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Sample records for intestinal obstruction induced

  1. Intestinal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the obstruction along the intestines. Treatment Suction via nasogastric tube Fluids given by vein Surgery for strangulation Sometimes ... nose and placed in the stomach (called a nasogastric tube) or into the intestine. Suction is applied to ...

  2. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Acute colonic ileus; Colonic pseudo-obstruction; Idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Ogilvie syndrome; Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction; Paralytic ileus - pseudo-obstruction

  3. Effects of experimentally induced intestinal obstruction on the electrolyte profile in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, E.M.; Khan, M.A.; Mehmood, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively asses the changes in serum electrolyte profile after experimentally induced upper and lower intestinal obstruction in dogs. Ten dogs of either sex ranging in weight from 20-25 Kg were selected. After thorough physical examination, de-worming and vaccination they were randomly divided into 3 groups. Groups A and B comprised of four animals each while group C had two animals. After preparing the operation site, upper intestinal obstruction was induced in animals of group A and lower intestinal obstruction was induced in all animals of group B through mid line laparotomy under general anesthesia. Animals of group C were kept as control without induction of any obstruction. Proper post-operative care was given to the operated animals. Blood samples were collected from all animals at an interval of 24 hours and evaluated to observe changes in serum sodium, potassium and chloride levels. The results of this study showed marked decline in electrolyte levels in animals of both groups A and B, however this decline was more severe and rapid in group A than group B, while group c acted normally. It can be concluded that upper intestinal obstruction is more fatal in its consequences than lower intestinal obstruction, which is relatively less dangerous in producing its ill effects. (author)

  4. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... ABSTRACT. Background: Adhesions after abdominal and pelvic surgery are a major cause of intestinal obstruction in the western world and the pathology is steadily gaining prominence in our practice. Objective: To determine the magnitude of adhesive intestinal obstruction; to determine the types.

  5. Establishment of peritoneal liquid electrophoretogram from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.S. Nogueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial inflammatory stages of the colic syndrome include changes known as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to contribute with the establishment of reference values concerning the electrophoretogram of peritoneal liquid from healthy horses and horses submitted to experimentally induced intestinal obstruction. Twenty-one horses were allotted in four groups: duodenal obstruction (DG, ileum obstruction (IG, left-dorsal colon obstruction (MG, and control group (CG. Peritoneal liquid was sampled before obtruction (T0, with 3 hours of obstruction (T3 and 6, 30, 102 and 174 hours after desobstructing (T6, T30, T102 and T174, respectively. Total protein levels were determined by the biuret method and protein fractions were obtained by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The acute phase proteins (APP identified were Immunoglobulin-A, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, albumin, α1-antitrypsin, heavy and light chains of immunoglobulin-G, haptoglobin, α1-acid glycoprotein and a still unnamed protein, which was called P24. There was no difference (P>0.3 in protein levels among groups, although a significant difference (P>0.05 was observed between distinct experimental moments in each group evidencing a higher response of the APP in the obstructed groups. The APP fractioning of the peritoneal liquid was standardized to establish a standard curve for healthy equines and those submitted to induced intestinal obstruction. Moreover, it was verified that the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was sensitive and effective to help diagnose abdominal inflammatory processes.

  6. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xin; Meng, Xiang-Min; Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2014-01-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  7. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Liu

    Full Text Available Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  8. adhesive intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... obstruction. Brit. I. Surg. 1998; 85: 1071-1074. The acute abdomen: Intestinal obstruction. In: Primary surgery, Vol. 1. Edited by Maurice King et al. Oxford. Med. PubL, Oxford. 1990; 142-169. Fluids and electrolyte management. In: Essentials of pediatric surgery. Edited by Marc Rowe et al. Mosby,. St. Louis ...

  9. Intestinal obstruction repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge Low-fiber diet Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy When you have nausea ...

  10. Intestinal obstruction induced by a giant incarcerated Spigelian hernia: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Augusto Ribeiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Spigelian hernia is an uncommon spontaneous lateral ventral hernia with an incarceration ratio of around 20%. However, complications such as intestinal obstruction are extremely rare. We report on a case of giant incarcerated Spigelian hernia with a clinical condition of complete intestinal obstruction that was treated using prosthetic polypropylene mesh. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department complaining of diffuse abdominal pain. Abdominal examination revealed a firm 10 x 10 cm tender mass in the lower left quadrant, without surrounding cellulite or tenderness. Plain abdominal radiographs displayed the formation of levels, thus indicating the existence of intestinal obstruction. An abdominal computed tomography scan clearly showed a fluid and air-filled mass in the soft tissue area of the lower left-side abdominal wall. Spigelian incarcerated hernia was diagnosed and the patient underwent emergency surgical repair by means of local incision. The large defect in the abdominal wall was closed up as successive anatomical layers, and a prosthetic polypropylene mesh was set into the lateral aspect of the rectus sheath. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day.

  11. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of childhood intestinal obstruction in this study agrees with those reportedis'gi m3 from other parts of the coun- try. Mortality from childhood intestinal obstruction is still high in our environment. References. 1. Otu AA. Tropical surgical abdominal emergencies: acute intestinal obstruction. Postgrad. Doctor (Afr) 1992; 14: 51. 2.

  12. Childhood intestinal obstruction in Northwestern Nigeria | Uba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal obstruction is a common cause of childhood surgical emergency in the tropics. The aim of this paper was to assess the pattern and the outcome of mangement of intestinal obstruction in Nigerian children. Study design: The clinical reccords of all the cases of childhood intestinal obstructions managed ...

  13. [Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Francisca; Amiot, Aurélien; Coffin, Benoît; Lavergne-Slove, Anne; Messing, Bernard; Bouhnik, Yoram

    2006-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a disease characterized by episodes resembling mechanical obstruction in the absence of organic, systemic, or metabolic disorders. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary (40%) or secondary (60%) causes. The most common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. These symptoms are usually present many years before CIPO diagnosis. They can lead to severe electrolyte disorders and malnutrition. Principles for management of patients with CIPO are: to establish a correct clinical diagnosis in excluding mechanical obstruction; to perform a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the gastrointestinal tract involved; to look for extra-intestinal manifestations, especially for myopathy and neuropathy; to discuss in some cases a surgery for full-thickness intestinal biopsies, and/or a neuromuscular biopsy in case of mitochondrial cytopathy suspicion. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. Treatment of CIPO includes prokinetic agents which may help to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms Courses of antibiotics may be needed in patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth. When necessary, enteral nutrition is preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Intestinal transplantation can be discussed in selected patients.

  14. Intestinal Radiation-Induced Stricture Favours Small Bowel Obstruction by Phytobezoar: Report of a Case

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    Alessandra Quercioli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bezoars represent the fifth most frequent cause of acute small bowel obstruction. Phytobezoar is the most common type of bezoar. It is a concretion of undigestible fibers derived from ingested vegetables and fruits. We report a case of a woman with a 1-year history of recurrent epigastric and periumbilical abdominal pain with intermittent vomiting caused by phytobezoar of the terminal ileum. After careful investigation of the case and review of literature, we identified the factor involved in bezoar formation as radiation-induced ileal stenosis due to previous treatment for a pelvic tumour. This report provides evidence to consider phytobezoar as a possible cause of small bowel obstruction in patients previously treated with abdominal radiotherapy.

  15. CT evaluation of mechanical intestinal obstruction

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    Han, Sung Tag; Kim, Ho Kyun; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Kim, Young Tong [Gollege of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT for the diagnosis and treatment planning of mechanical intestinal obstruction. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who were clinically suspected of mechanical intestinal obstruction and had undergone abdominal CT. The CT scans were evaluated for the absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction. CT findings were compared with the results of laparotomy, barium study and clinical course. The absence or presence and severity of intestinal obstruction were classified into no obstruction, partial obstruction, complete obstruction. Diagnosis was established by means of laparotomy in 20 cases, barium study in 9 cases and clinical course in 9 cases. Of 38 cases, 7(18.4%) showed no obstruction, 22(57.9%) showed partial obstruction, and 9(23.7%) showed complete obstruction. The presence or absence and severity on CT scans were correctly predicted in 36 of 38 cases (sensitivity 95 %, specificity 97 %, accuracy 96 %) (in case of no obstruction: sensitivity 100 %, specificity 94%, accuracy 95%; in case of partial obstruction : sensitivity 91%, specificity 100%, accuracy 95%; in case of complete obstruction : sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%, accuracy 100%). All 9 cases with complete obstruction underwent prompt and immediate laparotomy. 13 cases, excluding those with mass around the site of transition and adhesion with strangulation, with partial obstruction improved with conservative treatment without laparotomy. The causes of obstruction were adhesion in 13, hernia in 6, primary cancer in 5, metastatic cancer in 3, abscess in 2, intestinal tbc in 1, and Crohn's disease in 1. The cause of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 27 of 31 cases (87.1 %). The sites of obstruction on CT scans were correctly predicted in 22 of 26 cases (84.6%). CT is valuable in the evaluation of absence or presence, severity, cause and site of intestinal obstruction, and is considered to be helpful in treatment

  16. A etiological factors in mechanical intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, S.; Khan, H.; Khan, I.A.; Ghaffar, S.; Rehman, Z.U.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The most frequent causes of intestinal obstruction are postoperative adhesions and hernias, which cause extrinsic compression of the intestine. Less frequently, tumours or strictures of the bowel can cause intrinsic blockage. Objective of the study was to find out the various a etiological factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction and to evaluate the morbidity and mortality in adult patients presenting to Surgical 'A' unit of Ayub teaching hospital with mechanical intestinal obstruction. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2009 to September, 2009. All patients presenting with intestinal obstruction and were above the age of 12 years were included in the study. Patients with non-mechanical obstruction were excluded from the study and those who responded to conservative measures were also excluded. Results: A total of 36 patients with age ranging from 12 to 80 years (Mean age 37.72+-19.74 years) and male to female ratio of 1.77:1, were treated for mechanical intestinal obstruction. The most common cause for mechanical intestinal obstruction was adhesions (36.1%). Intestinal tuberculosis was the second most common cause (19.4%), while hernias and sigmoid volvulus affected 13.9% patients each. Malignancies were found in 5.6% cases. Conclusion: Adhesions and Tuberculosis are the leading causes of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Pakistan. Although some patients can be treated conservatively, a substantial portion requires immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  17. Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma causing intestinal obstruction

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    Bassel Salman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy toddler with bilious vomiting and erythematous gluteal rash over 2 weeks had intermittent pain, constipation and decreased appetite. All labs were negative with the exception of fecal occult blood. Abdominal x-ray and ultrasound revealed dilated air-filled loops of bowel and partial small bowel obstruction. After persistent worsening abdominal pain and vomiting a CT scan with IV contrast (Fig. 1 suggested small bowel obstruction. Emergent surgery was performed and diagnostic laparoscopy revealed about 61 cm of necrotic bowel causing stricture formation and mesenteric shortening in the distal small bowel. 56 cm of inflamed bowel was resected with end-to-end anastomosis. Final pathology report indicated diffuse intestinal angiomatosis with transmural involvement and focal erosion consistent with KHE (Fig. 2. Presentation is varied, consists of cutaneous lesion, retroperitoneal mass, intestinal obstruction, jaundice, intussusception, or multifocal neoplasms. Complete surgical resection with wide margins is the best therapeutic option and has achieved the best outcomes. If not treated in sufficient time, KHE has a relatively high mortality rate of 30%, with most deaths occurring due to its locally invasive effects [5]. There are limited reports of identifying features of KHE on imaging. Of 165 cases of KHE none were presented in the small bowel [5]. We report the unique case of KHE presenting as a hypervascular mass causing obstruction in the distal small bowel. Although extremely rare, KHE should be considered as a reason for severe GI stricture or obstruction in infants and children in obscure cases and included in the differential.

  18. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country.

  19. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

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    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  20. Intestinal Obstruction Induced by Peach Stone in Stenosis of Sigmoid Colon by adenocarcinoma: A case report and literature review

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    Argos Soares de Matos Filho

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: Intestinal obstructions and perforations are rare conditions caused by the ingestion of foreign bodies. These conditions must be taken into consideration especially owing to differing diagnoses and previous pathologies concomitant with the ingestion of objects such as those described in the foregoing adenocarcinoma case.

  1. Abdominal tuberculosis presenting as intestinal obstruction- Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the complications of abdominal tuberculosis is intestinal obstruction, which can be acute, chronic or acute on chronic. Other complications include intestinal haemorrhage, perforation of the intestine (rare), faecal fistula, cold abscess formation, mal-absorption syndrome and dissemination of the tuberculosis to other ...

  2. Small Bowel Obstruction due to Intestinal Xanthomatosis

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    L. E. Barrera-Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast majority of bowel obstruction is due to postoperative adhesions, malignancy, intestinal inflammatory disease, and hernias; however, knowledge of other uncommon causes is critical to establish a prompt treatment and decrease mortality. Xanthomatosis is produced by accumulation of cholesterol-rich foamy macrophages. Intestinal xanthomatosis is an uncommon nonneoplastic lesion that may cause small bowel obstruction and several cases have been reported in the English literature as obstruction in the jejunum. We report a case of small intestinal xanthomatosis occurring in a 51-year-old female who presented with one day of copious vomiting and intermittent abdominal pain. Radiologic images revealed jejunal loop thickening and inflammatory changes suggestive of foreign body obstruction, diagnostic laparoscopy found two strictures at the jejunum, and a pathologic examination confirmed a segmental small bowel xanthomatosis. This case illustrates that obstruction even without predisposing factors such as hyperlipidemia or lymphoproliferative disorders.

  3. DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SUBACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Amit; Anjani; Shaleen; Vikram; Prasheel

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction can be defined as impairment to the abnormal passage of intestinal contents that may be due to either mechanical obstruction or failure of normal intestinal motility in the absence of an obstructing lesion. Intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical disorder of the small intestine. SAIO implies incomplete obstruction. It has been defined in a number of ways and there are many gray zones in the treatment protocols. It is characterized by conti...

  4. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Benin, Nigeria

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    Osifo Osarumwense

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal obstruction is a life threatening condition in the newborn, with attendant high mortality rate especially in underserved subregion. This study reports the aetiology, presentation, and outcome of intestinal obstruction management in neonates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of neonatal intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin, Nigeria, between January 2006-June 2008. Data were collated on a structured proforma and analysed for age, sex, weight, presentation, type/date of gestation/delivery, aetiology, clinical presentation, associated anomaly, treatment, and outcome. Results: There were 71 neonates, 52 were males and 19 were females (2.7:1. Their age range was between 12 hours and 28 days (mean, 7.9 ± 2.7 days and they weighed between 1.8 and 5.2 kg (average, 3.2 kg. The causes of intestinal obstruction were: Anorectal anomaly, 28 (39.4%; Hirschsprung′s disease, 8 (11.3%′ prematurity, 3 (4.2%; meconeum plug, 2 (2.8%; malrotation, 6 (8.5%; intestinal atresia, 8 (11.3%; necrotising enterocolitis (NEC, 4 (5.6%; obstructed hernia, 4 (5.6%; and spontaneous gut perforation, 3 (4.2%. Also, 27 (38% children had colostomy, 24 (33.8% had laparotomy, 9 (12.8% had anoplasty, while 11 (15.4% were managed nonoperatively. A total of 41 (57.7% neonates required incubator, 26 (36.6% needed total parenteral nutrition, while 15 (21.1% require d paediatric ventilator. Financial constraint, late presentation, presence of multiple anomalies, aspiration, sepsis, gut perforation, and bowel gangrene were the main contributors to death. Neonates with lower obstructions had a better outcome compared to those having upper intestinal obstruction ( P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Outcomes of intestinal obstruction are still poor in our setting; late presentation, financial constraints, poor parental motivation and lack of basic facilities were the major determinants of mortality.

  5. [Myosin B ATPase activity of the intestinal smooth muscle in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, H

    1983-06-01

    Intestinal smooth myosin B was prepared from muscle layers around the lesion in dogs with experimental colonic stenosis and in patients with congenital intestinal obstruction. Mg2+-ATPase activity of the myosin B was compared between the proximal dilated segment and distal segment to obstruction. Experimental colonic stenosis: In early period after surgery, proximal colons showed higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal colons, decreasing to less than distal colon as time passed. Congenital intestinal obstruction: In three cases, whose atresia might have occurred at earlier period of gestation, proximal bowels showed less activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. However, in two cases, whose atresia might have occurred at later period of gestation, and two cases with intestinal stenosis, proximal bowels indicated higher activity of myosin B ATPase than distal bowels. These data suggested that the contractibility of the proximal intestine was depending on the duration of obstruction, and it was depressed in the former patients and was accelerated in the latter patients. These results suggested that the extensive resection of dilated proximal bowel in the congenital atresia is not always necessary to obtain good postoperative intestinal dynamics at the operation of the atresial lesions which may be induced at later period of gestation. They also suggested that surgery for intestinal obstruction should be performed before the depression of intestinal contractibility to get good bowel function.

  6. Protection against increased intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation induced by intestinal obstruction in mice treated with viable and heat-killed Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle L; Santos, Rosana G; Arantes, Rosa M E; Martins, Flaviano S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Machado, José A N; Correia, Maria Isabel T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2011-06-01

    There are substantial evidences suggesting that probiotics can protect the gastrointestinal tract against inflammatory or infectious episodes. The effects of oral treatment with viable or heat-killed cells of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) on bacterial translocation, intestinal permeability, histological aspect of the ileum, and some immunological parameters were evaluated in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Bacterial translocation and intestinal permeability in the IO group were significantly higher when compared to a Sham group (p viable and heat-killed S. boulardii prevented these increases, and the data obtained for IO + Sb and IO + heat-killed Sb groups were similar to those observed in the Sham group (p > 0.05). Histological analysis showed preservation of the ileum mucosa in mice that received both forms of the yeast when compared to the lesions observed in the IO group. The levels of serum interleukin (IL)-10 and intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) were higher in the animals that received both yeast treatments when compared to those from IO and Sham groups. Oral treatment with viable or heat-killed cells of S. boulardii maintained intestinal integrity and modulated the immune system in a murine IO model, preventing bacterial translocation and intestinal lesions.

  7. Pattern Of Intestinal Obstruction In A Semiurban Nigerian Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adhesive intestinal obstruction is the commonest cause in this semi-urban population which was studied. Obstructed hernia is becoming increasingly less common as a cause of intestinal obstruction. Keywords: Pattern, Intestinal Obstruction, Semiurban Hospital. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol. 11 (4) 2008: pp.

  8. Pathophysiology of increased intestinal permeability in obstructive jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, Stelios F; Scopa, Chrisoula D; Vagianos, Constantine E

    2007-01-01

    Despite advances in preoperative evaluation and postoperative care, intervention, especially surgery, for relief of obstructive jaundice still carries high morbidity and mortality rates, mainly due to sepsis and renal dysfunction. The key event in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice-associated complications is endotoxemia of gut origin because of intestinal barrier failure. This breakage of the gut barrier in obstructive jaundice is multi-factorial, involving disruption of the immunologic, biological and mechanical barrier. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that obstructive jaundice results in increased intestinal permeability. The mechanisms implicated in this phenomenon remain unresolved, but growing research interest during the last decade has shed light in our knowledge in the field. This review summarizes the current concepts in the pathophysiology of obstructive jaundice-induced gut barrier dysfunction, analyzing pivotal factors, such as altered intestinal tight junctions expression, oxidative stress and imbalance of enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis. Clinicians handling patients with obstructive jaundice should not neglect protecting the intestinal barrier function before, during and after intervention for the relief of this condition, which may improve their patients’ outcome. PMID:18161914

  9. Ultrasonography of small intestinal obstructions: a contemporary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, D A A; Froes, T R; Vilani, R G D O C; Guérios, S D; Obladen, A

    2011-09-01

    To assess the accuracy of intestinal ultrasound for diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in dogs and cats. A prospective clinical study was performed. Inclusion criteria were dogs and cats with clinical signs suggestive of gastrointestinal obstruction. Animals with no obstruction detected on ultrasound were excluded if they could not be monitored for 48 hours to confirm absence of obstruction. Sonographic diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction was based on identification of at least two findings suggestive of intestinal obstruction. Ninety-two patients suspected of having intestinal obstruction were included. Correct diagnosis of intestinal obstruction was made in 21 cases (23%), and in 68 (74%) this diagnosis was excluded. Interpretation of the images on prospective analysis had sensitivity, positive predictive, specificity and negative predictive values of 100%, 87.5%, 95.8% and 100%, respectively. Ultrasonography is an excellent method for investigation of animals with gastrointestinal disorders, and is particularly useful for excluding obstructive processes. © 2011 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Postoperative Adhesive Intestinal Obstruction from Gossypiboma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of 41.year.old female admitted with features of intestinal obstruction and had a previous history of hysterectomy performed 2 months back at another hospital. Pathologists must be aware of this entity and its proper reporting as the cases are liable to go to court. Surgeons must recognize the risk factors that ...

  11. Unusual cause of neonatal intestinal obstruction | Zikavska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many causes of intestinal obstruction in the neonatal age. The most common types are mechanical and result from congenital malformations of the gastrointestinal tract. However, functional disorders also occur. In some cases, diagnosis can be made prenatally but in others manifestation occurs after birth. The aim ...

  12. Intestinal obstruction secondary to infantile polyarteritis nodosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotising vasculitis of medium and small-sized arteries. Patients typically present with systemic symptoms. Obstructive intestinal symptoms are described but usually resolve with treatment of the underlying vascular disease. We report a case of a one year old boy with multiple ...

  13. Intestinal obstruction in germ-free dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneghan, J B; Robinson, J W; Menge, H; Winistörfer, B

    1981-08-01

    Mechanical occlusions were created in the intestines of four germ-free dogs. At the time of the operation, a control loop of mid-intestine was perfused in vivo and then excised for examinations in vitro, which included the determination of the equilibrium uptake of phenylalanine and of beta-methyl-glucoside, the influx kinetics of phenylalanine and morphometric analysis of the mucosa by microdissection and stereological techniques. Seven days after establishment of the occlusion the abdomen was reopened, and loops above and below the occlusion were perfused, and then excised for the same tests in vitro. Unlike occluded loops of conventional dogs, the intestine of the germ-free animal above the occlusion does not secrete water and electrolytes into the lumen. Its transport properties in vitro do not differ from those of the control loop, and the morphometric analyses reveal only slight changes in villus structure. The loop below the obstruction undergoes marked atrophy, as has been observed in conventional dogs. The results suggest that the copious secretion that occurs above an intestinal obstruction in normal animals is due to the presence of an abundant bacterial population in the obstruction fluid.

  14. Small Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Anisakiasis

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    Yuichi Takano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery.

  15. Intestinal obstruction for biliary lithiasis: case report

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    Miguel Enrique Rodriguez Rodriguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biliary ileum is an infrequent complication of cholelithiasis, that is manifested as an intestinal obstruction, is more prevalent in aged people. The clinical square of the biliary ileum is diffuse and the Triad of Rigler is observed in less than 30% of the patient one. The surgical treatment goes from enterotomía and litotricia to the colecistectomía with treatment of the water-pipe. The case of a female, 86-year-old patient is presented that after a week of symptoms and of medical treatment it was detected the presence of a mechanical intestinal obstruction for which the patient underwent emergency surgery. As the cause of occlusion it was found a thick gallstone in a jejunal loop.

  16. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA) is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed ...

  17. Desmoid tumour: a rare etiology of intestinal obstruction | Aggarwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumour: a rare etiology of intestinal obstruction. Gaurav Aggarwal, Sumit Shukla, Ankur Maheshwari, Rajkumar Mathur. Abstract. Intestinal obstruction is a frequently encountered entity in surgical practice. The signs & symptoms, many a times, are suggestive of the level of obstruction, making the diagnosis of ...

  18. Intestinal sclerosis with pseudo-obstruction in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Carpenter, J

    1984-04-01

    Intestinal sclerosis causing chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was diagnosed in 3 dogs. The pseudo-obstruction was characterized by vomiting and weight loss of 2 weeks' to 3 months' duration. A patent intestinal lumen was determined by contrast radiography and verified at surgery. Intestinal biopsy revealed diffuse atrophy, fibrosis, and mononuclear cell infiltration of the tunica muscularis. Each dog was euthanatized because of a progressive, deteriorating clinical course.

  19. Inducible laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvorsen, Thomas; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Bucca, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes an inappropriate, transient, reversible narrowing of the larynx in response to external triggers. ILO is an important cause of a variety of respiratory symptoms and can mimic asthma. Current understanding of ILO has been hampered by imprecise nomenc...

  20. Mesenteric Cysts Presenting with Acute Intestinal Obstruction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 3 children needed bowel resection with primary anastomosis. All made uneventful recovery. A high index of suspicion is important when managing children with acute intestinal obstruction as mesenteric cyst may be an uncommon cause. (Key words: Mesenteric Cyst: Intestinal Obstruction). Sahel Medical Journal ...

  1. Intestinal obstruction in children due to Ascariasis: A tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of worms per mouth or rectum and on x-ray and ultrasonography fi ndings. Only the patients of intestinal obstruction with documented evidence of roundworm infestation were included in the study and were followed for one year. Results: One hundred and three children with intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides

  2. Apple-peel atresia presenting as foetal intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Yadavrao Kshirsagar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple-peel atresia or Type 3 jejuno-ileal atresia (JIA is an uncommon cause of foetal intestinal obstruction. Bowel obstruction in the foetus is diagnosed on the prenatal ultrasonography only in 50% cases. We report a case in which foetal intestinal obstruction was diagnosed on prenatal ultrasonography. The child showed signs of intestinal obstruction on day one after birth, for which an exploratory laparotomy was performed. Type 3 JIA was found for which resection of atretic segments with jejuno-ascending colon anastomosis was preformed.

  3. Intestinal smooth muscle response to chronic obstruction : possible applications in jejunoileal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, R

    1975-02-01

    Hyperplasia is the main change occurring in intestinal smooth muscle above a chronic obstruction and explains the functional obstruction seen in the proximal bowel of a jejunoileal atresia. With an experimental model in dogs, this hyperplasia has been shown to be reversible. However, changes are extreme in atresia, and experiments in animals with induced atresia will best evaluate various kinds of treatment.

  4. Sonographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczur, F; Vörös, K; Vrabély, T; Wladár, S; Németh, T; Fenyves, B

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonography was performed on 44 dogs to decide whether small bowel obstruction was present. The sonographic criteria for small bowel obstruction were (1) the presence of pendulous movement of the ingesta inside the dilated bowel, (2) observation of invaginated intestines or an ingested intraluminal foreign body, (3) observation of non-uniform peristaltic activity of the dilated intestines, or (4) observation of akinetic intestinal loops together with abdominal fluid accumulation. By using these criteria, obstruction was correctly diagnosed by ultrasonography in 11 of the 13 dogs with mechanical ileus, and obstruction was correctly excluded in 29 of the 31 non-obstructive cases. Thus, the above-mentioned sonographic criteria had 85% sensitivity and positive predictive value, and 94% specificity and negative predictive value. The present study suggests that ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosing small intestinal obstruction in the dog.

  5. Intestinal obstruction: predictor of poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azri Mohd Suan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal obstruction and the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Data pertaining to 4,501 colorectal carcinoma patients were extracted from the national colorectal registry and analysed. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The log-rank test was used to compare the survival rate between patients with intestinal obstruction and those without intestinal obstruction. The p-values<0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Simple Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the crude hazard ratio of mortality from colorectal cancer. RESULTS: Intestinal obstruction was reported in more than 13% of patients. The 3-year survival rate after treatment was 48.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.9 to 52.8 for patients with intestinal obstruction (n=593 and 54.9% (95% CI, 53.1 to 56.6 for patients without intestinal obstruction (n=3,908. The 5-year survival rate for patients with intestinal obstruction was 37.3% (95% CI, 31.9 to 42.8, which was lower than that of patients without intestinal obstruction (45.6%; 95% CI, 43.5 to 47.7. After adjusting the hazard ratio for other prognostic variables, intestinal obstruction had a statistically significant negative correlation with the survival rate of colorectal cancer patients, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.22 (p=0.008. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intestinal obstruction is associated with a lower survival rate among colorectal cancer patients.

  6. Surgical treatment of colorectal cancer complicated with acute intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Schaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The main reason for urgent complications of colon cancer is an acute intestinal obstruction (AIO. This is complex pathological condition in 90 % of cases caused by colorectal cancer (CRC.Objective – to evaluate radicality of the performed operations in complicated colorectal cancer in general surgical hospitals. Dependence of the severity of intestinal obstruction by tumor localization, its morphological characteristics, determine dependence of the type of the surgical operation performed on the severity of intestinal obstruction.Materials and methods. We have studied the data on 667 patients with colorectal cancer complicated by acute intestinal obstruction. These patients were treated in the period from 2001 to 2013 in general surgical hospital in the territory of Smolensk and Smolensk region. For the processing of the obtained results we have used software Statistica 6.1. Differences were considered statistically at p ≤ 0.05.Results. All the patients were divided into 3 groups by the expression of intestinal obstruction. Group 1 (n = 279 consisted of patients with the presence of decompensated intestinal obstruction (DIO, group 2 (n = 313 consisted of patients with subcompensated intestinal obstruction (SIO, group 3 (n = 75 included patients with compensated intestinal obstruction (CIO. In case of tumor localization in right halfof the colon we most commonly observed clinical picture of acute development of decompensated intestinal obstruction (p = 0.041. Subcompensated intestinal obstruction prevailed in case of tumor localization in left half of the colon and rectal localization. In general surgical hospitals it is not always possible to speak about radicality of surgical treatment, as in a large number of cases (62.5 % the number of examined lymph nodes was less than 4. When DIO patients are admitted in the clinic, the percentage of singlestage operations is equal to 7.5 % (n = 21. In case of DIO and SIO there was a high

  7. [Prevention and management of intestinal obstruction after gastrointestinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weiming

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication after gastrointestinal surgery, and will endanger the patients if not managed properly. The key to the management of intestinal obstruction includes not only the selection of treatment, but also adequate judgment of the cause, location, extent and the probability of reoperation by detailed inquiry of the history, thorough physical examination, and imaging studies, which will guide the treatment. Non-operative therapy is the mainstay of treatment for incomplete obstruction, whilebowel decompression the gut by small intestinal decompression tube, preoperative procedures including restoration of systemic homeostasis should be performed. Efforts should be made to avoid emergency laparotomy without any preparations. Procedures to avoid intestinal obstruction include all the efforts to protect the gut and the intra-abdominal viscera during laparotomy, and to clear all the foreign body and tissues by thorough lavage of the abdominal cavity with saline before closing the abdomen.

  8. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Yagüe, M T; Marín, J C; Colina, F; Ibarrola, C; López-Alonso, G; Martín, M A; Solís-Herruzo, J A

    2006-04-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.

  9. Acute intestinal obstruction: an electromyographic study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R W; Yanda, R; Prihoda, M; Flatt, A

    1983-12-01

    We have investigated the motility effects of acute experimental canine intestinal obstruction. A 30-min midjejunal obstruction was produced by clamping a Biebl loop or by inflating an intraluminal balloon. Spike bursts from serosal electrodes proximal to the site of obstruction increased markedly, while those from distal electrodes decreased. When the obstruction from an intraluminal Foley catheter was continued for 5.5 h, the inhibition persisted distally but the proximal contractile activity gradually fell to control levels. The reduced proximal activity after prolonged obstruction was largely due to clusters of regular intense spike bursts preceded and followed by lengthening periods of absent motor activity. Similar clustered contractions obliterated the lumen when the passage of barium through a Thiry-Vella loop was monitored fluoroscopically. Significant motility changes occur in intestinal obstruction, but an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved awaits future studies.

  10. Abdominal actinomycosis, an unusual cause of intestinal obstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report: A 54-year-old gentleman was involved in a road traffic accident in which he sustained fractures of the right humerus and pubic rami. A month later, he developed signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction. At operation, a retroperitoneal mass obstructing the transverse colon and the proximal ileum was found ...

  11. Management of intestinal obstruction in advanced malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry John Murray Ferguson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with incurable, advanced abdominal or pelvic malignancy often present to acute surgical departments with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. It is rare for bowel strangulation to occur in these presentations, and spontaneous resolution often occurs, so the luxury of time should be afforded while decisions are made regarding surgery. Cross-sectional imaging is valuable in determining the underlying mechanism and pathology. The majority of these patients will not be suitable for an operation, and will be best managed in conjunction with a palliative medicine team. Surgeons require a good working knowledge of the mechanisms of action of anti-emetics, anti-secretories and analgesics to tailor early management to individual patients, while decisions regarding potential surgery are made. Deciding if and when to perform operative intervention in this group is complex, and fraught with both technical and emotional challenges. Surgery in this group is highly morbid, with no current evidence available concerning quality of life following surgery. The limited evidence concerning operative strategy suggests that resection and primary anastomosis results in improved survival, over bypass or stoma formation. Realistic prognostication and involvement of the patient, care-givers and the multidisciplinary team in treatment decisions is mandatory if optimum outcomes are to be achieved.

  12. THE EFFECT OF THE SOMATOSTATIN ANALOGUE OCTREOTIDE ON EXPERIMENTAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paran Haim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Somatostatin has an inhibitory effect on the endocrine and exocrine secretions of the gut. It may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of intestinal obstruction. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of octreotide in mechanical intestinal obstruction in rats. Method: Intestinal obstruction was induced in rats by ligation of a segment of the distal ileum. Animals were treated with the somatostatin analogue octreotide (n=16, or saline (n=16. Eight rats were operated but their intestine was not ligated (n=8 serving as sham controls. Forty eight hours after the operation, the animals were operated upon again and blood samples from the femoral vein were tested for electrolytes, urea, glucose, lactic acid, amylase, ph and bicarbonate. Portal vein blood samples were also obtained and tested for lactic acid and amylase. Results: Intestinal obstruction resulted, after 48 hours, in severe dilatation of bowel loops. A significant increase in plasma levels of urea, amylase and lactic acid was observed. Plasma pH decreased. In blood samples from the portal vein, a significant increase in lactic acid was observed, indicating metabolic acidosis, probably secondary to bowel ischemia. Octreotide treatment, resulted in less acidosis, with concomitant lower urea and lactic acid levels in the plasma and especially in the portal vein. Conclusion: Octreotide treatment may have a beneficial effect in the conservative treatment of selected cases of intestinal obstruction.

  13. Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, E; Leisewitz, A L; Van der Lugt, J J

    2001-05-01

    A case of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an English bulldog is described. The dog was presented with chronic weight loss and vomiting. An intestinal obstruction was suspected based on clinical and radiological findings. A diagnosis of chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was made on the basis of full thickness intestinal biopsies. The dog was refractory to any antiemetic therapy. Necropsy revealed marked atrophy and fibrosis of the tunica muscularis, together with a mononuclear cell infiltrate extending from the duodenum to the colon. This case was presented with clinical findings consistent with visceral myopathy in humans--namely, atony and dilatation of the whole gut--but the histological findings resembled sclerosis limited to the gastrointestinal tract.

  14. [Production, absorption and excretion of phenols in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, M

    1986-11-01

    In intestinal obstruction, phenols were produced in the distended loop proximal to obstruction by enteric bacteria. Clinically, in 17 cases of non-strangulated intestinal obstruction, phenols were detected in 15 cases and mean concentration of phenols was 4.2 +/- 9.7 micro g/ml(mean +/- 1 SD). In the fraction of phenols, p-cresol was detected in 15 cases and mean concentration was 3.8 +/- 7.7 and phenol was detected in 4 cases and mean concentration was 0.5 +/- 2.6. Phenols were decreased as clinical improvement of intestinal obstruction. Enteric bacteria in enteric juice ranged from 10(4) to 10(10)/ml and its change paralleled to phenols concentration. Mean urinary concentration of phenols in intestinal obstruction was increased to 297 +/- 415 mg/day compared to control (less than 50 mg/day). Its change also paralleled to phenols concentration in enteric juice. Closed ileal loop was made in dogs and phenols were infused in the loop. Phenols were increased in the portal vein 5 min after the infusion and in the femoral vein 60 min after the infusion. Phenols, which was thought to be toxic to the host, were proved to be produced in the distended intestine and excreted from the kidney.

  15. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  16. Intramural intestinal hematoma causing obstruction in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R; Carpenter, J

    1984-01-15

    Intramural hematoma of the intestine caused intestinal obstruction in three dogs. Two dogs were examined because of vomiting and anorexia of several weeks' duration. In one of these, an intramural hematoma of the duodenum was associated with chronic pancreatitis. A cause was not found in the second dog. The third dog, which had clinical and radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation, was found at surgery to have hemoperitoneum associated with a ruptured intramural intestinal hematoma. In 1 dog, the hematoma was evacuated through a serosal incision. In the other 2 dogs, the problem was resolved by resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by anastomosis. All 3 dogs recovered without complications.

  17. Small intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Khaled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patients with mechanical small-bowel obstructions usually present with abdominal pain, vomiting, absolute constipation and varying degrees of abdominal distention. Causes can be classified as benign or malignant, or as extra- or intraluminal. A bezoar occurs most commonly in patients with impaired gastrointestinal motility. In edentulous older patients with abnormal food habits, it can also be an intestinal concretion that fails to pass along the alimentary canal. Small bowel phytobezoars are rare and almost always obstructive. In a normal stomach, vegetable fibres that cannot pass through the pylorus undergo hydrolysis within the stomach, which softens them enough to go through the small bowel. We present an unusual case of small intestinal obstruction caused by a phytobezoar in a patient who had neither a history of gastric surgery nor of intestinal pathology. Case presentation A 70-year-old Iraqi Kurdish man was hospitalized due to abdominal pain, vomiting and dehydration. Investigations concluded small intestinal obstruction. Subsequent laparotomy revealed that the cause of the obstruction was an eggplant phytobezoar. Conclusion Many types of bezoar can be removed endoscopically, but some will require operative intervention. Subsequently, prevention of any recurrence should be emphasized.

  18. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a dog: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Bicalho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a rare disorder that affects gastrointestinal propulsion. It may be secondary to several pathological conditions or it may develop without a known cause. A 1.2 year-old intact Pug bitch had a history of vomiting and constipation, which were followed by diarrhea and distended abdomen. Hypomotility and dilation of the small intestine, which was filled with gas, were observed during laparotomy. Histologically, full thickness biopsy specimens demonstrated a severe loss and degeneration of leiomyocytes in the inner and outer muscular layers of the intestinal wall, whereas there was a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells in the lamina propria, and extremely thickened muscularis mucosae arranged in bundles oriented in different directions with marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of leiomyocytes. Distribution of leiomyocytes was further characterized by immunohistochemistry. These findings support the diagnosis of intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a Pug, associated with degeneration and loss of leiomyocytes in the muscular layer.

  19. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo?Obstruction in 6 Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Zacuto, A.C.; Pesavento, P.A.; Hill, S.; McAlister, A.; Rosenthal, K.; Cherbinsky, O.; Marks, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo?obstruction in humans and animals. Objective To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Animals Six client?owned dogs. Methods Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to de...

  20. Intestinal nitric oxide synthase activity changes during experimental colon obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palásthy, Zsolt; Kaszaki, József; Lázár, György; Nagy, Sándor; Boros, Mihály

    2006-08-01

    The experiments in this study were designed to follow the time course of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in the large bowel during acute mechanical ileus. Occlusion of the mid-transverse colon was maintained for 420 min in anesthetized dogs. Strain-gauge transducers were used to analyze motility changes on the hepatic and lienal flexures, respectively. Constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) activities were determined in tissue biopsies, and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level was measured in the portal blood. Following completion of the baseline studies, the animals were treated with either 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, selective neuronal NOS inhibitor), or N-nitro-L-arginine (NNA, non-selective NOS inhibitor). In the sham-operated group the cNOS activities differed significantly in the oral and aboral tissue samples (oral: 102.9; versus aboral: 62.1 fmol/mg protein/min). The obstruction elicited a significant increase in portal NOx and elevated tissue inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity. NNA treatment decreased the motility index in both intestinal segments for 60 min, but 120 min later the motility index was significantly elevated (2.5-fold increase in the oral part, and 1.8-fold enhancement in the aboral segment, respectively). Treatment with 7-NI decreased the cNOS activity in the oral and aboral parts by approximately 40% and 70%, respectively, and suppressed the motility increase in the aboral colon segment. The motility of the colon was either significantly increased or decreased, depending on the type and selectivity of the NOS inhibitor compounds applied. NO of neuronal origin is a transmitter that stimulates peristaltic activity; but an increased iNOS/nNOS ratio significantly moderates the obstruction-induced motility increase.

  1. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  2. Prognostic factors of mechanical intestinal obstruction in Aba, Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mechanical intestinal obstruction is a leading cause of acute abdomen world-wide. In spite of advances in medical science, it still carries a significant morbidity and mortality. To improve on the prognosis, it is important to identify factors of prognostic significance in this condition. Objective: To identify factors that ...

  3. Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic intestinal obstruction due to rectosigmoid endometriosis: a case report. AO Tade. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(2) 2006: 165-166. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njm.v15i2.37104.

  4. Intestinal obstruction in a child with an exceptional ascaris burden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal obstruction in a child with an exceptional ascaris burden - a case report. E A Agbakwuru, O Akinola, O Adejuyigbe, E O Komolafe. Abstract. No Abstract. NQJHM Vol. 8 (4) 1998: pp. 270-271. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. The pattern of intestinal obstruction at Kibogola Hospital, a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data analyzed from patients' records included age, sex, duration of symptoms, operative diagnosis, treatment and outcome of management. Results: There were 105patients with intestinal obstruction seen during the study under review. Males accounted for 72.4% of cases. The ages ranged from 1month to 80 years with a ...

  6. Neonatal intestinal obstruction in Zaria, Nigeria | Ameh | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other less common causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction were incarcerated exomphalos, malrotation, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, annular pancreas, and idiopathic ileal volvulus and meconium ileus respectively. Postoperative complications occurred in sixteen of 95 patients (16.8%) including colostomy or ileostomy ...

  7. Pattern of Mechanical Intestinal Obstruction in Aba | Adisa | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological pattern of intestinal obstruction in our centre which is in an urban area and compare the results with a rural centre about 60 kilometres from our centre. Aba is the commercial nerve centre of Abia State and also a gateway city in Eastern Nigeria. We are not ...

  8. Intestinal Obstruction due to Bilateral Ovarian Cystic Teratoma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teratoma is the most common ovarian tumour associated with pregnancy. The complications in pregnancy include torsion, rupture and malignant transformation mimicking ovarian carcinoma. Its association with intestinal obstruction is uncommon. Case: A 35 year old gravida 5 para 4 woman with 18 week gestation was ...

  9. an unusual cause of post-shunt intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is the most widely used procedure for the management of hydrocephalus. Various complications, including disconnection, breaking, kinking and tip occlusion of the tube, cerebrospinal fluid loculation, shunt infection, intestinal obstruction, migration of the shunt and perforation of the internal ...

  10. Case Report: Intestinal Obstruction Secondary to an Intra-Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to literature, the incidence of intestinal obstruction caused by internal abdominal hernia is very rare and has an occurrence rate of about 0.2-0.9%. Internal hernias are caused by defects that occur congenitally or as a result of surgery or trauma. It is still rarer for surgical instruments inadvertently left in the ...

  11. [Correction of a reperfusion dysfunction in acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnenko, S F; Sinenchenko, G I; Kurygin, A A; Chupris, V G

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of experimental investigations carried out in 32 dogs and 30 rabbits and laboratory data of 242 patients has shown that the application of antioxidant and antihypoxic medicines decrease reperfusion lesions and endotoxicosis in operative treatment of acute intestinal obstruction.

  12. [Pathogenic aspects of stomach ulcerogenesis in acute intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, V E; Nguen, K K

    To identify the patterns and the correlation of morphological and functional changes in stomach wall with the dynamics of different types of acute intestinal obstruction. The study was performed on 33 adult mongrel dogs of both genders weighing 17-20 kg. All researches were conducted in accordance with the documents, such as the 'Guide for the Care and Use of laboratory animals of the National Institute of Health (National Institute of Health - NIH, Bethesda, USA)' and 'Rules of work with experimental animals'. The same methods were used to study the morphology of stomach wall in normal conditions and after intestinal obstruction simulation. We used H & E stain, Van Gieson's picrofuchsin staining combined with Mallory. The choice of histochemical methods was determined by the need to study metabolic processes in epithelial cells and gastric mucosa glands. Einarson method for detecting total nucleic acids was used. The last group of methods was statistical analysis. We determined the regularities of structural organization of microcirculation in various parts of the stomach, the correlation of morphological and functional changes in stomach wall with the dynamics of different types of acute intestinal obstruction. Our data indicate proximal-distal gradient of gastric perfusion: the most pronounced vascular network and maximum blood flow are observed in proximal stomach in both normal conditions and acute intestinal obstruction. More tenuous and reduced blood flow was revealed in the antrum, that is morphological basis of the most frequent localization of acute ulcers in this department.

  13. Acute intestinal pseudo-obstruction (Ogilvie's syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Nell; Vargas, H David

    2005-05-01

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie's syndrome, is a condition characterized by massive colonic distension in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Patients presenting with Ogilvie's syndrome have underlying medical and surgical conditions predisposing them to the syndrome. Ogilvie's syndrome can often be managed by conservative therapy. However, unrecognized and untreated, the continued distension associated with Ogilvie's syndrome can lead to perforation that is associated with a high mortality rate. In this article, the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and treatment options are reviewed.

  14. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction. PMID:19830032

  15. Rare cause of intestinal obstruction, Ascaris lumbricoides infestation: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Yetim, Ibrahim; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Semerci, Ersan; Abanoz, Recep

    2009-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is common resident of intestine especially low socioeconomic areas in the world. Complication of Ascaris lumbricoides has been reported include obstruction of the small intestine, intestinal volvulus and intussusception. We report two children with severe sequelae of intestinal obstruction.

  16. Diverticulosis of the jejunum with intestinal obstruction: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hua; Hsieh, Huan-Fa; Yu, Chih-Yung; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chan, De-Chuan; Chen, Teng-Wei; Chen, Peng-Jen; Liu, Yao-Chi

    2005-01-01

    A diagnosis of intestinal diverticulosis is difficult to make pre-operatively because the clinical symptoms are usually non-specific. We report the case of a 70-year-old man who had suffered from three episodes of intestinal obstruction in 1 year. He experienced dull pain and a sensation of fullness over the whole abdomen. The symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment. The presumptive diagnosis was intestinal obstruction, and an exploratory laparotomy found diverticulosis of the proximal jejunum, with an adhesion band formed from the base of one diverticulum. Strangulation of a segment of the jejunum resulted from the internal herniation caused by the band. The band was removed and the proximal jejunum segmentally resected. His postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:16149162

  17. Intestinal anisakiasis as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Gotaro; Usuki, Shinichiro; Mizokami, Ken; Tanabe, Marianne; Machi, Junji

    2013-09-01

    Anisakiasis, a parasitic infection by larvae of the nematode Anisakis found in raw or undercooked saltwater fish, mostly involves stomach but rarely small intestine. We report a rare case of a 61-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain and developed small bowel obstruction caused by intestinal anisakiasis. Abdominal computed tomography revealed segmental edema of the intestinal wall with proximal dilatation. The patient underwent urgent laparotomy because strangulated small bowel obstruction was suspected. A localized portion of the intestine around jejunoileal junction was found to be erythematous, edematous, and hardened, which was resected. The resected specimen showed a linear whitish worm, Anisakis simplex, penetrating into the intestinal mucosa. It is often clinically challenging to consider intestinal anisakiasis in the differential diagnosis because of its nonspecific abdominal symptoms and findings. Although gastrointestinal anisakiasis is still rare in the United States, the incidence is expected to rise given the growing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi or sashimi. Anisakiasis should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses in patients with nonspecific abdominal symptoms after consumption of raw or undercooked fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... branching network of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton , which gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. ... 2 actin protein is found in smooth muscle cells of the intestinal and urinary ... filaments in the cytoskeleton and reduce the ability of smooth muscles in ...

  19. Anisakidosis: a cause of intestinal obstruction from eating sushi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabe, K; Ohki, S; Kunihiro, O; Sakashita, T; Endo, I; Ichikawa, Y; Sekido, H; Amano, T; Nakatani, Y; Suzuki, K; Shimada, H

    1998-07-01

    We report a case of strangulating small bowel obstruction in a 60-yr-old Japanese woman caused by anisakidosis (previously known as anisakiasis). With the increasing popularity of Japanese cuisine such as sushi in the United States, the incidence of anisakidosis is expected to increase. Intestinal anisakidosis can now be treated temporarily, but this condition may cause a serious obstruction afterwards, as evidenced by this particular case. Over 13,500 cases were reviewed in both the Japanese and English literature, and we discuss the prevention of anisakidosis without negatively altering the taste of the raw fish.

  20. Esophageal stent migration can lead to intestinal obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatepe, Oguzhan; Acet, Ersin; Altiok, Merih; Battal, Muharrem; Adas, Gokhan; Karahan, Servet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Self-expanding metallic stents are the devices of choice in the treatment of malign or benign strictures of the esophagus. Stent migration is a well-known complication of this procedure. Aims: We report a case of intestinal obstruction caused by esophageal stent migration, in which surgical intervention was used. Methods: A 65-year-old woman, who had a medical history of gastric cancer operations and esophageal stent applications, was admitted to our emergency department with a 48-hour history of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. An emergency laparotomy was performed and the migrated stent causing intestinal obstruction was removed. Results: The patient recovered without incident and was discharged on postoperative day 3. Conclusion: This case illustrates that esophageal stent migration has to be considered as a potential life-threatening complication. PMID:22666672

  1. Colonic carcinoma with multiple small bowel perforations mimicking intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Rahul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoma of the colon may present with perforation proximal to the site of malignancy. Caecum is the commonest site of perforation if the ileocecal valve is patent and the jejunal and ileal perforations are very rare. Case presentation A 35 year male presented with intestinal obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed carcinoma of the transverse colon with multiple pinpoint perforations along antimesenteric border of ileum, which were wrapped with omentum, and no peritoneal contamination was present. Extended right hemicolectomy with jejunocolic anastomosis was done. Patient made uneventful recovery in postoperative period and was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusion Patients with colonic carcinoma and incompetent ileocecal valve may present with intestinal perforation. Increased intraluminal pressure and closed loop obstruction may lead to ischemia and perforation of the small bowel.

  2. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction - A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Krishnappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis is a rare disease characterized by infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract by an increased number of eosinophils as compared to the normal. The anatomic location and intensity of the infiltrate decides the varied clinical symptomatology with which these patients present. The present report deals with four cases, all presenting with clinical signs of intestinal obstruction A laparotomy performed revealed a stricture in the first case, superficial ulcers and adhesions in the second case, an ileocaecal mass in the third case and volvulus formation in the fourth case. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was confirmed on histopathology in all the four cases. All the four patients experienced relief of symptoms after resection. It is essential to diagnose the disease to differentiate it from other conditions presenting as intestinal obstruction. The cases are presented because of the rarity of occurrence and presentation. Relevant literature has been reviewed.

  3. Caecal metastasis from breast cancer presenting as intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Muhammad S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastrointestinal metastsasis from the breast cancer are rare. We report a patient who presented with intestinal obstruction due to solitary caecal metastasis from infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast. We also review the available literature briefly. Case presentation A 72 year old lady with past history of breast cancer presented with intestinal obstruction due to a caecal mass. She underwent an emergency right hemicolectomy. The histological examination of the right hemicolectomy specimen revealed an adenocarcinoma in caecum staining positive for Cytokeratin 7 and Carcinoembryonic antigen and negative for Cytokeratin 20, CDX2 and Estrogen receptor. Eight out of 11 mesenteric nodes showed tumour deposits. A histological diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma was given. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of solitary metastasis to caecum from infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast. Awareness of this possibility will aid in appropriate management of such patients.

  4. Lithopaedon Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction with a Previous Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a 25 year old lady Para 4 + 0 gravida 5, who was referred to Kisii level 5 hospital from a district hospital with a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction and a four year history of an intra-abdominal mass. A year prior to the admission she conceived and delivered vaginally at home but the baby died a few ...

  5. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Perlemuter, G; Chaussade, S; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Dapoigny, M; Kahan, A; Godeau, P; Couturier, D

    1998-01-01

    Background/Aims—Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) reflects a dysfunction of the visceral smooth muscle or the enteric nervous system. Gastrointestinal manifestations are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but CIPO has not been reported. Features of CIPO are reported in five patients with SLE. 
Methods—From 1988 to 1993, five patients with SLE or SLE-like syndrome were hospitalised for gastrointestinal manometric studies. CIPO was the onset feature in ...

  6. Prenatal Intestinal Obstruction Affects the Myenteric Plexus and Causes Functional Bowel Impairment in Fetal Rat Experimental Model of Intestinal Atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khen-Dunlop, Naziha; Sarnacki, Sabine; Victor, Anais; Grosos, Celine; Menard, Sandrine; Soret, Rodolphe; Goudin, Nicolas; Pousset, Maud; Sauvat, Frederique; Revillon, Yann; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Neunlist, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background Intestinal atresia is a rare congenital disorder with an incidence of 3/10 000 birth. About one-third of patients have severe intestinal dysfunction after surgical repair. We examined whether prenatal gastrointestinal obstruction might effect on the myenteric plexus and account for subsequent functional disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a rat model of surgically induced antenatal atresia, comparing intestinal samples from both sides of the obstruction and with healthy rat pups controls. Whole-mount preparations of the myenteric plexus were stained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to analyze mRNAs for inflammatory markers. Functional motility and permeability analyses were performed in vitro. Phenotypic studies were also performed in 8 newborns with intestinal atresia. In the experimental model, the proportion of nNOS-immunoreactive neurons was similar in proximal and distal segments (6.7±4.6% vs 5.6±4.2%, p = 0.25), but proximal segments contained a higher proportion of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons (13.2±6.2% vs 7.5±4.3%, p = 0.005). Phenotypic changes were associated with a 100-fold lower concentration-dependent contractile response to carbachol and a 1.6-fold higher EFS-induced contractile response in proximal compared to distal segments. Transcellular (p = 0.002) but not paracellular permeability was increased. Comparison with controls showed that modifications involved not only proximal but also distal segments. Phenotypic studies in human atresia confirmed the changes in ChAT expression. Conclusion Experimental atresia in fetal rat induces differential myenteric plexus phenotypical as well as functional changes (motility and permeability) between the two sides of the obstruction. Delineating these changes might help to identify markers predictive of motility dysfunction and to define guidelines for post-surgical care. PMID:23667464

  7. Intestinal Leiomyositis: A Cause of Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in 6 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacuto, A C; Pesavento, P A; Hill, S; McAlister, A; Rosenthal, K; Cherbinsky, O; Marks, S L

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal leiomyositis is a suspected autoimmune disorder affecting the muscularis propria layer of the gastrointestinal tract and is a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in humans and animals. To characterize the clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and outcome of dogs with intestinal leiomyositis in an effort to optimize treatment and prognosis. Six client-owned dogs. Retrospective case series. Medical records were reviewed to describe signalment, clinicopathologic and imaging findings, histopathologic diagnoses, treatment, and outcome. All biopsy specimens were reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. Median age of dogs was 5.4 years (range, 15 months-9 years). Consistent clinical signs included vomiting (6/6), regurgitation (2/6), and small bowel diarrhea (3/6). Median duration of clinical signs before presentation was 13 days (range, 5-150 days). Diagnostic imaging showed marked gastric distension with dilated small intestines in 4/6 dogs. Full-thickness intestinal biopsies were obtained in all dogs by laparotomy. Histopathology of the stomach and intestines disclosed mononuclear inflammation, myofiber degeneration and necrosis, and fibrosis centered within the region of myofiber loss in the intestinal muscularis propria. All dogs received various combinations of immunomodulatory and prokinetic treatment, antimicrobial agents, antiemetics, and IV fluids, but none of the dogs showed a clinically relevant improvement with treatment. Median survival was 19 days after diagnosis (range, 3-270 days). Intestinal leiomyositis is a cause of intestinal pseudo-obstruction and must be diagnosed by full-thickness intestinal biopsy. This disease should be considered in dogs with acute and chronic vomiting, regurgitation, and small bowel diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Does vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediate the pathophysiology of bowel obstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basson, M D; Fielding, L P; Bilchik, A J; Zucker, K A; Ballantyne, G H; Sussman, J; Adrian, T E; Modlin, I M

    1989-01-01

    We hypothesized that bioactive peptides might be released into the portal circulation and mediate pathophysiologic alterations accompanying small bowel obstruction. We studied this question in a subacute canine small bowel obstruction model using 50 percent diameter occlusion. Control animals underwent sham laparotomy. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), peptide YY, and gastrin were measured in portal and systemic plasma by specific radioimmunoassays at 24-hour intervals as the obstruction progressed to completion over 5 days. All peptides in both groups demonstrated portal and peripheral gradients. In control dogs, peptide concentrations did not change postoperatively but VIP increased markedly in obstructed dogs, demonstrating a median portal level of 95 pmol/liter at 96 hours compared with 31.5 pmol/liter in control animals. These portal VIP levels are known to cause hypersecretion and splanchnic vasodilation in experimental models. The release of vasoactive compounds such as VIP may mediate local pathophysiology in human small bowel obstruction. A similar explanation of the systemic effects is consistent with the known cardiopulmonary bioactivity of VIP.

