems in the world especially in the developing countries. Objectives: This study was an attempt to examine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the day care centers in Gonbad-e Kavus. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 932 children were recruited from 45 day care centers in Gonbad-e Kavus in Iran, through a survey and their stool samples were examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration and Trichrome staining techniques. Also, scotch tape slides were microscopically analyzed. Data were analyzed using percentage, frequency and Chi-square test using SPSS ver.16. Odds Ratio was used show the effect size of socio-demographic variables on the rate of intestinal parasite infection. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among the children was 26.6%. This study found a significant relationship between the children age, parent education and the place of residency with the rate of intestinal parasite infection (P < 0.05. The children in rural areas were 1.55 times more likely than the children in urban areas to be infected with intestinal parasites (OR = 1.55. Moreover, the results of this study showed that an increase in parent’s education for one level decreased the risk of infection in their children by 6% (OR = 0.94. Also, with a rise in the age of participants for a year, the risk of infection increased by 44% (OR = 1.44. Conclusions: Due to the high rate of intestinal parasite infections among children, parents and child care workers need to learn about the various means by which parasites can be transmitted in day care centers.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and its associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among Yadot primary school children of South Eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Amsalu, Eden

    2014-11-26

    Intestinal parasitic infections are posing significant morbidity worldwide. In Ethiopia, due to poor socio-economic status, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among Yadot primary school children which is found in South-Eastern part of Ethiopia, in the district called Delo-Mena. Institution based cross-sectional study was employed from March to April 2013. In this study, a total of 340 students were selected using simple random sampling, and data on socio-demographic characteristics and factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites as well as stool samples were collected and processed accordingly. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16, and binary and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to measure the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 26.2%. Poly-parasitism was detected in 6.2% of the students. Consistently, students who were infected with single, double, triple and quadruple parasites were 20%, 4.7%, 1.2% and 0.3% respectively. In line with this, the most prevalent parasites were Schistosoma mansoni 12.6%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 5%, Ascaris lumbricoides 4.7%, and Hymenolepis nana 4.4%. Regarding the risk factors for the infections, not knowing why they wash their hands before meal [(AOR=0.20, 95% CI=0.10-0.40), pintestinal parasitic infections. Intestinal parasitic infections were found to be highly prevalent among Yadot primary school children. Hence, health education, improving sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, increasing latrine use, snail control and deworming to the students are crucial.

  5. FACTORS OF RISK TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PUBLIC SHOOLCHILDEN IN BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  6. Factors of risk associated to intestinal parasite infections among public shoolchilden in Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  7. The Risk of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorders Following Acute Infection with Intestinal Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Blitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infectious gastroenteritis (IGE is caused by numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. A history of IGE has been shown in previous studies to increase the risk of developing chronic gastrointestinal disorders and other chronic conditions. As bacteria and viruses represent the majority of pathogen-specific causes of IGE, post-infectious studies have primarily focused on these organisms. The objective of this study was to investigate an association between a history of parasite-associated IGE and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders in a military population.Methods: International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM diagnostic coding data for primary exposures and outcomes were obtained for a retrospective cohort study of active component military personnel from 1998 to 2013. Exposed subjects consisted of individuals with documented infection with one of ten parasitic pathogens. Unexposed subjects were matched to exposed subjects on demographic and operational deployment history parameters. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs were estimated using logistic regression for several chronic disorders previously shown to be associated with a history of IGE.Results: A total of 896 subjects with a parasitic exposure were matched to 3681 unexposed subjects for multivariate regression analysis. Individuals infected with Balantidium coli, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale, and Taenia spp. had higher aOR for development of several chronic gastrointestinal disorders when compared with unexposed subjects after controlling for various covariates.Conclusion: We found that parasite-associated enteric infection increases the risk of development of post-infectious chronic gastrointestinal disorders in a military population. These results require confirmation in similar populations and in the

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Abate, Degu; Mitiku, Habtamu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected...

  9. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Long-Term-Residents and Settled Immigrants in Qatar in the Period 2005 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Doiphode, Sanjay H.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding economy of Qatar in the last two decades has attracted immigrants, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections, and recent analyses have indicated consistently rising trends in the prevalence of some infections. Here, we examined 18,563 hospital records of subjects in Qatar seeking medical assistance for a variety of ailments, combining data from 2009 to 2011 with the earlier dataset from 2005 to 2008 to enable trends to be identified across a 7-year period. We found that 8.6% were infected with one or more species of parasites, however in contrast to the earlier period (2005–2008), in the latter 3 years there were falling trends of prevalence providing some optimism that parasitic infections among the resident immigrants have begun to decline. We identified also geographic regions from which resident workers still maintain a relatively high prevalence of helminth infections despite their long-term residence in Qatar. PMID:23478576

  10. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  11. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso.

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    Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Shrestha, Akina; Grissoum, Tarnagda; Kaboré, Aminata; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-10-18

    Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and a formalin-ether concentration method for the diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Urine samples were examined with a urine filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Water samples from community sources (n = 37), children's households (n = 95) and children's drinking water cups (n = 113) were analysed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to determine factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren. Intestinal parasitic infections were highly prevalent; 84.7 % of the children harboured intestinal protozoa, while helminth infections were diagnosed in 10.7 % of the children. We found significantly lower odds of pathogenic intestinal protozoa infection (Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis) among children from the Plateau Central, compared to the Centre-Ouest region (P parasitic infections in children. Intestinal protozoa but not helminths were highly prevalent among schoolchildren in randomly selected schools in two regions of Burkina Faso. Our findings call for specific public health measures tailored to school-aged children and rural communities in this part of Burkina Faso. It will be interesting to assess the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on the

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in preschoolers from different urban settings in Central-Western Brazil

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    João Gabriel Guimarães Luz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the associated risk factors in children attending preschools located in areas with different socioeconomic and structural features in the city of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2015 and 2016 among four-to-five years old children. Initially, urban neighborhoods with preschools were classified into five risk strata for parasitic infections, which were defined on the basis of socioeconomic and structural variables. Then, one school from each stratum was randomly chosen for data collection. After obtaining the written informed consent from parents or guardians, the children provided stool samples for examination. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians to determine the associated risk factors. Results: Coproparasitological tests were performed on 215 (46.5% preschoolers, and the overall prevalence was 22.8%. The occurrence of such infections increased with the increase in risk stratum of the neighborhood. Protozoa infections, mainly by Entamoeba coli (11.2% and Giardia duodenalis (9.8%, were the most frequent. The consumption of tap water (OR = 3.56, P = 0.002, no washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption (OR = 3.44, P = 0.002, and no hand washing before eating (OR = 2.63, P = 0.004 were associated with these infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among Rondonópolis preschoolers is relevant and associated with precarious hygienic–sanitary behavior, especially in areas with poor socioeconomic and structural conditions.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

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    Hassen Mamo

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods.Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 % samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7% was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.52-4.5. In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06. All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa Robit, north-central Ethiopia.

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    Mamo, Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) particularly soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) and schistosomiasis are among neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) globally. Apart from being associated with anemia, malabsorption and retarded cognitive development these diseases are complicating the clinical picture of more serious infections like HIV, TB and malaria. Renewed and up-to-date information on the epidemiology of IPIs in more vulnerable groups such as irrigated-farm workers and prisoners would significantly contribute towards improving the health condition of such at-risk groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of IPIs among prison inmates and tobacco farm workers in Shewa-Robit, north-central Ethiopia in November 2008. A total of 236 fecal samples were examined microscopically to detect helminths and/or protozoa using direct-smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Overall, 8 intestinal parasite species have been recovered singly or in combinations from 146 (61.8 %) samples. The prevalence in prison population (88/121 = 72.7%) was significantly higher than that in tobacco farm (58/115 = 50.4%). There were no significant differences in the prevalence of IPI by most socio-demographics. Except for hookworm there was no significant difference in parasite prevalence between different age-groups though the frequency of individual parasites slightly varied between the age-groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that inmates were more likely to acquire IPIs than tobacco-farm workers (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-4.5). In addition, participants who did not report past treatment for IPIs were more likely to acquire IPIs than participants who self-reported treatment for IPIs in the past twelve months (OR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.75-6.06). All other socio-demographics were not significantly associated with IPIs in univariate analysis. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the most

  16. Association of enteric parasitic infections with intestinal inflammation and permeability in asymptomatic infants of São Tomé Island.

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    Garzón, Marisol; Pereira-da-Silva, Luis; Seixas, Jorge; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Alves, Marta; Ferreira, Filipa; Reis, Ana

    2017-05-01

    The cumulative effect of repeated asymptomatic enteric infections on intestinal barrier is not fully understood in infants. We aimed to evaluate the association between previous enteric parasitic infections and intestinal inflammation and permeability at 24-months of age, in asymptomatic infants of São Tomé Island. A subset of infants from a birth cohort, with intestinal parasite evaluations in at least four points of assessment, was eligible. Intestinal inflammatory response and permeability were assessed using fecal S100A12 and alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), respectively. The cutoff parasitic infections explained variability of fecal biomarkers, after adjusting for potential confounders. Eighty infants were included. Giardia duodenalis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) were the most frequent parasites. The median (interquartile range) levels were 2.87 μg/g (2.41-3.92) for S100A12 and 165.1 μg/g (66.0-275.6) for A1AT. Weak evidence of association was found between S100A12 levels and G. duodenalis (p = 0.080) and STH infections (p = 0.089), and between A1AT levels and parasitic infection of any etiology (p = 0.089), at 24-months of age. Significant associations between A1AT levels and wasting (p = 0.006) and stunting (p = 0.044) were found. Previous parasitic infections were not associated with fecal biomarkers at 24 months of age. To summarize, previous asymptomatic parasitic infections showed no association with intestinal barrier dysfunction. Notwithstanding, a tendency toward increased levels of the inflammatory biomarker was observed for current G. duodenalis and STH infections, and increased levels of the permeability biomarker were significantly associated with stunting and wasting.

  17. Small Intestinal Infections.

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    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in children under the age of 5 years attending the Debre Birhan referral hospital, North Shoa, Ethiopia.

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    Zemene, Telanesh; Shiferaw, Melashu Balew

    2018-01-22

    Intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major childhood health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, epidemiological data for several localities is limited. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children attending in Debre Birhan referral hospital, which could help to decrease morbidity and mortality in children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in February, 2014. Stool specimens were collected and examined using concentration method. Out of the 247 under-five children participated, 17.4% (95% CI 12.7-22.1%) of the children were infected with at least one or more protozoa parasites (14.2% [95% CI 9.9-18.5%]) and helminthes (3.2% [95% CI 1.0-5.4%]). Giardia lamblia (8.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.7%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%) were the most identified parasites. Parasitic infection was higher in children who had source of drinking water from the river (36.8%), among children from mothers with poor hand washing practice (31.7%), and among children born from illiterate mothers (27.5%). This revealed that intestinal parasites affect the health of under-five children in the setting. Hence, improving environmental hygiene and inadequate water sanitation, and health education for behavioral changes to personal hygiene would be crucial for effective control of the parasite infections.

  19. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz; Gray, Darren J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Gomes, Santina J.; Traub, Rebecca; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%). Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and

  20. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

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    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  1. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  2. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

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    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the population of Central Asia on the example of inhabitants of Eastern Afghanistan

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    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents

  4. School-based prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in rural communities of Sana'a, Yemen.

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    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulsalam M; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Al-Eryani, Samira M; Saif-Ali, Reyadh; Mahdy, Mohammed A K

    2016-11-01

    Yemen is a developing country overwhelmed with a triad of poverty, diseases and social conflicts. Moreover, the majority of its population live in rural communities and suffer from intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). Therefore, the present school-based, cross-sectional survey aimed to detect the prevalence of such infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the rural communities of Bani Alharith, Hamdan and Bani Hushaysh districts of Sana'a, north of Yemen. Socio-demographic data and certain behavioral risk factors as well as stool samples were collected from 1218 schoolchildren from ten randomly schools in the study area. Fresh stool samples were examined for parasites by direct saline and iodine preparations and after concentration with formol-ether technique. The overall prevalence of IPIs was 54.8%, with a higher frequency of protozoal than helminthic infections (37.6 vs. 17.2%, respectively). Parasite species recovered were Entameba histolytica (21.5%), Giardia lamblia (16.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.3%), Hymenolepis nana (5.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.6%), Trichuris trichiura (0.5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Univariate analysis showed that the male gender and illiteracy of fathers and/or mothers were the socio-demographic factors significantly associated with higher infection rates. The illiteracy of mothers was also confirmed as an independent risk factor by multivariable analysis. On the other hand, not washing hands before eating, not washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, eating uncovered food and not clipping fingernails were the risk behaviors significantly associated with higher infection rates, with the last three ones being confirmed as independent risk factors. Therefore, control measures should include regular treatment of protozoal infections and deworming of schoolchildren, promotion of hygiene in rural schools through health education programs, regular inspection of schoolchildren for personal hygiene

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites infections among Afghan children of primary and junior high schools residing Kashan city, Iran, 2009-2010

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    Mansoureh Momen Heravi

    2013-06-01

    Results: out of the 430 students, 49.7% were male and the rest were female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 33.5%. The frequency of pathogenic intestinal parasite was 15.4%. The rate of intestinal parasite infections were: Entamoeba coli 16.5%, Giardia lamblia 8.8%,Blastocystis hominis 7%, Endolimax nana 3.4%, Iodamoeba buchlelli 3.4%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.62%, Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar 1.2%,Hymenolepis nana 1.8% , and Ascaris lumbricoides0.2%.Entrobius vermicularis was found in 13.5% of the students using scotch tape test.There was a significant statistical association between duration of living in Afghanistan and intestinal parasitic infections.(p≤0.03 Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the prevalence of parasitic infections in the Afghan children was rather high. Examination and treatment of the students, education of the children and their parents and teachers in the field of personal hygine and environmental sanitation are necessary for prevention of parasite transmission.

  6. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

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    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

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    Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh

    2016-09-30

    Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women. Stool samples were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ether sedimentation, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. An overall prevalence of 31.5 % intestinal parasite infections was recorded. Eight different species of intestinal parasites were found: two protozoan and six helminth species. The highest prevalence was due to Giardia lamblia (13.3 %) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.8 %), hookworm (5.5 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.9 %), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6 %), Taenia spp. (0.8 %), and Hymenolepis nana (0.3 %). A relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was observed among pregnant women. Routine stool examination and provision of health education are required for early medical intervention that would affect the pregnant mothers and their foetuses.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and their Association with Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban Pre-School Children in Benue State, Nigeria.

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    Tyoalumun, Kpurkpur; Abubakar, Sani; Christopher, Nongu

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, contributing to high incidence of malnutrition and morbidity. This study aimed to find the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their association with nutritional status of children in Benue State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study conducted from January-June 2016, among 418 school children under-5 years of age. Anthropometric data, height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Among the intestinal parasitic infections detected, the prevalence of E. histolytica was higher (51.0% and 29.0%) than all other parasites encountered in rural and urban pupils (Prural and urban pupils were 43.8% and 32.9%; 64.4% and 39.0% rural and urban pupils were underweight (WAZ<-2), while 30.3% and 24.3% were wasted (WHZ<-2). Infected children had significantly (P<0.05) higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Benue State is among the Nigerian states with the highest burden of tropical diseases with a current plan of elimination implemented through mass drug administration. This study identify/evaluate some essential information that will support the planning and implementation of the State's ongoing efforts.

  9. Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'bondoukwé, Noé Patrick; Kendjo, Eric; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Koumba Lengongo, Jeanne Vanessa; Offouga Mbouoronde, Christelle; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Touré, Fousseyni; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine

    2018-01-30

    Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections. Intestinal parasitic infections (61.1%), including intestinal protozoa (56.7%) and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (22.2%), predominated, whereas Plasmodium falciparum (18.8%), Loa loa (4.7%), and Mansonella perstans (1.1%) were less prevalent. Filariasis and STHs were mainly found in rural settlements, whereas a higher plasmodial infection prevalence rate was observed in the periurban area. The most common IPI was blastocystosis (48.6%), followed by ascaridiasis (13.7%), trichuriasis (11.8%), amoebiasis (9.3%), giardiasis (4.8%), and strongyloidiasis (3.7%). Hookworm was detected in one adult from rural Dienga. Adults had a higher prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and STHs, whereas Giardia duodenalis was more frequently observed among children aged below 5 years (P < 0.01). The polyparasitism rate was 41.5%, with 7.0% Plasmodium-IPIs and 1.8% Plasmodium-STH co-infections. The multivariate analysis showed that living in a suburban area, belonging to the age group of 5-15 years, having none or a secondary education, or having an open body water close to home were significant risk factors for malaria (P ≤ 0.01). For STH infections, identified risk factors were drinking untreated water and living in a rural area (P ≤ 0.04). No significant predictors were identified for IPIs and malaria-IPI co-infection. This study reports a high prevalence of IPIs and intestinal protozoa, but a low rate of malaria-IPI co-infections in the study sites

  10. The Impact of Cooperative Social Organization on Reducing the Prevalence of Malaria and Intestinal Parasite Infections in Awramba, a Rural Community in South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Yihenew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parasitic diseases are the major causes of human health problem in Ethiopia. The high prevalence of parasitic infections is closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene, and impoverished health services. Objective. The study was conducted to assess the impact of health-conscious Awramba cooperative community and its neighboring communities on the prevalence of parasitic infections in South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods. Single stool specimens were collected from 392 individuals from Awramba and the neighboring communities. Specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of parasites using microscopy. Questionnaire was administered to determine the knowledge attitude and practice (KAP of study participants. Results. Of the total 392 study participants examined, 58(14.8% were positive for malaria and 173 (44.1% for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of malaria in Awramba community (5.1% was less than that in neighboring communities (24.5%. The prevalence of parasitic infections in Awramba (18.8% was less than that of the neighboring communities (69.4%. Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general.

  11. Past Intestinal Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Araújo, Adauto

    2016-08-01

    This chapter aims to provide some key points for researchers interested in the study of ancient gastrointestinal parasites. These few pages are dedicated to my colleague and friend, Prof. Adauto Araújo (1951-2015), who participated in the writing of this chapter. His huge efforts in paleoparasitology contributed to the development and promotion of the discipline during more than 30 years.

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G/hiwot, Yirgalem; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2%) and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5%) infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1%) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6%) does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana infections are

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in certified food-handlers working in food establishments in the City of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamau, Paul; Aloo-Obudho, Penina; Kabiru, Ephantus; Ombacho, Kepha; Langat, Bernard; Mucheru, Obadiah; Ireri, Laban

    2012-03-01

    Most intestinal parasites are cosmopolitan with the highest prevalence in the tropics and subtopics. Rural-to-urban migration rapidly increases the number of food eating places in towns and their environs. Some of these eating estabishments have poor sanitation and are overcrowded, facilitating disease transmission, especially through food-handling. Our investigations in Nairobi, therefore, were set to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in food-handlers with valid medical certificates. Direct and concentrated stool processing techniques were used. Chisquare test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The parasites Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia were observed in certified food-handlers. Significant difference was found in parasite frequency by eating classes and gender (χ(2) = 9.49, P = 0.73), (F = 1.495, P = 0.297), but not in parasite occurrence between age brackets (χ(2) = 6.99, P = 0.039). The six-month medical certificate validity period may contribute significantly to the presence of intestinal parasites in certified food-handlers.

  15. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Solid waste management is associated with health hazards. ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of ...

  16. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations,

  17. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aimpun, Pote

    2000-01-01

    A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections and its association with undernutrition and CD4 T cell levels among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedle, Dereje; Kumera, Gemechu; Eshete, Tewodros; Ketema, Kasahun; Adugna, Haweni; Feyera, Fetuma

    2017-05-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections and HIV/AIDS have been the major public health problems and remain a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Both problems are linked in a vicious cycle. The magnitude of intestinal parasites was prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS even in the HAART era. However, the pertinent risk factors associated with intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients were not well investigated in Ethiopia particularly at Butajira town. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients on HAART in Butajira, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a total of 323 study subjects was involved in the study. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select each participant during data collection. Stool specimen was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique, and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques to identify both common and opportunistic intestinal parasites. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic, environmental, clinical, and nutritional data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of various explanatory factors on intestinal parasites. P value ≤0.05 at 95% CI was considered statistically significant. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 35.9% (95% CI 31.0-40.9%). Protozoa's (Entanmoeba histolytica/dispar trophozoite, E. histolytica/dispar cyst, Giardia lamblia trophozoite, and G. lamblia cyst), helminths (Tanea species, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloid stercoralis, Hookworm species and H. nana), and opportunistic intestinal parasites (Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli) were observed in 57 (17.1%), 46 (14.4%), and 28 (8.7%) study participants respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of animals (AOR 6. 14; 95% CI 3.13, 12

  19. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.

  20. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    ... may be manipulated to develop therapeutic interventions against parasitic infection. For easy reference, the most commonly studied parasites are examined in individual chapters written by investigators at the forefront of their field...

  1. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  2. Trans-suppression of defense DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following Cryptosporidium parvum infection is associated with host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Zhenping; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xin-Tian; Li, Min; Dolata, Courtney E; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2018-03-01

    To counteract host immunity, Cryptosporidium parvum has evolved multiple strategies to suppress host antimicrobial defense. One such strategy is to reduce the production of the antimicrobial peptide beta-defensin 1 (DEFB1) by host epithelial cells but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that a panel of parasite RNA transcripts of low protein-coding potential are delivered into infected host cells and may modulate host gene transcription. Using in vitro models of intestinal cryptosporidiosis, in this study, we analyzed the expression profile of host beta-defensin genes in host cells following infection. We found that C. parvum infection caused a significant downregulation of the DEFB1 gene. Interestingly, downregulation of DEFB1 gene was associated with host delivery of Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA transcript, a C. parvum RNA that has previously demonstrated to be delivered into the nuclei of infected host cells. Knockdown of Cdg7_FLc_1000 in host cells could attenuate the trans-suppression of host DEFB1 gene and decreased the parasite burden. Therefore, our data suggest that trans-suppression of DEFB1 gene in intestinal epithelial cells following C. parvum infection involves host delivery of parasite Cdg7_FLc_1000 RNA, a process that may be relevant to the epithelial defense evasion by C. parvum at the early stage of infection.

  3. Intestinal parasite infections in immigrant children in the city of Rome, related risk factors and possible impact on nutritional status

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    Manganelli Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic diseases can represent a social and economic problem among disadvantaged people - even in developed countries. Due to the limited data available concerning Europe, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the presence of parasites in immigrant children and the risk factors favouring the spread of parasites. Subsequently, the possible correlation between nutritional status and parasitic infections was also investigated. Findings A convenience sample of two hundred and forty seven immigrant children (aged 0–15 attending the Poliambulatorio della Medicina Solidale in Rome was examined. Data were collected using structured questionnaires, and parasitological and anthropometric tests were applied. Chi-squared test and binary logistic multiple-regression models were used for statistical analysis. Thirty-seven children (15% tested positive to parasites of the following species: Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Giardia duodenalis, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis. A monospecific infection was detected in 30 (81% out of 37 parasitized children, while the others (19% presented a polyparasitism. The major risk factors were housing, i.e. living in shacks, and cohabitation with other families (p Conclusions This study shows that parasite infection in children is still quite common, even in a developed country and that children’s growth and parasitism may be related. Extensive improvements in the living, social and economic conditions of immigrants are urgently needed in order to overcome these problems.

  4. The role of family size, employment and education of parents in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in school children in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Akua Obeng; Arthur, Isaac; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in school children are a public health problem in most developing countries. A cross sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2016 with school children living in overcrowded urban slums in Accra, Ghana. A simple random sample of 300 children aged 2-9 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire and stool tests to obtain information on epidemiological, sanitation habits, employment and education status of parents and children. Data were analysed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic tools of analyses. The mean age of participants was 6.9 years and 49% were males and 51.3% were females. Giardia lamblia was found in males (10.95%) and females (7.79%). Very low prevalences for Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia species, and Entamoeba coli were detected. Whilst children from mothers (62.2%) and fathers (55.6%) with no education were often infected, a few children from fathers (22.2%) and mothers (6.7%) with no jobs were infected. Most of the infected children's (93.7%) parents did not have any knowledge of IPIs. The educational and employment status of the mothers [p = 1.0 and p = 0.422] was not significant, however, the family size was a predisposing factor (p = 0.031) for parasitic infections. Intestinal parasites were prevalent in children from overcrowded families and with no knowledge of IPIs. Educative programmes on IPIs, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programmes to elevate socioeconomic conditions may help reduce the burden of intestinal parasite carriage in children.

  5. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically. Eleven genera of intestinal parasites were detected: five genera of protozoans (Isospora spp., Entamoeba spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp. and six genera of helminths (Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., Physaloptera spp., Ancylostoma spp., and Enterobius spp.. The overall sample prevalence of parasitic infection was 54.1% (1811/3349. Entamoeba spp. was the most prevalent (36.4%, 1218/3349. The infection rate was the highest in free-range animals (73.0%, 670/918 (P < 0.01 and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region (64.8%, 566/873. Mixed infections were mostly detected for Entamoeba spp., Trichuris spp., and Strongyloides spp.. Molecular characterization was reviewed of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp., as these are zoonotic species or genotypes. This parasitological data for NHPs in China, provides important information for veterinarians and public health authorities for the elimination of such parasites and monitor the potential transmission of zoonotic infections from NHPs.

  6. original article the prevalence of intestinal coccidian parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences,. University of Bamenda. Email: henrikamga2002@yahoo.fr Tel: (+237)99721972. ABSTRACT. Background: Intestinal coccidia are group of protozoa which parasitize the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract of their hosts. Most infections usually produce ...

  7. Epidemiology of intestinal parasite infections in three departments of south-central Côte d’Ivoire before the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoussou Coulibaly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of millions of people are infected with helminths and intestinal protozoa, particularly children in low- and middle-income countries. Preventive chemotherapy is the main strategy to control helminthiases. However, rapid re-infection occurs in settings where there is a lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. In August and September 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in 56 communities of three departments of south-central Côte d’Ivoire. Study participants were invited to provide stool and urine samples. Stool samples were examined for helminth and intestinal protozoa infections using the Kato-Katz technique and a formalin-ether concentration method. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, practices and beliefs with regard to hygiene, sanitation and intestinal parasitic diseases were collected using a questionnaire administered to household heads. Multivariable logistic regression models were employed to analyse associations between parasite infections and risk factors. Overall, 4,305 participants had complete parasitological and questionnaire data. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species (21.2%, while Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium showed prevalences below 10%. Infections with pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis were similarly prevalent in the three departments. Hookworm infection was associated with open defecation and participants' age and sex. Entamoeba coli infection was negatively associated with the use of tap water at home (odds ratio (OR = 0.66; p = 0.032. Disposal of garbage in close proximity to people’s home was positively associated with G. intestinalis (OR = 1.30; p = 0.015. Taken together, helminth and intestinal protozoa infections

  8. Fecal Occult Blood Test and Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed H. Wakid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stool specimens of 1238 workers in western region of Saudi Arabia were examined for infection with intestinal parasites and for fecal occult blood (FOB to investigate the possibility that enteroparasites correlate to occult intestinal bleeding. Direct smears and formal ether techniques were used for detection of diagnostic stages of intestinal parasites. A commercially available guaiac test was used to detect fecal occult blood. 47.01% of the workers were infected with intestinal parasites including eight helminthes species and eight protozoan species. The results provided no significant evidence (P-value=0.143 that intestinal parasitic infection is in association with positive guaiac FOB test.