  9. Radiological evaluation of intestinal obstruction in neonate and infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, D. S.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    281 cases of neonatal and infantile intestinal obstruction confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure from 1975 till 1979 were reviewed radiologically. The result was as follows; 1. Intussusception was the most common cause of intestinal obstruction under one year of age (173/281: 61.56%), and other causes of descending order were infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (20: 7.11%), congenital megacolon (19: 6.76%), anorectal malformation (17: 6.05%), meconium plug syndrome (17: 6.05%), hernia (12: 4.27%), band adhesion (8: 2.85%), rotation anomaly (5: 1.78%), small bowel atresia (3: 1.07%), Meckel's diverticulum (3: 1.07%), duodenal atresia (2: 0.71%), meconium ileus (1: 0.36%) and annular pancreas (1: 0.36%). Congenital type of intestinal obstruction (we classified intussusception acquired and others congenital) occupied 38.44%. 2. The ratio of male to female was 3: 1, congenital type 4.69 : 1 and acquired 2.39 : 1. 3. Vomiting, bloody stool, fever and abdominal distention were the most 4 symptoms. 4. The frequency of typical mechanical ileus pattern on plain abdomen films was 226 cases(80.43%) paralytic ileus or normal finding was 52 cases (18.51%) and pneumoperitoneum with ileus sign was 3 cases (1.06%). 5. Barium meal or enema was performed in 228 cases and narrowing or obstructed site was found in 213 cases of them (93.42%); intussusception 100% (173/173), infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 93.33% (14/15) and congenital megacolon 82.35% (14/17). 6. Only 10 cases had associated disease such as Mongolism, thoracic kyphosis and scoliosis, microcolon, prematurity, ileocolic fistula, undescended testicle and hydrocele. 7. Meconium plug syndrome, duodenal atresia, small bowel atresia, mecondium ileus and annular pancreas were developed early after birth with average onset age of 3.6 days

  10. Radiological evaluation of intestinal obstruction in neonate and infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, D. S.; Lim, K. Y.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S. [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    281 cases of neonatal and infantile intestinal obstruction confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure from 1975 till 1979 were reviewed radiologically. The result was as follows; 1. Intussusception was the most common cause of intestinal obstruction under one year of age (173/281: 61.56%), and other causes of descending order were infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (20: 7.11%), congenital megacolon (19: 6.76%), anorectal malformation (17: 6.05%), meconium plug syndrome (17: 6.05%), hernia (12: 4.27%), band adhesion (8: 2.85%), rotation anomaly (5: 1.78%), small bowel atresia (3: 1.07%), Meckel's diverticulum (3: 1.07%), duodenal atresia (2: 0.71%), meconium ileus (1: 0.36%) and annular pancreas (1: 0.36%). Congenital type of intestinal obstruction (we classified intussusception acquired and others congenital) occupied 38.44%. 2. The ratio of male to female was 3: 1, congenital type 4.69 : 1 and acquired 2.39 : 1. 3. Vomiting, bloody stool, fever and abdominal distention were the most 4 symptoms. 4. The frequency of typical mechanical ileus pattern on plain abdomen films was 226 cases(80.43%) paralytic ileus or normal finding was 52 cases (18.51%) and pneumoperitoneum with ileus sign was 3 cases (1.06%). 5. Barium meal or enema was performed in 228 cases and narrowing or obstructed site was found in 213 cases of them (93.42%); intussusception 100% (173/173), infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis 93.33% (14/15) and congenital megacolon 82.35% (14/17). 6. Only 10 cases had associated disease such as Mongolism, thoracic kyphosis and scoliosis, microcolon, prematurity, ileocolic fistula, undescended testicle and hydrocele. 7. Meconium plug syndrome, duodenal atresia, small bowel atresia, mecondium ileus and annular pancreas were developed early after birth with average onset age of 3.6 days.

  11. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlemuter, G; Chaussade, S; Wechsler, B; Cacoub, P; Dapoigny, M; Kahan, A; Godeau, P; Couturier, D

    1998-07-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) reflects a dysfunction of the visceral smooth muscle or the enteric nervous system. Gastrointestinal manifestations are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but CIPO has not been reported. Features of CIPO are reported in five patients with SLE. From 1988 to 1993, five patients with SLE or SLE-like syndrome were hospitalised for gastrointestinal manometric studies. CIPO was the onset feature in two cases. Antroduodenal manometry (three hours fasting, two hours fed) was performed in all patients, and oesophageal manometry in four. Intestinal hypomotility associated with reduced bladder capacity and bilateral ureteral distension was found in four patients and aperistalsis of the oesophagus in three. Treatment, which consisted of high dose corticosteroids, parenteral nutrition, promotility agents, and antibiotics, led to remission of both CIPO and urinary abnormalities in all cases. Antroduodenal manometry performed in two patients after remission showed increased intestinal motility. One patient died, and postmortem examination showed intestinal vasculitis. CIPO in SLE is a life threatening situation that can be reversed by treatment. It may be: (a) a complication or onset feature of the disease; (b) secondary to smooth muscle involvement; (c) associated with ureteral and vesical involvement; (d) the result of intestinal vasculitis.

  12. Uncorrectable coagulopathy due to intestinal obstruction: A clinical dilemma of competing priorities in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Raveenthiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC is a contraindication for major surgical operations. However, if surgery is required to correct the underlying cause of DIC, a clinical conflict is created. In such complex scenario, standard resources such as textbooks and journals offer very little guidance. In this communication, we report a 22-month-old boy who developed sepsis-induced DIC following intestinal obstruction. Pre-operative attempts to normalize coagulation parameters failed. Damage control laparotomy was undertaken as it was considered essential to control the underlying cause of DIC. His abnormal coagulation status reverted quickly after surgical relief of intestinal obstruction. Paradoxically intraoperative blood loss was less than anticipated amount. There are a few case reports of adult patients who have successfully undergone major surgery despite the presence of abnormal coagulation. However, this appears to be the first paediatric report of successful surgery in DIC status. Lessons learnt from this case and hypothetical speculations of clinical paradoxes are discussed.

  13. [Colonic gallstone ileus: A rare cause of intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco-de la Cuadra, Beatriz; López-Ruiz, José Antonio; Tallón-Aguilar, Luis; López-Pérez, José; Oliva-Mompeán, Fernando

    A gallstone colonic ileus is a very rare condition. The case is reported of an 87 year-old patient who came to the Emergency Department due to an intestinal obstruction of several days onset, which was caused by a gallstone affected sigmoid colon. Colonic gallstone ileus is a rare disease that usually occurs in older patients due to the passage of large gallstone directly from the gallbladder to colon, through a cholecystocolonic fistula. It has a high morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Obstrução intestinal no idoso Intestinal obstruction in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: O envelhecimento da população é realidade sentida na vivência diária, levando à necessidade associada de prover cuidados médicos eletivos e de emergência a um número cada vez maior de idosos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os aspectos clínicos, terapêuticos e evolutivos de pacientes idosos com obstrução intestinal atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu - UNESP. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva de pacientes internados no período de janeiro de 2002 a dezembro de 2006. Foram estudados 50 pacientes, 24 homens e 26 mulheres, com idade média de 74,7 ± 7,4 anos, analisando-se a diferenciação entre obstrução funcional e orgânica; a freqüência das causas obstrutivas; a mortalidade; a incidência dos sinais e sintomas; e correlação laboratorial. RESULTADOS: O quadro obstrutivo intestinal teve as seguintes causas: brida (38%, câncer de colon (24%, hérnias (12%, impactacão fecal (12%, carcinomatose (10% e volvo da sigmóide (4%. A mortalidade foi de 18% associada à complicações infecciosas em todos os pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: a A distinção entre a obstrução intestinal funcional e orgânica oferece dificuldade no idoso; b o câncer do colon constitui-se em importante causa de obstrução intestinal com quadro obstrutivo já na primeira manifestação clínica desse tumor; c bridas e hérnias são igualmente importantes na etiologia da obstrução intestinal; d os sinais clínicos obstrutivos são poucos evidentes no idoso e a leucometria é mais fidedigna para este diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: Population aging is a reality that is experienced daily, leading to an associated need for providing elective and emergency medical care to an increasing number of elderly individuals. AIM: To evaluate clinical, therapeutic and developmental aspects of patients with intestinal obstruction assisted at the University Hospital of the Botucatu School of Medicine - UNESP. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of

  15. Intestinal Obstruction due to Complete Transmural Migration of a Retained Surgical Sponge into the Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman with a history of gynecological surgery for cervical cancer 18 years previously was referred to our hospital for colicky abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Intestinal obstruction was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT which showed dilation of the small intestine and suggested obstruction in the terminal ileum. In addition, CT showed a thick-walled cavitary lesion communicating with the proximal jejunum. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed abnormal uptake at the same location as the cavitary lesion revealed by CT. The patient underwent laparotomy for the ileus and resection of the cavitary lesion. At laparotomy, we found a retained surgical sponge in the ileum 60 cm from the ileocecal valve. The cavitary tumor had two fistulae communicating with the proximal jejunum. The tumor was resected en bloc together with the transverse colon, part of the jejunum and the duodenum. Microscopic examination revealed fibrous encapsulation and foreign body giant cell reaction. Since a retained surgical sponge without radiopaque markers is extremely difficult to diagnose, retained surgical sponge should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgery.

  16. Drosophila C virus systemic infection leads to intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Lamiable, Olivier; Lee, Kwang-Zin; Galiana, Delphine; Troxler, Laurent; Meignin, Carine; Hetru, Charles; Hoffmann, Jules A; Daeffler, Laurent; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection. Comparison of the transcriptome of flies infected with DCV or two other positive-sense RNA viruses, Flock House virus and Sindbis virus, reveals that DCV infection, unlike those of the other two viruses, represses the expression of a large number of genes. Several of these genes are expressed specifically in the midgut and also are repressed by starvation. We show that systemic DCV infection triggers a nutritional stress in Drosophila which results from intestinal obstruction with the accumulation of peritrophic matrix at the entry of the midgut and the accumulation of the food ingested in the crop, a blind muscular food storage organ. The related virus cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), which efficiently grows in Drosophila, does not trigger this pathology. We show that DCV, but not CrPV, infects the smooth muscles surrounding the crop, causing extensive cytopathology and strongly reducing the rate of contractions. We conclude that the pathogenesis associated with systemic DCV infection results from the tropism of the virus for an important organ within the foregut of dipteran insects, the crop. DCV is one of the few identified natural viral pathogens affecting the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. As such, it is an important virus for the deciphering of host-virus interactions in insects. We characterize here the pathogenesis associated with DCV infection in flies and show that it results from the tropism of the

  17. A five-year audit of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute mechanical intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency worldwide. The presentation varies between and within countries. Aim: To determine the pattern of presentation of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in adults in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Methods: This is retrospective study of all ...

  18. Does measurement of small intestinal diameter increase diagnostic accuracy of radiography in dogs with suspected intestinal obstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasca, Taízha C; David, Frederic H; Lamb, Christopher R

    2013-01-01

    The ratio between maximal small intestinal (SI) diameter and the height of the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) in radiographs has been reported as a diagnostic test in dogs with suspected intestinal obstruction. In order to assess the effect of the SI/L5 ratio on the accuracy of radiographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, lateral abdominal radiographs of 37 dogs with small intestinal obstruction and 48 nonobstructed dogs were mixed and examined independently by six observers who were unaware of the final diagnosis and who represented a range of experience. Observers first examined radiographs subjectively and stated the likelihood of obstruction (definitely not, probably not, equivocal, probably, definitely). Observers subsequently reexamined the radiographs, determined the SI/L5 ratio, and again stated the likelihood of obstruction. The most frequent cause of obstruction was foreign body (29/37, 78%). Dogs with SI obstruction had a significantly larger median SI/L5 ratio than nonobstructed dogs (P = 0.0002). Using an SI/L5 ratio of 1.7 for diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, sensitivity and specificity were 66%. Use of the SI/L5 ratio was not associated with increased accuracy of diagnosis for any observer, regardless of experience, hence this test may have no diagnostic impact. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  19. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction Treatment Promotes the Restoration of Intestinal Function after Obstruction by Regulating Intestinal Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal obstruction is a common disease requiring abdominal surgery with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, an effective medical treatment for obstruction, other than surgical resection or decompression, does not exist. Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is a famous Chinese medicine used to replenish qi and invigorate the functions of the spleen. Modern pharmacological studies show that this prescription can improve gastrointestinal function and strengthen immune function. In this study, we investigated the effects of a famous Chinese herbal formula, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction, on the restoration of intestinal function after the relief of obstruction in a rabbit model. We found that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could reduce intestinal mucosal injury while promoting the recovery of the small intestine. Further, Si-Jun-Zi Decoction could regulate the intestinal immune system. Our results suggest that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction promotes the restoration of intestinal function after obstruction by regulating intestinal homeostasis. Our observations indicate that Si-Jun-Zi Decoction is potentially a therapeutic drug for intestinal obstruction.

  20. COMPARISON OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY AND ABDOMINAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF CANINE MECHANICAL INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Wm Tod; Green, Eric M; Zekas, Lisa J; Aarnes, Turi K; Su, Lillian; Habing, Gregory G

    2016-07-01

    Vomiting, often caused by mechanical intestinal obstruction, is common in dogs. Equivocal radiographic signs often necessitate repeat radiographs or additional imaging procedures. For our prospective, case-controlled, accuracy study, we hypothesized the following: (1) using computed tomography (CT), radiologists will be more sensitive and specific for detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery compared to using radiographs; and (2) using measurements, radiologists will be more sensitive and specific using radiographs or CT for detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery. Twenty dogs had abdominal radiographs and abdominal CT. Seventeen dogs had abdominal surgery and three dogs were not obstructed based on clinical follow-up. Confidence levels (five-point scale) of three experienced radiologists for mechanical intestinal obstruction and recommending surgery were recorded before and after making selected measurements. Eight dogs had surgically confirmed mechanical intestinal obstruction, and 12 dogs did not have obstruction. For detecting mechanical intestinal obstruction, CT was more sensitive (95.8% vs. 79.2%) and specific (80.6% vs. 69.4%) compared to radiographs, but the difference was not statistically significant. For recommending surgery, radiography was more sensitive (91.7% vs. 83.3%) and specific (83.3% vs. 72.2%) than using CT, but differences were not statistically significant. We reported objective CT measurements for predicting small mechanical intestinal obstruction. By incorporating these objective data, the diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction changed in five of 120 instances (radiographs and CT). In no instance (0/120), did the objective data change the recommendation for surgery. Using CT or abdominal radiographs for the detection of canine mechanical intestinal obstruction is sensitive and specific when evaluated by experienced veterinary radiologists. © 2016 American College of

  1. Quantitative estimation of intestinal dilation as a predictor of obstruction in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J P; Lord, P F; Harrison, J M

    1998-11-01

    Mechanical obstruction is a major differential diagnosis for dogs presented with gastrointestinal problems. Small intestinal dilation is a cardinal sign of obstruction but its recognition depends upon the observer's experience and anecdotally derived parameters for normal small intestinal diameter. The objective of this study was to formulate a quantitative index for normal intestinal diameter and evaluate its usefulness in predicting small intestinal obstruction. The material consisted of survey abdominal radiographs of 50 normal dogs, 44 cases of intestinal obstruction and 86 patients which subsequently had an upper gastrointestinal examination. A ratio of the maximum small intestinal diameter (SI) and the height of the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra at its narrowest point (L5) was used, and a logistic regression model employed to determine the probability of an obstruction existing with varying degrees of intestinal dilation. A value of 1.6 for SI/L5 is recommended as the upper limit of normal intestinal diameter for clinical use. The model showed that obstruction is very unlikely if the SI/L5 value is less than this. Higher values were significantly associated with obstruction.

  2. Quantitative estimation of intestinal dilation as a predictor of obstruction in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.P.; Lord, P.F.; Harrison, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical obstruction is a major differential diagnosis for dogs presented with gastrointestinal problems. Small intestinal dilation is a cardinal sign of obstruction but its recognition depends upon the observer's experience and anecdotally derived parameters for normal small intestinal diameter. The objective of this study was to formulate a quantitative index for normal intestinal diameter and evaluate its usefulness in predicting small intestinal obstruction. The material consisted of survey abdominal radiographs of 50 normal dogs, 44 cases of intestinal obstruction and 86 patients which subsequently had an upper gastrointestinal examination. A ratio of the maximum small intestinal diameter (SI) and the height of the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra at its narrowest point (L5) was used, and a logistic regression model employed to determine the probability of an obstruction existing with varying degrees of intestinal dilation. A value of 1.6 for SI/L5 is recommended as the upper limit of normal intestinal diameter for clinical use. The model showed that obstruction is very unlikely if the SI/L5 value is less than this. Higher values were significantly associated with obstruction

  3. [An experimental assessment of methods for applying intestinal sutures in intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadudinov, M G

    1992-04-01

    The results of various methods used in applying intestinal sutures in obturation were studied. Three series of experiments were conducted on 30 dogs--resection of the intestine after obstruction with the formation of anastomoses by means of double-row suture (Albert--Shmiden--Lambert) in the first series (10 dogs), by a single-row suture after V. M. Mateshchuk [correction of Mateshuku] in the second series, and bu a single-row stretching suture suggested by the author in the third series. The postoperative complications and the parameters of physical airtightness of the intestinal anastomosis were studied in dynamics in the experimental animals. The results of the study: incompetence of the anastomosis sutures in the first series 6, in the second 4, and in the third series one. Adhesions occurred in all animals of the first and second series and in 2 of the third series. Six dogs of the first series died, 4 of the second, and one of the third. Study of the dynamics of the results showed a direct connection of the complications with the parameters of the physical airtightness of the anastomosis, and the last-named with the method of the intestinal suture. Relatively better results were noted in formation of the anastomosis by means of our suggested stretshing continuous suture passed through the serous, muscular, and submucous coats of the intestine.

  4. Foreign body-associated intestinal pyogranuloma resulting in intestinal obstruction in four dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, L G; Tontis, D; Loukopoulos, P; Patsikas, M N; Hermanns, W; Kouti, V; Timotheou, T; Liapis, I; Tziris, N; Rallis, T S

    2010-04-17

    Intestinal obstruction resulting from an intramural foreign body-associated pyogranuloma was diagnosed in four dogs. Vomiting and weight loss were the main clinical signs. On physical examination, a mass in the abdomen was detected in three dogs. Abdominal radiography demonstrated the presence of soft tissue opacity in three of the dogs and gas-filled dilated intestinal loops in all four dogs. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hyperkinetic fluid-filled dilated intestinal loops and a hypoechoic small intestinal mass in all the dogs. Exploratory coeliotomy confirmed the presence of a jejunal mass, which was removed by resection and anastomosis in all the dogs. In one of the dogs a linear foreign body was also found cranial to the mass and was removed through a separate enterotomy incision. The lesions were diagnosed as foreign body-associated intestinal pyogranulomas on histological examination. Three dogs recovered without complications, but the fourth showed signs of septic peritonitis four days after surgery and was euthanased at the owner's request. The other three dogs remained disease-free 12 to 42 months after surgery.

  5. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography for diagnosing small-intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Thompson, Margret S; Scrivani, Peter V; Dykes, Nathan L; Yeager, Amy E; Freer, Sean R; Erb, Hollis N

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed on acutely vomiting dogs to compare the accuracy of radiography and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of small-intestinal mechanical obstruction and to describe several radiographic and ultrasonographic signs to identify their contribution to the final diagnosis. The sample population consisted of 82 adult dogs and small-intestinal obstruction by foreign body was confirmed in 27/82 (33%) dogs by surgery or necropsy. Radiography produced a definitive result (obstructed or not obstructed) in 58/82 (70%) of dogs; ultrasonography produced a definitive result in 80/82 (97%) of dogs. On radiographs, a diagnosis of obstruction was based on detection of segmental small-intestinal dilatation, plication, or detection of a foreign body. Approximately 30% (8/27) of obstructed dogs did not have radiographic signs of segmental small-intestinal dilatation, of which 50% (4/8) were due to linear foreign bodies. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of small-intestinal obstruction was based on detection of an obstructive lesion, sonographic signs of plication or segmental, small-intestinal dilatation. The ultrasonographic presence or absence of moderate-to-severe intestinal diameter enlargement (due to lumen dilatation) of the jejunum (>1.5 cm) was a useful discriminatory finding and, when present, should prompt a thorough search for a cause of small-intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, both abdominal radiography and abdominal ultrasonography are accurate for diagnosing small-intestinal obstruction in vomiting dogs and either may be used depending on availability and examiner choice. Abdominal ultrasonography had greater accuracy, fewer equivocal results and provided greater diagnostic confidence compared with radiography. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  6. CLINICAL CASES OF INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION WITH FOREIGN BODIES AND INTUSSUSCEPTION IN DOGS

    OpenAIRE

    KOIKE, Toshio; OTOMO, Kanjuro; KUDO, Tadaaki; SAKAI, Tamotsu

    1981-01-01

    The medical records of dogs treated in our veterinary hospital during a period of 15 years until 1978 were reviewed. Intestinal obstruction was diagnosed in 47 dogs, among which 51.06% were under 12 months of age and 80.85% were under 3 years. The period which elasped from the appearance of clinical signs to the operation of the obstructed intestines averaged about 5 days (ranging from 1 to 24 days). The presurgical hematological findings of 5 dogs with intestinal obstruction suggested hemoco...

  7. Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica se caracteriza por la presencia de cuadros clínicos recidivantes que simulan una obstrucción intestinal pero en ausencia de proceso obstructivo anatómico. Es poco frecuente pero determina una alta morbilidad. Se origina como consecuencia de una alteración de la motilidad intestinal que no puede hacer progresar su contenido debido a la afectación de su componente muscular, neurológico o de ambos. Son más frecuentes los casos secundarios a un proceso sistémico pero cada vez se describen más cuadros debidos a la afectación primaria de dichos componentes. El desarrollo de técnicas manométricas e histológicas más específicas ha permitido aclarar la patogenia de algunos de estos síndromes, entre los que se incluyen las manifestaciones paraneoplásicas y las enfermedades mitocondriales. La expresión clínica es variable y depende de la causa y de la localización y extensión de la afectación. El diagnóstico de esta entidad es habitualmente difícil lo que origina que a estos pacientes se les practiquen cirugías innecesarias, se les etiquete como enfermos psiquiátricos y el diagnóstico se realice varios años después del inicio de los síntomas. El tratamiento se dirige a mejorar los síntomas y a mantener su estado nutricional mediante medidas dietético-nutricionales, fármacos y actitudes endoscópico-quirúrgicas. La complejidad de estos enfermos aconseja su seguimiento multidisciplinar.Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO is a syndrome characterized by the presence of recurrent episodes of clinical intestinal obstruction in the absence of obstructive lesions. Although this syndrome is rare, it causes a high morbidity. It is caused by a disturbance of the intestinal motility, that results in a failure of the progression of the intestinal content. Basically, the failure of the intestinal motility is a consequence of muscular disorder, neurological disorder or both

  8. International prospective study of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome in cystic fibrosis: Associated factors and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munck, Anne; Alberti, Corinne; Colombo, Carla; Kashirskaya, Nataliya; Ellemunter, Helmut; Fotoulaki, Maria; Houwen, Roderick; Robberecht, Eddy; Boizeau, Priscilla; Wilschanski, Michael

    Background Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) is a specific complication of cystic fibrosis. Methods A study was performed in 10 countries to prospectively evaluate the incidence, associated factors, and treatment modalities in children and adults. Results 102 patients presented 112

  9. Recurrent Intestinal Obstruction in a Patient with Selective IgA Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chee-Kin

    2016-11-01

    A 32 year old woman presented with acute onset of abdominal pain and fever. An urgent computerised tomography (CT) of the whole abdomen showed dilated loop at the terminal ileum in the right lower abdomen with thickening of the wall and oedema. The CT was suggestive of distal small bowel obstruction at the ileum with surrounding wall oedema. Multiple biopsies taken from the terminal ileum and colon on colonoscopy were all unremarkable. She represented one-year later with a recurrence of intestinal obstruction. CT enteroclysis showed collapse at the distal 3 cm segment of the terminal ileum. There was no associated wall thickening, active inflammatory changes or ileitis. This was suspicious of post-inflammatory change or fibrosis. She was subsequently found to have selective IgA deficiency with recurrent infection in the terminal ileum resulting in intestinal obstruction. In conclusion, selective IgA deficiency should be considered in patients with recurrent intestinal obstruction without anatomical obstructions.

  10. Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszaki, J; Palásthy, Z; Erczes, D; Rácz, A; Torday, C; Varga, G; Vécsei, L; Boros, M

    2008-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KynA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, protects the central nervous system in excitotoxic neurological diseases. We hypothesized that the inhibition of enteric glutamate receptors by KynA may influence dysmotility in the gastrointestinal tract. Group 1 of healthy dogs served as the sham-operated control, in group 2, the animals were treated with KynA, while in groups 3 and 4 mechanical colon obstruction was maintained for 7 h. Group 4 was treated with KynA at the onset of ileus. Hemodynamics and motility changes were monitored, and the activities of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined from tissue samples. Colon obstruction induced a hyperdynamic circulatory reaction, significantly elevated the motility index and increased the mucosal leucocyte accumulation and the XOR activity. The KynA treatment augmented the tone of the colon, permanently decreased the motility index of the giant colonic contractions and reduced the increases in XOR and MPO activities. These effects were concomitant with the in vitro inhibition of XOR activity. In conclusion, KynA antagonizes the obstruction-induced motility responses and XOR activation in the colon. Inhibition of enteric NMDA receptors may provide an option to influence intestinal hypermotility and inflammatory changes.

  11. Intestinal Obstruction in Early Neonatal Period: A 3-Year Review Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Failure to pass meconium by a full-term neonate within the first 24 hours should raise a suspicion of bowel obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine pattern of presentation, diagnosis and outcome of management of intestinal obstruction in the early neonatal period in the Neonatal Care Unit ...

  12. Bronchial or Laryngeal Obstruction Induced by Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Bey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A child suspected of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction and asthma is examined by laryngoscopy and respiratory resistance (Rrs after exercise challenge. Immediately at exercise cessation, the visualized adduction of the larynx in inspiration is reflected in a paroxystic increase in Rrs. While normal breathing has apparently resumed later on during recovery from exercise, the pattern of Rrs in inspiration is observed to reoccur following a deep breath or swallowing. The procedure may thus help diagnosing the site of exercise-induced obstruction when laryngoscopy is not available and identify re-inducers of laryngeal dysfunction.

  13. Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction treated with jejunostomy: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato dos Reis Lemos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a very rare condition. CASE REPORT: This study describes a male patient who had presented obstructive symptoms for 24 years. He had been treated clinically and had undergone two previous operations in different services, with no clinical improvement or correct diagnosis. He was diagnosed with intestinal obstruction without mechanical factors in our service and underwent jejunostomy, which had a significant decompressive effect. The patient was able to gain weight and presented improvements in laboratory tests. Jejunostomy is a relatively simple surgical procedure that is considered palliative but, in this case, it was resolutive.

  14. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction as a manifestation of impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be caused by mitochondrial disorders. Understanding the association between genetic alterations in mitochondrial function and development of intestinal pseudo-obstruction may provide insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Although the association between mitochondrial DNA defects and pseudo-obstruction is documented, little is known about the relationship between mitochondrial beta-oxidation disorders, which are caused by defects in nuclear genes, and development of intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation defects have emerged recently as an important group of recessively inherited inborn errors of metabolism with multiple phenotypes. Here we report the case history of a 25-year-old patient with mitochondrial trifunctional protein (MTP) deficiency, the eldest known living patient with this disorder. MTP is an enzyme complex that consists of 4alpha and 4beta subunits and catalyzes the last three steps in the beta-oxidation cycle. The patient's MTP deficiency is secondary to a compound heterozygosity for two mutations in the MTP beta-subunit. Over the past 5 years, the patient had worsening symptoms consistent with intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with progressive skeletal myopathy and polyneuropathy. We hypothesize that impairment of mitochondrial beta-oxidation causes intestinal pseudo-obstruction secondary to accumulation of intracellular long chain fatty acids, activation of extramitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathways, and generation of excessive reactive oxygen species leading to visceral myopathy.

  15. Obstructive mobile small intestinal tumor without radiographic stigmata of bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Onursal

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: In the absence of clear clinical or radiographic etiology for obstruction, developing a heightened degree of suspicion for native tissue “bezoar” may allow quick and appropriate management of similar cases and limit complications associated with prolonged obstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mobile intraluminal leiomyoma causing small bowel obstruction.

  16. Radiographic diagnosis of mechanical obstruction in dogs based on relative small intestinal external diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Cyrielle; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Specchi, Swan; Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical obstruction is a frequent cause of acute vomiting in dogs requiring prompt diagnosis to improve patient management and prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare small intestinal radiographic characteristics in dogs with versus without mechanical intestinal obstruction. Fifty dogs with gastrointestinal clinical signs and abdominal radiographs were recruited from hospital record archives and assigned to groups (group 1, obstructive, n = 25; group 2, nonobstructive n = 25). Abdominal radiographs were randomized and independently interpreted by three examiners who were unaware of group status. Intestinal dilation was subjectively scored based on distribution (segmental, regional or diffuse), and severity (absent, mild, moderate or severe). Small intestinal maximal diameter (SImax), L5 vertebral body height, small intestinal minimal diameter (SImin), and an estimated average of small intestinal diameters (SIave) were measured and three ratios were calculated: SImax/L5, SImax/SImin, and SImax/SIave. Segmental dilation was more prevalent in obstructed dogs for all examiners (P ≤ 0.03) and most nonobstructed dogs had no dilation (P ≤ 0.05). All ratios were higher in obstructed dogs (P dogs with SImax/L5 ≤ 1.4, SImax/SImin ≤ 2, and SImax/SIave ≤ 1.3 values are very unlikely to be mechanically obstructed; dogs with SImax/L5 ≥ 2.4, SImax/SImin ≥ 3.4 and SImax/SIave ≥ 1.9 are very likely obstructed, particularly if segmental dilation (less than 25% of the small intestine) is present. Dogs with ratios falling between these thresholds may need further testing unless other signs justify surgical exploration or endoscopy. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  17. Utility of Octreotide in Advancing Enteral Feeds in Children with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine; Flores, Alejandro; Nurko, Samuel; Rodriguez, Leonel

    2016-10-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a challenging disorder with high morbidity and mortality due to limited effective therapies that improve enteral tolerance. We aimed to present our experience using octreotide in children with CIPO and evaluate factors predicting therapy response. The study population included total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-dependent children with CIPO receiving octreotide at a tertiary care center. Octreotide response was defined as an enteral feeding increase of ≥10 cc/kg/day. A total of 16 children were included (median age 5 years, range 1-18; 88 % female). We observed an overall feed increase in 11/16 (69 %) subjects and 7/16 (44 %) were considered responders: three tolerated >65 cc/kg/day (discontinued TPN), one tolerated >30 cc/kg/day (decreased TPN) and three patients tolerated 10-12 cc/kg/day. We found an association between therapeutic octreotide response and both the presence of octreotide-induced intestinal phase III of the migrating motor complex (MMC) as well as a higher median increase in intestinal motility index after octreotide challenge during the antroduodenal manometry (p = 0.03 and children with CIPO and the antroduodenal manometry may be helpful in predicting octreotide response. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of octreotide in children with CIPO.

  18. Is nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction applicable to children in a resource-poor country?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osifo Osarumwense

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonoperative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction gives good results in adults but there are scant studies on its outcome in children. This study reports outcomes and experiences with nonoperative and operative management of adhesive intestinal obstruction in children in a resource-poor country. Patients and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of records of children who were managed with adhesive intestinal obstruction at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 2002 and December 2008. Results: Adhesive intestinal obstruction accounted for 21 (8.8% of 238 children managed with intestinal obstruction. They were aged between 7 weeks and 16 years (mean 3 ± 6.4 years, comprising 13 males and eight females (ratio 1.6:1. Prior laparotomy for gangrenous/perforated intussusception (seven, 33.3%, perforated appendix (five, 23.8%, perforated volvulus (three, 14.3%, penetrating abdominal trauma (two, 9.5% and perforated typhoid (two, 9.5% were major aetiologies. Adhesive obstruction occurred between 6 weeks and 7 years after the index laparotomies. All the 21 children had initial nonoperative management without success, owing to lack of total parenteral nutrition and monitoring facilities. Outcomes of open adhesiolysis performed between 26 and 48 h in six (28.6% children due to poor response to nonoperative management, 11-13 days in 12 (57.1% who responded minimally and 2-5 weeks in three (14.3% who had relapse of symptoms were encouraging. Exploration of the 21 adhesive obstructions confirmed small bowel obstruction due to solitary bands (two, 9.5%, multiple bands/adhesions (13, 61.9% and encasement, including one bowel gangrene (six, 28.6%. Postoperatively, the only child who had recurrence during 1-6 years of follow-up did well after a repeat adhesiolysis. Conclusion: Nonoperative management was unsuccessful in this setting. Open adhesiolysis may be adopted in children to prevent avoidable morbidities and

  19. Complete Intestinal Obstruction and Necrosis as a Complication of a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jianzhong; Gao, Xiaofeng; Li, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt complications are common, but abdominal complications are rare. The objective of this report is to present 2 cases of intestinal obstruction due to a VP shunt and review the literature for data on this rare occurrence. A 4-month-old boy received surgical resection of a medulloblastoma and a VP shunt was inserted to manage progressive hydrocephalus. Two months later, he was admitted with intermittent vomiting, and plain abdominal radiography showed complete intestinal obstruction. Emergency laparotomy revealed an adhesive intestinal obstruction around the catheter, and approximately 5 cm of necrotic ileum was resected. His recovery was uneventful. In the second case, a 6-year-old boy was diagnosed with a primary nongerminomatous malignant germ cell tumor and a VP shunt was place to treat hydrocephalus. Two weeks after the first course of chemotherapy, he went into a coma; computed tomography demonstrated enlargement of the tumor and gross total resection was performed. Two weeks later, he developed abdominal distention; plain radiography showed intestinal obstruction and laparotomy revealed adhesive intestinal obstruction around the catheter with 15 cm of necrotic ileum. The necrotic bowel was resected. Unfortunately, the patient developed sepsis and despite treatment remained in a vegetative state. Medline, Central, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched up to May 9, 2014, using the terms VP shunt, shunting, and/or intestinal obstruction. Only cases involving children or adolescents were included. Eleven reports involving patients with abdominal complications resulting from a VP shunt for hydrocephalus were identified. The dates of the reports spanned from 1971 to 2014. Volvulus was the most common cause of VP shunt-related obstruction, and mechanical obstruction due to twisting of the catheter the second most common. Only 1 case in the literature review was related to intestinal adhesions. Treatment in most

  20. Long-term outcome of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction adult patients requiring home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Aurelien; Joly, Francisca; Alves, Arnaud; Panis, Yves; Bouhnik, Yoram; Messing, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare, disabling disorder responsible for motility-related intestinal failure. Because it induces malnutrition, CIPO is a significant indication for home parenteral nutrition (HPN). The objective of the study was to evaluate long-term outcome of CIPO patients requiring HPN during adulthood. In total, 51 adult CIPO patients (18 men/33 women, median age at symptom occurrence 20 (0-74) years, 34/17 primary/secondary CIPO) followed up at our institution for HPN management between 1980 and 2006 were retrospectively studied for survival and HPN dependence rates using univariate and multivariate analysis. Follow-up after diagnosis was 8.3 (0-29) years. Surgery was required in 84% of patients. The number of interventions was 3 +/- 3 per patient (mean +/- s.d.), leading to short bowel syndrome in 19 (37%) patients. Actuarial survival probability was 94, 78, 75, and 68% at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that lower mortality was associated with the ability to restore oral feeding at baseline (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.2 (0.06-0.65), P = 0.008) and symptom occurrence before the age of 20 years (HR=0.18 (0.04-0.88), P = 0.03). Higher mortality was associated with systemic sclerosis (HR=10.4 (1.6-67.9), P = 0.01). Actuarial HPN dependence was 94, 75, and 72% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively. In this large cohort of CIPO adult patients with severe intestinal failure, i.e., those requiring HPN, we found a higher survival probability than previously reported. These results should be taken into account when considering intestinal transplantation.

  1. Non-traumatic abdominal emergencies: imaging of acute intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P.; Kessler, N.; Lesnik, A.; Blayac, P.M.; Morcos, L. [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Lapeyronie, 371, avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Bruel, J.M. [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Saint-Eloi, 80 rue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the main clinical questions in bowel obstruction, to discuss the value of various imaging modalities, including conventional radiography, ultrasound, and CT, to underline the impact of imaging in the management of patients with suspect bowel obstruction, and then to suggest a diagnostic triage in such patients. (orig.)

  2. Adhesive Ileus Complicating Recurrent Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Seretis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is considered to be one of the most frequent gastrointestinal manifestations of myasthenia gravis, accompanied by the presence of neoplasia of the thymus gland in the vast majority of the cases presented in the international literature. Despite the fact that myasthenia gravis has been implicated to be the cause of recurrent episodes of intestinal pseudo-obstruction, adhesive ileus has never been reported to complicate this – in any sense rare – condition. We present a unique case of a patient with myasthenia gravis, free of thymus neoplasia, who was submitted to emergency surgery due to the presence of extended adhesive ileus as a complication of chronic intestinal functional obstruction.

  3. Morphological abnormalities and apoptosis in lamellar tissue of equines after intestinal obstruction and treatment with hydrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M Laskoski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Four experimental groups of equines were used in order to study morphological abnormalities and apoptosis in lamellar tissue. Group Cg (control was composed of animals without any surgical procedure; group Ig (instrumented, animals that underwent enterotomy; group Tg (treated, animals that were subjected to intestinal obstruction and were treated with hydrocortisone; and group Ug (untreated, animals that were subjected to intestinal obstruction without treatment. The lamellar tissue was analyzed regarding the presence of tissue abnormalities and apoptosis. No morphological abnormalities were observed in animals of surgical groups, and no difference in apoptosis was observed between groups. It was concluded that intestinal obstruction allowed laminitis to develop, probably by systemic activation, and that the maneuvers performed in the enterotomy aggravated the process. Hydrocortisone did not aggravate the lesions of the lamellar tissue

  4. Use of intraperitoneal xenon-133 for imaging of intestinal strangulation in small bowel obstruction. [Rats; Dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulkley, G.B.; Gharagozloo, F.; Alderson, P.O.; Horn, S.D.; Zuidema, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal xenon-133 dissolved in saline solution was evaluated for the detection of early strangulation in a reproducible model of segmental intestinal obstruction in rats and dogs. There was a highly significant delay inexternally detected isotope washout from animals with strangulated loops compared with normal, sham operated and simple (nonstrangulated) obstruction control groups. Corresponding anterior abdominal gamma camera images showed marked retention of isotope at 1 hour in the strangulation obstruction groups and the sites of this activity corresponsed to the location of the ischemic loops. Blinded readings of these images by nuclear radiologists showed this method to be highly accurate for the detection of strangulation in these animal models. This method should be directly applicable to patients with intestinal obstruction.

  5. Use of intraperitoneal xenon-133 for imaging of intestinal strangulation in small bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkley, G.B.; Gharagozloo, F.; Alderson, P.O.; Horn, S.D.; Zuidema, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Intraperitoneal xenon-133 dissolved in saline solution was evaluated for the detection of early strangulation in a reproducible model of segmental intestinal obstruction in rats and dogs. There was a highly significant delay inexternally detected isotope washout from animals with strangulated loops compared with normal, sham operated and simple (nonstrangulated) obstruction control groups. Corresponding anterior abdominal gamma camera images showed marked retention of isotope at 1 hour in the strangulation obstruction groups and the sites of this activity corresponsed to the location of the ischemic loops. Blinded readings of these images by nuclear radiologists showed this method to be highly accurate for the detection of strangulation in these animal models. This method should be directly applicable to patients with intestinal obstruction

  6. [Intestinal obstruction due to Ascaris lumbricoides infection in a geriatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappe, Alfredo; Arteaga, Kovy; Resurrección, Cristhian; Ñavincopa, Marcos; Ticona, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is considered the largest intestinal nematode with a higher incidence in the childhood, representing a truly medical and public health problem, principally in undeveloped countries. We present the case of an 83 year old man, born and coming from the amazon region, without any relevant previous history of disease, admitted in the emergency department of our hospital for presenting intestinal obstruction and also presumptive biliary obstruction due to multiple balls of parasites, requiring immediate surgical intervention. We emphasize the need of consider this etiologic possibility in the differential diagnosis, that in this particular case, wasn't suspected in the first place.

  7. An unusual cause of intestinal obstruction in an adolescent: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hip Wo Yeung

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy presented with intestinal obstruction two weeks following a blunt abdominal trauma. He had progressive bilious vomiting without abdominal distension or peritonitis. The contrast computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen provided the definitive diagnosis: there was an obstructing duodenal hematoma, which might have been slowly progressing or have arisen from secondary hemorrhage after the initial injury. The boy remained stable over a ten-day period of conservative treatment, and his obstructive symptoms and signs were resolved completely. A follow-up CT scan of the abdomen (16 days after admission showed an almost complete resolution of the hematoma. Delayed duodenal hematoma causing intestinal obstruction has been reported rarely in previous literature. Occasionally a significant secondary hemorrhage resulting in intestinal obstruction can become life threatening. Clinical follow-up is paramount after initial recovery. Although conservative treatment suffices in most cases, the surgeon should be wary of the need for definitive surgical intervention if there is evidence of ongoing acute hemorrhage or of the obstructing hematoma failing to resolve. Laparoscopic drainage of the hematoma provides optimistic results for patients failing conservative management.

  8. Medical management of intestinal obstruction in terminal care.

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of medical management of bowel obstruction for patients with advanced cancer and to summarize treatment options for home and hospital care. DATA SOURCES: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. STUDY SELECTION: Research articles published between 1973 and 1995 on the surgical and medical management of bowel obstruction in patients with advanced cancer were identified. Seven original research articles on medical management were iden...

  9. Prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soressa, Urgessa; Mamo, Abebe; Hiko, Desta; Fentahun, Netsanet

    2016-06-04

    In Africa, acute intestinal obstruction accounts for a great proportion of morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is one of the countries where intestinal obstruction is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aims to determine prevalence, causes and management outcome of intestinal obstruction in Adama Hospital in Oromia region, Ethiopia. A hospital based cross-sectional study design was used. Data covering the past three years were collected from hospital medical records of sampled patients. The collected data were checked for any inconsistency, coded and entered into SPSS version 16.0 for data processing and analysis. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Statistical significance was based on confidence interval (CI) of 95 % at a p-value of acute abdomen surgery and total surgical admissions, respectively. The mortality rate was 2.5 % (6 of 262). The most common cause of small bowel obstruction was intussusceptions in 48 patients (30.9 %), followed by small bowel volvulus in 47 patients (30.3 %). Large bowel obstruction was caused by sigmoid volvulus in 60 patients (69.0 %) followed by colonic tumor in 12 patients (13.8 %). After controlling for possible confounding factors, the major predictors of management outcome of intestinal obstruction were: duration of illness before surgical intervention (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.49, 95 % CI: 0.25-0.97); intra-operative findings [Viable small bowel volvulus (SBV) (AOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.95) and viable (AOR = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.88)]; completion of intra-operative procedures (bowel resection & anastomosis (AOR = 3.05, 95 % CI: 1.04-8.94); and length of hospital stay (AOR = 0.05, 95 % CI: 0.01-0.16). Small bowel obstruction was more prevalent than large bowel obstruction. Intussusceptions and sigmoid volvulus were the leading causes of small and large bowel obstruction. Laparotomy was the most common methods of intestinal obstruction management. Bowel

  10. Caecal impaction and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J M; McInnes, E F; White, R N; Elwood, C M; Stock, G

    2005-02-01

    A 10-year-old female neutered cross-breed dog presented with a 4-month history of chronic intermittent diarrhoea and vomiting. Abdominal ultrasound showed dilated loops of small intestine and a suspected faecolith. Exploratory surgery revealed a caecal impaction and a typhlectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of caecal and full thickness small intestine sections demonstrated atrophy of smooth muscle fibres as well as an influx of plasma cells, lymphocytes and macrophages, and mild lymphoplasmacytic and eosinophilic enteritis. This combination of caecal impaction and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction has not been reported previously in the dog.

  11. The CT diagnosis and operative indication for panperitonitis carcinomatosa with intestinal obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitahara, Shinzo; Shirakura, Tatsuya; Kanemitsu, Hiroyuki; Shimada, Nagato; Nonaka, Kyoei; Hashimura, Chiaki; Shiba, Tadaaki; Tsugu, Yukio [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-05-01

    For the purpose of clarifying the discrimination points in the CT diagnosis of peritonitis carcinomatosa and operative indication for the disease, 52 patients with peritonitis carcinomatosa presenting with intestinal obstruction admitted to the hospital in a 5-year period (January 1990 to December 1994) were retrospectively studied, by comparing to another 22 cases of benign ileus in which CT was performed. As for the CT images, the following 10 items were evaluated: ascites, epiploic thickening, intestinal mass, intraperitoneal tumor, intestinal wall thickening, the mesenteric macule-shaped and funicular views, intestinal liquid being full, expansion intestinal tract gas, visualization of the Kerckring folds and mirror surface formation. Furthermore, the additional five items were examined as reference views: pleural effusion, liver metastasis, bile duct occlusion, hydronephrosis and paraaortic lymphnode swelling. The degree of each view was scored. When an average score in total was asked, it was 5.3{+-}2.9 S.D. in peritonitis carcinomatosa or -1.6{+-}2.9 S.D. in the benign ileus, with sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 76.7%, and accuracy of 90.0%. This score evaluation is useful to make a diagnosis of peritonitis carcinomatosa with intestinal obstruction. As to operative indication, possibilities are suggested that patients showing a mirror surface image can be candidates for excision of the intestine and anastomosis and that patients having hydronephrosis should not be candidates for operation. (author)

  12. Strangulated obturator hernia - an unusual presentation of intestinal obstruction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zeeshan, Saqib

    2012-01-31

    An 81-year-old Caucasian emaciated female presented with 3 days history of colicky abdominal pain nausea, projectile vomiting and abdominal distension. A pre-operative diagnosis of mechanical bowel obstruction was made. The absence of characteristic clinical signs in this thin elderly woman with a small bowel obstruction failed to provide a pre-operative diagnosis. She underwent a midline laparotomy and resection and anastomosis of small bowel and repair of the strangulated right obturator hernia. The high mortality rate associated with this type of abdominal hernias requires a high index of suspicion to facilitate rapid diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention if the survival rate is to be improved.

  13. A rare case of multiple jejunal diverticulosis presenting as intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverticulosis is rare in jejunum and its unusual presentation of mechanical obstruction is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. We report a case of a 54-year old male patient who had symptoms of general abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for three years. He had been assessed elsewhere and had received a course of anti-tubercular treatment empirically based on features of recurrent intestinal obstruction due to prevalence of tuberculosis in this region. The patient had presented himself with signs and symptoms of dynamic intestinal obstruction. On examination, the abdomen was found to be swollen with a central abdominal distension and hyperactive bowel sounds. The erect abdominal radiograph showed multiple air-fluid levels and dilated jejunal loops. Following this, the patient underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy. This revealed multiple jejunal diverticulae, multiple bands and adhesions involving jejunum and proximal ileum. The bands and adhesions were removed and the jejunum was resected along with the inflamed diverticulae.

  14. Effect of Small Intestine Strangulation Obstruction on Clinical and Histopathological Parameters An Experimental Study in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Mohamed M. Kuraa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To study clinical and histopathological changes occur within the first 12 hours of strangulating obstruction of the small intestine in equine, twenty five adult donkeys were used in an experimental study. Strangulation obstruction of the small intestine was performed for 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours, respectively. Clinical examination was done before surgery and at 3 hours intervals postoperatively. After euthanasia, histopathological examination was made 10 cm, 1, 2 and 3 meters proximal to the strangulated part. Three hours postoperatively, the animals began to show signs of abdominal pain, they were looking around, stamping the hind feet, falling down suddenly. Nine hours postoperatively, animals showed signs of depression with intermittent nervous movements in the form of circle movement. After 12 hours, the animals were lying down; There were a significant reduction in the body temperature, respiratory rate, pulse rate, heart rate with significant increase in capillary refill time. Macroscopic changes of the strangulated part were congestion, edema, and dark red discoloration of the intestinal wall and mesentery. Distension of the intestine proximal to the strangulation extended more with increase the period of strangulation. Microscopic examination showed showed severe congestion, dark brown to blackish discoloration with fibrous shreds on the strangulated segment. Peticheal hemorrhages were observed in the intestinal wall and its mesentery for a distance up to 3 meters. The severity of signs varies according to the duration of obstruction which could give a remarkable justification of the prognosis of the patient and the availability of treatment.

  15. Recurrent spontaneous subserosal hematoma of ileum causing intestinal obstruction in a patient with menkes disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shu-Chao; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Wang, Nien-Lu; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Jiang, Chuen-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Menkes disease (MD) is a disorder of copper metabolism due to ATP7A gene mutation that leads to severe copper deficiency. Deformed blood vessels can be found in many parts of the body, and intracranial hematoma is generally reported. Methods: We report a Taiwanese boy with MD who had recurrent spontaneous subserosal hematoma of ileum presenting as intestinal obstruction, with the 2 episodes 23 months apart. The patient returned to the usual physical status after surgical removal of the hematoma. Results: The defective copper metabolism causes dysfunction of a plenty of copper-dependent enzymes, giving rise to unique kinky hair appearance, progressive neurodegeneration, and connective tissue abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on recurrent subserosal hemorrhage of intestine in MD. Conclusion: Owing to the fragile structure of blood vessels, subserosal hematoma should be considered when patients with MD having intestinal obstruction. PMID:27631241

  16. Intestinal obstruction due to ileal metastasis of Ewing's sarcoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the 7–8-cm segment of the ileum as a source of bowel obstruction (Fig. 2a and b). There were prominent macroscopic features in the tumoral ileal segment such as subserosal hematoma and ischemic changes. There was notable tumoral involvement in the mesen- teric lymph nodes adjacent to the invasive bowel.

  17. Diagnostic challenge of intestinal obstruction secondary to Henoch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Henoch–Schonlein purpura is the most common form of vasculitis in pediatric age group. Gastrointestinal manifestations have been long recognized as part of the disease, but usually preceded by other manifestations. We present a case of a boy whose initial manifestation of the disease was bowel obstruction and ...

  18. Effects of herbal medicine Sijunzi decoction on rabbits after relieving intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal obstruction leads to blockage of the movement of intestinal contents. After relieving the obstruction, patients might still suffer with compromised immune function and nutritional deficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Sijunzi decoction on restoring the immune function and nutritional status after relieving the obstruction. Experimental rabbits (2.5±0.2 kg were randomly divided into normal control group, 2-day intestinal obstruction group, 2-day natural recovery group, 4-day natural recovery group, 2-day treated group, and 4-day treated group. Sijunzi decoction was given twice a day to the treated groups. The concentration of markers was analyzed to evaluate the immune function and nutritional status. The concentration of interleukin-2, immunoglobulins and complement components of the treated groups were significantly higher than the natural recovery group (P<0.05. The levels of CD4+ and CD4+/CD8+ increased then decreased in the treated groups. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CD8+ were significantly lower than the natural recovery group. The level of total protein in the treated groups also increased then decreased after relieving the obstruction. The levels of albumin, prealbumin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were significantly higher in the treated groups than in the natural recovery group (P<0.05. Transferrin level in the treated groups was significantly higher than the obstruction group (P<0.05. Sijunzi decoction can lessen the inflammatory response and improve the nutrition absorption after relieving the obstruction.

  19. IDIOPATHIC SCLEROSING ENCAPSULATING PERITONITIS CAUSING ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION AND GANGRENE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP is a relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction resulting from encasement of variable lengths of bowel by dense fibro-collagenous membrane. It is more common in young females, and shows tropical and sub-tropical distribution. The idiopathic cases of SEP, which lack any identifiable cause from clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, are also reported under the descriptive term “abdominal cocoon syndrome”. SEP presents with acute or sub-acute intestinal obstruction with or without a mass. In the era of laparoscopic surgery, inadvertent damage to the small bowel at insertion of the trocar and cannula can occur by being unaware of this condition resulting in unnecessary bowel resection. Persistent untreated SEP may advance to bowel gangrene or intestinal perforation, representing life threatening conditions. We report the clinical presentation of a 75-year-old female presenting with signs of intestinal obstruction whose imaging findings revealed abdominal cocoon with bowel gangrene leading to perforation and the same confirmed at surgery. Surgical excision of the fibrotic sac encasing the bowel, resection of gangrenous bowel segment and end ileostomy was performed. Histopathology of the excised membrane confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. To our knowledge, only a few cases of abdominal cocoon with perforation have been reported in literature so far. Radiologists should be aware of this relatively rare cause of intestinal obstruction, its imaging findings and complications, as preoperative diagnosis will prevent delay and aid in treatment planning to the surgeon. Identification of soft tissue density membrane encasing congregated small bowel loops into a single area on computed-tomography gives diagnostic clue. Surgical excision of sac, release of bowel loops and adhesions with partial intestinal resection when necessary is the treatment.

  20. Intestinal obstruction by Pythium insidiosum in a dog : case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hünning, Paula Stieven; Rigon, Cristiane Thiesen; faraco, s.p.; Pavarini, A.; Sampaio, D.S.; Beheregaray, Wanessa Kruger; Driemeier, David

    2006-01-01

    Relata-se um caso de pitiose intestinal em um Husky Siberiano, de um ano de idade, macho atendido em um Hospital Veterinário Escola com sinais de obstrução intestinal. Ao exame físico, notou-se massa cilíndrica na região abdominal cranial, posteriormente confirmada por meio de radiografia e ultrassonografia. Durante a laparotomia exploratória, constatou-se massa extraluminal envolvendo o jejuno e alterações na parede do órgão. Realizou-se a ressecção da porção afetada do intestino e, posterio...

  1. The CT diagnostic value of emergency intestinal obstruction caused by colon carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhuohong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the value of CT in the diagnosis of emergency intestinal obstruction (EIOB) caused by colon carcinoma. Methods: 17 cases with EIOB caused by colon carcinoma were submitted to CT scanning. Contrast enhanced scans were performed in 11 cases. The locations and characters of EIOB in CT imaging were recorded and compared with operation results. Results: The locations of the obstructions were 3 cases in cecum, 1 in ascending colon, 1 in transverse colon, 2 in descending colon, and 10 in sigmoid colon. Compared with operation results, the accuracy of CT in locating obstruction was 94%, and in qualitative diagnosis of colon carcinomas was 70%. Conclusion: CT can display very well the obstruction location of EIOB, and It has certain value in character izing colon carcinoma with EIOB. (authors)

  2. The Incidence of Intestinal Obstructive Diseases in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are characterized by severe hypovolemia and septic shock secondary to devitalization of the intestinal wall. The consequent surgical complications such as ileus, adhesions and short bowel syndrome with resultant death of the patients also pose management challenges to the clinician. This study investigated the ...

  3. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects impaired intestinal mucosal barriers in obstructive jaundice rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Jia-Tian; Li, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Ye; Cheng, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-14

    To observe the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the intestinal barrier of rats with obstructive jaundice and determine the possible mechanisms of action involved in the protective effect. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an obstructive jaundice group, and a GLP-2 group; each group consisted of 12 rats. The GLP-2 group was treated with GLP-2 after the day of surgery, whereas the other two groups were treated with the same concentration of normal saline. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and endotoxin levels were recorded at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d. Furthermore, on the 14(th) day, body weight, the wet weight of the small intestine, pathological changes of the small intestine and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) expressed by plasma cells located in the small intestinal lamina propria were recorded for each group. In the rat model, jaundice was obvious, and the rats' activity decreased 4-6 d post bile duct ligation. Compared with the sham operation group, the obstructive jaundice group displayed increased yellow staining of abdominal visceral serosa, decreased small intestine wet weight, thinning of the intestinal muscle layer and villi, villous atrophy, uneven height, fusion, partial villous epithelial cell shedding, substantial inflammatory cell infiltration and significantly reduced IgA expression. However, no significant gross changes were noted between the GLP-2 and sham groups. With time, the levels of ALT, endotoxin and bilirubin in the GLP-2 group were significantly increased compared with the sham group (P jaundice group than in the GLP-2 group (P jaundice rats, which might be attributed to increased intestinal IgA and reduced bilirubin and endotoxin.

  4. Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction: Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse vs. Inducible Laryngeal Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-20

    closure with inspiratory wheezing • Can be exercise induced and believed to occur in up to 10% of incorrectly diagnosed cases of asthma Case Past...observed in COPD, bronchiectasis and asthma • Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO), previously called ’vocal cord dysfunction,’ describes vocal cord...Iraq • Non-reactive methacboline challenge with 9".4 reduced FEVI • Exercise laryngoscopy found ILONCD by ENf • \\bcal cord relaxation training

  5. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A new method for insertion of long intestinal tube for small bowel obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiba, Kazuma; Ohmae, Tomoya; Odawara, Nariaki; Moriyama, Makoto; Kanai, Sachiko; Tsuboi, Mayo; Saito, Tomotaka; Uchino, Koji; Akamatsu, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It is often difficult to insert a long intestinal tube (LT) in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO). We developed a novel technique for inserting an LT without endoscopy called nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube (NEWSt). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of NEWSt. We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent LT insertion for SBO without any indications of strangulation with either NEWSt (n?=?16) or endoscopy (n?=?17) between Novemb...

  7. Acute intestinal obstruction caused by a persimmon phytobezoar after dissolution therapy with Coca-Cola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung Soo; Lee, Hyun Suk; Jung, Min Kyu; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2007-12-01

    Bezoars are concretions or hard masses of foreign matter that are found in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent reports have demonstrated the efficacy of Coca-Cola administration for the dissolution of phytobezors. Here we report on a 73-year-old man with a very large gastric persimmon diospyrobezoar, and this caused small intestinal obstruction after partial dissolution with oral and injected Coca-Cola.

  8. A Case of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Presenting with Multiorgan Thromboses Associated with Intestinal Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Sui

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES is a disease characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia (>1.5×109/L for more than 6 months in the absence of other causes of reactive eosinophilia. Patients with HES presenting with multiorgan thromboses are rare. Herein we report a 57-year-old man with HES who presented with deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, portal thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and mesenteric venous thrombosis, which led to intestinal obstruction.

  9. Pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    M. T. Muñoz; J. A. Solís Herruzo

    2007-01-01

    El síndrome de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica se caracteriza por la presencia de cuadros clínicos recidivantes que simulan una obstrucción intestinal pero en ausencia de proceso obstructivo anatómico. Es poco frecuente pero determina una alta morbilidad. Se origina como consecuencia de una alteración de la motilidad intestinal que no puede hacer progresar su contenido debido a la afectación de su componente muscular, neurológico o de ambos. Son más frecuentes los casos secundarios a un...

  10. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Eleje, George Uchenna; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary.

  11. [A Case of Intestinal Obstruction Caused by a Bezoar after Pylous-Preserving Gastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazato, Yuzo; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kubota, Takeshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Arita, Tomohiro; Morimura, Ryo; Murayama, Yasutoshi; Kuriu, Yoshiaki; Ikoma, Hisashi; Nakanishi, Masayoshi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-11-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of pylorus-preserving gastrectomy(PPG)for early gastric cancer visited our hospital because of vomiting. Gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a large bezoar in the anastomotic site of the stomach. Because the bezoar was too large to be collected orally, the dissolution therapy with taking Coca-Cola®was continued. On the 3rd day after hospitalization, she felt acute abdominal pain with vomiting. Computed tomography revealed intestinal obstruction by a mass with air bubbles inside in the ileum. Emergency operation was performed under a diagnosis of intestinal obstruction due to the bezoar. The black brown bezoar sized 80×35×30mm was extracted through an ileotomy. The delayed gastric empty is considered to involve in the bezoar formation. Therefore, the appropriate education of diet and periodic endoscopic screening are necessary for patients with large amounts of gastric residues especially after PPG. In the dissolution therapy, physicians need to be careful of intestinal obstruction by a bezoar.

  12. Congenital Vitelline Band Causing Intestinal Obstruction in an Adult with a Double Inferior Vena Cava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihiri Wettasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitelline artery remnants are rare causes of intra-abdominal bands leading to bowel obstruction. These bands may be associated with Meckel’s diverticulum. Double inferior vena cava (IVC is a rare presentation and is usually identified incidentally. Case Presentation. A sixty-year-old male presented with progressive vomiting for five days and he was clinically diagnosed with intestinal obstruction. Plain X-ray abdomen showed evidence of small bowel obstruction. CT scan of the abdomen revealed dilated small bowel loops with a small outpouching in the distal ileum with a band like structure attached to it. In the CT, left sided patent IVC draining into the left renal vein was identified. Left external iliac vein was in continuity with the left IVC. Left internal iliac vein was draining into the right IVC. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a Meckel’s diverticulum with a band identified as the vitelline remnant attached to its apex and inserting at the anterior abdominal wall near the umbilicus. Discussion. Meckel’s diverticulum with vitelline bands, although rare, should be borne in mind in adult patients with intestinal obstruction. Identification of this anomaly can be difficult in imaging studies. Presence of double IVC should be mentioned in the imaging findings to prevent possible catastrophic complications during surgery.

  13. Antidepressant-induced acute colonic (pseudo) obstruction (Ogilvie syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, V.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Patients on antidepressant drugs commonly complain of dryness of the mouth, tremors, blurring of vision and constipation, which are attributed to the anticholinergic action of the drugs. We report two cases of gastrointestinal complications (pseudo-intestinal obstruction), which are considered rare according to a review of the literature. This condition is also known as Ogilvie syndrome.

  14. Protective effect of perioperative recombinant human growth hormone application on intestinal mucosal barrier function in patients with intestinal obstruction and the assessment of immune inflammatory response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Yi Jia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the protective effect of perioperative recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH application on intestinal mucosal barrier function in patients with intestinal obstruction and the influence on the immune inflammatory response. Methods: 60 patients with intestinal obstruction who underwent surgical treatment in our hospital between February 2013 and July 2016 were selected as the research subjects and divided into the control group (n=34 who received conventional surgical treatment and the observation group (n=26 who received surgery combined with perioperative r-hGH treatment. The serum levels of intestinal mucosal barrier indexes, immunoglobulin and inflammatory response indicators were compared between two groups of patients before and after treatment. Results: Before treatment, differences in serum levels of intestinal mucosal barrier indexes, immunoglobulin and inflammatory response indicators were not statistically significant between the two groups of patients. After treatment, serum intestinal mucosal barrier indexes Endotoxin, D-Lactate and DAO levels in observation group were lower than those in control group, immunoglobulin IgA, IgM and IgG levels were higher than those in control group, and inflammatory response indicators IL-1, IL-6, PCT and TNF-α levels were lower than those in control group patients. Conclusion: Perioperative r-hGH application in patients with intestinal obstruction can protect the intestinal mucosal barrier, also optimize the humoral immunity and suppress the systemic inflammatory response.

  15. Influence of the Gut Microflora and of Biliary Constituents on Morphological Changes in the Small Intestine in Obstructive Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saeed Quraishy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased amounts of intestinal endotoxin are absorbed in obstructive jaundice. The precise mechanism is not known but the increased absorption may arise from alterations in the luminal contents, in the intestinal flora, in the gut wall or in interactions between all three. To examine the effects of the intestinal flora we have compared the morphological changes in the small intestine in obstructive jaundice in germ free and conventional rats while the effects of bile constituents have been examined by addition of bile constituents to the diet of bile duct ligated rats. Changes in the intestine were examined, histologically, by enzyme histochemistry, and by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed no differences in response between germ free and conventional rats. Feeding of diets containing bile salts exacerbated the lesion. Feeding of diets containing cholesterol, however, reduced the degree of intestinal changes produced by cholestasis and completely antagonised the increase in damage caused by feeding of bile salts.

  16. Drosophila C Virus Systemic Infection Leads to Intestinal Obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Chtarbanova, Stanislava; Lamiable, Olivier; Lee, Kwang-Zin; Galiana, Delphine; Troxler, Laurent; Meignin, Carine; Hetru, Charles; Hoffmann, Jules A.; Daeffler, Laurent; Imler, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila C virus (DCV) is a positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Dicistroviridae family. This natural pathogen of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster is commonly used to investigate antiviral host defense in flies, which involves both RNA interference and inducible responses. Although lethality is used routinely as a readout for the efficiency of the antiviral immune response in these studies, virus-induced pathologies in flies still are poorly understood. Here, we characterize ...

  17. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in adult patients: multidetector row helical CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, Aurelie; Soyer, Philippe; Boudiaf, Mourad; Hamzi, Lounis; Rymer, Roland [University Paris 7 (France). Department of Abdominal Imaging; GHU Nord, Paris (France)

    2008-08-15

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare condition due to severe gastrointestinal motility disorder. Adult patients with CIPO experience symptoms of mechanical obstruction, but reliable clinical signs that may help distinguish between actual mechanical obstruction and CIPO are lacking. Additionally, abdominal plain films that commonly show bowel dilatation with air-fluid levels do not reach acceptable degrees of specificity to exclude actual obstruction. Therefore, most adult patients with CIPO usually undergo multiple and often fruitless surgery, often leading to repeated bowel resections before diagnosis is made. In these patients who present with abdominal signs mimicking symptoms that would warrant surgical exploration, multidetector-row helical CT (MDCT) is helpful to resolve this diagnostic dilemma. MDCT shows a diffusely distended bowel and helps to rule out a mechanical cause of obstruction, thus suggesting CIPO and obviating the need for unnecessary laparotomy. In adult patients with CIPO, MDCT may show pneumatosis intestinalis, pneumoperitoneum or intussusception. However, these conditions generally do not require surgery in patients with CIPO. This pictorial essay presents the more and less common MDCT features of CIPO in adult patients, to make the reader more familiar with this disease. (orig.)

  18. Fluoroscopically-guided transnasal insertion of ileus tube intestinal decompression in patients with inoperable malignant bowel obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shiming; Li Haili; Lin Qing; Mao Aiwu; Wu Shaoqiu; Jiang Haosheng; Cao Yan; Wang Zhenlei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the technical feasibility and effectiveness of fluoroscopically-guided transnasal insertion of ileus tube for intestinal decompression in the treatment of inoperable malignant bowel obstruction. Methods: A total of 211 patients with inoperable malignant bowel obstruction were enrolled in this study. The median KPS scale was 40 (ranged from 20 to 60). Under fluoroscopic guidance, transnasal insertion of ileus tube by using conventional technique or guidewire-catheter exchange technique was performed in all patients. The technical success rate, the clinical effective rate, the curative rate and adverse reactions as well as complications were documented. The correlation among the obstructive sites, obstruction causes and therapeutic effectiveness was analyzed. The ileus tube used in this study was a four-cavity and double-balloon catheter with a diameter of 16 F/18 f, which is produced by Cliny Company. Results: Transnasal drainage tube was successfully inserted into the proximal jejunum in all 211 patients with malignant bowel obstruction, and the total technical success rate was 100%. The initial technical success rate of the traditional technique and the catheter-guidewire exchange method was 85.5% (65/76) and 100% (135/135) respectively, the difference between the two was significant (P<0.05). After 24 hours, the clinical remission rate in the patients with high-level intestinal obstruction, lower-level intestinal obstruction and colorectal obstruction was 95.8% (46/48), 92.9% (117/126) and 83.8% (31/37), respectively. A follow-up of 4-245 days (mean 138 days) was conducted, and the total clinical cure rate was 27.5% (58/211). The clinical cure rate in small intestine obstruction and colorectal obstruction caused by primary tumor or recurrence was 12.7% (20/157) and 59.5% (22/37), respectively (P<0.05). The adverse reactions and complications included uncomfortable pharynx feeling or pain (99.1%, 199/221), the tube obstruction (23.2%, 49

  19. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with enteric ganglionitis in a Persian cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Mortier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old neutered male Persian cat was presented for acute vomiting and inappetence. Physical examination revealed severe abdominal distension. Radiographs demonstrated pneumoperitoneum, megaoesophagus and generalised gaseous distension of the digestive tract. Exploratory coeliotomy was performed, revealing markedly distended and thickened small and large intestines with no observable peristalsis. No intestinal perforation was present. Bacteriological and cytological analysis of abdominal fluid revealed a septic peritonitis involving Pasteurella multocida . Full-thickness intestinal biopsies demonstrated lymphocytic ganglioneuritis localised to the enteric nervous system, in association with glandular atrophy and muscular layer hypertrophy. Amoxicillin-clavulanate and analgesics were given. The cat’s general condition gradually improved after the addition of pyridostigmine bromide (0.5 mg/kg q12h PO, initiated 3 days postsurgery. Vomiting resolved and did not recur. Follow-up radiographs at 15 days, and 1 and 6 months showed persistent intestinal ileus, milder than on the pretreatment radiographs. Thirty months after presentation the cat is still alive, without clinical signs, and receives 1 mg/kg q12h pyridostigmine. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first case of ganglioneuritis of the myenteric plexus described in cats, as well as the first one successfully treated with pyridostigmine. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is a very rare condition in cats but should be included in the differential diagnosis of generalised gastrointestinal ileus.

  20. Intestinal obstruction due to dual gastrointestinal atresia in infants: diagnosis and management of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-dong; Jiang, Hong; Kan, Anna; Huang, Li-e; Zhong, Zhi-hai; Zhang, Zhi-chong; Liu, Jun-cheng

    2014-06-13

    Several types of congenital lesions can cause complete or incomplete obstruction of the intestine. Our purpose is to present 3 neonates with dual intestinal type I atresia, i.e., simultaneous obstructive lesions at 2 locations in which the atresia manifested as diaphragm-like tissue. All 3 cases were female infants ranging in age from 2 to 14 months. The common symptom in all cases was intermittent persistent vomiting. In some cases the vomitus was bilious, and other symptoms included abdominal distention and delayed meconium passage. Prior surgeries at another hospital were unsuccessful at relieving the symptoms in one case. One case had dual lesions in the colon, one dual lesions in the duodenum, and one atresia at both the distal portion of the ileum and the descending colon. Surgical exploration and removal of the lesions at our hospital was successful in all cases, and the infants were discharged in good condition. Type I atresia can manifest as a diaphragm-like tissue obstructing the continuity of gastrointestinal tract, and in rare cases multiple areas may be present. Base on the intermittent nature of the associated symptoms, diagnosis can be difficult and is often delayed. Physicians should be aware of this condition during the work-up of an infant with persistent intermittent vomiting.

  1. Cholescintigraphy in experimentally induced obstructive and parenchymatous jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Biersack, H.J.; Hofmann, S.; Winkler, C.

    1979-01-01

    Animal studies have been performed in 30 dogs in order to obtain information concerning typical patterns of cholescintigraphy in acute obstructive jaundice. In 14 the choledochus was ligated and in 16 galactosamine-hepatitis was induced as an experimental model for parenchymatous jaundice. The results suggest a number of diagnostic criteria in obstructive disease. (Auth.)

  2. Acute appendicitis mimicking intestinal obstruction in a patient with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease of the secretory glands caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR gene. The clinical manifestations of CF are repetitive lung infections, biliary cirrhosis, pancreatic abnormalities, and gastrointestinal disorders. We report a 21-year-old Taiwanese man with CF who had abdominal pain for 2 days. The diagnosis of CF had been confirmed by peripheral blood analysis of the CFTR gene 5 years before admission. He presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension, and crampy abdominal pain, which is atypical for acute appendicitis. The physical examination and a series of studies revealed intestinal obstruction, but acute appendicitis could not be ruled out. After conservative treatment, together with empiric antibiotics, the refractory abdominal pain and leukocytosis with a left-shift warranted surgical intervention. A diagnostic laparoscopy revealed a swollen, hyperemic appendix, a severely distended small intestine, and serous ascites. The laparoscopic procedure was converted to a laparotomy for open disimpaction and appendectomy. He was discharged on the eighth postoperative day. The histologic examination of the appendix was consistent with early appendicitis. In conclusion, acute abdominal pain in adult CF patients is often associated with intestinal obstruction syndrome. The presentation of concurrent appendicitis may be indolent and lead not only to diagnostic difficulties, but also a number of therapeutic choices.

  3. [X-ray diagnostic of partial intestinal obstruction in small intestine diseases: a glance on the problem of radiologist-gastroenterologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, S V; Kotovshchikova, A A; Orlova, N V

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to special features of X-ray examining of patients suffering from acute abdomen pain and X-ray paradigma of some intestine diseases as a cause of partial bowel obstruction. Own clinical data are presented. Long-term experience of our X-ray department is summarized. The possibilities of X-ray examining of abdomen with and without contrast in patients with partial bowel obstruction are described.

  4. Clinical analysis on the treatment of 24 cases of severe traumatic brain injury with non ventral intestinal obstruction

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    Wei WANG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To discuss the clinical treatment for severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI with non ventral intestinal obstruction. Methods A total of 48 patients with sTBI were enrolled in this study, including 24 with (observation group and 24 without (control group non ventral intestinal obstruction. Among 24 patients with non ventral intestinal obstruction, 3 cases (12.50% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 5 cases (20.83% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 16 cases (66.67% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by gastrointestinal decompression and parenteral nutrition. Among 24 patients without non ventral intestinal obstruction, 4 cases (16.67% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma, 6 cases (25% were treated by craniotomy evacuation of hematoma and decompressive craniectomy, and 14 cases (58.33% were treated by conservative treatment. They were all treated by enteral nutrition. Hemoglobin (Hb, albumin (ALB and prealbumin (PA were detected 10 and 20 d after treatment. Results Compared with control group, the level of Hb (P = 0.008, ALB (P = 0.002 and PA (P = 0.031 were significantly reduced in observation group. Compared with 10 d after treatment, the level of Hb (P = 0.003, ALB (P = 0.000 and PA (P = 0.005 were significantly reduced 20 d after treatment. Conclusions Early diagnosis and timely treatment for non ventral intestinal obstruction in patients with severe traumatic brain injury could effectively relieve the symptoms of intestinal obstruction, and is favorable to early enteral nutrition, so as to enhance the patients' recovery. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.01.012

  5. Obstructive Bezoars of the Small Bowel Treated with Coca-Cola Zero through a Long Intestinal Tube and Endoscopic Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Kakisaka, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Takikawa, Yasuhiro

    2017-11-15

    An 82-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with abdominal fullness accompanied by lower abdominal pain. He presented with small bowel obstruction due to multiple diospyrobezoars. The bezoars were successfully removed without any surgical intervention by the administration of Coca-Cola Zero through a long intestinal tube and subsequent endoscopic manipulation. Such a combination may be the treatment of choice for small bowel obstruction due to bezoars.

  6. Abdominal cocoon syndrome is a rare cause of mechanical intestinal obstructions: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, Ali; Tokoçin, Merve; Arıcı, Sinan; Yiğitbaş, Hakan; Yavuz, Erkan; Gülçiçek, Osman Bilgin; Erçetin, Candaş; Çelebi, Fatih

    2015-02-11

    Abdominal cocoon syndrome is also known in the literature as sclerosing peritonitis or sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. It is characterized by total or partial encapsulation of abdominal viscera by a fibrous membrane. It has been reported mainly in adolescent women and the majority of the cases are of unknown etiology. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is usually established during laparotomy. We present 2 cases of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction caused by sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis. Two male patients, ages 30 and 47, were admitted to our emergency department for mechanical intestinal obstruction. They were treated surgically and were diagnosed with abdominal cocoon syndrome. If abdominal cocoon syndrome is diagnosed pre-operatively and acute abdomen symptoms are not observed, surgery is unnecessary. If surgery is inevitable, membrane resection and bridotomy must be performed, as in our 2 cases. If resection is going to be performed, primary anastomosis is not recommended. Iatrogenic injuries that happened during the operation should not be immediately repaired, because creation of the stoma from the proximal part of the injury is recommended.

  7. The use of fulvestrant, a parenteral endocrine agent, in intestinal obstruction due to metastatic lobular breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampaul Rajendra Singh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fulvestrant in the management of intestinal obstruction associated with lobular carcinoma has not been specifically described. Case presentation Herein we present two cases where fulvestrant, as the only available parenteral endocrine agent for postmenopausal advanced breast cancer has the opportunity to provide a means to initiate treatment in those patients who present with varying degrees of intestinal obstruction. Conclusion Fulvestrant may obviate the use of chemotherapy while achieving sustained clinical benefit with less toxicity, in appropriately selected patients.

  8. Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Ileocolic and Colocolic Intussusception in an Adult Patient with Cecal Lipoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Casiraghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intussusception is a rare clinical entity in adults (<1% of intestinal obstructions. Colonic intussusception is even rarer, particularly when caused by lipomas. Case Presentation. A 47-year-old woman presented to our emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with vomiting and diarrhoea. X-ray and CT showed bowel obstruction due to ileocolonic and colocolonic intussusception; a giant colonic lipoma (9 × 4 × 4 cm was recognizable immediately distally to the splenic flexure of the colon. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. Assessment of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of giant colonic polypoid lesion near to the ileocecal valve, causing a 12 cm long intussusception with moderate ischemic damage. Conclusion. Colonic obstruction due to intussusception caused by lipomas is a very rare condition that needs urgent treatment. CT is the radiologic modality of choice for diagnosis (sensitivity 80%, specificity near 100%; since the majority of colonic intussusceptions are caused by primary adenocarcinoma, if the etiology is uncertain, the lesion must be interpreted as malignant and extensive resection is recommended. At present, surgery is the treatment of choice and determines an excellent outcome.

  9. Intestinal Obstruction Caused by Ileocolic and Colocolic Intussusception in an Adult Patient with Cecal Lipoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiraghi, Tiziana; Masetto, Alessandro; Beltramo, Massimo; Girlando, Mauro; Di Bella, Camillo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction . Intussusception is a rare clinical entity in adults (<1% of intestinal obstructions). Colonic intussusception is even rarer, particularly when caused by lipomas. Case Presentation . A 47-year-old woman presented to our emergency department complaining of abdominal pain with vomiting and diarrhoea. X-ray and CT showed bowel obstruction due to ileocolonic and colocolonic intussusception; a giant colonic lipoma (9 × 4 × 4 cm) was recognizable immediately distally to the splenic flexure of the colon. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. Assessment of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of giant colonic polypoid lesion near to the ileocecal valve, causing a 12 cm long intussusception with moderate ischemic damage. Conclusion . Colonic obstruction due to intussusception caused by lipomas is a very rare condition that needs urgent treatment. CT is the radiologic modality of choice for diagnosis (sensitivity 80%, specificity near 100%); since the majority of colonic intussusceptions are caused by primary adenocarcinoma, if the etiology is uncertain, the lesion must be interpreted as malignant and extensive resection is recommended. At present, surgery is the treatment of choice and determines an excellent outcome.

  10. Experimental Justification of Enteral Lavage by Osmotically Active Solution in Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicated by Intraabdominal Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoyanychev E.E.; Ryabkov M.G.; Kudykin M.N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the influence of intra-enteric pressure level on the mechanism causing decompensation of microcirculation defects in the wall of a small intestine and to assess the effectiveness of enteral lavage by hydroxyethyl amylum in case of an increased intra-enteric pressure in acute intestinal obstruction. Materials and Methods. The experiment was carried out on 54 laboratory animals. In I series of the experiment (36 non-pedigree dogs) the processes of microc...

  11. TNF suppresses acute intestinal inflammation by inducing local glucocorticoid synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noti, Mario; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph; Berger, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Although tumor necrosis factor (α) (TNF) exerts proinflammatory activities in a variety of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, there is increasing evidence for antiinflammatory actions of TNF. In contrast, glucocorticoids (GCs) are steroid hormones that suppress inflammation, at least in part by regulating the expression and action of TNF. We report that TNF induces extraadrenal production of immunoregulatory GCs in the intestinal mucosa during acute intestinal inflammation. The absence of TNF results in a lack of colonic GC synthesis and exacerbation of dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis. TNF seems to promote local steroidogenesis by directly inducing steroidogenic enzymes in intestinal epithelial cells. Therapeutic administration of TNF induces GC synthesis in oxazolone-induced colitis and ameliorates intestinal inflammation, whereas inhibition of intestinal GC synthesis abrogates the therapeutic effect of TNF. These data show that TNF suppresses the pathogenesis of acute intestinal inflammation by promoting local steroidogenesis. PMID:20439544

  12. Acute mechanical intestinal obstruction in children at zinder national hospital, Niger: Aetiologies and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harissou Adamou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To describe the aetiological and prognostic aspects of acute mechanical intestinal obstruction (AMIO in children at Zinder National Hospital (Niger. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on a period to January 2013–June 2015. The database included all children under 15 years of age with a surgical diagnosis of mechanical intestinal obstruction. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for analysis. Results: AMIOs represent 21.78% (n = 78 of child digestive surgical emergencies (n = 358. Median age was 12 months (range: 1 day–15 years. Fifteen (19.23% were neonates and sixty children (76.92% had ≤60 months. The sex ratio (male/female was 2.8. The mean time from onset to presentation was 39.96 ± 36.22 h. Intussusception and strangulated hernias were the main causes of AMIO with, respectively, 43.59% (n = 34 and 29.48% (n = 23. Anorectal malformations represent 17.95% (n = 14 of cases of AMIO. Intestinal resection was made in 22.08% and colostomy in 19.23% of patients. The average length of hospital stay was 6.44 ± 4.30 days. The post-operative complications were recorded in 26 patients (33.33%, mostly surgical site infections. Overall mortality of AMIO was 15.38% (n = 12. It was higher in the neonates (33.33% (P = 0.032. Deaths were associated with delay of admission (P = 0.0005 and waiting time for surgery (P = 0.019. Conclusion: Intussusception and strangulated hernia are the most common cause of AMIO in children. Diagnostic and therapeutic delays, lack of paediatric intensive care and post-operative complications are prognostic factors.

  13. Postmenopausal intestinal obstructive endometriosis: case report and review of the literature

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    Pedro Popoutchi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, which is commonly detected in gynecological practice but rarely reported as a coloproctological disorder. The objective of the present report was to discuss a rare case of postmenopausal intestinal endometriosis simulating a malignant lesion, following a review of the literature. CASE REPORT: A 74-year-old woman with complaints of hematochezia and tenesmus of two months' duration accompanied by liquid feces and pelvic pain, but with no other gastrointestinal or gynecological complaints, was referred to our service. She had been menopausal for 22 years, with no hormone replacement treatment, and had undergone panhysterectomy three years before the referral to us, due to endometrial thickening and a right adnexal cyst. Five months before this referral, she had undergone laparotomy due to acute obstructive abdomen, which revealed a tumor mass involving the small bowel. Anatomopathological examination of the enterectomy suggested a hypothesis of intestinal endometriosis. A proctological examination was normal. Computed tomography of the pelvis revealed thickening of the rectosigmoid transition and colonoscopy revealed friable tumor formation in the rectum. A biopsy of the lesion revealed mucosal fragments of endometrial type, which led to a review of the previous anatomopathological examination. The patient underwent rectosigmoidectomy with protective transversotomy, with a good postoperative course, and anatomical examination confirmed the intestinal endometriosis. The patient subsequently suffered a stenosing recurrence of the lesion and has undergone colostomy since then.

  14. A case of radiation enteritis with intestinal obstruction due to incarceration of foreign body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Hidehiro; Isobe, Tsugumasa; Sakuma, Hiroshi; Imahori, Tsutomu; Naka, Fumihiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Ida, Masahiro; Matsubara, Fujitsugu [Tatsunokuchi Houju Memorial Hospital, Kanazawa (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A 66-year-old woman was seen at the hospital because of an abdominal pain and vomiting. There were previous histories of undergoing ileocecal resection 30 years and total hysterectomy with irradiation for uterine cancer 29 years earlier. Abdominal CT showed a shadow of foreign body, and barium enema revealed a filling defect in the ileum and stenosis at the anastomosis. In addition to these findings the patient deposed that she had ingested a seed of `ume` (Japanese apricot). The patient was diagnosed as intestinal obstruction due to the foreign body and underwent an operation. The postoperative course is good, however, this patient has many other disorders probable resulting from irradiation, such as stenosis of ureter, cutaneous pigmentation and tumor, adenoma of the rectum. Long term and periodic follow-up is important for the patient entertaining possible occurrence of other disorders and second cancer. (author)

  15. Frequency of mitochondrial defects in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Aurélien; Tchikviladzé, Maya; Joly, Francisca; Slama, Abdelhamid; Hatem, Dominique Cazals; Jardel, Claude; Messing, Bernard; Lombès, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder caused by intestinal dysmotility and characterized by chronic symptoms suggesting bowel obstruction in the absence of fixed, occluding lesions. CIPO has been associated with primary defects of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway, although the frequency of mitochondrial disorders in patients with CIPO is unknown. This study evaluates mitochondrial function in patients with CIPO. A retrospective study was performed of data collected from 80 CIPO patients at a tertiary centre over a 25-year period. Mitochondrial disorders were detected by analysis of serum lactate and thymidine phosphorylase activities, brain magnetic resonance images, and muscle biopsies. Genes encoding thymidine phosphorylase, mitochondrial DNA tRNA(leu(UUR)) or tRNA(lys), and DNA polymerase-gamma were analyzed for mutations. Mitochondrial defects were identified in 15 patients (10 women; median age at diagnosis 32 years), representing 19% of the study cohort. All 15 patients had extra-digestive symptoms, 5 had mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene, 2 had mutations in tRNA(leu(UUR)), and 5 had mutations in the DNA polymerase-gamma gene. No genetic defect was detected in 3 of the patients with mitochondrial disorders. Patients with mitochondrial CIPO differed from patients without mitochondrial defects in their very severe nutritional status (frequent and long-term requirement for parenteral nutrition) and poor prognosis (frequent digestive and neurologic complications that led to a high incidence of premature death). Mitochondrial disorders seem to be an important cause of CIPO. Patients with CIPO, especially severe cases with associated neurologic symptoms, should be tested for mitochondrial defects.

  16. Chronic primary intestinal pseudo-obstruction from visceral myopathy Pseudo-osbtrucción intestinal crónica primaria debida a miopatía visceral

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    M. T. Muñoz-Yagüe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon syndrome characterized by relapsing episodes suggesting intestinal obstruction during which no mechanical causes are identified to account for symptoms. Etiologic factors may be manifold. Among them a number of neurologic conditions, gastrointestinal smooth muscle myopathies, endocrino-metabolic and autoimmune diseases, and the use of selected drugs stand out. We report a case of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction originating in a sporadic, primary intestinal myopathy that corresponds to no type thus far described. A histological study of the intestinal wall showed disrupted muscle bundles and the presence of interstitial edema. Myocytes had severe degenerative changes, and no alterations were seen in submucosal and myenteric plexus neurons. The activity of enzyme complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and of thymidine phosphorylase was normal. No mitochondrial DNA changes were seen.La pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica es un síndrome infrecuente caracterizado por episodios recidivantes, sugestivos de obstrucción intestinal, durante los cuales no se detectan causas mecánicas que justifiquen la sintomatología. Los factores etiológicos pueden ser múltiples. Entre ellos destacan diversas enfermedades neurológicas, miopatías de la musculatura lisa gastrointestinal, enfermedades endocrino-metabólicas y autoinmunes y el uso de determinados fármacos. Presentamos un caso de pseudo-obstrucción intestinal crónica originada por una miopatía intestinal primaria y esporádica que no corresponde a ningún tipo descrito hasta el momento. El estudio histológico de la pared intestinal mostró que los haces musculares estaban desestructurados y que existía edema intersticial. Los miocitos presentaban marcados cambios degenerativos y no existían alteraciones en las neuronas de los plexos submucoso y mientérico. La actividad de los complejos enzimáticos de la cadena

  17. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... The gastrointestinal tract serves as a potent barrier that prevents luminal bacteria from entering the host. This barrier function is maintained by a well-balanced intestinal flora, an unaltered perme- ability of the intestinal mucosa, and a normal functioning immune system. Furthermore, the intestinal mucosa, in.

  18. Intestinal endotoxins as co-factors of liver injury in obstructive jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentes, B B; Tatlicioglu, E; Akyol, G; Uluoglu, O; Sultan, N; Yilmaz, E; Celebi, M; Taneri, F; Ferahkose, Z

    1996-01-01

    The concept of endotoxin-mediated rather than direct liver injury in biliary obstruction was investigated using the experimental rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) and small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Small identical doses of intravenous endotoxin (bacterial LPS) caused a significantly more severe liver injury in rats with BDL, compared with sham-operated rats, suggesting the possible contribution of LPS in this type of liver damage. BDL was then combined with surgically created jejunal self-filling blind loops, which resulted in SBBO. Plasma LPS level increased significantly, and once again a more severe liver injury, determined by liver histology and serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels, was observed compared with the control group of rats with BDL+self-emptying blind loops. The data presented suggest that small amounts of exogenous LPS and/or the ordinarily innocous amounts of LPS constantly absorbed from the intestinal tract may be critical in the hepatic damage caused by obstruction of the biliary tract.

  19. Usefulness of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in predicting strangulated small bowel obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotada Kittaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The level of intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP is considered to be useful diagnostic markers of small bowel ischemia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate whether the serum I-FABP level is a predictive marker of strangulation in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO. METHODS: A total of 37 patients diagnosed with SBO were included in this study. The serum I-FABP levels were retrospectively compared between the patients with strangulation and those with simple obstruction, and cut-off values for the diagnosis of strangulation were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic curve. In addition, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with strangulated SBO. The serum I-FABP levels were significantly higher in the patients with strangulation compared with those observed in the patients with simple obstruction (18.5 vs. 1.6 ng/ml p<0.001. Using a cut-off value of 6.5 ng/ml, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 71.4%, 93.8%, 93.8% and 71.4%, respectively. An I-FABP level greater than 6.5 ng/ml was found to be the only independent significant factor for a higher likelihood of strangulated SBO (P =  0.02; odds ratio: 19.826; 95% confidence interval: 2.1560 - 488.300. CONCLUSIONS: The I-FABP level is a useful marker for discriminating between strangulated SBO and simple SBO in patients with SBO.

  20. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) in patients with cystic fibrosis after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jonathan R; Ansari, Nabila; Glanville, Allan R; Meagher, Alan P; Lord, Reginald V N

    2009-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the commonest inherited life-threatening disease in Caucasians. With increased longevity, more patients with CF are developing gastrointestinal complications including the distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS), in which ileocecal obstruction is caused by viscid mucofeculent material. The optimal management of DIOS is uncertain. The medical records of all patients with CF who underwent lung transplantation at this institution during a 15-year period were reviewed. The definition of DIOS required the presence of both clinical and radiological features of ileocecal obstruction. One hundred twenty-one patients with CF underwent lung transplantation during the study period. During a minimum 2-year follow-up, there were 17 episodes of DIOS in 13 (10.7%) patients. The development of DIOS was significantly associated with a past history of meconium ileus (odds ratio 20.7, 95% C.I. 5.09-83.9) or previous laparotomy (odds ratio 4.93, 95% C.I. 1.47-16.6). All six patients who developed DIOS during the transplantation admission had meconium ileus during infancy, and five had undergone pretransplant laparotomy for CF complications. First-line treatment for all patients was a combination of medication (laxatives, stool softeners, and bowel preparation formulas). This was successful in 14 of the 17 DIOS but needed to be given for up to 14 days. The other three patients required laparotomy with enterotomy and fecal disimpaction. This provided definitive resolution of DIOS except in one patient who presented late and died despite ileal decompression and ileostomy. DIOS occurred in approximately 10% of CF patients after lung transplantation. Patients with a history of meconium ileus or previous laparotomy are at high risk of developing DIOS. Patients with DIOS require early aggressive management with timely laparotomy with enterotomy and possible stoma formation when non-operative therapy is unsuccessful.

  1. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome associated with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Hideo; Fujii, Katsunori; Furutani, Yoshiyuki; Takatani, Tomozumi; Ebata, Ryota; Nakanishi, Toshio; Mitsunaga, Tetsuya; Saito, Takeshi; Kishimoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Hideo; Shimojo, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Ellis-van Creveld (EVC) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypoplastic nails, polydactyly, and achondroplasia. Patients usually exhibit normal cognitive function and no remarkable developmental delay. We herein present an unusual case of EVC syndrome. A Japanese 2-year-old boy was born at term, but immediately developed severe respiratory failure due to thorax deformity, postaxial polydactyly and nail hypoplasia. We identified a novel pattern of germinal compound heterozygous nonsense EVC2 mutations of c.1814C > A (p. S605X) and c.2653C > T (p. R885X), leading to the diagnosis of EVC syndrome. Interestingly, he also had severe developmental delay, and suddenly developed excessive abdominal distension at the age of 2. On surgery, extensive necrotic bowel with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction was noted. This is, to our knowledge, a most severe phenotype of EVC syndrome, illustrating that the specific pattern of EVC2 compound heterozygous mutations may cause severe developmental delay and intestinal malfunction. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  3. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine

  4. Fibrosing gastrointestinal leiomyositis as a cause of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in an 8-month-old dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C S; Fales-Williams, A J; Reimer, S B; Lotsikas, P J; Haynes, J S

    2007-01-01

    An 8-month-old, female, mixed-breed dog presented to the Iowa State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a 1-month history of vomiting and diarrhea. An exploratory laparotomy was performed revealing markedly distended and fluid-filled small and large intestines that were not obstructed. The clinical condition of the dog did not improve subsequent to exploratory surgery, and it was euthanized. At necropsy, both the small and large intestines were distended (approximately 4 cm in diameter) and fluid-filled, and the wall was thin. The abdominal cavity contained approximately 500 ml of a brownish clear fluid. Microscopic lesions of the intestines were confined to the intestinal tunica muscularis and muscularis mucosae and consisted of locally extensive-to-diffuse replacement of the smooth muscle by fibrous tissue and multifocal infiltration by a moderately dense mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. A unique finding was the presence of similar microscopic lesions in the tunica muscularis of the urinary bladder and stomach.

  5. Pathogen invasion changes the intestinal microbiota composition and induces innate immune responses in the zebrafish intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Zou, Song-Song; Zhai, Li-Juan; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Fu-Miao; An, Li-Guo; Yang, Gui-Wen

    2017-12-01

    Numerous bacteria are harbored in the animal digestive tract and are impacted by several factors. Intestinal microbiota homeostasis is critical for maintaining the health of an organism. However, how pathogen invasion affects the microbiota composition has not been fully clarified. The mechanisms for preventing invasion by pathogenic microorganisms are yet to be elucidated. Zebrafish is a useful model for developmental biology, and studies in this organism have gradually become focused on intestinal immunity. In this study, we analyzed the microbiota of normal cultivated and infected zebrafish intestines, the aquarium water and feed samples. We found that the predominant bacteria in the zebrafish intestine belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (67%) and that feed and environment merely influenced intestinal microbiota composition only partially. Intestinal microbiota changed after a pathogenic bacterial challenge. At the genus level, the abundance of some pathogenic intestinal bacteria increased, and these genera included Halomonas (50%), Pelagibacterium (3.6%), Aeromonas (2.6%), Nesterenkonia (1%), Chryseobacterium (3.4‰), Mesorhizobium (1.4‰), Vibrio (1‰), Mycoplasma (0.7‰) and Methylobacterium (0.6‰) in IAh group. However, the abundance of some beneficial intestinal bacteria decreased, and these genera included Nitratireductor (0.8‰), Enterococcus (0.8‰), Brevundimonas (0.7‰), Lactococcus (0.7‰) and Lactobacillus (0.4‰). Additionally, we investigated the innate immune responses after infection. ROS levels in intestine increased in the early stages after a challenge and recovered subsequently. The mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptide genes lectin, hepcidin and defensin1, were upregulated in the intestine after pathogen infection. These results suggested that the invasion of pathogen could change the intestinal microbiota composition and induce intestinal innate immune responses in zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  7. Prevalence of exercise-induced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in symptomatic patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, J S

    2008-10-01

    Resting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) occurs in 25% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is an important cause of symptoms and disease progression. The prevalence and clinical significance of exercise induced LVOTO in patients with symptomatic non-obstructive HCM is uncertain.

  8. Effect of adenine on bacterial translocation using technetium-99m labeled E. coli in an intestinal obstruction model in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugur Oflaz; Fatma Yurt Lambrecht; Osman Yilmaz; Cetin Pekcetin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effects of adenine on bacterial translocation (BT) using 99m Tc-labeled E. coli in an intestinal obstruction rat model. In the study twenty-one rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups according to different feeding patterns. The control group (CG) was fed with a standard chow diet for 7 days. Group A1 and group A2 were fed with adenine supplemented chow diet for 7 days. At the end of the feeding period, after all groups was submitted intestinal obstruction. 99m Tc-E. coli was injected into the rats' terminal ileum under anesthetic. The rats were sacrificed under aseptic conditions at 24th h after the surgery. The uptake of 99m Tc-E. coli was determined in organs such as the liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and ileum. Group A1 and group A2 results show that the uptake of 99m Tc-E. coli decreased in the blood and organs comparing to the CG. As a result, it was observed that adenine reduced the level of BT when compared with CG. The beneficial effect of adenine on BT in intestinal obstruction was observed. However, further studies are needed to more clearly assess how this benefit can be achieved. (author)

  9. Intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds: Report of three cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya-González, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasconcellea spp., is a species of Andean papaya commonly cultivated in rural communities close to Medellín, Colombia. Due to the pleasant and sweet flavor of its fruits, children frequently ingest its seeds accidentally. After ingestion, the seeds are engaged in the colonic lumen and block the exit of stools, causing pain and bloating, and promoting bacterial translocation. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and rectal examination. Treatment depends on the degree of local and systemic involvement and includes disimpaction of rectal contents under general anesthesia and colonic washes with 0.9% saline solution. In severe cases derivative colostomy has been required. In the literature there are no reports of intestinal obstruction due to Vasconcellea seeds, possibly because it has been mistaken for seeds of the genus Carica. In this article, three cases treated at pediatric services in Medellín, Colombia, in 2012 and 2013 are described. We note that this is a rarely suspected disease, leading to late diagnosis and potential catastrophic consequences. It is important to educate people to prevent the ingestion of the seeds.

  10. Neonatal functional intestinal obstruction and the presence of severely immature ganglion cells on rectal biopsy: 6 year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Tariq; Kiho, Liina; Scheimberg, Irene; Phelps, Simon; Misra, Devesh; Ward, Harry; Colmenero, Isabel

    2011-05-01

    We report our experience of managing eight babies who presented with neonatal intestinal obstruction and whose rectal biopsies showed severely immature ganglion cells. Neonatal unit records were reviewed to detect patients with suspected Hirschsprung's disease or functional intestinal obstruction. Those with intestinal atresia, anorectal malformation, malrotation, cystic fibrosis and prematurity were excluded. We identified 73 patients born at term. Twenty-seven did not need a rectal biopsy. Twenty-one had biopsy proven Hirschsprung's disease, while 17 had a normal rectal biopsy. Eight patients, all of whom presented with severe abdominal distension, showed immature ganglion cells. Seven had failed to pass meconium after birth. X-rays in all patients showed distended loops of bowel. Two neonates underwent an emergency laparotomy and a stoma. A repeat biopsy at 3 months showed maturation of ganglion cells and the stoma was reversed. Rectal biopsy was repeated in two other patients 2-9 months after the first biopsy and showed mature ganglion cells. At follow-up, one patient still suffers from severe constipation. Seven are asymptomatic now, including the two patients who needed a stoma. Immature ganglion cells on rectal biopsy may be an indicator of transient functional immaturity of the intestine.

  11. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction in a child with Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giabicani, E; Lemale, J; Dainese, L; Boudjemaa, S; Coulomb, A; Tounian, P; Dubern, B

    2017-10-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) mainly presents with severe craniofacial developmental abnormalities characterized by a combination of bilateral downward-slanting palpebral fissures, colobomas of the lower eyelids, hypoplasia of the facial bones, cleft palate, malformation of the external ears, atresia of the external auditory canals, and bilateral conductive hearing loss. It is due to mutations in Treacher Collins syndrome 1 (TCOF1) (5q32-q33.1) and Polymerase RNA 1 polypeptides D and C (POLR1D [13q12.2], and POLR1C [6p21.1]) genes, which are responsible for increased neuroepithelial apoptosis during embryogenesis resulting in the lack of neural crest cells involved in facial bone and cartilage formation. Altered function of the upper digestive tract has been reported, whereas severe dysmotility disorders have never been reported. We describe here the first case of TCS associated with histologically proven chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) in humans. Case presentatios A 12-year-old boy with TCS due to TCOF1 gene deletion experienced nutritional difficulties and digestive intolerance from birth. CIPO was suspected during childhood because of severe intestinal dysmotility leading to enteral-jejunal nutrition intolerance and dependence on total parenteral nutrition. Diagnosis of CIPO with nervous abnormalities was histologically confirmed on a surgical rectal biopsy that showed enlarged ganglionic myenteric plexus. At the age of 9 years, an isolated colonic stenosis without dilatation responsible for severe abdominal pain and altered quality of life led to digestive derivation contributing to rapid disappearance of chronic abdominal pain. At the age of 12 years, the patient was still dependent on total home parenteral nutrition 7 days a week to maintain regular growth velocity. Recently, mice studies have pointed out the role played by TCOF1 in ganglionic cell migration in the foregut, suggesting that the synergistic haploinsufficiency of Tcof1 and Pax3, a

  12. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...... strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients...

  13. A new method for insertion of long intestinal tube for small bowel obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiba, Kazuma; Ohmae, Tomoya; Odawara, Nariaki; Moriyama, Makoto; Kanai, Sachiko; Tsuboi, Mayo; Saito, Tomotaka; Uchino, Koji; Akamatsu, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It is often difficult to insert a long intestinal tube (LT) in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO). We developed a novel technique for inserting an LT without endoscopy called nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube (NEWSt). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of NEWSt. We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent LT insertion for SBO without any indications of strangulation with either NEWSt (n = 16) or endoscopy (n = 17) between November 2011 and February 2015 at our hospital. Univariate analysis was used to assess the success rate of LT placement beyond the duodenojejunal flexure, time required for the procedure, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. The success rate was 100% in both groups. Procedure time was numerically, but not statistically, shorter in the NEWSt group compared with the endoscopy group (24 ± 13 vs 30 ± 13 min; P = 0.174). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of surgery rate (31% vs 12%; P = 0.225), fasting period (11.3 ± 6.3 vs 9.9 ± 4.5 days; P = 0.482), hospital stay (26.4 ± 22.1 vs 18.7 ± 7.0 days; P = 0.194), and recurrence rate (19% vs 24%; P = 1.0). No serious adverse event was observed in the NEWSt group, whereas serious aspiration pneumonia was observed in 2 patients after LT insertion in the endoscopy group. Without endoscopy, NEWSt enabled the high success rate and the short procedure time for the LT insertion. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed. PMID:27893689

  14. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy in the identification of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Alonço da Cunha; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena de

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has multifactorial causes. Although indications for surgery are evaluated by well-known diagnostic tests in the awake state, these do not always correlate with satisfactory surgical results. To undertake a systematic review on endoscopy during sleep, as one element of the diagnosis routine, aiming to identify upper airway obstruction sites in adult patients with OSAS. By means of electronic databases, a systematic review was performed of studies using drug-induced sleep endoscopy to identify obstruction sites in patients with OSAS. Ten articles were selected that demonstrated the importance of identifying multilevel obstruction, especially in relation to retrolingual and laryngeal collapse in OSAS. DISE is an additional method to reveal obstruction sites that have not been detected in awake patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; van der Bij, Hendrik A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal

  16. Percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy (introducer method) in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: Report of two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küllmer, Armin; Schmidt, Arthur; Caca, Karel

    2016-03-01

    We report on two patients with recurrent episodes of chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO). A 50-year-old woman with severe multiple sclerosis and an 84-year-old man with Parkinson's disease and dementia had multiple hospital admissions because of pain and distended abdomen. Radiographic and endoscopic findings showed massive dilation of the colon without any evidence of obstruction. Conservative management resolved symptoms only for a short period of time. As these patients were poor candidates for any surgical treatment we carried out percutaneous endoscopic colostomy by placing a 20-Fr tube in the cecum with the introducer method. The procedure led to durable symptom relief without complications. We present these two cases and give a review through the existing literature of the procedure in CIPO. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Da-cheng-qi decoction, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, for intestinal obstruction: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Feng-Ying; Sun, Hai-Jing; Zou, Zui; Shi, Xue-Yin; Ling, Chang-Quan; Tang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effects and safety of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) or DCQD combined with conservative therapy in patients with intestinal obstruction. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and several other databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of DCQD or DCQD plus conservative therapy in patients with intestinal obstruction were eligible. Therapeutic effect was estimated by the improvement of clinical manifestations and diagnostic imaging; dichotomous/ordinal data assessment of overall response to therapy, adverse effects; or continuous variable were identified, including time to first bowel movement, time to first flatus, length of hospital stay. Sixty eligible RCTs including 6,095 patients were identified. Response rate: (1) DCQD versus conservative therapy (6 RCTs, 361 patients, RR of respond =1.13; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.31). (2) DCQD plus conservative therapy versus conservative therapy (48 RCTs, 4,916 patients, RR of respond =1.25 which favoured DCQD plus conservative therapy; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.30). Treatment effect remained similar when RCTs at high risk of bias were excluded. Time to first flatus postoperatively: (1) DCQD versus conservative therapy (2 RCTs, 240 patients, SMD=-3.65; 95% CI -8.17 to 0.87). (2) DCQD plus conservative therapy versus conservative therapy (11 RCTs, 1,040 patients, SMD=-2.09 which favoured DCQD plus conservative therapy; 95% CI -3.04 to -1.15). DCQD combined with conservative therapy may increase the success rate of conservative therapy for intestinal obstruction significantly and can shorten the duration of postoperative ileus in patients undergoing abdominal surgery compared with conservative therapy alone.

  18. Effect of alanyl glutamine on the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Guo Ma

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application value of alanyl glutamine in improving the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction. Methods: A total of 97 elderly patients with intestinal obstruction who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group (n=49 and the control group (n=48. The patients in the control group were given total parenteral nutrition (TPN treatment. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given intravenous injection of alanyl glutamine for 1 week. The plasma prealbumin, albumin, serum related cytokines, L/M, and DAO before and after treatment in the two groups were detected. The serum immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets before and after treatment in the two groups were compared. Results: The plasma prealbumin and albumin levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the serum CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. When compared with before treatment, L/M and plasma DAO level after treatment in the control group were significantly elevated, while those in the observation group were significantly reduced, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant. The serum IgG and IgA levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The serum CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusions: Alanyl glutamine in the treatment of elderly intestinal obstruction can significantly improve the acute inflammatory reaction and

  19. A retrospective audit on usage of Diatrizoate Meglumine (Gastrografin®) for intestinal obstruction or constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sharon; Hardy, Janet; Good, Phillip

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction and constipation are common conditions in patients with advanced neoplasms. Diatrizoate Meglumine has been used in the management of both these conditions without good quality evidence of its effectiveness and safety. This audit aimed to assess the usage, effectiveness and adverse effects of Diatrizoate Meglumine for intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms. A retrospective chart review was undertaken. Descriptive statistics were utilised. All patients with known advanced neoplasms admitted to Mater Health Services and St Vincent's Private Hospital Brisbane between January 2013 and October 2015; who were administered Diatrizoate Meglumine were included. Seventy-one patients received Diatrizoate Meglumine. The most common diagnoses were ovarian or primary peritoneal neoplasms (33.8%). Diatrizoate Meglumine was most commonly used for intestinal obstruction (59.2%). The median dose used per patient episode was 50 mL (range: 15-500 mL). Thirty-two patients (45%) had imaging 4-24 h post-dose with Diatrizoate Meglumine being present in the large intestine in 75% of these images. Intestinal obstruction or constipation resolved in 90% of patients post-dose. Most clinicians used 50 mL of Diatrizoate Meglumine as a single dose and repeated imaging after 4-24 h. Diatrizoate Meglumine was well tolerated and may be effective in resolving intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms. Quality controlled studies are needed to further guide the use of Diatrizoate Meglumine in intestinal obstruction and constipation in patients with advanced neoplasms.

  20. Small intestinal absorption in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by cor pulmonale - A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sara Korsgaard; Hardis, Anne L S; Tupper, Oliver Djurhuus

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cor pulmonale is a common complication to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and may result in increased pressure in the inferior caval vein and stasis of the liver. The chronic pulmonary hypertension may lead to stasis in the veins from the small intestine and thereby...... compromise absorption of nutrients. AIM: To investigate whether patients with pulmonary hypertension have reduced absorption capacity compared to COPD patients without cor pulmonale. METHODS: Absorption of d-xylose (25 g) and zinc (132 mg), administered as a single dose, was tested in 14 COPD patients, seven...

  1. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a diagnosis to be considered Pseudodestrucción intestinal crónica: un diagnóstico a tener en cuenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Muñoz-Yagüe

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO is a rare entity characterized by recurrent clinical episodes of intestinal obstruction in which no mechanical cause is identified. There are multiple causes for this syndrome but two main groups can be distinguished: a secondary to a systemic non-gastrointestinal disease; and b primary or idiopathic originated from alterations in the components of the intestinal wall. The latter forms are the most uncommon and their diagnosis is generally difficult. In the present article, we describe nine patients with CIPO that were diagnosed in our center over the last six years. Four of them were diagnosed with primary or idiopathic form of CIPO and another four were clearly secondary to a systemic disease. The ninth case, which was initially diagnosed as secondary, is probably also a primary form of the disease. The number of patients diagnosed in our center, even thought small, makes us to hypothesize that the prevalence of CIPO is probably greater than is generally believed and that the reasons of its rarity are the incomplete understanding of its physiopathology and the difficulties to achieve a correct diagnosis.

  2. One stage functional end-to-end stapled intestinal anastomosis and resection performed by nonexpert surgeons for the treatment of small intestinal obstruction in 30 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardel, Nicolas; Hidalgo, Antoine; Leperlier, Dimitri; Manassero, Mathieu; Gomes, Aymeric; Bedu, Anne Sophie; Moissonnier, Pierre; Fayolle, Pascal; Begon, Dominique; Riquois, Elisabeth; Viateau, Véronique

    2011-02-01

    To describe stapled 1-stage functional end-to-end intestinal anastomosis for treatment of small intestinal obstruction in dogs and evaluate outcome when the technique is performed by nonexpert surgeons after limited training in the technique. Case series. Dogs (n=30) with intestinal lesions requiring an enterectomy. Stapled 1-stage functional end-to-end anastomosis and resection using a GIA-60 and a TA-55 stapling devices were performed under supervision of senior residents and faculty surgeons by junior surgeons previously trained in the technique on pigs. Procedure duration and technical problems were recorded. Short-term results were collected during hospitalization and at suture removal. Long-term outcome was established by clinical and ultrasonographic examinations at least 2 months after surgery and from written questionnaires, completed by owners. Mean±SD procedure duration was 15±12 minutes. Postoperative recovery was uneventful in 25 dogs. One dog had anastomotic leakage, 1 had a localized abscess at the transverse staple line, and 3 dogs developed an incisional abdominal wall abscess. No long-term complications occurred (follow-up, 2-32 months). Stapled 1-stage functional end-to-end anastomosis and resection is a fast and safe procedure in the hand of nonexpert but trained surgeons. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. Crystalloids versus colloids: implications in fluid therapy of dogs with intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D; Kvietys, P R; Granger, D N

    1986-08-01

    Responses of jejunal transcapillary and transmucosal fluid fluxes to IV infusion of crystalloid or colloid solutions were evaluated in 12 dogs. One isolated intestinal segment in each dog was used as the control segment, and 2 segments were distended to a intraluminal hydrostatic pressure of 10 cm of H2O. The artery supplying 1 of the 2 distended (autoperfused) segments was cannulated and perfused with blood from the femoral artery. One of the 2 distended segments was autoperfused from the femoral artery. Intraluminal pressure was increased in the autoperfused segment and in 1 other segment for three, 20-minute periods after administration of the crystalloid or colloid solution. Net transmucosal fluid flux was estimated, using a volume recovery method. In each autoperfused segment, blood flow, capillary pressure, lymph flow, and plasma protein and lymph protein concentrations were measured during each 20-minute distention period. Systemic arterial pressure was monitored throughout the procedure. Plasma and tissue oncotic pressures were calculated from the plasma protein and lymph protein concentrations. Total vascular resistance and precapillary and postcapillary resistances were determined. Capillary pressure increased after infusion with colloids and crystalloids, with the effects being more prolonged in the colloid group. Plasma oncotic pressure transiently increased after infusion with colloids and decreased after infusion with crystalloids. Lymph flow increased only in crystalloid-treated dogs. Due to alterations in transcapillary fluid filtration, crystalloids induced a net loss of fluid into the intestinal lumen, whereas the fluid absorptive capacity of the jejunum was unaltered by colloid treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Long-term follow-up of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome in cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Moran; Manovitz, Tzipora; Vilozni, Daphna; Levy-Mendelovich, Sarina; Sarouk, Ifat; Weintraubv, Ilana; Shoseyov, David; Cohen-Cymberknoh, Malena; Rivlin, Joseph; Efrati, Ori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term follow-up of distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) in Israeli cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. METHODS: This is a multi-center, comparative, retrospective study in which we reviewed the medical records of all CF patients from three major CF centers in Israel who were treated in the period from 1980 to 2012. Patients diagnosed with DIOS were defined as the study group. The patients were diagnosed with DIOS based on their clinical presentation and typical findings on either abdominal X-ray or computerized tomography scan. For the control group, CF patients with no DIOS were matched to the patients in the study group for age, sex, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations. For both groups, the collected data included age, sex, CFTR genotype, weight, height, and body mass index. Clinical data included respiratory function tests in the last five years prior to the study, respiratory function test immediately before and after the DIOS event, number of hospitalizations, sputum culture results, and CF-related conditions diagnosed according to the CF clinical practice guidelines. In the study group, data on the DIOS treatment and tendency for DIOS recurrence were also analyzed. RESULTS: The medical charts for a total of 350 CF patients were reviewed. Of the 350 CF patients, 26 (7.4%) were diagnosed with DIOS. The control group included 31 CF patients with no DIOS diagnosis. The mean follow-up period was 21.6 ± 8.2 years. The total of DIOS episodes in the follow-up period was 60. The distribution of DIOS episodes was as follows: 6/26 (23.1%) study patients had one episode of DIOS in their lifetime, 7/26 (26.9%) had two episodes, 7/26 (26.9%) had three episodes, and 6/26 (23.1%) had four or more episodes. Compared to the control group, DIOS patients had a significantly higher incidence of meconium ileus in the past (65.4% vs 0%, respectively, P DIOS, which mainly includes hydration and stool softeners

  5. A genetically inducible porcine model of intestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Morten M.; Árnadóttir, Sigrid S.; Lyskjær, Iben

    2017-01-01

    of intestinal cancer. Transgenic (TG) minipigs were generated using somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. The pigs encode two TG cassettes: (a) an Flp recombinase-inducible oncogene cassette containing KRAS-G12D, cMYC, SV40LT - which inhibits p53 - and pRB and (b) a 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT...