  9. Epidemiology and control of Schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Rajini; Hunjan, Gurdip S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of parasitic infections and the efficacy of treatment among school children in rural villages of south Saint Lucia. A total of 554 school children participated in this study. Parasitic infections were confirmed by using Kato- Katz method. Overall, 61.6% of the school children were infected by any parasitic infection. The helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%), Hookworm (11.9%), Strongyloides (9.7%), Trichuris trichiura (4.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%), Taenia solium (0.8%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2.1%), Entamoeba coli (9.7%), Iodameba butschlii (5%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.8%) and Endolimax nana (2.1%). The control intervention included treatment with albendazole 400 mg and praziquantel 40 mg/kg as well as awareness campaigns. Post-interventional assessment showed the total prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection reduced from 61.6 to 3.6% with a cure rate of 94.2%, following the control methods.

  10. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Yu, Fuchang; Wu, Yayun; Chang, Yankai; Wang, Chenrong; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Longxian

    2017-04-01

    Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi , Giardia duodenalis , Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically. Eleven genera of intestinal parasites were detected: five genera of protozoans ( Isospora spp., Entamoeba spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp.) and six genera of helminths ( Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., Physaloptera spp., Ancylostoma spp., and Enterobius spp.). The overall sample prevalence of parasitic infection was 54.1% (1811/3349). Entamoeba spp. was the most prevalent (36.4%, 1218/3349). The infection rate was the highest in free-range animals (73.0%, 670/918) (P Entamoeba spp., Trichuris spp., and Strongyloides spp.. Molecular characterization was reviewed of Enterocytozoon bieneusi , Giardia duodenalis , Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp., as these are zoonotic species or genotypes. This parasitological data for NHPs in China, provides important information for veterinarians and public health authorities for the elimination of such parasites and monitor the potential transmission of zoonotic infections from NHPs.

  11. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begna TULU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ, BMI-for-age (BAZ and weight-for-age (WAZ for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6–18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4 an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni, E. histolytica/dispar, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, G. lambilia, T. trichiura, S. stercolaris, E. vermicularis, Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs (P<0.001 and (P=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: IPIs and its associated malnutrition remain a public health concern in Delo-Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Nutritional Status among Primary School Children in Delo-mena District, South Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulu, Begna; Taye, Solomon; Zenebe, Yohannes; Amsalu, Eden

    2016-01-01

    Although there are efforts being underway to control and prevent intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in Ethiopia, they are still endemic and responsible for significant morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IPIs and their association with nutritional status among primary school children of Delo-Mena district, South Eastern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2013. Demographic data was obtained, and IPIs was investigated in a single-stool sample by both direct stool examination and formol-ether concentration techniques. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) for the determination of stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively using WHO AntroPlus software. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis and p value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Among 492 children studied (51% boys, aged 6-18 years, mean 10.93 +2.4) an overall IPIs prevalence of 26.6% was found. The prevalence of S. mansoni , E. histolytica/dispar , H. nana , A. lumbricoides , G. lambilia , T. trichiura , S. stercolaris , E. vermicularis , Hookworms and Taenia spp were 9.6%, 7.7%, 5.3%, 3.7%, 2.0%, 1.6%, 1.4%, 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.2% respectively. Stunting and underweightedness were observed in 4.5% and 13.6% of children and associated with IPIs ( P Mena district. Therefore, the overall health promotion activities coupled with snail control and de-worming to the students is crucial. Additionally, initiatives aimed at improving the nutritional status of school children are also important.

  13. Intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age presenting with diarrhoeal diseases to two public health facilities in Hawassa, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulatu, Getamesay; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Debalke, Serkadis; Beyene, Getenet

    2015-11-04

    Diarrhoea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age in developing countries, including Ethiopia. It is caused by a wide range of pathogens, including parasites, bacteria and viruses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infection with intestinal parasites (IPs) (and types) among children under 5 years of age with diarrhoeal diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Adare Hospital and Millennium Health Centre, both located in Hawassa, South Ethiopia, from June 6 to October 28, 2011. Children under 5 years of age with diarrhoea who visited these health facilities during the study period were included in the study. Data relating to demography and risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Single, fresh stool specimens were examined for IPs using the direct wet mount examination, followed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining of formol-ether concentrated samples, as per standard procedures. Data were analysed using SPSS Statistics 20 software. A total of 158 children (51.3 % male and 48.7 % female) participated in the study. Overall, the prevalence of IPs was 26.6 % (42/158). Two species of IPs were detected in six children (3.8 %). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii was the predominant parasite identified (11.4 %), followed by Giardia duodenalis (7.0 %). The multivariable analysis revealed that the age group ≥24 months was significantly associated (AOR = 0.221, 95 %CI: 0.085-0.576) with prevalence of IPIs. This study found that intestinal parasites are common among children with diarrheal diseases. The most frequently detected species was E. histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii. Health information about how to prevent diarrheal diseases in general and IPIs in particular should be provided to parents of young children.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in free-ranging Red Panda Ailurus fulgens Cuvier, 1825 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ailuridae in Nepal

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    Sonam Tashi Lama

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Red Panda Ailurus fulgens is a small carnivore that is adapted to a mainly herbivorous diet.  The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of parasitic infections in a free-ranging population of Red Pandas in a community forest in Nepal.  A total of 23 faecal samples were collected and examined.  Protozoa infections were the most common and cestode infections occurred the least.  Our findings suggest that parasites might be a significant problem for the health of the Red Pandas in the study area.  Molecular methods should be used to further investigate the taxonomic position of the parasites and their role in threatening the resilience of Red Panda populations in Nepal.  

  15. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN

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    Farnaz Kheirandish

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05. To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Tarahi, Mohammad Javad; Ezatpour, Behrouz

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  17. Intestinal parasites among young children in the interior of Guyana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, J F; Validum, L; Ager, A L; Campa, A; Cuadrado, R R; Cummings, R; Palmer, C J

    2002-03-01

    Intestinal parasites contribute greatly to morbidity in developing countries. While there have been several studies of the problem in the Caribbean, including the implementation of control programmes, this has not been done for Guyana. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among young children in a town located in the interior of Guyana. Eighty-five children under the age of 12 years were studied prospectively for intestinal parasites in Mahdia, Guyana. Stool samples were transported in formalin to the Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Jamaica, for analysis using the formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Data on age and gender of the children were recorded on field data sheets. At least one intestinal parasite was detected in 43.5% (37/85) of the children studied and multiple parasitic infections were recorded in 21.2% (18/85). The most common intestinal helminth parasite was hookworm (28.2%; 24/85), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.8%; 16/85) and then Trichuris trichuria (14.1%; 12/85). Among the protozoan infections Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.5% (9/85) of the study population while Entamoeba histolytica appeared rarely. All stool samples were negative for Cryptosporidium and other intestinal Coccidia. There was no predilection for gender with any of the parasites. The pattern of distribution of worms in this area of Guyana was unlike that seen in other studies. Hookworm infection was the most common among the children and a large proportion had multiple infections. The study established the occurrence and prevalence of a number of intestinal parasites in the population of Guyana. This sets the stage for the design and implementation of more detailed epidemiological studies.

  18. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  19. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabeddin Sarvi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%, Toxocara spp. (18.81%, Taenia hydatigena (15.28%, Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, and Toxascaris leonina (8.69% were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores' populations.

  20. Zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores: A systematic review in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; Kohansal, Mohammad Hasan; Mirshafiee, Siavash; Siyadatpanah, Abolghasem; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Gholami, Shirzad

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Parasitic infections, especially of the zoonotic-parasitic type, are the most important health, economic, and social problems in developing countries, including Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the available data on gastrointestinal parasites of carnivores in Iran and their ability to infect humans. Materials and Methods: Studies reporting intestinal parasites of carnivores were systematically collected from nine electronic English and Persian databases and Proceedings of Iranian parasitology and veterinary congresses published between 1997 and 2015. A total of 26 studies issued from 1997 to 2015 met the eligibility criteria. Results: The pooled proportion of intestinal parasites of carnivores was estimated as 80.4% (95% confidence interval=70.2-88.8%). The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs, cats, foxes, and jackals were 57.89%, 90.62%, 89.17%, and 97.32%, respectively. Dipylidium caninum (20.45%), Toxocara spp. (18.81%), Taenia hydatigena (15.28%), Mesocestoides lineatus (11.83%), Echinococcus granulosus (10%), and Toxascaris leonina (8.69%) were the most frequently observed parasites. Conclusion: High prevalence rates of zoonotic intestinal parasites of carnivores particularly Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. increase the risk of acquiring zoonotic infections such as cystic hydatid, alveolar cysts, and visceral or ocular larva migrants in Iranian people. Therefore, it is essential for public health centers to develop more effective control strategies to decrease infections rates in carnivores’ populations. PMID:29479158

  1. Vitamin B12 and iron in the plasma of hamster infected with the intestinal parasite Prohemistomum vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemat M. El-Kewaisny

    2012-03-01

    The results showed no significant change in the level of vitamin B12, whereas, a significant decrease was observed in the level of iron (P < 0.01 in the plasma of the infected animals compared with the control group. This result suggested that a malabsorption condition occurred probably due to complex interactions between host and the used parasite (trematode.

  2. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegne, Yalewayker; Wondmagegn, Tadelo; Worku, Ligabaw; Jejaw Zeleke, Ayalew

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study wa...

  3. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Pavon, Ignacio Lopez; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Velasco, Roman Blanco

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19%) of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62). Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22%) of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32%) in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95). Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18%) of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78). The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 to

  4. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mare, Anca; Man, A; Toma, Felicia; Székely, Edit; Lôrinczi, Lilla; Sipoş, Anca

    2007-01-01

    To compare the incidence of intestinal parasitosis between children with residence in urban and rural areas: to compare the efficacy of parasitologic diagnostic methods. In our study we included two lots of children. The first lot consisted in 74 children from rural areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces and 55 samples for the "Scotch tape" test. The second lot consisted in 214 children from urban areas from which we collected 44 samples of feces. We examined each sample of feces by three different methods. The study was performed between April to June 2006. The incidence of intestinal parasitosis increases in children from urban areas towards rural areas, and in children between 5 and 10 years. Ascariasis is the most frequent disease in both urban and rural areas. By examination of each fecal sample by three different methods, the number of positive cases increased. The residence in rural areas and age between 5 to 10 years are risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. The "Scotch tape" test was more efficient in Enterobius vermicularis infection than the methods performed from feces. We recommend using at the same time three diagnostic methods for feces examination to improve the diagnostic sensibility.

  5. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  6. Intestinal parasites from fingernails of sidewalk food vendors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriptiastuti Suriptiastuti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections with soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are still prevalent in Indonesia, particularly in urban communities. Transmission of parasitic infections is effected directly or indirectly through objects contaminated with feces, including food, water, fingers and fingernails, indicating the importance of fecal-oral human-to-human transmission. Sidewalk food vendors (SFVs preparing food for their customers are a potential source of infections with many intestinal helminths and protozoa. Compared to other parts of the hand, the area beneath fingernails harbors the most microorganisms and is most difficult to clean. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in fingernail dirt of SFVs and to identify the associated factors. This study involved 112 SFVs in the vicinity of Hospital X in Central Jakarta, and used microscopic examination of SFV fingernail dirt for determining species prevalence of intestinal parasites. This study showed that 94 samples out of 112 (83.9% were positive for intestinal parasites; 60 samples (63.8% represented single infections and 34 (36.2% mixed infections. Ascaris lumbricoides eggs were found in 30 (26.8% samples and Giardia lamblia cysts in 12 (17.89%. The highest prevalence was found in subjects with primary school education, among whom 20 (30.8% had single infections of A. lumbricoides and 16 (24.6% mixed infections with A. lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. In conclusion, prevalence of intestinal parasites in SFV fingernail dirt is extremely high, with the highest prevalence among less educated SFVs. It is recommended to provide health education and training to all SFVs.

  7. Host characteristics and infection level of an intestinal parasite Corynosoma strumosum (Acanthocephala) in the Kuril harbor seal of Erimo Cape, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoto, Tadashi; Hirazawa, Takuya; Masubuchi, Takahito; Morohoshi, Aya; Katahira, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Mari

    2018-04-01

    The Kuril harbor seal around Hokkaido is presently recovering from a resource crisis while conflicts with local fisheries have become a concern. However, its feeding habits, which are fundamental information for taking proper preventive measures, are still poorly understood. We thus examined the infection status of a trophically-transmitted parasite, Corynosoma strumosum in the seals of Erimo Cape, to assess the host's feeding habits with a practical view of the parasite as a biological indicator. A total of 2802 worms were found from 20 male and 20 female by-caught animals in salmon set nets within local fisheries during August to November 2014. The parasite abundance was explained mainly by the host's developmental stage and intestinal length while weakly affected by gender and body size, through an estimation of generalized linear models combined with hierarchical partitioning. Considering the past records that demersal fishes are the probable main sources of infection, the infection level may owe to individual host differences regarding these sources and/or feeding grounds with relating the host characteristics. This supports that the resource management of Kuril harbor seals requires careful consideration of the individual differences in feeding behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in. Central Uganda. .... Table 1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in goats in Central Uganda .... ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 40-76.

  9. Prevalence and co-infection of intestinal parasites among thai rural residents at high-risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma: a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are still important to the health of Thai rural residents. IPIs are the cause of many chronic diseases with, for example, opisthorchiasis resulting in progression to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort study aimed to examine the prevalence and co- infection of intestinal parasites among Northeastern Thai rural residents, recruited into the Khon Kaen Cohort Study (KKCS), and who were residing in areas of high-risk for developing CCA. On recruitment, subjects had completed questionnaires and provided fecal samples for IPI testing using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Data on selected general characteristics and the results of the fecal tests were analysed. IPI test results were available for 18,900 of cohort subjects, and 38.50% were found to be positive for one or more types of intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) infection was the highest (45.7%), followed by intestinal flukes (31.9%), intestinal nematodes (17.7%), intestinal protozoa (3.02%), and intestinal cestodes (1.69%). The pattern of different infections was similar in all age groups. According to a mapping analysis, a higher CCA burden was correlated with a higher prevalence of O. viverrini and intestinal flukes and a greater intensity of O. viverrini. Both prevention and control programs against liver fluke and other intestinal parasites are needed and should be delivered simultaneously. We can anticipate that the design of future control and prevention programmes will accommodate a more community-orientated and participatory approach.

  10. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  11. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Abdulkader Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections.In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19% of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36% in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62. Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22% of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32% in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95. Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18% of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29% in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78. The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI

  12. HIV and intestinal parasites in adult TB patients in a teaching hospital in Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassu, Afework; Mengistu, Getahun; Ayele, Belete; Diro, Ermias; Mekonnen, Firew; Ketema, Dereje; Moges, Feleke; Mesfin, Tsehay; Getachew, Assefa; Ergicho, Bahiru; Elias, Daniel; Wondmikun, Yared; Aseffa, Abraham; Ota, Fusao

    2007-10-01

    The level of HIV infection and intestinal parasitoses among TB patients was assessed in a hospital-based cross-sectional study involving 257 patients in Gondar, Ethiopia. In TB patients, our study reported co-infection with HIV (52.1%) and intestinal parasites (40.9%) The high prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasites indicates an increased morbidity inTB patients and emphasized the importance of continued HIV sero-surveillance, stool analysis and treatment.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Badparva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2 838 stool samples in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in 2013. Samples were examined by the several techniques. Results: The frequency of intestinal parasites was 465 (16.4% of which 188 (13.5% samples were for urban areas and 277 (19.2% for rural areas. Infection in rural areas was significantly higher than urban areas. Out of 465 infected samples, 456 (98% were contaminated with protozoan parasites and 9 (2% with helminthes. Infection in people who sometimes used the soap to wash hands was significantly more than those who always used soap (P<0.001. Infection in people with poor economic conditions was significantly more than the two groups with moderate and good economic conditions (P<0.001. Conclusions: Effective reasons for the reducing incidence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province could be the development of universities with more students led to increased awareness, improvement of the environment, increase of the ease of access to health care centers, increase of advertising in provincial mass media about health training, increased health culture, and dispose of sanitary waste properly.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitism and associated symptomatology among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Frederico F; Barros, Maxlene J; Macedo, Nazaré A; Júnior, Carmelino G E; Redoan, Roseli; Busatti, Haendel; Gomes, Maria A; Santos, Joseph F G

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Immunocompromised individuals may develop more severe forms of these infections. Taking into account the immunity impairment in patients suffering from chronic renal failure (CRF), we will determine the prevalence and associated symptoms of intestinal parasites in these patients. Controls without CRF were used for comparison. Stool samples were collected and processed for microscopic identification of parasites using the Formalin-ether concentration method. For Cryptosporidium diagnosis, the ELISA technique was used. One hundred and ten fecal samples from hemodialysis patients were analyzed, as well as 86 from a community group used as control group. A result of 51.6% of intestinal parasites was observed in hemodialysis patients and 61.6% in the control group. Cryptosporidium and Blastocystis were the most common infections in patients with CRF (26.4% and 24.5%, respectively). Blastocystis was the most common infection in the control group (41.9%), however no individual was found positive for Cryptosporidium. Among the CRF patients, 73.6% were symptomatic, 54.3% of these tested positive for at least one parasite, in contrast to 44.8% in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.38). The most common symptoms in this group were flatulence (36.4%), asthenia (30.0%) and weight loss (30.0%). In the control group, 91.9% were symptomatic, 60.8% of these tested positive for at least one parasite, in contrast to 71.4% in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.703). A significant difference between the two groups was observed with regard to symptoms, with bloating, postprandial fullness, and abdominal pain being more frequent in the control group than in the hemodialysis group (all p failure are frequent targets for renal transplantation, which as well as the inherent immunological impairment of the disease itself, results in immunosuppression by medication. For this reason, carriers of intestinal parasites with pathogenic

  15. Intestinal Parasites of the Grasscutter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    excretions of carrier cane rats (Oboegbulem. & Okoronkwo, 1990). The possibility of transmission of parasites of the grasscutter to humans cannot be overlooked. This is more so as some people do not only cherish grasscutter meat but also use the content of the gut both for medicinal purposes and for food (pers. comm.).

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in breeding kennel dogs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Kanai, Kazutaka; Kimura, Yuya; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio

    2015-03-01

    The present study is the first to show overall prevalences of intestinal parasites among breeding kennel dogs in Japan. A total of 573 fresh fecal samples were collected from dogs at 12 breeding kennels. Giardia-specific coproantigen was examined by ELISA kit (SNAP(®) Giardia, IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Maine, USA). Other intestinal parasites were determined microscopically using the formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation technique. Overall prevalences of two genera of protists, Giardia spp. and Cystoisospora spp., were 25.7 and 1.2 %, respectively. The prevalence of helminthes was recorded as: Toxocara canis 0.2 %, Toxascaris leonina 0.9 %, Ancylostoma caninum 0.2 %, Trichuris vulpis 2.1 %, and Spirometra erinacei 0.4 %. According to age categories, Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp., and T. leonina in parasite infections were found at the high prevalent, ranging from 16.0 to 70.0 %.

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among communities living in different habitats and its comparison with one hundred and one studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970 to 2013) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Hassan A, K R; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Ibrahim, Z; Ali, O

    2014-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common diseases affecting mankind causing major public health problems to billions of people living in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in various communities residing in different habitats in Malaysia and compare the findings with 101 studies conducted over the past 42 years (1970-2013). A cross-sectional study design was conducted with the aid of a questionnaire to collect relevant information about the study population. Faecal samples were examined using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation techniques. A total of 342 children were examined amongst whom 24.6% were positive for intestinal parasitic infections. Results showed that 32.3% of rural children, 20.6% of urban squatters and 5.4% of children from flats were positive for one or more parasites. The most common parasite encountered was Trichuris trichiura (20.2%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%) and hookworm (6.7%). No case of hookworm was reported in urban children whereas 12.2% of rural children were positive. The most common protozoan parasite detected was Entamoeba coli (3.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (1.8%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.8%) and Blastocystis hominis (1.2%). Nearly one-fifth (18.4%) of the children had single infection followed by double (12.0%) and triple infections (1.2%). Orang Asli (indigenous) children (44.3%) had the highest infection rate followed by Indians (20.2%), Malays (14.0%) and Chinese (11.9%). Twenty-eight studies carried out on plantation communities with regards to intestinal parasitic infections in Malaysia from 1970 to 2013 showed a steady decline in the prevalence rate ranging from 95.0% in the seventies to 37.0 % in 2012. Intestinal parasitic infections were more common in Orang Asli communities with prevalence ranging from over 90% in the seventies and fluctuating below 70% in most studies between 2000 to 2013 except for two

  18. Intestinal parasitic infestations in children living in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infestations pose one of the biggest health problems of the contemporary world. Objectives. The aim of this article was to present the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children living in a large urban agglomeration. Material and methods . 1823 children (916 girls and 907 boys, aged 3–6, attending 31 different pre-schools in Warsaw, were examined in 2014. Stool specimens were tested in the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine of the Military Institute of Medicine by light microscopy using three different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation. The material for testing, fixed in 10% formalin, was collected three times at 2–3-day intervals. Results . Parasitological examination of the stool specimens showed intestinal parasitic infestations in 47 children (2.57% of the study group. Only 7 children were infested with pathogenic parasites (6 cases of giardiasis and 1 enterobiasis and required antiparasitic treatment. 17 children were infested with potentially pathogenic protozoa (Blasocystis sp. and 26 with non-pathogenic protozoa ( Entamoeba coli , Endolimax nanai , but because of lack of gastrointestinal symptoms (asymptomatic carriage they did not require a treatment. Conclusions . Performed examination show low infection rates among children from a large urban agglomeration. In the absence of epidemiological surveillance over the prevalence of the majority of intestinal parasitic diseases in Poland, and because some diagnostic centres generate positive test results using valueless methods, the propagation of parasitological diagnostics in light microscopy in direction of prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestations, especially among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, is strongly recommended.

  19. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jeske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%, Taenia spp. (6.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4% and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%. Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%, Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3% and Cystoisospora belli (4.4% were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient’s first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  20. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, S; Bianchi, T F; Moura, M Q; Baccega, B; Pinto, N B; Berne, M E A; Villela, M M

    2017-11-27

    Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals) were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%), Taenia spp. (6.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%). Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%), Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3%) and Cystoisospora belli (4.4%) were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient's first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  1. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p dogs to various types of endoparasitism while the variables breed (pure breed dogs vs. mixed-breed dogs), gender, and type of food were not significant predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for factors associated with overall endoparasitism revealed that dogs >1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during

  2. Salmonella serotypeTyphi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Yitayew, Gashaw; Amare, Hiwot

    2016-02-28

    Food handlers play a major role in the transmission of Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), Shigella, and intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Stool samples from 410 food handlers were examined for bacterial pathogens and parasites. Pearson's Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used where appropriate. The prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers was 11 (2.7%), 5 (1.2%), and 53 (12.9%), respectively. Among eight intestinal parasites identified, the two most prevalent intestinal parasites were hookworm 26 (6.3%) and G. lamblia 13 (3.1%). Male food handlers were more likely to be positive than were female food handlers for S. Typhi and intestinal parasites. Furthermore, food handlers who had a history of regular medical checkups were less infected with intestinal parasites. Being male (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and not attending medical checkups (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers. Male food handlers were reluctant to have regular parasitological examinations. There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures.

  3. Does the Intestinal Parasite Enterobius vermicularis Cause Acute Appendicitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhan, Yavuz; Özen, Fatma Zeynep; Kılınç, Çetin; Güçkan, Rıdvan

    2017-06-01

    Although intestinal parasitic infections rarely cause acute appendicitis, they are common public health problems in undeveloped and developing countries. Parasitic infections should be kept in mind in patients clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and treatment procedures should be adopted according to the etiology. Herein we presented the cases of four patients with clinical findings of acute appendicitis. Patients were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis, and Enterobius vermicularis was detected in the pathological examinations of specimens. Pinworm infections are common parasitic infections that may mimic appendicitis. The pathology of the four cases was noted when the file of 186 patients aged between 4 and 72 years who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis in my hospital was retrospectively reviewed. When the appendectomy specimen was examined histopathologically it was understood that acute appendicitis was caused by Enterobius vermicularis parasite. In Enterobius infections, performing systemic therapy for patients and their family members is sufficient. To prevent unnecessary appendectomy, this type of infection should be made to ask in the history and clinical findings of patients.

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

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    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  5. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasite Infections in School Children in a Rural Area of Angola: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alegría, María Luisa Aznar Ruiz; Colmenares, Karen; Espasa, Mateu; Amor, Arancha; Lopez, Isabel; Nindia, Arlette; Kanjala, Joaquina; Guilherme, Domingas; Sulleiro, Elena; Barriga, Begoña; Gil, Eva; Salvador, Fernando; Bocanegra, Cristina; López, Teresa; Moreno, Milagros; Molina, Israel

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed. Of 230 SAC, 56.1% were female and the mean age was 9.3 years (SD 2.45). Severe malnutrition, according to body mass index (BMI)-for-age, was observed in 20.4% of the SAC, and anemia was found in 59.6%. Strongyloides stercoralis was observed in 28 of the 230 (12.8%) SAC. Eggs of other helminths were observed in 51 (22.2%) students: Hymenolepis spp. in 27 students (11.7%), hookworm in 14 (6.1%), Schistosoma haematobium in four (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis in four (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in three (1.3%), Taenia spp. in two (0.9%), and Fasciola hepatica in one (0.4%). Protozoa were observed in 17 (7.4%) students. Detection of S. stercoralis was higher using the Baermann technique versus using formol-ether (11.3 vs. 3%). Overall prevalence of S. stercoralis in the school population of 16 studied schools in the municipal area of Cubal was greater than 10%. This fact must be considered when designing deworming mass campaigns. The use of specific tests in larvae detection is needed to avoid overlooking this parasite.

  6. Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day Care Centers in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and twenty-one children (57.8%) of the 384 children studied had intestinal parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Trichuris trichura were the commonest parasites found. The relationship between intestinal parasite infestation and diarrhea in past 2 months (X =19.5, df = 1, p< 0.001 ...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infestation in HIV seropositive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opportunistic parasites such as Cryptosporidium,. Cyclospora and Isospora species. It is also important to note that this report will be the first documentation on HIV/AIDS and intestinal parasites from this center. And it aims to determine the frequency and pattern of intestinal parasitic infestation, including protozoan species ...

  8. Malaria and intestinal parasites in pregnant and non-pregnant women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In sub-Sahara African countries, both malaria and intestinal helminth infections are endemic and co-infection commonly occurs. It is estimated that over a third of the world's population, mainly in the tropics and sub-tropics are infected with parasitic helminths and Plasmodium species thus often leading to co-infections.

  9. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  10. Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Warthogs (Phacochoerus Africanus) from the Nazinga Game Ranch of Burkina Faso. ... the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in warthogs from the Nazinga Game Ranch of ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Rose Anne; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Nishi, Letícia; Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2008-08-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI) leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference) persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1%) and 36 reference individuals (25.7%) were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively). Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%), Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7%) and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7%) were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947) or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046) in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  12. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among street beggars in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Ashebir Lakew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the rate of intestinal parasitic infections and related risk factors among street beggars in Jimma town from February 10 to March 20, 2010. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 116 street beggars cached at four different churches in Jimma town during ‘Abbey’ or two months Easter Christian fasting days. Interview was made using a structured questionnaire to collect socio-demographic data. Concentrated stool samples were collected and examined microscopically using direct wet smear. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 software package. Results: Of 116 street beggars whose stool had investigated, 104 (89.7% harbored one or more intestinal parasites. The most frequent intestinal parasites were Ascaris lumbricoides 76 (65.5% followed by Trichuris trichiura 52 (44.8%. Schistosoma mansoni accounted 14 (12.1% and hook worm 11 (9.5%. The rate of multiple parasitic infections was 63 (54.3%. The finger nail status, habit of shoe wearing and using source of river water for bathing showed statistical significant association with parasitic infections (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Ninety percent of street beggars harbored intestinal parasites and yet they do not have accesses to latrine indicates, these people obviously contribute for the spreading of parasites to the community and being potential risk for the environmental contamination. Therefore, regular deworming activity and insuring accesses of adequate public latrine in selected sites of the Jimma town need help to control parasitic infections in this town.