  6. High Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction in Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted Nielsen, Emil; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexplained respiratory symptoms reported by athletes are often incorrectly considered secondary to exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesised that this may be related to exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). This study evaluates the prevalence of EILO in an unselected cohort...... of athletes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the prevalence of EILO in a cohort of athletes (n=91) referred consecutively during a two-year period for asthma work-up including continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE) testing. We compared clinical characteristics and bronchial hyper......-one percent of athletes with EILO and negative bronchoprovocation and bronchodilator reversibility tests used regular asthma medication at referral. CONCLUSION: In athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms, EILO is an important differential diagnosis not discerned from other aetiologies by clinical...

  7. Speech-Language Pathology as a Primary Treatment for Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Monica; Litts, Juliana K; Nauman, Emily; Haines, Jemma

    2018-05-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a condition that restricts respiration during exercise via inappropriate glottic or supraglottic obstruction. The literature supports behavioral treatment provided by a speech-language pathologist as an effective means of treating exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction. Treatment includes educating the patient, training on relaxation, instruction on paced exercise, and use of various breathing techniques to optimize laryngeal aperture. Intervention for patients with exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction may be delivered by a speech-language pathologist, given their clinical skill of facilitating long-term behavioral change and expertise in the laryngeal mechanism. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. OFF-SITE SMARTPHONE VS. STANDARD WORKSTATION IN THE RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF SMALL INTESTINAL MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS AND CATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Peter G; Fischetti, Anthony J; Moore, George E; Le Roux, Alexandre B

    2016-09-01

    Off-site consultations by board-certified veterinary radiologists benefit residents and emergency clinicians by providing immediate feedback and potentially improving patient outcome. Smartphone devices and compressed images transmitted by email or text greatly facilitate availability of these off-site consultations. Criticism of a smartphone interface for off-site consultation is mostly directed at image degradation relative to the standard radiographic viewing room and monitors. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, methods comparison study was to compare the accuracy of abdominal radiographs in two imaging interfaces (Joint Photographic Experts Group, off-site, smartphone vs. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, on-site, standard workstation) for the diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in vomiting dogs and cats. Two board-certified radiologists graded randomized abdominal radiographs using a five-point Likert scale for the presence of mechanical obstruction in 100 dogs or cats presenting for vomiting. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for both imaging interfaces was high. The accuracy of the smartphone and traditional workstation was not statistically significantly different for either reviewer (P = 0.384 and P = 0.536). Correlation coefficients were 0.821 and 0.705 for each reviewer when the same radiographic study was viewed in different formats. Accuracy differences between radiologists were potentially related to years of experience. We conclude that off-site expert consultation with a smartphone provides an acceptable interface for accurate diagnosis of small intestinal mechanical obstruction in dogs and cat. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Mesenteric cyst(s presenting as acute intestinal obstruction in children: Three cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Makhija

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Presentation of mesenteric cyst as acute obstruction in paediatric age group is rare and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The larger cysts are more likely to have an acute presentation.

  10. Long-term intestinal obstruction sequelae and growth in children with cystic fibrosis operated for meconium ileus: expectancies and surprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentessidou, Anastasia; Loukou, Ioanna; Kampouroglou, Georgios; Livani, Anastasia; Georgopoulos, Ioannis; Mirilas, Petros

    2017-11-15

    In the few studies on intestinal complications and growth of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with a history of meconium ileus (MI), operated MI has not been investigated separately. We aimed to investigate the incidence of long-term intestinal obstruction sequelae [constipation, distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS)] and growth in CF patients operated for MI. Retrospective study (1989-2016) including operative diagnoses and procedures, constipation and DIOS events, yearly Body Mass Index (BMI) measurements. Outcomes were examined in subgroups operated for MI only and for MI with atresia and/or volvulus. Of 49 patients followed-up for 15 (mean) years, 5 (10.2%) developed constipation and 14 (28.6%) DIOS. BMI was within normal percentiles in 53 patients over a 10-year follow-up. MI only and MI with atresia and/or volvulus did not differ in constipation and/or DIOS incidence (11/34 vs. 7/15, p=0.39) or in BMI (p=0.47). Cases with ileocecal valve resection (ICV-R) showed lower constipation and/or DIOS incidence than those without ICV-R (0/6 vs. 11/28, p=0.02) and no different BMI (p>0.05). CF patients operated for MI were in long-term risk for constipation/DIOS; their growth was normal. Interestingly, underlying atresia/volvulus neither increased constipation/DIOS risk nor affected growth. Strikingly, ICV-R showed no constipation/DIOS risk and no impact on growth. Retrospective comparative study. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 protects against bacterial translocation, preserves gut barrier integrity and stimulates the immune system in a murine intestinal obstruction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, Simone V; Viana, Mirelle; Santos, Rosana; Martins, Flaviano S; Machado, José A N; Arantes, Rosa M E; Nicoli, Jacques R; Correia, Maria I T D; Cardoso, Valbert N

    2010-06-01

    Probiotic is a preparation containing microorganisms that confers beneficial effect to the host. This work assessed whether oral treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain UFMG 905 prevents bacterial translocation (BT), intestinal barrier integrity, and stimulates the immunity, in a murine intestinal obstruction (IO) model. Four groups of mice were used: mice undergoing only laparotomy (CTL), undergoing intestinal obstruction (IO) and undergoing intestinal obstruction after previous treatment with viable or heat-killed yeast. BT, determined as uptake of (99m)Tc-E. coli in blood, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lungs, was significantly higher in IO group than in CTL group. Treatments with both yeasts reduced BT in blood and all organs investigated. The treatment with both yeasts also reduced intestinal permeability as determined by blood uptake of (99m)Tc-DTPA. Immunological data demonstrated that both treatments were able to significantly increase IL-10 levels, but only viable yeast had the same effect on sIgA levels. Intestinal lesions were more severe in IO group when compared to CTL and yeasts groups. Concluding, both viable and heat-killed cells of yeast prevent BT, probably by immunomodulation and by maintaining gut barrier integrity. Only the stimulation of IgA production seems to depend on the yeast viability.

  12. Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction: a review of diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanagedera, Savinda; McLeod, Robert; Elhassan, Hassan A

    2017-04-01

    Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a condition where inappropriate vocal cord or glottic closure occurs during exercise. This review of the literature provides an overview of the current understanding of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis and management of EILO. Using The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines the Cochrane, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed databases were searched. Four search domains "exercise", "induced", "laryngeal" and "obstruction" were used. Primary searching found 469 records, 308 were excluded following screening of titles and citation. 100 were duplicates, a further 47 studies were excluded after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two studies were identified following cross-referencing. A total of 15 studies were included. The last search date was 6/06/15. Average prevalence in the general adolescent population and athletes was 7.1 and 35.2 %, respectively. Dyspnoea was reported in 96.5, 99 and 100 % of three EILO patient cohorts. Two studies (n = 107) reported continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE) testing could differentiate between patients and controls. In two studies (n = 33) the visual analogue scale (VAS) showed a beneficial effect of endoscopic supraglottoplasty (ES). Thirty-eight out of 43 patients who received two or more laryngeal control therapy sessions (LCT) had improvement or resolution of EILO symptoms. Exercise induced dyspnoea is the most common EILO symptom. EILO has a high occurrence in adolescents and athletes. The CLE test is the current gold standard for EILO diagnostics. Management of EILO includes both surgical and non-surgical interventions.

  13. Anterior colporrhaphy does not induce bladder outlet obstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M. M. E.; Hakvoort, R. A.; van de Weijer, E. P.; Emanuel, M. H.; Roovers, J. P. W. R.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate if anterior colporrhaphy causes incomplete voiding due to bladder outlet obstruction. Women scheduled for anterior colporrhaphy were asked to undergo multichannel urodynamic investigation before surgery and the first postoperative day. Bladder outlet obstruction was assessed

  14. Síndrome de Ogilvie (pseudo-obstrução intestinal aguda: relato de caso Ogilvie's Syndrome (Acute pseudo-intestinal obstruction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandir Marcondes Ribas Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A síndrome de Ogilvie é condição clínica com sinais, sintomas e aparência radiológica de dilatação acentuada do cólon sem causa mecânica e pode complicar com rompimento da parede do cólon e sepse abdominal. O tratamento na maioria das vezes é cirúrgico. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, 49 anos, internada com queixa de dor abdominal e diarréia e apresentando-se confusa, desidratada, taquicárdica, dispnéica, temperatura de 38ºC, abdômen distendido, ausência de ruídos hidro-aéreos e toque retal com fezes pastosas. Estudo radiográfico mostrou padrão de pseudo-obstrução intestinal. A paciente evoluiu com parada de eliminação de gases e fezes e sinais de abdômen agudo infeccioso. Foi submetida à laparotomia com achado de ceco e transverso bastante dilatados e sem sinal de obstrução mecânica. Realizada colectomia subtotal com fechamento do coto distal e ileostomia terminal. CONCLUSÃO: Pensar nessa possibilidade diagnóstica e agir mais rapidamente é a única possibilidade de diminuir a morbimortalidade desses pacientes.BACKGROUND: The Ogilvie's Syndrome is a clinical condition with signals, symptoms and radiological appearance of large bowel swell without mechanical cause. This obstruction can complicate with disruption of the bowel and consequent evolution of abdominal sepse. The treatment is typically surgical. AIM: The aim of this work is report a case of Ogilvie's Syndrome. CASE REPORT: Feminine patient, 49 years-old, interned with a history of abdominal pain and diarrhea and presenting dehydratation, tachycardia , dyspnea, mental confusion, 38ºC of temperature, distended abdomen, absence of hydro-aerial noises and rectal touch with pasty excrements. The x-ray showed a standard of pseudo-intestinal obstruction. The patient evolved with stop of elimination of farts and excrements and signals of infectious acute abdomen. The laparotomy showed cecum and transverse very swelled without signal of

  15. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of small bowel volvulus in adults: A monocentric summary of a rare small intestinal obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohang Li

    Full Text Available Small bowel volvulus is a rare disease, which is also challenging to diagnose. The aims of this study were to characterize the clinical and radiological features associated with small bowel volvulus and treatment and to identify risk factors for associated small bowel necrosis.Patients with small bowel volvulus who underwent operations from January 2001 to December 2015 at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University (Shenyang, China were reviewed. Clinical, surgical and postsurgical data were registered and analyzed.Thirty-one patients were included for analysis. Fifteen patients were female (48.4%, with an average age of 47.7 years (18-79 years. The clinical signs and symptoms were unspecific and resembled intestinal obstruction. Clinical examination revealed abdominal distension and/or diffuse tenderness with or without signs of peritonitis. The use of CT scans, X-rays or ultrasound did not differ significantly between patients. In 9 of 20 patients that received abdominal CT scans, "whirlpool sign" on the CT scan was present. Secondary small bowel volvulus was present in 58.1% of patients, and causes included bands (3, adhesion (7, congenital anomalies (7 and stromal tumor (1. Out of the 31 patients, 15 with gangrenous small bowel had to undergo intestinal resection. Intestinal gangrene was present with higher neutrophils count (p<0.0001 and the presence of bloody ascites (p = 0.004. Three patients died of septic shock (9.68%, and the recurrence rate was 3.23%.To complete an early and accurate diagnosis, a CT scan plus physical exam seems to be the best plan. After diagnosis, an urgent laparotomy must be performed to avoid intestinal necrosis and perforation. After surgery, more than 90% of the patients can expect to have a favorable prognosis.

  16. Intestinal obstruction after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass by Higa's technique for treatment of morbid obesity: radiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrunie, Ester Moraes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: emlabrunie@superig.com.br; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    2007-05-15

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the main radiological aspects of postoperative intestinal obstruction in patients submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass by means of the Higa's technique. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients presenting with postoperative intestinal obstruction following a gastric reduction procedure were evaluated in the period between November 2001 and April 2006, in seven different medical centers. Results: In the ten patients, the obstruction occurred in the small bowel, five of them because of internal hernias, three because of adhesions, one because of an umbilical hernia and one because of intussusception. Four patients presented obstruction early in the postoperative period (by the seventh post-op day), and six, late in the postoperative period (between the third month and the fifth year). Conclusion: All of the cases of intestinal obstruction were found in the small bowel. Internal hernia was the most frequent cause, followed by adhesion. Other causes included umbilical hernia and intussusception. (author)

  17. Clinical strategies for the management of intestinal obstruction and pseudo-obstruction. A Delphi Consensus study of SICUT (Società Italiana di Chirurgia d'Urgenza e del Trauma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gianluca; Ruscelli, Paolo; Balducci, Genoveffa; Buccoliero, Francesco; Lorenzon, Laura; Frezza, Barbara; Chirletti, Piero; Stagnitti, Franco; Miniello, Stefano; Stella, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal obstructions/pseudo-obstruction of the small/large bowel are frequent conditions but their management could be challenging. Moreover, a general agreement in this field is currently lacking, thus SICUT Society designed a consensus study aimed to define their optimal workout. The Delphi methodology was used to reach consensus among 47 Italian surgical experts in two study rounds. Consensus was defined as an agreement of 75.0% or greater. Four main topic areas included nosology, diagnosis, management and treatment. A bowel obstruction was defined as an obstacle to the progression of intestinal contents and fluids generally beginning with a sudden onset. The panel identified four major criteria of diagnosis including absence of flatus, presence of >3.5 cm ileal levels or >6 cm colon dilatation and abdominal distension. Panel also recommended a surgical admission, a multidisciplinary approach, and a gastrografin swallow for patients presenting occlusions. Criteria for immediate surgery included: presence of strangulated hernia, a >10 cm cecal dilatation, signs of vascular pedicles obstructions and persistence of metabolic acidosis. Moreover, rules for non-operative management (to be conducted for maximum 72 hours) included a naso-gastric drainage placement and clinical and laboratory controls each 12 hours. Non-operative treatment should be suspended if any suspects of intra-abdominal complications, high level of lactates, leukocytosis (>18.000/mm3 or Neutrophils >85%) or a doubling of creatinine level comparing admission. Conversely, consensus was not reached regarding the exact timing of CT scan and the appropriateness of colonic stenting. This consensus is in line with current international strategies and guidelines, and it could be a useful tool in the safe basic daily management of these common and peculiar diseases. Delphi study, Intestinal obstruction, Large bowel obstruction, Pseudo-obstruction, Small bowel.

  18. Milk diets influence doxorubicin-induced intestinal toxicity in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, R. L.; Pontoppidan, P. E.; Rathe, M.

    2016-01-01

    IL-8 levels compared with DOX-Form (all P diet. Thus a single dose of DOX induces intestinal toxicity in preweaned pigs...... and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response. The toxicity is affected by type of enteral nutrition with more pronounced GI toxicity when formula is fed compared with bovine colostrum. The results indicate that bovine colostrum may be a beneficial supplementary diet for children subjected...

  19. [Evaluation of stomach emptying under extreme obstruction of gastrointestinal transit treated with gastro-intestinal or duodenal-intestinal anastomosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowiec, S; Górka, Z; Jonderko, K; Nalewajka-Kołodziejczak, J; Gruszka, Z; Kuśnierz, K; Leidgens, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare gastric emptying in two groups of dogs in which a gastrojejunal or duodenojejunal Roux-en-Y anastomosis was performed over the site of an experimental obstruction in the distal duodenum. The experiment was carried out on 10 mongrel dogs. Gastric emptying was assessed twice in each dog before the experiment (control examination); the solid phase of the test meal was labelled with 99mTc. Following a control examination, the dogs were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, and subjected to the above mentioned surgical procedures. Postoperative gastric emptying was carried out 3 weeks after the operation, and then at 3 and 6 months following the procedure. The following parameters describing quantitatively gastric emptying were determined: mean transit time MTT0-60. MTT0-120 and total mean transit time MTT0-180. The comparison of these parameters revealed statistically significant differences confirming delay of gastric emptying in dogs with a gastrojejunal anastomosis.

  20. The interventional treatment for recurrent jaundice after palliative bilio-intestinal anastomosis in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xinwei; Li Yongdong; Li Tianxiao; Ma Bo; Xing Gusheng; Wu Gang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the interventional methods to treat recurrent jaundice after palliative bilio-intestinal anastomosis in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice due to cholangiocarcinoma. Methods: Ten patients with recurrent jaundice after bilio-intestinal anastomosis were retrospectively evaluated. Nine of ten underwent PTCD with metallic stent placement, one underwent the inner-outer draining catheter procedure. The patients were evaluated with comparison in regard to preoperative conditions, TBIL, ALT, GTP and AKP values. Results: Stent placement was successful only once in all 10 cases with successful rate of 100%. TBIL, ALT, GTP and AKP values were significantly lower 7 days postoperative than that preoperation. Subsidence of jaundice was satisfactory for 100% in all patients after the treatment. Conclusions: Percutaneous placement of biliary metallic stents is a safety, simple, low complication method for managing recurrent jaundice after palliative bilio-intestinal anastomosis for the terminal stage of malignant obstructive jaundice

  1. A Rare Cause of Sub-Acute Proximal Intestinal Obstruction Due to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly due to an abnormal fusion between the tip of the ventral pancreatic bud and the duodenum at about the 7th gestational week and, presenting usually with symptoms due to duodenal obstruction. We report a case of a 2- year old girl who presented electively for ...

  2. Radiation-induced intestinal lesions. Prognosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haecke, P.; Vitaux, J.; Michot, F.; Hay, J.-M.; Flamant, Y.; Maillard, J.-N.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients with intestinal lesions consecutive to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus were operated upon between 1973 and 1979. The small bowel was involved in 9 patients and the colon and rectum in 4 patients. Urinary tract lesions were associated in 3 patients of each group. Intestinal necrosis, progression of the lesions and extensive pelvic fibrosis were the only criteria of poor prognosis. Twenty-two operations were performed: 4 for urinary tract lesions and 18 for intestinal lesions. Five patients died during the immediate post-operative period and five died within 2 to 30 months after surgery, including 4 whose carcinoma recurred. The operative technique should be selected according to the extent and severity of radiation-induced damage, as determined by pre-operative examination and thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity once opened. Limited lesions of the small bowel can be treated by resection, but intestinal bypass with latero-lateral anastomosis seems to be preferable in cases with extensive lesions. Patients with colorectal lesions should have defunctioning colostomy prior to any other procedure dictated by the state of affairs. Multiple anastomosis, extensive resections and excessive dissections should be avoided [fr

  3. On the electrical intestine turbulence induced by temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizzi, A; Cherubini, C; Migliori, S; Filippi, S; Alloni, R; Portuesi, R

    2010-01-01

    Paralytic ileus is a temporary syndrome with impairment of peristalsis and no passage of food through the intestine. Although improvements in supportive measures have been achieved, no therapy useful to specifically reduce or eliminate the motility disorder underlying postoperative ileus has been developed yet. In this paper, we draw a plausible, physiologically fine-tuned scenario, which explains a possible cause of paralytic ileus. To this aim we extend the existing 1D intestinal electrophysiological Aliev–Richards–Wikswo ionic model based on a double-layered structure in two and three dimensions. Thermal coupling is introduced here to study the influence of temperature gradients on intestine tissue which is an important external factor during surgery. Numerical simulations present electrical spiral waves similar to those experimentally observed already in the heart, brain and many other excitable tissues. This fact seems to suggest that such peculiar patterns, here electrically and thermally induced, may play an important role in clinically experienced disorders of the intestine, then requiring future experimental analyses in the search for possible implications for medical and physiological practice and bioengineering

  4. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  5. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  6. Mucus reduction promotes acetyl salicylic acid-induced small intestinal mucosal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Yosuke; Handa, Osamu; Naito, Yuji; Takayama, Shun; Mukai, Rieko; Ushiroda, Chihiro; Majima, Atsushi; Yasuda-Onozawa, Yuriko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Fukui, Akifumi; Dohi, Osamu; Okayama, Tetsuya; Yoshida, Naohisa; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Konishi, Hideyuki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2018-03-25

    Acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) is a useful drug for the secondary prevention of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases, but it has adverse effects on the small intestinal mucosa. The pathogenesis and prophylaxis of ASA-induced small intestinal injury remain unclear. In this study, we focused on the intestinal mucus, as the gastrointestinal tract is covered by mucus, which exhibits protective effects against various gastrointestinal diseases. ASA was injected into the duodenum of rats, and small intestinal mucosal injury was evaluated using Evans blue dye. To investigate the importance of mucus, Polysorbate 80 (P80), an emulsifier, was used before ASA injection. In addition, rebamipide, a mucus secretion inducer in the small intestine, was used to suppress mucus reduction in the small intestine of P80-administered rats. The addition of P80 reduced the mucus and exacerbated the ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Rebamipide significantly suppressed P80-reduced small intestinal mucus and P80-increased intestinal mucosal lesions in ASA-injected rats, demonstrating that mucus is important for the protection against ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. These results provide new insight into the mechanism of ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Mucus secretion-increasing therapy might be useful in preventing ASA-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic yield of esophageal manometry in chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a retrospective cohort of 116 adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, A; Joly, F; Cazals-Hatem, D; Merrouche, M; Jouet, P; Coffin, B; Bouhnik, Y

    2012-11-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) refers to a wide and heterogeneous group of neuromuscular disorders, which classically involve the small intestine. However, further investigation is required to determine if motility disturbances involve all parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Medical records and follow-up examinations of 116 adult CIPO patients [70F, median age 28 (0-79) years] were reviewed and performed at our institution since 1980. Manometry (esophageal, small bowel and anorectal) and gastric emptying scintigraphy reports were retrieved and analyzed. Survival, home parenteral nutrition requirement, and the inability to maintain sufficient oral feeding was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis. The median follow-up time was 6 (0.1-30) years. In all, 90% of patients who underwent at least one motility test, with the exception of small bowel manometry, exhibited at least one abnormal pattern. Esophageal manometry was abnormal in 73% of the cases, including 51% with severe ineffective esophageal motility. Anorectal manometry was abnormal in 59% of the cases, including only 17% with severe abnormalities. Gastric emptying was abnormal in 61% of the cases. Only esophageal motor disorders had significant predicting values for survival, home parenteral nutrition requirement, and an inability to maintain sufficient oral feeding. Our study showed that CIPO was associated with a diffuse involvement of all parts of the GI tract and was not restricted to the small intestine in 90% of the cases studied. Esophageal manometry had a significant prognostic yield and should be systematically performed in CIPO patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Protective effect of intestinal trefoil factor on injury of intestinal epithelial tight junction induced by platelet activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ling-fen; Teng, Xu; Guo, Jing; Sun, Mei

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To evaluate the effect of intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) on increased intestinal permeability and its association with tight junction proteins, an in vitro intestinal epithelia barrier model was established with Caco-2 cells and treated with platelet-activating factor (PAF). We found that exposing cells to 0.3 M ITF (30 min before or 30 min after PAF treatment) attenuated the PAF-induced changes in transepithelial electrical resistance and Lucifer yellow flux. A quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that ITF suppressed PAF-induced downregulation of tight junction proteins claudin-1 and ZO-1 expression; furthermore, an abnormal localization and distribution of these proteins was inhibited, as assessed by immunofluorescence staining. These results suggest that ITF decreases mucosal permeability and shows potential as a therapy for treating IBD.

  9. A rare cause of proximal intestinal obstruction in adults - annular pancreas: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Bouassida; Selim, Sassi; Hassen, Touinsi; Mongi, Mighri Mohamed; Fadhel, Chtourou Mohamed; Fathi, Chebbi; Sadok, Sassi

    2011-01-01

    Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of ectopic pancreatic tissue surrounding the descending part of the duodenum. It is one of the few congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract which can produce symptoms late in life. In adults, the factors initiating symptoms are recurrent pancreatitis, duodenal stenosis at the site of the annulus, or duodenal or gastric ulceration. We report a new case involving a 24-year-old woman hospitalised for epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. Radiological examination was consisted with an annular pancreas. At operation a complete obstruction of the second part of the duodenum was found, caused by an annular pancreas, no other congenital anomaly of the intra-abdominal organs was noted. A gastroenterostomy was performed.

  10. A rare cause of proximal intestinal obstruction in adults: annular pancreas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouassida Mahdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Annular pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of ectopic pancreatic tissue surrounding the descending part of the duodenum. It is one of the few congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract which can produce symptoms late in life. In adults, the factors initiating symptoms are recurrent pancreatitis, duodenal stenosis at the site of the annulus, or duodenal or gastric ulceration. We report a new case involving a 24-year-old woman hospitalised for epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting. Radiological examination was consisted with an annular pancreas. At operation a complete obstruction of the second part of the duodenum was found, caused by an annular pancreas, no other congenital anomaly of the intra-abdominal organs was noted. A gastroenterostomy was performed.

  11. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway on methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Francisco JWS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methotrexate treatment has been associated to intestinal epithelial damage. Studies have suggested an important role of nitric oxide in such injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO, specifically iNOS on the pathogenesis of methotrexate (MTX-induced intestinal mucositis. Methods Intestinal mucositis was carried out by three subcutaneous MTX injections (2.5 mg/kg in Wistar rats and in inducible nitric oxide synthase knock-out (iNOS-/- and wild-type (iNOS+/+ mice. Rats were treated intraperitoneally with the NOS inhibitors aminoguanidine (AG; 10 mg/Kg or L-NAME (20 mg/Kg, one hour before MTX injection and daily until sacrifice, on the fifth day. The jejunum was harvested to investigate the expression of Ki67, iNOS and nitrotyrosine by immunohistochemistry and cell death by TUNEL. The neutrophil activity by myeloperoxidase (MPO assay was performed in the three small intestine segments. Results AG and L-NAME significantly reduced villus and crypt damages, inflammatory alterations, cell death, MPO activity, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining due to MTX challenge. The treatment with AG, but not L-NAME, prevented the inhibitory effect of MTX on cell proliferation. MTX induced increased expression of iNOS detected by immunohistochemistry. MTX did not cause significant inflammation in the iNOS-/- mice. Conclusion These results suggest an important role of NO, via activation of iNOS, in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucositis.

  12. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction in vascular patients (Ogilvie syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, V; Van Hee, R

    2009-01-01

    Two patients with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction are presented. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, first described by Ogilvie in 1948, is characterised by signs of colonic obstruction, but without mechanical obstruction to the intestinal flow. The current hypothesis states that it is caused by an imbalance between sacral parasympathetic excitatory nerves and sympathetic inhibitory nerves, thus inducing functional obstruction. It mostly develops in hospitalised patients with a variety of medical and surgical conditions. Two such patients with extensive co-morbidities, developed progressive colon dilatation with signs of acute peritonitis, and were operated on urgently. In both patients, right hemicolectomy and postoperative medical treatment resulted in complete recovery.

  13. Diabetes-induced mechanophysiological changes in the small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Mirabella; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    they relate to intestinal and colonic abnormalities. Finally the clinical consequences of DM-induced changes in the intestine and colon including diarrhea, constipation, gut microbiota change and colon cancer are discussed. The final goal is to increase the understanding of DM-induced changes in the gut......The disorders of gastrointestinal (GI) tract including intestine and colon are common in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM induced intestinal and colonic structural and biomechanical remodeling in animals and humans. The remodeling is closely related to motor-sensory abnormalities...... of the intestine and colon which are associated with the symptoms frequently encountered in patients with DM such as diarrhea and constipation. In this review, firstly we review DM-induced histomorphological and biomechanical remodeling of intestine and colon. Secondly we review motor-sensory dysfunction and how...

  14. High-fat Diet-induced Intestinal Hyperpermeability is Associated with Increased Bile Acids in the Large Intestine of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yuki; Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, which is associated with intestinal hyperpermeability. This study examined the effects of 3 high-fat diets (HFDs) composed of different fat sources (soybean oil and lard) on the intestinal permeability, tight junction (TJ) protein expression, and cecal bile acid (BA) concentrations in mice, and then analyzed their interrelations. C57/BL6 mice were fed the control diet, HFD (soybean oil), HFD (lard), and HFD (mix; containing equal concentrations of soybean oil and lard) for 8 wk. Glucose tolerance, intestinal permeability, TJ protein expression, and cecal BA concentration were evaluated. Feeding with the 3 HDFs similarly increased body weight, liver weight, and fat pad weight, and induced glucose intolerance and intestinal hyperpermeability. The expression of TJ proteins, zonula occludens-2 and junctional adhesion molecule-A, were lower in the colons of the 3 HFD groups than in the control group (P acid and ω-muricholic acids, were detected (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the HFD-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is associated with increased BA secretion. The abundance of SBAs in the large intestine may be responsible for the hyperpermeability. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF Hydroxylases as Regulators of Intestinal Epithelial Barrier FunctionSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario C. Manresa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human health is dependent on the ability of the body to extract nutrients, fluids, and oxygen from the external environment while at the same time maintaining a state of internal sterility. Therefore, the cell layers that cover the surface areas of the body such as the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal mucosa provide vital semipermeable barriers that allow the transport of essential nutrients, fluid, and waste products, while at the same time keeping the internal compartments free of microbial organisms. These epithelial surfaces are highly specialized and differ in their anatomic structure depending on their location to provide appropriate and effective site-specific barrier function. Given this important role, it is not surprising that significant disease often is associated with alterations in epithelial barrier function. Examples of such diseases include inflammatory bowel disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atopic dermatitis. These chronic inflammatory disorders often are characterized by diminished tissue oxygen levels (hypoxia. Hypoxia triggers an adaptive transcriptional response governed by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs, which are repressed by a family of oxygen-sensing HIF hydroxylases. Here, we review recent evidence suggesting that pharmacologic hydroxylase inhibition may be of therapeutic benefit in inflammatory bowel disease through the promotion of intestinal epithelial barrier function through both HIF-dependent and HIF-independent mechanisms. Keywords: Epithelial Barrier, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Hypoxia, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF Hydroxylases

  16. Intestinal obstruction due to malign breast neoplasm and peritoneal carcinomatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Balsamo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal carcinomatosis due to breast cancer is rare and gastrointestinal tract involvement is also unusual. Symptoms are unspecific and can begin many years after the primary tumor. Investigation of carcinomatosis origin is mandatory as breast cancer carcinomatosis can relieve partially or totally with chemo and hormonal therapy. A case of colonic obstruction due to carcinomatosis secondary to breast cancer is reported, emphasizing its diagnostic aspects and treatment.A carcinomatose peritoneal secundária ao câncer de mama é entidade rara e o comprometimento do trato gastrointestinal é pouco frequente. A sintomatologia bastante inespecífica dificulta o diagnóstico e os sintomas podem surgir vários anos após o aparecimento do tumor primário. O diagnóstico da origem da carcinomatose é fundamental, pois quando a doença é secundária à neoplasia de mama, pode ocorrer remissão parcial e até total da doença com quimio e hormonioterapia. Relata-se caso de obstrução colônica devido a carcinomatose peritoneal secundária a neoplasia maligna de mama, com ênfase em seu diagnóstico e tratamento.

  17. Obstructive Apneas Induce Early Release of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Circulating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Alba; Almendros, Isaac; Acerbi, Irene; Montserrat, Josep M.; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate whether noninvasive application of recurrent airway obstructions induces early release of mesenchymal stem cells into the circulating blood in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea. Design: Prospective controlled animal study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Participants: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (250–300 g). Interventions: A specially designed nasal mask was applied to the anesthetized rats. Ten rats were subjected to a pattern of recurrent obstructive apneas (60 per hour, lasting 15 seconds each) for 5 hours. Ten anesthetized rats were used as controls. Measurements and Results: Mesenchymal stem cells from the blood and bone marrow samples were isolated and cultured to count the total number of colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) of adherent cells after 9 days in culture. The number of CFU-F from circulating blood was significantly (P = 0.02) higher in the rats subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas (5.00 ± 1.16; mean ± SEM) than in controls (1.70 ± 0.72). No significant (P = 0.54) differences were observed in CFU-F from bone marrow. Conclusions: Application of a pattern of airway obstructions similar to those experienced by patients with sleep apnea induced an early mobilization of mesenchymal stem cells into circulating blood. Citation: Carreras A; Almendros I; Acerbi I; Montserrat JM; Navajas D; Farré R. Obstructive apneas induce early release of mesenchymal stem cells into circulating blood. SLEEP 2009;32(1):117-119. PMID:19189787

  18. Signalling mechanisms in PAF-induced intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschläger, Ingmar; Wong, Yuk Lung; Sarau, Jürgen; Goldmann, Torsten; Zitta, Karina; Albrecht, Martin; Frerichs, Inéz; Weiler, Norbert; Uhlig, Stefan

    2017-10-17

    Capillary leakage syndrome, vasomotor disturbances and gut atony are common clinical problems in intensive care medicine. Various inflammatory mediators and signalling pathways are involved in these pathophysiological alterations among them platelet-activating factor (PAF). The related signalling mechanisms of the PAF-induced dysfunctions are only poorly understood. Here we used the model of the isolated perfused rat small intestine to analyse the role of calcium (using calcium deprivation, IP-receptor blockade (2-APB)), cAMP (PDE-inhibition plus AC activator), myosin light chain kinase (inhibitor ML-7) and Rho-kinase (inhibitor Y27632) in the following PAF-induced malfunctions: vasoconstriction, capillary and mucosal leakage, oedema formation, malabsorption and atony. Among these, the PAF-induced vasoconstriction and hyperpermeability appear to be governed by similar mechanisms that involve IP3 receptors, extracellular calcium and the Rho-kinase. Our findings further suggest that cAMP-elevating treatments - while effective against hypertension and oedema - bear the risk of dysmotility and reduced nutrient uptake. Agents such as 2-APB or Y27632, on the other hand, showed no negative side effects and improved most of the PAF-induced malfunctions suggesting that their therapeutic usefulness should be explored.

  19. Superior vena cava obstruction caused by radiation induced venous fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Putten, JWG; Schlosser, NJJ; Vujaskovic, Z; Van der Leest, AHD; Groen, HJM

    Superior vena cava syndrome is most often caused by lung carcinoma. Two cases are described in whom venous obstruction in the superior mediastinum was caused by local vascular fibrosis due to radiotherapy five and seven years earlier. The development of radiation injury to greater vessels is

  20. [Clinical observation on electroacupuncture combined with acupoint injection for treatment of early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-ping; Guan, Juan; Ding, Kai-yun

    2010-01-01

    To search for a better therapy for early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction (EPISBO). Two hundred and forty cases were divided into four groups according to admitting order, 60 cases in each group. Routine treatments in western medicine were used in group A including gastrointestinal decompression, parenteral nutrition, anti-infection, supportive therapy and so on. Group B was treated with electroacupuncture in Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) etc. in addition to those given in group A. Group C was treated with acupoint injection with Neostigmine in Dachangshu (BL 25), Zusanli (ST 36) etc. in addition to the treatment used in group A. Group D was treated with all of the treatments used in group A, B and C. The total effective rate was 93. 3% in group A, 96. 7% in group B, 100.0% in group C and group D. There was no significant difference among the four groups (P>0. 05). The average recovery time of bowel sound was (11. 512. 9) days in group A, (9. 3 +/- 2.5) days in group B, (5.6 +/- 3.5) days in group C and (2. 2 +/- 1.7) days in group D. The average anal exsufflation time was (12. 5 +/- 3. 1) days in group A, (10. 7 +/- 3.6) days in group B, (7. 2 +/- 3. 1) days in group C and (2. 5 +/- 1. 5) days in group D. Group D was superior to those of other three groups obviously, and there were significant differences between them (all P<0. 01). Electroacupuncture combined with acupoint injection has a satisfied therapeutic effect for treatment of EPISBO.

  1. Comparison between two assessment methods for exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlander, Katarina; Christensen, Pernille Meyer; Maat, Robert C.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (E-ILOs) are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma and are diagnosed by the continuous laryngoscopy exercise (CLE) test. There are two different methods for evaluating the severity of E-ILOs using recordings from the CLE test; the CLE...

  2. Giardia duodenalis induces pathogenic dysbiosis of human intestinal microbiota biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Jennifer K; Akierman, Sarah V; Motta, Jean-Paul; Muise, Stacy; Workentine, Matthew L; Harrison, Joe J; Bhargava, Amol; Beck, Paul L; Rioux, Kevin P; McKnight, Gordon Webb; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a prevalent cause of acute diarrheal disease worldwide. However, recent outbreaks in Italy and Norway have revealed a link between giardiasis and the subsequent development of chronic post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome. While the mechanisms underlying the causation of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome remain obscure, recent findings suggest that alterations in gut microbiota communities are linked to the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we use a laboratory biofilm system to culture and enrich mucosal microbiota from human intestinal biopsies. Subsequently, we show that co-culture with Giardia induces disturbances in biofilm species composition and biofilm structure resulting in microbiota communities that are intrinsically dysbiotic - even after the clearance of Giardia. These microbiota abnormalities were mediated in part by secretory-excretory Giardia cysteine proteases. Using in vitro cell culture and germ-free murine infection models, we show that Giardia-induced disruptions of microbiota promote bacterial invasion, resulting in epithelial apoptosis, tight junctional disruption, and bacterial translocation across an intestinal epithelial barrier. Additionally, these dysbiotic microbiota communities resulted in increased activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway, and overproduction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in humanized germ-free mice. Previous studies that have sought explanations and risk factors for the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome have focused on features of enteropathogens and attributes of the infected host. We propose that polymicrobial interactions involving Giardia and gut microbiota may cause persistent dysbiosis, offering a new interpretation of the reasons why those afflicted with giardiasis are predisposed to gastrointestinal disorders post-infection. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  3. Non-transplantation surgical approach for chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: analysis of 63 adult consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, C; Amiot, A; Maggiori, L; Corcos, O; Joly, F; Panis, Y

    2013-10-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a recurrent disorder caused by intestinal dysmotility. Although, CIPO is not a surgically remediable condition, surgery is a common issue in CIPO patients. The aim of this study was to assess postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients operated on for CIPO and risk of re-operation. Adult patients that have undergone surgery for CIPO since 1980 were included in this retrospective study using a prospective database. Postoperative morbidity, according to Clavien-Dindo classification and CIPO-related re-operation rates were evaluated with univariate and multivariate analysis. Sixty-three patients (33 women, median age 37 [range: 15-79] years) were included. Median follow-up was 6 (0.2-28) years. Overall postoperative mortality rate was 7.9%. Overall morbidity rate was 58.2% (Clavien-Dindo ≥3 in 20.7%) leading to re-operation in 17% of cases. In multivariate analysis, major postoperative morbidity (Clavien-Dindo ≥3) was significantly increased when there was an intraoperative bowel injury (HR = 15.7 [2.4-102], P = 0.004), idiopathic CIPO (HR = 4.2 [1.5-12], P = 0.007) and emergency procedure (HR = 3 [1.3-6.8]. After the first surgery, probabilities of CIPO-related re-operation were 44%, 60%, and 66% at 1, 3, and 5 years respectively. In multivariate analysis, CIPO-related reoperation for CIPO was significantly increased when there was a major postoperative morbidity (HR = 2.1 [1.1-4.4], P = 0.040) and intraoperative bowel injury (HR = 33.1 [2-553], P = 0.015) after the first procedure. The surgical management of CIPO patients was associated with high postoperative morbidity and mortality rates and frequent re-operation. Attempts should be made to avoid surgery when possible and optimize nutritional status. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Small intestinal absorption in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by cor pulmonale - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S K; Hardis, A L S; Tupper, O D; Soja, A M B; Nilsson, B; Ulrik, C S; Andersen, J R

    2018-04-01

    Cor pulmonale is a common complication to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and may result in increased pressure in the inferior caval vein and stasis of the liver. The chronic pulmonary hypertension may lead to stasis in the veins from the small intestine and thereby compromise absorption of nutrients. To investigate whether patients with pulmonary hypertension have reduced absorption capacity compared to COPD patients without cor pulmonale. Absorption of d-xylose (25 g) and zinc (132 mg), administered as a single dose, was tested in 14 COPD patients, seven with and seven without cor pulmonale. The presence of cor pulmonale was determined by echocardiography. The concentration of d-xylose and zinc were measured in peripheral blood one, two and three hours after ingestion and used as markers of absorption. Furthermore, urine was collected for five hours to determine the amount of excreted d-xylose. No significant difference in absorption of d-xylose (p = 0.28) or zinc (p = 0.51) was found between the two groups. However, a trend towards a delay in d-xylose absorption, as assessed by time-to-peak concentration, was observed in patients with cor pulmonale (p = 0.08). There was no significant difference in the amount of excreted d-xylose in the urine between the groups (p = 0.52). No correlation was found between the tricuspid regurgitation gradient and the absorption of both test-markers (rs = 0.34 and rs = -0.25). Likewise, no correlations were found between the inferior caval pressure during the in- and expiration phases and the absorption of d-xylose (rs = -0.09 rs = 0.23) or zinc (rs = -0.39, rs = -0.39). We found no indications that small intestinal absorption is affected in a clinically relevant degree in patients with cor pulmonale. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Serosal zinc attenuate serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide induced secretion in piglet small intestinal epithelium in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Dorthe; Sehested, Jakob; Feng, Z

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the mechanisms by which dietary zinc affects diarrhoea and aimed to study possible interactions between zinc status and the presence of zinc in vitro on secretagogue-induced secretion from piglet intestinal epithelium in Ussing chambers....

  6. Assessment of small bowel motility in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction using cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Hidenori; Kessoku, Takaomi; Fuyuki, Akiko; Iida, Hiroshi; Inamori, Masahiko; Fujii, Tetsuro; Kawamura, Harunobu; Hata, Yasuo; Manabe, Noriaki; Chiba, Toshimi; Kwee, Thomas C; Haruma, Ken; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Atsushi; Takahara, Taro

    2013-07-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare, serious motility disorder, with life-threatening complications over time. However, lack of an established, non-invasive diagnostic method has caused delays in the diagnosis of this intractable disease. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging technique, with a potential to evaluate the motility of the entire bowel. We compared small bowel motility in healthy volunteers, patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and those with CIPO, using cine-MRI, and evaluated the usefulness of cine-MRI as a novel diagnostic method for CIPO. Twelve healthy volunteers, IBS patients, and CIPO patients prospectively underwent cine-MRI at 1.5 T. Luminal diameter, contraction ratio, and contraction cycle were measured and compared between the groups. Cine-MRI provided sufficient dynamic images to assess the motility of the entire small bowel. Luminal diameter (mean±s.d.) in CIPO patients was significantly higher than that in healthy volunteers and IBS patients (43.4±14.1, 11.1±1.5, and 10.9±1.9 mm, respectively), and contraction ratio was significantly lower in CIPO patients than that in healthy volunteers and IBS patients (17.1±11.0%, 73.0±9.3%, and 74.6±9.4%, respectively). No significant differences were observed in the contraction cycle. This study is the first to assess the clinical utility of cine-MRI in CIPO patients. Cine-MRI clearly detected contractility impairments in CIPO patients. Cine-MRI is noninvasive, radiation-free, and can directly evaluate the entire small bowel peristalsis, and can detect the affected loops at a glance; therefore, it might be extremely useful for the diagnosis and follow-up of CIPO patients in clinical practice.

  7. [The intraoperative determination of intestinal vitality with a fluorescent indicator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A; Terziev, I

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction due to strangulation is induced in dogs under experimental conditions, with intestinal wall vitality assessment done on the ground of standard clinical criteria, using fluorescence dye and UV rays, as well as histological study. Sensitivity, specificity and prognostic value of each of the methods employed are determined. The fluorescence method advantages are recorded, and the prospects of its clinical implementation are estimated.

  8. Glomerular and tubular function during AT1 receptor blockade in pigs with neonatal induced partial ureteropelvic obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskild-Jensen, Anni; Thomsen, Karsten; Rungø, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we showed that neonatal induced chronic partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) of the multipapillary pig kidney decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the obstructed kidney. We hypothesized that ANG II and nitric oxide (NO) are important for the changes in renal functio...... is changed by neonatal induced chronic PUUO. This may have diagnostic potential in children with suspected congenital obstruction. Our results also demonstrate compromised tubular functions in response to chronic PUUO despite preservation of glomerular function....

  9. The relevance of free fluid between intestinal loops detected by sonography in the clinical assessment of small bowel obstruction in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Stefania; D'Amario, Fenesia; Giorgio Rossi, Antonio; Romano, Luigia; Pinto, Fabio; Di Mizio, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The main role of the radiologist in the management of patients with suspicion of small bowel obstruction is to help triage patients into those that need immediate surgical intervention from those that require medical therapy or delayed surgery. Ultrasound examination is usually considered not helpful in bowel obstruction because of air in the intestinal lumen that interferes the evaluation of the intestinal loops, however recently some Authors attested the increasing important role of sonography in the acute abdominal disease. Aim of our report is to demonstrate the value of free fluid detected by US in differentiating between low and high-grade small bowel obstruction. Materials and methods: The study is based on 742 consecutive patients who presented symptoms of the acute abdomen; all patients had undergone initial serial abdominal plain film and US examinations prior to any medical intervention. We reviewed the imaging findings of 150 cases in whom small bowel obstruction was clinically suspected and confirmed at surgery. We consider the following radiographic and US findings: dilatation of small bowel loops; bowel wall thickness; presence of air-fluid levels; thickness of valvulae conniventes; evidence of peristalsis; presence and echogenicity of extraluminal fluid. We looked at the value of extraluminal peritoneal fluid at US examination in differentiating low and high-grade small bowel obstruction based on the surgical outcome. Results: In 46 patients altered peristaltic activity, thin bowel walls, fluid filled loops with hyperechoic spots in the bowel segment proximal to obstruction were noted at US, whereas radiographic features were: moderate dilatation of small bowel loops, with thin bowel wall and evidence of numerous and subtle valvulae conniventes; presence of air-fluid levels was also noted. In 70 other patients, US examination revealed all the findings described in the precedent cases and also the presence of free extraluminal fluid

  10. The relevance of free fluid between intestinal loops detected by sonography in the clinical assessment of small bowel obstruction in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; D' Amario, Fenesia; Giorgio Rossi, Antonio; Romano, Luigia; Pinto, Fabio; Di Mizio, Roberto

    2004-04-01

    Introduction: The main role of the radiologist in the management of patients with suspicion of small bowel obstruction is to help triage patients into those that need immediate surgical intervention from those that require medical therapy or delayed surgery. Ultrasound examination is usually considered not helpful in bowel obstruction because of air in the intestinal lumen that interferes the evaluation of the intestinal loops, however recently some Authors attested the increasing important role of sonography in the acute abdominal disease. Aim of our report is to demonstrate the value of free fluid detected by US in differentiating between low and high-grade small bowel obstruction. Materials and methods: The study is based on 742 consecutive patients who presented symptoms of the acute abdomen; all patients had undergone initial serial abdominal plain film and US examinations prior to any medical intervention. We reviewed the imaging findings of 150 cases in whom small bowel obstruction was clinically suspected and confirmed at surgery. We consider the following radiographic and US findings: dilatation of small bowel loops; bowel wall thickness; presence of air-fluid levels; thickness of valvulae conniventes; evidence of peristalsis; presence and echogenicity of extraluminal fluid. We looked at the value of extraluminal peritoneal fluid at US examination in differentiating low and high-grade small bowel obstruction based on the surgical outcome. Results: In 46 patients altered peristaltic activity, thin bowel walls, fluid filled loops with hyperechoic spots in the bowel segment proximal to obstruction were noted at US, whereas radiographic features were: moderate dilatation of small bowel loops, with thin bowel wall and evidence of numerous and subtle valvulae conniventes; presence of air-fluid levels was also noted. In 70 other patients, US examination revealed all the findings described in the precedent cases and also the presence of free extraluminal fluid

  11. Drug-induced MR urography: the effects of furosemide and intravenous saline injection on MR urography of obstructed and non-obstructed urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Ha; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To determine the usefulness of MR urography technique for the evaluation of urinary systems in patients with obstructed urinary tract and normal volunteers with non-obstructed urinary tract after intravenous normal saline and diuretic injection. Three normal volunteers and 12 patients with urinary tract obstruction [ureteral calculi (n=8), extraurinary mass (n=1), ureteral tumor invasion (n=3)] underwent MR urography using a 1.0T scanner and a 2D non-breath-hold heavily T2-weighted fast spin-cho sequence. These acquisition were post-processed with a maximum intensity projection (MIP) algorithm. Two acquisitions were performed, the first prior to saline solution infusion following standard MR urography procedures, and the second, within 2-3 minutes of the infusion of 250 ml saline solution followed by 20 mg of Lasix administered intravenously. For this latter, drug-induced MR urography procedures were followed. In healthy volunteer (n=3) and those experiencing partial obstruction (n=4) by a urinary stone, drug-induced MR urography provided better images of the urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those in whom a urinary stone or tumor had caused complete obstruction (n=8), standard MR urography provided good images, as did drug-induced MR urography. In patients with a partially or non-obstructed urinary tract, drug-induced MR urography provided better anatomic and functional details of the kidney and urinary tract than did standard MR urography. In those experiencing complete obstruction of the urinary tract, however, standard or drug-induced MR urography permitted very adequate evaluation of the tract, and drug-induced MR urography was unnecessary.

  12. The role of metabolism in diclofenac-induced intestinal toxicity in rat and human in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Makkinje, Miriam; de Graaf, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva

    The use of Diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is associated with severe gastro-intestinal side-effects. The mechanisms of drug-induced intestinal toxicity are largely unknown due to the lack of in vitro models. In vivo rat studies suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF

  13. Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions: prevalence and symptoms in the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille Melia; Thomsen, S F; Rasmussen, N

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory difficulties caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) are reported with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and symptoms of EILOs and their relation to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In total, 556 randomly selected youths in Cop...

  14. Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions: prevalence and symptoms in the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille Melia; Thomsen, S F; Rasmussen, N

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory difficulties caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) are reported with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and symptoms of EILOs and their relation to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In total, 556 randomly selected youths...

  15. Can flow-volume loops be used to diagnose exercise induced laryngeal obstructions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Maltbæk, Niels; Jørgensen, Inger M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre- and post-exercise flow-volume loops are often recommended as an easy non-invasive method for diagnosing or excluding exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions in patients with exercise-related respiratory symptoms. However, at present there is no evidence for this recommendation. A...

  16. Oxazolone-Induced Intestinal Inflammation in Adult Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, EES

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal

  17. Oxazolone-induced intestinal inflammation in adult zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Sylvia; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E.S.

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish are an excellent model for the study of intestinal immunity. The availability of several transgenic reporter fish for different innate and adaptive immune cells and the high homology in terms of gut function and morphology enables in depth analysis of the process of intestinal

  18. Effect of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and role of renin angiotensin system blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka S Panda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study, the effects of ipsilateral ureteric obstruction on contralateral kidney and the role of renin angiotensin system (RAS blockade on renal recovery in experimentally induced unilateral ureteric obstruction. Materials and Methods: Unilateral upper ureteric obstruction was created in 96 adult Wistar rats that were reversed after pre-determined intervals. Losartan and Enalapril were given to different subgroups of rats following relief of obstruction. Results: The severity of dilatation on the contralateral kidney varied with duration of ipsilateral obstruction longer the duration more severe the dilatation. There is direct correlation between renal parenchymal damage, pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ fibrosis, inflammation and severity of pelvi-calyceal system dilatation of contralateral kidney with duration of ipsilateral PUJ obstruction. Conclusions: Considerable injury is also inflicted to the contralateral normal kidney while ipsilateral kidney remains obstructed. Use of RAS blocking drugs has been found to significantly improve renal recovery on the contralateral kidney. It can, thus, be postulated that contralateral renal parenchymal injury was mediated through activation of RAS.

  19. Prophylactic Ozone Administration Reduces Intestinal Mucosa Injury Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Onal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is associated with mucosal damage and has a high rate of mortality. Various beneficial effects of ozone have been shown. The aim of the present study was to show the effects of ozone in ischemia reperfusion model in intestine. Material and Method. Twenty eight Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with seven rats in each group. Control group was administered serum physiologic (SF intraperitoneally (ip for five days. Ozone group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days. Ischemia Reperfusion (IR group underwent superior mesenteric artery occlusion for one hour and then reperfusion for two hours. Ozone + IR group was administered 1 mg/kg ozone ip for five days and at sixth day IR model was applied. Rats were anesthetized with ketamine∖xyzlazine and their intracardiac blood was drawn completely and they were sacrificed. Intestinal tissue samples were examined under light microscope. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathioneperoxidase (GSH-Px, malondyaldehide (MDA, and protein carbonyl (PCO were analyzed in tissue samples. Total oxidant status (TOS, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were analyzed in blood samples. Data were evaluated statistically by Kruskal Wallis test. Results. In the ozone administered group, degree of intestinal injury was not different from the control group. IR caused an increase in intestinal injury score. The intestinal epithelium maintained its integrity and decrease in intestinal injury score was detected in Ozone + IR group. SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT values were high in ozone group and low in IR. TOS parameter was highest in the IR group and the TAC parameter was highest in the ozone group and lowest in the IR group. Conclusion. In the present study, IR model caused an increase in intestinal injury.In the present study, ozone administration had an effect improving IR associated tissue injury. In the present study, ozone therapy

  20. 311 Pathogenesis of Radiation-induced Pneumonitis in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Politi, Ekaterini; Tolia, Maria; Makrilia, Nektaria; Psarros, Fotis; Dannos, Ioannis; Syrigos, Kostas N.; Syrigou, Ekaterini

    2012-01-01

    Background Chest radiation is a common therapeutic approach in the management of lung cancer, as well as in other malignancies, rendering radiation-induced pneumonitis a rather commonly reported adverse event. A large proportion of patients undergoing radiation have underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aim to elucidate the pathogenetic pathways implicated in radiation-induced pneumonitis particularly in this subgroup of patients. Methods A literature search was performe...

  1. Highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer induced gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Nebojša; Simić, Aleksandar; Skrobić, Ognjan; Kotarac, Milutin; Ivanović, Nenad

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of peptic ulcer-induced gastric outlet obstruction is constantly declining. The aim of this study was to present our results in the treatment of gastric outlet obstruction with highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. This retrospective clinical study included 13 patients with peptic ulcer-induced gastric outlet obstruction operated with higly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. A 3-year follow-up was conducted including clinical interview and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on 1 and 3 years after the surgery. The most common preoperative symptom was vomiting (in 92.3% of patients). The mean preoperative body mass index was 16.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m2, with 9 patients classified preoperatively as underweight. There were no intraoperative complications, nor mortality. At a 3-year follow-up there was no ulcer recurrence. Delayed gastric emptying was present in 1, bile reflux in 2, and erosive gastritis in 1 patient. Two patients suffered from mild "dumping" syndrome. Higly selective vagotomy combined with gastrojejunostomy is a safe and easily feasible surgical solution of gastric outlet obstruction induced by peptic ulcer. Good functional results and low rate of complications can be expected at a long-term follow-up.

  2. Highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy in the treatment of peptic ulcer induced gastric outlet obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of peptic ulcer-induced gastric outlet obstruction is constantly declining. The aim of this study was to present our results in the treatment of gastric outlet obstruction with highly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. Methods. This retrospective clinical study included 13 patients with peptic ulcer - induced gastric outlet obstruction operated with higly selective vagotomy and gastrojejunostomy. A 3-year follow-up was conducted including clinical interview and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on 1 and 3 years after the surgery. Results. The most common preoperative symptom was vomiting (in 92.3% of patients. The mean preoperative body mass index was 16.3 ± 3.1 kg/m2, with 9 patients classified preoperatively as underweight. There were no intraoperative complications, nor mortality. At a 3-year follow-up there was no ulcer recurrence. Delayed gastric emptying was present in 1, bile reflux in 2, and erosive gastritis in 1 patient. Two patients suffered from mild “dumping” syndrome. Conclusion. Higly selective vagotomy combined with gastrojejunostomy is a safe and easily feasible surgical solution of gastric outlet obstruction induced by peptic ulcer. Good functional results and low rate of complications can be expected at a long-term follow-up.

  3. Role of dietary fiber in formation and prevention of small intestinal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in endoscopic techniques such as capsule endoscopy have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause ulcers in the small intestine in humans, but there are few effective agents for treatment of small intestinal ulcers. Although the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced intestinal ulcer has been widely studied, dietary factors have seldom been considered. In the present review, the role of dietary fiber (DF) in the formation of NSAID-induced intestinal ulcers is discussed. In previous studies, small intestinal lesions were not observed when NSAIDs were administered to fasted rats, dogs, and cats, but were observed in conventionally-fed animals, suggesting the importance of feeding in the formation of intestinal lesions induced by NSAIDs. However, in animals fed diets containing low or no DF, indomethacin (IND) did not produce lesions in the small intestine, but did produce lesions in animals fed diets supplemented with insoluble dietary fiber (IDF, cellulose). The results suggest that IDF in the diet plays an important role in the formation of NSAID-induced intestinal lesions. On the other hand, addition of soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) such as pectin or mucin to regular diet markedly decreased NSAID-induced intestinal lesions. Thus, IDF and SDF have opposing effects on IND-induced intestinal lesions, i.e., IDF is harmful while SDF is protective. SDFs potentially represent a novel and safe means for protecting the small intestine against NSAID-induced intestinal lesions.

  4. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Diverticular Disease Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Dumping Syndrome ...

  5. Comparison of drug-induced sleep endoscopy and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jonathan R; Chung, Sooyoun; Nielsen, Ib; Goldberg, Andrew N; Miller, Arthur; Kezirian, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the association between findings from drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) and lateral cephalometry in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. This was a consecutive series of subjects with OSA who underwent DISE and lateral cephalometry. DISE findings were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification (velum, oropharyngeal lateral walls, tongue, and epiglottis). The primary measurements from lateral cephalometry images were sella-nasion-point A angle, sella-nasion-point B angle, distance from the posterior nasal spine-tip of palate, posterior airway space, and mandibular plane to hyoid (MPH) distance, although additional airway measurements were taken. Descriptive statistics summarized DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, and χ(2) and t tests examined potential associations between their findings. Among the 55 subjects, most demonstrated velum-related obstruction, although obstruction related to other structures was also common. Lateral cephalometry findings were within population norms with the exception of an increased MPH and decreased airway 4 and airway 5 measurements. There was little association between DISE and lateral cephalometry findings, although significant associations were identified between tongue-related obstruction and airway measurements posterior to the tongue base. DISE and lateral cephalometry are largely distinct airway evaluation techniques in OSA. The use of these techniques remains complementary. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Precision-cut intestinal slices as an in vitro model to predict NSAID induced intestinal toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; van der Bijl, Henk; Groothuis, Geny; de Graaf, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with high prevalence of gastro-intestinal side-effects. In vivo studies suggest that uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation is an important cause of the toxicity and that the toxicity is aggravated by enterohepatic circulation.

  7. Diabetes-induced mechanophysiological changes in the small intestine and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Mirabella; Liao, Donghua; Zhao, Jingbo

    2017-01-01

    The disorders of gastrointestinal (GI) tract including intestine and colon are common in the patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM induced intestinal and colonic structural and biomechanical remodeling in animals and humans. The remodeling is closely related to motor-sensory abnormalities...... they relate to intestinal and colonic abnormalities. Finally the clinical consequences of DM-induced changes in the intestine and colon including diarrhea, constipation, gut microbiota change and colon cancer are discussed. The final goal is to increase the understanding of DM-induced changes in the gut...... and the subsequent clinical consequences in order to provide the clinicians with a better understanding of the GI disorders in diabetic patients and facilitates treatments tailored to these patients....

  8. Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate Attenuates LPS-Induced Intestinal Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jing Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS is known to possess anti-inflammatory effects and has exhibited protective effects in various inflammatory conditions; however, its role in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced intestinal injury is still unknown. Objective. The present study is designed to explore the role and possible mechanism of TSS in LPS-induced intestinal injury. Methods. Male C57BL/6J mice, challenged with intraperitoneal LPS injection, were treated with or without TSS 0.5 h prior to LPS exposure. At 1, 6, and 12 h after LPS injection, mice were sacrificed, and the small intestine was excised. The intestinal tissue injury was analyzed by HE staining. Inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the intestinal tissue were examined by ELISA and RT-PCR. In addition, expressions of autophagy markers (microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3 and Beclin-1 were detected by western blot and RT-PCR. A number of autophagosomes were also observed under electron microscopy. Results. TSS treatment significantly attenuated small intestinal epithelium injury induced by LPS. LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were markedly inhibited by TSS. Furthermore, TSS treatment could effectively upregulate LPS-induced decrease of autophagy levels, as evidenced by the increased expression of LC3 and Beclin-1, and more autophagosomes. Conclusion. The protective effect of TSS on LPS-induced small intestinal injury may be attributed to the inhibition of inflammatory factors and promotion of autophagy levels. The present study may provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of TSS on the treatment of intestinal injury.

  9. PXR induces CYP27A1 and regulates cholesterol metabolism in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiangang; Chen, Wenling; Chiang, John Y L

    2007-02-01

    Mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) catalyzes oxidative cleavage of the sterol side chain in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol in most tissues. Recent studies suggest that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HOC) activates liver orphan receptor alpha (LXRalpha) and induces the cholesterol efflux transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages. The steroid- and bile acid-activated pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays critical roles in the detoxification of bile acids, cholesterol metabolites, and xenobiotics. The role of CYP27A1 in the intestine is not known. This study investigated PXR and CYP27A1 regulation of cholesterol metabolism in the human intestinal cell lines Caco2 and Ls174T. A human PXR ligand, rifampicin, induced CYP27A1 mRNA expression in intestine cells but not in liver cells. Rifampicin induced CYP27A1 gene transcription, increased intracellular 27-HOC levels, and induced ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression only in intestine cells. A functional PXR binding site was identified in the human CYP27A1 gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that rifampicin induced the PXR recruitment of steroid receptor coactivator 1 to CYP27A1 chromatin. Cholesterol loading markedly increased intracellular 27-HOC levels in intestine cells. Rifampicin, 27-HOC, and a potent LXRalpha agonist, T0901317, induced ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression and stimulated cholesterol efflux from intestine cells to apolipoprotein A-I and HDL. This study suggests an intestine-specific PXR/CYP27A1/LXRalpha pathway that regulates intestine cholesterol efflux and HDL assembly.

  10. Effect of physical stress on drug-induced sleep endoscopy for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Min; Kim, Dong-Kyu

    2017-08-01

    Drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a reliable upper airway evaluation tool, widely used to improve surgical results in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Several factors, including sleeping position and depth of sedation, affect DISE findings. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of physical stress on DISE findings. Eighty-five patients with OSA underwent two DISE examinations at the same level of sedation. The "first DISE" (control group) was performed after polysomnography, while the "second DISE" (test group) performed immediately after a treadmill stress test. The two groups were compared for changes in degree and configuration of airway obstruction at the levels of the velum, oropharynx, tongue base, and epiglottis. There were several differences in DISE findings between the control and test groups. DISE findings obtained after the stress test revealed significant narrowing of multiple airway structures; upper airway narrowing was observed at the velum (19/48; 39.6%), oropharynx (31/63; 49.2%), and tongue base (9/61; 14.8%). Changes in configuration of upper airway obstruction were observed only at the level of the velum (33/85; 38.8%). Stress exercise test induces changes in the degree and configuration of upper airways narrowing, which causes surgeons to over or underestimate the obstructive pattern, depending on the clinical circumstance. When counseling patients on the likely value of sleep surgery based on DISE findings, stressful physical activity should be included as a contributing factor in treatment planning.

  11. Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction and Performance Psychology: Using the Mind as a Diagnostic and Therapeutic Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, J Tod; Westhoff Carlson, Erika

    2018-05-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction causes severe shortness of breath during exercise. Episodes are associated with severe distress. These patients and those with inducible laryngeal obstruction triggered by other factors have been noted to demonstrate mental health disorders, personality features that may be associated with symptoms, and dysfunctional stress responses. This literature review calls attention to the observation that patients with isolated exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction are generally mentally healthy. We review available metrics to assess traits and stress responses in performance psychology. We also discuss a therapeutic performance psychology framework. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of matrix metalloproteases-2 and -9 in horse hoof laminae after intestinal obstruction, with or without Hydrocortisone treatment Expressão de metaloproteinases 2 e 9 no tecido laminar do casco de equinos após obstrução intestinal e tratamento com hidrocortisona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Laskoski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty horses were used in the experiment, for composed control group, (Cg instrumented group, (Ig;without intestinal obstruction, treated group (Tg;submitted to intestinal obstruction and hydrocortisone treatment and non-treated group (Ntg;submitted to intestinal obstruction without treatment. Immunohistochemistry and zymography techniques were used for researches on MMPs 2 and 9 in horse hoof laminae. There was an increase in the expression of MMP-2 in animals of Tg and Ntg. MMP-9 increased on animals from groups Ntg and Ig, however there was no rise of this MMP on the Tg when compared to the other groups in the immunohistochemistry analysis. Based on the results, it was observed that the intestinal injury caused by enterotomy and intestinal obstruction raise the quantities of MMPs in the hoof laminae.Vinte cavalos foram usados no experimento: para compor o grupo controle (Cg, grupo instrumentado, Ig (sem obstrução intestinal, grupo tratado, Tg (submetidos à obstrução intestinal e tratamento com hidrocortisona e grupo não tratado, Ntg (submetidos à obstrução intestinal, sem tratamento. Técnicas de zimografia e imunoistoquímica foram utilizadas para pesquisa de MMP-2 e MMP-9 no tecido laminar do casco dos equinos. Houve um aumento na expressão de MMP-2 nos animais dos grupos Tg e Ntg. A MMP-9 aumentou nos animais dos grupos Ig e Ntg. Houve aumento desta MMP no Tg quando comparado aos demais grupos na análise por zimografia. Observou-se que a injúria intestinal, causada pela enterotomia e obstrução intestinal, eleva a quantidade de MMPs no tecido laminar do casco.

  13. Intestinal schistosomiasis associated with intussusception: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: We report a case of intestinal schistosomiasis associated with iliocaecal intussusception resulting from obstructions of the terminal part of the ileum by schistosome egg-induced fibrosis. A 7- year-old boy presented with the history of abdominal pain and difficulties in passing stool for two months. Ultrasound ...

  14. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y. [Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Guangzhou, China, Department of Anesthesia, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Y.; Chen, B. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China); Sun, X. [Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Su, L.; Liu, Z. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-25

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  15. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.; Su, L.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries

  16. Mechanisms of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia-induced intestinal epithelial apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Erin E; Jung, Enjae; Breed, Elise; Dominguez, Jessica A; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-07-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia-induced sepsis is a common cause of morbidity in the intensive care unit. Although pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, extrapulmonary manifestations occur commonly. In light of the key role the intestine plays in the pathophysiology of sepsis, we sought to determine whether MRSA pneumonia induces intestinal injury. FVB/N mice were subjected to MRSA or sham pneumonia and killed 24 h later. Septic animals had a marked increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis by both hematoxylin-eosin and active caspase 3 staining. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus-induced intestinal apoptosis was associated with an increase in the expression of the proapoptotic proteins Bid and Bax and the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL in the mitochondrial pathway. In the receptor-mediated pathway, MRSA pneumonia induced an increase in Fas ligand but decreased protein levels of Fas, FADD, pFADD, TNF-R1, and TRADD. To assess the functional significance of these changes, MRSA pneumonia was induced in mice with genetic manipulations in proteins in either the mitochondrial or receptor-mediated pathways. Both Bid-/- mice and animals with intestine-specific overexpression of Bcl-2 had decreased intestinal apoptosis compared with wild-type animals. In contrast, Fas ligand-/- mice had no alterations in apoptosis. To determine if these findings were organism-specific, similar experiments were performed in mice subjected to Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced gut apoptosis, but unlike MRSA, this was associated with increased Bcl-2 and TNF-R1 and decreased Fas. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus pneumonia thus induces organism-specific changes in intestinal apoptosis via changes in both the mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, although the former may be more functionally significant.

  17. Rebamipide suppresses diclofenac-induced intestinal permeability via mitochondrial protection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Lei; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Juan; Yao, Qiang; Chen, Mo-Li

    2012-03-14

    To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of rebamipide on small intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac in mice. Diclofenac (2.5 mg/kg) was administered once daily for 3 d orally. A control group received the vehicle by gavage. Rebamipide (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically once a day for 3 d 4 h after diclofenac administration. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by Evans blue and the FITC-dextran method. The ultrastructure of the mucosal barrier was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mitochondrial function including mitochondrial swelling, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-reduced (NADH) levels, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATPase activities were measured. Small intestinal mucosa was collected for assessment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Compared with the control group, intestinal permeability was significantly increased in the diclofenac group, which was accompanied by broken tight junctions, and significant increases in MDA content and MPO activity. Rebamipide significantly reduced intestinal permeability, improved inter-cellular tight junctions, and was associated with decreases in intestinal MDA content and MPO activity. At the mitochondrial level, rebamipide increased SDH and ATPase activities, NADH level and decreased mitochondrial swelling. Increased intestinal permeability induced by diclofenac can be attenuated by rebamipide, which partially contributed to the protection of mitochondrial function.

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor Induces Developmental Stage-Dependent Structural Changes in the Immature Small Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S. Brown

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Premature infants are commonly subject to intestinal inflammation. Since the human small intestine does not reach maturity until term gestation, premature infants have a unique challenge, as either acute or chronic inflammation may alter the normal development of the intestinal tract. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF has been shown to acutely alter goblet cell numbers and villus length in adult mice. In this study we tested the effects of TNF on villus architecture and epithelial cells at different stages of development of the immature small intestine. Methods. To examine the effects of TNF-induced inflammation, we injected acute, brief, or chronic exposures of TNF in neonatal and juvenile mice. Results. TNF induced significant villus blunting through a TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1 mediated mechanism, leading to loss of villus area. This response to TNFR1 signaling was altered during intestinal development, despite constant TNFR1 protein expression. Acute TNF-mediated signaling also significantly decreased Paneth cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the morphologic changes caused by TNF provide insight as to the effects of inflammation on the developing intestinal tract. Additionally, they suggest a mechanism which, coupled with an immature immune system, may help to explain the unique susceptibility of the immature intestine to inflammatory diseases such as NEC.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of the intestinal wall being changed by small bowel obstruction in rabbits: Correlation with histopathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Deok Ho; Lee, Dong Ho; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Youn Wha [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To evaluate the change of the wall of obstructed small bowel loop on ultrasonography (US), the changes of pre- and post-obstructed segments were examined by using US and correlated with histopathologic findings. Small bowel loops of seven rabbits were caused to be obstructed by surgery. One of them was sacrificed after 12 hours, and six were after 24 hours. The bowel loop of about 10 cm in length was cut and removed from obstructed site for evaluation with US and correlation with histopathologic findings. One control was also included and correlated by the same way, without bowel obstruction. After US examination, the bowel loops were opened at the mesenteric border. They were mounted into hard paper, and put in a plastic pail filled with 2 liters of physiologic saline. The specimens were imaged with 10 MHz linear array transducer with high definition zoom. After sonographic examination, the specimens were fixed with 10% formalin solution and stained by hematoxylin-eosin. The segments of small bowel showed three layers on US, which were hyperechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic from the mucosal surface. The total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments was 1.65 {+-} 0.15 mm, and of post-obstructed was 1.62 {+-} 0.14 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The ratio of the second hypoechoic layer to total thickness was 23% at pre-obstructed segments, 17% at post-obstructed, and 7% at the control. Under microscopic examination, the total thickness of the pre-obstructed segments were measured as 0.95 {+-} 0.12 mm, and that of the post-obstructed was measured as 0.9{+-} 0.11 mm; there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The total thickness on US was about 0.7 mm thicker than in microscopic findings, so considering the ratio of each layers, the first hyperechoic and the second hypoechoic layers were assumed to be mucosal layer, and the third hyperechoic layer was assumed to be submucosal and muscle layers. Histopathologic findings of both pre- and post-obstructed

  20. Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced diaphragm contractility dysfunction: Electrophysiological and ultrastructural study in a neonatal rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkınlar, Hakan; Naycı, Ali; Çömelekoğlu, Ülkü; Polat, Gürbüz; Zorludemir, Suzan; Avlan, Dinçer

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the remote effect of intestinal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury mediated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) on diaphragm contractility functions and whether administration of NAC may counteract the possible detrimental effects in an experimental neonatal rat model. 40 Wistar rat pups were randomized into four groups; ten animals in each. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing mesentery of intestines by a silk loop. In the control group; only laparotomy was performed. After 1h ischemia, reperfusion was conducted for 1h in 1h group, 24h for 24h group and 24h for 24h+NAC group but administration of NAC (150mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally twice a day was performed. Inflammatory response was evaluated by tissue TNF-α level and contractility functions by mechanic activity studies of the diaphragm. Electrophysiology of the diaphragm and the phrenic nerve was conducted to determine neuropathy or myopathy and transmission electron microscopy was performed to evaluate ultrastructural changes in the phrenic nerve. Diaphragm tissue TNF-α level significantly increased in 1h and 24h groups (P=0.004, P=0.0001; respectively). Diaphragm mechanic activation force and duration significantly decreased at 1h and 24h (P=0.004, P=0.02 and P=0.0001, P=0.0001; respectively). NAC administration significantly prevented decrease in the maximal contraction and the duration (PIntestinal IR induced elevation of TNF-α level in the diaphragm. Impairment in the diaphragm contractility and neuropathic changes in the phrenic nerve occurred even in the first hour of reperfusion. NAC administration prevented these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed...... to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. METHODS: We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnea...

  2. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Muscarinic Receptors: Supersensitivity Induced by Long-Term Atropine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Britta; Abens, Janis; Bartfai, Tamas

    1983-04-01

    Long-term treatment of rats with atropine induced large increases in the numbers of muscarinic receptors and receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the salivary glands. Since receptors for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide coexist with muscarinic receptors on the same neurons in this preparation, the results suggest that a drug that alters the sensitivity of one receptor may also affect the sensitivity of the receptor for a costored transmitter and in this way contribute to the therapeutic or side effects of the drug.

  3. Early bladder outlet obstruction in fetal lambs induces renal dysplasia and the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R; Reinberg, Y; Burke, B; Wells, T; Vernier, R L

    1990-03-01

    A model of posterior urethral valves in fetal lambs was developed in order to evaluate the effect of intrauterine urinary obstruction on the developing kidney. Complete urethral obstruction was induced in five fetal lambs at 43 to 45 days of gestation. Two control fetal lambs underwent sham operations. At full term (140 days), two of the five experimental lambs and both control lambs were available for postmortem examination. Results of gross and histological examination of the control lambs were normal. In contrast, the kidneys of the experimental lambs were markedly asymmetrical in size. Histological examination of the kidneys in experimental lambs showed cystic dilatation of the collecting ducts and occasional cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces, features compatible with obstruction. Also noted were peripheral cortical cysts and primitive tubules lined with cuboidal epithelium and surrounded by fibromuscular collarettes, characteristic of renal dysplasia. One of the infant lambs had many characteristics of the prune-belly syndrome, including a wrinkled, markedly distended abdomen, deficient abdominal wall musculature, flared chest wall, limb deformities, and undescended testes. These results suggest that early in utero urethral obstruction (at the beginning of the second third of gestation) causes renal dysplasia. The results also support the hypothesis that the prune-belly syndrome results from abdominal distention that occurs early in gestation.

  4. Proximal duodenoileal anastomosis for treatment of small intestinal obstruction and volvulus in a green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Sarah; Beaufrère, Hugues; Watrous, Gwyneth; Oblak, Michelle L; Smith, Dale A

    2016-11-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Exploratory laparotomy confirmed a diagnosis of small intestinal entrapment and 170° volvulus involving approximately 80% (20 to 30 cm) of the small intestine. The portion of the small intestine extending from the middle portion of the duodenum to the caudal extent of the ileum was resected, and end-to-end anastomosis of the remaining small intestine was performed. The iguana recovered without apparent complications and was reportedly doing well 1 year after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that iguanas, as hindgut fermenters, may tolerate > 70% resection of the small intestine with a good outcome and no clinical evidence of residual gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  5. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of ampicillin on rat intestinal microflora and liver in the presence of high carbohydrate and protein diets. Methods: Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control, the second group was treated with ampicillin (50 mg/kg for 3 weeks) and fed with a ...

  6. Saireito (TJ-114, a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, reduces 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in mice by inhibiting cytokine-mediated apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Kato

    Full Text Available Clinical chemotherapy frequently causes intestinal mucositis as a side effect, which is accompanied by severe diarrhea. We recently showed that the cytokine-mediated apoptotic pathway might be important for the development of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. Saireito, the traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo medicine, is widely used to treat diarrhea and various inflammatory diseases in Japan. In the present study, we investigated the effect of saireito on 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice, especially in relation to apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Male C57BL/6 mice were given 5-FU (50 mg/kg, i.p. once daily for 6 days. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated histochemically. Saireito (100-1000 mg/kg was administered p.o. twice daily for 6 days. Repeated 5-FU treatment caused severe intestinal mucositis including morphological damage, which was accompanied by body weight loss and diarrhea. Daily administration of saireito reduced the severity of intestinal mucositis in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight loss and diarrhea during 5-FU treatment were also significantly attenuated by saireito administration. The number of apoptotic and caspase-3-activated cells in the intestinal crypt was increased, and was accompanied by up-regulated tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β mRNA within 24 h of the first 5-FU injection. However, all of these measures were significantly lower after saireito administration. These results suggest that saireito attenuates 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. This action may come from the reduction of apoptosis in the intestinal crypt via suppression of the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, saireito may be clinically useful for the prevention of intestinal mucositis during cancer chemotherapy.

  7. Soluble Dietary Fiber Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Intestinal Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianbo; Ding, Chao; Dai, Xujie; Lv, Tengfei; Xie, Tingbing; Zhang, Tenghui; Gao, Wen; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is a late complication of pelvic radiotherapy. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tissue fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of soluble dietary fiber on radiation-induced intestinal EMT and fibrosis in a mouse model. Apple pectin (4% wt/wt in drinking water) was administered to wild-type and pVillin-Cre-EGFP transgenic mice with intestinal fibrosis induced by a single dose of abdominal irradiation of 10 Gy. The effects of pectin on intestinal EMT and fibrosis, gut microbiota, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration were evaluated. Intestinal fibrosis in late radiation enteropathy showed increased submucosal thickness and subepithelial collagen deposition. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) + /vimentin + and EGFP + /α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) + coexpressing cells were most clearly observed at 2 weeks after irradiation and gradually decreased at 4 and 12 weeks. Pectin significantly attenuated the thickness of submucosa and collagen deposition at 12 weeks (24.3 vs 27.6 µm in the pectin + radiation-treated group compared with radiation-alone group, respectively, P soluble dietary fiber pectin protected the terminal ileum against radiation-induced fibrosis. This effect might be mediated by altered SCFA concentration in the intestinal lumen and reduced EMT in the ileal epithelium.

  8. Cinnamon Extract Improves TNF-a Induced Overproduction of Intestinal ApolipoproteinB-48 Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    TNF-alpha stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoproteins. We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (Cinnulin PF®) improved the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether Cinnulin PF® inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced over the secretion of apoB...

  9. [Diathermy-induced gas explosion in the intestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, E; Jurim, O; Krausz, M

    1992-07-01

    Surgical diathermy is widely used in modern operating rooms, although explosion in the gastrointestinal tract is a known serious complication. We report a case of colonic explosion following use of diathermy. Based on our experience and the available data, it is recommended that in cases of gastrointestinal tract obstruction, poor bowel preparation or following use of oral mannitol for bowel preparation, diathermy should be avoided in opening the gastrointestinal lumen.

  10. Effect of amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism on left ventricular outflow obstruction after septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorney, Sean D; Stone, Neil J; Passman, Rod; Oyer, David; Rigolin, Vera H; Bonow, Robert O

    2010-12-01

    Patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who undergo septal myectomy are at risk for developing postoperative atrial fibrillation. Amiodarone is effective in treating this arrhythmia but is associated with multiple adverse effects, often with delayed onset. A novel case is described of a patient who developed type 2 amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism that presented as recurrence of outflow obstruction after septal myectomy. The patient's symptoms and echocardiographic findings of outflow obstruction resolved substantially with the treatment of the amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism of delayed onset can be a subtle diagnosis, requiring a high index of suspicion. In conclusion, recognition of this diagnosis in patients with recurrence of outflow obstruction by symptoms and cardiac imaging after septal myectomy may avoid unnecessary repeat surgical intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Titanium dioxide induced inflammation in the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carolina Maciel; de Azevedo, Walter Mendes; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan; Toma, Sérgio Hiroshi; Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda; Lordello, Maria Laura; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lúcia; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Ferreira, Marcelo Alves; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2012-09-14

    To investigate the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPTiO₂) and microparticles (MPTiO₂) on the inflammatory response in the small intestine of mice. Bl 57/6 male mice received distilled water suspensions containing TiO₂ (100 mg/kg body weight) as NPTiO₂ (66 nm), or MPTiO₂ (260 nm) by gavage for 10 d, once a day; the control group received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were extracted for assessment of cytokines, inflammatory cells and titanium content. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in segments of jejunum and ileum (mucosa and underlying muscular tissue). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells were evaluated in duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples fixed in 10% formalin by immunohistochemistry. The titanium content was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. We found increased levels of T CD4+ cells (cells/mm²) in duodenum: NP 1240 ± 139.4, MP 1070 ± 154.7 vs 458 ± 50.39 (P NP 908.4 ± 130.3, MP 813.8 ± 103.8 vs 526.6 ± 61.43 (P NP 818.60 ± 123.0, MP 640.1 ± 32.75 vs 466.9 ± 22.4 (P NP 33.98 ± 11.76, MP 74.11 ± 25.65 vs 19.06 ± 3.92 (P NP 17.36 ± 9.96, MP 22.94 ± 7.47 vs 2.19 ± 0.65 (P NP 157.20 ± 75.80, MP 134.50 ± 38.31 vs 22.34 ± 5.81 (P NP 3.71 ± 1.33, MP 5.44 ± 1.67 vs 0.99 ± 019 (P NP 15.85 ± 9.99, MP 34.08 ± 11.44 vs 2.81 ± 0.69 (P NP 780.70 ± 318.50, MP 1409.00 ± 502.20 vs 205.50 ± 63.93 (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that TiO₂ particles induce a Th1-mediated inflammatory response in the small bowel in mice.

  12. Titanium dioxide induced inflammation in the small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Carolina Maciel; de Azevedo, Walter Mendes; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan; Toma, Sérgio Hiroshi; Leite, André Zonetti de Arruda; Lordello, Maria Laura; Nishitokukado, Iêda; Ortiz-Agostinho, Carmen Lúcia; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Ferreira, Marcelo Alves; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPTiO2) and microparticles (MPTiO2) on the inflammatory response in the small intestine of mice. METHODS: Bl 57/6 male mice received distilled water suspensions containing TiO2 (100 mg/kg body weight) as NPTiO2 (66 nm), or MPTiO2 (260 nm) by gavage for 10 d, once a day; the control group received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were extracted for assessment of cytokines, inflammatory cells and titanium content. The cytokines interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in segments of jejunum and ileum (mucosa and underlying muscular tissue). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells were evaluated in duodenum, jejunum and ileum samples fixed in 10% formalin by immunohistochemistry. The titanium content was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. RESULTS: We found increased levels of T CD4+ cells (cells/mm2) in duodenum: NP 1240 ± 139.4, MP 1070 ± 154.7 vs 458 ± 50.39 (P < 0.01); jejunum: NP 908.4 ± 130.3, MP 813.8 ± 103.8 vs 526.6 ± 61.43 (P < 0.05); and ileum: NP 818.60 ± 123.0, MP 640.1 ± 32.75 vs 466.9 ± 22.4 (P < 0.05). In comparison to the control group, the groups receiving TiO2 showed a statistically significant increase in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-4, IL-23, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β. The cytokine production was more pronounced in the ileum (mean ± SE): IL-12: NP 33.98 ± 11.76, MP 74.11 ± 25.65 vs 19.06 ± 3.92 (P < 0.05); IL-4: NP 17.36 ± 9.96, MP 22.94 ± 7.47 vs 2.19 ± 0.65 (P < 0.05); IL-23: NP 157.20 ± 75.80, MP 134.50 ± 38.31 vs 22.34 ± 5.81 (P < 0.05); TNFα: NP 3.71 ± 1.33, MP 5.44 ± 1.67 vs 0.99 ± 019 (P < 0.05); IFNγ: NP 15.85 ± 9

  13. Dunnione ameliorates cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage by modulating NAD{sup +} metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, Arpana; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Gi-Su; Shen, AiHua; Lee, Su-Bin; Khadka, Dipendra; Lee, SeungHoon [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Hyeok; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Cho, Eun-Young [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kang-Beom [Department of Oriental Medical Physiology, School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Tae Hwan [PAEAN Biotechnology, 160 Techno-2 Street, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-500 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation & Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-27

    Although cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug for the treatment of a variety of tumors, its use is critically limited because of adverse effects such as ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, neuropathy, and gastrointestinal damage. Cisplatin treatment increases oxidative stress biomarkers in the small intestine, which may induce apoptosis of epithelial cells and thereby elicit damage to the small intestine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) is a cofactor for various enzymes associated with cellular homeostasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the hyper-activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is closely associated with the depletion of NAD{sup +} in the small intestine after cisplatin treatment, which results in downregulation of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activity. Furthermore, a decrease in SIRT1 activity was found to play an important role in cisplatin-mediated small intestinal damage through nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 activation, facilitated by its acetylation increase. However, use of dunnione as a strong substrate for the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) enzyme led to an increase in intracellular NAD{sup +} levels and prevented the cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage correlating with the modulation of PARP-1, SIRT1, and NF-κB. These results suggest that direct modulation of cellular NAD{sup +} levels by pharmacological NQO1 substrates could be a promising therapeutic approach for protecting against cisplatin-induced small intestinal damage. - Highlights: • NAD{sup +} acts as a cofactor for numerous enzymes including Sirtuins and PARP. • Up-regulation of SIRT1 could attenuate the cisplatin-induced intestinal damage. • Modulation of the cellular NAD{sup +} could be a promising therapeutic approach.

  14. Vagal nerve stimulation protects against burn-induced intestinal injury through activation of enteric glia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Todd W; Bansal, Vishal; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Putnam, James G; Peterson, Carrie Y; Loomis, William H; Wolf, Paul; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P; Coimbra, Raul

    2010-12-01

    The enteric nervous system may have an important role in modulating gastrointestinal barrier response to disease through activation of enteric glia cells. In vitro studies have shown that enteric glia activation improves intestinal epithelial barrier function by altering the expression of tight junction proteins. We hypothesized that severe injury would increase expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of enteric glial activation. We also sought to define the effects of vagal nerve stimulation on enteric glia activation and intestinal barrier function using a model of systemic injury and local gut mucosal involvement. Mice with 30% total body surface area steam burn were used as model of severe injury. Vagal nerve stimulation was performed to assess the role of parasympathetic signaling on enteric glia activation. In vivo intestinal permeability was measured to assess barrier function. Intestine was collected to investigate changes in histology; GFAP expression was assessed by quantitative PCR, by confocal microscopy, and in GFAP-luciferase transgenic mice. Stimulation of the vagus nerve prevented injury-induced intestinal barrier injury. Intestinal GFAP expression increased at early time points following burn and returned to baseline by 24 h after injury. Vagal nerve stimulation prior to injury increased GFAP expression to a greater degree than burn alone. Gastrointestinal bioluminescence was imaged in GFAP-luciferase transgenic animals following either severe burn or vagal stimulation and confirmed the increased expression of intestinal GFAP. Injection of S-nitrosoglutathione, a signaling molecule released by activated enteric glia cells, following burn exerts protective effects similar to vagal nerve stimulation. Intestinal expression of GFAP increases following severe burn injury. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases enteric glia activation, which is associated with improved intestinal barrier function. The vagus nerve may mediate the

  15. [Three Cases of Unresectable, Advanced, and Recurrent Colorectal Cancer Associated with Gastrointestinal Obstruction That Were Treated with Small Intestine-Transverse Colon Bypass Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Arika; Miyaki, Akira; Miyauchi, Tatsuomi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Naritaka, Yoshihiko

    2016-11-01

    Herein, we report 3cases of unresectable, advanced, and recurrent colorectal cancer associated with gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients were treated with small intestine-transverse colon bypass surgery, which improved the quality of life (QOL)in all cases. Case 1 was an 80-year-old woman who presented with subileus due to ascending colon cancer. After surgery, her oral intake was reestablished, and she was discharged home. Case 2 was an 89-year-old woman whose ileus was caused by cecal cancer with multiple hepatic metastases. After surgery, the patient was discharged to a care facility. Case 3 was an 83-year-old man whose ileus was caused by a local recurrence and small intestine infiltration after surgery for rectosigmoid cancer. He underwent surgery after a colonic stent was inserted. His oral intake was re-established and he was discharged home. Small bowel-transverse colon bypass surgery can be used to manage various conditions rostral to the transverse colon. It is still possible to perform investigations in patients whose general condition is poorer than that of patients who undergo resection of the primary lesion. This avoids creating an artificial anus and allows continuation of oral intake, which are useful for improving QOL in terminal cases.

  16. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  17. Intestinal upregulation of melanin-concentrating hormone in TNBS-induced enterocolitis in adult zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Geiger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH, an evolutionarily conserved appetite-regulating neuropeptide, has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Expression of MCH is upregulated in inflamed intestinal mucosa in humans with colitis and MCH-deficient mice treated with trinitrobenzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS develop an attenuated form of colitis compared to wild type animals. Zebrafish have emerged as a new animal model of IBD, although the majority of the reported studies concern zebrafish larvae. Regulation MCH expression in the adult zebrafish intestine remains unknown. METHODS: In the present study we induced enterocolitis in adult zebrafish by intrarectal administration of TNBS. Follow-up included survival analysis, histological assessment of changes in intestinal architecture, and assessment of intestinal infiltration by myeloperoxidase positive cells and cytokine transcript levels. RESULTS: Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently reduced fish survival. This response required the presence of an intact microbiome, since fish pre-treated with vancomycin developed less severe enterocolitis. At 6 hours post-challenge, we detected a significant influx of myeloperoxidase positive cells in the intestine and upregulation of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Most importantly, and in analogy to human IBD and TNBS-induced mouse experimental colitis, we found increased intestinal expression of MCH and its receptor in TNBS-treated zebrafish. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together these findings not only establish a model of chemically-induced experimental enterocolitis in adult zebrafish, but point to effects of MCH in intestinal inflammation that are conserved across species.

  18. Clinical importance of cine-MRI assessment of small bowel motility in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: a retrospective study of 33 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuyuki, Akiko; Ohkubo, Hidenori; Higurashi, Takuma; Iida, Hiroshi; Inoh, Yumi; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Although chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare and extremely severe functional digestive disorder, its clinical course and severity show various patterns. We assessed small bowel peristalsis in CIPO patients using cine-MRI (video-motion MRI) and their clinical characteristics to evaluate the clinical importance of performing cine-MRI in patients with this intractable disease. The medical records of 131 patients referred to our institution with a suspected diagnosis of CIPO between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three patients (22 female/11 male; age range 16-79 years) who met the criteria for CIPO and underwent cine-MRI were enrolled. Mean luminal diameter (MLD), contraction ratio (CR), and contraction cycle (CC) were determined and compared with these parameters in healthy volunteers. Clinical outcomes in patients with CIPO were also evaluated. The median follow-up time was 25.2 months (range, 1-65 months). Of the 33 patients with CIPO, 23 (70 %) showed apparently disturbed small intestinal peristalsis, whereas 10 (30 %) did not. The percentage of patients requiring intravenous alimentation was significantly higher (p = 0.03), and the mean serum albumin level was significantly lower (p = 0.04), in patients with than without impaired small intestinal peristalsis. Although both cine-MRI and CT findings in the latter ten cases were within the normal range, MLD and CR differed significantly from healthy volunteers. Cine-MRI is useful in predicting severe clinical features in patients with CIPO, and in detecting slightly impaired small contractility that cannot be detected on CT.

  19. Lithocholic acid feeding induces segmental bile duct obstruction and destructive cholangitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickert, Peter; Fuchsbichler, Andrea; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Wagner, Martin; Zollner, Gernot; Krause, Robert; Zatloukal, Kurt; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Denk, Helmut; Trauner, Michael

    2006-02-01

    We determined the mechanisms of hepatobiliary injury in the lithocholic acid (LCA)-fed mouse, an increasingly used model of cholestatic liver injury. Swiss albino mice received control diet or 1% (w/w) LCA diet (for 1, 2, and 4 days), followed by assessment of liver morphology and ultrastructure, tight junctions, markers of fibrosis and key proteins of hepatobiliary function, and bile flow and composition. As expected LCA feeding led to bile infarcts, which were followed by a destructive cholangitis with activation and proliferation of periductal myofibroblasts. At the ultrastructural level, small bile ducts were frequently obstructed by crystals. Biliary-excreted fluorescence-labeled ursodeoxycholic acid accumulated in bile infarcts, whereas most infarcts did not stain with India ink injected into the common bile duct; both findings are indicative of partial biliary obstruction. Expression of the main basolateral bile acid uptake proteins (sodium-taurocholate cotransporter and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1) was reduced, the canalicular transporters bile salt export pump and multidrug-related protein 2 were preserved, and the basolateral transporter multidrug-related protein 3 and the detoxifying enzyme sulfotransferase 2a1 were induced. Thus, we demonstrate that LCA feeding in mice leads to segmental bile duct obstruction, destructive cholangitis, periductal fibrosis, and an adaptive transporter and metabolic enzyme response.

  20. Dietary L-arginine supplementation reduces Methotrexate-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppelmann Tal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine (ARG and nitric oxide maintain the mucosal integrity of the intestine in various intestinal disorders. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of oral ARG supplementation on intestinal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and apoptosis following methotrexate (MTX-induced intestinal damage in a rat. Methods Male rats were divided into four experimental groups: Control rats, CONTR-ARG rats, were treated with oral ARG given in drinking water 72 hours before and 72 hours following vehicle injection, MTX rats were treated with a single dose of methotrexate, and MTX-ARG rats were treated with oral ARG following injection of MTX. Intestinal mucosal damage, mucosal structural changes, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis were determined 72 hours following MTX injection. RT-PCR was used to determine bax and bcl-2 mRNA expression. Results MTX-ARG rats demonstrated greater jejunal and ileal bowel weight, greater ileal mucosal weight, greater ileal mucosal DNA and protein levels, greater villus height in jejunum and ileum and crypt depth in ileum, compared to MTX animals. A significant decrease in enterocyte apoptosis in the ileum of MTX-ARG rats (vs MTX was accompanied by decreased bax mRNA and protein expression and increased bcl-2 protein levels. Conclusions Treatment with oral ARG prevents mucosal injury and improves intestinal recovery following MTX- injury in the rat.

  1. Laryngoscopy during swimming: A novel diagnostic technique to characterize swimming-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Swanton, Laura L; van van Someren, Ken; Morris, Tessa E; Furber, Matthew; Backer, Vibeke; Hull, James H

    2017-10-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for respiratory symptoms in athletes and is particularly prevalent in aquatic athletes. A definitive diagnosis of EILO is dependent on laryngoscopy, performed continuously, while an athlete engages in the sport that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming. Laryngoscope, 127:2298-2301, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, F. O.; Bennink, R. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Buist, M. R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.; van der Heide, S.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; de Jonge, W. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Murine postoperative ileus results from intestinal inflammation triggered by manipulation-induced mast cell activation. As its extent depends on the degree of handling and subsequent inflammation, it is hypothesised that the faster recovery after minimal invasive surgery results from

  3. Intestinal handling-induced mast cell activation and inflammation in human postoperative ileus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    The, F. O.; Bennink, R. J.; Ankum, W. M.; Buist, M. R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Gouma, D. J.; Van der Heide, S.; van den Wijngaard, R. M.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.; de Jonge, Wouter J.

    Background: Murine postoperative ileus results from intestinal inflammation triggered by manipulation-induced mast cell activation. As its extent depends on the degree of handling and subsequent inflammation, it is hypothesised that the faster recovery after minimal invasive surgery results from

  4. Bacterial translocation in an experimental intestinal obstruction model: C-reactive protein reliability? Translocação bacteriana no modelo experimental de obstrução intestinal: A proteína C-reativa é confiável?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ibrahim El-Awady

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial translocation occurs in preseptic conditions such as intestinal obstruction through unclear mechanism. The C-reactive protein is an acute phase reactant and a marker of ischemia. METHODS: 45 albino male rats were divided into 3 groups each 15 rats. GI control, GII simple intestinal-obstruction and GIII strangulated obstruction. Outcome measures were: (1 Bacteriologic count and typing for intestinal contents, intestinal wall, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes and blood (cardiac and portal (2 Histopathologic: mucosal injury score, inflammatory cell infiltrate in the wall, MLN, liver, (3 Biochemical: serum CRP, IL-10, mucosal stress pattern (glutathione peroxidase-malonyldialdhyde tissue levels. RESULTS: (1 Intestinal obstruction associates with BT precursors (Bact-overgrowth, mucosal-acidosis, immuno-incomptence, (2 Bacterial translocation (frequency and density was found higher in strangulated I.O, that was mainly enteric (aerobic and anaerobic and mostly E.coli, (3 The pathogen commonality supports the gut origin hypothesis but the systemic inflammatory response goes with the cytokine generating one. (4 The CRP median values for GI, II, III were 0.5, 6.9, 8.5 mg/L, for BT +ve 8 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L for BT -ve rats. CONCLUSION: Bacterial translocation occurs bi-directional (systemic-portal in intestinal obstruction and the resultant inflammatory response pathogenesis is mostly 3 hit model. The CRP is a non selective marker of suspected I.O cases. However, it is a reliable marker of BT, BT density and vascular compromise during I.O.OBJETIVO: Translocação bacteriana ocorre em condições pré-sépticas como na obstrução intestinal por mecanismo não esclarecido. A proteína C-reativa é um marcador de ischemia em fase aguda. A proposição é investigar os possíveis efeitos da obstrução intestinal no equilíbrio ecológico microbiano. MÉTODOS: 45 ratos machos albinos foram distribuídos em três grupos de 15 ratos. GI

  5. Somatostatin does not attenuate intestinal injury in dextran sodium sulphate-induced subacute colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. van Bergeijk

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From several in vitro and in vivo studies involvement of som atostatin (SMS in intestinal inflammation emerge. Acute colitis induced in rats is attenuated by the long-acting SMS analogue octreotide. We studied the potential beneficial effect of SMS on non-acute experimental colitis. BALB/c mice received either saline, SMS-14 (36 or 120 μg daily or octreotide (3 μg daily subcutaneously delivered by implant osmotic pumps. A non-acute colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS 10% in drinking water during 7 days. DSS evoked a mild, superficial pancolitis, most characterized by mucosal ulceration and submucosal influx of neutrophils. Neither SMS-14 nor octreotide reduced mucosal inflammatory score or macroscopical disease activity, although reduction of intestinal levels of interleukin1 β (IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-10 during DSS was augmented both by SMS and octreotide. A slight increase of neutrophil influx was seen during SMS administration in animals not exposed to DSS. In conclusion, SMS or its long-acting analogue did not reduce intestinal inflammation in non-acute DSS-induced colitis. According to the cytokine profile observed, SMS-14 and octreotide further diminished the reduction of intestinal macrophage and Th2 lymphocyte activity.

  6. Gastrointestinal Endometriosis Causing Subacute Intestinal Obstruction with Gradual Development of Weight Loss and Misdiagnosed as Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Soumekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both endometriosis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS are commonly found in young women and the diagnosis of either is challenging. Alarm symptoms can exclude the diagnosis of IBS, but their onset may be insidious and often no evidence of organic disease may be found. We present a patient with a 4-year history of presumed IBS, absent gynecological symptoms, negative gastrointestinal as well as gynecological testing who developed the only alarm symptom of weight loss and was eventually found to have endometriosis of the small intestine. This case illustrates the need for constant vigilance in patients with IBS.

  7. Introducing enteral feeding induces intestinal subclinical inflammation and respective chromatin changes in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Rhea; Krych, Lukasz; Rybicki, Verena

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze how enteral food introduction affects intestinal gene regulation and chromatin structure in preterm pigs. MATERIALS & METHODS: Preterm pigs were fed parenteral nutrition plus/minus slowly increasing volumes of enteral nutrition. Intestinal gene-expression and chromatin structure...... were analyzed 5 days after birth. RESULTS: Enteral feeding led to differential upregulation of inflammatory and pattern recognition receptor genes, including IL8 (median: 5.8, 95% CI: 3.9-7.8 for formula; median: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3 for colostrum) and TLR4 (median: 3.7, 95% CI: 2.6-4.8 for formula...... stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (median: 7.0; interquartile range: 5.63-8.85) compared with naive cells (median 4.2; interquartile range: 2.45-6.33; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Enteral feeding, particular with formula, induces subclinical inflammation in the premature intestine and more open chromatin...

  8. Lactobacillus GG and tributyrin supplementation reduce antibiotic-induced intestinal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, Gail; Nagy, Laura E; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2013-11-01

    Antibiotic therapy negatively alters the gut microbiota. Lactobacillus GG (LGG) decreases antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) symptoms, but the mechanisms are unknown. Butyrate has beneficial effects on gut health. Altered intestinal gene expression occurs in the absence of gut microbiota. We hypothesized that antibiotic-induced changes in gut microbiota reduce butyrate production, varying genes involved with gut barrier integrity and water and electrolyte absorption, lending to AAD, and that simultaneous supplementation with LGG and/or tributyrin would prevent these changes. C57BL/6 mice aged 6-8 weeks received a chow diet while divided into 8 treatment groups (± saline, ± LGG, ± tributyrin, or both). Mice received treatments orally for 7 days with ± broad-spectrum antibiotics. Water intake was recorded daily and body weight was measured. Intestine tissue samples were obtained and analyzed for expression of genes and proteins involved with water and electrolyte absorption, butyrate transport, and gut integrity via polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Antibiotics decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression (butyrate transporter and receptor, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-), and a water channel) and protein expression (butyrate transporter, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, and tight junction proteins) in the intestinal tract. LGG and/or tributyrin supplementation maintained intestinal mRNA expression to that of the control animals, and tributyrin maintained intestinal protein intensity expression to that of control animals. Broad-spectrum antibiotics decrease expression of anion exchangers, butyrate transporter and receptor, and tight junction proteins in mouse intestine. Simultaneous oral supplementation with LGG and/or tributyrin minimizes these losses. Optimizing intestinal health with LGG and/or tributyrin may offer a preventative therapy for AAD.

  9. The role of endogenous nitric oxide and platelet-activating factor in hypoxia-induced intestinal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, M S; Hedlund, E; Hill, N; MacKendrick, W

    1994-02-01

    Nitric oxide is an endothelium-derived relaxing factor that promotes capillary integrity, inhibits leukocyte adherence and activation, and scavenges oxygen radicals. Because these effects are important in experimental intestinal injury, we studied the role of NO inhibition on hypoxia-induced bowel necrosis in the rat and investigated the interaction between platelet-activating factor (PAF) and NO in this model. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either hypoxia, NO synthase inhibition (NG-methyl-L-arginine [LNMA] or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]), hypoxia+LNMA, hypoxia+LNMA+NO donors, or hypoxia+LNMA+PAF receptor inhibition. Evaluations included blood pressure, superior mesenteric artery blood flow, arterial blood gases, histological intestinal injury, intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and intestinal PAF activity. We found that hypoxia alone for 90 minutes (10% O2, partial O2 pressure = 45 mm Hg) or LNMA alone had no detrimental effects. However, hypoxia+LNMA together caused hypotension, metabolic acidosis, intestinal injury, increased intestinal myeloperoxidase activity, and elevated intestinal PAF concentrations that were prevented by exogenous L-arginine. Furthermore, the hypotension and intestinal injury was prevented by PAF receptor blockade. We conclude that endogenous NO protects the intestine from hypoxia-induced inflammation and injury, and the balance between local PAF and NO modulates the outcome of hypoxia-stressed intestine.

  10. Intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae of Toxoplasma gondii induced acute ileitis in mice harboring a human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane von Klitzing

    Full Text Available Within seven days following peroral high dose infection with Toxoplasma gondii susceptible conventionally colonized mice develop acute ileitis due to an underlying T helper cell (Th -1 type immunopathology. We here addressed whether mice harboring a human intestinal microbiota developed intestinal, extra-intestinal and systemic sequelae upon ileitis induction.Secondary abiotic mice were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and associated with a complex human intestinal microbiota following peroral fecal microbiota transplantation. Within three weeks the human microbiota had stably established in the murine intestinal tract as assessed by quantitative cultural and culture-independent (i.e. molecular 16S rRNA based methods. At day 7 post infection (p.i. with 50 cysts of T. gondii strain ME49 by gavage human microbiota associated (hma mice displayed severe clinical, macroscopic and microscopic sequelae indicating acute ileitis. In diseased hma mice increased numbers of innate and adaptive immune cells within the ileal mucosa and lamina propria and elevated intestinal secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, IL-12 and nitric oxide could be observed at day 7 p.i. Ileitis development was accompanied by substantial shifts in intestinal microbiota composition of hma mice characterized by elevated total bacterial loads and increased numbers of intestinal Gram-negative commensals such as enterobacteria and Bacteroides / Prevotella species overgrowing the small and large intestinal lumen. Furthermore, viable bacteria translocated from the inflamed ileum to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments. Notably, pro-inflammatory immune responses were not restricted to the intestinal tract as indicated by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in extra-intestinal (i.e. liver and kidney and systemic compartments including spleen and serum.With respect to the intestinal microbiota composition "humanized" mice display

  11. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25414098

  12. Diagnostic performance of Contrast-enhanced CT in Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids-induced Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstructive Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xuefeng; Ye, Jin; Rong, Xinxin; Lu, Zhiwen; Li, Xin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Ling; Xu, Keshu; Song, Yuhu; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) can be caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids(PAs)-containing herbals. Since PAs exposure is obscure and clinical presentation of HSOS is unspecific, it is challenge to establish the diagnosis of PAs-induced HSOS. Gynura segetum is one of the most wide-use herbals containing PAs. The aim of our study is to describe the features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) in gynura segetum-induced HSOS, and then determine diagnostic performance of radiological signs. We retrospectively analyzed medical records and CT images of HSOS patients (71 cases) and the controls (222 cases) enrolled from January 1, 2008, to Oct 31, 2015. The common findings of contrast CT in PAs-induced HSOS included: ascites (100%), hepatomegaly (78.87%), gallbladder wall thickening (86.96%), pleural effusion (70.42%), hepatic vein narrowing (87.32%), patchy liver enhancement (92.96%), and heterogeneous hypoattenuation (100%); of these signs, patchy enhancement and heterogeneous hypoattenuation were valuable features. Then, the result of diagnostic performance demonstrated that contrast CT possessed better performance in diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS compared with various parameters of Seattle criteria. In conclusion, the patients with PAs-induced HSOS display distinct radiologic features at CT-scan, which reveals that contrast-enhanced CT provides an effective noninvasive method for diagnosing PAs-induced HSOS. PMID:27897243

  13. The myogenic component in distention-induced peristalsis in the guinea pig small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, G; Jackson, T D; Ambrous, K; Ye, J; Safdar, A; Farraway, L; Huizinga, J D

    2001-03-01

    In an in vitro model for distention-induced peristalsis in the guinea pig small intestine, the electrical activity, intraluminal pressure, and outflow of contents were studied simultaneously to search for evidence of myogenic control activity. Intraluminal distention induced periods of nifedipine-sensitive slow wave activity with superimposed action potentials, alternating with periods of quiescence. Slow waves and associated high intraluminal pressure transients propagated aborally, causing outflow of content. In the proximal small intestine, a frequency gradient of distention-induced slow waves was observed, with a frequency of 19 cycles/min in the first 1 cm and 11 cycles/min 10 cm distally. Intracellular recording revealed that the guinea pig small intestinal musculature, in response to carbachol, generated slow waves with superimposed action potentials, both sensitive to nifedipine. These slow waves also exhibited a frequency gradient. In addition, distention and cholinergic stimulation induced high-frequency membrane potential oscillations (~55 cycles/min) that were not associated with distention-induced peristalsis. Continuous distention produced excitation of the musculature, in part neurally mediated, that resulted in periodic occurrence of bursts of distally propagating nifedipine-sensitive slow waves with superimposed action potentials associated with propagating intraluminal pressure waves that caused pulsatile outflow of content at the slow wave frequency.

  14. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Mortality from Sulfur Mustard Analog–Induced Airway Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Loader, Joan E.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; White, Carl W.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes the rare but life-threatening disorder of plastic bronchitis, characterized by bronchial cast formation, resulting in severe airway obstruction that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is greater than 80%. To date, no antidote exists for SM toxicity. In addition, therapies for plastic bronchitis are solely anecdotal, due to lack of systematic research available to assess drug efficacy in improving mortality and/or morbidity. Adult rats exposed to SM analog were treated with intratracheal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (0.15–0.7 mg/kg, 5.5 and 6.5 h), compared with controls (no treatment, isoflurane, and placebo). Respiratory distress and pulse oximetry were assessed (for 12 or 48 h), and arterial blood gases were obtained at study termination (12 h). Microdissection of fixed lungs was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Optimal intratracheal tPA treatment (0.7 mg/kg) completely eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h), and greatly improved morbidity in this nearly uniformly fatal disease model (90–100% mortality at 48 h). tPA normalized plastic bronchitis–associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress (i.e., clinical scores) while decreasing airway fibrin casts. Intratracheal tPA diminished airway-obstructive fibrin–containing casts while improving clinical respiratory distress, pulmonary gas exchange, tissue oxygenation, and oxygen utilization in our model of severe chemically induced plastic bronchitis. Most importantly, mortality, which was associated with hypoxemia and clinical respiratory distress, was eliminated. PMID:23258228

  15. Clozapine-induced intestinal obstruction - a critical examination of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Seller

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for the management of severely ill patients with schizophrenia who fail to respond adequately to standard antipsychotic treatment. It has demonstrated superior efficacy in treating both the positive and negative symptoms in treatment-refractory cases. It also has the added benefit of causing minimal extrapyramidal side- effects, producing no tardive dyskinesia and having little effect on prolactin levels

  16. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (Pprobiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (Pprobiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the future. PMID:26406888

  17. Protective Effects of 5-Androstendiol (5-AED) on Radiation-induced Intestinal Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joong Sun; Lee, Seung Sook; Jang, Won Suk; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Sun Hoo; Kim, MinSook; Cho, Soo Youn [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Chang Jong; Kim, Sung Ho [Chonnam National University College of Veterinary Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We examined the radioprotective effects of 5-androstendiol (5-AED), a natural hormone produced in the reticularis of the adrenal cortex, as a result of intestinal damage in gamma-irradiated C3H/HeN mice. Thirty mice (C3H/HeN) were divided into three groups; 1) non-irradiated control group, 2) irradiated group, and 3) 5-AED-treated group prior to irradiation. Next, 5-AED (50 mg/kg per body weight) was subcutaneously injected 24 hours before irradiation. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 10 Gy for the histological examination of jejunal crypt survival and the determination of the villus morphology including crypt depth, crypt size, number of villi, villus height, and length of basal lamina, as well as 5 Gy for the detection of apoptosis. The 5-AED pre-treated group significantly increased the survival of the jejunal crypt, compared to irradiation controls (p<0.05 vs. irradiation controls at 3.5 days after 10 Gy). The evaluation of morphological changes revealed that the administration of 5-AED reduced the radiation-induced intestinal damages such as villus shortening and increased length of the basal lamina of enterocytes (p<0.05 vs irradiation controls on 3.5 day after 10 Gy, respectively). The administration of 5-AED decreased the radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt, with no significant difference between the vehicle and 5-AED at 12 hours after 5 Gy. The results of this study suggest that the administration of 5-AED has a protective effect on intestinal damage induced by {gamma}-irradiation. In turn, these results suggest that 5-AED could be a useful candidate for radioprotection against intestinal mucosal injury following irradiation.

  18. Splenectomy attenuates severe thermal trauma-induced intestinal barrier breakdown in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-dong; Chen, Zhen-yong; Yang, Peng; Huang, Wen-guang; Jiang, Chun-fang

    2015-12-01

    The severe local thermal trauma activates a number of systemic inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, NF-κB, resulting in a disruption of gut barrier. The gastrointestinal tight junction (TJ) is highly regulated by membrane-associated proteins including zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which can be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. As splenectomy has been shown to reduce secretion of cytokines, we hypothesized that (1) severe scald injury up-regulates TNF-α and NF-κB, meanwhile down-regulates expression of ZO-1 and occludin, leading to the increased intestinal permeability, and (2) splenectomy can prevent the burn-induced decrease in ZO-1 and occludin expression, resulting in improved intestinal barrier. Wistar rats undergoing a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) thermal trauma were randomized to receive an accessorial splenectomy meanwhile or not. Intestinal injury was assessed by histological morphological analysis, and serum endotoxin levels, TNF-α, NF-κB, ZO-1 and occludin levels were detected by Western blotting in the terminal ileum mucosal tissue. 30% TBSA burn caused a significant increase in serum endotoxin levels, but NF-κB, and TNF-α, and the average intestinal villus height and mucosal thickness were decreased significantly. Burn injury could also markedly decrease the levels of ZO-1 and occludin in terminal ileum mucosal tissue (all PSplenectomy at 7th day after burn significantly reversed the burn-induced breakdown of ZO-1 and occludin (all PSplenectomy may provide a therapeutic benefit in restoring burn-induced intestinal barrier by decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and recovering TJ proteins.