  14. Diagnostics of intestinal parasites in light microscopy among the population of children in eastern Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2016-09-01

    The variety of detected intestinal pathogens in examined children’s population has required the use of combination of multiple diagnostic methods in light microscopy, and finally improved the detection rates of intestinal parasites and helped eliminate infections with nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, and protozoa using appropriate treatment in the study population.

  15. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Ruiz, C.I. Sierra; Hermans, P.W.M.; Hoek, D. van der; Ponce, M.; Waard, J.H. de; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. METHODS: This

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China

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    Yurong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%. 64 (17.78% were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94% with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39% with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17% with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39% with hookworms, 11 (3.06% with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78% with Trichuris, 4 (1.11% with lungworm, 2 (0.56% with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28% with Trematode. The cats’ living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasites in Cats from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yurong; Liang, Hongde

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China was largely unknown prior to this study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of intestinal parasites in cats from central China and also identify risk factors for parasitism. Fecal samples from 360 cats were examined using sugar flotation procedure and fecal smear test by microscope. Cats had mixed two or three kinds of parasites infections. Of the 360 cats feces, intestinal parasites positive feces were 149 (41.39%). 64 (17.78%) were infected with Toxocara cati, 61 (16.94%) with Isospora felis, 41 (11.39%) with Isospora rivolta, 33 (9.17%) with Paragonimus, 23 (6.39%) with hookworms, 11 (3.06%) with Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 10 (2.78%) with Trichuris, 4 (1.11%) with lungworm, 2 (0.56%) with Sarcocystis, and 1 (0.28%) with Trematode. The cats' living outdoor was identified as risk factor by statistical analysis. These results provide relevant basic data for assessing the infection of intestinal parasites in cats from central region of China. In conclusion, there was high prevalence of intestinal parasites in cats from China.

  18. Prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites among pupils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Intestinal parasitic infestation remains a very common health issue among the children particularly in the public schools. Distribution of free antiparasitic drugs to pupils at the beginning of every term should be incorporated into the school health program. Key words: Intestinal Parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, ...

  19. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela : Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia M.; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular

  20. Frequency of intestinal parasites in employees of a state hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Fırat

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The prevalence of intestinal parasites isdifferent in our country and the world. Population move-ments, inadequate infrastructure, seasonal features, tra-ditional hygienic rules, the society’s socio-economic sta-tus and education level are factors that affect the distribu-tion of intestinal parasites. In the study, it was intendedto conduct porter analysis on Malatya State Hospital em-ployees. So, we aimed at determining the rate of intestinalparasites in the laboratory workers, kitchen staff, cleanersand nurses.Materials and Methods: From Malatya State hospitalstaff, perianal area materials and stool samples with cel-lophane tape method were collected. Examples wereexamined with native-Lugol, precipitation, and acid-fasttrichrome stains.Results: In 40.8% of 76 stools that were examined wasfound to positivity. The prevalences of parasites are 17.1Entamoeba coli, 6.6% Iodamoeba butschlii, 19.7% Blastocystishominis, 1.3% Chilomastix mesnilii, 5.3% Giardiaintestinalis and 1.3% Enterobius vermicularis.Conclusion: In the study, the studied staffs are healthworkers. Therefore, since the staffs working close contactwith patients were risk group in terms of infections, it wasrecommended that health staff susceptible to parasitesshould have a medical examination regularly and receivein-service training.

  1. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

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    Alicia Alva

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica

  2. Mathematical algorithm for the automatic recognition of intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alva, Alicia; Cangalaya, Carla; Quiliano, Miguel; Krebs, Casey; Gilman, Robert H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    Parasitic infections are generally diagnosed by professionals trained to recognize the morphological characteristics of the eggs in microscopic images of fecal smears. However, this laboratory diagnosis requires medical specialists which are lacking in many of the areas where these infections are most prevalent. In response to this public health issue, we developed a software based on pattern recognition analysis from microscopi digital images of fecal smears, capable of automatically recognizing and diagnosing common human intestinal parasites. To this end, we selected 229, 124, 217, and 229 objects from microscopic images of fecal smears positive for Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. Representative photographs were selected by a parasitologist. We then implemented our algorithm in the open source program SCILAB. The algorithm processes the image by first converting to gray-scale, then applies a fourteen step filtering process, and produces a skeletonized and tri-colored image. The features extracted fall into two general categories: geometric characteristics and brightness descriptions. Individual characteristics were quantified and evaluated with a logistic regression to model their ability to correctly identify each parasite separately. Subsequently, all algorithms were evaluated for false positive cross reactivity with the other parasites studied, excepting Taenia sp. which shares very few morphological characteristics with the others. The principal result showed that our algorithm reached sensitivities between 99.10%-100% and specificities between 98.13%- 98.38% to detect each parasite separately. We did not find any cross-positivity in the algorithms for the three parasites evaluated. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the capacity of our computer algorithm to automatically recognize and diagnose Taenia sp., Trichuris trichiura, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Fasciola hepatica with a high

  3. The effects of Strongylus vulgaris parasitism on eosinophil distribution and accumulation in equine large intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, A K; Freeman, D E; Constable, P D; Moore, R M; Eurell, J C; Wallig, M A; Hubert, J D

    2008-06-01

    Eosinophilic granulocytes have been associated with parasite or immune-mediated diseases, but their functions in other disease processes remain unclear. Cause and timing of eosinophil migration into the equine gastrointestinal mucosa are also unknown. To determine the effects of intestinal parasitism on eosinophils in equine large intestinal mucosa. Large intestinal mucosal samples were collected from horses and ponies (n = 16) from the general veterinary hospital population, ponies (n = 3) raised in a parasite-free environment, ponies experimentally infected with 500 infective Strongylus vulgaris larvae and treated with a proprietary anthelmintic drug (n = 14), and a similar group of ponies (n = 7) that received no anthelmintic treatment. Total eosinophil counts and eosinophil distribution in the mucosa were determined by histological examination. A mixed model analysis was performed and appropriate Bonferroni adjusted P values used for each family of comparisons. Pvulgaris and those raised in a parasite-free environment. Experimental infection with S. vulgaris, with or without subsequent anthelmintic treatment, did not change eosinophil counts, and counts were similar to those for horses from the general population. Migration of eosinophils to the equine large intestinal mucosa appears to be independent of exposure to parasites. Large intestinal mucosal eosinophils may have more functions in addition to their role in defence against parasites.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nasrin; Razmjou, Elham; Hashemi-Hafshejani, Saeideh; Motevalian, Abbas; Akhlaghi, Lameh; Meamar, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods. The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3-38). Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7-33.0). The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli , Giardia intestinalis , Dientamoeba fragilis , Iodamoeba butschlii , Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite , Chilomastix mesnilii , and Enterobius vermicularis . Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.

  5. Principal intestinal parasites of dogs in Tirana, Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimitër; Kondi, Elisabeta; Postoli, Rezart; Rinaldi, Laura; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Rehbein, Steffen

    2011-02-01

    From 2004 to 2009, the digestive tracts of 111 dogs from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania, were examined for intestinal helminths. In addition, rectal faecal samples of all dogs were examined for protozoan infections and 48 faecal samples from dogs >6 months of age were processed with the Baermann technique to test for the excretion of lungworm larvae. The heart and pulmonary arteries of 30 dogs >6 months of age also were examined for nematode parasites. The intestinal parasite fauna of the dogs included three protozoan species (Cystoisospora canis, Cystoisospora ohioensis/burrowsi, Sarcocystis spp.), three cestode species (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia hydatigena, Echinococcus granulosus), five nematode species (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis) and one acanthocephalan (Centrorhynchus buteonis). Rates of infection were: 15.3% for C. canis, 31.5% for C. ohioensis/burrowsi, 1.8% for Sarcocystis spp., 65.8% for D. caninum, 16.2% for T. hydatigena, 2.7% for E. granulosus (genotype G1), 13.5% for A. caninum, 64.9% for U. stenocephala, 75.7% for T. canis, 0.9% for T. leonina, 21.6% for T. vulpis and 0.9% for C. buteonis. Up to six species of gastrointestinal parasites were found per dog. The 63 ≤ 6-month-old dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age harboured significantly (pcaninum, T. hydatigena, A. caninum, U. stenocephala and T. vulpis compared to younger dogs. Conversely, the younger dogs harboured significantly (p6 months of age: Male dogs harboured significantly (p<0.05) more tapeworms than female dogs. Based on faecal examination, there was no indication for lungworm infection; however, two adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis) were found in the right ventricle of one dog.

  6. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Children Attending Day–Care Centers in Yazd City, Iran

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    Mohammad Hosein Anvari Tafti

    2014-07-01

    Results: In total 10 % of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite. The rates of infection were as follows: Blastocystis hominis 2.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.8%, Entamoeba coli 1.1%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.7%, Dientamoeba fragilis 1.1.%. Infection rate in male was 12.9% and in female it was 6.9%. The relationship between sex, age, anthropometric indicators, and parasitic infection was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was observed between infection, parents’ education and mothers' job (P<0.005. Conclusion: The results of this study, showed a considerable decrease in the rate of intestinal parasitic infections in comparison with other studies. This may be owing to the improvements in personal environment, and health which have occurred through public education campaigns, health information raising, sanitation facilities improvement, proper waste and wastewater disposal, control of drinking-water, and food safety.

  7. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  8. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique : Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, Lynn; Polderman, Anton M.; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Brienen, Eric A T; Verweij, Jaco J.; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H.; Langenberg, Marijke C C; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezehegn, Dejen; Abay, Mebrahtu; Tetemke, Desalegn; Zelalem, Hiwet; Teklay, Hafte; Baraki, Zeray; Medhin, Girmay

    2017-10-17

    Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs) were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0). The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who received food hygiene and safety training were 66

  10. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasites among food handlers of food and drinking establishments in Aksum Town, Northern Ethiopia

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    Dejen Gezehegn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used among 400 randomly selected food handlers who were selected as respondents. Data were collected by face to face interviewer administered questionnaire supplemented with observational checklist. Fresh stool samples were collected from respondents and were examined microscopically for the presence of any of intestinal parasites using standard laboratory methods. Multivariable logistic regression model using Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR and 95% Confidence Interval (CI was fitted to analyze the independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infections. Result The mean age of the food handlers included in this study was 26.0 years. Of the total respondents, 72.5% were females, 63% have completed at least secondary school educational level. Five species of Intestinal Parasites (IPs were identified. The overall prevalence of being infected with at least one intestinal parasite was 14.5%, 95% CI (11.3, 18.0. The odds of being positive for at least one intestinal parasitic infection was 12.3 times higher among food handlers who practice medical checkup every 9 months compared to those who have a medical checkup every 3 months. The odds of being positive for intestinal parasitic infection was 3 times higher among food handlers with no formal education compared to those who have a level of education secondary school and above. Food handlers who

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegegne, Yalewayker; Wondmagegn, Tadelo; Worku, Ligabaw; Jejaw Zeleke, Ayalew

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6%) among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256). Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0%) of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%), and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%). The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspected Patients Attending University of Gondar Hospital, Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Yalewayker Tegegne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in developing countries. Hence, it is significant to explore coinfection with intestinal parasites and pulmonary tuberculosis because coinfection increases the complexity of control and prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases. Objective. To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients. Method. Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar Hospital from March to May, 2017. Stool samples were taken from each participant and examined by direct microscopy and concentration technique. Descriptive statistics was performed and chi-square test was used to show the association between variables. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results. Intestinal parasites were detected in 50 (19.6% among a total of 256 pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients who were included in the study, whereas the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis was 16.8% (43/256. Pulmonary tuberculosis and intestinal parasite coinfection was detected in 5 (2.0% of the participants. The most prevalent intestinal parasites infection in this study was Ascaris lumbricoides, 15 (5.85%, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 14 (5.46%, and Hookworm, 13 (5.1%. Conclusion. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and their coinfection rate with pulmonary tuberculosis among pulmonary tuberculosis suspected patients were considerable.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, R; Rani, N; Ponnudurai, G; Anbarasi, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa's technique and examined under oil immersion (×100). The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (pTamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites such as coccidia and strongyles and haemoprotozoans such as Anaplasma and Theileria species in small ruminants.

  14. Intestinal parasites among Yanomâmi indians

    OpenAIRE

    Confalonieri, U. E.; Araújo, A. J.; Ferreira, L. F.

    1989-01-01

    The findings of intestinal helminths and protozoans parasites from the Yanomâmi indians of the Roraima State in Brazil are reported. The fecal samples were collected before these communities started a permanent contact with non-indians. Comments are made on the possible ecological and evolutionary factors responsible for the patterns of parasitism observed.

  15. Aspects of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in World Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a seven months (February to August, 2002) prevalence study of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in the New Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria, using both direct and concentration methods six helminth parasites were recorded. These included Hookworm, Strongyloides sp, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Diphylidium ...

  16. Prevalence of parasitic infections in HIV-positive patients in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekadu, Sintayehu; Taye, Kefyalew; Teshome, Wondu; Asnake, Solomon

    2013-11-15

    Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health burden in tropical countries. Although all HIV/AIDS patients are susceptible to parasitic infections, those having lower immune status are at greater risk. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in patients living with HIV/AIDS. This was a facility-based cross-sectional study. A total of 343 consecutively sampled HIV/AIDS patients from the HIV care clinic of Hawassa University Referral Hospital were included. Subjects were interviewed for demographic variables and diarrheal symptoms using structured questionnaires. Stool examinations and CD4 cells counts were also performed. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.8% among HIV/AIDS patients; single helminthic infection prevalence (22.7%) was higher than that the prevalence of protozoal infections (14.6%). About 54% of study participants had chronic diarrhea while 3.4% had acute diarrhea. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients with chronic diarrhea was significantly higher than in acute diarrhea (p intestinal parasite infections such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Taenia spp., and hookworm were commonly found, regardless of immune status or diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection were more frequent in patients with a CD4 count of Intestinal parasitic infections should be suspected in HIV/AIDS-infected patients with advanced disease presenting with chronic diarrhea. Patients with low CD4 counts should be examined critically for intestinal parasites, regardless of diarrheal status.

  17. Intestinal and external parasites of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten-Sacken, Natalia; Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Pacoń, Jarosław; Skrzypczak, Łukasz; Werner, Anna

    Parasites of an invasive species, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from western Poland were investigated to clarify poorly known ecological key aspects of the species. The research was conducted in two study areas: the Ujście Warty National Park and the Bogdaniec Forestry District. Intestinal samples were collected from the intestinal tracks of 39 dead animals and 51 faecal samples were collected in all seasons from latrines of raccoon dogs. Macro-parasites, their eggs and protozoan parasites were investigated to assess the taxonomic composition of parasites, the level of infection and the risk of potential transfer of dangerous parasites from raccoon dogs to people and native species. Among parasites potentially dangerous for human and native mammal species, Toxocara canis was found in the intestines and T. canis eggs, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and Entamoeba sp. cysts were identified in faecal samples. Sarcoptic mange was observed in the skin of two animals, whereas Diptera larvae (probably from the family Gasterophilidae) were found in the intestines of two other animals. This latter finding is very interesting, because Gasterophilidae are the typical parasites in horses and ungulates, but so far were never found in raccoon dogs.

  18. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaver, D.T.; Nwobegahay, J.M.; Goon, D.T.; Khoza, L.B

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

  19. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS OF SARI, NORTHERN IRAN

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    Mehdi SHARIF

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5% of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9% followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%, Entamoeba coli (15.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%, Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%, Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1% and Hymenolepis nana (1.9% as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  20. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran

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    Mohammad Hossein MOTAZEDIAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parasitic intestinal infections are still among socioeconomic prob­lems in the world, especially in developing countries like Iran. Food-handlers that directly deal with production and distribution of foods between societies are one of the most important sources to transmit parasitic infections to humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among food-handlers in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1021 feces samples were randomly col­lected from food-handlers in Shiraz, central Iran from August to September 2013. Two different methods, routine direct fecal examination and Formalin –Ethyl ace­tate concentration as a complementary technique, were done to detect parasites.Results: The prevalence of parasitic organisms was 10.4% in the food-handlers. The most species of the protozoan parasites were G. lamblia, E. coli and B. hominis; meanwhile, only one infection by H. nana (0.1% was detected in this group. Mixed infections were observed in 13.2% (n=14/106 of positive cases. The majority of participants were male (57%; however, data analysis showed significant statistical difference in the rate of infection between females 11.9% (n=53/444 and males 9% (n=52/577 (P=0. 024. There was no significant statistical difference in the rate of infection among different educational and occupation groups.Conclusion: Although decreasing of helminthic infections is distinct, but infecting with protozoan parasites is still important in food-handlers. Concentration tech­nique is more useful than direct smear technique, especially for detection parasites in low number. High level of education in our study showed that training courses in this group could be effective in the implementation of control and prevention programs.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

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    Hundaol Girma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods: Socio-demographic and associated risk factors data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Stool and finger-nail specimens were screened for intestinal parasites using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration sedimentation techniques. Data were edited, cleaned, entered and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS version 20. P ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: A total of 94 food-handlers working at cafeteria of Jimma University Specialized Hospital were participated in the study. From the total 148 samples (94 stool and 54 fingernails content examined, 31 (33% were positive for one or more parasites. Over all eight types of intestinal parasites were identified. The most prevalent parasite identified was Ascaris lumbricoides (16% followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.3%. There was significant association between parasitic infection and food handlers who did not practice hand washing after defecation and before serving food. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasites is detected indicating poor hygiene practice of the food-handlers at the study site. The study also identified finger-nail status, hand washing after defecation and before serving food as determinants of intestinal parasitic infection. It is crucial for provision of regular training on strict adherence to good personal hygiene and hygienic food-handling practices as well as regular inspection and medical checkup of food-handlers.

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions of Sivas, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiksöz, Ali; Güler, Nuran; Güler, Güngör; Oztop, A Yasemin; Degerli, Serpil

    2005-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of parasites in three socioeconomically-different regions (Alibaba, Esentepe, and Cayboyu) of Sivas, Turkey, to determine the most accurate method for the diagnosis of taeniasis and enterobiasis, to determine the importance of household visits in primary healthcare to control parasitic diseases, and to treat intestinal parasitic diseases in those regions. Both stool specimens and cellophane tape (CT) samples were taken from 1,864 participants during 641 household visits in the three regions. The age groups included were pre-school [(0-6 year(s)], primary school (7-15 years), and the upper age group (16 years and above). The total prevalence of intestinal parasites in the three regions was 37.2%. Eleven intestinal parasite species were detected in both stool specimens and CT samples. Giardia intestinalis and Enterobius vermicularis were the most frequent species identified in all the three regions. Region I (Alibaba) had a higher prevalence of parasites compared to the other two regions. There was no significant difference between Region II (Esentepe) and Region III (Cayboyu) in isolation of intestinal parasites. There were statistically significant differences between the age groups when the rates of parasitic infection were compared. The highest prevalence of parasitosis was observed among the age group of 7-15 years and in the socioeconomically lowest one of the three regions. While the most accurate way of diagnosis for taeniasis was the combined usage of the CT and direct preparation methods, the CT method was the best method for the diagnosis of enterobiasis. Thus, the local administrators in cities need to pay more attention to the prevention of parasitic infections along with improvements in educational, environmental and sanitary conditions.

  3. Decreasing Intestinal Parasites in Recent Northern California Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alicia H.; Perry, Sharon; Du, Jenny N. T.; Agunbiade, Abdulkareem; Polesky, Andrea; Parsonnet, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expanded the overseas presumptive treatment of intestinal parasites with albendazole to include refugees from the Middle East. We surveyed the prevalence of helminths and protozoa in recent Middle Eastern refugees (2008–2010) in comparison with refugees from other geographical regions and from a previous survey (2001–2004) in Santa Clara County, California. Based on stool microscopy, helminth infections decreased, particularly in Middle Eastern refugees (0.1% versus 2.3% 2001–2004, P = 0.01). Among all refugees, Giardia intestinalis was the most common protozoan found. Protozoa infections also decreased somewhat in Middle Eastern refugees (7.2%, 2008–2010 versus 12.9%, 2001–2004, P = 0.08). Serology for Strongyloides stercoralis and Schistosoma spp. identified more infected individuals than stool exams. Helminth infections are increasingly rare in refugees to Northern California. Routine screening stool microscopy may be unnecessary in all refugees. PMID:23149583

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone, Bushehr

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    MoradAli Fouladvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are of one most important problems in developing countries and job is one of the most important factors determining the rate of intestinal parasitic infections. Persons who deal with waste elimination and recycling, due to close contact with infectious sources are more likely to be infected than others. Because of industrialization, population density and immigrants residing in Assaluyeh region , and due to the lack of history of a study for intestinal parasitic infection, the prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in the collection, transportation and recycling of wastes in the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone was evaluated. Material and methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, demographic questionaire was completed for each person, Stool samples were taken and sample containers were transferred to parasitology research laboratory of university. Samples were examined for intestinal parasites by preparing direct smear (wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software and Chi square test. Results: The results showed that 37.3% of samples were infected at least with one intestinal parasite, 10.7% of samples were infected with more than one parasite. Giardia lamblia (6% and Entamoeba coli (13/4%, showed the highest infection rate among all parasite species. Prevalence rate of intestinal parasites in worker from Nakhl-e- Taghi municipality was higher than other region of the study area. Conclusion : Job type and duration of contact with infectious source play important roles in determining rate of intestinal parasitic infection. Workers involved in collection, transportation and recycling of wastes are more at risk of intestinal parasitic infections than others. Therfore, providing personal protective equipments and health education in this group can play an important role in community

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in School: a Review Profile Found in the Different Regions From Brazil

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    Valesca Francisco Pinto Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal infections caused by protozoa and helminths are considered a major cause of diseases by infectious processes in the world. The present study aims to conduct a survey regarding the recent years of the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children in various cities in Brazil, identifying which species are most commonly found and the regions that require greater dedication in this area. The analyzed studies showed that the Northern and Northeastern regions presented a higher prevalence of intestinal parasites, however, in the Southeast, results were encouraging with low levels of contamination by parasites compared to all regions in Brazil. As for intestinal parasites, the most common, found in all Brazilian regions, was Ascaris lumbricoides followed by Giardia lamblia. Therefore, one can conclude that the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in children found in some places in Brazil can demonstrate the need for greater care with basic sanitation and personal hygiene, both in households and in the places of study. These data show the importance of conducting educational programs that will develop personal awareness of parents, families and children themselves.

  6. INTESTINAL AND BLOOD PARASITES OF MAN IN TIMOR

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    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  7. Nuclear techniques in the study of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Out of 57 papers published, 47 fall within the INIS subject scope. Seven main topics were covered: resistance to infections with protozoan parasites; resistance to infections with African trypanosomes and helminths of ruminant animals; resistance to infections with filarial parasites and schistosomes; pathology of parasitic infections; epidemiology and diagnosis of parasitic infections; physiology and biochemistry of parasitic organisms; pharmacodynamics of anti-parasitic agents

  8. Health inequities: lower socio-economic conditions and higher incidences of intestinal parasites

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    Limoncu M Emin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections affect child health and development and slow down growth, while reducing adults' productivity and work capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the incidences of intestinal parasitic infections and the socio-economic status of two near primary school children in Manisa, a western city of Turkey. Methods A total of 352 children were involved a questionnaire study from a private school (Ülkem Primary School – ÜPS, 116 children and a community-based school (Şehzadeler Primary School – ŞPS, 236 children. Of these, stool samples could be obtained from a total of 294 students; 97 (83.6% from ÜPS, and 197 (83.5% from ŞPS. The wet mount preparations of the stool samples were examined; samples were also fixed in polyvinyl alcohol and examined with modified formalin ethyl acetate sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 10.0. The chi-squared test was used for the analytic assessment. Results The percentages of the students found to be infected with intestinal parasites, were 78 (39.6% and 13 (13.4% in ŞPS and ÜPS, respectively. Totally 91 (31.0% of the students from both schools were found to be infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most common pathogenic intestinal parasite and Blastocystis hominis was prevalent independently from the hygienic conditions. The factors which significantly (p Conclusion Intestinal parasitic infections in school children were found to be a public health problem that increased due to lower socio-economic conditions. We conclude that organization of education seminars including the topics such as prevention of the infectious diseases, improving general hygienic conditions, and application of supportive programs for the parents may be suggested not only to reduce intestinal parasitic infections, but also to elevate the socio

  9. Prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Tamirat; Mebrie, Getye

    2014-01-01

    As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with poor hygiene like intestinal parasites. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites and assessing the hygiene practices among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 118 food handlers in Yebu Town in January 2011. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using both direct wet mount and Formol ether concentration techniques. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 44.1% (52/118). Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm spp were the predominant parasites identified from the stool of study participants. Age above 35 years (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.8), no regular practice of washing hands before a meal (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 24.8), and untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 14.7, 95% CI: 2.8, 75.4) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing and poor finger nail hygiene. Therefore, much has to be done to improve the personal hygiene of the food handlers. Pre-placement and periodic screening of food handlers for parasites and prompt treatment, and health education on regular trimming or cleaning of fingernails would be the way forward for prevention of food borne diseases.

  10. Prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamirat Tefera

    Full Text Available As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with poor hygiene like intestinal parasites.This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasites and assessing the hygiene practices among food handlers in Yebu Town, southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study was conducted among a total of 118 food handlers in Yebu Town in January 2011. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using both direct wet mount and Formol ether concentration techniques.The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects was 44.1% (52/118. Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm spp were the predominant parasites identified from the stool of study participants. Age above 35 years (AOR: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.8, no regular practice of washing hands before a meal (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.8, 24.8, and untrimmed finger nail (AOR: 14.7, 95% CI: 2.8, 75.4 were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers.The present study showed high prevalence of intestinal parasites among the study subjects. The study also revealed poor personal hygiene like poor practice of hand washing and poor finger nail hygiene. Therefore, much has to be done to improve the personal hygiene of the food handlers. Pre-placement and periodic screening of food handlers for parasites and prompt treatment, and health education on regular trimming or cleaning of fingernails would be the way forward for prevention of food borne diseases.

  11. Coccidian intestinal parasites in the Priapulidae (Priapulida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, J F; Storch, V

    1997-01-01

    Four relatively uncommon members of the family Priapulidae (Priapulida) from very different parts of the world were examined to determine the presence of a parasitic coccidian in their midgut. The parasite was found in three of those priapulid species, Priapulopsis bicaudatus, P. australis, and Halicryptus higginsi, but not in the fourth one, Priapulus tuberculatospinosus. Using electron-microscopy techniques, we compared parasites of the different species with one another and with a parasite of Priapulus caudatus investigated by McLean in 1984. All of these parasites apparently belong to the same species and are likely to be Alveocystis intestinalis, a coccidian first described by Beltenev from P. caudatus and H. spinulosus. The present work greatly expands the geographical range of Alveocystis intestinalis and documents an uncommon case of low host specificity in eimeriid coccidians.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran

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    Nasrin HEMMATI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods.Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3–38. Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7–33.0. The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite, Chilomastix mesnilii, and Enterobius vermicularis. Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii. E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections.Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population. 