  19. Liver injury from ampicillin-induced intestinal microbiota distresses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum hepatospecific markers (AST, ALT and ALP) were estimated. The antioxidant status of liver tissues was estimated for GSH, MDA, GST, LDH and vitamin C l, in addition to sodium and potassium. Results: Administration of orogastric dose of ampicillin for 3 weeks induced inhibition of E.coli, yeasts, total anaerobes, and ...

  20. Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.E. Koning, de (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order to gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used. Chapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- treatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood cancer,

  1. Cardiovascular Responses Induced by Obstructive Apnea Are Enhanced in Hypertensive Rats Due to Enhanced Chemoreceptor Responsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angheben, Juliana M. M.; Schoorlemmer, Guus H. M.; Rossi, Marcio V.; Silva, Thiago A.; Cravo, Sergio L.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), like patients with sleep apnea, have hypertension, increased sympathetic activity, and increased chemoreceptor drive. We investigated the role of carotid chemoreceptors in cardiovascular responses induced by obstructive apnea in awake SHR. A tracheal balloon and vascular cannulas were implanted, and a week later, apneas of 15 s each were induced. The effects of apnea were more pronounced in SHR than in control rats (Wistar Kyoto; WKY). Blood pressure increased by 57±3 mmHg during apnea in SHR and by 28±3 mmHg in WKY (papneas were induced two days later. The inactivation of chemoreceptors reduced the responses to apnea and abolished the difference between SHR and controls. The apnea-induced hypertension was 11±4 mmHg in SHR and 8±4 mmHg in WKY. The respiratory effort was 15±2 mmHg in SHR and 15±2 mmHg in WKY. The heart rate fell 63±18 bpm in SHR and 52±14 bpm in WKY. Similarly, when the chemoreceptors were unloaded by the administration of 100% oxygen, the responses to apnea were reduced. In conclusion, arterial chemoreceptors contribute to the responses induced by apnea in both strains, but they are more important in SHR and account for the exaggerated responses of this strain to apnea. PMID:24466272

  2. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of inv dup del(8p) in a fetus associated with ventriculomegaly, hypoplastic left heart, polyhydramnios and intestinal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Huang, Wen-Chu; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yen-Ni; Chen, Shin-Wen; Lee, Chen-Chi; Pan, Chen-Wen; Yang, Chien-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2016-06-01

    To present molecular cytogenetic characterization of inv dup del(8p) in a fetus with congenital malformations. A 19-year-old, primigravid woman underwent cord blood sampling at 31 weeks of gestation because of prenatal ultrasound findings of polyhydramnios, intestinal obstruction, right ventriculomegaly, and hypoplastic left heart. Preterm precipitous labor and delivery occurred at 32 weeks of gestation. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), conventional cytogenetic analysis and metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were applied on cord blood lymphocytes. aCGH was also applied on the umbilical cord. Conventional cytogenetic analysis was applied on parental bloods. aCGH detected an 11.35 Mb deletion in 8p23.3-p23.1 encompassing SOX7 and GATA4, and a 31.99 Mb duplication in 8p23.1-p11.1 in the fetus. Metaphase FISH confirmed inv dup del(8p). The fetus had a karyotype of 46,XX,der(8)del(8)(p23.1) inv dup(8) (p11.1p23.1). Parental karyotypes were normal. A malformed fetus was delivered with facial dysmorphism. Fetuses with inv dup del(8p) may present central nervous system (CNS) abnormality and congenital heart defect on prenatal ultrasound. Prenatal diagnosis of concomitant CNS and cardiac abnormalities should include a differential diagnosis of chromosome 8p inverted duplication deletion syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Predictors of intestinal pseudo-obstruction in systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by digestive manifestations: data from a Southern China lupus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Lai, W; Yuan, C; Shen, S; Cui, D; Zhao, J; Lin, J; Ren, H; Yang, M

    2016-03-01

    To determine factors that may predict intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IpsO) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients complicated by digestive manifestations. SLE patients with digestive manifestations (n = 135) were followed at Southern Medical University affiliated Nanfang Hospital from 2000 until 2013. Demographic variables, clinical features, and laboratory data were compared between the two groups. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to establish factors that predispose to IpsO in these patients. At the end of the study period, 32 (23.7%) patients had developed IpsO. Mortality (9 patients) was infrequent and the cause of death was unrelated to IpsO. Independent predictors of IpsO in SLE were ureterectasia, anti-U1 RNP(+), peritonitis, and low C3 levels. Regular abdominal X-ray examinations are recommended in SLE patients with ureterectasia, anti-U1 RNP(+), peritonitis, or low C3 levels, as early diagnosis and therapy may prevent unnecessary surgical intervention and improve the disease course. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Exogenous HIV-1 Nef upsets the IFN-γ-induced impairment of human intestinal epithelial integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Quaranta

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues play a central role in the transmission of HIV-1 infection as well as in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Despite several clinical studies reported intestinal dysfunction during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying HIV-induced impairments of mucosal epithelial barrier are still unclear. It has been postulated that HIV-1 alters enterocytic function and HIV-1 proteins have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on human epithelial cell line.We used unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated Caco-2 cells, as a model for homeostatic and inflamed gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. We investigated the effect of exogenous recombinant Nef on monolayer integrity analyzing its uptake, transepithelial electrical resistance, permeability to FITC-dextran and the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, we measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators. Exogenous Nef was taken up by Caco-2 cells, increased intestinal epithelial permeability and upset the IFN-γ-induced reduction of transepithelial resistance, interfering with tight junction protein expression. Moreover, Nef inhibited IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-3α production by Caco-2 cells while down-regulated IL-10 production. The simultaneous exposure of Caco-2 cells to Nef and IFN-γ did not affect cytokine secretion respect to untreated cells. Finally, we found that Nef counteracted the IFN-γ induced arachidonic acid cascade.Our findings suggest that exogenous Nef, perturbing the IFN-γ-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial cells, could prolong cell survival, thus allowing for accumulation of viral particles. Our results may improve the understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, supporting the discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  5. Anti-Ulcer Efficacy of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor TPPU on Diclofenac-Induced Intestinal Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Wan, Debin; Yang, Jun; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Morisseau, Christophe; Kodani, Sean D; Yang, Guang-Yu; Inceoglu, Bora; Hammock, Bruce D

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors such as omeprazole (OME) reduce the severity of gastrointestinal (GI) ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but can also increase the chance of dysbiosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that preventive use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (sEHI) such as TPPU can decrease NSAID-induced ulcers by increasing anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Dose- [10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, by mouth (PO)] and time-dependent (6 and 18 hours) ulcerative effects of diclofenac sodium (DCF, an NSAID) were studied in the small intestine of Swiss Webster mice. Dose-dependent effects of TPPU (0.001-0.1 mg/kg per day for 7 days, in drinking water) were evaluated in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity and compared with OME (20 mg/kg, PO). In addition, the effect of treatment was studied on levels of Hb in blood, EETs in plasma, inflammatory markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) in intestinal tissue homogenates, and tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum. DCF dose dependently induced ulcers that were associated with both a significant (P ulceration highest at 18 hours. Pretreatment with TPPU dose dependently prevented ulcer formation by DCF, increased the levels of epoxy fatty acids, including EETs, and TPPU's efficacy was comparable to OME. TPPU significantly (P ulcers. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  6. Mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions and translocation of indigenous bacteria in a rat model of strangulated small bowel obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Zanoni

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: Bacterial translocation has been shown to occur in critically ill patients after extensive trauma, shock, sepsis, or thermal injury. The present study investigates mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions, the bacterial translocation phenomenon, and hemodynamic/metabolic disturbances in a rat model of intestinal obstruction and ischemia. METHODS: Anesthetized (pentobarbital 50 mg/kg, i.p. male Wistar rats (250-350 g were submitted to intestinal obstruction or laparotomy without intestinal obstruction (Sham and were evaluated 24 hours later. Bacterial translocation was assessed by bacterial culture of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, liver, spleen, and blood. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation were assessed by intravital microscopy, and P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 expressions were quantified by immunohistochemistry. Hematocrit, blood gases, lactate, glucose, white blood cells, serum urea, creatinine, bilirubin, and hepatic enzymes were measured. RESULTS: About 86% of intestinal obstruction rats presented positive cultures for E. coli in samples of the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and 57% had positive hemocultures. In comparison to the Sham rats, intestinal obstruction induced neutrophilia and increased the number of rolling (~2-fold, adherent (~5-fold, and migrated leukocytes (~11-fold; this increase was accompanied by an increased expression of P-selectin (~2-fold and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (~2-fold in the mesenteric microcirculation. Intestinal obstruction rats exhibited decreased PaCO2, alkalosis, hyperlactatemia, and hyperglycemia, and increased blood potassium, hepatic enzyme activity, serum urea, creatinine, and bilirubin. A high mortality rate was observed after intestinal obstruction (83% at 72 h vs. 0% in Sham rats. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction and ischemia in rats is a relevant model for the in vivo study of mesenteric microcirculatory

  7. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induces bronchial hyperreactivity and increases serum TNF-alpha in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda Marcio Jose Cristiano de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion induces acute lung injury in animal models of multiple organ failure. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF- alpha is involved in the underlying inflammatory mechanism of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the inflammatory cascade leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been extensively investigated, the mechanical components of acute respiratory distress syndrome are not fully understood. Our hypothesis is that splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion increases airway reactivity and serum TNF-alpha levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess bronchial smooth muscle reactivity under methacholine stimulation, and to measure serum TNF-alpha levels following intestinal and/or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in rats. METHOD: Rats were subjected to 45 minutes of intestinal ischemia, or 20 minutes of hepatic ischemia, or to both (double ischemia, or sham procedures (control, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were then sacrificed, and the bronchial response to increasing methacholine molar concentrations (10-7 to 3 x 10-4 was evaluated in an ex-vivo bronchial muscle preparation. Serum TNF-alpha was determined by the L929-cell bioassay. RESULTS: Bronchial response (g/100 mg tissue showed increased reactivity to increasing methacholine concentrations in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. Similarly, serum TNF-alpha (pg/mL concentration was increased in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia, either isolated or associated with hepatic ischemia, increased bronchial smooth muscle reactivity, suggesting a possible role for bronchial constriction in respiratory dysfunction following splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion. This increase occurred in concomitance with serum TNF-alpha increase, but whether the increase in TNF-alpha caused this bronchial contractility remains

  8. Environmental particulate matter induces murine intestinal inflammatory responses and alters the gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Kish

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is a key pollutant in ambient air that has been associated with negative health conditions in urban environments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of orally administered PM on the gut microbiome and immune function under normal and inflammatory conditions.Wild-type 129/SvEv mice were gavaged with Ottawa urban PM10 (EHC-93 for 7-14 days and mucosal gene expression analyzed using Ingenuity Pathways software. Intestinal permeability was measured by lactulose/mannitol excretion in urine. At sacrifice, segments of small and large intestine were cultured and cytokine secretion measured. Splenocytes were isolated and incubated with PM10 for measurement of proliferation. Long-term effects of exposure (35 days on intestinal cytokine expression were measured in wild-type and IL-10 deficient (IL-10(-/- mice. Microbial composition of stool samples was assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Short chain fatty acids were measured in caecum.Short-term treatment of wild-type mice with PM10 altered immune gene expression, enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in the small intestine, increased gut permeability, and induced hyporesponsiveness in splenocytes. Long-term treatment of wild-type and IL-10(-/- mice increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the colon and altered short chain fatty acid concentrations and microbial composition. IL-10(-/- mice had increased disease as evidenced by enhanced histological damage.Ingestion of airborne particulate matter alters the gut microbiome and induces acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the intestine.

  9. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome.

  10. Validity and reliability of grade scoring in the diagnosis of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Hvedstrup, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    The current gold-standard method for diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), with severity classified by a visual grade scoring system. We evaluated the precision of this approach, by evaluating test-retest reliability of CLE...... and both inter- and intra-rater variability. In this prospective case-control study, subjects completed four consecutive treadmill CLE tests under identical conditions. Laryngoscopic video recordings were anonymised and graded by three expert raters. 2 months following initial scoring, videos were re......-randomised and rating repeated to assess intra-rater agreement. 20 subjects (16 cases and four controls) completed four CLE tests. The time to exhaustion increased by 30 s (95% CI 0.02-57.8, ptest, but remained identical in the subsequent tests. Only one...

  11. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  12. Differences between intestinal segments and soybean meal-induced changes in intestinal mucus composition of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, van der M.C.; Propsting, M.J.; Battermann, F.; Jung-Schroers, V.; Hubner, A.; Rombout, J.H.W.M.; Steinhagen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The alimentary tract is a possible site where pathogens and toxins can enter. The alimentary tract is protected, amongst others, by mucus. In this study, tissue samples and crude mucus preparations from different parts of the intestinal tract of Cyprinus carpio (from intestinal bulb onto the

  13. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J; Swanton, Laura L; Pavitt, Matthew J; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Backer, Vibeke; Polkey, Michael I; Hull, James H

    2018-02-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V̇e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V̇e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P laryngeal closure ( P laryngeal closure; there were however no differences in dyspnea intensity between groups. Using simultaneous measurements of respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal

  14. High fructose intake fails to induce symptomatic adaptation but may induce intestinal carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Heilpern

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose has several interactions in man, including intolerance and promotion of some diseases. However, fructose in fruits and in prebiotics may be associated with benefits. Adaptation to regular fructose ingestion as defined for lactose could support a beneficial rather than a deleterious effect. This study was undertaken to evaluate symptomatic response and potential underlying mechanisms of fecal bacterial change and breath hydrogen response to short term regular fructose supplementation. Forty-five participants were recruited for a 3 day recall diet questionnaire and a 50 g fructose challenge. Breath hydrogen was measured for 4.5 hrs and symptoms were recorded. Thirty-eight subjects provided stool samples for analysis by selective culture of 4 groups of bacteria, including bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. Intolerant subjects returned a second time 15 days later. Ten of these served as controls and 16 received 30 g fructose twice a day. Ten of the latter returned 27 days later, after stopping fructose for a third challenge test. Student’s paired, unpaired t-tests and Pearson correlations were used. Significance was accepted at P<0.05. After fructose rechallenge there were no significant reductions in symptoms scores in volunteers in either the fructose supplemented or non supplemented groups. However, total breath hydrogen was reduced between test 1 and test 2 (P=0.03 or test 3 (P=0.04 in the group given fructose then discontinued, compared with controls. There were no statistically significant changes in bacterial numbers between test 2 and 1. This study shows that regular consumption of high dose fructose does not follow the lactose model of adaptation. Observed changes in hydrogen breath tests raise the possibility that intestinal carriers of fructose may be induced potentially aggravating medical problems attributed to fructose.

  15. Heat shock protein 70-dependent protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Naito, Yuji; Handa, Osamu; Hayashi, Natsuko; Kuki, Aiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Omatsu, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yuko; Morita, Mayuko; Adachi, Satoko; Fukui, Akifumi; Hirata, Ikuhiro; Kishimoto, Etsuko; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2011-11-01

    Protection of the small intestine from mucosal injury induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including acetylsalicylic acid is a critical issue in the field of gastroenterology. Polaprezinc an anti-ulcer drug, consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, provides gastric mucosal protection against various irritants. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of polaprezinc on acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of the RIE1 rat intestinal epithelial cell line. Confluent rat intestinal epithelial cells were incubated with 70 µM polaprezinc for 24 h, and then stimulated with or without 15 mM acetylsalicylic acid for a further 15 h. Subsequent cellular viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining. Acetylsalicylic acid-induced cell death was also qualified by fluorescent microscopy of Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide. Heat shock proteins 70 protein expression after adding polaprezinc or acetylsalicylic acid was assessed by western blotting. To investigate the role of Heat shock protein 70, Heat shock protein 70-specific small interfering RNA was applied. Cell viability was quantified by fluorometric assay based on cell lysis and staining and apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We found that acetylsalicylic acid significantly induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Polaprezinc significantly suppressed acetylsalicylic acid-induced apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells at its late phase. At the same time, polaprezinc increased Heat shock protein 70 expressions of rat intestinal epithelial cells in a time-dependent manner. However, in Heat shock protein 70-silenced rat intestinal epithelial cells, polaprezinc could not suppress acetylsalicylic acid -induced apoptosis at its late phase. We conclude that polaprezinc-increased Heat shock protein 70 expression might be an important mechanism by which polaprezinc suppresses acetylsalicylic

  16. Inhibition of IKKß in enterocytes exacerbates sepsis-induced intestinal injury and worsens mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Samocha, Alexandr J.; Liang, Zhe; Burd, Eileen M.; Farris, Alton B.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective NF-kB is a critical regulator of cell survival genes and the host inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of enterocyte-specific NF-kB in sepsis through selective ablation of IkB kinase (IKK)-ß. Design Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting Animal laboratories in university medical centers. Subjects and Interventions Mice lacking functional NF-kB in their intestinal epithelium (Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ) and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to sham laparotomy or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Animals were sacrified at 24 hours or followed seven days for survival. Measurements and Main Results Septic WT mice had decreased villus length compared to sham mice while villus atrophy was further exacerbated in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice. Sepsis induced an increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis compared to sham mice which was further exacerbated in Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice. Sepsis induced intestinal hyperpermeability in WT mice compared to sham mice, which was further exacerbated in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice. This was associated with increased intestinal expression of claudin-2 in septic WT mice, which was further increased in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice. Both, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were increased in serum following CLP, and IL-10 and MCP-1 levels were higher in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice than septic WT mice. All septic mice were bacteremic, but no differences in bacterial load were identified between WT and Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice. To determine the functional significance of these results, animals were followed for survival. Septic WT mice had lower mortality than septic Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice (47% vs. 80%, p<0.05). Anti-TNF administration decreased intestinal apoptosis, permeability and mortality in WT septic mice and a similar improvement in intestinal integrity and survival were seen when anti-TNF was given to Vil-Cre/Ikkßf/Δ mice. Conclusions Enterocyte-specific NF

  17. Inhibition of IKKβ in enterocytes exacerbates sepsis-induced intestinal injury and worsens mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Samocha, Alexandr J; Liang, Zhe; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear factor-κB is a critical regulator of cell-survival genes and the host inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of enterocyte-specific NF-kB in sepsis through selective ablation of IkB kinase. Prospective, randomized controlled study. Animal laboratories in university medical centers. Mice lacking functional NF-kB in their intestinal epithelium (Vil-Cre/Ikkβ) and wild-type mice were subjected to sham laparotomy or cecal ligation and puncture. Animals were killed at 24 hours or followed 7 days for survival. Septic wild-type mice had decreased villus length compared with sham mice, whereas villus atrophy was further exacerbated in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice. Sepsis induced an increase in intestinal epithelial apoptosis compared with sham mice, which was further exacerbated in Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice. Sepsis induced intestinal hyperpermeability in wild-type mice compared with sham mice, which was further exacerbated in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice. This was associated with increased intestinal expression of claudin-2 in septic wild-type mice, which was further increased in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice. Both, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were increased in serum following cecal ligation and puncture, and interleukin 10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels were higher in septic Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice than in septic wild-type mice. All septic mice were bacteremic, but no differences in bacterial load were identified between wild-type and Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice. To determine the functional significance of these results, animals were followed for survival. Septic wild-type mice had lower mortality than septic Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice (47% vs 80%, p<0.05). Antitumor necrosis factor administration decreased intestinal apoptosis, permeability, and mortality in wild-type septic mice, and a similar improvement in intestinal integrity and survival were seen when antitumor necrosis factor was given to Vil-Cre/Ikkβ mice. Enterocyte

  18. Stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function in the rat: reversal by wood creosote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuge, Tomoo; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-07-24

    Our previous studies demonstrated that wood creosote (Seirogan) inhibits intestinal secretion and normalizes the transport of electrolytes and water in rats subjected to restraint stress. The goal of the present study was to examine whether wood creosote has a protective effect against stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function. F-344 rats were subjected to 90-min water avoidance stress (WAS) with wood creosote (30 mg/kg) or vehicle administered intragastrically 30 min prior to WAS. Sham stressed rats received wood creosote or vehicle treatment but did not experience the WAS. All rats were euthanized at the end of the WAS or sham-stress and the jejunum and colon were isolated. Epithelial transport was studied in modified Ussing chambers. Spontaneous secretion was assessed by electrophysiological measurement of the short circuit current (I(sc)) while electrical conductance (G) was calculated from the potential difference (PD) and I(sc) using Ohm's law. Intestinal permeability was defined by the mucosal-to-serosal flux of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). WAS significantly elevated basal I(sc) and G and increased epithelial permeability to HRP in the jejunum but not in the colon. Wood creosote resulted in a significant reduction of the stress-induced increase in I(sc), G and the mucosal-to-serosal flux of HRP compared to the vehicle-treated group. Wood creosote caused no significant effects in sham-stressed rats. The results suggest that oral administration of wood creosote may prevent stress-induced diarrhea by preventing aversive effects on small intestinal secretion and barrier function.

  19. Effect of L-cysteine on remote organ injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis induced by bile-pancreatic duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Juan; Wan, Rong; Shen, Jia-Qing; Shen, Jie; Wang, Xing-Peng

    2013-08-01

    Remote organ failure occurs in cases of acute pancreatitis (AP); however, the reports on AP induced by pancreatic duct obstruction are rare. In this study we determined the effect of L-cysteine on pancreaticobiliary inflammation and remote organ damage in rats after pancreaticobiliary duct ligation (PBDL). AP was induced by PBDL in rats with 5/0 silk. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Groups A and B were sham-operated groups that received injections of saline or L-cysteine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (15 rats in each group). Groups C and D were PBDL groups that received injections of saline or L-cysteine (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (15 rats in each group). The tissue samples of the pancreas and remote organs such as the lung, liver, intestine and kidney were subsequently examined for pathological changes under a light microscope. The samples were also stored for the determination of malondialdehyde and glutathione levels. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma amylase, ALT and AST levels were determined spectrophotometrically using an automated analyzer. Also, we evaluated the effect of L-cysteine on remote organ injury in rats with AP induced by retrograde infusion of 3.5% sodium taurocholate (NaTc) into the bile-pancreatic duct. Varying degrees of injury in the pancreas, lung, liver, intestine and kidney were observed in the rats 24 hours after PBDL. The severity of injury to the lung, liver and intestine was attenuated, while injury status was not changed significantly in the pancreas and kidney after L-cysteine treatment. Oxidative stress was also affected by L-cysteine in PBDL-treated rats. The concentration of tissue malondialdehyde decreased in the pancreas and remote organs of PBDL and L-cysteine administrated rats, and the concentration of glutathione increased more significantly than that of the model control group. However, L-cysteine administration reduced the severity of injury in remote organs but not in the pancreas in rats with NaTc-induced

  20. Soluble dietary fiber protects against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced damage to the small intestine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Hara, Toshiko; Murakawa, Daisuke; Matsuura, Masashi; Takata, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause ulcers in the small intestine in humans, but there are few effective agents for treatment of small intestinal ulcers. We found that soluble dietary fibers (SDFs), such as pectin, could prevent the formation of small intestinal lesions induced by indomethacin (IND) in cats. To elucidate the mechanism of protection by SDFs, we examined the viscosities of SDFs and the effects of pectin on gastrointestinal absorption of IND and intestinal hypermotility induced by IND. Cats were given regular dry food (RFD-Dry) or RFD-Dry supplemented with pectin, guar gum, polydextrose, or mucin twice daily. IND was administered orally once daily for 3 days. Mucosal lesions in the small intestine were examined 24 h after the final dosing of IND. Plasma concentrations of IND were measured by HPLC. GI motilities were measured using a telemetry system in conscious cats implanted with force transducers. Viscosities of the SDFs were measured using a viscosimeter. In cats given RFD-Dry, IND (3 mg/kg) increased motility and produced many lesions in the lower half of the small intestine; the total lesion area (TLA) was 7.5 +/- 2.6 cm(2) (n = 4). Lesions induced by IND were markedly decreased in cats given RFD-Dry supplemented with 3% pectin, guar gum, polydextrose or mucin; TLAs were 0.6 +/- 0.3, 0.0 +/- 0.0, 1.3 +/- 0.8 and 1.6 +/- 0.5 cm(2) (n = 4) (P 1,200, 1 and 4, respectively. Pectin did not affect the absorption of IND nor did it inhibit IND-induced intestinal hypermotility. SDFs protect the small intestine against NSAID-induced damage, probably by compensating a barrier function of the mucin decreased by IND. Viscosities of the SDFs play a role, at least in part, in the protective effects of the SDFs on the small intestine.

  1. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Karen M; Lu, Ruliang; Brownley, Julie; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig; Thomas, Karen; Rallabhandi, Prasad; Shea-Donohue, Terez; Tamiz, Amir; Alkan, Sefik; Netzel-Arnett, Sarah; Antalis, Toni; Vogel, Stefanie N; Fasano, Alessio

    2008-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gliadin, a component of the grain protein gluten. Gliadin induces an MyD88-dependent zonulin release that leads to increased intestinal permeability, a postulated early element in the pathogenesis of celiac disease. We aimed to establish the molecular basis of gliadin interaction with intestinal mucosa leading to intestinal barrier impairment. Alpha-gliadin affinity column was loaded with intestinal mucosal membrane lysates to identify the putative gliadin-binding moiety. In vitro experiments with chemokine receptor CXCR3 transfectants were performed to confirm binding of gliadin and/or 26 overlapping 20mer alpha-gliadin synthetic peptides to the receptor. CXCR3 protein and gene expression were studied in intestinal epithelial cell lines and human biopsy specimens. Gliadin-CXCR3 interaction was further analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy, laser capture microscopy, real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis. Ex vivo experiments were performed using C57BL/6 wild-type and CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestines to measure intestinal permeability and zonulin release. Affinity column and colocalization experiments showed that gliadin binds to CXCR3 and that at least 2 alpha-gliadin 20mer synthetic peptides are involved in this binding. CXCR3 is expressed in mouse and human intestinal epithelia and lamina propria. Mucosal CXCR3 expression was elevated in active celiac disease but returned to baseline levels following implementation of a gluten-free diet. Gliadin induced physical association between CXCR3 and MyD88 in enterocytes. Gliadin increased zonulin release and intestinal permeability in wild-type but not CXCR3(-/-) mouse small intestine. Gliadin binds to CXCR3 and leads to MyD88-dependent zonulin release and increased intestinal permeability.

  2. Intestinal exposure to PCB 153 induces inflammation via the ATM/NEMO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Dheer, Rishu; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Davies, Julie M; Burgueño, Juan; Lang, Jessica K; Toborek, Michal; Abreu, Maria T

    2018-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that adversely affect human health. PCBs bio-accumulate in organisms important for human consumption. PCBs accumulation in the body leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a major driver of inflammation. Despite dietary exposure being one of the main routes of exposure to PCBs, the gut has been widely ignored when studying the effects of PCBs. We investigated the effects of PCB 153 on the intestine and addressed whether PCB 153 affected intestinal permeability or inflammation and the mechanism by which this occurred. Mice were orally exposed to PCB 153 and gut permeability was assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were collected and evaluated for evidence of genotoxicity and inflammation. A human IEC line (SW480) was used to examine the direct effects of PCB 153 on epithelial function. NF-кB activation was measured using a reporter assay, DNA damage was assessed, and cytokine expression was ascertained with real-time PCR. Mice orally exposed to PCB 153 had an increase in intestinal permeability and inflammatory cytokine expression in their IECs; inhibition of NF-кB ameliorated both these effects. This inflammation was associated with genotoxic damage and NF-кB activation. Exposure of SW480 cells to PCB 153 led to similar effects as seen in vivo. We found that activation of the ATM/NEMO pathway by genotoxic stress was upstream of NF-kB activation. These results demonstrate that oral exposure to PCB 153 is genotoxic to IECs and induces downstream inflammation and barrier dysfunction in the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intestine-Specific Mttp Deletion Decreases Mortality and Prevents Sepsis-Induced Intestinal Injury in a Murine Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Xie, Yan; Dunne, W. Michael; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2012-01-01

    Background The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO), which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Methodology/Principal Findings Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0%) dying compared to 5/17 (29%) control mice (p<0.05). This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice. Conclusions/Significance These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by

  4. Intestine-specific Mttp deletion decreases mortality and prevents sepsis-induced intestinal injury in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Dominguez

    Full Text Available The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO, which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption.Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0% dying compared to 5/17 (29% control mice (p<0.05. This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice.These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by metabolic and physiological adaptations in both intestinal and

  5. Transient, heat-induced thermal resistance in the small intestine of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.L.

    1980-01-01

    Heat-induced thermal resistance has been investigated in mouse jejunum by assaying crypt survival 24 h after treatment. Hyperthermia was achieved by immersing an exteriorized loop of intestine in a bath of Krebs-Ringer solution. Two approaches have been used. In the first, thermal survival curves were obtained following single hyperthermal treatments at temperatures in the range 42 to 44 0 C. Transient thermal resistance, inducted by a plateau in the crypt survival curve, developed during heating at temperatures around 42.5 0 C after 60 to 80 min. In the second series of experiments, a priming heat treatment (40.0, 41.0, 41.5, or 42.0 0 C for 60 min) was followed at varying intervals by a test treatment at 43.0 0 C. A transient resistance to the second treatment was induced, the extent and time of development being dependent upon the priming treatment. Crypt survival curves for thermally resistant intestine showed an increase in thermal D 0 and a decrease in n compared with curves from previously unheated intestine

  6. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

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    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-06-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H1 and H2 histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H1 and H2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systemic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H1 and H2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure.

  7. Antihistamines block radiation-induced increased intestinal blood flow in canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Doyle, T.F.; Donlon, M.A.; Gossett-Hagerman, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation-induced systemic hypotension is accompanied by increased intestinal blood flow (IBF) and an increased hematocrit (HCT) in dogs. Histamine infusion leads to increased IBF and intestinal edema with consequent secretion of fluid into the intestinal lumen. This study was performed to determine whether these effects could be diminished by prior administration of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ histamine blockers. Dogs were given an iv infusion of mepyramine (0.5 mg/min) and cimetidine (0.25 mg/min) for 1 hr before and for 1 hr after radiation (H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, respectively). Mean systemic arterial blood pressure (MBP), IBF, and HCT were monitored for 2 hr. Systematic plasma histamine levels were determined simultaneously. Data obtained indicated that the H sub 1 and H sub 2 blockers, given simultaneously, were successful in blocking the increased IBF and the increased HCT seen after 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma radiation. However, the postradiation hypotension was only somewhat affected, with the MBP falling to a level 28% below the preradiation level. Plasma histamine levels reached a sharp peak, as much as 20% above baseline, at 4 min postradiation. These findings implicate histamine in the radiation-induced increase in IBF and HCT but not for the gradual decrease in postradiation blood pressure. (Author)

  8. Egr-1 regulates autophagy in cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hua Chen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by abnormal cellular responses to cigarette smoke, resulting in tissue destruction and airflow limitation. Autophagy is a degradative process involving lysosomal turnover of cellular components, though its role in human diseases remains unclear.Increased autophagy was observed in lung tissue from COPD patients, as indicated by electron microscopic analysis, as well as by increased activation of autophagic proteins (microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B, LC3B, Atg4, Atg5/12, Atg7. Cigarette smoke extract (CSE is an established model for studying the effects of cigarette smoke exposure in vitro. In human pulmonary epithelial cells, exposure to CSE or histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor rapidly induced autophagy. CSE decreased HDAC activity, resulting in increased binding of early growth response-1 (Egr-1 and E2F factors to the autophagy gene LC3B promoter, and increased LC3B expression. Knockdown of E2F-4 or Egr-1 inhibited CSE-induced LC3B expression. Knockdown of Egr-1 also inhibited the expression of Atg4B, a critical factor for LC3B conversion. Inhibition of autophagy by LC3B-knockdown protected epithelial cells from CSE-induced apoptosis. Egr-1(-/- mice, which displayed basal airspace enlargement, resisted cigarette-smoke induced autophagy, apoptosis, and emphysema.We demonstrate a critical role for Egr-1 in promoting autophagy and apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke exposure in vitro and in vivo. The induction of autophagy at early stages of COPD progression suggests novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of cigarette smoke induced lung injury.

  9. Inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthases exert contrasting effects during rat intestinal recovery following fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junta; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Machida, Naomi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Saito, Yuki; Kobayashi, Jun

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the effects of endogenous inducible (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase on recovery from intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting-induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation during refeeding in rats. Rats were divided into five groups, one of which was fed ad libitum, and four of which underwent 72 h of fasting, followed by refeeding for 0, 6, 24, and 48 h, respectively. iNOS and neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein levels in jejunal tissues were measured, and mucosal height was histologically evaluated. Apoptotic indices, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) transcription levels, nitrite levels (as a measure of nitric oxide [NO] production),8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine formation (indicating reactive oxygen species [ROS] levels), crypt cell proliferation, and the motility indices (MI) were also estimated. Associations between mucosal height and NOS protein levels were determined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Notably, we observed significant increases in mucosal height and in neuronal nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein expression as refeeding time increased. Indeed, there was a significant positive correlation between neuronal nitric oxide synthase protein level and mucosal height during the 48-h refeeding period ( r = 0.725, P fasting. Our finding suggests that refeeding likely repairs fasting-induced jejunal atrophy by suppressing iNOS expression and subsequently inhibiting NO, ROS, and IFN-γ as apoptosis mediators, and by promoting neuronal nitric oxide synthase production and inducing crypt cell proliferation via mechanical stimulation. Impact statement Besides providing new data confirming the involvement of iNOS and nNOS in intestinal mucosal atrophy caused by fasting, this study details their expression and function during recovery from this condition following refeeding. We demonstrate a significant negative correlation between iNOS and nNOS levels during refeeding, and associate this with cell proliferation

  10. A new method for insertion of long intestinal tube for small bowel obstruction: Nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiba, Kazuma; Ohmae, Tomoya; Odawara, Nariaki; Moriyama, Makoto; Kanai, Sachiko; Tsuboi, Mayo; Saito, Tomotaka; Uchino, Koji; Akamatsu, Masatoshi; Okamoto, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    It is often difficult to insert a long intestinal tube (LT) in patients with small bowel obstruction (SBO). We developed a novel technique for inserting an LT without endoscopy called nonendoscopic over-the-wire method via short nasogastric tube (NEWSt). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of NEWSt.We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent LT insertion for SBO without any indications of strangulation with either NEWSt (n = 16) or endoscopy (n = 17) between November 2011 and February 2015 at our hospital. Univariate analysis was used to assess the success rate of LT placement beyond the duodenojejunal flexure, time required for the procedure, clinical outcomes, and adverse events.The success rate was 100% in both groups. Procedure time was numerically, but not statistically, shorter in the NEWSt group compared with the endoscopy group (24 ± 13 vs 30 ± 13 min; P = 0.174). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of surgery rate (31% vs 12%; P = 0.225), fasting period (11.3 ± 6.3 vs 9.9 ± 4.5 days; P = 0.482), hospital stay (26.4 ± 22.1 vs 18.7 ± 7.0 days; P = 0.194), and recurrence rate (19% vs 24%; P = 1.0). No serious adverse event was observed in the NEWSt group, whereas serious aspiration pneumonia was observed in 2 patients after LT insertion in the endoscopy group.Without endoscopy, NEWSt enabled the high success rate and the short procedure time for the LT insertion. Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed.

  11. Clinical Features, Morbidity, and Risk Factors of Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Retrospective Case-control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Xu, Dong; Yang, Hong; Tian, Xinping; Wang, Qian; Hou, Yong; Gao, Na; Zhang, Li; Li, Mengtao; Zeng, Xiaofeng

    2016-03-01

    To analyze the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus-related intestinal pseudo-obstruction (SLE-IPO). We retrospectively examined 85 patients with SLE with IPO as the case group and 255 randomly matched patients with SLE without any gastrointestinal manifestations as the control group, out of 4331 inpatients at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from 2003 to 2014. Over the last 11 years at PUMCH, the prevalence of IPO in patients with SLE was 1.96% and the in-hospital fatality rate was 7.1%. Of these patients, 57.6% presented with IPO as the initial affected system of SLE, and the rate of misdiagnosis was about 78%. Pyeloureterectasis was the most common complication (58.9%) in patients with SLE-IPO and the incidence of biliary tract dilation was 7.1%. Patients with SLE with IPO were always diagnosed at an earlier stage of SLE with a higher frequency of hematological disturbance, polyserositis, and hypocomplementemia. Pyeloureterectasis, hypocomplementemia, and elevated C-reactive protein levels in serum were independent risk factors for IPO in SLE disease. Patients with SLE-IPO with long IPO duration and those diagnosed during late stages of SLE or concurrent with pyeloureterectasis and megacholedochus always had an unfavorable outcome. IPO is a rare complication, but commonly presents as the initial affected system of SLE, which can lead to a difficult diagnosis and delayed treatment. SLE-IPO occurrence concomitantly with pyeloureterectasis and megacholedochus showed a severe clinical situation in our cohort. Thus, patients with SLE-IPO with systemic smooth muscular involvement should be diagnosed early and treated aggressively.

  12. Aeromonas caviae strain induces Th1 cytokine response in mouse intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, S L; Lye, D J; McKinstry, Craig A.; Vesper, Sephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas caviae has been associated with human gastrointestinal disease. Strains of this species typically lack virulence factors (VFs) such as enterotoxins and hemolysins that are produced by other human pathogens of the Aeromonas genus. Microarray profiling of murine small intestinal extracts, 24 hours after oral infection with an A. caviae strain, provides evidence of a Th1 type immune response. A large number of gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) induced genes are up-regulated as well as several tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) transcripts. A. caviae has always been considered as opportunistic pathogen because it lacks obvious virulence factors. This current effort suggests that an A. caviae strain can colonize the murine intestinal tract and cause what has been described by others as a dysregulatory cytokine response. This response could explain why a number of diarrheal waterborne disease cases have been attributed to A. caviae even though it lacks obvious enteropathogenic properties.

  13. A Review of Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastrointestinal Injury: Focus on Prevention of Small Intestinal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Fujimori

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Capsule endoscopy and balloon endoscopy, advanced modalities that allow full investigation of the entire small intestine, have revealed that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs can cause a variety of abnormalities in the small intestine. Recently, several reports show that traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA can induce small intestinal injuries. These reports have shown that the preventive effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs does not extend to the small intestine, suggesting that concomitant therapy may be required to prevent small intestinal side effects associated with tNSAID/ASA use. Recently, several randomized controlled trials used capsule endoscopy to evaluate the preventive effect of mucoprotective drugs against tNSAID/ASA-induced small intestinal injury. These studies show that misoprostol and rebamipide reduce the number and types of tNSAID-induced small intestinal mucosal injuries. However, those studies were limited to a small number of subjects and tested short-term tNSAID/ ASA treatment. Therefore, further extensive studies are clearly required to ascertain the beneficial effect of these drugs.

  14. Nasal obstructive disorders induce medical treatment failure in paediatric persistent allergic rhinitis (The NODPAR Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin S; Valls-Mateus, Meritxell; Ruiz-Echevarría, Karen; Alobid, Isam; Cardenas-Escalante, Paulina; Jiménez-Feijoo, Rosa; Lozano-Blasco, Jaime; Giner-Muñoz, María T; Rodríguez-Jorge, Jesús; Haag, Oliver; Plaza-Martin, Ana M; Mullol, Joaquim

    2017-03-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disease among children. To characterize the disease, a modified classification of severity (m-ARIA) has recently been validated in AR children. When medical treatment fails, surgery for nasal obstructive disorders (NOD) may be a therapeutic option. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of NOD and their influence in medical treatment response among children with persistent AR (PER). In a prospective, real-life study, 130 paediatric PER patients (13.1 ± 2.8 years, females 31.5%, severe rhinitis 49%) referred from Allergy to ENT department were assessed for their response (R, responders; NR, non-responders) to medical treatment (intranasal steroids and antihistamines or antileukotrienes) by direct questioning and nasal symptom visual analogue scale, the presence of NOD (septal deformity, turbinate enlargement and adenoidal hyperplasia), comorbidities, nasal symptoms, rhinitis severity (modified ARIA criterion) and asthma control (International Consensus On Pediatric Asthma criterion). After 2 months of treatment, the NR group presented a higher prevalence of obstructive septal deformity and severe inferior turbinate enlargement when compared with the R group. Higher septal deformity and turbinate enlargement scores were strongly associated with treatment refractoriness. The prevalence of severe PER was also higher for the NR group. Higher asthma control scores were associated with the probability of treatment-induced improvement. In paediatric PER patients, medical therapy refractoriness was associated with NOD, mainly septal deformity and turbinate enlargement. In those patients, ENT examination will facilitate an early NOD diagnosis in order to indicate potential corrective surgery. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Traditional Herbal Medicine, Rikkunshito, Induces HSP60 and Enhances Cytoprotection of Small Intestinal Mucosal Cells as a Nontoxic Chaperone Inducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Tamaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence of small intestinal ulcers associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs has become a topic with recent advances of endoscopic technology. However, the pathogenesis and therapy are not fully understood. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Rikkunshito (TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, on expression of HSP60 and cytoprotective ability in small intestinal cell line (IEC-6. Effect of TJ-43 on HSP60 expression in IEC-6 cells was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. The effect of TJ-43 on cytoprotective abilities of IEC-6 cells against hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was studied by MTT assay, LDH-release assay, caspase-8 activity, and TUNEL. HSP60 was significantly induced by TJ-43. Cell necrosis and apoptosis were significantly suppressed in IEC-6 cells pretreated by TJ-43 with overexpression of HSP60. Our results suggested that HSP60 induced by TJ-43 might play an important role in protecting small intestinal epithelial cells from apoptosis and necrosis in vitro.

  16. Maternal Obesity Induces Sustained Inflammation in Both Fetal and Offspring Large Intestine of Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xu; Huang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Du, Min; Hess, Bret W.; Ford, Stephen P.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Both maternal obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are increasing. It was hypothesized that maternal obesity induces an inflammatory response in the fetal large intestine, predisposing offspring to IBDs. Methods Nonpregnant ewes were assigned to a control (Con, 100% of National Research Council [NRC] recommendations) or obesogenic (OB, 150% of NRC) diet from 60 days before conception. The large intestine was sampled from fetuses at 135 days (term 150 days) after conception and from offspring lambs at 22.5 ± 0.5 months of age. Results Maternal obesity enhanced mRNA expression tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, interleukin (IL)1α, IL1β, IL6, IL8, and monocyte/macrophage chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1), as well as macrophage markers, CD11b, CD14, and CD68 in fetal gut. mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 was increased in OB versus Con fetuses; correspondingly, inflammatory NF-κB and JNK signaling pathways were also upregulated. Both mRNA expression and protein content of transforming growth factor (TGF) β was increased. The IL-17A mRNA expression and protein content was higher in OB compared to Con samples, which was associated with fibrosis in the large intestine of OB fetuses. Similar inflammatory responses and enhanced fibrosis were detected in OB compared to Con offspring. Conclusions Maternal obesity induced inflammation and enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in fetal and offspring large intestine, which correlated with increased TGFβ and IL17 expression. These data show that maternal obesity may predispose offspring gut to IBDs. PMID:21674707

  17. Are interstitial cells of Cajal involved in mechanical stress-induced gene expression and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in bowel obstruction?

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    Chester C Wu

    Full Text Available The network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC is altered in obstructive bowel disorders (OBD. However, whether alteration in ICC network is a cause or consequence of OBD remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanical dilation in obstruction disrupts the ICC network and that ICC do not mediate mechanotranscription of COX-2 and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction.Medical-grade silicon bands were wrapped around the distal colon to induce partial obstruction in wild-type and ICC deficient (W/W(v mice.In wild-type mice, colon obstruction led to time-dependent alterations of the ICC network in the proximal colon segment. Although unaffected on days 1 and 3, the ICC density decreased markedly and the network was disrupted on day 7 of obstruction. COX-2 expression increased, and circular muscle contractility decreased significantly in the segment proximal to obstruction. In W/W(v control mice, COX-2 mRNA level was 4.0 (±1.1-fold higher (n=4 and circular muscle contractility was lower than in wild-type control mice. Obstruction further increased COX-2 mRNA level in W/W(v mice to 7.2 (±1.0-fold vs. W/W(v controls [28.8 (±4.1-fold vs. wild-type controls] on day 3. Obstruction further suppressed smooth muscle contractility in W/W(v mice. However, daily administration of COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 significantly improved muscle contractility in both W/W(v sham and obstruction mice.Lumen dilation disrupts the ICC network. ICC deficiency has limited effect on stretch-induced expression of COX-2 and suppression of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction. Rather, stretch-induced COX-2 plays a critical role in motility dysfunction in partial colon obstruction.

  18. Bovine lactoferrin decreases cholera-toxin-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice by ganglioside interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulton P Rivera

    Full Text Available Secretory diarrhea caused by cholera toxin (CT is initiated by binding of CT's B subunit (CTB to GM1-ganglioside on the surface of intestinal cells. Lactoferrin, a breast milk glycoprotein, has shown protective effect against several enteropathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of bovine-lactoferrin (bLF on CT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation in mice, and the interaction between bLF and CT/CTB with the GM1-ganglioside receptor. Fluid accumulation induced by CT was evaluated in the mouse ileal loop model using 56 BALB/c mice, with and without bLF added before, after or at the same time of CT administration. The effect of bLF in the interaction of CT and CTB with GM1-ganglioside was evaluated by a GM1-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. bLF decreased CT-induced fluid accumulation in the ileal loop of mice. The greatest effect was when bLF was added before CT (median, 0.066 vs. 0.166 g/cm, with and without bLF respectively, p<0.01. We conclude that bLF decreases binding of CT and CTB to GM1-ganglioside, suggesting that bLF suppresses CT-induced fluid accumulation by blocking the binding of CTB to GM1-ganglioside. bLF may be effective as adjunctive therapy for treatment of cholera diarrhea.

  19. First evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengbi; Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Ma, Jiang; Xue, Junyi; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2017-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are among the most potent phytotoxins widely distributed in plant species around the world. PA is one of the major causes responsible for the development of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) and exerts hepatotoxicity via metabolic activation to form the reactive metabolites, which bind with cellular proteins to generate pyrrole-protein adducts, leading to hepatotoxicity. PA N-oxides coexist with their corresponding PAs in plants with varied quantities, sometimes even higher than that of PAs, but the toxicity of PA N-oxides remains unclear. The current study unequivocally identified PA N-oxides as the sole or predominant form of PAs in 18 Gynura segetum herbal samples ingested by patients with liver damage. For the first time, PA N-oxides were recorded to induce HSOS in human. PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity was further confirmed on mice orally dosed of herbal extract containing 170 μmol PA N-oxides/kg/day, with its hepatotoxicity similar to but potency much lower than the corresponding PAs. Furthermore, toxicokinetic study after a single oral dose of senecionine N-oxide (55 μmol/kg) on rats revealed the toxic mechanism that PA N-oxides induced hepatotoxicity via their biotransformation to the corresponding PAs followed by the metabolic activation to form pyrrole-protein adducts. The remarkable differences in toxicokinetic profiles of PAs and PA N-oxides were found and attributed to their significantly different hepatotoxic potency. The findings of PA N-oxide-induced hepatotoxicity in humans and rodents suggested that the contents of both PAs and PA N-oxides present in herbs and foods should be regulated and controlled in use.

  20. Transcriptional corepressor MTG16 regulates small intestinal crypt proliferation and crypt regeneration after radiation-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poindexter, Shenika V; Reddy, Vishruth K; Mittal, Mukul K; Williams, Amanda M; Washington, M Kay; Harris, Elizabeth; Mah, Amanda; Hiebert, Scott W; Singh, Kshipra; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T; Lund, P Kay; Williams, Christopher S

    2015-03-15

    Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs) are transcriptional corepressors implicated in development, malignancy, differentiation, and stem cell function. While MTG16 loss renders mice sensitive to chemical colitis, the role of MTG16 in the small intestine is unknown. Histological examination revealed that Mtg16(-/-) mice have increased enterocyte proliferation and goblet cell deficiency. After exposure to radiation, Mtg16(-/-) mice exhibited increased crypt viability and decreased apoptosis compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Flow cytometric and immunofluorescence analysis of intestinal epithelial cells for phospho-histone H2A.X also indicated decreased DNA damage and apoptosis in Mtg16(-/-) intestines. To determine if Mtg16 deletion affected epithelial cells in a cell-autonomous fashion, intestinal crypts were isolated from Mtg16(-/-) mice. Mtg16(-/-) and WT intestinal crypts showed similar enterosphere forming efficiencies when cultured in the presence of EGF, Noggin, and R-spondin. However, when Mtg16(-/-) crypts were cultured in the presence of Wnt3a, they demonstrated higher enterosphere forming efficiencies and delayed progression to mature enteroids. Mtg16(-/-) intestinal crypts isolated from irradiated mice exhibited increased survival compared with WT intestinal crypts. Interestingly, Mtg16 expression was reduced in a stem cell-enriched population at the time of crypt regeneration. This is consistent with MTG16 negatively regulating regeneration in vivo. Taken together, our data demonstrate that MTG16 loss promotes radioresistance and impacts intestinal stem cell function, possibly due to shifting cellular response away from DNA damage-induced apoptosis and towards DNA repair after injury.

  1. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna L. Gibson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI microbiota is the collection of microbes which reside in the GI tract and represents the largest source of non-self antigens in the human body. The GI tract functions as a major immunological organ as it must maintain tolerance to commensal and dietary antigens while remaining responsive to pathogenic stimuli. If this balance is disrupted, inappropriate inflammatory processes can result, leading to host cell damage and/or autoimmunity. Evidence suggests that the composition of the intestinal microbiota can influence susceptibility to chronic disease of the intestinal tract including ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome, as well as more systemic diseases such as obesity, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, a considerable shift in diet has coincided with increased incidence of many of these inflammatory diseases. It was originally believed that the composition of the intestinal microbiota was relatively stable from early childhood; however, recent evidence suggests that diet can cause dysbiosis, an alteration in the composition of the microbiota, which could lead to aberrant immune responses. The role of the microbiota and the potential for diet-induced dysbiosis in inflammatory conditions of the GI tract and systemic diseases will be discussed.

  2. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eClouard

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow (CBF changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e. pleasure evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation.

  3. Saponin-containing subfractions of soybean molasses induce enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, D.; Uran, P.; Arnous, Anis

    2007-01-01

    The current work aimed at tracing the causative components for soybean-induced enteritis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Soybean molasses was subjected to phase separation using n-butanol. Three subfractions were obtained as follows: butanol phase, precipitate, and water phase. The biochemical...... composition of soybean molasses and the obtained subfractions were analyzed in detail: Protein, fat, and ash were quantified according to standard methods. Sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose were quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Soyasaponins were quantified using reverse...... intestinal morphology. The causative components for soybean-induced enteritis withstand butanol treatment and prolonged heating at 70 degrees C. Sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, nor soybean proteins larger than 10 kDa induce enteritis alone. Soyasaponins, or components that follow the same solubility pattern...

  4. Seirogan (wood creosote) inhibits stress-induced ion secretion in rat intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataka, Koji; Kuge, Tomoo; Venkova, Kalina; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

    2003-07-01

    Acute stress in often associated with abnormalities in gastrointestinal function, including enhanced secretion of water and electrolytes that leads to diarrhea. The goal of our study was to investigate whether Seirogan inhibits stress-induced intestinal secretion in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Electrogenic ion secretion was measured in modified Ussing chambers as an increase in basal short-circuit current (Isc) across isolated rat jejunal or colonic mucosal sheets. Mucosal preparations from rats exposed to cold restraint stress showed a significant increase in basal Isc compared to controls. The cumulative addition of Seirogan to the Ussing chamber caused a concentration-dependent reduction of the stress-induced increase of basal Isc to levels resembling nonstressed controls. In a separate experiment, Seirogan (15 mg/kg) administered by oral gavage inhibited stress-induced secretion and normalized basal Isc in the jejunum and colon. The results suggest that Seirogan may be an effective therapy for patients with stress-associated diarrhea.

  5. Dexmedetomidine Ameliorate CLP-Induced Rat Intestinal Injury via Inhibition of Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanqing; Miao, Liyan; Yao, Yusheng; Wu, Weilan; Wu, Xiaodan; Gong, Cansheng; Qiu, Liangcheng; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to verify that dexmedetomidine (DEX) can attenuate CLP-induced intestinal injury via inhibition of inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly allocated into Sham group and the other three CLP model groups, in terms of different treatments: placebo, DEX, and yohimbine plus DEX (DEX + YOH) groups. Pathology examination was conducted with HE stain. To identify differences among groups, the levels of DAO, and D-lactate in serum were measured by spectrophotometry, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in serum and organ were measured by ELISA. The expressions of occludin and TLR4 in tissue were detected by Western blot. The survival rate of an additional group of animals within 7 d was recorded. In DEX group, mortality was lower, histology change was minor, DAO, and D-lactate levels were reduced, and occludin expression was increased; the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TLR4 were also decreased in DEX group. These results indicated that acute intestinal injury induced by CLP was mitigated by DEX treatment. However, these effects of DEX were significantly attenuated by yohimbine in DEX + YOH group. Our study indicated the protective effects of DEX on CLP-induced injury, which may be associated with the inhibition of inflammation via modulating TLR4 pathway and can be blocked by yohimbine.

  6. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevents intestinal development during gestation in fetal sheep.

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    Tim G A M Wolfs

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis is the most significant source of prenatal inflammation and preterm delivery. Prematurity and prenatal inflammation are associated with compromised postnatal developmental outcomes, of the intestinal immune defence, gut barrier function and the vascular system. We developed a sheep model to study how the antenatal development of the gut was affected by gestation and/or by endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis.Chorioamnionitis was induced at different gestational ages (GA. Animals were sacrificed at low GA after 2d or 14d exposure to chorioamnionitis. Long term effects of 30d exposure to chorioamnionitis were studied in near term animals after induction of chorioamnionitis. The cellular distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 was shown to be underdeveloped at low GA whereas endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis prevented the maturation of tight junctions during later gestation. Endotoxin induced chorioamnionitis did not induce an early (2d inflammatory response in the gut in preterm animals. However, 14d after endotoxin administration preterm animals had increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive cells and gammadelta T-cells which lasted till 30d after induction of chorioamnionitis in then near term animals. At early GA, low intestinal TLR-4 and MD-2 mRNA levels were detected which were further down regulated during endotoxin-induced chorioamnionitis. Predisposition to organ injury by ischemia was assessed by the vascular function of third-generation mesenteric arteries. Endotoxin-exposed animals of low GA had increased contractile response to the thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619 and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in responses to acetylcholine. The administration of a nitric oxide (NO donor completely restored endothelial dysfunction suggesting reduced NO bioavailability which was not due to low expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase.Our results indicate that the distribution of the tight

  7. [Correction of bronchial obstructive syndrome and antituberculous drugs-induced eosinophilia in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis by using plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, E I; Stepanian, I E

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a follow-up of 70 patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis in whom the administration of antituberculous drugs induced eosinophilia and bronchial obstructive syndrome. To eliminate the side effects of antituberculous therapy, a plasmapheresis regimen was performed in 44 patients, the remaining patients were given only bronchodilators and antihistamine drugs. Plasmapheresis as a means for correcting drug-induced eosinophilia and bronchial obstructive syndrome was found to be more effective than drug therapy and, in some cases, enabled antituberculous therapy to be continued, without changing a combination of drugs. It is recommended that plasmapheresis should be used in cases of inadequate efficiency of conventional methods for correcting drug intolerance.

  8. Early Changes in Microbial Colonization Selectively Modulate Intestinal Enzymes, but Not Inducible Heat Shock Proteins in Young Adult Swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnal, M.E.; Zhang, J.; Messori, S.; Bosi, P.; Smidt, H.; Lallès, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation.

  9. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-02

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnea and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects (22%, all female) while 5 (14%) had both asthma and EILO. There was no correlation between degree of EILO during CLE and mean decrease in forced inspiratory flow (%FIF 50 ) obtained during neither the Methacholine (r = -0.15; p = 0.38) nor Mannitol (r = 0.04; p = 0.84) provocation tests. Inspiratory flow parameters obtained during bronchoprovocation tests did not reliably detect EILO. It remains that CLE is an important and key investigation modality in establishing a secure diagnosis of EILO.

  10. Inducible laryngeal obstruction during exercise: moving beyond vocal cords with new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, James Tod; Clary, Matthew S; Deardorff, Emily H; Johnston, Kristina; Morris, Michael J; Sokoya, Mofiyinfolu; Staudenmayer, Herman; Christopher, Kent L

    2015-02-01

    Exercise as an important part of life for the health and wellness of children and adults. Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) is a consensus term used to describe a group of disorders previously called vocal cord dysfunction, paradoxical vocal fold motion, and numerous other terms. Exercise-ILO can impair one's ability to exercise, can be confused with asthma, leading to unnecessary prescription of asthma controller and rescue medication, and results in increased healthcare resource utilization including (rarely) emergency care. It is characterized by episodic shortness of breath and noisy breathing that generally occurs at high work rates. The present diagnostic gold standard for all types of ILO is laryngoscopic visualization of inappropriate glottic or supraglottic movement resulting in airway narrowing during a spontaneous event or provocation challenge. A number of different behavioral techniques, including speech therapy, biofeedback, and cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, may be appropriate to treat individual patients. A consensus nomenclature, which will allow for better characterization of patients, coupled with new diagnostic techniques, may further define the epidemiology and etiology of ILO as well as enable objective evaluation of therapeutic modalities.