  13. Parasitic infections of the external eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahuja, Shivani; Puranik, Charuta; Jelliti, Bechir; Khairallah, Moncef; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-08-01

    To review the published literature on parasitic infections of external eye. Published articles and case reports on parasitic infections of external eye were reviewed and relevant information was collected. Parasitic infections of the eye are rare. However, being more commonly seen in developing nations, they require active measures for screening, diagnosis, and therapy. Parasites of importance causing external ocular disease are protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania; metazoans, such as nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flatworms); or ectoparasites, such as Phthirus pubis and Demodex.

  14. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

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    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  15. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of ... 2010) regarding the under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) and .... Positive (%) Negative Total ..... Checkley W, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, Black RE, Cabrera L, Sterling CR.

  16. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Meurs (Lynn); A.M. Polderman (A.); N.V.S. Vinkeles Melchers (Natalie); E.A.T. Brienen (Eric); J.J. Verweij (Jaco); B. Groosjohan (Bernhard); F. Mendes (Felisberto); M. Mechendura (Manito); D.H. Hepp (Dagmar H.); M.C.C. Langenberg (Marijke C. C.); R. Edelenbosch (Rosanne); K. Polman (Katja); L.M.C. van Lieshout (Leo M.)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting

  17. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Berhanu Elfu Feleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples’ t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8% of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  18. Intestinal Parasites in Children from a Day Care Centre in Matanzas City, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Roberto; Díaz, Mariuska Morales; Avalos García, Roxana; Laúd Martinez, Pedro Miguel; Manuel Ponce, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are widely distributed throughout the world and children are the most affected population. Day care centres are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring IP. Methods and Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012. 104 children under five years old were included on the study after informed consent form was signed by parents or legal guardians. Three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child in different days and were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether, and Kato- Katz techniques. Data relating to demography, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits were also collected using a standardized questionnaire. In total, 71.1% of children harbored at least one type of intestinal parasite and 47 (45.2%) were infected by more than one species. Giardia duodenalis and Blastocystis sp. were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 54.8% and 38.5% respectively. Conclusions Despite public health campaigns, improvement in the level of education, and the availability of and access to medical services in Cuba infections by intestinal protozoan is high in this centre. Almost nothing is published regarding intestinal parasites in Matanzas province during the last 40 years so this work could also be the initial point to carry out other studies to clarify the IP status in this region. PMID:23236493

  19. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out in Ibadan City, South-West Nigeria between March and June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in various markets within the city. Fifty samples each of 5 different vegetable types, Cabbage (Brassica deracea), Lettuce (Lactus sativa), Carrot (Daucus carota), ...

  1. Study on gastro intestinal parasite of cattle at Horoguduru Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastro intestinal parasite and protozoan emeria, to determine the common risk factor and to identify the commonly existing ... Carpological examination was done at Wollega University Shambu campus animal science and, food and nutrition department.

  2. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi and intestinal parasites among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Food borne diseases are a global public health problem. Food handlers play a major role for the transmission of food borne diseases. Objectives: This study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of intestinal parasites, S. typhi carrier rate and risk factors among food handlers at Bahir Dar town. Methods: A ...

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in a rural area close to the southeast of Lake Langano, Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ... Methods: In April 2003, fresh stool samples were collected from 259 students enrolled in two primary schools located in southeast of Lake Langano.

  4. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  5. Intestinal and haematic parasitism in the birds of the Almuñecar (Granada, Spain) ornithological garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordón, G Pérez; Prados, A Hitos; Romero, D; Moreno, M Sánchez; Pontes, A; Osuna, A; Rosales, M J

    2009-11-12

    Birds from the Almuñecar ornithological garden (Granada, Spain) were surveyed from June 2006 to May 2007 to establish programmes to prevent, control, and treat intestinal and haematic parasites. A total of 984 faecal samples and 41 samples of blood were collected from Psittacidae, Cacatuidae, Phasianidae, and Anatidae. One or more intestinal parasites were identified in 51.6% of the samples. Blood parasites were found in 26.8% of the birds examined. The most frequent pathogenic endoparasites were coccidians, such as Cyclospora sp. (4.5%), Eimeria sp. (4.1%) and Isospora sp. (2%) and helminths such as Capillaria sp. (10. 1%), Ascaridia sp. (4.9%) and Heterakis gallinarum (4.9%). All the parasites varied with season but the most were found year round. Multiple parasitic infections by intestinal parasites were common, with 196 of 984 faecal samples having 2-5 intestinal parasites. The most frequent cases of multiple parasitism were Blastocystis plus Entamoeba sp. and Blastocystis plus Cyclospora sp. The haematic protozoa detected were Haemoproteus sp. (17%) and Plasmodium sp. (7.3%). Multiple parasitism by Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. was detected in 1 sample of Gallus gallus. After each sampling, some of the affected animals were treated according to our results, and the corresponding programmes of prevention and control were designed.

  6. Intestinal parasites isolated in a large teaching hospital, Italy, 1 May 2006 to 31 December 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, L; Graffeo, R; Bani, S; Bugli, F; Boccia, S; Nicolotti, N; Fiori, B; Fadda, G; Spanu, T

    2011-06-16

    Intestinal parasites account for the majority of parasitic diseases, particularly in endemic areas. Most are transmitted via contaminated food. Because of increased immigration and travel, enteric parasitoses are now distributed worldwide. Between May 2006 and December 2008, we examined stool specimens from 5,351 patients (4,695 Italians, 656 non-Italians) for ova and parasites using microscopy, culture techniques, and molecular methods. Stools from 594 patients (11.1%) were contaminated and for all patients samples combined, a total of 700 intestinal parasites were counted. Ninety of the 594 infected patients had more than one parasite in their stools. Parasites causing intestinal disease occurred in 8.8% of patients. The prevalence was over twice as high among non-Italians (26.8% vs 8.9% in Italians, p003). Most isolates were pathogenic protozoa, including in decreasing order of frequency: Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, and Cyclospora cayetanensis. The latter two species tended to be more common in Italians, although not at significant level (3.6% (15/418) vs 1.7% (3/176) in non-Italians, OR: 2.15; 95%CI: 0.60–11.70, p=0.22). Helminthes were found in 28 patients, mainly non-Italians (5.7% (10/176) vs 4.3% (18/418), OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.54–3.13, p=0.47). Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana were the most common. Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia spp. and Trichuris trichiura were also found. Intestinal parasites are a serious problem in developing countries, but should not be underestimated in industrialised countries.

  7. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.M.; Incani, R.N.; Franco, C.R.; Ugarte, A.; Cadenas, Y.; Sierra Ruiz, C.I.; Hermans, P.W.; Hoek, D.; Campos Ponce, M.; de Waard, J.H.; Pinelli, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.Methods:This

  8. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Junqiang Li; Haiju Dong; Rongjun Wang; Fuchang Yu; Yayun Wu; Yankai Chang; Chenrong Wang; Meng Qi; Longxian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research lab...

  9. Consideration of Intestinal Parasite in Day-Care Center Children in Karaj City in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Haji Aliani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available History and Aim: Parasitical Diseases are the most important economic- health problems of most developing countries. Children who belong to very important constituents of society are at risk of such diseases. The parasitic transmission in some places with children come together has a very special importance because they interact closely to each others. Constant and regular study in developing countries for planning to control these diseases is essential. Thus, the present study aims to explore the prevalence of parasites and enterobius and effective factors in their spread among children of Karaj kindergartens in 1391. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study and sampling was random clustering from34 kindergartens out of 154 active kindergartens of 9 districts of Karaj city under supervision of state welfare organization of Karaj using a random number table. In this project the prevalence of enterobius and other intestinal parasites in 904 children from one to six years old in Karaj in 2o13 was studied. The number of samples was calculated using 95% confidence interval and relative accuracy of 35% and hypothetical prevalence of 5% of intestinal parasites to be 596. Considering 50% efficacy for clustering method, increased the sample size to 894. The questionnaires collecting the required data like age and gender of the child, and were used for gender, age, occupation and education of the parents and effective factors on infection with intestinal parasites like hand washing and using personal drinking glass and clinical symptoms in children and symptoms reported by the child to his/her parents or caregiver and the demographic data. The results of the scotch test, either positive or negative, were recorded. Formalin ether and direct smear test were performed on three samples of every case which collected for find determination inconsecutively. For the eneterobius diagnosis, the scotch test which is more specific was used. Results: A

  10. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Koffi Mathurin

    2014-02-17

    Feb 17, 2014 ... histolytica and C. parvum infection, based on molecular diagnosis, in children .... cytotoxigenic Clostridium difficile ), viruses (Rotavirus,. Noro viruses and ... cost, it gives the true prevalence with respect to its sensi- tivity and ...

  11. Occurrence of Intestinal Parasitic Contamination in Select Consumed Local Raw Vegetables and Fruits in Kuantan, Pahang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Afzan Mat; Mohammad, Mardhiah; Abdullahi, Muna Abshir; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Robaiza; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are one of the most common causes of human diseases that result in serious health and economic issues in many developing and developed countries. Raw vegetables and fruits play an important role in transmitting parasites to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the parasitological contamination of select commonly consumed local leafy vegetables and fruits in Kuantan, Malaysia. One kilogram of locally consumed raw vegetables and fruits were collected randomly from the Kuantan wet market (Pasar Tani) during the monsoon season (November 2014–January 2015) and the dry season (February 2015–April 2015). A standard wet mount procedure and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used for the detection of parasites. In the present study, the examination of vegetables revealed five different parasite species. The vegetable samples collected from Kuantan’s wet market were positive for both helminthes and protozoa. However, the fruits samples were negative for parasitic contamination. Pegaga was the most contaminated leafy vegetable in this study, and Strongyloides was the parasite found most frequently. Furthermore, there was a high diversity in the type of parasites observed during the dry season compared to the monsoon season. Therefore, further action should be taken to reduce the occurrence of parasitic contamination in vegetables by implementing the principles of good agricultural practice and improving water treatment efficacy. PMID:28228914

  12. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  13. Assessing the burden of intestinal parasites affecting newly arrived immigrants in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Ismail, Ahmed; Boughattas, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar. Overall prevalence of helminths was 7.0% and that of protozoa was 11.7%. Prevalence of combined helminths was highest among the western Asians and the highest prevalence of combined protozoan parasites was among workers from North to Saharan Africa. Analysis of temporal changes showed an increasing trend of protozoan infections over the investigated 3 years. A major contribution to this temporal change in prevalence came from Blastocystis hominis as well as from other protozoan species: Giardia duodenalis and Endolimax nana. Analysis of the temporal trend in species richness of the protozoan species showed a significant increase in the mean number of species harboured per subject across this period. The increase of protozoan infections over recent years raises some concerns. It suggests that screening protocols for applicants for visas/work permits needs to be revised giving more careful attention to the intestinal protozoan infections that potential immigrants may harbor.

  14. Intestinal protozoan parasites with zoonotic potential in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marietto-Gonçalves, G A; Fernandes, T M; Silva, R J; Lopes, R S; Andreatti Filho, R L

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of potentially zoonotic intestinal protozoan infections in exotic and wildlife Brazilian birds. Fecal samples from 207 birds of 45 species were examined. Infections by Balantidium sp., Entamoeba sp., and Blastocystis sp. were observed in 17 individuals (8.2%) of Gnorimopsar chopi, Oryzoborus angolensis, Sporophila caerulescens, Ramphastos toco, Aratinga leucophtalmus, and Pavo cristatus.

  15. Parasitismo intestinal en una escuela primaria de Bata, Guinea Ecuatorial Intestinal parasitism in an elementary school in Bata, Equatorial Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Quintero Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de precisar el grado de parasitismo intestinal según la edad, así como identificar los parásitos intestinales más frecuentes en la escuela primaria "Amiguitos de Jesús" de la ciudad de Bata, Guinea Ecuatorial, en el periodo septiembre 2002 a Junio 2003, se realizó un estudio descriptivo y prospectivo. En el mismo se encontró que el grado de parasitismo intestinal fue de un 29.9 % del total de análisis realizados, predominando sobre todo en los menores de 6 años; un 44.7% de éstos estaban infestados. Se encontró un predominio de los vermes: el más frecuente fue Trichuris trichiura, para el 95.1 % del total de niños infestados, y el áscaris lumbricoides, con un 75.6% del total de 41 infestados. De los protozoos, el más frecuente fue la ameba, existiendo en un 17.07 % de los infestados. El grado de infestación encontrado es elevado, requiriéndose programas educativos para fomentar el cuidado de los hábitos higiénicos de los niños. El predominio de los parásitos encontrados podría deberse a la contaminación de la tierra con heces fecales y a la falta de un adecuado tratamiento de las aguas para el consumo, y de infraestructura sanitaria.With the aim of defining exactly the grade of intestinal parasitism according to age, as well as identifying the most frequent intestinal parasites in "Amiguitos de Jesús" Elementary School in Bata City, Equatorial Guinea, during septembre 2002 to June 2003, a descriptive, prospective study is carried out. In the study it was found that the parasitism grade was 29.9% from the total of the analysis performed, predominating in those under 6 years of age: 44.7% of these cases were infected. A prevalence of vermes was observed, Trichuris trichiuria was the most frequent species found, representing 95,1% from the total of infected children and Ascaris lumbricoides 75,6% from the total of 41 infected. Among protozoa, amoeba was the most frequent specie observed, being present in 17

  16. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  17. Intestinal parasitism among waste pickers in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil

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    Minoru German Higa Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10 production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%. Endolimax nana (22.7%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, Giardia lamblia (6.1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5% were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%. Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66 and 98.4% (65/66 of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8% and 32 (48.4% subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.

  18. Parasites with possible zoonotic potential in the small intestines of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from Northwest Bohemia (CzR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankovská I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the prevalence of primarily zoonotic parasites in the small intestines of 40 (20 males and 20 females red foxes living near human dwellings. The total prevalence of parasite infection was 77.5 % (31/40; the prevalence was 37.5 % (15/40 for Toxocara canis and 35 % (14/40 for Toxascaris leonina. The mean intensity infection was 3 and 11 helminths for T. canis and T. leonina, respectively. The prevalence of other intestinal helminths and mean infection intensity in this study are given: Echinococcus multilocularis 40 % (16/40 with 1000 individuals, Mesocestoides spp. 40 % (16/40 with 8 individuals, Uncinaria stenocephala 10 % (4/40 with 8 individuals, and Taenia pisiformis 10 % (4/40 with 1 individual. With regards to prevalence and intensity of infection, as well as prevalence of individual parasites, there were no significant differences (P≥0.05 between male and female red foxes.

  19. Diagnosis of AIDS-Related Intestinal Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-20

    control dams did not; anti-Cryptosporidium IgA and IgG were demonstrated in milk whey extracted from the stomachs of mice suckling immune dams but not in...cecum, colon, and gallbladder were aspirated and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. A complete gross examination of all oroans and tissues was...but involved the hepatobiliary tree including bile ducts, gallbladder and pancreas in progressive infections; this resembles histopathology found in

  20. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  1. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  2. Human Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells as an Improved In Vitro Model for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Nichols, Joan; Gomez, Guillermo; White, A. Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel method for prolonged in vitro cultivation of PECs that can be used to study Cryptosporidium infection. We isolated intact crypts from human intestines removed during weight loss surgery. The fragments of intestinal layers were cultivated with culture medium supplemented with growth factors and antiapoptotic molecules. After 7 days, the PECs formed self-regenerating cell clusters, forming villi that resemble intestinal epithelium. The PECs proliferated and remained viable for at least 60 days. The cells expressed markers for intestinal stem cells, epithelial cells, and mature enterocytes. The PECs were infected with Cryptosporidium. In contrast to older models in which parasite numbers decay, the burden of parasites increased for >120 h. In summary, we describe here a novel method for the cultivation of self-regenerating human epithelial cells from small intestinal crypts, which contain both intestinal stem cells and mature villus cells. We present data that suggest these cells support Cryptosporidium better than existing cell lines. PECs should provide an improved tool for studying host-parasite interactions involving Cryptosporidium and other intestinal pathogens. PMID:23509153

  3. An epidemiological study of intestinal parasites of dogs from Yucatan, Mexico, and their risk to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Gutierrez-Ruiz, Edwin; Bolio-González, Manuel Emilio; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique; Manrique-Saide, Pablo; Aranda-Cirerol, Francisco; Lugo-Perez, J A

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and factors associated were studied in a rural community of Yucatan (southern Mexico), with special attention to those gastrointestinal parasites potentially transmitted to man. One hundred thirty dogs from 91 households were studied. Fecal samples were processed by the centrifugation-flotation and the McMaster techniques. To determine factors associated with zoonotic parasites in dogs, univariate analysis was performed, using sex, age, and body condition as independent variables. Variables with p caninum, Thichuris vulpis, Toxocara canis, and Dipylidium caninum) and coccidian oocysts were detected. A. caninum was the most prevalent parasite (73.8%), followed by T. vulpis (25.4%), T. canis (6.2%), D. caninum (2.3%), and coccidian oocysts (2.3%). The majority of dogs were infected by only one species of parasite (70/130, 53.8%). Mixed infection caused by two or three zoonotic parasites were discovered in 21.3% (30/130) and 3.1% (4/130), respectively. A. caninum showed the highest egg output (42.3% of dogs had ≥ 500 eggs per gram). Factors associated with zoonotic parasites were age (<2 years old; odds ratio = 5.30, p = 0.029) and body condition (poor body condition; odds ratio = 6.69, p = 0.026). In conclusion, young dogs from rural Yucatan, Mexico, with poor body condition had a higher prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites as these factors were associated with a higher risk of becoming infected.

  4. A Survey of Intestinal Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Central Queensland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gillespie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia has a very high rate of dog ownership, which in some circumstances may lead to exposure to zoonotic parasitic diseases from those companion animals. Domestic dog faecal samples (n = 300 were collected from public spaces and private property in the greater Rockhampton (Central Queensland region and tested for intestinal helminths and protozoa by direct microscopy, two flotation methods and a modified acid-fast stain for cryptosporidia. Intestinal parasites detected included hookworms (25%, Cystoisospora ohioensis complex (9%, Blastocystis hominis (3%, Giardia duodenalis (3%, Spirometra erinacei (1% and Toxocara canis (1%, Sarcocystis spp. (2%, Cryptosporidium spp. (2% and Cystoisospora canis (1%. One infection each with Trichuris vulpis, Dipylidium caninum and a protozoa belonging to the Entamoeba histolytica complex were identified. Sheather’s sucrose centrifugal flotation was more sensitive than saturated salt passive flotation, but no single test detected all cases of parasitic infection identified. The test methodologies employed are poor at recovering larva of Strongyloides stercoralis, Aleurostrongylus abstrussis and eggs of cestodes such as Echinococcus granulosis, so the potential presence of these parasites in Central Queensland domestic dogs cannot be excluded by this survey alone.

  5. Prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among food-handlers in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andargie, Gashaw; Kassu, Afework; Moges, Feleke; Tiruneh, Moges; Huruy, Kahsay

    2008-12-01

    Food-handlers with poor personal hygiene working in food-service establishments could be potential sources of infection due to pathogenic organisms. The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of bacteria and intestinal parasites among 127 food-handlers working in the cafeterias of the University of Gondar and the Gondar Teachers Training College, Gondar, Ethiopia. Fingernail contents of both the hands and stool specimens were collected from all the 127 food-handlers. The samples were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria species (41.7%) isolated from fingernail contents, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (16.5%), Klebsiella species (5.5%), Escherichia coli (3.1%), Serratia species (1.58%), Citrobacter species (0.8%), and Enterobacter species (0.8%). Shigella species were isolated from stool samples of four food-handlers (3.1%). None of the food-handlers was positive for Salmonella species and Shigella species in respect of their fingernail contents. No intestinal parasites were detected from fingernail contents. Intestinal parasites detected in the stools of the food-handlers included Ascaris lumbricoides (18.11%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), Trichuris trichiura (1.6%), hookworm species (0.8%), Gardia lamblia (0.8%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.8%); 1.6% of the study subjects were positive for each of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, hookworm, and G. lamblia. The findings emphasize the importance of food-handlers as potential sources of infections and suggest health institutions for appropriate hygienic and sanitary control measures.

  6. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Meurs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared.A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303 was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC, Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96% harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49% harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%, the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected.We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence

  7. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Lynn; Polderman, Anton M; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Brienen, Eric A T; Verweij, Jaco J; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H; Langenberg, Marijke C C; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared. A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303) was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC), Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96%) harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49%) harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%), the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected. We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence, there is a

  8. Comparison between Two Decades of Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Diseases and Risk Factors in a Brazilian Urban Centre

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    Maria Aparecida Alves de Oliveira Serra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study’s objective was to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors in children in urban communities, in the Brazilian Northeast, between two decades. Methods. This quantitative transversal study consisted of a comparative analysis of two different samples: the first viewing the years 1992–1996 and the other through a coproepidemiological data survey undertaken in 2010-2011. Results. It was evidenced that there was a reduction of intestinal parasites and that there were improvements in the socioenvironmental conditions between the two decades evaluated. It was observed that, in the period 1992–1996, playing out in the streets was associated with a higher risk for acquiring intestinal parasites. Over the 2010-2011 period, the characteristics of more than five residents per household, houses with dirt floors, children who live in homes without piped water, and children who play out in the streets were associated with a higher risk of intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusion. The study showed a reduction of intestinal parasitic diseases to 23.8% in 2010-2011 from 81.3% in 1992–1996 and improvement of the social-sanitary conditions of the population between the decades analyzed.

  9. Immunodiagnosis of parasitic infections using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-07-01

    This report documents the recommendations of the ''Advisory Group on Immunodiagnosis of Parasitic Infections Using Nuclear Techniques'' with a focus on malaria, schistosomiasis and filariasis. Radionuclide tracers are considered an important component of present and future immunological methods for the assessment of the host's humoral and cellular immunity to the parasite and the detection of parasite antigen(s) in human body fluids. The Advisory Group has concluded that there is a continuing need for the development and application of immunodiagnostic methods in parasitic diseases. This report concerns methods which are currently or potentially applicable to immunodiagnostic investigations in parasitic diseases. Reference is made, where appropriate, to recent developments in research which may lead to improvement and standardization of methods now available and the development of new methodology. Separate abstracts on various papers presented were prepared

  10. Intestinal Parasites among Foreign Junior Staff of King Khalid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli were the only protozoa identified. Those found positive ... Employers of this category of workers in food and vegetable industries, must ensure they are regularly screened and if found to be infected, promptly treated to interrupt transmission of these parasites to the community. Nigerian ...

  11. Prevalence of intestinal and urinary parasites among food-handlers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.3%) out of the food handlers harboured parasites of which 3 (10%) had Trichomonas vaginalis in their urine, 1(3.3%) recorded concomitant infection with Entamoeba histolytica, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, 5 (16.7%) had ...

  12. Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hilary G; McArthur, Andrew G; Gillin, Frances D; Aley, Stephen B; Adam, Rodney D; Olsen, Gary J; Best, Aaron A; Cande, W Zacheus; Chen, Feng; Cipriano, Michael J; Davids, Barbara J; Dawson, Scott C; Elmendorf, Heidi G; Hehl, Adrian B; Holder, Michael E; Huse, Susan M; Kim, Ulandt U; Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Manning, Gerard; Nigam, Anuranjini; Nixon, Julie E J; Palm, Daniel; Passamaneck, Nora E; Prabhu, Anjali; Reich, Claudia I; Reiner, David S; Samuelson, John; Svard, Staffan G; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2007-09-28

    The genome of the eukaryotic protist Giardia lamblia, an important human intestinal parasite, is compact in structure and content, contains few introns or mitochondrial relics, and has simplified machinery for DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, and most metabolic pathways. Protein kinases comprise the single largest protein class and reflect Giardia's requirement for a complex signal transduction network for coordinating differentiation. Lateral gene transfer from bacterial and archaeal donors has shaped Giardia's genome, and previously unknown gene families, for example, cysteine-rich structural proteins, have been discovered. Unexpectedly, the genome shows little evidence of heterozygosity, supporting recent speculations that this organism is sexual. This genome sequence will not only be valuable for investigating the evolution of eukaryotes, but will also be applied to the search for new therapeutics for this parasite.

  13. [Concordance between the zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inês, Elizabete De Jesus; Pacheco, Flavia Thamiris Figueiredo; Pinto, Milena Carneiro; Mendes, Patrícia Silva de Almeida; Da Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Soares, Neci Matos; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Aquino

    2016-12-01

    The diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections depends on the parasite load, the specific gravity density of the parasite eggs, oocysts or cysts, and the density and viscosity of flotation or sedimentation medium where faeces are processed. To evaluate the concordance between zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation in the recovery of parasites in faecal samples of children. Faecal samples of 330 children from day care centers were evaluated by zinc sulphate flotation and centrifugal sedimentation techniques. The frequencies of detection of parasites by each method were determined and the agreement between the diagnostic techniques was evaluated using the kappa index, with 95% confidence intervals. The faecal flotation in zinc sulphate diagnosed significantly more cases of Trichuris trichiura infection when compared to centrifugal sedimentation (39/330; 11.8% vs. 13/330; 3.9%, p<0.001), with low diagnostic concordance between methods (kappa=0.264; 95% CI: 0.102-0.427). Moreover, all positive samples for Enterobius vermicularis eggs (n=5) and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (n=3) were diagnosed only by zinc sulphate. No statistical differences were observed between methods for protozoa identification. The results showed that centrifugal flotation in zinc sulphate solution was significantly more likely to detect light helminths eggs such as those of T. trichiura and E. vermicularis in faeces than the centrifugal sedimentation process.

  14. High prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs from Belgrade, Serbia--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Aleksandra; Dimitrijević, Sanda; Katić-Radivojević, Sofija; Klun, Ivana; Bobrć, Branko; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2008-09-01

    To identify areas of risk for canine-related zoonoses in Serbia, the aim of this study was to provide baseline knowledge about intestinal parasites in 151 dogs (65 household pets, 75 stray and 11 military working dogs) from Belgrade. The following parasites, with their respective prevalences, were detected: Giardia duodenalis (14.6%), Ancylostomatidae (24.5%), Toxocara canis (30.5%), Trichuris vulpis (47.0%) and Taenia-type helminths (6.6%). Of all examined dogs, 75.5% (114/151) were found to harbour at least one parasite species. Of these, mixed infections with up to four species per dog occurred in 44.7% (51/114). Infections with all detected species were significantly higher (p dogs (93.3%) versus household pets (50.8%). Among all parasites, agents with zoonotic potential including Giardia, Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara were detected in 58.3% (88/151) of all examined dogs with a significant difference (p dogs, stray dogs and household pets, respectively). The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites registered in the dog population from a highly urban area in south-eastern Europe indicates a potential risk to human health. Thus, veterinarians should play an important role in helping to prevent or minimise zoonotic transmission.

  15. Frequency of intestinal parasites and socioeconomic conditions of São Marcos city-RS schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila Cristina Rech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in São Marcos city-RS elementary and middle school children, from March to October 2015. A questionnaire was applied to asses students' knowledge on pathways for parasite transmission and on sanitation facilities in the city. Stool samples were collected from eighth-grade students of nine different schools and were analyzed/processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Of the 190 students who participated in the study, most were female (51.58% and the mean age of the students was 7.99 ± 3.23 years. 5.79% of the samples were positive for parasites, being 3.16% of cysts of Entamoeba coli, 1.58% of Endolimax nana and 1.05% of Giardia lamblia. As for the students’ knowledge on parasites, 73.16% reported knowing what parasites are and what damage they can cause, 68.42% are aware of the transmission pathways, however 41.58% consider there is insufficient information available to the public. Related to the health issues to which they are exposed, 94.21% reported consuming potable water and 64.74% reported having sewage collection and treatment. The present study has shown a low prevalence of parasitic infections, which could be explained by the knowledge of parents and guardians about topic, favorable sanitary conditions, and the high percentage (78.95% of students who have already been treated with antiparasitic drugs.

  16. PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

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    Isidro Jarque

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections are rarely documented in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. However, they may be responsible for fatal complications that are only diagnosed at autopsy. Increased awareness of the possibility of parasitic diseases both in autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant patients is relevant not only for implementing preventive measures but also for performing an early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy for these unrecognized but fatal infectious complications in hematopoietic transplant recipients. In this review, we will focus on parasitic diseases occurring in this population especially those with major clinical relevance including toxoplasmosis, American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, and strongyloidiasis, among others, highlighting the diagnosis and management in hematopoietic transplant recipients.

  17. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy

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    Hoang van Tong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among children of farm workers in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebiye Yentur Doni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [b][/b]Objective. To determine the species, prevalence, and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites in farm workers’ children in a representative sample in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. Materials and method. A total of 333 farm workers’ children, under the age of six years, were selected using the probability sampling method. Mean age of the children was 3.63±0.5; 55.5% were female. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis of faecal samples. Results. The overall prevalence was 44.6% and the infected children had single, double, and triple parasitic infections at 72.3%, 23.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. The most common parasite was [i]G. intestinalis[/i] (47.97%, followed by [i]E. vermicularis[/i] (37.84%, [i]T. saginata[/i] (27.03%, [i]H. nana[/i] (12.16%, and [i]A. lumbricoides[/i] (7.43%, respectively. Age, gender, illiteracy of the households, poverty, absence of toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens at the place of residence, lack of safe potable water, geophagia (soil eating habit, and being a child of a seasonal farmworker were the most significant factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P<0.05. [i]G. intestinalis[/i] and [i]E. vermicularis[/i] were found as the most common parasites that cause salivation, abdominal pain, and tiredness (P<0.05. Conclusion. The study revealed that health education programmes for farm workers and farmers should be improved to increase awareness about living and working conditions, in order to control intestinal parasites. However, early diagnosis and treatment services for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.

  19. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  20. Copromicroscopic and molecular investigations on intestinal parasites in kenneled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Giulia; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Cassini, Rudi; Traversa, Donato; Beraldo, Paola; Tessarin, Cinzia; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal parasites are common in dogs worldwide, and their importance has recently increased for a renewed awareness on the public health relevance that some of them have. In this study, the prevalence of helminths and protozoa was evaluated by microscopy in 318 canine faecal samples collected from eight rescue shelters in the North-eastern Italy; 285 of them were also submitted to the molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. isolates. An analysis was performed to evaluate the prevalence rates in relation to canine individual data, shelter provenance and anthelmintic treatments. Overall, 52.5% (167/318) of faecal samples were positive for at least one parasite. Trichuris vulpis showed the highest overall prevalence rate (29.2%), followed by G. duodenalis (15.1%), Toxocara canis (9.7%), ancylostomatids (8.2%) and Cystoisospora (5.7%). The prevalence of G. duodenalis, evaluated by real-time PCR, was 57.9% (165/285), and 79 isolates were characterized by nested PCR on the β-giardin gene. The assemblages found were mainly the host-specific genotypes C and D, while only one assemblage was identified as the human-specific genotype B1. Isolates of Cryptosporidium spp., recorded in 3/285 (1.1%) stool samples, were Cryptosporidium parvum based on the characterization of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) gene. Although the results describe a relatively limited risk of dog-originating zoonoses, there is the need to improve the quality of shelter practices towards better health managements for safe pet-adoption campaigns and a minimization of the environmental faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites.

  1. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  2. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, in Different Parts of Iran During 2012-2013

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    Nozhat Zebardast

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are one of the most important health problems worldwide, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, in different parts of Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 1520 stool samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders. The stool specimens were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration and a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Amoeba-positive samples were cultured for further differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii. DNA-based methods were used to differentiate these amoebas and to detect Cryptosporidium- positive samples. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS ver. 16. Results: Out of the 1520 individuals studied, 153 (10.06% were infected at least with one intestinal parasite. 781 (51.4% of patients were male and 738 (48.6% were female. The prevalence of protozoan parasites 148 (9.7% was significantly higher than helminth parasites 5 (0.3% (P < 0.001. The frequency of intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis sp., 72 (4.73%; Giardia intestinalis, 35 (2.30%; Entamoeba coli 21 (1.38%; Endolimax nana 10 (0.92%; Cryptosporidium spp., 1 (0.06%; Entamoeba dispar, 1 (0.06%; Dientamoeba fragilis, 1 (0.06%; Hymenolepis nana, 3 (0.19%; Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 2 (0.13%. In five (0.32% of the positive samples, co-infections with two parasites were found. G. intestinalis was more prevalent in male 22/35 (62.86% than female 13/35 (37.14% as well as in 0-9 years old group. In one sample Heterodera ova contained larva were seen. Conclusions: Blastocystis and G. intestinalis were the predominant intestinal parasites detected in patient with gastrointestinal disorders. The results indicated that the intestinal parasites, particularly helminth infections have been

  3. Parasitic Infections In A Developing Country: The Vermiform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vermiform appendix may become a yielding target and an innocent victim of intestinal parasitism. This is likely to occur more readily in those parts of the developing world in which the parasitic load in the community is high. This high parasitic load more commonly afflicts people of low socio-economic class. This report is ...

  4. Intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco, Colombia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe-Ferrer, Lucy M; Pinilla-Pérez, Mavianis

    2016-02-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco- Colombia and associated risks factors. Methods Analytical study in which 390 children between 2 and 12 years old from 10 neighborhoods of Turbaco were included, whose legal representatives gave informed consent. Three serial samples of feces and 10 soil samples were processed. Risk factors were determined through an interview. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of soils were also evaluated. Results Parasites were found in 30.5 % of children. 162 parasites were observed; the most frequent protozoan was Endolimax nana (30.3 %) and in terms of helminthes, the most frequent was Ascaris lumbricoides (4.9 %). No statistical association between age or sex and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) or between risk factors and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) was found. Low frequencies of intestinal parasites were encountered in soil samples, being more common Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp., and Ascaris lumbricoides. Neighborhoods of Turbaco had sandy dry soil with low content of ions, low conductivity and low organic matter. Conclusion This study showed a low frequency of intestinal parasites in feces and soils. Despite this, pathogenic parasites were found which can affect the health of the population. Besides this, a high percentage of intestinal parasites that are transmitted through feces were detected indicating fecal contamination and low level of hygiene.

  5. Association between Helicobacter pylori and intestinal parasites in an Añu indigenous community of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuenmayor-Boscán, Alisbeth D; Hernández, Ileana M; Valero, Kutchynskaya J; Paz, América M; Sandrea, Lisette B; Rivero, Zulbey

    2016-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and enteroparasite infections are highly prevalent in populations with poor living conditions, like the Amerindian communities. Identifying associations between both types of infectious agents could help to detect shared risk factors or transmission routes in these minority ethnic groups. Therefore, the prevalence and association between Hp and enteroparasites were investigated in an indigenous community whose living conditions favor such infectious diseases. Seropositivity (anti-Hp-specific IgG) and active infection (stool antigen test), intestinal parasitosis (direct and concentrated coproparasitological test, methylene blue, and Kinyoun stains), and risk factors for fecal-oral transmission were determined in 167 children and 151 adults of the Añu indigenous community living at the Sinamaica Lagoon, in Venezuela. A high rate of Hp infection (seropositivity and active infection) and enteroparasitosis was evidenced, as expected. Some significant associations were detected: direct associations between Hp and polyparasitic infection, helminths, and protozoan (particularly in children); inverse association between Hp and Giardia lamblia. No shared epidemiological factors were identified for Hp and the detected intestinal parasites, probably due to overlapping factors. Direct associations detected support the participation of the fecal-oral route in the transmission of the involved infectious agents. Inverse relationship (Hp) and G. lamblia may suggest the existence of antagonistic interactions between them. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these associations.

  6. Factors Associated with Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections among Young Population in Northeast Brazil

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    Juliana Vasconcelos Lyra da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intestinal parasitic infections constitute a major public health problem that is frequently associated with poverty, inadequate sanitation, and the nutritional status of the population. Objective. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible association of parasitic infections, sanitary conditions, hygiene practices, and the nutritional and socioeconomic status of a poor youth population. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 367 children and adolescents inhabiting a substandard settlement in the urban area of Maceió (Alagoas State, Brazil. Data collection included socioeconomic status, anthropometric measurements, fecal sample examinations, and laboratory blood analysis. The identification of factors associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections was undertaken through bi- and multivariate analyses. Results. Stool sample analysis obtained from 300 individuals revealed that 204 (68% were infected with at least one parasite species and of these 130 (63.7% were polyparasitized. No significant associations were identified between low height for age (stunted, parasitic infections, and polyparasitism. There was also no association between family income and parasitosis. However, low socioeconomic status proved to be a potential risk factor for parasitic infections. Conclusion. Actions must be taken to improve sanitation, housing, and environmental conditions in order to eliminate the risk factors for parasitic infections, and thereby guarantee a better quality of life for this population.

  7. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of the Gray mouse lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...

  8. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Zoonotic intestinal parasites in Papio anubis (baboon) and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet) from four localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, Mengistu; Erko, Berhanu

    2004-05-01

    A total of 59 faecal samples from ranging Papio anubis (baboons) and another 41 from Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet) from the Rift Valley areas of Ethiopia were microscopically examined to determine the prevalence and species of major gastro-intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance. Faecal smears were prepared from fresh faecal samples, stained using modified Ziehl-Neelsen method and microscopically examined. About 3 gm of the dropping was also preserved separately in clean and properly labelled containers containing 10% formalin. The specimens were microscopically examined after formalin-ether concentration for ova, larvae, cysts and oocyst of intestinal parasites. The results of microscopic examination of faecal samples of baboons demonstrated the presence of Trichuris sp. (27.1%), Strongyloides sp. (37.3%), Trichostrongylus sp. (8.5%), Oesophagostomum sp. (10.2%), Schistosoma mansoni (20.3%), Entamoeba coli (83.1%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (16.9%), Blastocystis hominis (3.3%), Cyclospora sp. (13.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (11.9%). Likewise, the results of microscopic examination of faecal samples of vervets demonstrated the presence of Trichuris sp. (36.6%), Oesophagostomum sp. (4.9%), E. coli (61.0%), E. histolytica/dispar (24.4%), B. hominis (34.2%), Cyclospora sp. (22.0%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (29.3%). The presence of parasitic protozoa and helminths in baboons and vervets in the study areas is a high risk to human welfare because these non-human primates use the same water sources as humans and range freely in human habitats. An implication of such parasitic infection for the control programme is discussed.

  10. Three years of distribution of intestinal parasites in an Education and Research Hospital: A retrospective study

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    Bayram Pektaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the patients who applied to various clinics in our hospital with gastrointestinal complaints in terms of intestinal parasites, retrospectively. Methods: Totally 41967 stool samples of patients applied to Parasitology laboratory in Konya Education and Research Hospital in January 2010-December 2012 were investigated under microscope after multiplexing by native lugol and formol ethyl acetate method. Trichrome dying was performed to the suspected samples. The stool samples, in which Entamoeba histolytica /E.dispar cannot be differentiated, were investigated by ELISA method in order to identify adhesin antigens. Results: Intestinal parasite was determined in 2145 (5.11% of 41.967 patients who applied to our laboratory in 3 years. 39.4%, 44.3% and 16.2% of positive patients were 0-15, 16-50 and >50 years old, respectively. Blastocyctis hominis, Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found in 59.9%, 25% and 13.7% of the positive samples, respectively. Entamoeba spp and Giardia intestinalis were found most frequently in 0-15 years old patients, while Blastocyctis hominis was found most frequently in 15-49 years old patients. There was a statistically significant difference between these parasites and age groups (p<0.01. The distribution of the positive cases among the years was found as 6.8% in 2010, 5.4% in 2011, 3.3% in 2012 and there was a statistically significant difference between the years (p<0.01. Conclusion: According to our results, the frequency of parasite infection still maintains its importance, although the frequency was decreased compared to previous years. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 269-273

  11. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

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    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  12. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among the Rural Primary School Students in the West of Ahvaz County, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasem Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Parasitic infections are among the most important global health problems, especially in the developing countries. They are among the most common forms of infectious diseases in the world. According to the report of the world health organization (WHO, about 3.5 billion people worldwide are infected by a kind of parasite, and 450 million people each year become ill due to complications caused by parasites. Objectives Due to a lack of accurate statistics on the prevalence of the parasite in primary school children in rural areas of West of Ahvaz, Iran, the current study aimed at investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasites in the mentioned group. Methods The current descriptive epidemiologic analysis was conducted on 306 rural primary school students in the Western regions of Ahvaz County in 2015. Collected samples were transferred to the laboratory of parasitology in the school of medicine, and underwent a direct and sedimentary formalin-ether test. Results Out of the 306 students under study, 180 (58.8% were male and 126 (41.2% female. Of these students 88 (28.8% were with 1 or more intestinal parasites, which Giardia lamblia, with the prevalence of 61 (19.9% subjects had the highest rate, followed by Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba histolytica, Blastocystis hominis, and Entamoeba coli with the prevalence of 12 (3.9%, 9 (2.9%, and 6 (1.9%, respectively, . Six (1.9% students showed coinfection by the 2 parasites. There was a significant relationship between the prevalence of the parasite and the variables of age, the source of drinking water, and the method of washing vegetables and fruits, but no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of the parasite, and parents’ level of education and children’s gender. There was no case of infection with the worms. Conclusions Similar to other recent studies, only protozoan infection was observed in the current study. Giardia lamblia had the highest infection rate

  13. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intes...

  14. Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors of intestinal parasites in Danish primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Henrik Vedel

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We studied the role of intestinal parasites by describing the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in primary care patients aged 18-50 y with IBS. One hundred and thirty-eight patients at baseline...... and 78/116 patients returning 1 y later, submitted faecal samples that were examined by microscopy, culture for Blastocystis, and real-time PCR for Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba (dispar and histolytica), Cryptosporidium spp., and Giardia intestinalis. Overall, 42-45% of patients harboured intestinal...

  15. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardarian, K; Maghsood, A H; Ghiasian, S A; Zahirnia, A H

    2015-06-01

    Zoonotic parasitic infections are a major global public and veterinary health problem and widespread among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray and household dogs in the rural areas of Hamadan district. During 2012, 1,500 fresh fecal samples from 243 household and 1,257 stray dogs were examined by using direct wet mount, simple zinc sulfate flotation, and Lugol's solution staining. Of 1,500 dogs, 20.4% were positive for intestinal parasites. Helminthes eggs were more frequently found in fecal samples than protozoan cysts or trophozoites (15.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively). Toxocara canis was the most frequently detected parasite, with a prevalence of 6.3%, followed by Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (2.9%), Isospora spp. (2.7%), and Toxascaris leonina (2.6%). Helminthes and protozoa were significantly more prevalent in household dogs than in stray dogs (Pparasites indicated that people residing in this area are at risk of exposure to these potentially hazardous zoonotic pathogens. Mass education of the general population is highly recommended to increase awareness of the potential for horizontal transmission of these parasitic infections from dogs to humans.

  16. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  17. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Diakou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90% was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3% cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7% for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53 multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24% and Dipylidium caninum (2%, while a high number of examined animals (58.8% had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2% and Leishmania infantum (6.1%. DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  18. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in companion dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, and genetic characteristics of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhongjia; Ruan, Yang; Zhou, Mengjie; Chen, Siyuan; Zhang, Yinxin; Wang, Liya; Zhu, Guan; Yu, Yonglan

    2018-01-01

    Companion animals including dogs are one of the important components in One Health. Parasites may cause not only diseases in pet animals but also many zoonotic diseases infecting humans. In this study, we performed a survey of intestinal parasites in fecal specimens (n = 485) collected from outpatient pet dogs with diarrhea in Beijing, China, for the entire year of 2015 by microscopic examination (all parasites) and SSU rRNA-based nested PCR detection (Giardia and Cryptosporidium). We observed a total of 124 (25.6%) parasite-positive specimens that contained one or more parasites, including Giardia duodenalis (12.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (4.9%), Cystoisospora spp. (4.3%), trichomonads (4.3%), Toxocara canis (3.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.6%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.2%). Among the 55 dog breeds, infection rates were significantly higher in border collies and bulldogs, but lower in poodles (p PCR, 20 PCR amplicons could be sequenced and identified as Cryptosporidium canis (n = 20). Collectively, this study indicates that parasites are a significant group of pathogens in companion dogs in Beijing, and companion dogs may potentially transmit certain zoonotic parasites to humans, particularly those with weak or weakened immunity.

  20. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  1. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  2. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.

  3. Parasitic Infections (Helminth and Protozoa in Cases Referring to Yazd Central Laboratory, 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Dehghani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasites have world wide prevalence and are considered to be as one of the leading hygienic and economic problems in the world. It can be said that there is nowhere in the world without parasitic infestations. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in patients referring to Yazd Central Laboratory in 2000-2002. Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional, analytic and descriptive study including 13388 stool specimens examined by two methods; Formalin-Ethyl Acetate and direct Method for intestinal parasites and Scotch tape method for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 13388 samples examined included 6913 women and 6475 men. Parasites were observed in 1151 cases (8.6% including 618 (53.7% men and 533 (46.3% women, respectively. Of these, 98.6% were infected with protozoa and 1.4% with helminths. Giardia lambdia (41.05%, E.coli (27.45% and Blastocystis hominis (15.51% were the most common infecting organisms. Helminth infections were few, but the highest frequency was related to Hymenolepis nana and Enterobious vermicularis. Maximum frequency was reported in summer. There was a significant association between stool consistency and infestation by intestinal parasites (P=0.002. There was a significant relationship with sex, too (P=0.001 Conclusion: In the present study, the most common parasites were Giardia, E.coli and Blastocystis hominis (higher than five, but the prevalence was less as compared to previous similar studies in other regions, which could be because of the hot and dry weather, better personal hygiene and improved sewage system of Yazd.

  4. Parasitic infections in African pangolin ( Manis temminckii ) from Edo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amblyomma sp.). Oochoristica sp. (100%) and Amblyomma sp. (75%) were the most prevalent parasites. Both male and female pangolins recorded equal prevalence (100%) of infection, however, mean intensity of parasites was higher in males ...

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among members of the public in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M

    2005-01-01

    A total of 246 stool samples were collected from the public who participated in a Medical Fair held at the University Malaya Medical Center. The stools were examined for intestinal parasites using the formalin-ether concentration technique. The overall infection rate was 6.9% (17 out of 246), with Trichuris trichiura being the most common parasite (4.5%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%), Clonorchis sinensis (0.8%), hookworm (0.4%), and Entamoeba histolytica (0.4%). None of these participants showed any clinical symptoms. The highest infection rate was among the Chinese 7.7% (13 out of 169), followed by the Malays 7.0% (3 out of 43) and Indians 3.3% (1 out of 30). The highest infection rate was in the age group 16-30 years, which was 9% (6 out of 67). The two cases of clonorchiasis were from two Chinese women aged 28 and 66 years. The 28-year-old Chinese woman was born in Malaysia and had never left the country, while the older woman was also born in Malaysia but had visited Hong Kong as a tourist on two occasions. Both enjoyed eating raw fresh water fish with porridge.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species among diarrheal children in Jimma health center, Jimma southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot

    2014-02-05

    Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial

  8. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Getnet, Gebeyaw; Yalew, Aregaw; Addis, Zelalem

    2011-08-01

    To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among HIV/AIDS patients in Bahir Dar. Cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV/AIDS patients attending Gambi higher clinic from April1-May 30, 2009. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 248 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 248 enrolled in the study, 171(69.0%) (90 males and 81 females) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients (80.3%, 151/188), and the infection rate of HIV negative individuals was 33.3% (20/60). Cryptosporidum parvum (43.6%), Isospora belli (15.5%) and Blastocystis hominis (10.5%) were opportunistic parasites that were found only in HIV/AIDS patients. Opportunistic parasite infections are common health problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Parasitic infections and maternal anaemia among expectant mothers in the Dangme East District of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Samuel Crowther Kofi; Nani, Emmanuel Agbeko; Walana, Williams

    2017-01-03

    Parasitic infections are of public health concern globally, particular among at risk groups such as pregnant women in developing countries. The presence of these parasites during pregnancy potentiate adverse effects to both the mother and the unborn baby. This study sought to establish the prevalence of some parasitic agents among antenatal attendees in the Dangme East District of Ghana. A cross-sectional prospective study was conduct between April and July, 2012. Venous blood specimens were collected from each participant for haemoglobin estimation and malaria microscopy. In addition participants' early morning mid-stream urine and stool specimens were analyzed microscopically for parasitic agents. A total of 375 pregnant women were involved in the study, of which anaemia was present in 66.4% (249/375). However, parasitic infections associated anaemia prevalence was 49.6% (186/375). In all, 186 cases of parasitic infections were observed; 171 (44.0%) were single isolated infections while 15 (4.0%) were co-infections. Plasmodium species were significantly associated with anaemia (13.3%, χ 2  = 23.290, p anaemia in pregnancy. Except where co-infections exist (3.7%, χ 2  = 11.267, p = 0.001), the rest of the single infections were insignificantly associated with anaemia. Collectively, intestinal helminthes were predominantly significant with anaemia in pregnancy (p = 0.001, χ 2  = 107.800). The study revealed relatively high prevalence of parasitic infections among the study population, suggesting that about three-quarters of the anaemic mothers are either single or co-infected with parasitic agents.

  10. A study of blood and gastro-intestinal parasites in Edo state | Mordi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A four-year study to determine the prevalence of both blood and gastro-intestinal parasites of man was done in all the eighteen local government areas of Edo State, Nigeria. The study, which commenced in January of 2000, ended in December of 2004. Of the 136,360 samples examined, 1000 that is 0.7% had parasites.

  11. The effect of some ecological factors on the intestinal parasite loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some ecological factors that might potentially influence intestinal parasite loads in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) were investigated in the Nilgiris, southern India. Fresh dung samples from identified animals were analysed, and the number of eggs/g of dung used as an index of parasite load. Comparisons ...

  12. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  13. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  14. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

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    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  17. Distribution of Helminth Parasites in Intestines and Their Seasonal Rate of Infestation in Three Freshwater Fishes of Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asifa Wali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of helminth parasites in fishes with special reference to water quality parameters in Dal Lake and River Jhelum and correlate the observations. Water, fish, and parasite samples were collected during different seasons from various sites and processed. Three fish species, namely, Schizothorax niger Heckel 1838, Schizothorax esocinus Heckel 1838, and Schizothorax curvifrons Heckel 1838, were recovered from these water bodies. The physicochemical parameters temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and free carbon dioxide showed variation vis-à-vis the season and location of the stations in water bodies. Acanthocephalan parasite Pomphorhynchus kashmirensis Kaw 1941 (27.47% and two intestinal cestodes Bothriocephalus acheilognathi Yamaguti 1934 (30.63% and Adenoscolex oreini Fotedar 1958 (32.43% were recovered from all the three species of Schizothorax. All the three parasites showed higher prevalence during summer and the least prevalence during winter. Parasitic infections were prevalent more in male fishes compared to females. The presence of the parasites had reduced the condition coefficient of the infected fishes in both water bodies. The study also showed that some of the physicochemical features showed a significant positive correlation with the prevalence.

  18. Climate change and parasite transmission: how temperature affects parasite infectivity via predation on infective stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Drent, J.; Thieltges, D.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect disease risk in many parasite-host systems, e.g., via an effect of temperature on infectivity (temperature effects). However, recent studies indicate that ambient communities can lower disease risk for hosts, for instance via predation on free-living stages of

  19. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

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    Jonathan D King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. METHODOLOGY: We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response. The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI 7.2-12.7%, 9.7% (5.9-13.4%, and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5% but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%. The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9% compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6% and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2% of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy

  20. Intestinal parasite prevalence in an area of ethiopia after implementing the SAFE strategy, enhanced outreach services, and health extension program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan D; Endeshaw, Tekola; Escher, Elisabeth; Alemtaye, Genetu; Melaku, Sileabatt; Gelaye, Woyneshet; Worku, Abebe; Adugna, Mitku; Melak, Berhanu; Teferi, Tesfaye; Zerihun, Mulat; Gesese, Demelash; Tadesse, Zerihun; Mosher, Aryc W; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Marti, Hanspeter; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Hopkins, Donald R; Emerson, Paul M

    2013-01-01

    The SAFE strategy aims to reduce transmission of Chlamydia trachomatis through antibiotics, improved hygiene, and sanitation. We integrated assessment of intestinal parasites into large-scale trachoma impact surveys to determine whether documented environmental improvements promoted by a trachoma program had collateral impact on intestinal parasites. We surveyed 99 communities for both trachoma and intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths, Schistosoma mansoni, and intestinal protozoa) in South Gondar, Ethiopia. One child aged 2-15 years per household was randomly selected to provide a stool sample of which about 1 g was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, concentrated with ether, and examined under a microscope by experienced laboratory technicians. A total of 2,338 stool specimens were provided, processed, and linked to survey data from 2,657 randomly selected children (88% response). The zonal-level prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura was 9.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.2-12.7%), 9.7% (5.9-13.4%), and 2.6% (1.6-3.7%), respectively. The prevalence of S. mansoni was 2.9% (95% CI 0.2-5.5%) but infection was highly focal (range by community from 0-52.4%). The prevalence of any of these helminth infections was 24.2% (95% CI 17.6-30.9%) compared to 48.5% as found in a previous study in 1995 using the Kato-Katz technique. The pathogenic intestinal protozoa Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were found in 23.0% (95% CI 20.3-25.6%) and 11.1% (95% CI 8.9-13.2%) of the surveyed children, respectively. We found statistically significant increases in household latrine ownership, use of an improved water source, access to water, and face washing behavior over the past 7 years. Improvements in hygiene and sanitation promoted both by the SAFE strategy for trachoma and health extension program combined with preventive chemotherapy during enhanced outreach services are plausible explanations for the

  1. Parasitic infection of the digestive tract in children in a Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal parasites are very common in children. We propose to study the prevalence and Epidemiological profile of the port of intestinal parasites in 300 children hospitalized in the Regional Hospital of Gharb area (Kenitra, Morocco) from June to December 2007. This study Identified 11 intestinal parasites. Of the 300 ...