  11. Validity and reliability of grade scoring in the diagnosis of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Maat, Robert Christiaan; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-07-01

    The current gold-standard method for diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), with severity classified by a visual grade scoring system. We evaluated the precision of this approach, by evaluating test-retest reliability of CLE and both inter- and intra-rater variability. In this prospective case-control study, subjects completed four consecutive treadmill CLE tests under identical conditions. Laryngoscopic video recordings were anonymised and graded by three expert raters. 2 months following initial scoring, videos were re-randomised and rating repeated to assess intra-rater agreement. 20 subjects (16 cases and four controls) completed four CLE tests. The time to exhaustion increased by 30 s (95% CI 0.02-57.8, pscores (weighted Cohen's ϰ) was 0.16-0.45, while intra-rater agreement ranged from 0.30 to 0.67. The CLE test is key in the diagnostic assessment of patients with EILO. However, the widely adopted visual grade scoring system does not appear to be a robust means for reliably classifying severity of EILO.

  12. Validity and reliability of grade scoring in the diagnosis of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Schwarz Walsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The current gold-standard method for diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO is continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE, with severity classified by a visual grade scoring system. We evaluated the precision of this approach, by evaluating test–retest reliability of CLE and both inter- and intra-rater variability. In this prospective case–control study, subjects completed four consecutive treadmill CLE tests under identical conditions. Laryngoscopic video recordings were anonymised and graded by three expert raters. 2 months following initial scoring, videos were re-randomised and rating repeated to assess intra-rater agreement. 20 subjects (16 cases and four controls completed four CLE tests. The time to exhaustion increased by 30 s (95% CI 0.02–57.8, p<0.05 in the second CLE compared with the first test, but remained identical in the subsequent tests. Only one-third of subjects retained their initial diagnosis in the subsequent three tests. Inter-rater agreement on grade scores (weighted Cohen's ϰ was 0.16–0.45, while intra-rater agreement ranged from 0.30 to 0.67. The CLE test is key in the diagnostic assessment of patients with EILO. However, the widely adopted visual grade scoring system does not appear to be a robust means for reliably classifying severity of EILO.

  13. Role of the Gut Microbiome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgan, David J; Ganesh, Bhanu P; Cope, Julia L; Ajami, Nadim J; Phillips, Sharon C; Petrosino, Joseph F; Hollister, Emily B; Bryan, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for systemic hypertension. The importance of a healthy gut microbiota, and detriment of a dysbiotic microbiota, on host physiology is becoming increasingly evident. We tested the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis contributes to hypertension observed with OSA. OSA was modeled in rats by inflating a tracheal balloon during the sleep cycle (10-s inflations, 60 per hour). On normal chow diet, OSA had no effect on blood pressure; however, in rats fed a high-fat diet, blood pressure increased 24 and 29 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively (Phypertensive OSA rats on high-fat diet into OSA recipient rats on normal chow diet (shown to be normotensive) resulted in hypertension similar to that of the donor (increased 14 and 32 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively; Phypertension, and suggest that manipulation of the microbiota may be a viable treatment for OSA-induced, and possibly other forms of, hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A metabonomic evaluation of the monocrotaline-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rats

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    Conotte, R.; Colet, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.colet@umons.ac.be

    2014-04-15

    The main curative treatment of colorectal cancer remains the surgery. However, when metastases are suspected, surgery is followed by a preventive chemotherapy using oxaliplatin which, unfortunately, may cause liver sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). Such hepatic damage is barely detected during or after chemotherapy due to a lack of effective diagnostic procedures, but liver biopsy. The primary objective of the present study was to identify potential early diagnosis biomarkers of SOS using a metabonomic approach. SOS was induced in rats by monocrotaline, a prototypical toxic substance. {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine samples collected from rats treated with monocrotaline showed significant metabolic changes as compared to controls. During a first phase, cellular protective mechanisms such as an increased synthesis of GSH (reduced taurine) and the recruitment of cell osmolytes in the liver (betaine) were seen. In the second phase, the disturbance of the urea cycle (increased ornithine and urea reduction) leading to the depletion of NO, the alteration in the GSH synthesis (increased creatine and GSH precursors (glutamate, dimethylglycine and sarcosine)), and the liver necrosis (decrease taurine and increase creatine) all indicate the development of SOS. - Highlights: • Urine metabonomic profiles of SOS have been identified. • Urine osmoprotectants and anti-oxidants indicated an initial liver protection. • Liver necrosis was demonstrated by increased urine levels of taurine and creatine. • NO depletion was suggested by changes in ornithine and urea.

  15. Role of Intestinal LXRα in Regulating Post-prandial Lipid Excursion and Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Hepatic Lipid Accumulation

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    Tibiábin Benítez-Santana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-prandial hyperlipidemia has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor with limited therapeutic options. The Liver X receptors (Lxrs are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate cholesterol elimination. Knowledge of their role in regulating the absorption and handling of dietary fats is incomplete. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of intestinal Lxrα in post-prandial intestinal lipid transport. Using Lxrα knockout (nr1h3−/− and intestine-limited Lxrα over-expressing [Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3] zebrafish strains, we measured post-prandial lipid excursion with live imaging in larvae and physiological methods in adults. We also conducted a long-term high-cholesterol dietary challenge in adults to examine the chronic effect of modulating nr1h3 gene dose on the development of hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Over-expression of Lxrα in the intestine delays the transport of ingested lipids in larvae, while deletion of Lxrα increases the rate of lipid transport. Pre-treating wildtype larvae with the liver-sparing Lxr agonist hyodeoxycholic acid also delayed the rate of intestinal lipid transport in larvae. In adult males, deletion of Lxrα accelerates intestinal transport of ingested lipids. Adult females showed higher plasma Lipoprotein lipase (Lpl activity compared to males, and lower post-gavage blood triacylglycerol (TAG excursion. Despite the sexually dimorphic effect on acute intestinal lipid handling, Tg(fabp2a:EGFP-nr1h3 adults of both sexes are protected from high cholesterol diet (HCD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation, while nr1h3−/− mutants are sensitive to the effects of HCD challenge. These data indicate that intestinal Lxr activity dampens the pace of intestinal lipid transport cell-autonomously. Selective activation of intestinal Lxrα holds therapeutic promise.

  16. Clinical analysis of 61 systemic lupus erythematosus patients with intestinal pseudo-obstruction and/or ureterohydronephrosis: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Na; Zhao, Jiuliang; Liu, Jinjing; Wu, Di; Zhao, Lidan; Wang, Qian; Hou, Yong; Li, Mengtao; Zhang, Wen; Zeng, Xuejun; Fang, Weigang; Huang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xuan; Tian, Xinping; Zhao, Yan; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate the clinical features of intestinal pseudo-obstruction (IPO) and/or ureterohydronephrosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Sixty-one SLE patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 183 cases were randomly selected as controls from 3840 SLE inpatients without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis during the same period. Patients were assigned to 1 of the 3 groups (SLE with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis, SLE with IPO, and SLE with ureterohydronephrosis). The clinical characteristics, treatments, and prognosis were compared between the 3 groups. There were 57 females and 4 males, with a mean age of 32.0 years. IPO was the initial manifestation of SLE in 49.1% of the cases, whereas ureterohydronephrosis in 32.5%. All patients were initially treated with a high-dose steroid. Thirty-one of these patients (50.8%) also received intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Two patients died of bowel perforation and lupus encephalopathy, and the other 59 patients (96.7%) achieved remission after treatment. The incidences of fever, glomerulonephritis, nervous system involvement, serositis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate elevation, hypoalbuminemia, hypocomplementemia, and anti-SSA antibody positivity were significantly higher in patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis than in the control group (without IPO and ureterohydronephrosis). Also, patients with IPO and/or ureterohydronephrosis had higher SLE Disease Activity Index scores than control patients. Compared with SLE patients with IPO, the patients with IPO and ureterohydronephrosis had a significantly higher incidence of gallbladder wall thickening, biliary tract dilatation, and serositis, whereas the patients with ureterohydronephrosis had less mucocutaneous involvement and serositis. Eight of the 47 IPO patients who initially responded well to immunotherapy relapsed; however, all responded well to retreatment with adequate

  17. Celiac anti-type 2 transglutaminase antibodies induce phosphoproteome modification in intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells.

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    Gaetana Paolella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is an inflammatory condition of the small intestine that affects genetically predisposed individuals after dietary wheat gliadin ingestion. Type 2-transglutaminase (TG2 activity seems to be responsible for a strong autoimmune response in celiac disease, TG2 being the main autoantigen. Several studies support the concept that celiac anti-TG2 antibodies may contribute to disease pathogenesis. Our recent findings on the ability of anti-TG2 antibodies to induce a rapid intracellular mobilization of calcium ions, as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, suggest that they potentially act as signaling molecules. In line with this concept, we have investigated whether anti-TG2 antibodies can induce phosphoproteome modification in an intestinal epithelial cell line. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied phosphoproteome modification in Caco-2 cells treated with recombinant celiac anti-TG2 antibodies. We performed a two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by specific staining of phosphoproteins and mass spectrometry analysis of differentially phosphorylated proteins. Of 14 identified proteins (excluding two uncharacterized proteins, three were hypophosphorylated and nine were hyperphosphorylated. Bioinformatics analyses confirmed the presence of phosphorylation sites in all the identified proteins and highlighted their involvement in several fundamental biological processes, such as cell cycle progression, cell stress response, cytoskeletal organization and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of differentially phosphorylated proteins downstream of TG2-antibody stimulation suggests that in Caco-2 cells these antibodies perturb cell homeostasis by behaving as signaling molecules. We hypothesize that anti-TG2 autoantibodies may destabilize the integrity of the intestinal mucosa in celiac individuals, thus contributing to celiac disease establishment and progression. Since several proteins here

  18. Oral activated charcoal adsorbent (AST-120) ameliorates chronic kidney disease-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Yuan, Jun; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Masuda, Yuichi; Ichii, Hirohito; Liu, Shuman

    2013-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) impairs intestinal barrier function which by allowing influx of noxious products causes systemic inflammation. We have recently shown that intestinal barrier dysfunction in CKD is due to degradation of epithelial tight junction (TJ) which is, in part, mediated by influx of urea and its conversion to ammonia by microbial urease. We hypothesized that by adsorbing urea and urea-derived ammonia, oral activated charcoal (AST-120) may ameliorate CKD-induced intestinal epithelial barrier disruption and systemic inflammation. Rats were randomized to the CKD or control groups. The CKD group was fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks. They were then randomized to receive a chow with or without AST-120 (4 g/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Rats consuming regular diet served as controls. Animals were then euthanized, colons were removed and processed for Western blot and immunohistology, and plasma was used to measure endotoxin and oxidative and inflammatory markers. Compared with the controls, the untreated CKD rats showed elevated plasma endotoxin, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, CINC-3, L-selectin, ICAM-1, and malondialdehyde, and depletions of colonic epithelial TJ proteins, claudin-1, occludin, and ZO1. Administration of AST-120 resulted in partial restoration of the epithelial TJ proteins and reduction in plasma endotoxin and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. CKD animals exhibited depletion of the key protein constituents of the colonic epithelial TJ which was associated with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and endotoxemia. Administration of AST-120 attenuated uremia-induced disruption of colonic epithelial TJ and the associated endotoxemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Haemophilus influenzae from Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation Induce More Inflammation than Colonizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Cecilia L.; Manzel, Lori J.; Lehman, Erin E.; Humlicek, Alicia L.; Shi, Lei; Starner, Timothy D.; Denning, Gerene M.; Murphy, Timothy F.; Sethi, Sanjay; Look, Dwight C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Airway infection with Haemophilus influenzae causes airway inflammation, and isolation of new strains of this bacteria is associated with increased risk of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine whether strains of H. influenzae associated with exacerbations cause more inflammation than strains that colonize the airways of patients with COPD. Methods: Exacerbation strains of H. influenzae were isolated from patients during exacerbation of clinical symptoms with subsequent development of a homologous serum antibody response and were compared with colonization strains that were not associated with symptom worsening or an antibody response. Bacterial strains were compared using an in vivo mouse model of airway infection and in vitro cell culture model of bacterial adherence and defense gene and signaling pathway activation in primary human airway epithelial cells. Results: H. influenzae associated with exacerbations caused more airway neutrophil recruitment compared with colonization strains in the mouse model of airway bacterial infection. Furthermore, exacerbation strains adhered to epithelial cells in significantly higher numbers and induced more interleukin-8 release after interaction with airway epithelial cells. This effect was likely mediated by increased activation of the nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Conclusions: The results indicate that H. influenzae strains isolated from patients during COPD exacerbations often induce more airway inflammation and likely have differences in virulence compared with colonizing strains. These findings support the concept that bacteria infecting the airway during COPD exacerbations mediate increased airway inflammation and contribute to decreased airway function. PMID:15805181

  1. ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema of the Intestine: Case Report, Incidence, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management

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    Gavin Oudit

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of fosinopril-induced angioedema of the intestine with a chronic course accompanied by multiple acute exacerbations is described. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema of the intestine (AIAI occurs in a minority of patients taking an ACE inhibitor. The clinical presentation encompasses acute abdominal symptoms, pronounced bowel edema and ascites with occasional facial and/or oropharyngeal swelling. AIAI is diagnosed based on the temporal relationship between the symptomatic presentation and drug use, absence of alternative diagnoses including other causes of angioedema, and the prompt resolution of symptoms upon discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Prompt radiological investigation (abdominal computerized tomography and/or ultrasound is critical in making an early diagnosis and in preventing unnecessary surgical intervention. There is a female predominance of AIAI, which may reflect the interaction of estradiol with the various pathways involved in the pathophysiology of AIAI. Management of AIAI consists mainly of conservative measures and discontinuation of the ACE inhibitor. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists should not be considered as appropriate alternatives. Awareness and knowledge of AIAI are important because of the increasing use of ACE inhibitors, current delays in making the diagnosis, obvious management strategies once the diagnosis is made and the dysutility of alternative diagnoses, which may lead to considerable morbidity. AIAI must be considered in patients taking ACE inhibitors who develop gastrointestinal complaints irrespective of the duration of the therapy.

  2. MDR1 is Related to Intestinal Epithelial Injury Induced by Acetylsalicylic Acid

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    Munehiro Kugai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although the cytotoxicity of aspirin against the intestinal epithelium is a major clinical problem, little is known about its pathogenesis. We assessed the involvement of Multi Drug Resistance (MDR 1 in intestinal epithelial cell injury caused by aspirin using MDR1 gene-transfected Caco2 cells. Methods: Caco2 cells were treated with various concentrations of aspirin for 24 h. After treatment of Caco2 cells with verapamil, a specific inhibitor of MDR1, we assessed the extent of cell injury using a WST-8 assay at 24 h after aspirin-stimulation. We performed the same procedure in MDR1 gene-transfected Caco2 cells. To determine the function of MDR1 in the metabolism of aspirin, flux study was performed using 14C-labeled aspirin. Results: The level of aspirin-induced cell injury was higher in verapamil-treated Caco2 cells than in control cells and was less serious in MDR1-transfected Caco2 cells than in control vector-transfected cells. The efflux of 14C-labeled aspirin was higher in verapamil-treated Caco2 cells than in control cells. Conclusion: These data suggest that aspirin effux occurs through the MDR1 transporter and that the MDR1 transporter is involved in the pathogenesis of aspirin-induced cell injury.

  3. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

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    C.V. Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE-/- and wild-type (APOE+/+ C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86 were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM or phosphate buffered saline (PBS by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection. Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001 in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05 were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE-/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE+/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE-/--challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge.

  4. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, C.V.; Lazzarotto, C.R.; Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; Oliveira Alves, L.A. de; Ribeiro, R.A.; Bertolini, L.R.; Lima, A.A.M.; Brito, G.A.C.; Oriá, R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE -/- ) and wild-type (APOE +/+ ) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE -/- mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE +/+ mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE -/- -challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU challenge

  5. Alanyl-glutamine attenuates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, C.V. [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Lazzarotto, C.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Aquino, C.C.; Figueiredo, I.L.; Costa, T.B.; Oliveira Alves, L.A. de [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Ribeiro, R.A. [Laboratório da Inflamação e Câncer, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Bertolini, L.R. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Lima, A.A.M. [Laboratório de Doenças Infecciosas, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Brito, G.A.C. [Laboratório da Inflamação e Câncer, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Oriá, R.B. [Laboratório da Biologia da Cicatrização, Ontogenia e Nutrição de Tecidos, INCT - Instituto de Biomedicina do Semiárido Brasileiro, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2015-04-28

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE=gene, apoE=protein) is a known factor regulating the inflammatory response that may have regenerative effects during tissue recovery from injury. We investigated whether apoE deficiency reduces the healing effect of alanyl-glutamine (Ala-Gln) treatment, a recognized gut-trophic nutrient, during tissue recovery after 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis. APOE-knockout (APOE{sup -/-}) and wild-type (APOE{sup +/+}) C57BL6J male and female mice (N=86) were given either Ala-Gln (100 mM) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by gavage 3 days before and 5 days after a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) challenge (450 mg/kg, via intraperitoneal injection). Mouse body weight was monitored daily. The 5-FU cytotoxic effect was evaluated by leukometry. Intestinal villus height, villus/crypt ratio, and villin expression were monitored to assess recovery of the intestinal absorptive surface area. Crypt length, mitotic, apoptotic, and necrotic crypt indexes, and quantitative real-time PCR for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) intestinal mRNA transcripts were used to evaluate intestinal epithelial cell turnover. 5-FU challenge caused significant weight loss and leukopenia (P<0.001) in both mouse strains, which was not improved by Ala-Gln. Villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, and reduced villus/crypt ratio (P<0.05) were found in all 5-FU-challenged mice but not in PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus/crypt ratio, crypt length and mitotic index in all challenged mice, compared with PBS controls. Ala-Gln improved villus height only in APOE{sup -/-} mice. Crypt cell apoptosis and necrotic scores were increased in all mice challenged by 5-FU, compared with untreated controls. Those scores were significantly lower in Ala-Gln-treated APOE{sup +/+} mice than in controls. Bcl-2 and IGF-1 mRNA transcripts were reduced only in the APOE{sup -/-}-challenged mice. Altogether our findings suggest APOE-independent Ala-Gln regenerative effects after 5-FU

  6. Sex-dependent Differences in Intestinal Tumorigenesis Induced in Apc1638N/+ Mice by Exposure to {gamma} Rays

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    Trani, Daniela [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Maastricht Radiation Oncology (MaastRO) Lab, GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, University of Maastricht (Netherlands); Moon, Bo-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Kallakury, Bhaskar; Hartmann, Dan P. [Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Datta, Kamal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Fornace, Albert J., E-mail: af294@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of 1 and 5 Gy radiation doses and to investigate the interplay of gender and radiation with regard to intestinal tumorigenesis in an adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutant mouse model. Methods and Materials: Apc1638N/+ female and male mice were exposed whole body to either 1 Gy or 5 Gy of {gamma} rays and euthanized when most of the treated mice became moribund. Small and large intestines were processed to determine tumor burden, distribution, and grade. Expression of proliferation marker Ki-67 and estrogen receptor (ER)-{alpha} were also assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results: We observed that, with both 1 Gy and 5 Gy of {gamma} rays, females displayed reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis compared with males. As for radiation effect on small intestinal tumor progression, although no substantial differences were found in the relative frequency and degree of dysplasia of adenomas in irradiated animals compared with controls, invasive carcinomas were found in 1-Gy- and 5-Gy-irradiated animals. Radiation exposure was also shown to induce an increase in protein levels of proliferation marker Ki-67 and sex-hormone receptor ER-{alpha} in both non tumor mucosa and intestinal tumors from irradiated male mice. Conclusions: We observed important sex-dependent differences in susceptibility to radiation-induced intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc1638N/+ mutants. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that exposure to radiation doses as low as 1 Gy can induce a significant increase in intestinal tumor multiplicity as well as enhance tumor progression in vivo.

  7. (--Epicatechin protects the intestinal barrier from high fat diet-induced permeabilization: Implications for steatosis and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Cremonini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased permeability of the intestinal barrier is proposed as an underlying factor for obesity-associated pathologies. Consumption of high fat diets (HFD is associated with increased intestinal permeabilization and increased paracellular transport of endotoxins which can promote steatosis and insulin resistance. This study investigated whether dietary (--epicatechin (EC supplementation can protect the intestinal barrier against HFD-induced permeabilization and endotoxemia, and mitigate liver damage and insulin resistance. Mechanisms leading to loss of integrity and function of the tight junction (TJ were characterized. Consumption of a HFD for 15 weeks caused obesity, steatosis, and insulin resistance in male C57BL/6J mice. This was associated with increased intestinal permeability, decreased expression of ileal TJ proteins, and endotoxemia. Supplementation with EC (2–20 mg/kg body weight mitigated all these adverse effects. EC acted modulating cell signals and the gut hormone GLP-2, which are central to the regulation of intestinal permeability. Thus, EC prevented HFD-induced ileum NOX1/NOX4 upregulation, protein oxidation, and the activation of the redox-sensitive NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways. Supporting NADPH oxidase as a target of EC actions, in Caco-2 cells EC and apocynin inhibited tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα-induced NOX1/NOX4 overexpression, protein oxidation and monolayer permeabilization. Together, our findings demonstrate protective effects of EC against HFD-induced increased intestinal permeability and endotoxemia. This can in part underlie EC capacity to prevent steatosis and insulin resistance occurring as a consequence of HFD consumption. Keywords: Intestinal permeability, (--Epicatechin, Steatosis, Insulin resistance, Endotoxemia, NADPH oxidase

  8. Disruption of the Circadian Clock in Mice Increases Intestinal Permeability and Promotes Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Pathology and Inflammation.

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    Keith C Summa

    Full Text Available The circadian clock orchestrates temporal patterns of physiology and behavior relative to the environmental light:dark cycle by generating and organizing transcriptional and biochemical rhythms in cells and tissues throughout the body. Circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate the physiology and function of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier enables the translocation of proinflammatory bacterial products, such as endotoxin, across the intestinal wall and into systemic circulation; a process that has been linked to pathologic inflammatory states associated with metabolic, hepatic, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases - many of which are commonly reported in shift workers. Here we report, for the first time, that circadian disorganization, using independent genetic and environmental strategies, increases permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier (i.e., gut leakiness in mice. Utilizing chronic alcohol consumption as a well-established model of induced intestinal hyperpermeability, we also found that both genetic and environmental circadian disruption promote alcohol-induced gut leakiness, endotoxemia and steatohepatitis, possibly through a mechanism involving the tight junction protein occludin. Circadian organization thus appears critical for the maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity, especially in the context of injurious agents, such as alcohol. Circadian disruption may therefore represent a previously unrecognized risk factor underlying the susceptibility to or development of alcoholic liver disease, as well as other conditions associated with intestinal hyperpermeability and an endotoxin-triggered inflammatory state.

  9. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Bhargava

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1, suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK. Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  10. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A; Dixon, Brent R; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M; Buret, Andre G

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections.

  11. Consequences of PAI-1 specific deletion in endothelium on radiation-induced intestinal damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced injury to healthy tissues is a real public health problem, since they are one of the most limiting factors that restrict efficiency of radiation therapy. This problematic is also part of the French Cancer Plan 2014-2017, and involves clinical research. Concepts surrounding the development of radiation-induced damage have gradually evolved into a contemporary and integrated view of the pathogenesis, involving all compartments of target tissue. Among them, endothelium seems to be central in the sequence of interrelated events that lead to the development of radiation-induced damage, although there are rare concrete elements that support this concept. By using new transgenic mouse models, this PhD project provides a direct demonstration of an endothelium-dependent continuum in evolution of radiation-induced intestinal damage. Indeed, changes in the endothelial phenotype through targeted deletion of the gene SERPINE1, chosen because of its key role in the development of radiation enteritis, influences various parameters of the development of the disease. Thus, lack of PAI-1 secretion by endothelial cells significantly improves survival of the animals, and limits severity of early and late tissue damage after a localized small bowel irradiation. Furthermore, these mice partially KO for PAI-1 showed a decrease in the number of apoptotic intestinal stem cells in the hours following irradiation, a decrease in the macrophages infiltrate density one week after irradiation, and a change in the polarization of macrophages throughout the pathophysiological process. In an effort to protect healthy tissues from radiation therapy side effects, without hindering the cancer treatment, PAI-1 seems to be an obvious therapeutic target. Conceptually, this work represents the direct demonstration of the link between endothelium phenotype and radiation enteritis pathogenesis. (author)

  12. Intestinal or bowel obstruction - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to take care of yourself at home. Eat small amounts of food several times a day. DO NOT eat 3 large meals. You should: Space out your small meals. Add new foods back into your diet slowly. Take sips of ...

  13. Lutein Induces Autophagy via Beclin-1 Upregulation in IEC-6 Rat Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Jen; Lin, Ji-Fan; Hsiao, Chien-Yu; Chang, Hsun-Hao; Li, Hsin-Ju; Chang, Hsun-Hsien; Lee, Gon-Ann; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid with anti-oxidant properties. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved catabolic cellular pathway for coping with stress conditions, is responsive to reactive oxygen species (ROS) and degrades damaged organelles. We previously demonstrated that lutein can induce anti-oxidant enzymes to relieve methotrexate-induced ROS stress. We therefore hypothesized that lutein, which activates ROS-scavenging enzymes, can also induce autophagy for cell survival. In this study, we demonstrated that lutein treatment attenuated the reduction in cell viability caused by H 2 O 2 . Lutein dose-dependently induced the processing of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II, an autophagy marker protein, and accumulation of LC3-positive puncta in rat intestinal IEC-6 cells. Furthermore, (a) direct observation of autophagosome formation through transmission electron microscopy, (b) upregulation of autophagy-related genes including ATG4A, ATG5, ATG7, ATG12, and beclin-1 (BENC1), and (c) increased BECN1/Bcl-2 ratio confirmed the induction of autophagy by lutein. The results revealed that bafilomycin-A1-induced inhibition of autophagy reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis in lutein-treated cells, indicating a protective role of lutein-induced autophagy. Lutein treatment also activated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p-38, but had no effects on the induction of extracellular signal-related kinase or inhibition of mTOR; however, the inhibition of activated AMPK, JNK, or p-38 did not attenuate lutein-induced autophagy. Finally, increased BECN1 expression levels were detected in lutein-treated cells, and BECN1 knockdown abolished autophagy induction. These results suggest that lutein-induced autophagy was mediated by the upregulation of BECN1 in IEC-6 cells. We are the first to demonstrate that lutein induces autophagy. Elevated autophagy in lutein-treated IEC-6 cells may have a protective role

  14. Brain tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress induced by obstructive apneas is different in young and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmases, Mireia; Torres, Marta; Márquez-Kisinousky, Leonardo; Almendros, Isaac; Planas, Anna M; Embid, Cristina; Martínez-Garcia, Miguel Ángel; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon; Montserrat, Josep Maria

    2014-07-01

    To test the hypotheses that brain oxygen partial pressure (PtO2) in response to obstructive apneas changes with age and that it might lead to different levels of cerebral tissue oxidative stress. Prospective controlled animal study. University laboratory. Sixty-four male Wistar rats: 32 young (3 mo old) and 32 aged (18 mo). Protocol 1: Twenty-four animals were subjected to obstructive apneas (50 apneas/h, lasting 15 sec each) or to sham procedure for 50 min. Protocol 2: Forty rats were subjected to obstructive apneas or sham procedure for 4 h. Protocol 1: Real-time PtO2 measurements were performed using a fast-response oxygen microelectrode. During successive apneas cerebral cortex PtO2 presented a different pattern in the two age groups; there was a fast increase in young rats, whereas it remained without significant changes between the beginning and the end of the protocol in the aged group. Protocol 2: Brain oxidative stress assessed by lipid peroxidation increased after apneas in young rats (1.34 ± 0.17 nmol/mg of protein) compared to old ones (0.63 ± 0.03 nmol/mg), where a higher expression of antioxidant enzymes was observed. The results suggest that brain oxidative stress in aged rats is lower than in young rats in response to recurrent apneas, mimicking obstructive sleep apnea. This could be due to the different PtO2 response observed between age groups and the increased antioxidant expression in aged rats. Dalmases M, Torres M, Márquez-Kisinousky L, Almendros I, Planas AM, Embid C, Martínez-Garcia MA, Navajas D, Farré R, Montserrat JM. Brain tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress induced by obstructive apneas is different in young and aged rats.

  15. Antibiotics-induced depletion of mice microbiota induces changes in host serotonin biosynthesis and intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaolong; Ding, Chao; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Lizhi; Tian, Hongliang; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Minsheng; Li, Jieshou; Li, Ning

    2017-01-13

    The gastrointestinal motility is affected by gut microbiota and the relationship between them has become a hot topic. However, mechanisms of microbiota in regulating motility have not been well defined. We thus investigated the effect of microbiota depletion by antibiotics on gastrointestinal motility, colonic serotonin levels, and bile acids metabolism. After 4 weeks with antibiotics treatments, gastrointestinal and colon transit, defecation frequency, water content, and other fecal parameters were measured and analyzed in both wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice, respectively. Contractility of smooth muscle, serotonin levels, and bile acids levels in wild-type and antibiotics-treated mice were also analyzed. After antibiotics treatment, the richness and diversity of intestinal microbiota decreased significantly, and the fecal of mice had less output (P Antibiotics treatment in mice also resulted in delayed gastrointestinal and colonic motility (P antibiotics-treated mice, serotonin, tryptophan hydroxylase 1, and secondary bile acids levels were decreased. Gut microbiota play an important role in the regulation of intestinal bile acids and serotonin metabolism, which could probably contribute to the association between gut microbiota and gastrointestinal motility as intermediates.

  16. Overexpression of Heme Oxygenase-1 Prevents Renal Interstitial Inflammation and Fibrosis Induced by Unilateral Ureter Obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    Full Text Available Renal fibrosis plays an important role in the onset and progression of chronic kidney diseases. Many studies have demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is involved in diverse biological processes as a cytoprotective molecule, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanisms of HO-1 prevention in renal interstitial fibrosis remain unknown. In this study, HO-1 transgenic (TG mice were employed to investigate the effect of HO-1 on renal fibrosis using a unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO model and to explore the potential mechanisms. We found that HO-1 was adaptively upregulated in kidneys of both TG and wild type (WT mice after UUO. The levels of HO-1 mRNA and protein were increased in TG mice compared with WT mice under normal conditions. HO-1 expression was further enhanced after UUO and remained high during the entire experimental process. Renal interstitial fibrosis in the TG group was significantly attenuated compared with that in the WT group after UUO. Moreover, overexpression of HO-1 inhibited the loss of peritubular capillaries. In addition, UUO-induced activation and proliferation of myofibroblasts were suppressed by HO-1 overexpression. Furthermore, HO-1 restrained tubulointerstitial infiltration of macrophages and regulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in UUO mice. We also found that high expression of HO-1 inhibited reactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which could play a crucial role in attenuating renal fibrosis. In conclusion, these data suggest that HO-1 prevents renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis possibly by regulating the inflammatory response and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This study provides evidence that augmentation of HO-1 levels may be a therapeutic strategy against renal interstitial fibrosis.

  17. Characterization and pharmacological modulation of intestinal inflammation induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremy, O.

    2006-12-01

    The use of radiation therapy to treat abdominal and pelvic malignancies inevitably involves exposure of healthy intestinal tissues which are very radiosensitive. As a result, most patients experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and diarrhea. Such symptoms are associated with acute damage to intestine mucosa including radio-induced inflammatory processes. With a rat model of colorectal fractionated radiation, we have shown a gradual development of a colonic inflammation during radiation planning, without evident tissue injury. This radio-induced inflammation is characterized not only by the sur expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, a NF-kB activation, but also by a repression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the nuclear receptors PPARa and RXRa, both involved in inflammation control. This early inflammation is associated with a discreet neutrophil recruitment and a macrophage accumulation. Macrophages are still abnormally numerous in tissue 27 weeks after the last day of irradiation. Inflammatory process is the most often related to a specific immune profile, either a type Th1 leading to a cellular immune response, or a type Th2 for humoral immunity. According to our studies, a unique abdominal radiation in the rat induces an ileum inflammation and an immune imbalance resulting in a Th2-type profile. Inhibiting this profile is important as its persistence promotes chronic inflammation, predisposition to bacterial infections and fibrosis which is the main delayed side-effect of radiotherapy. The treatment of rats with an immuno-modulator compound, the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (C.A.P.E.), have the potential to both reduce ileal mucosal inflammation and inhibit the radio-induced Th2 status. In order to search new therapeutic molecular target, we has been interested in the PPARg nuclear receptor involved in the maintenance of colon mucosal integrity. In our abdominal irradiation model, we have demonstrated that the prophylactic

  18. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through the AT2 receptor, GATA-6 and the Bax pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lihua; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Yang, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Xingqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Yang, Hua, E-mail: hwbyang@126.com [Department of General Surgery, Xingqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ang II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cell through AT2 receptor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The apoptosis process involves in the Bax/Bcl-2 intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GATA-6 short hairpin RNA reduced Bax expression, but not Bcl-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GATA-6 may play a critical role in apoptosis in response to the Ang II challenge. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to play an important role in cell apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of Ang-II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells are not fully understood. GATA-6 is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the colorectal epithelium, which directs cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the underlying mechanism of which GATA-6 affects Ang-II induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. The in vitro intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis model was established by co-culturing Caco-2 cells with Ang II. Pretreatment with Angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, significantly reduced the expression of Bax and prevented the Caco-2 cells apoptosis induced by Ang II. In addition, Ang II up-regulated the expression of GATA-6. Interestingly, GATA-6 short hairpin RNA prevented Ang II-induced intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis and reduced the expression of Bax, but not Bcl-2. Taken together, the present study suggests that Angiotensin II promotes apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through GATA-6 and the Bax pathway in an AT2 receptor-dependent manner.

  19. Angiotensin II induces apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through the AT2 receptor, GATA-6 and the Bax pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lihua; Wang, Wensheng; Xiao, Weidong; Liang, Hongyin; Yang, Yang; Yang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ang II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cell through AT2 receptor. ► The apoptosis process involves in the Bax/Bcl-2 intrinsic pathway. ► GATA-6 short hairpin RNA reduced Bax expression, but not Bcl-2. ► GATA-6 may play a critical role in apoptosis in response to the Ang II challenge. -- Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to play an important role in cell apoptosis. However, the mechanisms of Ang-II-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells are not fully understood. GATA-6 is a zinc finger transcription factor expressed in the colorectal epithelium, which directs cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study we investigated the underlying mechanism of which GATA-6 affects Ang-II induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. The in vitro intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis model was established by co-culturing Caco-2 cells with Ang II. Pretreatment with Angiotensin type 2 (AT2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, significantly reduced the expression of Bax and prevented the Caco-2 cells apoptosis induced by Ang II. In addition, Ang II up-regulated the expression of GATA-6. Interestingly, GATA-6 short hairpin RNA prevented Ang II-induced intestinal epithelial cells apoptosis and reduced the expression of Bax, but not Bcl-2. Taken together, the present study suggests that Angiotensin II promotes apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells through GATA-6 and the Bax pathway in an AT2 receptor-dependent manner.

  20. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  1. Protective effect of Holothurian intestine against indomethacin induced gastric mucosal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Qiao, Xuejing; Zhang, Cuiping; Gao, Hua; Niu, Qinghui; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Zibin

    2017-06-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Holothurian intestines (HI) on NSAIDs-induced gastric mucosal damage and the possible mechanism. At first, 60 male Wistar rats were induced of gastric lesions with indomethacin (IDM, 30 mg kg-1). The rats were pretreated for 15 consecutive days with saline, sucralfate, or HI (0.4 g kg-1d-1, 0.8 g kg-1d-1 and 1.6 g kg-1d-1) prior to IDM treatment, followed by evaluations of macroscopic damage and microscopic features; and investigation of the levels of inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress parameters, gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and total hexosamine in tissues. The expression of COX-1 and COX-2 mRNA in the gastric tissue were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Pathological gastric ulcer indexes, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-17, TNF-α) and lipid peroxidation were significantly decreased in HI-treated groups, whereas the levels of protective factors (TGF-β, GSH, SOD activity and PGE2) were significantly elevated especially in the group with HI 1.6 g kg-1d-1 ( P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HI groups ( P < 0.05). The study investigates that holothurian intestines may act as a kind of marine medicine which have protective effect on IDM-induced gastric ulcer, which could be a dietary preventive agent for the prevention of gastric damage.

  2. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  3. Short-Chain Fatty Acids Activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase and Ameliorate Ethanol-Induced Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eamin, E.E.; Masclee, A.A.; Dekker, J.; Pieters, H.J.; Jonkers, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been shown to promote intestinal barrier function, but their protective effects against ethanol-induced intestinal injury and underlying mechanisms remain essentially unknown. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of SCFAs on ethanol-induced barrier

  4. Antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota reduces heme-induced lipoperoxidation associated with colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, O C B; Lin, C; Naud, N; Tache, S; Raymond-Letron, I; Corpet, D E; Pierre, F H

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that heme iron from red meat is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. In carcinogen-induced-rats, a heme iron-rich diet increases the number of precancerous lesions and raises associated fecal biomarkers. Heme-induced lipoperoxidation measured by fecal thiobarbituric acid reagents (TBARs) could explain the promotion of colon carcinogenesis by heme. Using a factorial design we studied if microbiota could be involved in heme-induced carcinogenesis, by modulating peroxidation. Rats treated or not with an antibiotic cocktail were given a control or a hemoglobin-diet. Fecal bacteria were counted on agar and TBARs concentration assayed in fecal water. The suppression of microbiota by antibiotics was associated with a reduction of crypt height and proliferation and with a cecum enlargement, which are characteristics of germ-free rats. Rats given hemoglobin diets had increased fecal TBARs, which were suppressed by the antibiotic treatment. A duplicate experiment in rats given dietary hemin yielded similar results. These data show that the intestinal microbiota is involved in enhancement of lipoperoxidation by heme iron. We thus suggest that microbiota could play a role in the heme-induced promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  5. Oral and nasal administration of chicken type II collagen suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats with intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Qiu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Yu-Xian; Dai, Min; Liu, Li-Hua

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the curative effects of oral and nasal administration of chicken type II collagen (CII) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats with meloxicam-induced intestinal lesions. AA model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam was established and those rats were divided randomly into six groups which included AA model, AA model+meloxicam, AA model+oral CII, AA model+nasal CII, AA model+ meloxicam+oral C II and AA model+meloxicam+nasal CII (n = 12). Rats was treated with meloxicam intragastrically for 7 d from d 14 after immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and then treated with chicken CII intragastrically or nasally for 7 d. Histological changes of right hind knees were examined. Hind paw secondary swelling and intestinal lesions were evaluated. Synoviocyte proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method. Activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) from supernatants of intestinal homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometric analysis. Intragastrical administration of meloxicam (1.5 mg/kg) induced multiple intestinal lesions in AA rats. There was a significant decrease of intestinal DAO activities in AA+meloxicam group (P<0.01) and AA model group (P<0.01) compared with normal group. DAO activities of intestinal homogenates in AA+meloxicam group were significantly less than those in AA rats (P<0.01). There was a significant increase of intestinal MPO activities in AA+meloxicam group compared with normal control (P<0.01). Oral or nasal administration of CII (20 microg/kg) could suppress the secondary hind paw swelling(P<0.05 for oral CII; P<0.01 for nasal CII), synoviocyte proliferation (P<0.01) and histopathological degradation in AA rats, but they had no significant effects on DAO and MPO changes. However, oral administration of CII (20 microg/kg) showed the limited efficacy on arthritis in AA+meloxicam model and the

  6. Early changes in microbial colonization selectively modulate intestinal enzymes, but not inducible heat shock proteins in young adult Swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Edith Arnal

    Full Text Available Metabolic diseases and obesity are developing worldwide in a context of plethoric intake of high energy diets. The intestine may play a pivotal role due to diet-induced alterations in microbiota composition and increased permeability to bacterial lipopolysaccharide inducing metabolic inflammation. Early programming of metabolic disorders appearing in later life is also suspected, but data on the intestine are lacking. Therefore, we hypothesized that early disturbances in microbial colonization have short- and long-lasting consequences on selected intestinal components including key digestive enzymes and protective inducible heat shock proteins (HSP. The hypothesis was tested in swine offspring born to control mothers (n = 12 or mothers treated with the antibiotic amoxicillin around parturition (n = 11, and slaughtered serially at 14, 28 and 42 days of age to assess short-term effects. To evaluate long-term consequences, young adult offspring from the same litters were offered a normal or a fat-enriched diet for 4 weeks between 140 and 169 days of age and were then slaughtered. Amoxicillin treatment transiently modified both mother and offspring microbiota. This was associated with early but transient reduction in ileal alkaline phosphatase, HSP70 (but not HSP27 and crypt depth, suggesting a milder or delayed intestinal response to bacteria in offspring born to antibiotic-treated mothers. More importantly, we disclosed long-term consequences of this treatment on jejunal alkaline phosphatase (reduced and jejunal and ileal dipeptidylpeptidase IV (increased and decreased, respectively of offspring born to antibiotic-treated dams. Significant interactions between early antibiotic treatment and later diet were observed for jejunal alkaline phosphatase and sucrase. By contrast, inducible HSPs were not affected. In conclusion, our data suggest that early changes in bacterial colonization not only modulate intestinal architecture and function transiently

  7. The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture at ST41 on Intestinal Hypomotility Induced with Loperamide in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sang-mi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of acpuncture and electro-acupuncture of low(EA(L and high(EA(H frequency at Haegye(ST41 on intestinal hypomotility induced with loperamide in rats. Methods : We made suppressed state of intestinal motility with loperamide in rats and carried out needle retention acupuncture, low frequency electro-acupuncture and high frequency electro-acupuncture at ST41 in rats devided into pre-treatment group and post-treatment group. We fed charcoal to them after the treatment and measured the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal track to analyze which treatment is more effective in state of intestinal hypomotility. Results : None of acupuncture, EA(L and EA(H at ST41 had significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. Needle retention at ST41 did not significantly increase intestinal motility suppressed with loperamide in rats. Pre-treatment of EA(L and EA(H at ST41 significantly increased intestinal motility suppressed with loperamide in rats. Post-treatment of EA(L and EA(H at ST41 did not have significant influences on intestinal motility of rat in normal state. Conclusions : These results suggest that treatment of EA(L and EA(H at ST41 may be effective on gastric disorders such as intestinal hypomotility and its effect had more prevention than cure. Further study is necessary to know more effects of ST41 and electro-acupuncture of low and high frequency.

  8. Heat stress impairs performance parameters, induces intestinal injury, and decreases macrophage activity in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro-Filho, W M; Ribeiro, A; Ferraz-de-Paula, V; Pinheiro, M L; Sakai, M; Sá, L R M; Ferreira, A J P; Palermo-Neto, J

    2010-09-01

    Studies on environmental consequences of stress on animal production have grown substantially in the last few years for economic and animal welfare reasons. Physiological, hormonal, and immunological deficits as well as increases in animals' susceptibility to diseases have been reported after different stressors in broiler chickens. The aim of the current experiment is to describe the effects of 2 different heat stressors (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C/10 h per d) applied to broiler chickens from d 35 to 42 of life on the corticosterone serum levels, performance parameters, intestinal histology, and peritoneal macrophage activity, correlating and discussing the obtained data under a neuroimmune perspective. In our study, we demonstrated that heat stress (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) increased the corticosterone serum levels and decreased BW gain and food intake. Only chickens submitted to 36 +/- 1 degrees C, however, presented a decrease in feed conversion and increased mortality. We also showed a decrease of bursa of Fabricius (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C), thymus (36 +/- 1 degrees C), and spleen (36 +/- 1 degrees C) relative weights and of macrophage basal (31 +/- 1 and 36 +/- 1 degrees C) and Staphylococcus aureus-induced oxidative burst (31 +/- 1 degrees C). Finally, mild multifocal acute enteritis characterized by an increased presence of lymphocytes and plasmocytes within the jejunum's lamina propria was also observed. The stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation was taken as responsible for the negative effects observed on the chickens' performance and immune function and also the changes of the intestinal mucosa. The present obtained data corroborate with others in the field of neuroimmunomodulation and open new avenues for the improvement of broiler chicken welfare and production performance.

  9. Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Lee, Yong Seok

    1992-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction syndrome is a rare clinical condition in which impaired intestinal peristalsis causes recurrent symptoms of bowel obstruction in the absence of a mechanical occlusion. This syndrome may involve variable segments of small or large bowel, and may be associated with urinary bladder retention. This study included 6 children(3 boys and 3 girls) of chronic intestinal obstruction. Four were symptomatic at birth and two were of the ages of one month and one year. All had abdominal distension and deflection difficulty. Five had urinary bladder distension. Despite parenteral nutrition and surgical intervention(ileostomy or colostomy), bowel obstruction persisted and four patients expired from sepses within one year. All had gaseous distension of small and large bowel on abdominal films. In small bowel series, consistent findings were variable degree of dilatation, decreased peristalsis(prolonged transit time) and microcolon or microrectum. This disease entity must be differentiated from congenital megacolon, ileal atresia and megacystis syndrome

  10. A gene expression programme induced by bovine colostrum whey promotes growth and wound-healing processes in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S; Boutin, Y; Lessard, M

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum is well known for its beneficial properties on health and development. It contains a wide variety of bioactive ingredients that are known to promote a number of cellular processes. Therefore the use of colostrum whey as a feed additive to promote intestinal health has been proposed, yet little is known about mechanisms implicated in its beneficial properties on intestinal epithelial cells. In the present paper, casein were removed from bovine colostrum and the remaining liquid, rich in bioactive compounds, was evaluated for its capacity to modulate cellular processes in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 and human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2/15. First, we verified the effect of colostrum whey and cheese whey on processes involved in intestinal wound healing, including cell proliferation, attachment, morphology and migration. Our results showed that colostrum whey promoted proliferation and migration, and decreased specifically the attachment of Caco-2/15 cells on the culture dish. On the other hand, cheese whey induced proliferation and morphological changes in IPEC-J2 cells, but failed to induce migration. The gene expression profile of IPEC-J2 cells following colostrum whey treatment was evaluated by microarray analysis. Results revealed that the expression of a significant number of genes involved in cell migration, adhesion and proliferation was indeed affected in colostrum whey-treated cells. In conclusion, colostrum specific bioactive content could be beneficial for intestinal epithelial cell homoeostasis by controlling biological processes implicated in wound healing through a precise gene expression programme.

  11. Enhanced platelet adhesion induces angiogenesis in intestinal inflammation and inflammatory bowel disease microvasculature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutella, Sergio; Vetrano, Stefania; Correale, Carmen; Graziani, Cristina; Sturm, Andreas; Spinelli, Antonino; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Repici, Alessandro; Malesci, Alberto; Danese, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although angiogenesis is viewed as a fundamental component of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, we presently lack a thorough knowledge of the cell type(s) involved in its induction and maintenance in the inflamed intestinal mucosa. This study aimed to determine whether platelet (PLT) adhesion to inflamed intestinal endothelial cells of human origin may favour angiogenesis. Unstimulated or thrombin-activated human PLT were overlaid on resting or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α-treated human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC), in the presence or absence of blocking antibodies to either vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, integrin αvβ3, tissue factor (TF) or fractalkine (FKN). PLT adhesion to HIMEC was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, and release of angiogenic factors (VEGF and soluble CD40L) was measured by ELISA. A matrigel tubule formation assay was used to estimate PLT capacity to induce angiogenesis after co-culturing with HIMEC. TNF-α up-regulated ICAM-1, αvβ3 and FKN expression on HIMEC. When thrombin-activated PLT were co-cultured with unstimulated HIMEC, PLT adhesion increased significantly, and this response was further enhanced by HIMEC activation with TNF-α. PLT adhesion to HIMEC was VCAM-1 and TF independent but ICAM-1, FKN and integrin αvβ3 dependent. VEGF and sCD40L were undetectable in HIMEC cultures either before or after TNF-α stimulation. By contrast, VEGF and sCD40L release significantly increased when resting or activated PLT were co-cultured with TNF-α-pre-treated HIMEC. These effects were much more pronounced when PLT were derived from IBD patients. Importantly, thrombin-activated PLT promoted tubule formation in HIMEC, a functional estimate of their angiogenic potential. In conclusion, PLT adhesion to TNF-α-pre-treated HIMEC is mediated by ICAM-1, FKN and αvβ3, and is associated with VEGF and sCD40L release. These findings suggest that

  12. Administration of Protein kinase D1 induce an immunomodulatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal inflammation in a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein. The effect of administering PKD1 to Caco-2 was evaluated in relation to both amelioration of inflammation and the ability to suppress inflammation initiation. Administration of PKD1 (10–100 ng/ml) following induction...

  13. IL-18Rα-deficient CD4+T cells induce intestinal inflammation in the CD45RBhitransfer model of colitis despite impaired innate responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, Petra; Pool, Lieneke; Hägerbrand, Karin

    2016-01-01

    IL-18 has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however its role in the regulation of intestinal CD4+ T-cell function remains unclear. Here we show that murine intestinal CD4+ T cells express high levels of IL-18Rα and provide evidence that IL-18Rα expression is induced on these ce......IL-18 has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however its role in the regulation of intestinal CD4+ T-cell function remains unclear. Here we show that murine intestinal CD4+ T cells express high levels of IL-18Rα and provide evidence that IL-18Rα expression is induced...

  14. Muscle α-adrenergic responsiveness during exercise and ATP-induced vasodilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, U W; Munch, G W; Ryrsø, C K; Secher, N H; Lange, P; Thaning, P; Pedersen, B K; Mortensen, S P

    2018-02-01

    Sympathetic vasoconstriction is blunted in exercising muscle (functional sympatholysis) but becomes attenuated with age. We tested the hypothesis that functional sympatholysis is further impaired in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined leg blood flow and calculated leg vascular conductance (LVC) during 1) femoral-arterial Tyramine infusion (evokes endogenous norepinephrine release, 1 µmol·min -1 ·kg leg mass -1 ), 2) one-legged knee extensor exercise with and without Tyramine infusion [10 W and 20% of maximal workload (WL max )], 3) ATP (0.05 µmol·min -1 ·kg leg mass -1 ) and Tyramine infusion, and 4) incremental ATP infusions (0.05, 0.3, and 3.0 µmol·min -1 ·kg leg mass -1 ). We included 10 patients with moderate to severe COPD and 8 age-matched healthy control subjects. Overall, leg blood flow and LVC were lower in COPD patients during exercise ( P Incremental ATP infusions induced dose-dependent vasodilation with no difference between groups, and, in addition, the vasoconstrictor response to Tyramine infused together with ATP was not different between groups (COPD: -0.03 ± 0.01 l·min -1 ·kg leg mass -1 vs. -0.04 ± 0.01 l·min -1 ·kg leg mass -1 , P > 0.05). Compared with age-matched healthy control subjects, the vasodilatory response to ATP is intact in COPD patients and their ability to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction (functional sympatholysis) as evaluated by intra-arterial Tyramine during exercise or ATP infusion is maintained. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The ability to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising muscle and ATP-induced dilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients remains unexplored. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients demonstrated similar sympathetic vasoconstriction in response to intra-arterial Tyramine during exercise and ATP-induced vasodilation compared with age-matched healthy control subjects.

  15. Psychological stress exacerbates NSAID-induced small bowel injury by inducing changes in intestinal microbiota and permeability via glucocorticoid receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Kurihara, Chie; Furuhashi, Hirotaka; Takajo, Takeshi; Maruta, Koji; Yasutake, Yuichi; Sato, Hirokazu; Narimatsu, Kazuyuki; Okada, Yoshikiyo; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Watanabe, Chikako; Komoto, Shunsuke; Tomita, Kengo; Nagao, Shigeaki; Miura, Soichiro; Tajiri, Hisao; Hokari, Ryota

    2017-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are popular painkillers, but they have serious side effects, not only in the upper gastrointestinal tract but also in the small intestine. It is well known that psychological stress may exacerbate various gastrointestinal diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether psychological stress exacerbates NSAID enteropathy and to determine the possible underlying mechanisms for this. Experiment 1: mice were exposed to water avoidance stress (WAS) or sham stress for 1 h per day for 8 consecutive days, and then enteropathy was induced by indomethacin. Experiment 2: cecal contents from stress (-) or (+) mice were transplanted into mice that had received antibiotics and in which NSAID enteropathy had been induced without WAS. Experiment 3: mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, was injected before WAS for 8 days. Small intestinal injury, mRNA expression of TNFα, intestinal permeability, and the microbial community were assessed. Psychological stress exacerbated NSAID enteropathy and increased intestinal permeability. Psychological stress induced changes in the ileal microbiota that were characterized by increases in the total number of bacteria and the proportion of Gram-negative bacteria. The increased susceptibility to NSAIDs and intestinal permeability due to WAS was transferable via cecal microbiota transplantation. The increased permeability and aggravation of NSAID enteropathy caused by WAS were blocked by the administration of mifepristone. This study demonstrated a relationship between NSAID enteropathy and psychological stress, and showed the utility of studying the intestinal microbiota in order to elucidate the pathophysiology of NSAID enteropathy. It also showed the impact of stress on the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal barrier in gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Comparison of the area of the pharynx during wakefulness and induced sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana Célia; Garcia, Luis Vicente; Santos, Antonio Carlos Dos; Diniz, Paula Rejane Beserra; Ribeiro, Helcio Tadeu; Mello-Filho, Francisco Veríssimo de

    2012-02-01

    The study of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has received growing attention over the past years since various aspects have not been sufficiently established. To evaluate, with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), changes in the area of the pharynx during wakefulness and induced sleep in patients with OSA. A prospective study of thirty-two patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA. All patients were submitted to MR imaging in order to obtain high-definition anatomical sagittal sequences during wakefulness and during sleep induced with Propofol. An area was defined on the sagittal plane in the midline of the pharynx. This region was called pharyngeal midplane (PMP) area. A significant difference in PMP area (mm²) was observed between wakefulness and induced sleep in each patient (p sleep compared to wakefulness.

  17. THE HAZARD OF INDUCING FENERAL ANESTHESIA BEFORE CORRECTION OF AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZEINALABEDIN JAVADZADEH

    1987-05-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative diagnosis of an airway obstruction should alert anesthetist to a potentially life threatening situation. Intubation of the trachea while the patient is awa- ke or tra~heostomy under local anesthesia is a most useful technique and safty method in induction of anesthesia where problems are anticipated during the induction or g e ne r a l anesthesia.

  18. Managing neonatal bowel obstruction: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desoky SM

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarah M Desoky,1 Ranjit I Kylat,2 Unni Udayasankar,1 Dorothy Gilbertson-Dahdal1 1Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: Neonatal intestinal obstruction is a common surgical emergency and occurs in approximately 1 in 2,000 live births. The causes of obstruction are diverse with varied embryological origins, and some underlying etiologies are not yet well described. Some findings of neonatal bowel obstruction can be detected prenatally on ultrasound imaging. The obstruction is classified as “high” when the level of obstruction is proximal to the ileum, and “low” when the level of obstruction is at the ileum or colon. Early diagnosis of the type of intestinal obstruction and localization of the obstructive bowel segment guides timely and appropriate management of the underlying pathologic entity. Neonatal bowel obstructions are ideally managed at specialized centers with a large volume of neonatal surgery and dedicated pediatric surgical and anesthesia expertise. Although surgical intervention is necessary in most cases, initial management strategies often target underlying metabolic, cardiac, or respiratory abnormalities. Imaging plays a key role in early and accurate diagnosis of the abnormalities. When bowel obstruction is suspected clinically, initial imaging workup usually involves abdominal radiography, which may direct further evaluation with fluoroscopic examination such as upper gastrointestinal (UGI contrast study or contrast enema. This article provides a comprehensive review of clinical and radiological features of common and less common causes of intestinal obstruction in the neonatal age group, including esophageal atresia, enteric duplication cysts, gastric volvulus, congenital microgastria, hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, duodenal atresia

  19. Nonfixation of the falciform ligament discovered during laparoscopic pyloromyotomy in a 3-week-old infant: A potential cause of intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Maloney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Failure of the peritoneum to fuse with the umbilical vein can lead to nonfixation of the falciform ligament. The exposed remnant of umbilical vein persists as a congenital band spanning the peritoneal cavity from the umbilicus to the liver. This abnormality has been associated with internal herniation and bowel obstruction in infants. We describe a case of pyloric stenosis in an infant who, at the time of laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, was found to have nonfixation of the falciform ligament causing a volvulus of the transverse colon without clinical signs of obstruction.