  2. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Anna; Scorza, Valeria; Castellà, Joaquim; Lappin, Mike

    2014-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of intestinal parasites in shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia, Northeastern Spain, fresh faecal samples from 81 shelter dogs and 88 hunting dogs were collected and analysed by faecal flotation. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 71.6% in each population. In the shelter dog group, 67.9% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 9.8% were positive for helminths. In the hunting dog group, 20.4% of dogs were positive for intestinal protozoa and 63.6% were positive for helminths. A subset of Giardia-positive samples was evaluated by PCR; Giardia assemblages C or D were detected. These results suggest that comprehensive parasite control measures should be implemented in both shelter and hunting dogs in Catalonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

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    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  4. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  5. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile town, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Ephrem; Mohammed, Jemal; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal helminthic infections are important public health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. There are several areas in Ethiopia from which epidemiological information is lacking including Babile town. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among students of Babile town. A cross sectional study was conducted from May 14 to June 08, 2012. Stool samples collected from 644 students were examined by the McMaster method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test to check for presence or absence of association between exposure and the presence of infection and odds ratios with 95% CI were computed to measure the strength of association. Logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of helminthic infection. Statistical significance was set at Pintestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.2% respectively. Intestinal helminthic infection was significantly associated with grade and sex of the school children. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was low. Health information dissemination is recommended. Since infection by Hymenolepis nana is a long term health problem in the area, provision of regular treatment by anthelminthic drug of choice for hymenolepiasis is also recommended.

  6. Sex steroids, immune system, and parasitic infections: facts and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Castro, Karen; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Muñiz-Hernández, Saé; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2012-07-01

    It has been widely reported that the incidence and the severity of natural parasitic infections are different between males and females of several species, including humans. This sexual dimorphism involves a distinct exposure of males and females to various parasite infective stages, differential effects of sex steroids on immune cells, and direct effects of these steroids on parasites, among others. Typically, for a large number of parasitic diseases, the prevalence and intensity is higher in males than females; however, in several parasitic infections, males are more resistant than females. In the present work, we review the effects of sex hormones on immunity to protozoa and helminth parasites, which are the causal agents of several diseases in humans, and discuss the most recent research related to the role of sex steroids in the complex host-parasite relationship. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  7. Parasitic infection improves survival from septic peritonitis by enhancing mast cell responses to bacteria in mice.

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    Rachel E Sutherland

    Full Text Available Mammals are serially infected with a variety of microorganisms, including bacteria and parasites. Each infection reprograms the immune system's responses to re-exposure and potentially alters responses to first-time infection by different microorganisms. To examine whether infection with a metazoan parasite modulates host responses to subsequent bacterial infection, mice were infected with the hookworm-like intestinal nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, followed in 2-4 weeks by peritoneal injection of the pathogenic bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae. Survival from Klebsiella peritonitis two weeks after parasite infection was better in Nippostrongylus-infected animals than in unparasitized mice, with Nippostrongylus-infected mice having fewer peritoneal bacteria, more neutrophils, and higher levels of protective interleukin 6. The improved survival of Nippostrongylus-infected mice depends on IL-4 because the survival benefit is lost in mice lacking IL-4. Because mast cells protect mice from Klebsiella peritonitis, we examined responses in mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice, in which parasitosis failed to improve survival from Klebsiella peritonitis. However, adoptive transfer of cultured mast cells to Kit(W-sh/Kit(W-sh mice restored survival benefits of parasitosis. These results show that recent infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis protects mice from Klebsiella peritonitis by modulating mast cell contributions to host defense, and suggest more generally that parasitosis can yield survival advantages to a bacterially infected host.

  8. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in a peri-urban area. These results will contribute to more accurate epidemiological survey, refined treatment strategies on a public scale, and better health outcomes in endemic settings.

  9. Interactions between the intestinal flagellates Giardia muris and Spironucleus muris and the blood parasites Babesia microti, Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, S J; Cox, F E

    1982-08-01

    In mice infected with the intestinal flagellates Giardia muris or Spironucleus muris, together with the blood parasites Babesia microti or Plasmodium yoelii, there is a temporary decrease of flagellate cyst output coincident with the peak of the blood parasite infections, followed by a rapid return to normal levels. This decrease in cyst output is correlated with decreased numbers of trophozoites in the small intestine. The effect on S. muris is more marked than that on G. muris. Neither blood parasites has any effect on the total duration of the flagellate infection and the flagellates do not affect the blood parasites. In mice infected with G. muris or S. muris and P. berghei there is also a decrease in cyst output but this is less apparent than in infections with B. microti or P. yoelii because of the fatal nature of the P. berghei infection. It is suggested that the decrease in cyst output is probably due to changes in the contents of the small intestine or to non-specific immunological factors rather than to specific immunological changes.

  10. Intestinal helminth co-infection and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2017-01-13

    Helminths affect the outcome of tuberculosis by shifting cell mediated immune response to humoral and by total suppression of the host immune system. On the reverse, Mycobacterium infection favors immune escape of helminths. Therefore assessing helminth co-infection rate and predisposing factors in tuberculosis patients is mandatory to set strategies for better case management. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal helminths among pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January to August, 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to capture data about socio-demographic characteristics, clinical history and possible risk factors for intestinal helminth infections. Height and weight were measured to calculate body-mass index. Appropriate amount of stool was collected and processed by direct saline and formol-ether concentration techniques following standard protocols. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A total of 213 (57.3% male and 42.7% female) pulmonary tuberculosis patients were participated in the study. The overall co-infection rate of intestinal parasites was 26.3%. The infection rate of intestinal helminths account 24.4% and that of intestinal protozoa was 6.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides accounted the highest frequency of 11.3%. Living in rural residence (AOR = 3.175, 95% CI: 1.102-9.153, p = 0.032), Eating vegetables/ fruits without washing or peeling off (AOR = 2.208, 95% CI: 1.030-4.733, p = 0.042) and having body-mass index intestinal helminth infection. The infection rate by intestinal helminths was 24.4%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent helminth. Residence, habit of washing vegetables/fruits before use and body-mass index were associated factors with intestinal helminthiasis. Therefore health care providers should screen and treat TB patients for intestinal helminthiasis in order to ensure good prognosis.

  11. Parasitic infections of amphibians in the Pendjari Biosphere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic infections of amphibians in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve, Benin. ... Results obtained show the possible influence of land-use pattern on parasite distribution. For example, the ... Furthermore, this infection pattern may be indicative of an immunosuppressive effect of pesticides on the frogs of the Agricultural Zone.

  12. PARASITIC INFECTIONS OF DRY SEASON FARMERS IN SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standard laboratory procedures were adopted in the collection, processing and parasite identification in the stool samples. The rates of parasites infections in the farmers were 91.6% for helminthes and 86.4% for protozoa. Helminth infection rates but not those of protozoa, varied significantly between farmers and controls.

  13. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea: its relation to sanitary conditions and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roka, Margarita; Goñi, Pilar; Rubio, Encarnación; Clavel, Antonio

    2012-08-15

    The prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases and their associated factors has been investigated in HIV populations from the Island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. The feces of 310 participants from the island of Bioko (260 HIV-positive and 50 HIV-negative) were analyzed by microscopic observation. Immunochromatography was also used to diagnose Giardia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium spp. In addition, patients were asked for sociodemographic, economic and academic status, and CD4+ T cell counts were recorded. For HIV-positive patients, the prevalence of infection by intestinal parasites was 81.5% (212/260), 83.8% (218/260) by pathogenic helminths and 55.4% (168/260) by pathogenic protozoa (E. histolytica/dispar and Giardia duodenalis). Gender association was found between the infection by Ascaris and Schistosoma, a higher proportion being found in women; and between Entamoeba and the place of residence, a higher proportion being observed in the urban belt. Strongyloides stercoralis and Chilomastix mesnili appeared only in the people of this group, all the cases of Chilomastix being in females. For HIV-negative participants, the prevalence of infection by intestinal parasites was 74.0% (37/50), 90.0% (45/50) by pathogenic helminths and 66.0% (43/50) by pathogenic protozoa. Gender, educational level and low hygiene were associated with intestinal parasitic infection. When comparing the two groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative), statistical association between HIV co-infection and infection by Giardia and Entamoeba was found. Diarrhea was also associated with intestinal parasitic infection in the HIV-positive group. Not only do our findings reflect high rates of intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-positive people, but also in the HIV-negative group, suggesting a closer relationship between sanitary status and living conditions than with immune status, and thus they highlight the need to carry out health education policies in the population. In addition

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yuee Teng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong, Chun Wie; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Tee, Mian Zi; Siow, Vinnie Wei Yin; Chua, Kek Heng

    2016-07-18

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among indigenous people have been widely documented in Malaysia, however, the prevalence of these infections remains high. In the past, most studies have focused on specific species of parasites but polyparasitism has received limited attention. In addition, epidemiology studies on indigenous people tend to consider them as a homogenous group, whereas in reality different sub-ethnic groups have different cultural and living practices. Variations in living habits such as personal hygiene practices may predispose different groups to different parasitic infections. To better understand prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among different sub-ethnic groups, the present study was conducted among two sub-ethnic groups of indigenous people (Temuan and Mah Meri) residing in Selangor state, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study that focused on two distinct sub-ethnic groups was carried out from February to September 2014. Faecal samples were collected from 186 participants and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. A molecular approach was adopted to conduct a genetic characterisation of the parasites. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics, socio-economic backgrounds and behavioural risks relating to the participants, as well as information about their environments. Statistical analyses (i.e. binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses) were performed to measure risk factors. For Temuan communities, trichuriasis (64.2 %) was the most common infection found, preceding hookworm infection (34 %), ascariasis (7.5 %), giardiasis (14.2 %) and amoebiasis (7.5 %). As for the Mah Meri communities, trichuriasis (77.5 %) prevailed over ascariasis (21.3 %), hookworm (15 %), giardiasis (7.5 %) and amoebiasis (3.8 %). Significant differences in proportions of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were observed between the Temuan and Mah

  16. Diagnosis of intestinal parasites in a rural community of Venezuela: Advantages and disadvantages of using microscopy or RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incani, Renzo Nino; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Hoek, Denise; Ramak, Robbert; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Kortbeek, Titia; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and diagnostic performance of microscopy and real time PCR (RT-PCR) for 14 intestinal parasites in a Venezuelan rural community with a long history of persistent intestinal parasitic infections despite the implementation of regular anthelminthic treatments. A total of 228 participants were included in this study. A multiplex RT-PCR was used for the detection of Dientamoeba fragilis, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium sp. and a monoplex RT-PCR for Entamoeba histolytica. Furthermore, a multiplex PCR was performed for detection of Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Combined microscopy-PCR revealed prevalences of 49.3% for A. lumbricoides, 10.1% for N. americanus (no A. duodenale was detected), 2.0% for S. stercoralis, 40.4% for D. fragilis, 35.1% for G. intestinalis, and 7.9% for E. histolytica/dispar. Significant increases in prevalence at PCR vs. microscopy were found for A. lumbricoides, G. intestinalis and D. fragilis. Other parasites detected by microscopy alone were Trichuris trichiura (25.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (3.4%), Blastocystis sp. (65.8%), and the non-pathogenic Entamoeba coli (28.9%), Entamoeba hartmanni (12.3%), Endolimax nana (19.7%) and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.5%). Age- but no gender-related differences in prevalences were found for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, G. intestinalis, and E. histolytica/dispar. The persistently high prevalences of intestinal helminths are probably related to the high faecal pollution as also evidenced by the high prevalences of non-pathogenic intestinal protozoans. These results highlight the importance of using sensitive diagnostic techniques in combination with microscopy to better estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially in the case of D. fragilis trophozoites, which deteriorate very rapidly and would be missed by microscopy. In addition, the differentiation between

  17. Intestinal parasites in First World War German soldiers from "Kilianstollen", Carspach, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Landolt, Michaël; Mauchamp, Leslie; Dufour, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Paleoparasitological investigations revealed the presence of intestinal helminths in samples taken from the abdominal cavities of two German soldiers, recovered in the First World War site named "Kilianstollen" in Carspach, France. Eggs from roundworm, whipworm, tapeworm and capillariids were identified. The morphological and morphometrical comparison, followed by statistical analyses, showed that the Carspach capillariid eggs are similar to rodent parasites. Poor sanitary conditions in the trenches, the lack of knowledge of parasites, and the widespread presence of commensal animals, can explain the occurrence of such parasites in human intestines. This study is the second dealing with 20th century human samples. It confirms the presence of intestinal worms in First World War German soldiers. In this case study, the application of statistics to precise measurements facilitated the diagnosis of ancient helminth eggs and completed the microscopic approach.

  18. The influence of poverty and culture on the transmission of parasitic infections in rural nicaraguan villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Abraar; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections cause one of the largest global burdens of disease. To identify possible areas for interventions, a structured questionnaire addressing knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding parasitic infections as well as the less studied role of culture and resource availability was presented to mothers of school-age children in rural communities around San Juan del Sur, Nicaragua. We determined that access to resources influenced knowledge, attitude, and behaviors that may be relevant to transmission of parasitic infections. For example, having access to a clinic and prior knowledge about parasites was positively correlated with the practice of having fencing for animals, having fewer barefoot children, and treating children for parasites. We also found that cultural beliefs may contribute to parasitic transmission. Manifestations of machismo culture and faith in traditional medicines conflicted with healthy practices. We identified significant cultural myths that prevented healthy behaviors, including the beliefs that cutting a child's nails can cause tetanus and that showering after a hot day caused sickness. The use of traditional medicine was positively correlated with the belief in these cultural myths. Our study demonstrates that the traditional knowledge, attitude, and practice model could benefit from including components that examine resource availability and culture.

  19. Intestinal Parasitological infection of employee in food manufacture anddistribution centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nasrifar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrand and Aims: Food centers' employee may be carrier of bacteria (eg. Salmonella, E coil,taphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasitical infection. With regard the importance of the roleof manufacturer and distribnter of food materials in enviromental health, the status and assessmentof these infections is necessary.Method:182 employee of food manufacture and distribntion centers' of Ilam University ofMedical Sciences were examined. 3 feaces sample were obtained from each porson in 3 days andby five different laboratory method (i.e. scoth-tape, direct thechuics, Ether formaline, Telmen'Flotation were examined. Date analysis was dane by SPSS Version, and chi square test.Results: 49.2 percent of employee had positive parasitical infection, which 45.1 percent hadprotoza and 9.7 percent had intestinal helminth. The most infections of protoza were due toEntamoeba coli, Endolimax nane, giardia Lamblia, blastocystis hominis, Chilomastix mesniliand Iodamoeba buetschlii. The most infection of intestinal heliminth were Oxyuris VermicularisHymenolepis nana, Ascaris Lumbericoides, Tricocephal, Tricosterongylus.Conclusion: The high occurance of intestinal protoza may be due to Low level of public healthand, not favouring of hygine basis in food manufacture and distribution rlaces.

  20. Parasitic infections on the shore of Lake Victoria (East Africa) detected by Mini-FLOTAC and standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Beatrice; Ianniello, Davide; Zepheryne, Henry; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Burioni, Roberto; Albonico, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Helminths and protozoa infections pose a great burden especially in developing countries, due to morbidity caused by both acute and chronic infection. The aim of our survey was to analyze the intestinal parasitic burden in communities from Mwanza region, Tanzania. Subjects (n=251) from four villages on the South of Lake Victoria have been analyzed for intestinal parasites with direct smear (DS), formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and the newly developed Mini-FLOTAC technique; urinary schistosomiasis was also assessed in a subsample (n=151); symptoms were registered and correlation between clinic and infections was calculated by chi-squared test and logistical regression. Out of the subjects screened for intestinal and for urinary parasites, 87% (218/251) were found positive for any infection, 69% (174/251) carried a helminthic and 67% (167/251) a protozoan infection, almost half of them had a double or triple infection. The most common helminths were hookworms, followed by Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium. Among protozoa, the most common was Entamoeba coli followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia intestinalis. Mini-FLOTAC detected a number of helminth infections (61.7%) higher than FECM (38.6%) and DS (17.9%). Some positive associations with abdominal symptoms were found and previous treatment was negatively correlated with infection. Despite the limited size of the examined population the current study indicates a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Bukumbi area, Tanzania, and Mini-FLOTAC showed to be a promising diagnostic tool for helminth infections. This high parasitic burden calls for starting a regular deworming programme and other preventive interventions in schools and in the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidemiological Study of Intestinal Parasites in Referred Individuals to the Medical Centers’ Laboratories of Haji-Abad City, Hormozgan Province, Iran, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Mehran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:intestinal parasitic infection is one of the most prevalent health problems in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and its correlation with socio-demographic parameters in Haji-abad, 2015.MaterialsandMethods:This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 635 samples. After completing questionnaires, stool samples were assessed macroscopically, and microscopically using direct slide smear with saline and lugol, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-Neelsen staining to track Cryptosporidium species and Trichrome staining for the samples suspected to amoeba and other indeterminate cases. PCR using specific primers was conducted for Entamoebahistolytica/E. dispar suspected samples. The results were analyzed using SPSSver.16 software.Results:Of total 635 samples, 198 cases (31.2% were infected by at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasites in this area were: Blastocystis sp. (105, 16.5%, Endolimax nana (43, 6.8%, Entamoeba coli (32, 5.0%, Giardia lamblia (31, 4.9%, and Iodamoeba butschlii (11, 1.7%. Enterobius vermicularis (1, 0.2% was the only detected helminthic infection. Regarding socio-demographic variables, age, residence, sampling month, and job showed a significant correlation with IPIs (p-value=0.031, 0.019, 0.014, 0.012; respectively. None of nine microscopically suspected E. histolytica/E. dispar cases were confirmed by molecular investigations (PCR method and were considered as E. coli.Conclusion:In agreement with previous studies, helminthes infections show a dramatic decline compare to protozoa in this study. The relatively high incidence of intestinal protozoan infections in studies performed in Iran supports strategies for pre­venting the transmission and expansion of these parasites as a priority.

  2. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  3. Chronic Trichuris muris infection decreases diversity of the intestinal microbiota and concomitantly increases the abundance of lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance...... of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences...

  4. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Primary School Children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research, and Education in Cancer,. Tata Memorial ... in Cancer, Tata Memorial Center, Navi Mumbai, India .... parasites and socioeconomic status determined using the Chi ..... The impact of helminths on the response ... Municipality, Kenya.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in vegetables sold in major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCE.DR SOLOMON ADEJAYAN CHAIRMAN NURTW ONDO STATE

    Raw waste water usually contains high contamination of eggs of human intestinal nematodes and the increasing use ... these, the environmental risk factors have not been ... was placed separately in a plastic container and washed with 10 ml ...

  6. Host social behavior and parasitic infection: A multifactorial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, V.O.

    2004-01-01

    I examined associations between several components of host social organization, including group size and gregariousness, group stability, territoriality and social class, and gastrointestinal parasite load in African bovids. At an intraspecific level, group size was positively correlated with parasite prevalence, but only when the parasite was relatively host specific and only among host species living in stable groups. Social class was also an important predictor of infection rates. Among gazelles, territorial males had higher parasite intensities than did either bachelor males or females and juveniles, suggesting that highly territorial individuals may be either more exposed or more susceptible to parasites. Associations among territoriality, grouping, and parasitism were also found across taxa. Territorial host genera were more likely to be infected with strongyle nematodes than were nonterritorial hosts, and gregarious hosts were more infected than were solitary hosts. Analyses also revealed that gregariousness and territoriality had an interactive effect on individual parasite richness, whereby hosts with both traits harbored significantly more parasite groups than did hosts with only one or neither trait. Overall, study results indicate that multiple features of host social behavior influence infection risk and suggest that synergism between traits also has important effects on host parasite load.

  7. High prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Southwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zemene, Endalew; Alemu, Yayehirad; Mengistie, Zemenu

    2015-07-02

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) pose significant public health challenges in school children in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites among elementary school children in Mizan-Aman town, southwest Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study involving 460 elementary school children in Mizan-Aman Town was conducted from May to June 2013. The school children were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data on demography and predisposing factors of IPIs were collected using pretested questionnaire. Moreover, single stool specimen was examined microscopically after wet mount and formol-ether sedimentation concentration procedures. Infection intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) was estimated using Kato-Katz egg counting method. Age of the children ranged from 5 to 17 years. Overall, 76.7% (95%CI: 72.8-80.6) of the children harbored at least one species of intestinal parasite. Eight species of intestinal parasites were detected with S. mansoni (44.8%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (28.7%) being predominant. Helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa were detected in 73.9 and 7.8% of the children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, age between 5 and 9 years (AOR, 2.6, 95%CI, 1.552-4.298), male gender (AOR, 2.1, 95%CI, 1.222-3.526), attending public school (AOR, 0.1, 95%CI, 0.060-0.256), using river/well water (AOR, 2.4, 95%CI, 0.912-6.191), irregular washing of hands before meal (AOR, 0.5, 95%CI, 0.254-0.865), consuming street food (AOR, 2.3, 95%CI, 1.341-3.813) and raw vegetables (AOR, 2.7, 95%CI, 1.594-4.540) were significantly associated with IPIs in the study participants. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among the school children was high. Deworming of the school children and continuous follow up is required.

  8. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Record, 129:502-504. Pandit BA, Shahardar RA, Darzi MM, Jeyabal L & Mir. MS (2007). Prasitic Infestation in a fox(Vulpus vulpus). Journal of Veterinary. Parasitology, 21:97-98. Pilarczyk B., Balicka-Ramisz A., Ramisz A., Lachowska. S. (2005) The occurrence of intestinal parasites of roe deer and red deer in the.

  9. DISCOVERY OF THREE NOVEL COCCIDIAN PARASITES INFECTING CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS), WITH EVIDENCE OF SEXUAL REPLICATION AND INTERSPECIES PATHOGENICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Grigg, Michael E.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Miller, Robin H.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Barr, Bradd C.; Nordhausen, Robert; Melli, Ann C.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Enteric protozoal infection was identified in 5 stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Microscopically, the apical cytoplasm of distal jejunal enterocytes contained multiple stages of coccidian parasites, including schizonts with merozoites and spherical gametocytes, which were morphologically similar to coccidians. By histopathology, organisms appeared to be confined to the intestine and accompanied by only mild enteritis. Using electron microscopy, both sexual (microgametoc...

  10. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Background . Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report . A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion . The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool.

  11. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  12. Intestinal helminth infection drives carcinogenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pastille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs. This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation. On the contrary, specific parasite infections are well known to be directly linked to carcinogenesis. Whether a helminth infection interferes with the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC is not yet known. In the present study, we demonstrate that the treatment of mice with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus at the onset of tumor progression in a mouse model of CAC does not alter tumor growth and distribution. In contrast, H. polygyrus infection in the early inflammatory phase of CAC strengthens the inflammatory response and significantly boosts tumor development. Here, H. polygyrus infection was accompanied by long-lasting alterations in the colonic immune cell compartment, with reduced frequencies of colonic CD8+ effector T cells. Moreover, H. polygyrus infection in the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS mediated colitis significantly exacerbates intestinal inflammation by amplifying the release of colonic IL-6 and CXCL1. Thus, our findings indicate that the therapeutic application of helminths during CAC might have tumor-promoting effects and therefore should be well-considered.

  13. Breastfeeding and risk of parasitic infection-a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prameela Kannan Kutty

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding, as exclusive nutrition in the first six months of life, is a necessary nutritional requisite in infants. Except for very few maternal diseases that contraindicate breastfeeding, some of which still controversial, breastfeeding mothers must continue exclusive and sustained lactation to provide maximum overall benefits through breastfeeding. Parasitic infections is a global disease and children remain a significant proportion of the affected population. The complex and mandatory life cycles of some parasites, particularly the helminths may partly explain their geographical distribution. The world-wide prevalence of parasitic infections as well as the largely asymptomatic nature of most infections, make many of these infections to likely remain under-recognized. Breast milk, the prime infant nutrition must be recognized to be more than a rare vehicle of parasite transmission, but also a general and focused immune defensive tool against some important parasites. The possibility and influence of small quantities of parasite antigens in breast milk have not been adequately explored. It is believed that useful immunological responses both direct and indirect in breast milk that occur due to the presence of parasite antigens, must be further studied in the light of both immediate and long term benefits. Within this context, and prompted by a spectrum of existing uncertainties, researched and hypothetical roles of parasites and associated immunological responses in the lactating mammary gland are proposed and reviewed.

  14. Parasitic infections associated with febrile conditions in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary tract parasites, which included Trichomonas. vaginalis and Schistosoma haematobium, were found in 330(6.87%) of the study population and hemoparasites (P. falciparum and Onchocerca spp.) in 1260(26.25%). Mixed infections of gastrointestinal and hemoparasites, gastrointestinal and urinary tract parasites, ...

  15. Impacts of parasite infection on columnaris disease of tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no information available on whether parasite infection will increase the susceptibility of tilapia to Flavobacterium columnare and whether parasite treatment could improve fish survival after F. columnare exposure. Two trials were conducted to evaluate 1) the susceptibility of hybrid tilapi...

  16. The controversy of parasitic infection in pediatric appendicitis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the operative findings during surgery. Postoperative complications, if any, and the histopathology reports of the removed appendices were also studied. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or the absence of parasites in the appendix lumen. In group I (n= 98), parasitic infection was observed, ...

  17. Intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison with emphasis on soil-transmitted helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Bahiru; Zemene, Endalew; Mohammed, Abdurehman E

    2015-12-14

    Intestinal helminths infect more than two billion people worldwide. They are common in developing countries where sanitary facilities are inadequate. There is scarcity of documented data on the magnitude of intestinal helminths among inmates in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison, south-western Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 234 inmates in Bedele prison was conducted in April 2012. Socio-demographic data was collected from each study participant using semi-structured questionnaire. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using modified McMaster technique. At least one species of intestinal helminth was identified in 111 (47.4 %) of the inmates. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite isolated, followed by the hookworms. Most of the cases of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were light infections. Untrimmed hand fingernails was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides infection (AOR 0.383, 95 % CI 0.200-0.731). Intestinal helminths are common among the inmates in Bedele prison. Health information should be given to the inmates on proper personal hygiene practices with emphasis on trimming of hand fingernails. Monitoring helminth infections in the inmate population is required.

  18. Determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites in three Orang Asli (Aborigines) communities in Perak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, B; Sabaridah, I; Soe, M M; Sabitha, P; Awang, I P R; Ong, G P; Hassan, A K R

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among children and adult Orang Aslis (Aborigines) from different locations in Perak. Faecal samples were collected and analyzed using the direct smear and formal ether sedimentation technique. Some of the faecal samples were stained using the Modified Acid fast stain for Cryptosporidium. Nail clippings of the respondents and the soil around their habitat were also analyzed. Of the 77 stool samples examined, 39 (50.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The most common parasite detected was Trichuris trichiura (39.0%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.9%), Entamoeba coli (5.2%), Giardia lamblia (5.2%), Blastocystis hominis (3.9%), hookworm (3.9%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.3%) respectively. Some respondents had single parasites (24.7%), some with two parasites (18.2%). Some with three parasites (6.5%) and one had four parasites species (1.3%). The parasites were slightly more common in females (54.7%) than males ((41.7%). The parasites were more common in the 13-20 year age group (90.9%) followed by 1-12 years (69.6%), 21-40 year age group (34.8%) and least in the 41-60 year age group (27.8%). Nail examinations of the respondents did not show any evidence of parasites. One had a mite, three had pollen grains and one had yeast cells isolated from the finger nails. Soil samples taken around their houses showed only one sample with a nematode ova and one with oocyst which was of a non human origin.

  19. 10 Prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to CD4 counts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal ... include the strain and number of the parasites, the size and site, metabolic processes of the ..... nutritional supplement on viral load and haematological parameters in HIV- ... Omoregie, R., Egbeobauwaye, A., Ogefere, H., Omokaro, E.U. & Ehen, C.C. ...