  20. Protein kinase C δ signaling is required for dietary prebiotic-induced strengthening of intestinal epithelial barrier function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Richard Y.; Abdullah, Majd; Määttänen, Pekka; Pilar, Ana Victoria C.; Scruten, Erin; Johnson-Henry, Kathene C.; Napper, Scott; O’Brien, Catherine; Jones, Nicola L.; Sherman, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that in the absence of microbiota, prebiotics can directly exert barrier protective effects by activating host cell signaling in the intestinal epithelium, which represents a novel alternative mechanism of action of prebiotics. PMID:28098206

  1. Role of p53 in Anticancer Drug Treatment- and Radiation-Induced Injury in Normal Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shi

    2012-01-01

    In the human gastrointestinal tract, the functional mucosa of the small intestine has the highest capacity for absorption of nutrients and rapid proliferation rates, making it vulnerable to chemoradiotherapy. Recent understanding of the protective role of p53-mediated cell cycle arrest in the small intestinal mucosa has led researchers to explore new avenues to mitigate mucosal injury during cancer treatment. A traditional p53 inhibitor and two other molecules that exhibit strong protective effects on normal small intestinal epithelium during anticancer drug treatment and radiation therapy are introduced in this work. The objective of this review was to update current knowledge regarding potential mechanisms and targets that inhibit the side effects induced by chemoradiotherapy

  2. Protein kinase C δ signaling is required for dietary prebiotic-induced strengthening of intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Richard Y; Abdullah, Majd; Määttänen, Pekka; Pilar, Ana Victoria C; Scruten, Erin; Johnson-Henry, Kathene C; Napper, Scott; O'Brien, Catherine; Jones, Nicola L; Sherman, Philip M

    2017-01-18

    Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides that promote the growth of beneficial gut microbes, but it is unclear whether they also have direct effects on the intestinal mucosal barrier. Here we demonstrate two commercial prebiotics, inulin and short-chain fructo-oligosaccharide (scFOS), when applied onto intestinal epithelia in the absence of microbes, directly promote barrier integrity to prevent pathogen-induced barrier disruptions. We further show that these effects involve the induction of select tight junction (TJ) proteins through a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that in the absence of microbiota, prebiotics can directly exert barrier protective effects by activating host cell signaling in the intestinal epithelium, which represents a novel alternative mechanism of action of prebiotics.

  3. Modulatory effect of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Suresh; Shetty, A K; Salimath, P V

    2005-06-01

    To elucidate the effect of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric (10%) on disaccharidases activities, the specific activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases viz., sucrase, maltase and lactase were measured in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes and amelioration of these activities during diabetes was clearly visible by supplementing fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in the diet. However during diabetes renal disaccharidases activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric supplementations were beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes, however not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes.

  4. The Protective Role of Ginkgo Biloba against Radiation Induced Injury on Rat Gastro-intestinal Tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghazaly, M.A.; Gharib, O.A.; El-Sheikh, M.M.; Khayyal, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (EGb 761) is an antioxidant substance exhibits a wide variety of biological activities. The present study was performed to evaluate oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters of gastrointestinal injury induced by exposing rats to acute doses of γ-rays and the potential value of EGb 761 in preventing changes in these parameters. Male albino rats were treated orally with the extract in a dose of 100 mg/ kg for 7 successive days before whole body exposure to acute radiation levels of 2 and 6 Gray (Gy). Control groups were run concurrently. The rats were sacrificed 3 days after irradiation. Various inflammatory mediators and biochemical parameters were determined in the stomach and intestine. Both tissues were also examined histopathologically. Exposure to radiation led to dose dependent changes in the level of oxidative stress biomarkers (elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and nitrite associated with a glutathione (GSH) decrease as well as in the level of inflammatory parameters (elevation of Tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) associated with depletion of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ). Pre-treatment with EGb 761 protected against the changes in both oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory mediators. EGb 761 exerted a protective effect against the radiation induced gastrointestinal damage, possibly through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.

  5. Hydrogen-rich saline inhibits tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by alleviating airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zibing; Geng, Wenye; Jiang, Chuanwei; Zhao, Shujun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun; Li, Chenxu; Zhang, Xinfang; Si, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease induced by tobacco smoke has been regarded as a great health problem worldwide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline, a novel antioxidant, on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and explore the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley rats were made chronic obstructive pulmonary disease models via tobacco smoke exposure for 12 weeks and the rats were treated with 10 ml/kg hydrogen-rich saline intraperitoneally during the last 4 weeks. Lung function testing indicated hydrogen-rich saline decreased lung airway resistance and increased lung compliance and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 0.1 s/forced vital capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. Histological analysis revealed that hydrogen-rich saline alleviated morphological impairments of lung in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. ELISA assay showed hydrogen-rich saline lowered the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8 and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. The content of malondialdehyde in lung tissue and serum was also determined and the data indicated hydrogen-rich saline suppressed oxidative stress reaction. The protein expressions of mucin MUC5C and aquaporin 5 involved in mucus hypersecretion were analyzed by Western blot and ELISA and the data revealed that hydrogen-rich saline down-regulated MUC5AC level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue and up-regulated aquaporin 5 level in lung tissue of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that administration of hydrogen-rich saline exhibits significant protective effect on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through alleviating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress and lessening mucus hypersecretion in tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rats

  6. Interferon-γ induces expression of MHC class II on intestinal epithelial cells and protects mice from colitis.

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    Christoph Thelemann

    Full Text Available Immune responses against intestinal microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD and involve CD4(+ T cells, which are activated by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs. However, it is largely unexplored how inflammation-induced MHCII expression by intestinal epithelial cells (IEC affects CD4(+ T cell-mediated immunity or tolerance induction in vivo. Here, we investigated how epithelial MHCII expression is induced and how a deficiency in inducible epithelial MHCII expression alters susceptibility to colitis and the outcome of colon-specific immune responses. Colitis was induced in mice that lacked inducible expression of MHCII molecules on all nonhematopoietic cells, or specifically on IECs, by continuous infection with Helicobacter hepaticus and administration of interleukin (IL-10 receptor-blocking antibodies (anti-IL10R mAb. To assess the role of interferon (IFN-γ in inducing epithelial MHCII expression, the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis was used. Abrogation of MHCII expression by nonhematopoietic cells or IECs induces colitis associated with increased colonic frequencies of innate immune cells and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CD4(+ T-helper type (Th1 cells - but not group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs or Th17 cells - are elevated, resulting in an unfavourably altered ratio between CD4(+ T cells and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+ regulatory T (Treg cells. IFN-γ produced mainly by CD4(+ T cells is required to upregulate MHCII expression by IECs. These results suggest that, in addition to its proinflammatory roles, IFN-γ exerts a critical anti-inflammatory function in the intestine which protects against colitis by inducing MHCII expression on IECs. This may explain the failure of anti-IFN-γ treatment to induce remission in IBD patients, despite the association of elevated IFN-γ and IBD.

  7. Protective Effect of Royal Jelly against Phenylhydrazine-induced Histological Injuries of Small Intestine of Mice: Morphometric Analyses

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    Hojat Anbara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenylhydrazine (PHZ, as a known hemolytic agent, causes toxicity in different tissues at various levels. The aim of the current study was to examine the possible protective effects of royal jelly (RJ against PHZ-induced histological injuries of small intestine in mice.   Methods: In this experimental study, adult male mice were randomly divided into four groups of 8 mice each. PHZ was administered intraperitoneally to two groups of mice (at a dose of 60mg/kg every 48 hours for 35 days. One of the groups received RJ (100mg/kg orally 4 hours before PHZ administration. The third group only received RJ, and the forth group was considered as control. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, different segments of small intestine were dissected out, then histological sections were prepared and quantitative morphometric assessments were performed. To compare the groups, one-way ANOVA and multiple comparative Tukey tests were used. The significance level was considered to be p<0.05.   Results: In this study, PHZ caused significant decreases in depth of duodenal crypts, distribution rate of the goblet cells in ileal villi, width of duodenal and jejunal villi, and height of villi in all three segments of small intestine. Co-administration of RJ partially improved the changes in the above parameters.   Conclusion: From results of this study, it seems that RJ as a free radical scavenger could reduce PHZ-induced intestinal toxicity in mouse.

  8. An orally active Cannabis extract with high content in cannabidiol attenuates chemical induced intestinal inflammation and hypermotility in the mouse

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    Ester Pagano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD, here named CBD BDS for CBD botanical drug substance, on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS. Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage - after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol. The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain and liver after the oral treatments were measured by HPLC coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion or orally (only at one dose. In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.

  9. Microbiota-inducible Innate Immune, Siderophore Binding Protein Lipocalin 2 is Critical for Intestinal Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Yeoh, Beng San; Chassaing, Benoit; Zhang, Benyue; Saha, Piu; Xiao, Xia; Awasthi, Deepika; Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Dikshit, Madhu; Gewirtz, Andrew; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2016-07-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a multifunctional innate immune protein whose expression closely correlates with extent of intestinal inflammation. However, whether Lcn2 plays a role in the pathogenesis of gut inflammation is unknown. Herein, we investigated the extent to which Lcn2 regulates inflammation and gut bacterial dysbiosis in mouse models of IBD. Lcn2 expression was monitored in murine colitis models and upon microbiota ablation/restoration. WT and Lcn2 knockout ( Lcn2 KO) mice were analyzed for gut bacterial load, composition by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and, their colitogenic potential by co-housing with Il-10 KO mice. Acute (dextran sodium sulfate) and chronic (IL-10R neutralization and T-cell adoptive transfer) colitis was induced in WT and Lcn2 KO mice with or without antibiotics. Lcn2 expression was dramatically induced upon inflammation and was dependent upon presence of a gut microbiota and MyD88 signaling. Use of bone-marrow chimeric mice revealed non-immune cells are the major contributors of circulating Lcn2. Lcn2 KO mice exhibited elevated levels of entA -expressing gut bacteria burden and, moreover, a broadly distinct bacterial community relative to WT littermates. Lcn2 KO mice developed highly colitogenic T-cells and exhibited exacerbated colitis upon exposure to DSS or neutralization of IL-10. Such exacerbated colitis could be prevented by antibiotic treatment. Moreover, exposure to the microbiota of Lcn2 KO mice, via cohousing, resulted in severe colitis in Il-10 KO mice. Lcn2 is a bacterially-induced, MyD88-dependent, protein that play an important role in gut homeostasis and a pivotal role upon challenge. Hence, therapeutic manipulation of Lcn2 levels may provide a strategy to help manage diseases driven by alteration of the gut microbiota.

  10. Ascorbic Acid may Exacerbate Aspirin-Induced Increase in Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Ivana R; Kruger, Marlena C; Hurst, Roger D; Lentle, Roger G

    2015-09-01

    Ascorbic acid in combination with aspirin has been used to prevent aspirin-induced oxidative GI damage. We aimed to determine whether ascorbic acid reduces or prevents aspirin-induced changes in intestinal permeability over a 6-hr period using saccharidic probes mannitol and lactulose. The effects of administration of 600 mg aspirin alone, 500 mg ascorbic acid alone and simultaneous dosage of both agents were compared in a cross-over study in 28 healthy female volunteers. These effects were also compared with that of a placebo. The ability of ascorbic acid to mitigate the effects of aspirin when administered either half an hour before or after dosage with aspirin was also assessed in 19 healthy female volunteers. The excretion of lactulose over the 6-hr period was augmented after consumption of either aspirin or ascorbic acid compared with that after consumption of placebo. Dosage with ascorbic acid alone augmented the excretion of lactulose more than did aspirin alone. Simultaneous dosage with both agents augmented the excretion of lactulose in an additive manner. The timing of dosage with ascorbic acid in relation to that with aspirin had no significant effect on the excretion of the two sugars. These findings indicate that ascorbic acid does not prevent aspirin-induced increase in gut permeability rather that both agents augment it to a similar extent. The additive effect on simultaneous dosage with both agents in augmenting the absorption of lactulose suggests that each influences paracellular permeability by different pathways. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Dietary Bacillus subtilis-based direct-fed microbials alleviate LPS-induced intestinal immunological stress and improve intestinal barrier gene expression in commercial broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Ujvala Deepthi; Oh, Sungtaek; Lee, Youngsub; Davis, Ellen; Zimmerman, Noah; Rehberger, Tom; Lillehoj, Hyun Soon

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotics on the performance, modulation of host inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier gene expression of broilers subjected to LPS challenge. Chickens were randomly allocated to one of the 3 dietary treatment groups - control, antibiotic, or probiotic. At 14days, half of the chickens in each treatment were injected with LPS (1mg/kg body weight), and the other half injected with sterile PBS. Chickens fed probiotics weighed significantly more than controls at 15days of age, irrespective of immune challenge. LPS challenge significantly reduced weight gain at 24h post-injection, and the probiotics did not alleviate the LPS-induced reduction of weight gain. Serum α-1-AGP levels were significantly higher in LPS-injected chickens, and probiotic supplementation significantly reduced their levels. The percentages of CD4+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in probiotic groups in the absence of immunological challenge but were reduced during LPS challenge compared to controls. CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly reduced in probiotic-fed birds. The LPS-induced increase in the expression of cytokines IL8 and TNFSF15 was reduced by probiotic supplementation, and IL17F, iNOS expression was found to be significantly elevated in probiotic-fed birds subjected to LPS challenge. The reduced gene expression of tight junction proteins (JAM2, occludin and ZO1) and MUC2 induced by LPS challenge was reversed by probiotic supplementation. The results indicate that B. subtilis-based probiotics differentially regulate intestinal immune and tight junction protein mRNA expression during states of LPS-mediated immunological challenge. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Midgut volvulus: a rare cause of episodes of intestinal obstruction in an adult; Volvulo de intestino medio: una rara causa de crisis oclusivas en el adulto

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    Palomo, V.; Higuera, A.; Munoz, R.; Sanchez, F. [Hospital Alto Guadalquivir. Andujar. Jaen (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Midgut volvulus occurs frequently in infants and children, but is uncommon in adults. We present a case of intestinal malrotation complicated by midgut volvulus in a young woman who complained of chronic intermittent abdominal pain of increasing intensity. The radiologies diagnosis was based mainly on upper gastrointestinal barium study, and was confirmed intraoperatively. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. Intestinal CREBH overexpression prevents high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia by reducing Npc1l1 expression

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    Takuya Kikuchi

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Intestinal CREBH regulates dietary cholesterol flow from the small intestine by controlling the expression of multiple intestinal transporters. We propose that intestinal CREBH could be a therapeutic target for hypercholesterolemia.

  14. Identification of an intestine-specific promoter and inducible expression of bacterial α-galactosidase in mammalian cells by a lac operon system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Feng, Zhai; Gang, Shu; Xiao-Tong, Zhu; Zhi-Qi, Zhang; Xia-Jing, Lin; Song-Bo, Wang; Li-Na, Wang; Yong-Liang, Zhang; Qing-Yan, Jiang

    2012-10-30

    α-galactosidase has been widely used in animal husbandry to reduce anti-nutritional factors (such as α-galactoside) in feed. Intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of α-galactosidase would be highly beneficial for transgenic animal production. To achieve the intestine-specific and substrate inducible expression of α-galactosidase, we first identified intestine-specific promoters by comparing the transcriptional activity and tissue specificity of four intestine-specific promoters from human intestinal fatty acid binding protein, rat intestinal fatty acid binding protein, human mucin-2 and human lysozyme. We made two chimeric constructs combining the promoter and enhancer of human mucin-2, rat intestinal trefoil factor and human sucrase-isomaltase. Then a modified lac operon system was constructed to investigate the induction of α-galactosidase expression and enzyme activity by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and an α-galactosidase substrate, α-lactose.We declared that the research carried out on human (Zhai Yafeng) was in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and experimental research on animals also followed internationally recognized guidelines. The activity of the human mucin-2 promoter was about 2 to 3 times higher than that of other intestine-specific promoters. In the lac operon system, the repressor significantly decreased (P lactose supplementation reversed (P operon system in an intestine-derived cell line, which could be of great value for gene therapy applications and transgenic animal production.

  15. The role of metabolism in Diclofenac-induced intestinal toxicity in human ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; Makkinje, Miriam; de Graaf, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva

    2012-01-01

    The use of Diclofenac (DCF: 2-(2,6-dichloranilino) phenyl acetic acid ), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is associated with severe gastro-intestinal side-effects. In vivo rat studies suggest that reactive metabolites of DCF, produced by the liver, play an important role in the intestinal

  16. Consequences of Mrp2 deficiency for diclofenac-induced toxicity in rat intestine in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; van de Vegte, Dennis; Makkinje, Miriam; de Graaf, Inge; Groothuis, Genoveva

    Diclofenac (DCF), a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is associated with high prevalence of severe intestinal side-effects. The reactive metabolite diclofenac acylglucuronide (DAG) formed in the liver, and transported by bile into the intestine was reported to be involved in

  17. Electroacupuncture Inhibits Inflammation Reaction by Upregulating Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide in Rats with Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis

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    Tian-Feng He

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is emerging as an alternative therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this beneficial effect of acupuncture has not been fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that electroacupuncture at acupoints Zusanli (ST36, Xuanzhong (GB39; and Shenshu (BL23 markedly decreased the paw swelling and the histologic scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue, and reduced the body weight loss in an adjuvant-induced arthritis rat model. However, the electrical stimulation at nonacupoint did not produce any beneficial effects against the experimental arthritis. Most interestingly, the electroacupuncture treatment resulted in an enhanced immunostaining for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, a potent anti-inflammatory neuropeptide, in the synovial tissue. Moreover, the VIP-immunostaining intensity was significantly negatively correlated with the scores of inflammation in the synovial tissue (r=−0.483, P=.0026. In conclusion, these findings suggest that electroacupuncture may offer therapeutic benefits for the treatment of RA, at least partially through the induction of VIP expression.

  18. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  19. Soybean β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Xiu; Guo, Lin-Ying; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Liu, Yang; Hu, Kai; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Tang, Ling; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2013-01-01

    β-Conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR), feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by β-conglycinin. β-Conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, β-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR) gene was reduced by β-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) genes were increased by β-conglycinin. However, β-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of β-conglycinin-induced negative effects.

  20. Soybean β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xiu Zhang

    Full Text Available β-Conglycinin has been identified as one of the major feed allergens. However, studies of β-conglycinin on fish are scarce. This study investigated the effects of β-conglycinin on the growth, digestive and absorptive ability, inflammatory response, oxidative status and gene expression of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian in vivo and their enterocytes in vitro. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR, feed intake, and feed efficiency were reduced by β-conglycinin. In addition, activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, creatine kinase, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine showed similar tendencies. The protein content of the hepatopancreas and intestines, and the weight and length of the intestines were all reduced by β-conglycinin. β-Conglycinin increased lipid and protein oxidation in the detected tissues and cells. However, β-conglycinin decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and glutathione reductase (GR activities and glutathione (GSH content in the intestine and enterocytes. Similar antioxidant activity in the hepatopancreas was observed, except for GST. The expression of target of rapamycin (TOR gene was reduced by β-conglycinin. Furthermore, mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β genes were increased by β-conglycinin. However, β-conglycinin increased CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, and GPx1b gene expression. In conclusion, this study indicates that β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation, and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish, and finally reduces fish growth. The results of this study provide some information to the mechanism of β-conglycinin-induced negative effects.

  1. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Eunice B; Maga, Elizabeth A; Quetz, Josiane S; Lima, Ila F N; Magalhães, Hemerson Y F; Rodrigues, Felipe A R; Silva, Antônio V A; Prata, Mara M G; Cavalcante, Paloma A; Havt, Alexandre; Bertolini, Marcelo; Bertolini, Luciana R; Lima, Aldo A M

    2012-08-11

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 μg/ml. Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of lysozyme offers additional protection.

  2. Rifaximin-extended intestinal release induces remission in patients with moderately active Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantera, Cosimo; Lochs, Herbert; Grimaldi, Maria; Danese, Silvio; Scribano, Maria Lia; Gionchetti, Paolo

    2012-03-01

    Bacteria might be involved in the development and persistence of inflammation in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), and antibiotics could be used in therapy. We performed a clinical phase 2 trial to determine whether a gastroresistant formulation of rifaximin (extended intestinal release [EIR]) induced remission in patients with moderately active CD. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of the efficacy and safety of 400, 800, and 1200 mg rifaximin-EIR, given twice daily to 402 patients with moderately active CD for 12 weeks. Data from patients given rifaximin-EIR were compared with those from individuals given placebo, and collected during a 12-week follow-up period. The primary end point was remission (Crohn's Disease Activity Index <150) at the end of the treatment period. At the end of the 12-week treatment period, 62% of patients who received the 800-mg dosage of rifaximin-EIR (61 of 98) were in remission, compared with 43% of patients who received placebo (43 of 101) (P = .005). A difference was maintained throughout the 12-week follow-up period (45% [40 of 89] vs 29% [28 of 98]; P = .02). Remission was achieved by 54% (56 of 104) and 47% (47 of 99) of the patients given the 400-mg and 1200-mg dosages of rifaximin-EIR, respectively; these rates did not differ from those of placebo. Patients given the 400-mg and 800-mg dosages of rifaximin-EIR had low rates of withdrawal from the study because of adverse events; rates were significantly higher among patients given the 1200-mg dosage (16% [16 of 99]). Administration of 800 mg rifaximin-EIR twice daily for 12 weeks induced remission with few adverse events in patients with moderately active CD. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Ahn, Gun Young; Choi, Jang Won; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Hoon; Moon, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Il

    The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females) diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n=41) and post-menopausal patients (n=37). The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI). DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6kg/m 2 vs. 23.5kg/m 2 ; p=0.019) tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO 2 , but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p=0.001) and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p=0.003) compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p≤0.0001, and lateral diameter, p=0.042) in the lower BMI group (BMI<25) and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p=0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p=0.003) in higher BMI group (BMI≥25) than BMI and age matched male patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed a different pattern of airway

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women: a comparative study using drug induced sleep endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Kweon Koo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The key to successful treatment of OSAS is to individually tailor such treatment. Thus, it is very important to determine the severity of OSAS, its pattern, and the extent of collapse, by gender, age, and BMI. Objective: The objective of the study was to understand the characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea in postmenopausal women by comparing postmenopausal and premenopausal subjects, and men, using DISE. We hope that our work will help the medical community to consult on, diagnose, and treat OSAS more effectively. Methods: A total of 273 patients (195 males and 78 females diagnosed with OSAS were enrolled. Female patients were divided into pre-menopausal (n = 41 and post-menopausal patients (n = 37. The group of post-menopausal female patients was matched with a group of male patients with similar age and body mass index (BMI. DISE findings were compared between pre-menopausal female patients and post-menopausal female patients, and also between post-menopausal female patients and male patients matched for age and BMI. Results: Upon PSG examination, post-menopausal patients (who had a significantly higher BMI than did pre-menopausal patients; 25.6 kg/m2 vs. 23.5 kg/m2; p = 0.019 tended to have a higher AHI and a lower lowest SaO2, but the differences did not attain statistical significance. With DISE analysis, post-menopausal female patients showed higher values in all obstruction sites, with significantly higher value in lateral diameter of retropalatal (1.49 vs. 0.90; p = 0.001 and retrolingual levels (1.14 vs. 0.61; p = 0.003 compared to pre-menopausal females patients. Post-menopausal female patients showed significantly more retrolingual collapse (antero-posterior, AP, p ≤ 0.0001, and lateral diameter, p = 0.042 in the lower BMI group (BMI < 25 and more concentric retropalatal collapse (lateral diameter, p = 0.017 and tonsillar obstruction, p = 0.003 in higher BMI group (BMI ≥ 25 than BMI and age matched

  5. [INF-gamma during respiratory-syncytial induced obstructive respiratory syndrome in infection in children under one year of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelaki, E T; Nemsadze, K P; Chkhaidze, I G; Kherkheulidze, M N; Kamkamidze, G K

    2005-12-01

    Lately the connection of Asthma and RSV drew the sufficient attention. The recurrent wheezing developed during the RSV in children is particularly frequent in the families having history of atopy. The decreased expression of INFgamma may play the role in the pathogenesis of RSV infection. The target of our research was the study of the rate of INFgamma during various clinical courses of RSV-infection and definition of its role in the pathogenesis of ARVI. 52 children with RSV-associated wheezing have been studied, who had first (32) or recurrent episode (20) of bronchial obstruction and whose families had occurrence of atopy. 52 children with non RSV-associated wheezing (III group) and 10 healthy children up to 12 months of age (IV group) were considered as the control groups. Children from all four groups were from families with the history of atopy. INFgamma was measured by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Comparison of two groups of wheezing children with RSV infection showed significant reduction of INFgamma level in the group of children with recurrent wheezing vs. the group with first episode of wheezing. INFgamma levels were significantly higher in the two control groups. During the acute respiratory infection induced by RS-virus, which proceeds with the obstruction of respiratory tract (wheezing), reduction of INFgamma was noted and higher frequency of wheezing episodes is associated with more prominent alteration.

  6. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Buttet

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD. By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP and blood clearance (ApoC2. These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG, while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the

  7. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase attenuates butyrate-induced intestinal barrier impairment in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Zhong; Li, Zhong-Rong; Zhu, Li-Bin; Huang, Hui-Ya; Hou, Long-Long; Lin, Jing

    2014-08-01

    Butyrate is well known to induce apoptosis in differentiating intestinal epithelial cells. The present study was designed to examine the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in butyrate-induced intestinal barrier impairment. The intestinal barrier was determined by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The permeability was determined by measuring transepithelial passage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated inulin (inulin-FITC). The morphology of the monolayers was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The apoptosis status was determined by annexin V-FITC labeling and flow cytometry. The activity of p38 MAPK was determined by the phosphorylation status of p38 with Western blotting. Butyrate at 5 mM increases the apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells and induces impairment of intestinal barrier functions as determined by decreased TER and increased inulin-FITC permeability. Butyrate treatment activates p38 MAPK in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. SB203580, a specific p38 inhibitor, inhibits butyrate-induced Caco-2 cell apoptosis. Treatment of SB203580 significantly attenuates the butyrate-induced impairment of barrier functions in the Caco-2 cell monolayer model. p38 MAPK can be activated by butyrate and is involved in the butyrate-induced apoptosis and impairment of intestinal barrier function. Inhibition of p38 MAPK can significantly attenuate butyrate-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction.

  8. Intestinal Insulin Signaling Encodes Two Different Molecular Mechanisms for the Shortened Longevity Induced by Graphene Oxide in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunli; Yang, Ruilong; Rui, Qi; Wang, Dayong

    2016-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has been shown to cause multiple toxicities in various organisms. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms for GO-induced shortened longevity are still unclear. We employed Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible involvement of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Mutation of daf-2, age-1, akt-1, or akt-2 gene induced a resistant property of nematodes to GO toxicity, while mutation of daf-16 gene led to a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity, suggesting that GO may dysregulate the functions of DAF-2/IGF-1 receptor, AGE-1, AKT-1 and AKT-2-mediated kinase cascade, and DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. Genetic interaction analysis suggested the involvement of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the control of GO toxicity on longevity. Moreover, intestinal RNA interference (RNAi) analysis demonstrated that GO reduced longevity by affecting the functions of signaling cascade of DAF-2-AGE-1-AKT-1/2-DAF-16 in the intestine. DAF-16 could also regulate GO toxicity on longevity by functioning upstream of SOD-3, which encodes an antioxidation system that prevents the accumulation of oxidative stress. Therefore, intestinal insulin signaling may encode two different molecular mechanisms responsible for the GO toxicity in inducing the shortened longevity. Our results highlight the key role of insulin signaling pathway in the control of GO toxicity in organisms.

  9. Giardia duodenalis cathepsin B proteases degrade intestinal epithelial interleukin-8 and attenuate interleukin-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, James A; Bhargava, Amol; Ferraz, Jose G; Yates, Robin M; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

    2014-07-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) infections are a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that can also result in the development of postinfectious functional gastrointestinal disorders via mechanisms that remain unclear. Parasite numbers exceed 10(6) trophozoites per centimeter of gut at the height of an infection. Yet the intestinal mucosa of G. duodenalis-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt inflammation. G. duodenalis infections can also occur concurrently with infections with other proinflammatory gastrointestinal pathogens. Little is known of whether and how this parasite can attenuate host inflammatory responses induced by other proinflammatory stimuli, such as a gastrointestinal pathogen. Identifying hitherto-unrecognized parasitic immunomodulatory pathways, the present studies demonstrated that G. duodenalis trophozoites attenuate secretion of the potent neutrophil chemoattractant interleukin-8 (CXCL8); these effects were observed in human small intestinal mucosal tissues and from intestinal epithelial monolayers, activated through administration of proinflammatory interleukin-1β or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This attenuation is caused by the secretion of G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases that degrade CXCL8 posttranscriptionally. Furthermore, the degradation of CXCL8 via G. duodenalis cathepsin B cysteine proteases attenuates CXCL8-induced chemotaxis of human neutrophils. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that G. duodenalis trophozoite cathepsins are capable of attenuating a component of their host's proinflammatory response induced by a separate proinflammatory stimulus. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Deoxynivanelol and Fumonisin, Alone or in Combination, Induce Changes on Intestinal Junction Complexes and in E-Cadherin Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Basso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusariotoxins such as fumonisin B1 (FB1 and deoxynivalenol (DON cause deleterious effects on the intestine of pigs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these mycotoxins, alone and in combination, on jejunal explants from piglets, using histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural assays. Five 24-day old pigs were used for sampling the explants. Forty-eight explants were sampled from each animal. Explants were incubated for 4 hours in culture medium and medium containing FB1 (100 µM, DON (10 µM and both mycotoxins (100 µM FB1 plus 10 µM DON. Exposure to all treatments induced a significant decrease in the normal intestinal morphology and in the number of goblet cells, which were more severe in explants exposed to DON and both mycotoxins. A significant reduction in villus height occurred in groups treated with DON and with co-contamination. Expression of E-cadherin was significantly reduced in explants exposed to FB1 (40%, DON (93% and FB1 plus DON (100%. The ultrastructural assay showed increased intercellular spaces and no junction complexes on enterocytes exposed to mycotoxins. The present data indicate that FB1 and DON induce changes in cell junction complexes that could contribute to increase paracellular permeability. The ex vivo model was adequate for assessing intestinal toxicity induced by exposure of isolated or associated concentrations of 100 µM of FB1 and 10 µM of DON.

  11. Rapid reversal of human intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced damage by shedding of injured enterocytes and reepithelialisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep P M Derikx

    . At the same time, M30 immunoreactivity was absent in intact epithelial lining. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first human study to clarify intestinal IR induced cell damage and repair and its direct consequences. It reveals a unique, endogenous clearing mechanism for injured enterocytes: rapid detachment of damaged apoptotic enterocytes into the lumen. This process is followed by repair of the epithelial continuity within an hour, resulting in a normal epithelial lining.

  12. OBSTRUCTIVE NEPHROPATHY: ITS PHYSIOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive nephropathy is the functional and /or parenchymal renal damage secondary to the urinary tract occlusion at any part of it. The inducing urinary obstruction diseases can vary depending on the patient´s age and gender. There are many renal dysfunction inducing mechanisms involved in this entity: increase in the intra-luminal pressure, ureteral dilatation with ineffective ureteral peristalsis, glomerular ultrafiltration net pressure reduction, intra-renal glomerular blood flux reduction due to vasoconstriction, and local disease of chemotactic substances. Obstructive nephropathy can also lead to hypertension (vasoconstriction-hypervolemia, hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis (aldosterone resistance, diabetes insipidus (vasopressine resistance. In conclusion, since obstructive nephropathy is a potentially reversible cause of renal dysfunction, it should always be taken into account among the differential diagnosis of renal failure inducing mechanisms.

  13. Effects of flavonoids on intestinal inflammation, barrier integrity and changes in gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Cardoso, Katherine; Ginés, Iris; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Blay, Mayte; Terra, Ximena

    2016-12-01

    Diet-induced obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, which, in most cases, leads to the development of metabolic disorders, primarily insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although prior studies have implicated the adipose tissue as being primarily responsible for obesity-associated inflammation, the latest discoveries have correlated impairments in intestinal immune homeostasis and the mucosal barrier with increased activation of the inflammatory pathways and the development of insulin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to define the mechanisms underlying the obesity-associated gut alterations to develop therapies to prevent and treat obesity and its associated diseases. Flavonoids appear to be promising candidates among the natural preventive treatments that have been identified to date. They have been shown to protect against several diseases, including CVD and various cancers. Furthermore, they have clear anti-inflammatory properties, which have primarily been evaluated in non-intestinal models. At present, a growing body of evidence suggests that flavonoids could exert a protective role against obesity-associated pathologies by modulating inflammatory-related cellular events in the intestine and/or the composition of the microbiota populations. The present paper will review the literature to date that has described the protective effects of flavonoids on intestinal inflammation, barrier integrity and gut microbiota in studies conducted using in vivo and in vitro models.

  14. Protective effect of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Hae June; Kim, Joong Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong Choon; Park, Hae-Ran; Jung, Uhee; Jang, Jong Sik; Jo, Sung Kee

    2009-12-01

    The protective properties of an herbal preparation (HemoHIM) against intestinal damage were examined by evaluating its effects on jejunal crypt survival, morphological changes, and apoptosis in gamma-irradiated mice. The mice were whole-body irradiated with 12 Gy for the examination of jejunal crypt survival and any morphological changes and with 2 Gy for the detection of apoptosis and Ki-67 labeling. Irradiation was conducted using (60)Co gamma-rays. HemoHIM treatment was administered intraperitonially at a dosage of 50 mg/kg of body weight at 36 and 12 hours pre-irradiation and 30 minutes post-irradiation or orally at a dosage of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day for 7 or 11 days before necropsy. The HemoHIM-treated group displayed a significant increase in survival of jejunal crypts, when compared to the irradiation controls. HemoHIM treatment decreased intestinal morphological changes such as crypt depth, villus height, mucosal length, and basal lamina length of 10 enterocytes after irradiation. Furthermore, the administration of HemoHIM protected intestinal cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. These results suggested that HemoHIM may be therapeutically useful to reduce intestinal injury following irradiation.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1/CO as protective mediators in cigarette smoke- induced lung cell injury and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinay, Tamás; Choi, Augustine M K; Ryter, Stefan W

    2012-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease involving airways restriction, alveolar destruction, and loss of lung function, primarily due to cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. The inducible stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in cytoprotection against the toxic action of many xenobiotics, including CS. HO-1 also protects against elastase-induced emphysema. Differential expression of HO-1 in epithelial cells and macrophages may contribute to COPD susceptibility. Genetic polymorphisms in the HO-1 gene, which may account for variations in HO-1 expression among subpopulations, may be associated with COPD pathogenesis. Carbon monoxide (CO), a primary reaction product of HO-1 has been implicated in cytoprotection in many acute lung injury models, though it's precise role in chronic CS-induced lung injury remains unclear. CO is a potential biomarker of CS exposure and of inflammatory lung conditions. To date, a single clinical trial has addressed the possible therapeutic potential of CO in COPD patients. The implications of the cytoprotective potential of HO-1/CO system in CS-induced lung injury and COPD are discussed.

  16. Hypotonicity induced K+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, M G; Giordano, M E; De Nuccio, F

    2005-01-01

    Control of cell volume is a fundamental and highly conserved physiological mechanism, essential for survival under varying environmental and metabolic conditions. Epithelia (such as intestine, renal tubule, gallbladder and gills) are tissues physiologically exposed to osmotic stress. Therefore......, the activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt-transporting epithelium, the intestine of the euryhaline teleost Anguilla anguilla. Eel intestinal epithelium...

  17. Role of Rho proteins in carbachol-induced contractions in intact and permeabilized guinea-pig intestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, B; Steusloff, A; Just, I; Aktories, K; Pfitzer, G

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to determine whether the low molecular mass GTPase RhoA or related proteins are involved in carbachol- and high-K(+)-induced contractions in intact intestinal smooth muscle as well as the carbachol-induced increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments in permeabilized preparations. 2. The carbachol-induced increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of force production in beta-escin-permeabilized intestinal smooth muscle was enhanced in preparations that were loaded with the constitutively active mutant of RhoA, Val14RhoA, and was inhibited by exoenzyme C3 from Clostridium botulinum, which ADP-ribosylates and inactivates small GTPases of the Rho family. The effect of C3 on Ca2+ sensitivity in the absence of the agonist was negligible, while the maximal Ca(2+)-activated force was inhibited by about 20%. 3. Inhibition of carbachol-induced force was associated with an increase in ADP-ribosylation of a protein band with a molecular mass of approximately 22 kDa, corresponding to Rho, and was partially reversed in the presence of Ile41RhoA, which is not a substrate for C3. Val14RhoA did not restore carbachol-induced Ca2+ sensitization in C3-treated smooth muscle. 4. In intact intestinal smooth muscle, toxin B from Clostridium difficile, which monoglucosylates members of the Rho family, inhibited high-K(+)-induced contractions and the initial phasic response to carbachol by about 30%. The delayed contractile response to carbachol was completely inhibited. 5. In smooth muscle preparations that were permeabilized with beta-escin after treatment with toxin B, carbachol-and GTP gamma S-induced Ca2+ sensitization was significantly inhibited. 6. These findings are consistent with a role for Rho or Rho-like proteins in agonist-induced increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of force production in intact and permeabilized intestinal smooth muscle. Images Figure 2 PMID:8910218

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea and non-restorative sleep induced by the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Michael; Litterst, Patric

    2015-12-01

    There are only few data about the influence of interfaces on restorative sleep and required CPAP/APAP levels in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Observations of obstructive apnoeas when using oro-nasal masks with normalisation of respiratory disturbance index (RDI) under nasal masks and of non-restorative sleep under oro-nasal masks in spite of normal RDI led to a registration of patients with such findings. This study is a cohort analysis (June 1, 2006 to April 30, 2014) of patients with OSA using an oro-nasal mask and normalisation of the RDI after changing to a nasal mask and of patients complaining about a non-restorative sleep under an oro-nasal mask despite normal RDI. Sixty-five patients (BMI 32.2 ± 8.1 kg/m(2); 64.4 ± 12.8 years) with OSA (n = 54) and non-restorative sleep with normal RDI (n = 11) under oro-nasal masks were included. In the group of patients with pathologic RDI under oro-nasal masks (n = 54), switching the interface to a nasal mask normalised RDI (31.8 ± 16.3 to 6.0 ± 3.6/h [p < 0.001]) and arousal index (p < 0.001); slow-wave and REM sleep increased (p < 0.05). In the patient group with a pathological RDI under CPAP/APAP therapy (n = 45), the pressure decreased from 9.5 ± 2.2 to 7.3 ± 2.0 cm hPa (p < 0.001), and in the group with normal RDI (n = 11) from 10.1 ± 2.4 to 6.8 ± 1.2 hPa (p < 0.01). The usage of an oro-nasal mask can result in a paradoxical induction of obstructive hypopnoeas or apnoeas. Clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. When adapting patients to a PAP therapy, a nasal mask should be preferred even if patients report mouth breathing.

  19. Experimentally induced intestinal metaplasia in Wistar rats by x-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.

    1978-11-01

    The gastric region of 5-week-old female Wistar rats was irradiated daily with 500 rad of x-ray up to a total of six times. Goblet cells and marker enzymes of the small intestine, such as lactase, trehalase, and maltase, appeared in the pyloric region of the glandular stomach of the rats from the 1st week after final irradiation. Intestinal type crypt without Paneth cells was observed from the 8th week. Sucrase activity appeared from the 26th week. Intestinal metaplasia with Paneth cells appeared from the 71st week. The number of goblet cells, intestinal type crypts, and Paneth cells increased with age. Gastric adenocarcinoma did not develop after irradiation.

  20. Vitamin E Prevents Cold Wrap Restraint Stress-Induced Intestinal Fluid Transport Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burdick

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress may alter gastrointestinal absorptive function by increasing the quantity of intestinal free radicals or by lowering endogenous intestinal free radical scavenging capacity. Vitamin E has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant and free radical scavenger under both physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cold wrap restraint stress altered in vivo intestinal fluid absorption in rats, and whether vitamin E administration prior to the induction of cold wrap restraint stress could prevent such changes in intestinal secretion. Jejunal, ileal and colonic fluid and electrolyte transport rates were measured in vivo using an isolated loop technique. Cold wrap restraint stress reduced in vivo fluid absorption in the ileum and colon, but not in the jejunum. Administration of vitamin E prior to the cold wrap restraint stress procedure completely prevented this alteration of ileal and colonic fluid absorption.

  1. Lipoteichoic Acid of Probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum Attenuates Poly I:C-Induced IL-8 Production in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Whun Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in livestock feed supplements are considered a replacement for antibiotics that enhance gastrointestinal immunity. Although bacterial cell wall components have been proposed to be associated with probiotic function, little evidence demonstrates that they are responsible for probiotic functions in livestock. The present study demonstrated that lipoteichoic acid (LTA of Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp.LTA confers anti-inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line, IPEC-J2. A synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, poly I:C, dose-dependently induced IL-8 production at the mRNA and protein levels in IPEC-J2 cells. Lp.LTA, but not lipoprotein or peptidoglycan from L. plantarum, exclusively suppressed poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Compared with LTAs from other probiotic Lactobacillus strains including L. delbrueckii, L. sakei, and L. rhamnosus GG, Lp.LTA had higher potential to suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production. Dealanylated or deacylated Lp.LTA did not suppress poly I:C-induced IL-8 production, suggesting that D-alanine and lipid moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were responsible for the inhibition. Furthermore, Lp.LTA attenuated the phosphorylation of ERK and p38 kinase as well as the activation of NF-κB, resulting in decreased IL-8 production. Taken together, these results suggest that Lp.LTA acts as an effector molecule to inhibit viral pathogen-induced inflammatory responses in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.

  2. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli induce attaching and effacing lesions and hemorrhagic colitis in human and bovine intestinal xenograft models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilach Golan

    2011-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 is an important cause of diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans worldwide. The two major virulence determinants of EHEC are the Shiga toxins (Stx and the type III secretion system (T3SS, including the injected effectors. Lack of a good model system hinders the study of EHEC virulence. Here, we investigated whether bovine and human intestinal xenografts in SCID mice can be useful for studying EHEC and host tissue interactions. Fully developed, germ-free human and bovine small intestine and colon were established by subcutaneous transplantation of human and bovine fetal gut into SCID mice. Xenografts were allowed to develop for 3–4 months and thereafter were infected by direct intraluminal inoculation of Stx-negative derivatives of EHEC O157:H7, strain EDL933. The small intestine and colon xenografts closely mimicked the respective native tissues. Upon infection, EHEC induced formation of typical attaching and effacing lesions and tissue damage that resembled hemorrhagic colitis in colon xenografts. By contrast, xenografts infected with an EHEC mutant deficient in T3SS remained undamaged. Furthermore, EHEC did not attach to or damage the epithelium of small intestinal tissue, and these xenografts remained intact. EHEC damaged the colon in a T3SS-dependent manner, and this model is therefore useful for studying the molecular details of EHEC interactions with live human and bovine intestinal tissue. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Stx and gut microflora are not essential for EHEC virulence in the human gut.

  3. Serine protease EspP from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is sufficient to induce shiga toxin macropinocytosis in intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie; Lukyanenko, Valeriy; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Hubbard, Ann L; Delannoy, Michael; Hansen, Anne-Marie; Kaper, James B; Boisen, Nadia; Nataro, James P; Zhu, Chengru; Boedeker, Edgar C; Girón, Jorge A; Kovbasnjuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Life-threatening intestinal and systemic effects of the Shiga toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) require toxin uptake and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC infection of intestinal epithelial cells stimulates toxin macropinocytosis, an actin-dependent endocytic pathway. Host actin rearrangement necessary for EHEC attachment to enterocytes is mediated by the type 3 secretion system which functions as a molecular syringe to translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into host cells. Actin-dependent EHEC attachment also requires the outer membrane protein intimin, a major EHEC adhesin. Here, we investigate the role of type 3 secretion in actin turnover occurring during toxin macropinocytosis. Toxin macropinocytosis is independent of EHEC type 3 secretion and intimin attachment. EHEC soluble factors are sufficient to stimulate macropinocytosis and deliver toxin into enterocytes in vitro and in vivo; intact bacteria are not required. Intimin-negative enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) O104:H4 robustly stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis into intestinal epithelial cells. The apical macropinosomes formed in intestinal epithelial cells move through the cells and release their cargo at these cells' basolateral sides. Further analysis of EHEC secreted proteins shows that a serine protease EspP alone is able to stimulate host actin remodeling and toxin macropinocytosis. The observation that soluble factors, possibly serine proteases including EspP, from each of two genetically distinct toxin-producing strains, can stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis and transcellular transcytosis alters current ideas concerning mechanisms whereby Shiga toxin interacts with human enterocytes. Mechanisms important for this macropinocytic pathway could suggest new potential therapeutic targets for Shiga toxin-induced disease.

  4. Serine protease EspP from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is sufficient to induce shiga toxin macropinocytosis in intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie In

    Full Text Available Life-threatening intestinal and systemic effects of the Shiga toxins produced by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC require toxin uptake and transcytosis across intestinal epithelial cells. We have recently demonstrated that EHEC infection of intestinal epithelial cells stimulates toxin macropinocytosis, an actin-dependent endocytic pathway. Host actin rearrangement necessary for EHEC attachment to enterocytes is mediated by the type 3 secretion system which functions as a molecular syringe to translocate bacterial effector proteins directly into host cells. Actin-dependent EHEC attachment also requires the outer membrane protein intimin, a major EHEC adhesin. Here, we investigate the role of type 3 secretion in actin turnover occurring during toxin macropinocytosis. Toxin macropinocytosis is independent of EHEC type 3 secretion and intimin attachment. EHEC soluble factors are sufficient to stimulate macropinocytosis and deliver toxin into enterocytes in vitro and in vivo; intact bacteria are not required. Intimin-negative enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC O104:H4 robustly stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis into intestinal epithelial cells. The apical macropinosomes formed in intestinal epithelial cells move through the cells and release their cargo at these cells' basolateral sides. Further analysis of EHEC secreted proteins shows that a serine protease EspP alone is able to stimulate host actin remodeling and toxin macropinocytosis. The observation that soluble factors, possibly serine proteases including EspP, from each of two genetically distinct toxin-producing strains, can stimulate Shiga toxin macropinocytosis and transcellular transcytosis alters current ideas concerning mechanisms whereby Shiga toxin interacts with human enterocytes. Mechanisms important for this macropinocytic pathway could suggest new potential therapeutic targets for Shiga toxin-induced disease.

  5. Sub-aortic obstruction of left ventricular outflow tract secondary to benfluorex-induced endocardial fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Szymanski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients exposed to benfluorex have an increased risk of restrictive organic valvular heart disease. Aortic and mitral regurgitations caused by fibrotic valve disease are the most common features observed in exposure to fenfluramine derivatives in general and benfluorex in particular. We report here, for the first time to our knowledge, a well-documented case in which obstructive sub-aortic endocardium fibrosis within the left ventricular outflow tract is related with exposure to a drug that modifies the metabolism of serotonin. It now remains to be established whether extensive fibrosis of the myocardium in addition to well-documented valvular fibrosis may develop in patients exposed to amphetamine-derived drugs affecting the serotonin system.

  6. Injury-induced inhibition of small intestinal protein and nucleic acid synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, E.A.; Hatz, R.A.; Yarmush, M.L.; Tompkins, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Small intestinal mucosal weight and nutrient absorption are significantly diminished early after cutaneous thermal injuries. Because these intestinal properties are highly dependent on rates of nucleic acid and protein synthesis, in vivo incorporation of thymidine, uridine, and leucine into small intestinal deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and proteins were measured. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was markedly decreased with the lowest thymidine incorporation in the jejunum (p less than 0.01); these findings were confirmed by autoradiographic identification of radiolabeled nuclei in the intestinal crypts. Protein synthesis was decreased by 6 h postinjury (p less than 0.01) but had returned to normal by 48 h. Consistent with a decreased rate of protein synthesis, ribonucleic acid synthesis was also decreased 18 h postinjury (p less than 0.01). These decreased deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein synthesis rates are not likely a result of ischemia because in other studies of this injury model, intestinal blood flow was not significantly changed by the burn injury. Potentially, factors initiating the acute inflammatory reaction may directly inhibit nucleic acid and protein synthesis and lead to alterations in nutrient absorption and intestinal barrier function after injury

  7. Therapeutic effects of stemonine on particulate matter 2.5-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinbo; Li, Shiqing; Sun, Li; Chen, Yanxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhenghui

    2017-11-01

    Particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 ) is a growing concern worldwide due to its association with respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Stemonine, a traditional Chinese herb, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, making it a potential drug for the treatment of respiratory diseases. The therapeutic effects of stemonine on mice with PM 2.5 -induced COPD were investigated in the present study. Kunming mice were randomly divided into the following five groups (n=10/group): Control, model, low-dose stemonine, moderate-dose stemonine and high-dose stemonine. The model mice received an intranasal instillation of PM 2.5 suspension (40 mg/kg). The levels of specific enzymes, markers of oxidative stress, and the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the mice using ELISA kits. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was performed to determine inflammatory changes to the lung tissue. It was demonstrated that stemonine could significantly alleviate lung injury by decreasing the levels of enzymes and cytokines associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, stemonine dose-dependently increased the amount of superoxide dismutase. These results suggest that stemonine reduces lung inflammation in mice with PM 2.5 -induced COPD, providing a novel approach for the treatment of PM 2.5 -induced respiratory diseases.

  8. Intestinal flora imbalance promotes alcohol-induced liver fibrosis by the TGFβ/smad signaling pathway in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Hao, Xiuxian; Xu, Lili; Cui, Jing; Xue, Li; Tian, Zibin

    2017-10-01

    Intestinal flora performs a crucial role in human health and its imbalance may cause numerous pathological changes. The liver can also affect the intestinal function through bile secretion via the enterohepatic cycle. The pathophysiological association between the gut and the liver is described as the gut-liver axis. The present study investigated the role of intestinal flora in alcohol-induced liver fibrosis. A total of 36 C57 mice were randomly and equally divided into 3 different dietary regimes: Group I (alcohol injury; received alcohol); group II (alcohol injury with flora imbalance; received alcohol plus lincomycin hydrochloride) and group III (alcohol injury with corrected flora imbalance; received alcohol, lincomycin hydrochloride and extra probiotics). The present study then investigated several indicators of liver damage. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in mice serum were studied. Masson staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining was also performed, and the expression of mothers against decapentaplegic homolog (smad) 3 and smad4 proteins in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the mice was examined using western blot analysis. The levels of serum ALP, AST and ALT were the highest in group II mice, and all 3 levels decreased in group III mice compared with those from group II. The degree of liver fibrosis was aggravated in group II mice compared with group I mice. The apoptosis of HSCs was significantly inhibited in group II mice, but was increased in group III mice. The HSCs in group II mice exhibited higher expression of smad3 and smad4, whilst group III mice (with corrected intestinal flora imbalance) exhibited downregulated expression of smad3 and smad4. The present data indicates that the intestinal flora perform a significant role in maintaining liver homeostasis. Furthermore, an imbalance of intestinal flora can exacerbate alcohol-induced

  9. Impact of whey proteins on the systemic and local intestinal level of mice with diet induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiątecka, D; Złotkowska, D; Markiewicz, L H; Szyc, A M; Wróblewska, B

    2017-04-19

    Obesity is a serious public health problem and being multifactorial is difficult to tackle. Since the intestinal ecosystem's homeostasis is, at least partially, diet-dependent, its modulation may be triggered by food components that are designed to exert a modulatory action leading to a health-promoting effect. Milk whey proteins, are considered as such promising factors since they influence satiation as well as body weight and constitute the source of biologically active peptides which may modulate health status locally and systemically. This way, whey proteins are associated with obesity. Therefore, this paper is aimed at the estimation of the impact of whey proteins using a commercially available whey protein isolate on the physiological response of mice with diet-induced obesity. The physiological response was evaluated on the local-intestinal level, scrutinizing intestinal microbiota as one of the important factors in obesity and on the systemic level, analyzing the response of the organism. Whey proteins brought about the decrease of the fat mass with a simultaneous increase of the lean mass of animals with diet induced obesity, which is a promising, health-promoting effect. Whey proteins also proved to act beneficially helping restore the number of beneficial bifidobacteria in obese animals and decreasing the calorie intake and fat mass as well as the LDL level. Overall, supplementation of the high fat diet with whey proteins acted locally by restoration of the intestinal ecosystem, thus preventing dysbiosis and its effects and also acted systemically by strengthening the organism increasing the lean mass and thus hindering obesity-related detrimental effects.

  10. [Intestinal failure: from adaptation to transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, B; Corcos, O; Amiot, A; Joly, F

    2009-01-01

    Optimised Home Parenteral Nutrition is still, after 35 years of progress, the of benign but chronic Intestinal Failure. A better recognition of chronic Intestinal Failure, in its multiple facets, is warranted for a better approach of associated treatment to Home Parenteral Nutrition, i.e., intestinal trophic factors (growth hormone, Glucagon Like Peptide-2), rehabilitative surgery (reestablishment of colonic continuity, reverse jejunal segment in severe short gut type II) and/or reconstructive surgery (intestinal transplantation for end stage intestinal failure patients). Boundaries of permanent, judged irreversible, intestinal failure will be certainly modified in the following years by combining the various and effective therapies which optimise management by ameliorating absorption of the remnant short gut. The work done on short bowel syndrome in the past 20 years should be done in the next years for chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction patients presenting with intestinal failure on a large European scale because chronic-intestinal - pseudo-obstruction is a group of heterogeneous but rare intestinal diseases. Intestinal transplantation is now a mature therapy with formal indication especially in case of Home Parenteral Nutrition failure (mainly Home Parenteral Nutrition-associated severe liver disease) where combined Liver-intestine transplantation is indicated before end-stage liver failure occurs. For high-risk patients, "preemptive" indication for intestinal transplantation alone will be discussed before home parenteral nutrition complications occur. No doubt that, for improving overall outcome in intestinal failure patients, reference centres should have in expert hands the whole spectrum of medicosurgical therapies for intestinal failure.

  11. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. Methods LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its down stream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. Results LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, which have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. Conclusions These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins. PMID:23468308

  12. Lactobacillus GG-fermented milk prevents DSS-induced colitis and regulates intestinal epithelial homeostasis through activation of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Kazutoyo; Miyazawa, Kenji; Hosoda, Masataka; Hiramatsu, Masaru; Yan, Fang; He, Fang

    2014-02-01

    Fermented milk is considered one of the best sources for efficient consumption of probiotic strains by hosts to promote good health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of orally administering LGG-fermented milk (LGG milk) on intestinal inflammation and injury and to study the mechanisms of LGG milk's action. LGG milk and non-LGG-fermented milk (non-LGG milk) were administered through gavage to mice before and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal injury and colitis. Inflammatory/injury score and colon length were assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells were treated with the soluble fraction of LGG milk to detect its effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream target, Akt activation, cytokine-induced apoptosis, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced disruption of tight junctions. LGG milk treatment significantly reduced DSS-induced colonic inflammation and injury, and colon shortening in mice, compared to that in non-LGG milk-treated and -untreated mice. The soluble fraction of LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, stimulated the activation of EGFR and Akt in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed cytokine-induced apoptosis, and attenuated H2O2-induced disruption of tight junction complex in the intestinal epithelial cells. These effects of LGG milk were blocked by the EGFR kinase inhibitor. LGG milk, but not non-LGG milk, contained two soluble proteins, p40 and p75, that have been reported to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells through the activation of EGFR. Depletion of p40 and p75 from LGG milk abolished the effects of LGG milk on prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis and H2O2-induced disruption of tight junctions. These results suggest that LGG milk may regulate intestinal epithelial homeostasis and potentially prevent intestinal inflammatory diseases through activation of EGFR by LGG-derived proteins.

  13. Butyrate Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Intestinal Cells and Crohn's Mucosa through Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ilaria; Luciani, Alessandro; De Cicco, Paola; Troncone, Edoardo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CrD). High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia Coli (EC-LPS) in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2) mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. PMID:22412931

  14. Heat shock protein 90β inhibits apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells induced by hypoxia through stabilizing phosphorylated Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC apoptosis induced by hypoxiacompromise intestinal epithelium barrier function. Both Akt andHsp90 have cytoprotective function. However, the specific roleof Akt and Hsp90β in IEC apoptosis induced by hypoxia has notbeen explored. We confirmed that hypoxia-induced apoptosiswas reduced by Hsp90β overexpression but enhanced bydecreasing Hsp90β expression. Hsp90β overexpressionenhanced BAD phosphorylation and thus reduced mitochondrialrelease of cytochrome C. Reducing Hsp90β expression hadopposite effects. The protective effect of Hsp90β againstapoptosis was negated by LY294002, an Akt inhibitor. Furtherstudy showed that Akt phosphorylation was enhanced byHsp90β, which was not due to the activation of upstream PI3Kand PDK1 but because of stabilization of pAkt via directinteraction between Hsp90β and pAkt. These results demonstratethat Hsp90β may play a significant role in protecting IECs fromhypoxia-induced apoptosis via stabilizing pAkt to phosphorylateBAD and reduce cytochrome C release. [BMB Reports 2013;46(1: 47-52

  15. High-fat-induced intestinal permeability dysfunction associated with altered fecal bile acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Korpela, Riitta

    2012-03-07

    To investigate whether high-fat-feeding is associated with increased intestinal permeability via alterations in bile acid metabolism. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed on a high-fat (n = 26) or low-fat diet (n = 24) for 15 wk. Intestinal permeabil