  20. Is there an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Serrano, Kranya Victoria; da Silva, Carolina Brunelli Alvares; de Albuquerque, Sérgio; Pereira Saraiva, Maria da Conceição; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Multiple factors have been considered in the etiology of bruxism in pediatric patients, among which are infestations by intestinal parasites suggested by some authors. No empirical evidence exists, however, of such association. Therefore, this study's purpose was to investigate the existence of an association between bruxism and intestinal parasitic infestation in children. Fifty-seven 6- to 11-year-olds (30 cases and 27 controls) who had not used anthelminthics 2 months before the baseline examination were enrolled in the study. A diagnosis of bruxism was based on an intraoral clinical examination performed by a single trained examiner and on the parent/guardian's report of any perceived parafunctional habits (questionnaire-based interview). Bruxism cases were defined as those children with a report of currently perceived habits of eccentric or centric bruxism (tooth-grinding and tooth-clenching, respectively) combined with clinical evidence of nonphysiologic wear facets. The volunteers were required to collect 3 fecal samples (1 every 2 to 3 days). Parasitologic analysis was performed using the spontaneous sedimentation method. Data gathered from the intraoral clinical examination, questionnaire, and parasitologic analysis were tabulated and submitted to statistical analysis using the chi-square test and student's t test. Intestinal parasitic infestation was observed in 30% (N=9) of cases and 41% (N=11) of controls, but no statistically significant association was observed (P=.40). This study's findings do not support the existence of an association between intestinal parasitic infestation and bruxism among the evaluated pediatric population.

  1. Bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on intestinal parasites in Argentina during the period 1985-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basualdo, Juan A; Grenóvero, María S; Bertucci, Evangelina; Molina, Nora B

    2016-01-01

    The study of scientific production is a good indicator of the progress in research and knowledge generation. Bibliometrics is a scientific discipline that uses a set of indicators to quantitatively express the bibliographic characteristics of scientific publications. The scientific literature on the epidemiology of intestinal parasites in Argentina is scattered in numerous sources, hindering access and visibility to the scientific community. Our purpose was to perform a quantitative, bibliometric study of the scientific literature on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published in the period 1985-2014. This bibliometric analysis showed an increase in the number of articles on intestinal parasites in humans in Argentina published over the past 30 years. Those articles showed a collaboration index similar to that of the literature, with a high index of institutionality for national institutions and a very low one for international collaboration. The original articles were published in scientific journals in the American Continent, Europe and Asia. The use of bibliometric indicators can provide a solid tool for the diagnosis and survey of the research on epidemiology of intestinal parasites and contributes to the dissemination and visibility of information on the scientific production developed in Argentina. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Draft genome sequence of the intestinal parasite Blastocystis subtype 4-isolate WR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Wawrzyniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal protistan parasite Blastocystis is characterized by an extensive genetic variability with 17 subtypes (ST1–ST17 described to date. Only the whole genome of a human ST7 isolate was previously sequenced. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Blastocystis ST4-WR1 isolated from a laboratory rodent at Singapore.

  3. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6%) of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95%) of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P = 0.013). In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  4. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Hamu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents of their gut and external body parts were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Overall, 152 (75.6% of the 210 batches were found to harbor at least one species of human intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp, Strongyloides-like parasite, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovski, Giardia duodenalis and Balantidium coli were detected from gut contents. Moreover, parasites were also isolated from the external surface in 22 (10.95% of the batches. There was significant difference in parasite carriage rate of the cockroaches among the study sites (P=0.013. In conclusion, B. germanica was found to harbor intestinal parasites of public health importance. Hence, awareness on the potential role of cockroaches in the mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites needs to be created. Moreover, further identification of the Strongyloides-like worm is required using molecular diagnostics.

  5. Host age modulates parasite infectivity, virulence and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhar, Rony; Ben-Ami, Frida

    2015-07-01

    Host age is one of the most striking differences among hosts within most populations, but there is very little data on how age-dependent effects impact ecological and evolutionary dynamics of both the host and the parasite. Here, we examined the influence of host age (juveniles, young and old adults) at parasite exposure on host susceptibility, fecundity and survival as well as parasite transmission, using two clones of the water flea Daphnia magna and two clones of its bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. Younger D. magna were more susceptible to infection than older ones, regardless of host or parasite clone. Also, younger-infected D. magna became castrated faster than older hosts, but host and parasite clone effects contributed to this trait as well. Furthermore, the early-infected D. magna produced considerably more parasite transmission stages than late-infected ones, while host age at exposure did not affect virulence as it is defined in models (host mortality). When virulence is defined more broadly as the negative effects of infection on host fitness, by integrating the parasitic effects on host fecundity and mortality, then host age at exposure seems to slide along a negative relationship between host and parasite fitness. Thus, the virulence-transmission trade-off differs strongly among age classes, which in turn affects predictions of optimal virulence. Age-dependent effects on host susceptibility, virulence and parasite transmission could pose an important challenge for experimental and theoretical studies of infectious disease dynamics and disease ecology. Our results present a call for a more explicit stage-structured theory for disease, which will incorporate age-dependent epidemiological parameters. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  6. Resiniferatoxin modulates the Th1 immune response and protects the host during intestinal nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. a survey of ecto and intestinal parasites of tilapia zillii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    6.1%), and Protozoa Cyst 198 (11.0%). Adult fishes were more infected than the juvenile, females were significantly more infected (P <0.05). Infection increases with length and body weight. Physio-chemical parameter of the lake was good and.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and associated risk factors among HIV/AIDS patients with pre-ART and on-ART attending dessie hospital ART clinic, Northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missaye, Assefa; Dagnew, Mulat; Alemu, Abebe; Alemu, Agersew

    2013-02-25

    Intestinal parasites are a major concern in most developing countries where HIV/AIDS case are concentrate and almost 80% of AIDS patients die of AIDS-related infections. In the absence of ART, HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries unfortunately continue to suffer from the consequences of opportunistic parasites. But this prevalence has dramatically decreased in countries where antiretroviral agents are widely available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite and risk factor among pre- ART and on ART adult HIV/ AIDS patients attending ART clinic in Dessie hospital. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among pre-ART and on ART adult HIV/AIDS patients of Dessie Hospital. A total of 272 (136 from each group) study subjects were selected by using systematic random sampling. Stool sample was collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on Sociodemographic & associated risk factors. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS 16 software and logistic regressions were applied to assess any association between explanatory factors and outcome variables. The overall prevalence of IP in pre-ART and on-ART was 39% and 17.6%, respectively with significant decrease of intestinal parasite in the ART era (p intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of IP was differ by ART status and opportunistic parasite like cryptosporidium spps were found in low CD4 counts in ART naive patients. This study identified some environmental and some clinical finding as determinant factor for IP infections. Therefore, public health measures and adherence to ART should be strengthened to improve the quality of life of these patients.

  9. [The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in native villages of the Tembé tribe, the Brazilian eastern Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R dos A; Xavier, F B; Nascimento, J R; de Menezes, R C

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians). Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals. The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. No differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6%) compared to females (20.4%). The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran

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    M Kheirandish

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and prepara­tion. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, cul­ture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 baker­ies and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formalde­hyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp.Results: Ninety-six (11.9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal para­sites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health ex­perts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

  11. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  12. The prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Breivika, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences,. Alemaya .... quantity, time, and procedure of collection. ... J.Health Dev. 2005;19(2). Table 1: Prevalence of intestinal helminths among Babile town schoolchildren, Eastern. Ethiopia, 2001. Parasite species. Males.

  13. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Is Not Greater Among Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Laura Rindom; Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2015-01-01

    with asymptomatic controls would support such a mechanism. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these parasites in IBS subjects (cases) and controls and to identify risk factors associated with parasite carriage. METHODS: We performed a population-based, case-control study of an adult population from an internet......-based research institute in Denmark. In January 2010, subjects completed a questionnaire based on the Rome III criteria for IBS and answered questions on factors associated with parasite carriage. Respondents (n = 483) were asked to submit fecal samples for parasite testing; samples were analyzed from 124 cases...... percentage of controls carried more than 1 species of parasite (16% of controls vs 8% of cases; P = .05). D fragilis infection was associated with having children 5 to 18 years old in the household and Blastocystis infection was associated with high income (≥600,000 Danish Kroner/y, approximately $100,000 US...

  14. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes...... richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum...... originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species...

  15. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

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    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  17. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Lilly M; Incani, Renzo N; Franco, Carolina R; Ugarte, Alejandra; Cadenas, Yeneska; Sierra Ruiz, Carmen I; Hermans, Peter W M; Hoek, Denise; Campos Ponce, Maiza; de Waard, Jacobus H; Pinelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score) and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI)-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above) malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism. Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18%) while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37%) and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions). The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%). Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%). Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20). In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and chronic

  18. High malnutrition rate in Venezuelan Yanomami compared to Warao Amerindians and Creoles: significant associations with intestinal parasites and anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilly M Verhagen

    Full Text Available Children in rural areas experience the interrelated problems of poor growth, anemia and parasitic infections. We investigated the prevalence of and associations between intestinal helminth and protozoan infections, malnutrition and anemia in school-age Venezuelan children.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 390 children aged 4-16 years from three rural areas of Venezuela: the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. Stool samples were collected for direct parasitic examinations. Anthropometric indicators of chronic (height-for-age Z score and acute (weight-for-height and Body Mass Index (BMI-for-age Z score in respectively children under 5 years of age and children aged 5 years and above malnutrition were calculated. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were built to determine factors associated with nutritional status and polyparasitism.Hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis prevalences were highest in children from the Amazon rainforest (respectively 72% and 18% while children from the Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State showed higher rates of Ascaris lumbricoides (respectively 28% and 37% and Trichuris trichiura (40% in both regions. The prevalence of Giardia lamblia infection was not significantly different between regions (average: 18%. Anemia prevalence was highest in the Amazon Region (24%. Hemoglobin levels were significantly decreased in children with a hookworm infection. Malnutrition was present in respectively 84%, 30% and 13% of children from the Amazon Region, Orinoco Delta and Carabobo State. In multivariate analysis including all regions, G. lamblia and helminth infections were significantly and negatively associated with respectively height-for-age and weight-for-height/BMI-for-age Z scores. Furthermore, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with the height-for-age Z score (0.11, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.20.In rural populations in Venezuela helminthiasis and giardiasis were associated with acute and

  19. Parasite infection alters nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischler, John; Johnson, Pieter T J; McKenzie, Valerie J; Townsend, Alan R

    2016-05-01

    Despite growing evidence that parasites often alter nutrient flows through their hosts and can comprise a substantial amount of biomass in many systems, whether endemic parasites influence ecosystem nutrient cycling, and which nutrient pathways may be important, remains conjectural. A framework to evaluate how endemic parasites alter nutrient cycling across varied ecosystems requires an understanding of the following: (i) parasite effects on host nutrient excretion; (ii) ecosystem nutrient limitation; (iii) effects of parasite abundance, host density, host functional role and host excretion rate on nutrient flows; and (iv) how this infection-induced nutrient flux compares to other pools and fluxes. Pathogens that significantly increase the availability of a limiting nutrient within an ecosystem should produce a measurable ecosystem-scale response. Here, we combined field-derived estimates of trematode parasite infections in aquatic snails with measurements of snail excretion and tissue stoichiometry to show that parasites are capable of altering nutrient excretion in their intermediate host snails (dominant grazers). We integrated laboratory measurements of host nitrogen excretion with field-based estimates of infection in an ecosystem model and compared these fluxes to other pools and fluxes of nitrogen as measured in the field. Eighteen nitrogen-limited ponds were examined to determine whether infection had a measurable effect on ecosystem-scale nitrogen cycling. Because of their low nitrogen content and high demand for host carbon, parasites accelerated the rate at which infected hosts excreted nitrogen to the water column in a dose-response manner, thereby shifting nutrient stoichiometry and availability at the ecosystem scale. Infection-enhanced fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen were similar to other commonly important environmental sources of bioavailable nitrogen to the system. Additional field measurements within nitrogen-limited ponds indicated that

  20. The utility of screening for parasitic infections in HIV-1-infected Africans with eosinophilia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarner, Liat; Fakoya, Ade O; Tawana, Cheryl; Allen, Elizabeth; Copas, Andrew J; Chiodini, Peter L; Fenton, Kevin A

    2007-09-01

    The presence of asymptomatic eosinophilia in HIV patients has been demonstrated to have a wide variety of causes. Untreated parasitic infections in immunocompromised individuals can have potentially serious consequences. The utility of screening for parasitic infections in immigrant HIV-positive Africans with eosinophilia was investigated in a UK-based HIV clinic. HIV-positive African patients with eosinophilia were matched with HIV-positive African controls without eosinophilia. More than half of African HIV patients with eosinophilia had positive parasitic serology, and were significantly more likely to have positive serology compared with African HIV patients without eosinophilia. This study shows that asymptomatic eosinophilia in HIV-1-infected Africans is strongly suggestive of underlying parasitic infection. Individuals with eosinophilia should thus be screened for parasitic infections according to the infections prevalent in the countries they have lived in or visited for substantial periods of time.

  1. Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; Bories, Jessica; El Safadi, Dima; Poirel, Marie-Thérèse; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delhaes, Laurence; Hugonnard, Marine; Certad, Gabriela; Zenner, Lionel; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2015-11-30

    Several parasites including the protozoa Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms in domestic dogs, and there may be a potential risk of transmission to owners. While France is one of the largest European countries in terms of its canine population, little data is available about the molecular epidemiology of these two parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in household dogs in France, and to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by genotyping the corresponding isolates. To this end, 116 faecal samples were collected from household dogs regardless of breed, age or gender, living in the Lyons area, France. Various intestinal protozoa and helminths were identified by light microscopy. Screening for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were subsequently performed by PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rDNA coding region, followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and analysis of the sequences obtained for genotyping. The overall prevalence of dogs infected with at least one gastrointestinal parasite was 42.2% (49/116). After light microscopy examination of faecal samples, the most common parasites found were the protozoa Giardia sp. (25.0%) and Cystoisospora sp. (19.8%). Using molecular methods, four dogs (3.4%) were shown to be infected by Blastocystis sp. and carried either subtype (ST) 2, commonly identified in various animal groups, or ST10, frequently found in bovids. Three dogs (2.6%) were positive for C. canis, infecting humans episodically. The low prevalence of both parasites, combined with the identification of C. canis and Blastocystis sp. ST2 and ST10 in the canine population, strongly suggests that dogs play a negligible role as zoonotic reservoirs for both parasites and do not seem to be natural hosts of Blastocystis sp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Different profile of intestinal protozoa and helminthic infections among patients with diarrhoea according to age attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jose M; Rodríguez-Valero, Natalia; Tisiano, Gabriel; Fano, Haji; Yohannes, Tafese; Gosa, Ashenafi; Fruttero, Enza; Reyes, Francisco; Górgolas, Miguel

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of intestinal parasitic diseases with age and gender in patients with diarrhea attending a rural hospital in southern Ethiopia in the period 2007-2012. A total of 32,191 stool examination was performed in patients who presented with diarrhea. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in the present study was 26.5%. Predominant parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (15.0%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.0%). The median of age of diarrheal patients with Hymenolepis species, Schistosoma mansoni and G. lamblia was significantly lower (5 y., 10.5 y., and 18 y., respectively; pintestinal parasite and the profile of intestinal parasitic infections is influenced by age.

  3. Radioimmunoassays and related procedures in the diagnosis of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessaint, J.P.; Cesbron, J.Y.; Lutsch, C.; Nogueira-Queiroz, J.A.; Capron, A.

    1986-01-01

    Immunological tests for the diagnosis of parasitic infections have long been used, yet the marked variability in seroreactivity of infected patients is still a challenge to immunoparasitologists. In the case of helminth parasites, especially schistosomes and filariae, immunoassays have benefited by numerous advances in the characterization and purification of antigens and by the use of monoclonal antibodies. The identification of functional antigens allows the detection of putative protective (or blocking) antibody responses by competitive RIAs using monoclonal antibodies in schistosomiasis. While progress has been made in the investigation of immunity in man, immunoassays for antibodies do not accurately correlate with parasite load, especially at lower antibody responses or after chemotherapy. Immunoassays for circulating parasite antigens have received much attention in recent years. Immunoradiometric assays and related procedures using infection sera or monoclonal antibodies are now being investigated in field conditions. Cross-reactions among circulating antigens from different parasites can decrease the specificity of such assays, whereas circulating immune complexes can interfere with the test. The recent use of RIAs to measure parasite antigens in the urine of patients with schistosomiasis or filariasis appears a promising approach. (author)

  4. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  5. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  6. Isolation of Intestinal Parasites of Public Health Importance from Cockroaches (Blattella germanica) in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hamu, Haji; Debalke, Serkadis; Zemene, Endalew; Birlie, Belay; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are claimed to be mechanical transmitters of disease causing microorganisms such as intestinal parasites, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study assessed the potential of the German cockroach Blattella germanica in the mechanical transmission of intestinal parasites of public health importance. A total of 2010 cockroaches were collected from 404 households in Jimma Town, southwestern Ethiopia. All the collected cockroaches were identified to species as B. germanica. The contents...

  7. Evaluation of five treatments to control intestinal parasites in sheep in Ayapango, state of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Heredia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Intestinal parasites are one of the most common problems in sheep production systems. However, the strategies used to eliminate these parasites have not yielded satisfactory results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of five anthelmintics (with different active ingredients on the parasite load in sheep. Materials and Methods: In this study, 107 Rambouillet breed sheep were randomly assigned to five groups. Next, fecal samples were taken directly from the rectum and sent to the laboratory for analysis. We then dewormed each group of sheep using different anthelmintic products: Ivermectin 1%/clorsulon 10%, levamisole 12%, closantel sodium 5%, ivermectin 10%, and closantel 5%/albendazole 3.75% with a dosage corresponding to each sheep. At 15 days post-treatment, we took fecal samples and performed a coproparasitoscopic study, using the Faust flotation technique to assess the presence or absence of parasite eggs and the McMaster technique to quantify eggs. Results: Ivermectin/clorsulon was more effective in eliminating parasites than other anthelmintics used, especially in Haemonchus spp. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that using ivermectin/clorsulon decreases the number of eggs in feces and is one alternative in controlling parasites in sheep, leading to a reduction in the incidence of health problems, and consequently, improved productivity.

  8. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  9. A Survey of Seasonal Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infections in Donkeys from a Semiarid Sub-Saharan Region, Sudan

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    Ahmed Abdurhman Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5±1694.4 in comparison with hot dry (1795.9±399.6 and cool dry (1719.9±522.4 seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3±921.8 in comparison with 2330±744.3 and 2030.2±873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%, Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%, Parascaris equorum (18.5%, Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%, large strongyles (84%, small strongyles (72%, and Oxyuris equi (1.1%.

  10. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Hayes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  11. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Baldridge, Megan T

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  12. Global issues in allergy and immunology: Parasitic infections and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Alvaro A; Cooper, Philip J; Figueiredo, Camila A; Alcantara-Neves, Neuza M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2017-11-01

    Allergic diseases are on the increase globally in parallel with a decrease in parasitic infection. The inverse association between parasitic infections and allergy at an ecological level suggests a causal association. Studies in human subjects have generated a large knowledge base on the complexity of the interrelationship between parasitic infection and allergy. There is evidence for causal links, but the data from animal models are the most compelling: despite the strong type 2 immune responses they induce, helminth infections can suppress allergy through regulatory pathways. Conversely, many helminths can cause allergic-type inflammation, including symptoms of "classical" allergic disease. From an evolutionary perspective, subjects with an effective immune response against helminths can be more susceptible to allergy. This narrative review aims to inform readers of the most relevant up-to-date evidence on the relationship between parasites and allergy. Experiments in animal models have demonstrated the potential benefits of helminth infection or administration of helminth-derived molecules on chronic inflammatory diseases, but thus far, clinical trials in human subjects have not demonstrated unequivocal clinical benefits. Nevertheless, there is sufficiently strong evidence to support continued investigation of the potential benefits of helminth-derived therapies for the prevention or treatment of allergic and other inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy): Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Di Cerbo, Anna Rita; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Genchi, Marco; Rinaldi, Laura; Musella, Vincenzo; Cringoli, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy). Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS-) based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas) were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%), Toxocara canis (1.72%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%), Ancylostomatidae (0.43%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%). Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%), followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%). Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection. PMID:25478583

  14. Canine Fecal Contamination in a Metropolitan Area (Milan, North-Western Italy: Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Evaluation of Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Aurelio Zanzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites of dogs represent a serious threat to human health due to their zoonotic potential. Thus, metropolitan areas presenting high concentrations of pets and urban fecal contamination on public areas are at sanitary risk. Major aim of this survey was to determine prevalence of zoonotic parasites in dog fecal samples collected from public soil of Milan (north-western Italy. Differences in parasites prevalence distribution were explored by a geographical information system- (GIS- based approach, and risk factors (human density, sizes of green parks, and dog areas were considered. The metropolitan area was divided into 157 rectangular subareas and sampling was performed following a 1-kilometer straight transect. A total of 463 fecal samples were analyzed using centrifugation-flotation technique and ELISA to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium coproantigens. A widespread fecal contamination of soil was highlighted, being fecal samples found in 86.8% of the subareas considered. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 16.63%. Zoonotic parasites were found, such as Trichuris vulpis (3.67%, Toxocara canis (1.72%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.86%, Ancylostomatidae (0.43%, and Dipylidium caninum (0.43%. Giardia duodenalis was the most prevalent zoonotic protozoa (11.06%, followed by Cryptosporidium (1.10%. Faeces from subareas characterized by broad green areas showed to be particularly prone to infection.

  15. Direct and indirect causes of sex differences in mercury concentrations and parasitic infections in a marine bird

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provencher, J.F.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Mallory, M.L.; Mitchell, G.W.; Forbes, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In many animal species, males and females differ in their levels of contaminants and/or parasitic infections. Most contaminants and gastro-intestinal parasites are obtained through prey ingestion, and thus the causes of sex differences in the distribution of these factors might follow similar pathways. We studied the northern common eider duck (Somateria molissima borealis) as an avian model, and used directed separation path analysis to explore the causes of sex differences in mercury (Hg) and gastro-intestinal helminths. Two trophically transmitted helminths were examined: a cestode (Lateriporus sp.) and an acanthocephalan (Polymorphus sp). We found that the number of Lateriporus sp. varied positively with stable isotope signature (as indicated by δ"1"5N in eider breast muscle tissue), and negatively with crustaceans being present in the short term diet. We also found that Polymorphus sp. varied positively with eider tissue stable isotope signature. However, Polymorphus sp. varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass. Similarly, Hg concentrations also varied negatively with sex indirectly through condition and liver mass, with both Polymorphus sp. intensity and Hg concentrations significantly higher in males. We found that model fit increased when a negative relationship between the two helminth species was included, suggesting a yet unknown causal mechanism linking these parasites. Our findings suggest that although Hg and gastro-intestinal parasites are both trophically transmitted through the eider's prey items, the factors that contribute towards bioaccumulation of these two burdens differ in source, likely caused by several different factors and may potentially influence each other. - Highlights: • Contaminants and parasitic infections often co-occur in wildlife and have similar effects • Understanding the distribution of multiple burdens allows for better interpretation of effects • Path analysis was used to examine the

  16. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  17. Development of nuclear techniques in food and life engineering - Irradiation of food and drinking water to control parasitic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Jong; Shin, Eun Hee; Guk, Sang Mee; Han, Eun Taek; Kim, Jae Lip [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    To prevent some intestinal trematodes which are highly prevalent in Korea, the effect of irradiation on fishes and metacercariae has been analyzed for control of parasites. The metacercariae of intestinal trematodes were irradiated with various doses, and the infection rates and developmental status were assayed for estimation of optimal radiation doses. In addition, to examine the differences of susceptibility to radiation among the parasites, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined, and degree of apoptosis were observed. As a result, 100 Gy irradiation was sufficient for Metagonimus yokogawai to redue their infectivity and development, and 200 Gy was for Gymnophalloides seoi. While Neodiplostomum seoulense, a kind of intestinal rematode, was proved to be highly susceptible to radiation, sparganum and Anisakis were resistant to radiation. These might result from the differences of SOD activity among parasites. The apoptosis of parasites was mainly observed after 100 Gy irradiation, and further study was required to decide whether these phenomenon influences the susceptibility to radiation. 21 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  18. Survey of intestinal parasitism in dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Heather N; O'Neal, Peter R; Wong, Valerie M; Noah, Donald L

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of selected intestinal parasites in pet dogs and recently apprehended free-roaming (AFR) shelter dogs in the Phoenix metropolitan area and compare those prevalences between the 2 groups. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE Convenience samples of fecal specimens from owned pet dogs from the Phoenix metropolitan area (n = 175) and free-roaming dogs apprehended and admitted to Maricopa County Animal Care and Control and Arizona Humane Society facilities from November 2014 through March 2015 (188). PROCEDURES Fresh fecal specimens were collected from all dogs; for AFR shelter dogs, specimens were collected within 72 hours after facility admission. Standard centrifugal flotation tests and an ELISA were performed to detect 5 common intestinal parasites (roundworms, hookworms, whipworms, Giardia spp, and Cystoisospora spp). Group comparisons were performed by means of the χ 2 test and Rogan-Gladen prevalence estimate. RESULTS At least 1 of the 5 evaluated parasites was detected in 85 (45.2%) fecal specimens from AFR shelter dogs and 24 (13.7%) specimens from owned pet dogs. This prevalence differed significantly between the groups. Notably, the prevalence of Giardia spp in AFR shelter dogs (n = 76 [40.4%]) was higher than previously reported in the United States. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of the evaluated intestinal parasites, particularly of Giardia spp, in AFR shelter dogs was higher than expected. This information is important for veterinarians, animal shelter personnel, pet owners, human health-care providers, and public health officials to consider when devising effective interventions and risk communication efforts against potential zoonotic threats, particularly those relevant to the Phoenix metropolitan area.

  19. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  1. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  2. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin SAEIDINIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single  stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2-57 (25.69±11.56 yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5% cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8% individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2% cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6% with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3% of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%, Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2% and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%. Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6% individuals.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared.

  3. Dietary modulation of the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are still a major health problem, not only in developing countries. Even in Europe and the United States about 10-15 % of the population contracts an intestinal infection each year, mostly of foodborne origin. The growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics

  4. Anaemia, Nutritional Status and Parasitic Infection among Preschool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the packed cell volume nutritional status and parasitic infection among preschool children living in rural villages. Subjects and Methods: A total of 116 preschool children in nine villages formed the population for this study. The preschool children were studied using ...

  5. Geophagy and parasitic infections in pregnant women attending an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Geophagy, a regular and deliberate habit of eating non-food substances is practiced worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa. ... was not associated with parasitic infections in pregnant women, geophagy was found to have a significant association with education, history of geophagy and the feeding problems.

  6. Parasitic infections of anurans from an urbanized rainforest biotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parasitic infections of anurans in an urbanized rainforest biotope in the Diobu, Port Harcourt area of Rivers State were investigated. The few anuran species encountered included Afrixalus fulvovittatus, Amietophrynus regularis, A. cameroonensis, Hyperolius concolor phase B, Hyperolius concolor phase C, ...

  7. Survey of gastrointestinal parasite infection in African lion ( Panthera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about gastrointestinal parasite infections in large carnivores in Africa and what is available is largely from East Africa. We collected faecal samples from nine spotted hyaenas (Crocuta crocuta), 15 lions (Panthera leo) and 13 African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) from Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The most common ...

  8. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy...

  9. Host modulation by a parasite: how Leishmania infantum modifies the intestinal environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to favor its development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Cristina Santos

    Full Text Available Some reports have described the interference of Leishmania on sand flies physiology, and such behavior most likely evolved to favor the development and transmission of the parasite. Most of these studies showed that Leishmania could modulate the level of proteases in the midgut after an infective blood meal, and decreased proteolytic activity is indeed beneficial for the development of promastigotes in the gut of sand flies. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the intestinal pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis females naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and investigated the production of trypsin by these insects using different approaches. Our results allowed us to propose a mechanism by which these parasites interfere with the physiology of L. longipalpis to decrease the production of proteolytic enzymes. According to our hypothesis L. infantum promastigotes indirectly interfere with the production of trypsin by modulating the mechanism that controls the intestinal pH via the action of a yet non-identified substance released by promastigote forms inside the midgut. This substance is not an acid, whose action would be restrict on to release H+ to the medium, but is a substance that is able to interfere with midgut physiology through a mechanism involving pH control. According to our hypothesis, as the pH decreases, the proteolytic enzymes efficiency is also reduced, leading to a decline in the supply of amino acids to the enterocytes: this decline reduces the stimulus for protease production because it is regulated by the supply of amino acids, thus leading to a delay in digestion.

  10. Genetic regulation of parasite infection: empirical evidence of the functional significance of an IL4 gene SNP on nematode infections in wild primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kappeler Peter M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Susceptibility to parasite infection affects fitness-related processes, such as mate choice and survival, yet its genetic regulation remains poorly understood. Interleukin-4 (IL4 plays a central role in the humoral immune defence against nematode parasite infections, inducing IgE switch and regulation of worm expulsion from the intestines. The evolutionary and functional significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in IL4-genes is known, yet empirical information on the effect of IL4 SNPs on gastro-intestinal infections is lacking. Using samples from a population of wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus rufus, Primates: Lemuridae, from western Madagascar, we explored the association of IL4-gene promoter polymorphisms with nematode infections and investigated a possible functional role of the IL4 polymorphism on male reproductive success. Results Using sequence analyses of lemur DNA we detected a new SNP in the IL4 gene promoter area. Carriers of the genotype T/T showed higher nematode infection intensities than individuals of genotypes C/T and C/C. Genetic population analyses using data from more than 10 years, suggested higher reproductive success of T/T males than expected. Conclusions Our results suggest a regulatory effect of an IL4 gene promoter polymorphism on the intensity of parasite infections in a natural population of red-fronted lemurs, with a seemingly disadvantageous genotype represented in low frequencies. Long-term population analyses, however, point in the direction of a negative frequency-dependent association, giving a fitness advantage to the rare genotype. Due to low frequencies of the genotype in question conclusive evidence of a functional role of IL4 polymorphism cannot be drawn here; still, we suggest the use of IL4 polymorphism as a new molecular tool for quick assessment of individual genetic constitution with regard to nematode infection intensities, contributing to a better

  11. [Morphological changes of the intestine in experimental acute intestinal infection in the treatment of colloidal silver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N

    2012-06-01

    At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.

  12. Epilepsy and tropical parasitic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa is associated with the high prevalence of parasitic infections affecting the central nervous system. Though epidemiological evidence suggests an association between parasitic infections and epilepsy, the biological causal ...

  13. Changes to cholesterol trafficking in macrophages by Leishmania parasites infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semini, Geo; Paape, Daniel; Paterou, Athina; Schroeder, Juliane; Barrios-Llerena, Martin; Aebischer, Toni

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania spp. are protozoan parasites that are transmitted by sandfly vectors during blood sucking to vertebrate hosts and cause a spectrum of diseases called leishmaniases. It has been demonstrated that host cholesterol plays an important role during Leishmania infection. Nevertheless, little is known about the intracellular distribution of this lipid early after internalization of the parasite. Here, pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled cholesteryl esterified to fatty acids bound to low-density lipoproteins indicated that retention of this source of cholesterol is increased in parasite-containing subcellular fractions, while uptake is unaffected. This is correlated with a reduction or absence of detectable NPC1 (Niemann-Pick disease, type C1), a protein responsible for cholesterol efflux from endocytic compartments, in the Leishmania mexicana habitat and infected cells. Filipin staining revealed a halo around parasites within parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) likely representing free cholesterol accumulation. Labeling of host cell membranous cholesterol by fluorescent cholesterol species before infection revealed that this pool is also trafficked to the PV but becomes incorporated into the parasites' membranes and seems not to contribute to the halo detected by filipin. This cholesterol sequestration happened early after infection and was functionally significant as it correlated with the upregulation of mRNA-encoding proteins required for cholesterol biosynthesis. Thus, sequestration of cholesterol by Leishmania amastigotes early after infection provides a basis to understand perturbation of cholesterol-dependent processes in macrophages that were shown previously by others to be necessary for their proper function in innate and adaptive immune responses. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular, physiological and behavioral responses of honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones to infection with microsporidian parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Holly L; Villar, Gabriel; Cheng, Weiyi; Song, Jun; Grozinger, Christina M

    2018-04-26

    Susceptibility to pathogens and parasites often varies between sexes due to differences in life history traits and selective pressures. Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are damaging intestinal pathogens of European honey bees (Apis mellifera). Nosema pathology has primarily been characterized in female workers where infection is energetically costly and accelerates worker behavioral maturation. Few studies, however, have examined infection costs in male honey bees (drones) to determine if Nosema similarly affects male energetic status and sexual maturation. We infected newly emerged adult drones with Nosema spores and conducted a series of molecular, physiological, and behavioral assays to characterize Nosema etiology in drones. We found that infected drones starved faster than controls and exhibited altered patterns of flight activity in the field, consistent with energetic distress or altered rates of sexual maturation. Moreover, expression of candidate genes with metabolic and/or hormonal functions, including members of the insulin signaling pathway, differed by infection status. Of note, while drone molecular responses generally tracked predictions based on worker studies, several aspects of infected drone flight behavior contrasted with previous observations of infected workers. While Nosema infection clearly imposed energetic costs in males, infection had no impact on drone sperm numbers and had only limited effects on antennal responsiveness to a major queen sex pheromone component (9-ODA). We compare Nosema pathology in drones with previous studies describing symptoms in workers and discuss ramifications for drone and colony fitness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández, Amparo; Bracho, Ángela; Salazar, Solneumar; Villalobos, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  16. Occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in an agricultural center in Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.5283 Occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in an agricultural center in Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.5283

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderly Janeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the occurrence of human cases of intestinal parasites and their spatial distribution in an agricultural center of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Results from 5,219 stool examinations carried out in 2003 and 2004 in public and private clinical-pathology laboratories were analyzed. The overall occurrence of intestinal parasites was 19.8%. Entamoeba coli (7.2% and Giardia duodenalis (5.2% were the most frequent species. E. coli was present in 36.4%, G. duodenalis in 26.2% and E. nana in 13.6% of positive cases. According to spatial distribution, the highest occurrence of intestinal parasites was observed in the Piquiri/Guarujá area (p G. duodenalis (22.2% and E. coli (7.4%. Significant differences in the occurrence of enteroparasites were observed for females (p We determined the occurrence of human cases of intestinal parasites and their spatial distribution in an agricultural center of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Results from 5,219 stool examinations carried out in 2003 and 2004 in public and private clinical-pathology laboratories were analyzed. The overall occurrence of intestinal parasites was 19.8%. Entamoeba coli (7.2% and Giardia duodenalis (5.2% were the most frequent species. E. coli was present in 36.4%, G. duodenalis in 26.2% and E. nana in 13.6% of positive cases. According to spatial distribution, the highest occurrence of intestinal parasites was observed in the Piquiri/Guarujá area (p G. duodenalis (22.2% and E. coli (7.4%. Significant differences in the occurrence of enteroparasites were observed for females (p < 0.05 and children 0 to 10 years of age (p < 0.05. The occurrence of intestinal parasites in the municipality was mostly related to children, females, and residence in rural areas and the peripheries of urban centers, where the risk of infection is greater. This information will allow the development of appropriate measures for disease prevention and optimization of resources.

  17. Unique physiology of host-parasite interactions in microsporidia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryony A P

    2009-11-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of all major animal lineages and have a described diversity of over 1200 species and an actual diversity that is estimated to be much higher. They are important pathogens of mammals, and are now one of the most common infections among immunocompromised humans. Although related to fungi, microsporidia are atypical in genomic biology, cell structure and infection mechanism. Host cell infection involves the rapid expulsion of a polar tube from a dormant spore to pierce the host cell membrane and allow the direct transfer of the spore contents into the host cell cytoplasm. This intimate relationship between parasite and host is unique. It allows the microsporidia to be highly exploitative of the host cell environment and cause such diverse effects as the induction of hypertrophied cells to harbour prolific spore development, host sex ratio distortion and host cell organelle and microtubule reorganization. Genome sequencing has revealed that microsporidia have achieved this high level of parasite sophistication with radically reduced proteomes and with many typical eukaryotic pathways pared-down to what appear to be minimal functional units. These traits make microsporidia intriguing model systems for understanding the extremes of reductive parasite evolution and host cell manipulation.

  18. Challenges in the management of intraocular parasitic infections

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    Ashish Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic worms in eye is something which is not very uncommon these days. People who eat undercooked food and have pets at home are at more risk to have parasitic infections. Chemoparalysis has been reported in literature using either viscoelastics or preservative free lidocaine (intracamerally to paralyze the worms that help in retrieval, but still one can face tricky situations while managing such conditions. Importance lies in the management of such cases as it can be really challenging at times and no report exists in the literature which mentions the importance of topical lidocaine along with viscoelastics or preservative free lidocaine for retrieval of the worm.

  19. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

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    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  20. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

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    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a Ghanaian psychiatry hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duedu, Kwabena O; Karikari, Yaw A; Attah, Simon K; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2015-11-05

    Neglected tropical diseases are of major concern to sub-Saharan African countries. Though efforts to monitor the prevalence and control are in place, these are mostly restricted to groups within the population. This study was performed to determine the prevalence among patients of a Ghanaian psychiatric hospital and find out whether there is a reason for active monitoring in this population. A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among patients of a Ghanaian psychiatric hospital. Stool samples were collected and analyzed in addition to data. Of the 111 patients studied, asymptomatic carriage of parasites was 13.5 % and was higher in males (18.8 %) than in females (4.8 %). Carriage of parasites decreased with age but increase with duration of admission. This is the first report of parasitic pathogens among patients of a psychiatric institution in Ghana. The data shows that there are risks of transmission of infectious diseases via the oral route hence, the need for regular monitoring and intervention is emphasized.

  2. Intestinal parasitism in the United States: update on a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, K D; Lundgren, R G; Juranek, D D; Roberts, J M; Spencer, H C

    1994-06-01

    To document patterns of intestinal parasitism in the United States, we analyzed results of 216,275 stool specimens examined by the state diagnostic laboratories in 1987; parasites were found in 20.0%. Percentages were highest for protozoans: Giardia lamblia (7.2%), Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (4.2% each), Blastocystis hominis (2.6%), and Entamoeba histolytica (0.9%). The most commonly identified helminths were nematodes: hookworm (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Identifications of G. lamblia increased broadly from the 4.0% average found in 1979, with 40 states reporting increases and seven reporting decreases. Seasonally, Giardia identifications increased in the summer and fall, especially in the Midwest. Nine states reported hookworms in more than 2% of specimens; none were states with indigenous transmission. We analyzed similar, but abbreviated, data for 1991; parasites were found in 19.7% of the 178,786 specimens and Giardia was found in 5.6%. States reporting percentages of Giardia identification in the highest quartile for both 1987 and 1991 were located in the Midwest or in the Northwest. Cryptosporidium was identified in both the 1987 and 1991 surveys; it had not been identified in a previous survey. For each year, Cryptosporidium was reported from 25 states across the country (for both years in 17 states). We conclude that intestinal parasitism should not be overlooked as a cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States and that the prevalence of Giardia may be increasing.

  3. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  4. Nuclear techniques in the control of parasitic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, W.

    1976-01-01

    The development of radiation-attenuated vaccines against economically important parasitic diseases of farm animals has met with mixed success. Examples are presented ranging from the highly effective and much used commercial vaccine against cattle lungworm to the almost completely unsuccessful attempts to immunize sheep against liver fluke. The results presented emphasize that this approach is likely to be successful only if there is evidence of a strong degree of acquired immunity to the natural infection. The extension of immunological control to those systems where the parasite provokes only a modest resistance by the host will probably depend on a much greater understanding of the mechanism of the immune response. Such fundamental studies are likely to rely heavily on nuclear techniques, e.g. in the labelling of antigens, antibodies and parasites with radioactive isotopes. (author)

  5. Echinococcosis and other parasitic infections in domestic dogs from urban areas of an Argentinean Patagonian city

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    Verónica Flores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented. The aim of this work was to survey intestinal parasites in canine feces from two low-income urban neighborhoods of Bariloche city, Argentina, and to assess their seasonal variation. During 2016, 188 fresh dog feces were collected from sidewalks in 40 randomly selected blocks from the neighborhoods. Each sample was processed by Sheater flotation and tested for a coproantigen (CAg by ELISA. The percentage of parasitized feces was 65.3% (95% CI: 55.9%-73.8%. Eleven parasite species were found, 3 protozoan, 3 cestodes, and 5 nematodes. Echinococcus sp. was present in 9.3% of the samples (95% CI: 4.7%-16.1%. Canine echinococcosis rates resulted similar to rates found previously in other neighborhoods of the city. The life cycle of Echinococcus sp. is sustained in urban areas by the entry of parasitized livestock, domiciliary slaughtering, and inadequate deposition of offal. The risk of Echinococcus sp. transmission to people in these neighborhoods is very high, due to high density of free-roaming dogs and high percentages of infected feces, similar to percentages observed in rural areas.

  6. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Lydia; Morgan, Eric R; Ofthile, Mphoeng; Evans, Kate

    2015-04-01

    It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%), and nematode (77%) and trematode (24%) eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685) than in all-male groups (529, sd 468). Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1-15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  7. Occurrence and seasonality of internal parasite infection in elephants, Loxodonta africana, in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

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    Lydia Baines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known from studies in a wide range of wild and domestic animals, including elephants, that parasites can affect growth, reproduction and health. A total of 458 faecal samples from wild elephants were analysed using a combination of flotation and sedimentation methods. Coccidian oocysts (prevalence 51%, and nematode (77% and trematode (24% eggs were found. Species were not identified, though trematode egg morphology was consistent with that of the intestinal fluke Protofasciola robusta. The following factors were found to have a significant effect on parasite infection: month, year, sex, age, and group size and composition. There was some evidence of peak transmission of coccidia and nematodes during the rainy season, confirmed for coccidia in a parallel study of seven sympatric domesticated elephants over a three month period. Nematode eggs were more common in larger groups and nematode egg counts were significantly higher in elephants living in maternal groups (mean 1116 eggs per gram, standard deviation, sd 685 than in all-male groups (529, sd 468. Fluke egg prevalence increased with increasing elephant age. Preservation of samples in formalin progressively decreased the probability of detecting all types of parasite over a storage time of 1–15 months. Possible reasons for associations between other factors and infection levels are discussed.

  8. Eosinophils are required to suppress Th2 responses in Peyer's patches during intestinal infection by nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, J; Steinfelder, S; Berek, C; Kühl, A A; Rausch, S; Hartmann, S

    2017-05-01

    Infections with enteric nematodes result in systemic type 2 helper T (Th2) responses, expansion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies, and eosinophilia. Eosinophils have a supportive role in mucosal Th2 induction during airway hyperreactivity. Whether eosinophils affect the local T-cell and antibody response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during enteric infections is unknown. We infected eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice with the Th2-inducing small intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and found that parasite fecundity was decreased in the absence of eosinophils. A lack of eosinophils resulted in significantly augmented expression of GATA-3 and IL-4 by CD4 + T cells during acute infection, a finding strictly limited to Peyer's patches (PP). The increase in IL-4-producing cells in ΔdblGATA-1 mice was particularly evident within the CXCR5 + PD-1 + T-follicular helper cell population and was associated with a switch of germinal centre B cells to IgG1 production and elevated serum IgG1 levels. In contrast, infected wild-type mice had a modest IgG1 response in the PP, whereas successfully maintaining a population of IgA + germinal center B cells. Our results suggest a novel role for eosinophils during intestinal infection whereby they restrict IL-4 responses by follicular T helper cells and IgG1 class switching in the PP to ensure maintenance of local IgA production.

  9. Prevalencia de parasitismo intestinal en escolares de 6-11 año Prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years

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    Glenda Pérez Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 1 253 niños, como muestra representativa de la población infantil de 6-11 años de la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2010 hasta junio del 2011, para determinar la prevalencia del parasitismo intestinal en ellos. Se procesaron las pruebas de heces fecales mediante 2 métodos coproparasitológicos (directo y concentrado y se obtuvo que 37,8 % de los integrantes de la serie estaban parasitados. Predominaron los protozoarios (22,7 %, con mayor frecuencia de Giardia lamblia, el parasitismo en el grupo etario de 6-8 años (66,7 % y los escolares infectados que presentaban inadecuados hábitos higiénico-sanitarios, depósitos de residuales, agua de consumo y piso de la vivienda. A fin de minimizar este problema, se recomendó que debieran incrementarse las actividades de educación sanitaria a la población y discutirse estos resultados con los decisores de salud de la provincia, para así promover hábitos y estilos de vida saludables.A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 253 children as a representative sample of children aged 6-11 years in the province of Santiago de Cuba, from September 2010 to June 2011, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in them. Tests were processed by 2 stool parasitological methods (direct and concentrate and it was found that 37.8% of the members of the series were parasitized. Protozoa (22.7% with higher frequency of Giardia lamblia, parasitism in age group of 6-8 years(66.7% and infected schoolchildren, who had poor health and hygiene habits, waste deposits, water consumption and floor of the house predominated. To minimize this problem it was recommended to increase health education to the population and discuss these results with health decision makers in the province, in order to promote healthy habits and lifestyles.

  10. Tracking transparent monogenean parasites on fish from infection to maturity

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    Alejandro Trujillo-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection dynamics and distribution of the ectoparasitic fish monogenean Neobenedenia sp. (Monogenea: Capsalidae throughout its development was examined on barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch (Latidae, by labelling transparent, ciliated larvae (oncomiracidia with a fluorescent dye. Replicate fish were each exposed to approximately 50 fluorescent oncomiracidia and then examined for parasites using an epifluorescence stereomicroscope at 10 time intervals post-exposure (15, 30, 60, 120 min, 24, 48 h, four, eight, 12, and 16 days. Fluorescent labelling revealed that parasites attached underneath and on the surface of the scales of host fish. Parasite infection success was 20% within 15 min, and peaked at 93% two days post-exposure, before gradually declining between four and sixteen days. Differences in parasite distribution on L. calcarifer over time provided strong evidence that Neobenedenia sp. larvae settled opportunistically and then migrated to specific microhabitats. Parasites initially attached (<24 h in greater mean numbers on the body surface (13 ± 1.5 compared to the fins (4 ± 0.42 and head region (2 ± 0.41. Once larvae recruitment had ceased (48 h, there were significantly higher mean post-larvae counts on the head (5 ± 3.4 and fins (12 ± 3 compared to previous time intervals. Neobenedenia sp. aggregated on the eyes, fins, and dorsal and ventral extremities on the main body. As parasites neared sexual maturity, there was a marked aggregation on the fins (22 ± 2.35 compared to the head (4 ± 0.97 and body (9 ± 1.33, indicating that Neobenedenia sp. may form mating aggregations.

  11. Targeting channels and transporters in protozoan parasite infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Anna; Erler, Holger; Beitz, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Infectious diseases caused by pathogenic protozoa are among the most significant causes of death in humans. Therapeutic options are scarce and massively challenged by the emergence of resistant parasite strains. Many of the current anti-parasite drugs target soluble enzymes, generate unspecific oxidative stress, or act by an unresolved mechanism within the parasite. In recent years, collections of drug-like compounds derived from large-scale phenotypic screenings, such as the malaria or pathogen box, have been made available to researchers free of charge boosting the identification of novel promising targets. Remarkably, several of the compound hits have been found to inhibit membrane proteins at the periphery of the parasites, i.e. channels and transporters for ions and metabolites. In this review, we will focus on the progress made on targeting channels and transporters at different levels and the potential for use against infections with apicomplexan parasites mainly Plasmodium spp. (malaria) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis), with kinetoplastids Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness), Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Leishmania ssp. (leishmaniasis), and the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica (amoebiasis).

  12. Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites in HIV/ AIDS patients in relation to their clinical and epidemiological status in a specialized medical service in Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Natane Barbosa; Silva, Lorena de Freitas E; Dias, Regyane Ferreira Guimarães; Menezes Filho, Hélio Ranes de; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2018-03-08

    Patients infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) often have opportunistic infections, among which strongyloidiasis and coccidiosis are the most common parasitic infections that aggravate their health status. This study examined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly of Strongyloides stercoralis and intestinal coccidia in patients with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who were treated at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) of Jataí, State of Goiás, Brazil, and analyzed its correlation with clinical, laboratory, and socio-epidemiological parameters. A total of 270 stool samples were analyzed by the Lutz technique, Rugai's method, Agar Plate Culture, Ritchie's method and specific staining, Ziehl-Neelsen modified technique, Kinyoun's method and the rapid safranin method. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 28.88% including 3.8% of S. stercoralis, Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora belli. There was a significant positive correlation between intestinal parasites and the clinical status and the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), smoking, CD4+ lymphocyte counts and sexual orientation. In conclusion, the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and health assistance contributed to the low prevalence of S. stercoralis and coccidiosis in patients with HIV/ AIDS who were followed up at the SAE.

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasites, salmonella and shigella among apparently health food handlers of Addis Ababa University student's cafeteria, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklilu, Addis; Kahase, Daniel; Dessalegn, Mekonnen; Tarekegn, Negatu; Gebremichael, Saba; Zenebe, Seyfe; Desta, Kassu; Mulugeta, Gebru; Mamuye, Yeshiwodim; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2015-01-24

    Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student's cafeteria from January to May 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool specimens were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of bacterial isolates. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. A total of 172 food handlers were enrolled in the study. The majority of study participants were females 134 (77.9%). About 78 (45.3%) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entameoba histolytica/dispar 68 (70.8%) followed by Giardia lamblia 18 (18.8%), Taenia species 5 (5.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.1%), hookworm 2 (2.1%) and Trichuris trichiura 1 (1.1%). Stool cultures revealed 3.5% of Salmonella isolates (Sero-grouping on Salmonella isolate was not done), while Shigella species was not isolated from any of the stool samples obtained from Food handlers. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. The present study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite in asymptomatic (apparently health) food handlers. Such infected food handlers can contaminate food, drinks and could serve as source of infection to consumers via food chain.

  14. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; de Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2012-01-01

    Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old), and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  15. Intestinal parasitism and socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani indians, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lia Costa Brandelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbing data reveal the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their relationship with socio-environmental factors among Mbyá-Guarani Indians. The prevalence was determined by spontaneous sedimentation in water, centrifugation-floatation, and Kato-Katz. A socioeconomic questionnaire was submitted to each family. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 88.7%, and 45.5% were polyparasitized. There was 90.5% prevalence of enteric parasites in children (1-12- year-old, and 85% among 13-65-year-old individuals, indicating that both age groups are extensively parasitized. The parasite load was low to moderate for geohelminths and 75% of the families did not have latrine, thus the practice of defecation occurred outdoors. These findings suggest that the multiple intestinal parasitism in the Mbyá-Guarani community is high to the point of being the rule, and that it relates essentially to the traditional lifestyle and health habits. It is urgently necessary to implement the association of anti-parasitic treatment with sanitation improvement. This should be done simultaneously with health education activities for this population.

  16. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Biatriz Araújo Cardoso

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI. We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65% of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis , followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%. TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases.

  17. Environmental aspects related to tuberculosis and intestinal parasites in a low-income community of the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Cardoso, Biatriz Araújo; Fonseca, Fabio de Oliveira; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de; Martins, Ana Caroline Guedes Souza; Oliveira, Nissa Vilhena da Silva; Lima, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa; Dias, George Alberto da Silva; Saad, Maria Helena Féres

    2017-08-07

    We carried out a cross-sectional study from January to December 2015 on 1,425 inhabitants from a floating population in the Brazilian Amazon (Murinin district, Pará State) to describe the population-based prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) from 2011 to 2014, recent TB contacts (rCts) latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LTBI) , the coverage of the local health network, socio-environmental factors, and frequency of intestinal parasitic infection (IPI). We found that the sanitary structure was inadequate, with latrines being shared with other rooms within the same accommodation; well water was the main source of water, and 48% of families had low incomes. The average rate of TB was 105/100, 000 inhabitants per year; one third of TB patients had been household contacts of infected individuals in the past, and 23% of rCts were LTBI. More than half (65%) of 44% of the stools examined (representing 76% of the housing) had IPIs; the highest prevalence was of fecal-oral transmitted protozoa (40%, Giardia intestinalis ), followed by soil-transmitted helminths (23%). TB transmission may be related to insufficient disease control of rCts, frequent relocation, and underreporting. Education, adopting hygienic habits, improving sanitation, provision of a treated water supply and efficient sewage system, further comprehensive epidemiological surveillance of those who enter and leave the community and resources for basic treatment of IPIs are crucial in combating the transmission of these neglected diseases.

  18. Parasites in the city: degree of urbanization predicts poxvirus and coccidian infections in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus.

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    Mathieu Giraudeau

    Full Text Available Urbanization can strongly impact the physiology, behavior, and fitness of animals. Conditions in cities may also promote the transmission and success of animal parasites and pathogens. However, to date, no studies have examined variation in the prevalence or severity of several distinct pathogens/parasites along a gradient of urbanization in animals or if these infections increase physiological stress in urban populations.Here, we measured the prevalence and severity of infection with intestinal coccidians (Isospora sp. and the canarypox virus (Avipoxvirus along an urban-to-rural gradient in wild male house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus. In addition, we quantified an important stress indicator in animals (oxidative stress and several axes of urbanization, including human population density and land-use patterns within a 1 km radius of each trapping site. Prevalence of poxvirus infection and severity of coccidial infection were significantly associated with the degree of urbanization, with an increase of infection in more urban areas. The degrees of infection by the two parasites were not correlated along the urban-rural gradient. Finally, levels of oxidative damage in plasma were not associated with infection or with urbanization metrics.These results indicate that the physical presence of humans in cities and the associated altered urban landscape characteristics are associated with increased infections with both a virus and a gastrointestinal parasite in this common songbird resident of North American cities. Though we failed to find elevations in urban- or parasite/pathogen-mediated oxidative stress, humans may facilitate infections in these birds via bird feeders (i.e. horizontal disease transmission due to unsanitary surfaces and/or elevations in host population densities and/or via elevations in other forms of physiological stress (e.g. corticosterone, nutritional.

  19. Parasitic helminth infections in native sheep (Mehraban in Hamedan, Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep play an important role in national economy and social economy in rural areas in Iran. The main goal of this study was to investigate the fauna and frequency of parasitic helminth infections prevalent in native sheep in Hamedan, western Iran. From April 2010 to March 2011, the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts of 100-sheep were examined using conventional parasitological methods. The overall infection rate was found as 69%. No infection was found in esophagus and rumens. Parabronema skerjabini (22% and Ostertagia circumcincta (1% were recorded as the maximum and minimum cases for the presence of nematode, respectively. On the other hand, the most dominant of trematode and cestode were Fasciola hepatica (13% and Monezia expansa (13%, respectively. The highest infection rate was reported in summer (84%. The prevalence of helminth infection was varied among gender, seasons and age groups. In conclusion, this is the first report of parasitic helminth infections in sheep in Hamedan province in western Iran. Our results provide baseline information for the future studies.

  20. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

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    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.